Gese, J.; Zizka, B.
A draft regulation is presented for the transport of solid and solidified radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. The draft takes into consideration dosimetric, safety and fire-fighting directives, transport organization, anticipated amounts of radioactive wastes, characteristics of containers, maintenance of vehicles, and equipment of vehicles and personnel. The draft is based on the provisional regulations governing the transport on public roads issued in 1973, valid directives, decrees, acts and standards, and complies with 1973 IAEA requirements. (J.P.)
The article describes the diferent stages in preparing the regulation on safe transport of radioactive materials. The first stage was the support given by the International Atomic Energy Agency in to provide expertise in drafting the national regulation on this matter. The draft is based on the publication from IAEA Regulation on the safe transport of radioactive materials. Also a description of activities made by the Radiation Protection Department of the Energy Directorate of Guatemala is made by the Chief of the Department Dr. Fernando Robles
...., Director, Healthcare Waste Institute, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20008, and (2... Hazardous Waste Management Program, Mail Code 401-02C, P.O. Box 420, Trenton, NJ 08625-0420. A certification.... PHMSA-2011-0294 (PDA-35(R)] New Jersey Regulations on Transportation of Regulated Medical Waste AGENCY...
... placing it in a packaging as required by the HMR; 3. N.J.A.C. 7:26-3A.14 that the words ``Medical Waste... Environmental Protection (NJDEP) solid waste transporter registration number; and 3) either the words ``Medical... material does not include a waste concentrated stock culture of an infectious substance. Sharps containers...
Tyacke, M.; Schmitt, R.
The purpose of this report is to identify the regulations and requirements for transporting greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and to identify planning activities that need to be accomplished in preparation for transporting GTCC LLW. The regulations and requirements for transporting hazardous materials, of which GTCC LLW is included, are complex and include several Federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes. This report is divided into five sections and three appendices. Section 1 introduces the report. Section 2 identifies and discusses the transportation regulations and requirements. The regulations and requirements are divided into Federal, state, local government, and Indian tribes subsections. This report does not identify the regulations or requirements of specific state, local government, and Indian tribes, since the storage, treatment, and disposal facility locations and transportation routes have not been specifically identified. Section 3 identifies the planning needed to ensure that all transportation activities are in compliance with the regulations and requirements. It is divided into (a) transportation packaging; (b) transportation operations; (c) system safety and risk analysis, (d) route selection; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (f) safeguards and security. This section does not provide actual planning since the details of the Department of Energy (DOE) GTCC LLW Program have not been finalized, e.g., waste characterization and quantity, storage, treatment and disposal facility locations, and acceptance criteria. Sections 4 and 5 provide conclusions and referenced documents, respectively
Blenkin, J.J.; Darby, W.P.; Heywood, J.D.; Wikinson, H.L.; Carrington, C.K.; Murray, M.A.
Some radioactive materials to be transported, including certain radioactive wastes, contain materials that qualify as dangerous goods as defined by the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (United Nations 1997). The regulations governing the transport of radioactive and dangerous goods in the UK are largely based on the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA 1990) and the UN Recommendations (United Nations 1993). Additional legislation will also apply including the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (Driver Training) Regulations 1996 (UK 1996). The IAEA Transport Regulations are clear that where radioactive materials have other dangerous properties the requirements of other relevant transport regulations for dangerous goods must also be met. They require that consignments are appropriately segregated from other dangerous goods, in accordance with relevant legislation, and that dangerous properties such as explosiveness, flammability etc. are taken into account in packing, labelling, marking, placarding, storage and transport. In practice, however, it requires a clear understanding of the relationship between the IAEA Transport Regulations and other dangerous goods legislation in order to avoid a number of problems in the approval of package design. This paper discusses the regulations applying to the transport of dangerous goods and explores practical problems associated with implementing them. It highlights a number of opportunities for developing the regulations, to make them easier to apply to radioactive materials that also have other potentially dangerous properties. (authors)
Shetler, A.P.; Jayawardene, N.
Ontario Hydro has studied the proposed changes to the IAEA Transport Regulations contained in the 1985 4th draft edition. The study shows that these proposed changes will have significant strategic and economic effects on the transportation of radioactive decommissioning and other low-level wastes. Under the 1985 4th draft edition, the definition of Low Specific Activity (LSA) material is revised and a new regulation is proposed which restricts the quantity of LSA material or Surface Contaminated Object (SCO) in a single package to that which would have an unshielded dose rate of 10 mSv/h (1 rem/h) at 3 m. The objective of this paper is to highlight the implications of the proposed regulatory changes. An example of the impact of these changes is presented by considering the transportation of typical CANDU decommissioning wastes which arise through piece-by-piece removal of a reactor assembly. The potential effect of the changes is that less decommissioning waste can be shipped in a single low-level waste package. This results in the requirement for so many small, low-level waste packages that Type B shipments are strategically and economically more attractive. However, use of Type B shipments would also result in higher dose uptake and waste management costs than under the 1973 Regulations
Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.
Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)
The supremacy clause, the commerce clause, and the equal-protection guarantees of the U.S. Constitution establish the basic framework for defining the authority of Federal, State, and local governments to regulate the transportation of radioactive waste. Court decisions and advisory rulings of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) suggest that State and local regulation of the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is precluded under supremacy-clause principles to the extent that such regulation addresses nuclear safety or aspects of transportation that are already specifically regulated by the Federal government. Even where State and local requirements are found to be valid under the supremacy clause, they must still satisfy constitutional requirements under the commerce and equal-protection clauses. Despite stringent standards of review, State and local transportation requirements have been upheld where directly related to the traditional exercise of police powers in the area of transportation. Legitimate State and local police-power activities identified to date by the DOT and the courts include inspection and enforcement, immediate accident reporting, local regulation of traffic, and certain time-of-day curfews. The extent to which State and local permitting requirements and license fees may be determined valid by the DOT and the courts remains unclear. Continued clarification by the DOT and the courts as to the validity of permits and fees will serve to further define the appropriate balance for Federal, State, and local regulation of radioactive-waste transportation
All hazardous material and waste transported over roadways open to the public must be in compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. The DOT states that the hazardous material regulations (HMR) also apply to government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) transportation operations over any U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site roadway where the public has free and unrestricted access. Hazardous material and waste in packages that do not meet DOT regulations must be transported on DOE site roadways in a manner that excludes the public and nonessential workers. At the DOE Richland Field Office (the Hanford Site), hazardous material and waste movements that do not meet DOT requirements are transported over public access roadways during off-peak hours with the roadways barricaded. These movements are accomplished using a transportation plan that involves the DOE, DOE contractors, and private utilities who operate on or near the Hanford Site. This method, which is used at the Hanford Site to comply with DOT regulations onsite, can be communicated to other DOE sites to provide a basis for achieving consistency in similar transportation operations. (author)
Hutchinson, D.; Miles, R.; White, I.
The role of United Kingdom Nirex Limited is to provide the UK with safe, environmentally sound and publicly acceptable options for the long-term management of radioactive materials generated by the UK's commercial, medical, research and defence activities. An important part of this role is to set standards and specifications for waste packaging. Waste producers in the UK are currently developing processes for packaging many different types of intermediatelevel waste (ILW), and also those forms of low-level waste that will require similar management to ILW. When packaging processes are at the proposal stage, the waste producers consult Nirex about the suitability of the resulting packages for all future aspects of waste management. The response that Nirex provides is based on detailed assessments of the proposed packages, their compliance with Nirex standards and specifications, and their predicted performance through the successive phases of waste management. One of those phases is transport through the public domain. This paper draws on experience gained from more than 200 separate transport safety assessments, which have cumulatively covered a wide range of waste types, waste packages and transport packages
In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce
The regulation of radioactive material transport has a long and successful history. Prior to 1966, these activities were regulated by the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) Bureau of Explosives (the ICC was predecessor to the Department of Transportation (DOT)). In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) developed what is now 10 CFR 71, concurrently with the development of similar international standards. In 1975, the AEC was reorganized and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was established as an independent regulatory commission. The NRC was given responsibility for the regulation of commercial use of radioactive materials, including transportation. This paper discusses various aspects of the NRC's role in the transport of radioactive material as well as its role in the design and certification of casks necessary to the transport of this material
This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the regulation of radioactive waste management of the UJD are presented. Radioactive waste (RAW) is the gaseous, liquid or solid material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than clearance levels and for which no use is foreseen. The classification of radioactive waste on the basis of type and activity level is: - transition waste; - short lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-SL); - long lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-LL); - high level waste. Waste management (in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll.) involves collection, sorting, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal of radioactive waste originated by nuclear facilities and conditioning, transport to repository and disposal of other radioactive waste (originated during medical, research and industrial use of radioactive sources). The final goal of radioactive waste management is RAW isolation using a system of engineered and natural barriers to protect population and environment. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic regulates radioactive waste management in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll. Inspectors regularly inspect and evaluate how the requirements for nuclear safety at nuclear facilities are fulfilled. On the basis of safety documentation evaluation, UJD issued permission for operation of four radioactive waste management facilities. Nuclear facility 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning contains bituminization plants and Bohunice conditioning centre with sorting, fragmentation, evaporation, incineration, supercompaction and cementation. Final product is waste package (Fibre reinforced container with solidified waste) acceptable for near surface repository in Mochovce. Republic repository in Mochovce is built for disposal of short lived low and intermediate level waste. Next
Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.
The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''
D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron
The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.
Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a by product of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applied. The purpose of this study is to develop regulations for radioactive waste management for low and intermediate radioactive level waste (LILW), and other purpose of regulations is to establish requirements with which all organizations must comply in Sudan from LILW in particular disused/spent sources, not including radioactive waste for milling and mining practices. The national regulations regarding the radioactive waste management, should prescribe the allocation of responsibilities and roles of the Country, the regulatory body, user/owner, waste management organization, including regulations on transport packaging of waste and applied a quality assurance programme, to ensure that radioactive waste management is done safely and securely. (author)
A transport system for spent fuel elements and radioactive waste is reported on. The construction of appropriate transport containers, safety regulations, as well as future developments in transport systems and transport containers are discussed in detail. The volume of the spent fuel elements to be moved and the number of transport containers needed is gone into, too. (HR/LN) [de
Nercy, B. de.
The international agreements respecting the immersion of waste in the sea, the transportation of radioactive waste and the civil liability of the operators are examined. The specialized international organizations (IAEA, NEA, EEC) have, for many years now, been making a significant effort to bring together and unify the technical rules and legal standards. Finally, an endeavour is made to single out the broad lines of the foreign regulations relating to the long term control of radioactive waste which is beginning to come to light in various countries [fr
The safety principle which applies to transport operations of radioactive wastes obeys to a very strict regulation. For the conditioning of wastes in package, the organisation of shipments and the qualification of carriers, the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, has implemented a rigorous policy based on the respect of a quality procedure and on the mastery of delivery fluxes. This brochure presents in a simple, illustrated and detailed manner the different steps of these transports. (J.S.)
The regulations and responsibilities concerning the transport packages of nuclear materials and waste are given in the guide. The approval procedure, control of manufacturing, commissioning of the packaging and the control of use are specified. (13 refs.)
Benda, G.A.; Lewis, M.S.; Allen, J.H.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is proposing changes to 10CFR 71 transportation regulations to achieve compatibility with the 1985 IAEA regulations. The intent of these changes is to be more compatible with the international standard on shipping containers, package requirements, and performance criteria. The NRC has, however, modified part of its regulations to restrict the packaging of LSA by limiting the total activity rather than adopting the IAEA standard. This paper addresses how the proposed regulations will affect the low-level radioactive waste transportation industry. It describes the impacts on the transportation industry in three major areas-IAEA consistency, economic impact, and risk assessment. Available transport data from the Barnwell disposal site was used in the analysis of the proposed changes. The impacts addressed include possible increased radiation exposures, transportation risks and liability, transportation and processing costs, and waste disposal costs resulting in little health and safety benefit. Although the health and safety benefits of any change to the current regulations are minimal, suggested alternatives to the proposed regulations are discussed that more closely conform with the international standards while still maintaining health and safety
Schneider, K.J.; Andrews, W.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rosenthal, L.J.; Odle, C.J.
This report identifies and discusses the considerations imposed by transportation on waste forms and canisters for contact-handled, solid transuranic wastes from the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The report reviews (1) the existing raw waste forms and potential immobilized waste forms, (2) the existing and potential future DOE waste canisters and shipping containers, (3) regulations and regulatory trends for transporting commercial transuranic wastes on the ISA, (4) truck and rail carrier requirements and preferences for transporting the wastes, and (5) current and proposed Type B external packagings for transporting wastes
McCall, D.L.; Calihan, T.W. III.
Recently, there has been significant concern expressed in the nuclear community over the packaging and transportation of radioactive mixed waste under US Department of Transportation regulation. This concern has grown more intense over the last 5 to 10 years. Generators and regulators have realized that much of the waste shipped as ''low-level radioactive waste'' was in fact ''radioactive mixed waste'' and that these wastes pose unique transportation and disposal problems. Radioactive mixed wastes must, therefore, be correctly identified and classed for shipment. If must also be packaged, marked, labeled, and otherwise prepared to ensure safe transportation and meet applicable storage and disposal requirements, when established. This paper discusses regulations applicable to the packaging and transportation of radioactive mixed waste and identifies effective methods that waste shippers can adopt to meet the current transportation requirements. This paper will include a characterization and description of the waste, authorized packaging, and hazard communication requirements during transportation. Case studies will be sued to assist generators in understanding mixed waste shipment requirements and clarify the requirements necessary to establish a waste shipment program. Although management and disposal of radioactive mixed waste is clearly a critical issue, packaging and transportation of these waste materials is well defined in existing US Department of Transportation hazardous material regulations
Lange, F.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.
For the purpose of the study the anticipated waste transport volume and the waste properties were analysed in detail. This included information on the transport containers, waste product properties, activity inventories and local dose rates of the waste packages being transported. The envisaged practical implementation, i.e. the transport arrangements including shunting operations at the Braunschweig marshalling yard and the Beddingen interchange station, were also included. The two shipping scenarios 100% transportation by rail and 80% transportation by rail, 20% by road, which could be considered to bound the real conditions, were analysed. The relevant transport regulations contain the requirements to be met by the transport of shipping units carrying radioactive waste. In addition, the ''Konrad preliminary waste acceptance criteria'' contain activity limits for waste packages being disposed of in conjunction with further requirements relating to the properties of waste products and waste containers. (orig./DG)
A brief definition of the nature of radioactive waste is followed by a more detailed discussion of high level waste, its composition the amounts involved, storage in liquid and in solid form and the storage of non-reprocessed spent fuel. The final disposal of high level waste in deep geological structures is then described, based on the Swedish KBS study. The effectiveness of the artificial and natural barriers in preventing the radioactive substances from reaching the biosphere is discussed. American and Swedish risk analyses are briefly discussed, and practical experience presented. Low and medium level wastes are thereafter treated in a similar, though briefer manner. Transport of radioactive materials, fresh fuel, spent fuel and waste is then dealt with. Regulations for the containers and their tests are briefly presented and the risk of accidents, theft and sabotage during transport are discussed. (JIW)
The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged
This regulation defines the responsibilities on the radioactive waste management in Guatemala including the requirements of users, handling of radioactive wastes, authorization of radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and penalties
The paper makes proposals for materials which are intrinsically safe without packaging other than for administrative convenience, and for wastes to be transported to the same levels of safety as Type A packages. It is proposed that waste forms to be transported to the same level of safety as Type B packages cannot be prescribed in advance without the need for Competent Authority approval for each specific form or combination of waste form and packaging. Finally it is proposed to revert to simple packaging requirements, equivalent to the earlier industrial and strong industrial packaging. The former have no quantitative performance requirements and the latter have requirements identical to Type A packages. (author)
The authors describe the organization and the role of safety authorities in France in matter of waste management. They precise the French policy in waste storage and treatment: basic objectives, optimization of waste management. The safety requirements are based upon the barrier principle. Safety requirements about waste conditioning and waste disposal are mentioned. In addition to the safety analysis and studies described above, the Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute assists the ministerial authorities in the drafting of ''basic safety rules (RFS)'', laying down safety objectives. Appendix 1 and Appendix 2 deal with safety aspects in spent fuel storage and in transportation of radioactive materials [fr
A national calculator control system for the metropolitan radioactive waste banks was developed in 1999. The NNSA reviewed by the regulations the feasibility of some rectification projects for uranium ore decommissioning and conducted field inspections on waste treating systems and radioactive waste banks at the 821 plant. The NNSA realized in 1999 the calculator control for the disposal sites of low and medium radioactive waste. 3 routine inspections were organized on the reinforced concrete structures for disposal units and their pouring of concrete at waste disposal site and specific requirements were put forth
Jones, E.; Moreland, W.M.
Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, are developing and implementing a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs
Eakes, R.G.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Sutherland, S.H.; Duffey, T.A.
Inventories of the transuranic wastes buried or stored at various US DOE sites are tabulated. The leading conceptual design of Type-B packaging for contact-handled transuranic waste is the Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT), a large metal container comprising inner and outer tubular steel frameworks which are separated by rigid polyurethane foam and sheathed with steel plate. Testing of TRUPACT is reported. The schedule for its development is given. 6 figures
Willrich, M.; Lester, R.K.; Greenberg, S.C.; Mitchell, H.C.; Walker, D.A.
Purpose of this book is to assist in developing public policy and institutions for the safe management of radioactive waste, currently and long term. Both high-level waste and low-level waste containing transuranium elements are covered. The following conclusions are drawn: the safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; the basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged. The following recommendations are made: a national Radioactive Waste Authority should be established as a federally chartered public corporation; with NRC as the primary agency, a comprehensive regulatory framework should be established to assure the safety of all radioactive waste management operations under U.S. jurisdiction or control; ERDA should continue to have primary government responsibility for R and D and demonstration of radioactive waste technology; and the U.S. government should propose that an international Radioactive Waste Commission be established under the IAEA
Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.
Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for the conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Director subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. The functional analysis approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. This approach recognizes that just as the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being. The objective of this document is to establish the essential functions, requirements, interfaces, and system architecture for the Transport Waste mission. Based upon the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the mission of the Waste Transportation System is to transport SNF and/or HLW from the purchaser's/producer's facilities to, and between, NWMS facilities in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment makes effective use of financial and other resources, and to the fullest extent possible uses the private sector
This document is proceeding of the seminar on development in the transport of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The papers presented in this seminar covered the following areas: IAEA activities in radioactive waste transport; Member State experience and recommendations for international transport regulations; Member State experience with national transport regulations; waste transport and handling; waste generation volumes, characteristics, and disposal requirements; risk assessment; and transport and waste packages. Refs, figs and tabs.
This document is proceeding of the seminar on development in the transport of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The papers presented in this seminar covered the following areas: IAEA activities in radioactive waste transport; Member State experience and recommendations for international transport regulations; Member State experience with national transport regulations; waste transport and handling; waste generation volumes, characteristics, and disposal requirements; risk assessment; and transport and waste packages. Refs, figs and tabs
Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation (Live 27928, suggested one time and associated Test 27929, required initially and every 36 months) addresses the Department of Transportation (DOT) function-specific training requirements of the hazardous materials packagings and transportation (HMPT) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) lab-wide training. This course addresses the requirements of the DOT that are unique to hazardous waste shipments. Appendix B provides the Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) reference material needed for this course.
Ha Vinh Phuong.
Taking into account the specific dangers associated with the transport of radioactive materials (contamination, irradiation, heat, criticality), IAEA regulations concerning technical specifications and administrative procedures to ward off these dangers are presented. The international agreements related to the land transport, maritime transport and air transport of radioactive materials are also briefly reviewed
The main tasks performed during the period related to the influence of manufacture, transport and disposal on the design of such packages. It is deduced that decommissioning wastes will be transported under the IAEA Transport Regulations under either the Type B or Low Specific Activity (LSA) categories. If the LSA packages are self-shielded, reinforced concrete is the preferred material of construction. But the high cost of disposal implies that there is a strong reason to investigate the use of returnable shields for LSA packages and in such cases they are likely to be made of ferrous metal. Economic considerations favour the use of spheroidal graphite cast iron for this purpose. Transport operating hazards have been investigated using a mixture of desk studies, routes surveys and operations data from the railway organisations. Reference routes were chosen in the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the United Kingdom. This work has led to a description of ten accident scenarios and an evaluation of the associated accident probabilities. The effect of disposal on design of packages has been assessed in terms of the radiological impact of decommissioning wastes, an in addition corrosion and gas evolution have been examined. The inventory of radionuclides in a decommissioning waste package has low environmental impact. If metal clad reinforced concrete packages are to be used, the amount of gas evolution is such that a vent would need to be included in the design. Similar unclad packages would be sufficiently permeable to gases to prevent a pressure build-up. (author)
When Parliament passed the Atomic Energy Control Act in 1946, it erected the framework for nuclear safety in Canada. Under the Act, the government created the Atomic Energy Control Board and gave it the authority to make and enforce regulations governing every aspect of nuclear power production and use in this country. The Act gives the Control Board the flexibility to amend its regulations to adapt to changes in technology, health and safety standards, co-operative agreements with provincial agencies and policy regarding trade in nuclear materials. This flexibility has allowed the Control Board to successfully regulate the nuclear industry for more than 40 years. Its mission statement 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment' concisely states the Control Board's primary objective. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all aspects of nuclear energy in Canada to ensure there is no undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment. It does this through a multi-stage licensing process
The organization and the role played by French safety authorities for waste management are described. The French policy for storage and conditioning: basic objectives and waste management optimization are specified. Safety requirements are based on the barrier principle, they are mentioned for packaging and storage. The ''Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire'' deals not only with safety analysis but also help the ''autorites ministerielles'' for the development of fundamental safety rules. Examples for spent fuel storage and radioactive materials transport are treated in appendixes [fr
Oliveira Santos, P. de; Miaw, S.T.W.
Since 1979 the Waste Treatment Division of Nuclear Tecnology Development Center has been developed and tested packagings for transporting radioactive materials and wastes. The Division has designed facilities for testing Type A packages in accordance with the adopted regulations. The Division has tested several packages for universities, research centers, industries, INB, FURNAS, etc. (author) [pt
The equipment necessary for the disposal of radioactive solid waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is scheduled to be available for operation in late 1982. The plan for disposal of radioactive waste from FFTF will utilize special waste containers, a reusable Solid Waste Cask (SWC) and a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC). The SWC will be used to transport the waste from the Reactor Containment Building to a concrete and steel DSWC. The DSWC will then be transported to a burial site on the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. Radioactive solid waste generated during the operation of the FFTF consists of activated test assembly hardware, reflectors, in-core shim assemblies and control rods. This radioactive waste must be cleaned (sodium removed) prior to disposal. This paper provides a description of the solid waste disposal process, and the casks and equipment used for handling and transport
The author assesses both past and future of nuclear waste disposal in Germany. The failure of the disposal concept is, he believes, mainly the fault of the Federal Government. On the basis of the Nuclear Energy Act, the government is obliged to ensure that ultimate-storage sites are established and operated. Up to the present, however, the government has failed - apart from the episode in Asse and Morsleben and espite existing feasible proposals in Konrad and Gorleben - to achieve this objective. This negative development is particularly evident from the projects which have had to be prematurely abandoned. The costs of such 'investment follies' meanwhile amount to several billion DM. At least 92% of the capacity in the intermediate-storage sites are at present unused. Following the closure of the ultimate-storage site in Morsleben, action must be taken to change over to long-term intermediate-storage of operational waste. The government has extensive intermediate-storage capacity at the intermediate-storage site Nord in Greifswald. There, the wate originally planned for storage in Morsleben could be intermediately stored at ERAM-rates. Nuclear waste transportation, too, could long ago have been resumed, in the author's view. For the purpose of improving the transport organisation, a new company was founded which represents exclusively the interests of the reprocessing firms at the nuclear power stations. The author's conclusion: The EVU have done their homework properly and implemented all necessary measures in order to be able to resume transport of fuel elements as soon as possible. The generating station operators favour a solution based upon agreement with the Federal Government. The EVU have already declared their willingness - in the event of unanimous agreement - to set up intermediate-storage sites near the power stations. The ponds in the generating stations, however, are unsuitable for use as intermediate-storage areas. If intermediate-storage areas for
It regulate of industrial solid waste management and similar expenses activities covered, exclusions, categorization, requirements, transportation, recycling and treatment, incineration, use as alternative fuel
This document reports progress on a study of large transport packages for decommissioning waste and is the semi-annual report for the period 1 January - 30 June 1988. The main tasks performed during the period related to the assembly of package design criteria ie those aspects of manufacture, handling, storage, transport and disposal which impose constraints on design. This work was synthesised into a design specification for packages which formed the conclusion of that task and was the entry into the final task - the development of package design concepts. The design specifications, which concentrated on the Industrial Package category of the IAEA Transport Regulations, has been interpreted for the two main concepts (a) a self-shielded package disposed of in its entirety and (b) a package with returnable shielding. Preliminary information has been prepared on the cost of providing the package as well as transport to a repository and disposal. There is considerable uncertainty about the cost of disposal and variations of over a factor of 10 are possible. Under these circumstances there is merit in choosing a design concept which is relatively insensitive to disposal cost variations. The initial results indicate that on these grounds the package with returnable shielding is preferred. (author)
Patel, R.J.; Sumathi, E.
BARC is a multi-disciplinary nuclear research organisation with facilities located at various parts of the country. The nuclear and radiological facilities in BARC include fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear research reactors, radiological laboratories, nuclear recycle facilities, waste management facilities and other associated facilities. RAdioactive Material (RAM) such as fresh nuclear fuel, irradiated fuel, radioactive sources, vitrified high level wastes, special nuclear material etc., are transported between these facilities either within the controlled premises or in public domain. In BARC the regulatory approval for the packages used for transport of RAM is issued by BARC Safety Council (BSC). Competent Authority for issuing the design approval for the BARC packages in public domain is Director, BARC. In this aspect BSC is assisted by Safety Review Committee-Transport of Radioactive Material (SRC-TRM) constituted by BSC entrusted with the mandate to ensure the packages are designed, manufactured and transported in accordance with the current regulations. This article summarizes the regulatory requirements for transport of RAM and experience in BARC facilities
Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C.; Wilson, C.N.; Van Ryn, F.R.
This paper describes preliminary results from the first demonstration of the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) on actual mixed waste. The TVS is a fully integrated, transportable system for the treatment of mixed and low-level radioactive wastes. The demonstration was conducted at Oak Ridge's East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly known as the K-25 site. The purpose of the demonstration was to show that mixed wastes could be vitrified safely on a 'field' scale using joule-heated melter technology and obtain information on system performance, waste form durability, air emissions, and costs
Nese, Gjermund; Straume, Odd Rune
The basis of the article has been the steadily increasing focus particularly from EU, on increased competition in the natural gas markets. This could influence the profit distribution between the gas producing and consuming counties which is an important problem situation for Norway as a gas producer. The gas market value chain consist of three parts (production, transport and distribution). How the countries may use strategic regulation of the transport tariff for the transport and distribution systems in order to move as much as possible of the total profit to the part of the value chain in control is studied. The focus has been on how increased competition influences the incentives of the authorities through low or high transport tariff and to what extent increased competition influences the welfare level in the producer and consumer counties when strategic regulations of the transport occur. The analysis is based on a theoretical model developed in 2005. Some central mechanisms related to the natural gas market are mapped and Norway may counteract some negative effects of liberalisation of the European gas market through strategic adaptation of the transport tariff to the Norwegian gas transport systems
Full Text Available L-glutamate is the major excitatory amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS. This neurotransmitter is essential for higher brain functions such as learning, cognition and memory. A tight regulation of extra-synaptic glutamate levels is needed to prevent a neurotoxic insult. Glutamate removal from the synaptic cleft is carried out by a family of sodium-dependent high-affinity transporters, collectively known as excitatory amino acid transporters. Dysfunction of glutamate transporters is generally involved in acute neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases, so characterizing and understanding the mechanisms that lead to the development of these disorders is an important goal in the design of novel treatments for the neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence indicates glutamate transporters are controlled by the circadian system in direct and indirect manners, so in this contribution we focus on the mechanisms of circadian regulation (transcriptional, translational, post-translational and post-transcriptional regulation of glutamate transport in neuronal and glial cells, and their consequence in brain function.
Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Clarke, D.B.; McGuire, S.C.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in transportation logistics of radioactive wastes as part of the overall waste transportation program. A Spent Fuel Logistics Model (SFLM), was developed to predict overall material balances representing the flow of spent fuel assemblies from reactors to away-from-reactor storage facilities and/or to federal repositories. The transportation requirements to make these shipments are also itemized. The next logical step in the overall transportation project was the development of a set of computer codes which would predict likely transportation routes for waste shipments. Two separate routing models are now operational at ORNL. Routes for truck transport can be estimated with the HIGHWAY program, and rail and barge routes can be predicted with the INTERLINE model. This paper discusses examples of the route estimates and applications of the routing models
C.E. Sanders; Shiaw-Der Su
The Yucca Mountain repository requires the use of a waste package (WP) transporter to transport a WP from a process facility on the surface to the subsurface for underground emplacement. The transporter is a part of the waste emplacement transport systems, which includes a primary locomotive at the front end and a secondary locomotive at the rear end. The overall system with a WP on board weights over 350 metric tons (MT). With the shielding mass constituting approximately one-third of the total system weight, shielding optimization for minimal weight will benefit the overall transport system with reduced axle requirements and improved maneuverability. With a high contact dose rate on the WP external surface and minimal personnel shielding afforded by the WP, the transporter provides radiation shielding to workers during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. This paper presents the design approach and optimization method used in achieving a shielding configuration with minimal weight
Hans W. Gottinger
Hazardous waste regulations require disposal in approved dumpsites, where environmental consequences are minimal but entry may be privately very costly. Imperfect policing of regulations makes the socially more costly option illicit disposal preferable form the perspective of the private decision maker. The existence of the waste disposal decision, its economic nature, production independence, and the control over environmental damage are key issues in the economics of hazardous waste managem...
The results of an examination into the problems of radioactive waste are presented, in particular the sources, transport and dumping and the policy considerations in favour of specific methods. The theoretical background of radioactive waste is described, including the physical and chemical, ecological, medical and legal aspects. The practical aspects of radioactive waste in the Netherlands are considered, including the sources, the packaging and transport and dumping in the Atlantic Ocean. The politics and policies involved in this process are outlined. (C.F.)
Mixed waste is waste containing radionuclides regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under the Atomic Energy Act, as well as hazardous waste materials regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This has led to a situation of dual regulation in which both NRC and EPA regulate the same waste under requirements that at times appear conflicting. The NRC has been working with the EPA to resolve the issues associated with the dual regulation of mixed waste. Discussions between the two agencies indicate that dual regulation of mixed wastes appears technically achievable, although the procedures may be complex and burdensome to the regulated community. The staffs of both agencies have been coordinating their efforts to minimize the burden of dual regulation on state agencies and the industry. Three major issues were identified as sources of potential regulatory conflict: (a) definition and identification of mixed waste, (b) siting guidelines for disposal facilities, and (c) design concepts for disposal units
Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Traberg, Rikke
Contaminant transport in an aquifer at an incinerator waste residue deposit in Denmark is simulated. A two-dimensional, geochemical transport code is developed for this purpose and tested by comparison to results from another code, The code is applied to a column experiment and to the field site...
Anderson, R.T.; Darr, D.G.; Godfrey, W.L.; Keely, R.B.; Lusk, E.C.; Peterson, R.W.; Ridihalgh, J.L.; Shallo, F.A.; Young, M.
This report is part of the OWI Transportation/Logistics systems analysis of problems associated with shipping these wastes to waste terminal storage facilities. It covers governmental regulations and functional responsibilities, highway and rail transportation status and economic considerations, assessment of present industry capabilities and business-related considerations, important receiving facility considerations, necessary engineering and licensing-related aspects of packaging systems, and essential elements of reprocessing plant waste activities including packaging and transportation
Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.
Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas. (J.P.N.)
Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.
Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas
This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin
Dagan, E.B.; Selby, K.B.
The Hanford Site is located in the State of Washington and is subject to state and federal environmental regulations that hamper waste minimization efforts. This paper addresses the negative effect of these regulations on waste minimization and mixed waste issues related to the Hanford Site. Also, issues are addressed concerning the regulations becoming more lenient. In addition to field operations, the Hanford Site is home to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory which has many ongoing waste minimization activities of particular interest to laboratories
Sovers, R.A.; Shay, M.R.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; McNair, G.W.; Eagle, B.G.
The Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation (WASTES) Technical Reference Manual was written to describe and document the algorithms used within the WASTES model as implemented in Version 2.23. The manual will serve as a reference for users of the WASTES system. The intended audience for this manual are knowledgeable users of WASTES who have an interest in the underlying principles and algorithms used within the WASTES model. Each algorithm is described in nonprogrammers terminology, and the source and uncertainties of the constants in use by these algorithms are described. The manual also describes the general philosophy and rules used to: 1) determine the allocation and priority of spent fuel generation sources to facility destinations, 2) calculate transportation costs, and 3) estimate the cost of at-reactor ex-pool storage. A detailed description of the implementation of many of the algorithms is also included in the WASTES Programmers Reference Manual (Shay and Buxbaum 1986a). This manual is separated into sections based on the general usage of the algorithms being discussed. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs
This engineering-oriented publication first presents fluxes and risks related to the transportation of radioactive materials: fluxes, risks, in-depth defence, and parcel typology. The author then describes the elaboration process for transportation regulations: IAEA recommendations for the transportation of radioactive materials and their review process, IAEA recommendations for modal regulations. He presents the French transportation regulation framework: evolutions of IAEA recommendations, case of aerial transport, and case of maritime transport. The next part addresses the specific case of the transportation of uranium hexafluoride. The last part addresses incidents and accidents occurring during transportation: declarations to be made, brief presentations of several examples of incidents and accidents
Kamiya, K; Yusa, H; Sugimoto, Y
The object is to prevent blockage of a transporting tube to positively and effectively transport radioactive slurry wastes. A method of transporting radioactive slurry-like wastes produced in an atomic power plant, wherein liquid wastes produced in the power plant are diluted to form into a driving liquid, by which said radioactive slurry-like wastes are transported within the pipe, and said driving liquid is recovered as the liquid waste.
Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.
This report contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, greater-than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic waste (TRU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled ( 200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste have been estimated previously, and a summary has been included in earlier WMFCI reports. In order to have a single source for obtaining transportation cost for all radioactive waste, the transportation costs for the contact- and remote-handled wastes are repeated in this report. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the US Department of Transportation (DOT), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations. It should be noted that the trend is toward greater restrictions on transportation of radioactive waste (e.g., truck or rail car speed, shipping route, security escort, and personnel training requirements), which may have a significant impact on future costs
Tanzman, E.; LaBrie, B.; Lerner, K.
This report is organized in a fashion that is intended to explain the legal duties imposed on officials responsible for hazardous waste at each stage of its existence. Section 2 describes federal hazardous waste laws, explaining the legal meaning of hazardous waste and the protective measures that are required to be taken by its generators, transporters, and storers. In addition, penalties for violation of the standards are summarized, and a special discussion is presented of so-called imminent hazard provisions for handling hazardous waste that immediately threatens public health and safety. Although the focus of Sec. 2 is on RCRA, which is the principal federal law regulating hazardous waste, other federal statutes are discussed as appropriate. Section 3 covers state regulation of hazardous waste. First, Sec. 3 explains the system of state enforcement of the federal RCRA requirements on hazardous waste within their borders. Second, Sec. 3 discusses two peculiar provisions of RCRA that appear to permit states to regulate federal facilities more strictly than RCRA otherwise would require
Tanzman, E.; LaBrie, B.; Lerner, K.
This report is organized in a fashion that is intended to explain the legal duties imposed on officials responsible for hazardous waste at each stage of its existence. Section 2 describes federal hazardous waste laws, explaining the legal meaning of hazardous waste and the protective measures that are required to be taken by its generators, transporters, and storers. In addition, penalties for violation of the standards are summarized, and a special discussion is presented of so-called imminent hazard provisions for handling hazardous waste that immediately threatens public health and safety. Although the focus of Sec. 2 is on RCRA, which is the principal federal law regulating hazardous waste, other federal statutes are discussed as appropriate. Section 3 covers state regulation of hazardous waste. First, Sec. 3 explains the system of state enforcement of the federal RCRA requirements on hazardous waste within their borders. Second, Sec. 3 discusses two peculiar provisions of RCRA that appear to permit states to regulate federal facilities more strictly than RCRA otherwise would require.
This paper discusses current and foreseen radioactive waste transportation systems as they apply to the INFCE Working Group 7 study. The types of wastes considered include spent fuel, which is treated as a waste in once-through fuel cycles; high-, medium-, and low-level waste; and gaseous waste. Regulatory classification of waste quantities and containers applicable to these classifications are discussed. Radioactive wastes are presently being transported in a safe and satisfactory manner. None of the INFCE candidate fuel cycles pose any extraordinary problems to future radioactive waste transportation and such transportation will not constitute a decisive factor in the choice of a preferred fuel cycle
Today waste management has entered a new stage. Since wastes still contain natural materials and energy that can be extracted, it should be treated in effective ways, for example, for energy recovery or material recycling. Many countries and the municipalities have therefore made waste treatment strategies in accordance with for example, EU directives or governmental regulations. In such circumstances, Envac is one of waste management companies in Sweden, which collects different kinds of was...
Fellman, R.T.; Lojek, D.A.; Motl, G.P.; Weddendorf, W.K.
Remediation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site located north of Cincinnati will generate large quantities of low-level radwaste. This volume includes approximately 1,050,000 tons of material to be removed from eight waste pits comprising Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The remedial alternative selected includes waste material excavation, drying and transportation by rail to a burial site in the arid west for disposal. Rail transportation was selected not only because rail transportation is safer than truck transportation, but also because of the sheer magnitude of the project and the availability of bulk rail car unloading facilities at a representative disposal site. Based upon current waste quantity estimates as presented in the Feasibility Study for OUI, a fully-loaded 47-car unit train would depart the Fernald site weekly for five years. This paper illustrates the steps taken to obtain agency and public acceptance of the Record of Decision for the remedy which hinged on rail transportation. A preliminary, but detailed, rail transportation plan was prepared for the project to support a series of CERCLA public meetings conducted in late 1994. Some of the major issues addressed in the plan included the following: (1) Scope of project leading to selection of rail transportation; (2) Waste classification; (3) Rail Company overview; (4) Train configuration and rail car selection; (5) Routing; (6) Safety; (7) Prior Notification Requirements (8) Emergency Response. A series of three public meetings identified a number of issues of prime concern to Fernald stakeholders. Following resolution of these issues during the public comment period, a Record of Decision (ROD) approving implementation of the rail transportation strategy was approved pending incorporation of EPA and State of Ohio comments on December 22, 1994
Neau, H.J. [World Nuclear Transport Institute, London (United Kingdom)
20 millions consignments of radioactive materials are routinely transported annually on public roads, railways and ships. 5% of these are nuclear fuel cycle related. International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations have been in force since 1961. The sector has an excellent safety record spanning over 50 years. Back end transport covers the operations concerned with spent fuel that leaves reactors and wastes. Since 1971, there have been 70,000 shipments of used fuel (i.e. over 80,000 tonnes) with no damage to property or person. The excellent safety record spanning over 50 years praised every year by the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency. More than 200 sea voyages over a distance of more than 8 million kilometres of transport of used fuel or high-level wastes.
Das, Swapan, E-mail: email@example.com; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.
Das, Swapan; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr.
Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length
International Regulations for the transport of radioactive materials have been published by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These Regulations have been widely adopted into national Regulations. Also adopted into different modal Regulations such as International Air Transport Association (IATA) and International Martime Organization (IMO). These Regulations provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of general public, transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination, criticality hazard and thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive wastes and materials. Several reviews conducted in consultation with Member States (MS) and concerned international organizations, resulted in comprehensive revisions till now. Radioactive materials are generally transported by specialized transport companies and experts. Shippers and carriers have designed their transport operations to comply with these international Regulations. About 20 million consignments of radioactive materials take place around the world each year. These materials were used in different fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research, consumer product and electric power generation. After September 11,2001, the IAEA and MS have worked together to develop a new guidance document concerning the security in the transport of radioactive materials. IAEA have initiated activities to assist MS in addressing the need for transport security in a comprehensive manner. The security guidance and measures were mentioned and discussed. The transport security becomes more developed and integrated into national Regulations of many countries beside the safety Regulations. IAEA and other International organizations are working with MS to implement transport security programs such as guidance, training, security assessments and upgrade assistance in these fields.
Nolte, K.H.; Simmich, K.; Verhoeven, J.; Sondermann, W.; Frotscher, H.; Schuchardt, M.; Engelmann, H.J.; Kolditz, H.; Schwaegermann, H.F.
The containers are transported purely by machine inside the loading cell of a cavern system and can be used for further overload transport after emptying and locking out of the loading cell. After unloading from the transport vehicle, the container passes through a radiation protection gate into the loading cell, where it is transported via rollers to a crane, whose rotating arm is provided with a pneumatically driven spindle screwdriver, which undoes all the screws on the container lid. After removing the lid, the electrically operated grab of a second rotating crane lifts the drum with the radioactive waste from the container and deposits them on rollers, from which they pass to a transport vessel, which transports the waste to the final storage position. The lid is then screwed back on to the empty container, the container is placed on some scales and is only transported through a window out of the loading cell if its weight agrees with the given tare weight. (HP) [de
Lee, J. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Kim, C. R.; Park, J. W.
Sampling and transport of paraffin waste form from concentrated waste drying system (CWDS) of domestic nuclear power plant were performed to collect the leaching characteristic data for the disposal of radioactive waste. Transport was performed according to the national regulations and the internal rules of the nuclear power plant. The sample of paraffin waste form was classified as L type package according to the regulation and radiation exposure of operator was measured in the range of 6 to 12 mrem that was less than the estimated amount
Gilbert, K.V.; Hurley, J.D.; Smith, L.J.; McFadden, M.H.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Fedie, M.L.
The development and planning of a transportation system for US Department of Energy (USDOE) Defense Transuranic (TRU) waste has required the talents and expertise of many people. Coordination activities, design activities, fabrication, research and development, operations, and transportation are but a few of the areas around which this system is built. Due to the large number of organizations, regulations and personalities the planning task becomes extremely complex. The intent of this paper is to discuss the steps taken in planning this system, to identify the various organizations around which this system is designed, and to discuss program progress to date, scheduling, and future plans. 9 figures, 1 table
Gilbert, K.V.; Hurley, J.D.; Smith, L.J.; McFadden, M.H.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Fedie, M.L.
The development and planning of a transportation system for US Department of Energy (USDOE) Defense Transuranic (TRU) waste has required the talents and expertise of many people. Coordination activities, design activities, fabrication, research and development, operations, and transportation are but a few of the areas around which this system is built. Due to the large number of organizations, regulations and personalities the planning task becomes extremely complex. The intent of this paper is to discuss the steps taken in planning this system, to identify the various organizations around which this system is designed, and to discuss program progress to date, scheduling, and future plans
Brown, G.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Apple, M.L.
Shipments of radioactive material (RAM) constitute but a small fraction of the total hazardous materials shipped in the United States each year. Public perception, however, of the potential consequences of a release from a transportation package containing RAM has resulted in significant regulation of transport operations, both to ensure the integrity of a package in accident conditions and to place operational constraints on the shipper. Much of this attention has focused on shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high level wastes which, although comprising a very small number of total shipments, constitute a majority of the total curies transported on an annual basis. This report discusses the shipment of these highly radioactive materials
This paper describes radioactive waste management regulations applied in USA, CANADA, SCANDINAVIA and FRANCE. For low level radioactive wastes, it is necessary to adapt waste management regulations which were firt definite for high level radioactive wastes. So the exemption concept is a simplification method of regulations applied to low radiation sources
The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government's system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government's program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project
Romesberg, L.E.; Pope, R.B.; Burgoyne, R.M.
Contact-handled transuranic defense waste is being, and will continue to be, moved between a number of locations in the United States. The DOE is sponsoring development of safe, efficient, licensable, and cost-effective transportation systems to handle this waste. The systems being developed have been named TRUPACT which stands for TRansUranic PACkage Transporter. The system will be compatible with Type A packagings used by waste generators, interim storage facilities, and repositories. TRUPACT is required to be a Type B packaging since larger than Type A quantities of some radionuclides (particularly plutonium) may be involved in the collection of Type A packagings. TRUPACT must provide structural and thermal protection to the waste in hypothetical accident environments specified in DOT regulations 49CFR173 and NRC regulations 10CFR71. Preliminary design of the systems has been completed and final design for a truck system is underway. The status of the development program is reviewed in this paper and the reference design is described. Tests that have been conducted are discussed and long-term program objectives are reviewed
Neau, H-J.; Bonnardel-Azzarelli, B. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)
Various kinds of radioactive waste are generated from nuclear power and fuel cycle facilities. These materials have to be treated, stored and eventually sent to a repository site. Transport of wastes between these various stages is crucial for the sustainable utilization of nuclear energy. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SSR-6) have, for many decades, provided a safe and efficient framework for radioactive materials transport and continue to do so. However, some shippers have experienced that in the transport of certain specific radioactive wastes, difficulties can be encountered. For example, some materials produced in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are unique in terms of composition or size and can be difficult to characterize as surface contaminated objects (SCO) or homogeneous. One way WNTI (World Nuclear Transport Institute) helps develop transport methodologies is through the use of Industry Working Groups, bringing together WNTI members with common interests, issues and experiences. The Back-End Transport Industry Working Group focuses on the following issues currently. - Characterization of Waste: techniques and methods to classify wastes - Large Objects: slightly contaminated large objects (ex. spent steam generators) transport - Dual Use Casks: transportable storage casks for spent nuclear fuels, including the very long term storage of spent fuel - Fissile Exceptions: new fissile exceptions provisions of revised TS-R-1 (SSR-6) The paper gives a broad overview of current issues for the packaging and transport of radioactive wastes and the associated work of the WNTI. (author)
Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.
This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (<200 mrem/hr contact dose) and remote-handled (>200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations.
Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.
This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled ( 200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations
Nese, Gjermund; Straume, Odd Rune
-exporting cartel it may be more profitable for such a cartel to coordinate their availability pricing policy than their export volumes. Another result shows that increased competition in the import market may be a disadvantage for the exporting countries when the authorities use strategic availability pricing. Consequently the use of strategic availability pricing could contribute to increase the conflict levels between the exporting and importing countries as to competition policy. If all the participants use strategic availability pricing the conflict of interests between the upstream and downstream countries would be complete as the importing country would wish to stimulate increased competition in all parts of the value chain while the exporting countries would wish the opposite. The analysis is based on a theoretical model and is consequently based on several conditions that must be considered when interpreting the results. The authors think however, that the mechanisms revealed are central in the market for natural gas. As long as the national authorities permit a certain degree of flexibility in the regulation of the availability prices for the transport and distribution of natural gas the strategic availability pricing could be an important measure in the battle for as large a part of the profits as possible in a future market for natural gas characterized by increased competition. As to Norway this would mean that possible negative effects of a more liberalised European gas market could be counteracted through strategic adaptation of the availability price in the Norwegian gas transport system
Edling, D.A.; Hopkins, D.R.; Walls, H.C.
There are currently three predominant methods used to transport transuranium contaminated waste. These are: (1) ATMX Railcars--500 and 600 series, (2) Super Tigers, and (3) Poly Panthers. Both the ATMX-500 and 600 series railcars are massive doubly walled steel railcars which provide the equivalent protection of a Type B package. In ATMX-600 the rapid loading and unloading of the 9 x 9 x 50 feet cargo space is achieved by prepackaging the TRU waste into standard 20-foot steel cargo containers. The ATMX-500 railcars are divided into three inside bays, having dimensions of 16 (l) x 9.25 (w) x 6.25 (h) feet. A typical load consists of 128 55-gallon drums (however, space can accommodate 192 drums), 12 fiberglass boxes (4 x 4 x 7), or a combination of palletized drums and boxes. A Super Tiger is an overpack authorized for Type A, Type B, and large quantities of radioactive materials having outside dimensions of 8 x 8 x 20 feet. Maximum payload is approximately 28,700 lb with a gross weight of 45,000 lb. The primary factors influencing transport costs are examined including freight rates of transport mode, effective cargo (weight and volume) management, effective utilization of available space (package design), transport mileage, and rental fees or initial capital outlay. Miscellaneous factors are also examined
Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.
A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the VOC permeability had been measured. Permeabilities for five VOCs [methylene chloride, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethylene] were measured across a polyethylene bag. Comparison of model and experimental results of VOC concentration as a function of time indicate that model accurately accounts for significant VOC transport mechanisms in a lab-scale waste drum
Chakraborti, S.; DeBiase, T.
The transportation of liquid radioactive wastes has often been perceived to be a problem because of the potential consequences from hypothetical accident scenarios and the difficulties that may be encountered in the handling and containment of liquids. This paper focuses specifically to determine if the transportation of these wastes are severely restricted by the regulations. The paper also compares current practices for the transportation of liquid mixed waste in the US with that of France to provide an international perspective on the issue. The review of the regulations and current practices shows that the transportation of liquid mixed waste is by no means prohibited, and also that the majority of the regulations do not impose any additional restrictions because of the physical form of the waste. Rather, the selection of an authorized package primarily depends on the quantity of radioactivity and the specific radionuclides involved. Although the selection process for an authorized package for liquid mixed wastes is fairly straightforward, it seems that the difficulties in transporting liquid mixed waste can be attributed to the lack of readily available Type A packages designed for transporting liquids
HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.
This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…
Das, Swapan; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr
Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pope, R.B.; Rawl, R.R.
The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6 (herein after denoted as the ''International Regulations'') serve as the model for the regulations for individual countries and international modal organizations controlling the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background and history of the International Regulations, the general principles behind the requirements of the International Regulations, the structure and general contents of the latest edition of the International Regulations, and the roles of various international bodies in the development and implementation of the International Regulations and the current status of regulatory and supportive document development at both the international and domestic level. This review will provide a basis for users and potential users to better understand the source and application of the International Regulations. 1 tab
Yao Zhiping; Sun Weiqi; Zhou Qingru
One of the drafts of the regulations for the management of radioactive wastes from hospitals, universities, and institutes in China is described. The design concepts for the trucks and drums to be used for transporting and handling the wastes are also described
The principles applied to the transport of nuclear fuels and wastes have been founded on the more general provisions governing the transport of radioactive materials. Safe shipment of radioactive materials has historically been sought by specifying required characteristics in the shipping packages and establishing minimum acceptable levels of package integrity. The reason for this is that in the course of transport by road, rail, sea, or air, consignments of radioactive material are in close proximity to members of the public, and in many cases they are loaded or unloaded by transport workers who have had no special training or experience in the handling of such substances. The procedures adopted to ensure transport safety have worked satisfactorily. Both in the USA and the UK, the industry and regulatory authorities have established outstanding safety records in shipping radioactive materials over a period of thirty years. It is claimed that there have been no injuries due to the radioactive nature of the shipments, nor has there been a release of nuclear materials serious enough to be a threat of death or injury. Admittedly, about 95% of the 800,000 shipments estimated in the USA each year involve small quantities for use in industry, medicine, agriculture and education. However the principals underlying the safe packaging of these and reactor fuels are the same, and there is little reason to doubt that a similar safety record can be maintained
Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.
The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to, enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified. The design requirements for both hazardous and radioactive materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging and any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A and Type B packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program, supported by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Transportation Management Division, EM-261 provides the means to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, we describe the general elements of the testing program and the experimental results of the screening tests. The implications of the results of this testing are discussed in the general context of packaging development. Additionally, we present the results of the first phase of this experimental program. This phase involved the screening of five candidate liner and six seal materials against four simulant mixed wastes
Tikhankin, Anatoly; Levin, Alexander
In Russia, the system of the legal acts regulating radioactive waste management is now in progress. Development of the federal norms and regulations on the use of atomic energy is a responsibility of Gosatomnazdor. This presentation describes in detail the work done by Gosatomnadzor in 1997/1998 on the development of the legal documents regulating the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear material. A document of special importance is ''Burial of Radioactive Wastes. Principles, Criteria and Basic Safety Requirements''. This is discussed in some detail. For all stages of radioactive waste management, safety criteria for population and personnel are set up in strict analogy with current legislation for any other type of radiological hazard. A combined, or hybrid, safety criterion is suggested for estimation of long-term safety of radioactive waste repository systems, for the period upon termination of the established administrative monitoring after closing the repository. A dose criterion is accepted for normal radiation exposure and a risk criterion for potential radiation exposure. The safety of radioactive waste repository should be ensured by means of graded safeguard throughout the entire period of burial. Graded safeguard is based on independent barriers on the way of ionising radiation and emission of radioactive substances into the environment and protection and maintenance of these barriers. Examples show how the provisions of the document are applied in practice in the permafrost area of Russia. Permafrost soil has low water permeability, which is significant because underground water is the main transport medium in case of a leakage from a repository
The importance and magnitude of effort to put in place a safe, publicly acceptable transportation system for radioactive wastes are discussed. The importance of working openly, documenting efforts in a way that is objective and can be understood by the general public, and being particularly sensitive and responsive to public concerns is recognized. Key elements of current planning have been described, but numerous details remain to be worked out. These details will be worked out, proposed in programs plans, and made publicly available. The author looks forward to ideas and comments for improving these plans and their implementation
Transports of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities have been a matter of frequent public concern in the recent past. News reports, protests and questions concerning the radiological risk tended to concentrate on transports to and from central waste management facilities, e.g. transports of spent fuel elements to reprocessing plants abroad (France, England), transports to intermediate storage sites (Ahaus, Gorleben), transports to operative (Morsleben) and projected (Konrad) final storage sites, and transports of vitrified high-activity waste from reprocessing plants to the intermediate storage site (Gorleben). (orig.) [de
Rashotte, A.; Brady, S.; Kirpalani, N.; Buer, C.; Muday, G.
Plants respond to changes in the gravity vector by differential growth across the gravity-stimulated organ. The plant hormone auxin, which is normally basipetally transported, changes in direction and auxin redistribution has been suggested to drive this differential growth or gravitropism. The mechanisms by which auxin transport directionality changes in response to a change in gravity vector are largely unknown. Using the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, we have been exploring several regulatory mechanisms that may control auxin transport. Mutations that alter protein phosphorylation suggest that auxin transport in arabidopsis roots may be controlled via phosphorylation and this signal may facilitate gravitropic bending. The protein kinase mutant pinoid (pid9) has reduced auxin transport; whereas the protein phosphatase mutant, rcn1, has elevated transport, suggesting reciprocal regulation of auxin transport by reversible protein phosphorylation. In both of these mutants, the auxin transport defects are accompanied by gravitropic defects, linking phosphorylation signaling to gravity-induced changes in auxin transport. Additionally, auxin transport may be regulated during gravity response by changes in an endogenous auxin efflux inhibitor. Flavonoids, such as quercetin and kaempferol, have been implicated in regulation of auxin transport in vivo and in vitro. Mutants that make no flavonoids have reduced root gravitropic bending. Furthermore, changes in auxin-induced gene expression and flavonoid accumulation patterns have been observed during gravity stimulation. Current studies are examining whether there are spatial and temporal changes in flavonoid accumulation that precede gravitropic bending and whether the absence of these changes are the cause of the altered gravity response in plants with mutations that block flavonoid synthesis. These results support the idea that auxin transport may be regulated during gravity response by several mechanisms including
Miwa, Kyoko; Fujiwara, Toru
Background The essentiality of boron (B) for plant growth was established >85 years ago. In the last decade, it has been revealed that one of the physiological roles of B is cross-linking the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II in primary cell walls. Borate cross-linking of pectic networks serves both for physical strength of cell walls and for cell adhesion. On the other hand, high concentrations of B are toxic to plant growth. To avoid deficiency and toxicity problems, it is important for plants to maintain their tissue B concentrations within an optimum range by regulating transport processes. Boron transport was long believed to be a passive, unregulated process, but the identification of B transporters has suggested that plants sense and respond to the B conditions and regulate transporters to maintain B homeostasis. Scope Transporters responsible for efficient B uptake by roots, xylem loading and B distribution among leaves have been described. These transporters are required under B limitation for efficient acquisition and utilization of B. Transporters important for tolerating high B levels in the environment have also been identified, and these transporters export B from roots back to the soil. Two types of transporters are involved in these processes: NIPs (nodulin-26-like intrinsic proteins), boric acid channels, and BORs, B exporters. It is demonstrated that the expression of genes encoding these transporters is finely regulated in response to B availability in the environment to ensure tissue B homeostasis. Furthermore, plants tolerant to stress produced by low B or high B in the environment can be generated through altered expression of these transporters. Conclusions The identification of the first B transporter led to the discovery that B transport was a process mediated not only by passive diffusion but also by transporters whose activity was regulated in response to B conditions. Now it is evident that plants sense internal and external B
The purpose of this document is to prepare a recommended transportation plan that will outline specific procedures for monitoring and regulating low-level radioactive waste transport in Maryland and which is consistent with federal law and party-state requirements under the Appalachian Compact
Ratledge, J.E.; Schmid, S.; Danese, L.
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) will eventually ship Purchasers' (10 CFR 961.3) spent nuclear fuel from approximately 122 commercial nuclear facilities. The preparation and maintenance of Site- and Facility-Specific Transportation Services Planning Documents (SPDs) and Site-Specific Servicing Plans (SSSPs) provides a focus for advanced planning and the actual shipping of waste, as well as the overall development of transportation requirements for the waste transportation system. SPDs will be prepared for each of the affected nuclear waste facilities, with initial emphasis on facilities likely to be served during the earliest years of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) operations
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing standards for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). As part of this Standard, EPA is including regulations for the disposal of naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material (NARM) wastes not covered under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The regulations will cover only higher-activity NARM wastes, defined as NARM waste with specific activity exceeding two nanocuries per gram. The proposed regulations will specify that NARM wastes exceeding the above limits, except for specific exempted items, must be disposed of in regulated radioactive waste disposal facilities. The proposed EPA regulations for NARM wastes will be discussed, as well as the costs and benefits of the regulation, how it will be implemented by EPA, and the rationale for covering only higher-activity NARM wastes exceeding two nanocuries per gram
A brief review is given of the main provisions of the state regulation and safety assurance of RAM transport in Russia. This appears to be useful to various persons and organisations abroad, concerned with such transport in Russia. Two aspects of the system are presented - regulatory documents (normative-technical documentation) and regulatory and control activities of state organisations. (Author)
Radiation sources are widely used in the fields of medical, industry, agriculture, research, etc. Owing to the inherent risk of exposure to ionizing radiations while using the radiation sources and management of associated waste, safety measures are of utmost importance including robust regulatory control. Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) is responsible for supervising all matters pertaining to nuclear safety and radiation protection in the country. Since its inception, PNRA has made rigorous efforts to regulate the radiation facilities for which regulatory framework was further strengthened by taking into account international norms/practices and implemented afterwards. However, due to vibrant use of these facilities, there are numerous challenges being faced while implementing the regulatory framework. These challenges pertains to shielding design of some facilities, control over service provider for QC/repair maintenance of radiation equipment, assessment of patient doses, and establishment of national diagnostic reference levels for radiological procedures. Further, the regulatory framework also delineate requirements to minimize the generation of associated radioactive waste as low as practicable. The requirements also necessitates that certain sealed radioactive sources (SRS) are returned to the supplier upon completion of their useful life, while other radioactive sources are required to be transported for storage at designated radioactive waste storage facilities in the country, which requires commitment from the licensee. This paper will briefly describe the challenges in regulating the radiation sources and issues related to the waste management associated with these facilities. (author)
Ian M. Thornell
Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.
Warnecke, E.; Rawl, R.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) publishes standards and recommendations on all aspects of nuclear safety in its Safety Series, which includes radioactive waste management and transport of radioactive materials. Safety Series documents may be adopted by a State into its national legal framework. Most of the States used the IAEA transport regulations (Safety Series No. 6) as a basis for their national regulation. The two highest ranking documents of the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme, the Safety Fundamentals and the Safety Standard on the national waste management system, have been published. Both provide impetus into the waste management safety convention, a legally binding document for signatory states, which is being drafted. The already existing Convention on Nuclear Safety covers the management of radioactive waste at land-based civil nuclear power plants. (author) 1 fig., 18 refs
Bowerman, B.S.; Piciulo, P.L.
The survey reported here was conducted with the intent of identifying categories of low-level radioactive wastes which would be classified under EPA regulations 40 CFR Part 261 as hazardous due to the chemical properties of the waste. Three waste types are identified under these criteria as potential radioactive mixed wastes: wastes containing organic liquids; wastes containing lead metal; and wastes containing chromium. The survey also indicated that certain wastes, specific to particular generators, may also be radioactive mixed wastes. Ultimately, the responsibility for determining whether a facility's wastes are mixed wastes rest with the generator. However, the uncertainties as to which regulations are applicable, and the fact that no legal definition of mixed wastes exists, make such a determination difficult. In addition to identifying mixed wastes, appropriate methods for the management of mixed wastes must be defined. In an ongoing study, BNL is evaluating options for the management of mixed wastes. These options will include segregation, substitution, and treatments to reduce or eliminate chemical hazards associated with the wastes listed above. The impacts of the EPA regulations governing hazardous wastes on radioactive mixed waste cannot be assessed in detail until the applicability of these regulations is agreed upon. This issue is still being discussed by EPA and NRC and should be resolved in the near future. Areas of waste management which may affect generators of mixed wastes include: monitoring/tracking of wastes before shipment; chemical testing of wastes; permits for treatment of storage of wastes; and additional packaging requirements. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
Kim, D. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S
We carried out structural safety evaluation for the type B radioactive waste transport package. Requirements for type B packages according to the related regulations such as IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1, Korea Most Act. 2001-23 and US 10 CFR Part 71 were evaluated. General requirements for packages such as those for a lifting attachment, a tie-down attachment and pressure condition were considered. For the type B radioactive waste transport package, the structural, thermal and containment analyses were carried out under the normal transport conditions. Also the safety analysis were conducted under the accidental transport conditions. The 9 m drop test, 1 m puncture test, fire test and water immersion test under the accidental transport conditions were consecutively done. The type B radioactive waste transport packages were maintained the structural and thermal integrities.
Hariyani, S.; Meidiana, C.
Increasing population led to the emergence of the urban infrastructure services issue including waste problems especially waste transportation system. Data in 2016 shows that the amount of waste in Malang was 659.21 tons / day. The amount of waste transported to landfill only reached 464.74 tons / day. This indicates that not all waste can be transported to the landfill Supiturang because Level of Service (LoS) reached 70.49%. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of waste transportation system and determine the fastest route from waste transfers point in Lowokwaru district to the landfill Supiturang. The data collection method in this research were 1) primary survey by interview officials from the Sanitation and Gardening Agency which questions related to the condition of the waste transportation system in waste transfer point, 2) Secondary survey related to data of waste transportation system in Malang City i.e the amount of waste generation in waste transfer point, number of garbage trucks and other data related to the garbage transportation system. To determine the fastest route analyzed by network analyst using ArcGIS software. The results of network analyst show that not all routes are already using the fastest route to the landfill Supiturang.
Kim, Dohyung; Lee, Unjang; Song, Yangsoo; Kim, Sukhoon; Ko, Jaehoon [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
In Korea, it is planed to transport Low-Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (LILW) from each nuclear power plant site to Kyongju LILW repository after 2009. Transport through the sea using ship is one of the most prospective ways of LILW transport for current situation in Korea. There are domestic and international regulations for radiation dose limit for radioactive material transport. In this article, radiation shielding analysis for LILW transport ship is performed using 3-D computer simulation code, MCNP. As a result, the thickness and materials for radiation shielding walls next to cargo in the LILW transport ship are determined.
As the thoughts of the country concentrate on the problems of transportation of waste through high traffic urban areas, the problem of how to deal directly and honestly with the public takes on greater significance in the nuclear industry. Non-technical aspects of the methods of transportation, especially by railroad and highway, enter into the total scheme of moving radioactive waste from both weapon and nuclear power plant sources to final processing and disposal. Factors such as shape, color, size, familiarity, and industrial designing are necessary ingredients that take on equal or more significance that the designing of containers to survive the hypothetical accident conditions of the present, or even of the future. Protective Packaging, Inc. has been a leader in the presentation of containers to the private and public sector of the nuclear industry. The products have undergone very open testing, in public, with both invited and uninvited witnesses. In those experiences, dating back to 1969, the problems of public acceptance will be related between the technical problems and the associated social and political problems that relate to container acceptance by the public in today's world. Proven experience data, relative to the safety of the present day systems will be discussed, as well as methods of improving the image in the future. Review will also be given to the effort by industry to discuss the proven record with parties outside the nuclear industry, i.e., individuals and pressure groups that are diametrically opposed to review the facts relative to safety as opposed to other, but more traditional industries
This technical bulletin presents information on the many activities and issues related to transportation of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) to allow interested States to investigate further those subjects for which proactive preparation will facilitate the development and operation of a LLW disposal facility. The activities related to transportation for a LLW disposal facility are discussed under the following headings: safety; legislation, regulations, and implementation guidance; operations-related transport (LLW and non-LLW traffic); construction traffic; economics; and public involvement
Shappert, L.B.; Joy, D.S.; Heiskell, M.M.
The objective of the Transportation/Logistics Study is to ensure the availability of a viable system for transporting the wastes to a federal repository in 1985. In order to accomplish this objective, a systems analysis of waste transportation has been directed by ORNL to determine the problems that must be solved and to develop a program plan that identifies which problems must first be pursued. To facilitate this overall approach and to provide for short- and long-range waste management, logistics models have been developed to determine the transportation fleet requirements and costs. Results of the study are described in this report
Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard; Trentmann, Oliver
In plants, the vacuole builds up the cellular turgor and represents an important component in cellular responses to diverse stress stimuli. Rapid volume changes of cells, particularly of motor cells, like guard cells, are caused by variation of osmolytes and consequently of the water contents in the vacuole. Moreover, directed solute uptake into or release out of the large central vacuole allows adaptation of cytosolic metabolite levels according to the current physiological requirements and specific cellular demands. Therefore, solute passage across the vacuolar membrane, the tonoplast, has to be tightly regulated. Important principles in vacuolar transport regulation are changes of tonoplast transport protein abundances by differential expression of genes or changes of their activities, e.g., due to post-translational modification or by interacting proteins. Because vacuolar transport is in most cases driven by an electro-chemical gradient altered activities of tonoplast proton pumps significantly influence vacuolar transport capacities. Intense studies on individual tonoplast proteins but also unbiased system biological approaches have provided important insights into the regulation of vacuolar transport. This short review refers to selected examples of tonoplast proteins and their regulation, with special focus on protein phosphorylation. PMID:25309559
Whitman, M.; Tate, P.
The newly-formed Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is an interstate agreement for the management of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Eligible members of the compact are Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Each state must ratify the compact within its legislature for the compact to become effective in that state and to make that state a full-fledged member of the compact. By so adopting the compact, each state agrees to the terms and conditions specified therein. Among those terms and conditions are provisions requiring each member state to adopt and enforce procedures requiring low-level waste shipments originating within its borders and destined for a regional facility to conform to packaging and transportation requirements and regulations. These procedures are to include periodic inspections of packaging and shipping practices, periodic inspections of waste containers while in the custody of carriers and appropriate enforcement actions for violations. To carry out this responsibility, each state must have an adequate statutory and regulatory inspection and enforcement authority to ensure the safe transportation of low-level radioactive waste. Three states in the compact region, Arizona, Utah and Wyoming, have incorporated the Department of Transportation regulations in their entirety, and have no published rules and regulations of their own. The other states in the compact, Colorado, Nevada and New Mexico all have separate rules and regulations that incorporate the DOT regulations. A brief description of the regulatory requirements of each state is presented
Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Shoffner, P.; Lagos, L.
The Waste Information Management System with Integrated Transportation Forecast Data was developed to support the Department of Energy (DOE) mandated accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to site waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedules. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of waste that would be generated by the DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site has historically collected, organized, and displayed site waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. However, waste and shipment information from all sites needed a common application to allow interested parties to understand and view the complete complex-wide picture. The Waste Information Management System with Integrated Transportation Forecast Data allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, has deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)
The detailed analysis contained in this case history demonstrates the great efforts made in the field of incentive regulation in order to promote competition in the gas market and to improve the efficiency of the gas transport system. The next challenge will be to preserve competition and efficiency in a quite different gas-supply condition [it
Bennett, D.; Appleton, P.R.; Eastman, C.R.
Nirex is addressing the transport of radioactive wastes, repository construction materials, personnel and spoil as part of their development of a deep repository. An integrated transport system will be developed for wastes which may involve, road, rail and sea transport. The possible application and the scale of operation of the transport system is described. Environmental impact assessments will be carried out, and the proposed approach to these is described. A methodology for the assessment of transport safety has been established and the results of a preliminary assessment are given. (author)
The regulation of radioactive discharges, i.e. solid radioactive waste resulting from operation of nuclear installations and liquid and gazeous effluents released by them may be dealt with from two angles: the receiving environment and the polluting agent. French law covers both. Law on atmospheric pollution is based mainly on the Act of 2 August 1961 while the Act of 16 December 1964 governs water pollution. Both Acts have been the subject of a great number of implementing decrees, certain of which contain standards specific to radioactive pollution. Regulations on the polluting agent, namely its activity, comply with the generally established distinction between large nuclear installations and others. There again, there are many applicable texts, in particular, the Act of 19 July 1976 for classified installations, and the Decree of 11 December 1963, supplemented by the Decrees of 6 November 1974 and 31 December 1974 for large nuclear installations. This detailed analysis of national regulations is followed by a presentation of the applicable provisions in the Communities law and in international public law. (N.E.A.) [fr
Raczka, Norman T.
The preparation of this technical report has two objectives. The first objective is to discuss the base case concepts of waste transport, emplacement, and retrieval operations and evaluate these operations relative to a lower-temperature repository design. Aspects of the operations involved in waste transport, emplacement and retrieval may be affected by the lower-temperature operating schemes. This report evaluates the effects the lower-temperature alternatives may have on the operational concepts involved in emplacing and retrieving waste. The second objective is to provide backup material for the design description, in a traceable and defensible format, for Section 2 of the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document
Lombard, J.; Appleton, P.; Libon, H.; Sannen, H.
The aim of this presentation is to illustrate using two examples how a particular special arrangement can be envisaged for the transport of a well defined category of waste according to the ''Transport System Concept''. (authors)
Roelofsen, H; Jansen, PLM
In several liver diseases the biliary transport is disturbed, resulting in, for example, jaundice and cholestasis. Many of these symptoms can be attributed to altered regulation of hepatic transporters. Organic anion transport, mediated by the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter
Shappert, L.B.; Klimas, M.J.
This paper documents the functions that are necessary to operate the OCRWM transportation system. OCRWM's mission is to accept and transport spent fuel and high-level waste from waste generators to FWMS facilities. The emphasis is on transportation operations and assumes that all necessary facilities are in place and equipment designs and specifications are available to permit the system to operate properly. The information reported in this paper was developed for TOPO and is compatible with the draft revision of the Waste Management System Requirements and Description (SRD). 5 refs
The transport of radioactive waste is centralised and coordinated by the German Railway Company (Deutsche Bahn AG, DB) in Germany. The conditioning of radioactive waste is now centralised and carried out by the Gesellschaft fuer Nucklear Service (GNS). The Germany Railway Company, DB, is totally and exclusively responsible for the transport, the GNS is totally and exclusively responsible for the conditioning of radioactive waste. The German Railway Company transports all radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, conditioning facilities and the existing intermediate storage facilities in Germany. In 1992 nearly 177 shipments of radioactive waste were carried out, in 1991 the total amount was 179 shipments. A brief description of the transport procedures, the use of different waste packages for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation and the transport routes within Germany will be given. For this purpose the inspection authorities in Germany have used a new documentation system, a special computer program for waste flow tracking and quality assurance and compliance assurance, developed by the electrical power companies in Germany. (Author)
Channell, J.K.; Rodgers, J.C.; Neill, R.H.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) expects to begin disposal of defence transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico before the end of 1988. Approximately 25,000 truck shipments involving 35 million vehicle kilometers will be required to transport about 175,000 m 3 of contact-handled transuranic waste. Up to 5,000 shipments of remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) will also be shipped to WIPP in shielded casks. This paper addresses the shipment of CH-TRU wastes
The interaction of radiation from radioactive materials with the waste matrix can lead to the deterioration of the waste form resulting in the possible of gaseous species. Depending on the type and characteristics of the radiation source, the generation of hydrogen may predominate. Since the interaction of alpha particles with the waste form results in significant energy transfer, other gases such as carbon oxides, methane, nitrogen oxides, oxygen, water, and helium are possible. The type of gases produced from the waste forms is determined by the mechanisms involved in the waste degradation. For transuranic wastes, the identified degradation mechanisms are reported to be caused by radiolysis, thermal decomposition or dewatering, chemical corrosion, and bacterial action. While all these mechanisms may be responsible for the building of gases during the storage of wastes, radiolysis and thermal decomposition appear to be main contributors during waste transport operations. (authors)
Burleigh, Stephen; Bechmann, I.E.
of nutrition. Their down-regulation in mycorrhizal roots, therefore, would be predicted as a result of symbiotic function. A variety of studies on Pi- Zn- and ammonium- or nitrate-transporter genes from two plant species indirectly support this model. For example, one study showed that the expression...... of the high-affinity Pi-transporter MtPT2 within mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula was inversely correlated with the concentration of P within the shoots, which suggested that P supply from the fungus influenced this gene's expression. However, there is some evidence that these plant nutrient...
Smith, M.J.S.; Streatfield, R.E.
The paper presents an overview of Nirex proposals for the packaging and transport of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste, as well as the regulatory requirements which must be met in such operations. (author)
Grover, J.R.; Price, M.S.T.
Up to the present time, the majority of the radioactive waste which has been transported in the United Kingdom has been low level waste for disposal in the trenches of the shallow burial site operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc at Drigg and also the packaged waste destined for sea disposal in the annual operation. However, the main bulk of the low and intermediate level wastes which have been generated over the last quarter century remain in store at the various nuclear sites where it originated. Before significant packaging and transport of intermediate level wastes takes place it is desirable to examine the sources and types of wastes, the immobilisation and packaging processes and plants, the transport, and the problems of handling of packages at future land repositories. Optimisation of the packaging and transport must take account of both the upstream and downstream con=straints as well as the implications of complying with both the IAEA Transport Regulations and radiological protection guidelines. Packages for sea disposal must in addition comply with the requirements of the London Dumping Convention and the NEA guidelines. (author)
The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database contains information about radioactive materials transportation accidents and incidents that have occurred in the United States from 1971 through 1989. Using data from RMIR, this paper will provide detailed information on transportation accidents and incidents that have occurred with low-level radioactive wastes. Additionally, overview data on the number of transport accidents and incidents that have occurred and by what transport mode will also be provided. 4 refs., 6 tabs
Sudipta De; Rafael Luque
The generation of organic waste continues to increase, causing severe environmental pollution. Waste valorization is currently an emerging technology that can address this problem with an extra benefit of producing a range of valued products. In this contribution, we report the current developments in hydrotreating technologies for upgrading waste oil fractions into usable transportation fuels. Particular focus is given on the catalysts selection for a general hydroprocessing technique as wel...
Davies, M.; Owen, K.
The packaging of radioactive material for transport must conform with the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These regulations are extensive and complex and require specialist interpretation. Packaging must be designed to contain the material, to limit radiation to safe levels, and to maintain the material in a safe state under both normal and accident conditions. British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) developed the TRANAID expert system to provide automated expert advice on the subject. It is used at BNFL and by other users internationally. The system was produced to meet an internal BNFL emphasis on accurate consistent and reliable interpretation of the complex IAEA regulations; and to provide a commercial product which would meet an external need. TRANAID provides reliable and consistent advice on safe transport procedures which reduce the workload on scarce skilled personnel, and allows them to concentrate on their primary task of packaging design. TRANAID also avoids overclassifying radioactive shipments, which would lead to the use of more expensive packaging than strictly is required. The IAEA regulations are applied internationally, and so there is a large potential worldwide market. The indications from the initial response are that future sales and use are expected to more than cover the investment. Other non-quantifiable benefits include the provision of consistent advice within a uniform approach, the safe-guarding of knowledge of the IAEA regulations, training and improvement in the expertise of users, improved management control, and enhancement of the professional image of BNFL. (author)
As directed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a nationwide system for transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial power plants to deep geologic repositories for disposal. Plans for the transportation system will consider the following factors: the President's 1985 decision to co-locate some defense high-level waste with commercial waste in a repository, the NWPA requirement that the private sector be used to the fullest extent possible in developing and operating the system, and the possible approval by Congress of the DOE's proposal for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, submitted in March 1987. (The MRS, if approved, would provide for the consolidation, packaging, and perhaps the temporary storage of spent fuel from reactors.) The ''Transportation Business Plan'', published in January 1986, reflects these considerations. The transportation system, when operational, will consist of two elements: (1) the cask system, which includes the transportation casks, the vehicular conveyances, tie-downs, and associated equipment for handling the casks; and (2) the transportation support system which is comprised of facilities, equipment, and services to support waste transportation. Development of the transportation system incorporates the following work elements: operational planning, support systems development, cash system development, systems analysis, and institutional activities. This paper focusses on the technical aspects of the system
To date, the project has established important to safety (ITS) performance requirements for structures, systems and components (SSCs) based on identification and categorization of event sequences that may result in a radiological release. These performance requirements are defined within the ''Nuclear Safety Design Basis for License Application'' (NSDB) (BSC 2005). Further, SSCs credited with performing safe functions are classified as ITS. In turn, performance confirmation for these SSCs is sought through the use of consensus code and standards. The purpose of this study is to identify applicable codes and standards for the waste package (WP) transporter and transport locomotive ITS SSCs. Further, this study will form the basis for selection and the extent of applicability of each code and standard. This study is based on the design development completed for License Application only. Accordingly, identification of ITS SSCs beyond those defined within the NSDB are based on designs that may be subject to further development during detail design. Furthermore, several design alternatives may still be under consideration to satisfy certain safety functions, and that final selection will not be determined until further design development has occurred. Therefore, for completeness, throughout this study alternative designs currently under consideration will be discussed. Further, the results of this study will be subject to evaluation as part of a follow-on gap analysis study. Based on the results of this study the gap analysis will evaluate each code and standard to ensure each ITS performance requirement is fully satisfied. When a performance requirement is not fully satisfied a ''gap'' is highlighted. Thereafter, the study will identify supplemental requirements to augment the code or standard to meet performance requirements. Further, the gap analysis will identify non-standard areas of the design that will be subject to a Development Plan. Non-standard components and
Brown, G.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Apple, M.L.
This paper addresses spent fuel and high level waste transportation history and prospects, discusses accident histories of radioactive material transport, discusses emergency responder needs and provides a general description of the Transportation Intelligent Monitoring System (TRANSIMS) design. The key objectives of the monitoring system are twofold: (1) to facilitate effective emergency response to accidents involving a radioactive waste transportation package, while minimizing risk to the public and emergency first-response personnel, and (2) to allow remote monitoring of transportation vehicle and payload conditions to enable research into radioactive material transportation for normal and accident conditions. (J.P.N.)
Shirley, C.G.; Wilmot, E.L.; Shepherd, E.W.
The 96th Congress of the United States, as part of the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-573), instructed the Secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a report on the current US low-level waste management situation and the conditions and requirements for management on a regional basis. The Transportation Technology Center has compared the transportation requirement and regional management scenarios for commercial low-level radioactive waste in support of the DOE response to this instruction. Using 1979 low-level waste volumes shipped to commercial burial grounds and six management regions postulated by DOE, transportation requirements were estimated and compared for the two management scenarios in terms of cumulative shipping distance and transportation cost. Effects of these results on the demand for transportation services and equipment and on population risks were considered. Finally, current regulatory issues and the potential effects of regional management on regulation of low-level waste transportation were reviewed
Lange, F.; Fett, H.J.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.
Radiation exposures of members of critical groups of the general population and of transport personnel resulting from normal transport of radioactive wastes to the planned final waste repository Konrad have been evaluated in detail. By applying probabilistic safety assessment techniques radiological risks from transport accidents have been analysed by quantifying potential radiation exposures and contaminations of the biosphere in connection with their expected frequencies of occurrence. The Konrad transport study concentrates on the local region of the waste repository, where all transports converge. (orig.) [de
Sievwright, B.; Dixon, P.; Tso, C.F.
United Kingdom Nirex Limited (Nirex) is responsible for providing the United Kingdom with safe, environmentally sound and publicly acceptable options for the long-term management of radioactive materials. This includes intermediate level (ILW) and some low level (LLW) wastes. As part of its role Nirex has defined standards and specifications for the conditioning and packaging of these wastes, and carries out assessments of packaging proposals to ensure compatibility with the requirements for future phases of waste management. In order to facilitate this process and to provide a basis for the production of waste package specifications, Nirex has developed the Phased Disposal Concept, and produced a suite of underpinning safety and performance assessments. It has also undertaken work to assess the compatibility of its waste packaging specifications with other waste management options. The Phased Disposal Concept continues to be developed and updated to incorporate issues arising from dialogue with stakeholders, including members of the public; future changes arising from Government policy, legislation and regulations; information from waste producers, and the results from on-going research and development. One of the documents describing the Phased Disposal Concept is the Generic Transport System Design (GTSD). The GTSD outlines the range of waste packages to be transported and disposed of, and describes the design of the transport system needed to transport wastes from their sites of production or storage to a centralised phased disposal facility site. It also describes a range of re-usable transport containers which could be used to transport those waste packages, which require Type B standards for transport, through the public domain. This paper describes the development to date of such a design of reusable transport container, known as the SWTC-285, the Standard Waste Transport Container (SWTC) with 285 mm of shielding
The Atomic Safety Commission of Japan, after examining a report submitted by the Science and Technology Agency concerning the enactment of regulations on burying of waste of nuclear fuel material or waste contaminated with nuclear fuel material, has approved the plan given in the report. Thus, laws and regulations concerning procedures for application for waste burying business, technical standards for implementation of waste burying operation, and measures to be taken for security should be established to ensure the following. Matters to be described in the application for the approval of such business and materials to be attached to the application should be stipulated. Technical standards concerning inspection of waste burying operation should be stipulated. Measures to be taken for the security of waste burying facilities and security concerning the transportation and disposal of nuclear fuel material should be stipulated. Matters to be specified in the security rules should be stipulated. Matters to be recorded by waste burying business operators, measures to be taken to overcome dangers and matters to be reported to the Science and Technology Agency should be stipulated. (Nogami, K.)
Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund
he capital goods for collection and transport of waste were quantified for different types of containers (plastic containers, cubes and steel containers) and an 18-tonnes compacting collection truck. The data were collected from producers and vendors of the bins and the truck. The service lifetime...... tonne of waste handled. The impact of producing the capital goods for waste collection and transport cannot be neglected as the capital goods dominate (>85%) the categories human-toxicity (non-cancer and cancer), ecotoxicity, resource depletion and aquatic eutrophication, but also play a role (>13...
Sharples, F.E.; Eyman, L.D.
Since passage of the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), major changes have occurred in the regulation of hazardous waste. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also greatly modified its interpretation of how these regulations apply to wastes from federal facilities, including defense wastes from US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. As a result, the regulatory distinctions between low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and hazardous waste are becoming blurred. This paper discusses recent statutory and regulatory changes and how they might affect the management of LLW at DOE facilities. 6 references
As part of the book entitled Radioactive waste management decommissioning spent fuel storage, vol. 3 dealts with waste transport, handling and disposal, spent fuel storage. Twelve articles are presented concerning the industrial aspects of nuclear waste management in France [fr
Pojkarová, Kateřina; Hruška, Roman
The article deals with the transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste. On the basis of waste statistics and transport statistics is researched the greatness of the relation between the transport volume and the production of waste in regions of the Czech Republic. The relation is illustrated graphically too. We have many kinds of waste which we can monitor. The most important kinds of waste are municipal waste, industrial waste, construction ...
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes.
Gustavson, B.; Dibek, P.
The article is devoted to the presently existing system in Sweden of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes maritime transportation from NPPs to places of permanent and intermediate storage. Transport casks and penals, their maintenance and control system are described. Explanatory work with public is partially also considered. 1 tab
Devell, L.; Edlund, O.; Kjellbert, N.; Grundfelt, B.; Milchert, T.
A central handling and storage facility (ALMA) for low- and medium-level reactor waste from Swedish nuclear power plants is being planned and the transportation to it will be by sea. A safety assessment devoted to the potential environmental impacts from the transportation is presented. (Auth.)
A method for utilizing the decay heat of actinide wastes to power an electric thrust vehicle is proposed. The vehicle, launched by shuttle to earth orbit and to earth escape by a tug, obtains electrical power from the actinide waste heat by thermionic converters. The heavy gamma ray and neutron shielding which is necessary as a safety feature is removed in orbit and returned to earth for reuse. The problems associated with safety are dealt with in depth. A method for eliminating fission wastes via chemical propulsion is briefly discussed
In addition to arranging for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must develop a safe and efficient transportation system in order to deliver the material that has accumulated at various sites throughout the country. The ability to transport radioactive waste safely has been demonstrated during the past 20 years: DOE has made over 2,000 shipments of spent fuel and other wastes without any fatalities or environmental damage related to the radioactive nature of the cargo. To guarantee the efficiency of the transportation system, DOE must determine the optimal combination of rail transport (which allows greater payloads but requires special facilities) and truck transport Utilizing trucks, in turn, calls for decisions as to when to use legal weight trucks or, if feasible, overweight trucks for fewer but larger shipments. As part of the transportation system, the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) study contributes to DOE's development of transportation plans for specific facilities. This study evaluates the ability of different facilities to receive, load and ship the special casks in which radioactive materials will be housed during transport In addition, the DOE's Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) study (forthcoming) will evaluate the rail, road and barge access to 76 reactor sites from which DOE is obligated to begin accepting spent fuel in 1998. The NSTI study will also assess the existing capabilities of each transportation mode and route, including the potential for upgrade
Arakali, V.S.; Barnes, S.M.
The waste form selected for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at West Valley, NY is borosilicate glass. The maximum radiation level at the surface of a canister filled with the high-level waste form is prescribed by repository design criteria for handling and disposition of the vitrified waste. This paper presents an evaluation of the radiation transport characteristics for the vitreous waste form expected to be produced at West Valley and the resulting neutron and gamma dose rates. The maximum gamma and neutron dose rates are estimated to be less than 7500 R/h and 10 mRem/h respectively at the surface of a West Valley canister filled with borosilicate waste glass
Ananiev, V.V.; Ershov, V.N.; Shvedov, M.O.
In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well
This survey reviews Radioactive Waste (RW) transports in different countries, giving the origins, amounts, distances and modes of transport for the different RW categories currently moved. It appears that: present transport experience concerns mainly Low and Medium level Wastes (LMW) and Spent nuclear Fuel (SF); RW transports are implemented in compliance with IAEA recommendations which proved particularly helpful to gain public acceptance; the bulk of LMW is transported as Low Specific Activity (LSA) materials (i.e. with packaging requirements just equivalent to those needed for their disposal) and SF as well as liquid RW are transported in 'type B' packagings which withstand severe accident conditions; records indicate that transport worker irradiation is kept much below allowable limits and that accidents during RW transports did not cause significant release of activity to environment; and the cost of RW transports including insurances, is small compared to that of RW processing and disposal. Therefore, one may comment that RW movements are by no means slowed down by transport problems and just follow the demand which in some countries may be delayed by reasons linked to RW disposal strategy or its public acceptance. This survey presents also an assessment of RW transports until the end of this century
Deniau, Helene; Gagner, Laurent; Gendreau, Francoise; Presta, Anne
With major projects ongoing or being planned, and also with the daily management of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities, the role of transport and/or storage packaging has been often overlooked. Indeed, the packaging development process and transport solutions implemented are a key part of the waste management challenge: protection of people and environment. During over four decades, the AREVA Group has developed a complete and coherent system for the transport of waste produced by nuclear industries. The transport solutions integrate the factors to consider, as industrial transportation needs, various waste forms, associated hazards and current regulations. Thus, COGEMA LOGISTICS has designed, licensed and manufactured a large number of different transport, storage and dual purpose cask models for residues and all kinds of radioactive wastes. The present paper proposes to illustrate how a company acting both as a cask designer and a carrier is key to the waste management issue and how it can support the waste management policy of nuclear producers through their operational choices. We will focus on the COGEMA LOGISTICS technical solutions implemented to guarantee safe and secure transportation and storage solutions. We will describe different aspects of the cask design process, insisting on how it enables to fulfill both customer needs and regulation requirements. We will also mention the associated services developed by the AREVA Business Unit Logistics (COGEMA LOGISTICS, TRANSNUCLEAR, MAINCO, and LEMARECHAL CELESTIN) in order to manage transportation of liquid and solid waste towards interim or final storage sites. The paper has the following contents: About radioactive waste; - Radioactive waste classification; - High level activity waste and long-lived intermediate level waste; - Long-lived low level waste; - Short-lived low- and intermediate level waste; - Very low level waste; - The radioactive waste in nuclear fuel cycle; - Packaging design and
Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.; Cadwell, L.L.; McKenzie, D.H.
This paper is a summary of the initial results of a study being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to determine the relevance of biotic pathways to the regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Biotic transport is defined as the actions of plants and animals that result in the transport of radioactive materials from a LLW burial ground to a location where they can enter exposure pathways to man. A critical review of the role of modeling in evaluating biotic transport is given. Both current applications and the need for future modeling development are discussed
RODOLFO A. MEDINA
Full Text Available Mammalian cells depend on glucose as a major substrate for energy production. Glucose is transported into the cell via facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT present in all cell types. Many GLUT isoforms have been described and their expression is cell-specific and subject to hormonal and environmental control. The kinetic properties and substrate specificities of the different isoforms are specifically suited to the energy requirements of the particular cell types. Due to the ubiquitousness of these transporters, their differential expression is involved in various disease states such as diabetes, ischemia and cancer. The majority of cancers and isolated cancer cell lines over-express the GLUT family members which are present in the respective tissue of origin under non-cancerous conditions. Moreover, due to the requirement of energy to feed uncontrolled proliferation, cancer cells often express GLUTs which under normal conditions would not be present in these tissues. This over-expression is predominantly associated with the likelihood of metastasis and hence poor patient prognosis. This article presents a review of the current literature on the regulation and expression of GLUT family members and has compiled clinical and research data on GLUT expression in human cancers and in isolated human cancer cell lines.
Accidents during transport of nuclear waste are more threatening - though less likely - than a reactor meltdown because transportation accidents could occur in the middle of a populous city, affecting more people and property than a plant accident, according to the Council on Economic Priorities, a non-profit public service research organization. Transportation, as presently practiced, is unsafe. Shipping containers, called casks, are poorly designed and constructed, CEP says. The problem needs attention because the number of casks filled with nuclear waste on the nation's highways could increase a hundred times during the next 15 years under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, which calls for storage areas. Recommendations, both technical and regulatory, for reducing the risks are presented
Allen, G.C. Jr.; Cashwell, J.W.; Jefferson, R.M.
Transportation Technology Center has been conducting a wide range of technical research activities to assure the ability to transport radioactive materials in a safe, reliable manner. These activities include tasks in basic, analysis methodology and system research areas. Recently, the requirements of defense waste shipments have served as a focal point for development tasks with the expectation that they would serve as a precursor for commercial activities. The passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act has placed additional responsibility on the Department of Energy for concerns involving the shipments of civilian materials. The development of additional research responsibilities is expected to proceed concurrently with the evolution of the transportation mission plan for civilian spent fuel and high-level wastes
Allen, G.C.; Luna, R.E.; Jefferson, R.M.; Wowak, W.E.
The Transportation Technology Center has been conducting a wide range of technical and non-technical research activities to assure the ability to transport radioactive materials in a safe, reliable, and publicly acceptable manner. These activities include tasks in Information and Intergovernmental issues, Safety Assessment and Environmental Analysis and Technology Development. Until recently, the requirements of defense waste shipments have served as a focal point for development tasks with the expectation that they would serve as a precursor for commercial activities. The passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act has placed additional responsibility on DOE for concerns involving the shipments of civilian materials. The development of additional research responsibilities is expected to proceed concurrently with the evolution of the transportation mission plan for civilian spent fuel and high-level wastes
Bianchi, Marco; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens T
We performed numerical simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport to study the influence of several factors, including the ambient hydraulic gradient, groundwater pressure anomalies, and the properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ), on the prevailing transport mechanism (i.e., advection or molecular diffusion) in a generic nuclear waste repository within a clay-rich geological formation. By comparing simulation results, we show that the EDZ plays a major role as a preferential flowpath for radionuclide transport. When the EDZ is not taken into account, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in almost the totality of the simulated domain, and transport velocity is about 40% slower. Modeling results also show that a reduction in hydraulic gradient leads to a greater predominance of diffusive transport, slowing down radionuclide transport by about 30% with respect to a scenario assuming a unit gradient. In addition, inward flow caused by negative pressure anomalies in the clay-rich formation further reduces transport velocity, enhancing the ability of the geological barrier to contain the radioactive waste. On the other hand, local high gradients associated with positive pressure anomalies can speed up radionuclide transport with respect to steady-state flow systems having the same regional hydraulic gradients. Transport behavior was also found to be sensitive to both geometrical and hydrogeological parameters of the EDZ. Results from this work can provide useful knowledge toward correctly assessing the post-closure safety of a geological disposal system. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.
Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C.; Wilson, C.N.; Van Ryn, F.R.
The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large scale, fully integrated, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and many other waste streams. It was demonstrated on surrogate waste at Clemson University and at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) prior to treating actual mixed waste. Treatment of a combination of dried B and C Pond sludge and CNF sludge was successfully demonstrated at ORR in 1997. The demonstration produced 7,616 kg of glass from 7,328 kg of mixed wastes with a 60% reduction in volume. Glass formulations for the wastes treated were developed using a combination of laboratory crucible studies with the actual wastes and small melter studies at Clemson with both surrogate and actual wastes. Initial characterization of the B and C Pond sludge had not shown the presence of carbon or fluoride, which required a modified glass formulation be developed to maintain proper glass redox and viscosity. The CNF sludge challenges the glass formulations due to high levels of phosphate and iron. The demonstration was delayed several times by permitting problems, a glass leak, and electrical problems. The demonstration showed that the two wastes could be successfully vitrified, although the design glass production rate was not achieved. The glass produced met the Universal Treatment Standards and the emissions from the TVS were well within the allowable permit limits
Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilson, C.N. [Lockheed Martin Hanford Corp., Richland, WA (United States); Van Ryn, F.R. [Bechtel Jacobs Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large scale, fully integrated, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and many other waste streams. It was demonstrated on surrogate waste at Clemson University and at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) prior to treating actual mixed waste. Treatment of a combination of dried B and C Pond sludge and CNF sludge was successfully demonstrated at ORR in 1997. The demonstration produced 7,616 kg of glass from 7,328 kg of mixed wastes with a 60% reduction in volume. Glass formulations for the wastes treated were developed using a combination of laboratory crucible studies with the actual wastes and small melter studies at Clemson with both surrogate and actual wastes. Initial characterization of the B and C Pond sludge had not shown the presence of carbon or fluoride, which required a modified glass formulation be developed to maintain proper glass redox and viscosity. The CNF sludge challenges the glass formulations due to high levels of phosphate and iron. The demonstration was delayed several times by permitting problems, a glass leak, and electrical problems. The demonstration showed that the two wastes could be successfully vitrified, although the design glass production rate was not achieved. The glass produced met the Universal Treatment Standards and the emissions from the TVS were well within the allowable permit limits.
Brogaard, Line K; Christensen, Thomas H
The capital goods for collection and transport of waste were quantified for different types of containers (plastic containers, cubes and steel containers) and an 18-tonnes compacting collection truck. The data were collected from producers and vendors of the bins and the truck. The service lifetime and the capacity of the goods were also assessed. Environmental impact assessment of the production of the capital goods revealed that, per tonne of waste handled, the truck had the largest contribution followed by the steel container. Large high density polyethylene (HDPE) containers had the lowest impact per tonne of waste handled. The impact of producing the capital goods for waste collection and transport cannot be neglected as the capital goods dominate (>85%) the categories human-toxicity (non-cancer and cancer), ecotoxicity, resource depletion and aquatic eutrophication, but also play a role (>13%) within the other impact categories when compared with the impacts from combustion of fuels for the collection and transport of the waste, when a transport distance of 25 km was assumed.
Wilmot, E.L.; Romesberg, L.E.
Packagings used for nuclear waste transport are varied in size, shape, and weight because they must accommodate a wide variety of waste forms and types. However, this paper will discuss the common characteristics among the packagings in order to provide a broad understanding of packaging designs. The paper then discusses, in some detail, a design that has been under development recently at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for handling unprocessed, contact-handled transuranic (CHTRU) wastes as well as a cask design for defense high-level wastes (HLW). As presently conceived, the design of the transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT) calls for inner and outer boxes that are separated by a rigid polyurethane foam. The inner box has a steel frame with stainless steel surfaces; the outer box is similarly constructed except that carbon steel is used for the outside surfaces. The access to each box is through hinged doors that are sealed after loading. To meet another waste management need, a cask is being developed to transport defense HLW. The cask, which is at the preliminary design stage, is being developed by General Atomic under the direction of the TTC. The cask design relies heavily on state-of-the-art spent-fuel cask designs though it can be much simpler due to the characteristics of the HLW. A primary purpose of this paper is to show that CHTRU waste and defense HLW currently are and will be transported in packagings designed to meet the hazards of transportation that are present in general commerce
Full Text Available The generation of organic waste continues to increase, causing severe environmental pollution. Waste valorization is currently an emerging technology that can address this problem with an extra benefit of producing a range of valued products. In this contribution, we report the current developments in hydrotreating technologies for upgrading waste oil fractions into usable transportation fuels. Particular focus is given on the catalysts selection for a general hydroprocessing technique as well as the competitive role of those catalysts in hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes.
Radioactive waste management is an inevitable consequence of nuclear technology. In the past it was often regarded as a peripheral matter, easily dealt with, and having little impact on the economics of the fuel cycle. Gradually, over the last two decades, waste management has asserted itself as one of nuclear power's most intractable problems. First, it is a problem of trying to understand through science the effects of discharging and disposing of man-made radioactivity to the general environment. Second, technologies for treating and disposing of the wastes, as well as techniques to verify their safety, must be developed. Third, and most problematically, a wide spread of public trust in the techniques of management must be nurtured. Disputes over each of these dimensions of the question exist in nearly all countries with nuclear programmes. Some of them may be near resolution, but many others are far from closure. Decommissioning, because it comes last in the nuclear life-cycle, is also the last important aspect of the technology to be considered seriously. In Britain, wastes arising from decommissioning, whether it is done slowly or quickly, are projected to have an important impact on the scale of radioactive waste management programmes, beginning in the mid-1990s. It follows that decommissioning, contentious in itself, is likely to exacerbate the difficulties of waste management. (author)
The report provides insight and investigates whether Transport Regulations in Botswana follow international standards for transport of radioactive material. Radioactive materials are very useful in most of our activities and are manufactured in different countries, therefore end up traversing from one country to another and being transported in national roads .The IAEA regulation for the Transport of radioactive material is used as the reference guideline in this study. The current Regulations for Transport of radioactive material in Botswana do not cover all factors which need to be considered when transporting radioactive although they refer to IAEA regulations. Basing on an inadequacy of the regulations and category of radioactive materials in the country recommendations were made concerning security, packaging and worker training's. The regulations for the Transport of radioactive material in Botswana need to be reviewed and updated so that they can relate to international standard. (au)
McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Gano, K.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Prohammer, L.A.; Simmons, M.A.
BIOPORT/MAXI1 is a collection of five computer codes designed to estimate the potential magnitude of the radiation dose to man resulting from biotic transport processes. Dose to man is calculated for ingestion of agricultural crops grown in contaminated soil, inhalation of resuspended radionuclides, and direct exposure to penetrating radiation resulting from the radionuclide concentrations established in the available soil surface by the biotic transport model. This document is designed as both an instructional and reference document for the BIOPORT/MAXI1 computer software package and has been written for two major audiences. The first audience includes persons concerned with the mathematical models of biological transport of commercial low-level radioactive wastes and the computer algorithms used to implement those models. The second audience includes persons concerned with exercising the computer program and exposure scenarios to obtain results for specific applications. The report contains sections describing the mathematical models, user operation of the computer programs, and program structure. Input and output for five sample problems are included. In addition, listings of the computer programs, data libraries, and dose conversion factors are provided in appendices.
McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Gano, K.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Prohammer, L.A.; Simmons, M.A.
BIOPORT/MAXI1 is a collection of five computer codes designed to estimate the potential magnitude of the radiation dose to man resulting from biotic transport processes. Dose to man is calculated for ingestion of agricultural crops grown in contaminated soil, inhalation of resuspended radionuclides, and direct exposure to penetrating radiation resulting from the radionuclide concentrations established in the available soil surface by the biotic transport model. This document is designed as both an instructional and reference document for the BIOPORT/MAXI1 computer software package and has been written for two major audiences. The first audience includes persons concerned with the mathematical models of biological transport of commercial low-level radioactive wastes and the computer algorithms used to implement those models. The second audience includes persons concerned with exercising the computer program and exposure scenarios to obtain results for specific applications. The report contains sections describing the mathematical models, user operation of the computer programs, and program structure. Input and output for five sample problems are included. In addition, listings of the computer programs, data libraries, and dose conversion factors are provided in appendices
Field, J.G.; Wang, O.S.; Mercado, J.E.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site recently has undergone a significant change in mission. The focus of operations has shifted from plutonium production to environmental restoration. This transition has caused a substantial increase in quantities of nuclear waste and other hazardous materials packaged and transported onsite. In response to the escalating transportation activity, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), the Hanford Site operations and engineering contractor, is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to enhance the safety of onsite packaging and transportation operations involving nuclear waste. The proposed methodology consists of three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization. The purpose of the methodology is to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable and to minimize the overall risk for current and future onsite operations. (authors). 2 figs., 6 refs
Field, J.G.; Wang, O.S.; Mercado, J.E.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site recently has undergone a significant change in mission. The focus of operations has shifted from plutonium production to environmental restoration. This transition has caused a substantial increase in quantities of nuclear waste and other hazardous materials packaged and transported onsite. In response to the escalating transportation activity, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), the Hanford Site operations and engineering contractor, is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to enhance the safety of onsite packaging and transportation operations involving nuclear waste. The proposed methodology consists of three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization. The purpose of the methodology is to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable and to minimize the overall risk for current and future onsite operations
Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site's inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons
Chavez Cassanello, Griselda; Mels Siningen, Celeste; Reina, Mariana; Vega, Hernan
The present work intends to develop the legislative and regulatory framework in the matter of radioactive waste. The legal frame of the radioactive waste conformed by the National Constitution, the treaties and conventions, laws and decrees and regulatory norm in Argentine . The subject is approached from the international point of view considering the slogan of 36 The Annual Meeting of the Association Argentine de Nuclear Technology: 'The Nuclear Energy in the Present World'. This work also contains a special paragraph dedicated to the analysis of practical cases related to the subject and the activity of the National Commission of Atomic Energy. (author)
Guerrero, J.V.; Kresny, H.S.
In late 1988, the US Department of Energy (DOE) expects to begin emplacing transuranic waste materials in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), an R and D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense program activities. Transuranic wastes are production-related materials, e.g., clothes, rags, tools, and similar items. These materials are contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives of > 20 yr and concentrations > 100 nCi/g. Much of the institutional groundwork has been done with local communities and the State of New Mexico on the siting and construction of the facility. A key to the success of the emplacement demonstration, however, will be a qualified transportation system together with institutional acceptance of the proposed shipments. The DOE's Defense Transuranic Waste Program, and its contractors, has lead responsibility for achieving this goal. The Joint Integration Office (JIO) of the DOE, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is taking the lead in implementing an integrated strategy for assessing nationwide institutional concerns over transportation of defense transuranic wastes and in developing ways to resolve or mitigate these concerns. Parallel prototype programs are under way to introduce both the new packaging systems and the institutional strategy to interested publics and organizations
Motyka, T.; Randall, C.T.
A method for predicting the transport requirements of radioactive waste slurries was developed. This method involved preparing nonradioactive sludge slurries chemically similar to the actual high-level waste. The rheological and settling characteristics of these synthetic waste slurries were measured and found to compare favorably with data on actual defense waste slurries. Pressure drop versus flow rate data obtained fom a 2-in. slurry test loop confirmed the Bingham plastic behavior of the slurry observed during viscometry measurements. The pipeline tests, however, yielded friction factors 30 percent lower than those predicted from viscometry data. Differences between the sets of data were attributed to inherent problems in interpreting accurate yield-stress values of slurry suspensions with Couette-type viscometers. Equivalent lengths of fittings were also determined and found to be less than that of water at a specified flow rate
Otton, C.; Blachet, L.
For more than 45 years TN International has been involved in the radioactive materials transportation field. Since the beginning the used nuclear fuel transportation has been its core business. During all these years TN International, now part of AREVA, has been able to anticipate and fulfil the needs for new transport or storage casks design to fit the nuclear industry evolutions. A whole fleet of casks able to transport all the materials of the nuclear fuel cycle has been developed. In this presentation we will focus on the casks for the spent fuel, high level waste and intermediate level waste transportation. Answering to the constant evolution of the nuclear industry transport needs is a challenge that TN International faces routinely. Concerning the spent nuclear fuel transportation, TN International has developed in the early 80's a fleet of TN12 type casks fitted with several types of baskets able to safely transport all the spent fuel from the nuclear power plant or the research laboratories to AREVA La Hague plant. The current challenge is the design of a new transport cask generation taking into account the needs of the industry for the next 30 years. The replacement of the TN12 cask generation is to be scheduled as the regulations have changed and the fuel characteristics have evolved. The new generation of casks will take into account all the technical evolutions made during the TN12 thirty years of use. MOX spent fuel has now its dedicated cask: the TN112 which certificate of approval has been obtained in July 2008. This cask is able to transport 12 MOX spent fuel elements with a short cooling time. The first loading of the cask has been performed in 2008 in the EDF nuclear power plant of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux. Concerning the high level waste such as the La Hague vitrified residues a whole fleet of casks has been developed such as the TN 28 VT dedicated to transport, the TN81 and TN85 dedicated to transport and storage. These casks have permitted the
Pullum, Lionel; Boger, David V.; Sofra, Fiona
Conventional mineral waste disposal involves pumping dilute concentration suspensions of tailings to large catchment areas, where the solids settle to form a consolidated base while the excess water is evaporated. Unfortunately, this often takes years, if ever, to occur, and the interim period poses a severe threat to the surrounding countryside and water table. A worldwide movement to increase the concentration of these tailings to pastes for disposal above and below ground, obviating some of these issues, has led to the development of new technologies. Increasing the solids concentrations invariably produces non-Newtonian effects that can mask the underlying nature of the suspension mechanics, resulting in the use of poor pipeline and disposal methods. Combining rheological characterization and analysis with non-Newtonian suspension fluid mechanics provides insight into these flows, both laminar and turbulent. These findings provide the necessary basis for successful engineering designs.
Salama, M.A.; Rashad, S.M.
In spite of all precautions that being taken during radioactive materials transport accidents to ensure safe transportation of these materials; there is still a probability for accidents to occur which, may be accompanied by injury or death of persons and damage of property So, in response to the increasing possibilities of accidents in Egypt, the government had prepared an emergency response plan for radiological accidents to coordinate the response efforts of all the national agencies. Trends for use of the radioactive materials and sources inside the country for the purpose of medical diagnosis and treatment as well as in industrial applications, are increasing. The radioactive waste resulted from these activities are transported from the centres where these materials being used to the waste management facility where they are treated and finally disposed safely at disposal site. The aim of the emergency exercise scenario is to test not only the main components of the emergency plan but also the level of emergency preparedness; that is the effectiveness with which the actions or combined actions of the different organizations involved in an emergency can be put into practice. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to give a scenario proposal for the radiological emergency actions taken in case of a transport accident for a radioactive waste material (type A- package ) transported by a vehicle from one of the medical centers to a disposal site, 40 km northeast of cairo
Brenneman, F.N.; Salomon, S.N.
This document describes the role of the State in the regulation of low-level radioactive waste in the context of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-573), which recognizes that the States are responsible for disposal of the waste and as such may develop interstate compacts. The perspective is the present national regulatory framework for the waste system, including generation, transport, treatment, storage and disposal. Although not a definitive legal statement of the area in which States may properly act, the regulatory authority of all Compact States as Agreement States, States with a limited Agreement, and as non-Agreement States is described. The analysis is based on the assumption that the disposal site is State land
Sharples, F.E.; Eyman, L.D.
The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 have greatly expanded the universe of what, and who, is regulated under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Handling requirements for hazardous waste are becoming increasingly more stringent, particularly where land disposal is concerned. DOE needs to begin actively pursuing strategies directed at keeping the management of LLW clearly separated from wastes that are legitimately regulated under RCRA. Such strategies would include instituting systemwide changes in internal management practices, establishing improved location standards for LLW disposal, and negotiating interagency compromise agreements to obtain variances from RCRA requirements where necessary and appropriate
Full Text Available Radioactive wastes require strict rules for manipulation with them due to the hazards for the human health and environment, not excluding the hazards during their internal transport. The article deals with the transport of packing unit inside of the company and it proposes the possible alternatives so that meet the limit conditions and reduce the manipulation time with the radioactive material in the packing unit. The packing unite isolates fixated liquid waste from the environment while it also serves as protection. There are also important external radiation characteristics of package unit, which consist of measurable values of the scratch contamination surface and dose power on the surface of package unit. Thus, the paper is aimed to point out the necessity of the logistics during manipulation with the package unit in the process of internal transport so that the dose power of exposed employees would achieve the lowest possible level and meet the strict limits in a full extent.
The author previously presented the basis for regulating mixed waste according to the primary hazard (either chemical or radiological) in order to avoid the inefficient practice of open-quotes dual regulationclose quotes of mixed waste. In addition to covering the technical basis, recommendations were made on how to capitalize upon a window of opportunity for implementation of a open-quotes primary hazards approachclose quotes. Some of those recommendations have been pursued and the resulting advances on the regulatory front are exciting. This paper chronicles those pursuits, presents in capsule form the massive amount of data assembled, and summarizes the changing regulatory framework. The data supports the premise that disposal of stabilized mixed waste in a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility is protective of human health and the environment. Based on that premise, proposed regulatory changes, if finalized, will eliminate much of the open-quotes dual regulationclose quotes of mixed waste
... transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste...
The regulations applying to the transport of nuclear fuel materials by vehicles, mentioned in the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The transport is for outside of the factories and the site of enterprises by such modes of transport as rail, trucks, etc. Covered are the following: definitions of terms, places of fuel materials handling, loading methods, limitations on mix loading with other cargo, radiation dose rates concerning the containers and the vehicles, transport indexes, signs and indications, limitations on train linkage during transport by rail, security guards, transport of empty containers, etc. together with ordinary rail cargo and so on. (Mori, K.)
This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list
This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.
This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list
This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list
Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.
This report is a revision of an EG ampersand G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste... INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.903 Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? The Department of Energy (DOE) has...
Xavier, A.M.; Mezrahi, A.
The radiological accident occured in Goiania, which has led to the liberation to the environment of c.l.350 Ci of Cs-137, demanded the formulation of special procedures related to waste management and transport of radioactive materials to a provisory storage facility. The main objectives of the present article are to describe the work performed in the above mentioned fields and to point out the basic needs for Brazilian research and development in the areas of waste treatment and design and testing of packages. (author) [pt
Gideon Emcee Christian
Full Text Available International trade in used electrical and electronics equipment (UEEE provides an avenue for socio-economic development in the developing world and also serves as a conduit for transboundary dumping of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE also referred to as electronic waste or e-waste. The latter problem arises from the absence of a regulatory framework for differentiating between functional UEEE and junk e-waste. This has resulted in both functional UEEE and junk e-waste being concurrently shipped to developing countries under the guise of international trade in used electronics. Dealing with these problems will require effective regulation of international trade in UEEE from both exporting and importing countries. Although, the export of e-waste from the European Community to developing countries is currently prohibited, significant amount of e-waste from the region continue to flow into developing countries due to lax regulatory measures in the latter. Hence, there is need for a regulatory regime in developing countries to complement the prohibitory regime in the major e-waste source countries. This paper proposes trade measures modelled in line with WTO rules which could be adopted by developing countries in addressing these problems. The proposed measures include the development of a compulsory certification and labelling system for functional UEEE as well as trade ban on commercial importation of UEEE not complying with the said certification and labelling system. The paper then goes further to examine these proposed measures in the light of WTO rules and jurisprudence.
The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database was developed fin 1981 at the Transportation Technology Center of Sandia National Laboratories to support its research and development activities for the US department of Energy (DOE). This database contains information about radioactive material (RAM) transportation incidents that have occurred in the US since 1971. These data were drawn from the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Hazardous Materials Incident Report system, from Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) files, and from various agencies including state radiological control offices. Support for the RMIR data base is funded by the US DOE National Transportation Program (NTP). Transportation events in RMIR are classified in one of the following ways: as a transportation accident, as a handling accident, or as a reported incident. This presentation will provide definitions for these classifications and give examples of each. The primary objective of this presentation is to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events involving low-level waste (LLW) that have occurred in the US for the period 1971 through 1996. Among the areas to be examined are: transportation accidents by mode, package response during accidents, and an examination of accidents where release of contents has occurred. Where information is available, accident and incident history and package response for LLW packages in transportation accidents will be described
Krook, J; Mårtensson, A; Eklund, M; Libiseller, C
In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995-2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.
Identifying challenges that hamper the efficiency and efficacy of Regulatory Infrastructure (People and Processes) as regards ensuring safety & security of radiation sources and radioactive waste is a major step towards planning for improvement. In a world constantly motivated by technological advancements, there has been considerable increase in the use of new technologies incorporating radioactive sources in both medical and industrial applications due to its perceived benefits, hence changing the dynamics of regulation. This paper brings to the fore, contemporary challenges experienced by regulators in the course of regulating radiation sources and radioactive waste in Nigeria. These challenges encountered in the business of regulating radiation sources and radioactive waste in Nigeria amongst others include; knowledge gap in the use of novel technologies for industrial applications (e.g. radiotracers in oil & gas and wastewater management), inadequate collaboration with operators to ensure transparency in their operations, inadequate cooperation from other government agencies using ionizing radiation sources, lack of synergy between relevant government agencies, difficulty in establishing standard radioactive waste management facility for orphan & disused sources, and inadequate control of NORMS encountered in industrial activities (e.g. well logging, mining). Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA), the body saddled with the responsibility of regulating the use of ionizing radiation sources in Nigeria is empowered by the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Act to ensure the protection of life, property, and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, hence are not immune to the aforementioned challenges. (author)
This publication is designed to assist in the development of an appropriate set of regulations for the predisposal management and disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources and small volumes of associated radioactive waste using the IAEA borehole disposal concept. It allows States to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and can be used as a reference by those States developing regulations for the first time. The model regulations set out in this publication will need to be adapted to take account of the existing national legal and regulatory framework and other local conditions in the State.
Sparks, A.K.; Dilday, D.R.; Rast, D.M.
Currently, Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing a transformation from shipping radiologically contaminated waste within the DOE structure for disposal to now include Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) shipments to a permitted commercial disposal facility (PCDF) final disposition. Implementing this change can be confusing and is perceived as being more difficult than it actually is. Lack of experience and disposal capacity, sometimes and/or confusing regulatory guidance, and expense of transportation and disposal of MLLW ar contributing factors to many DOE facilities opting to simply store their MLLW. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company (FERMCO) established itself as a leader i addressing MLLW transportation and disposal by being one of the first DOE facilities to ship mixed waste to a PCDF (Envirocare of Utah) for disposal. FERMCO's proactive approach in establishing a MLLW Disposal Program produces long-term cost savings while generating interim mixed waste storage space to support FERMCO's cleanup mission. FERMCO's goal for all MLLW shipments was to develop a cost efficient system to accurately characterize, sample and analyze the waste, prepare containers and shipping paperwork, and achieve regulatory compliance while satisfying disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This goal required the ability to evolve with the regulations, to address waste streams of varying matrices and contaminants, and to learn from each MLLW shipment campaign. These efforts have produced a successful MLLW Disposal Program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO has a massed lessons learned from development of this fledgling program which may be applied complex-wide to ultimately save facilities time and money traditionally wasted by maintaining the status quo
Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Piciulo, P.L.
Regulations governing the management and disposal of hazardous wastes have been promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. These were reviewed and compared with the available information on the properties and characteristics of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). In addition, a survey was carried out to establish a data base on the nature and composition of LLW in order to determine whether some LLW streams could also be considered hazardous as defined in 40 CFR Part 261. For the survey, an attempt was made to obtain data on the greatest volume of LLW; hence, as many large LLW generators as possible were contacted. The list of 238 generators contacted was based on information obtained from NRC and other sources. The data base was compiled from completed questionnaires which were returned by 97 reactor and non-reactor facilities. The waste volumes reported by these respondents corresponded to approximately 29% of all LLW disposed of in 1984. The analysis of the survey results indicated that three broad categories of LLW may be radioactive mixed wastes. They include: waste containing organic liquids, disposed of by all types of generators; wastes containing lead metal, i.e., discarded shielding or lead containers; wastes containing chromates, i.e., nuclear power plant process wastes where chromates are used as corrosion inhibitors. Certain wastes, specific to particular generators, were identified as potential mixed wastes as well. 8 figs., 48 tabs
Baker, G.G.; Mihalovich, G.S.; Provencher, R.B.
On May 7, 1990, radioactive mixed waste (RMW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) became subject to the State Of New York hazardous waste regulations. The facility was required to be in full compliance by June 6, 1990. Achievement of this goal was difficult because of the short implementation time frame. Compliance with the hazardous waste regulations also presented some potential conflicts between the hazardous waste requirements and other regulatory requirements specifically applicable to nuclear facilities. The potential conflicts involved construction, operation, and control measures. However, the facility had been working extensively with EPA Region 2 and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) on the application of the hazardous waste regulations to the facility. During these preliminary contacts, WVDP identified three issues that related to the potential conflicts: 1. Equivalency of Design and Equipment, 2. Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), and 3. The Principle of As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Radiation Exposure. The equivalency of nuclear facility design and equipment to the hazardous waste requirements is based in part on the increased construction criteria for nuclear facilities, the use of remote radiological monitoring for leak detection, and testing of system components that are not accessible to personnel due to high levels of radiation. This paper discusses in detail: 1. The implementation and results of the WVDP's interaction with its regulators, 2. How the regulators were helped to understand the different situations and conditions of nuclear and chemical facilities, and 3. How, by working together, the result was not only mutually advantageous to the NWDP and the agencies, but it also assured that the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment were protected
Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A.; Sanches, Matias P.
The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)
Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)
National regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and nuclear fuel in Poland are discussed. Basic transport requirements and regulations, transport experience including transport accidents and emergency service are described. The comparison with international regulations is given
For more than half a century, the Council of State Governments has served as a common ground for the states of the nation. The Council is a nonprofit, state-supported and -directed service organization that provides research and resources, identifies trends, supplies answers and creates a network for legislative, executive and judicial branch representatives. This List of Available Resources was prepared with the support of the US Department of Energy, Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC02-89CH10402. However, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of DOE. The purpose of the agreement, and reports issued pursuant to it, is to identify and analyze regional issues pertaining to the transportation of high-level radioactive waste and to inform Midwestern state officials with respect to technical issues and regulatory concerns related to waste transportation
Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.
Designed for use by Oregon school bus drivers and administrators, this manual answers common questions about school bus transportation in Oregon, including those about the laws governing pupil transportation, the regulations governing pupil transportation administration, and the laws on school bus operation. A chapter of advisory materials covers…
This paper describes safety requirements for transport of radioactive waste in Slovakia and the role of regulatory body in the transport licensing and assessment processes. Importance of radioactive waste shipments have been increased since 1999 by starting of NPP A-1 decommissioning and operation of near surface disposal facility. Also some information from history of shipment as well as future activities are given. Legal basis for radioactive waste transport is resulting from IAEA recommendations in this area. Different types of transport equipment were approved by regulatory body for both liquid and solid waste and transportation permits were issued to their shipment. Regulatory body attention during evaluation of transport safety is focused mainly on ability of individual packages to withstand different transport conditions and on safety analyses performed for transport equipment for liquid waste with high frequency of shipments. During past three years no event was occurred in connection with radioactive waste transport in Slovakia
The development of regulations under Regulations on Safety Management of Radioactive Waste has become necessary as the issuance of it. The regulations related to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste can promote the progress of research and development on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. This paper has present suggestions on development of regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste by analyzing development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in foreign countries and problems occurred in China and discussed important issues related to the development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)
Lange, F.; Fett, H.J.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.
Potential radiological consequences, such as radiation exposure of persons and ground contamination, are calculated by using the accident consequence code UFOMOD for a 100% rail transportation, and for a 80% rail plus 20% road transportation in the region of KONRAD radioactive waste disposal site with five exposure pathways: cloud shine, inhalation, ground shine, ingestion and resuspension. The chances that a traffic accident without counter measures would lead to an effective dose, in 250 m down wind distance, equivalent to or exceeding the natural radiation exposure of one year are about 1 to 70 for a 40 years period. (A.B.). 4 refs., 4 figs
Lobera, G; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A
Mediterranean climate is characterized by highly irregular rainfall patterns with marked differences between wet and dry seasons which lead to highly variable hydrological fluvial regimes. As a result, and in order to ensure water availability and reduce its temporal variability, a high number of large dams were built during the 20th century (more than 3500 located in Mediterranean rivers). Dams modify the flow regime but also interrupt the continuity of sediment transfer along the river network, thereby changing its functioning as an ecosystem. Within this context, the present paper aims to assess the suspended sediment loads and dynamics of two climatically contrasting Mediterranean regulated rivers (i.e. the Ésera and Siurana) during a 2-yr period. Key findings indicate that floods were responsible for 92% of the total suspended sediment load in the River Siurana, while this percentage falls to 70% for the Ésera, indicating the importance of baseflows on sediment transport in this river. This fact is related to the high sediment availability, with the Ésera acting as a non-supply-limited catchment due to the high productivity of the sources (i.e. badlands). In contrast, the Siurana can be considered a supply-limited system due to its low geomorphic activity and reduced sediment availability, with suspended sediment concentration remaining low even for high magnitude flood events. Reservoirs in both rivers reduce sediment load up to 90%, although total runoff is only reduced in the case of the River Ésera. A remarkable fact is the change of the hydrological character of the River Ésera downstream for the dam, shifting from a humid mountainous river regime to a quasi-invariable pattern, whereas the Siurana experiences the opposite effect, changing from a flashy Mediterranean river to a more constant flow regime below the dam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lazar, R.E.; Dumitrescu, M.; Stefanescu, I.
Due to the increasing public awareness of the potential risks associated with waste transport, the environmental impact assessment of this activity has become an issue of major importance. This paper presents a project proposal, which can establish a national action plan for waste transport evaluation. Such a programme is sustained by the necessity to obtain an adequate method for the rapid and efficient estimation of individual and social risks due to the transport of hazardous substances in Romania. The main objective is to develop regional strategies for risk assessment in comprising: establishing the areas that must be investigated and their particular characteristics; identifying the transport activities in the areas; determining hazards; establishing the analysis criteria and prioritizing the study areas; evaluating continuous emissions; studying major accidents; studying population health; classifying the risks; establishing regional strategies; implementing political and regulatory measures. The project expectation is to provide a decision tool for risk managers and authorities in order to control or limit transportation and the storage of hazardous substances.(author)
Monastyrskaia, S G; Kochetkov, O A; Barchukov, V G; Kuznetsova, L I
Analysis of the requirements of Federal Law N 190 "About radioactive waste management and incorporation of changes into some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", as well as normative-legislative documents actual and planned to be published related to provision of radiation protection of the workers and the public have been done. Problems of safety regulation raised due to different approaches of Rospotrebnadzor, FMBA of Russia, Rostekhnadzor and Minprirody with respect to classification and categorization of the radioactive wastes, disposal, exemption from regulatory control, etc. have been discussed in the paper. Proposals regarding improvement of the system of safety regulation under radioactive waste management and of cooperation of various regulatory bodies have been formulated.
The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.
Gogina Elena Sergeevna
big cities of Russia. At the same time, the quality of the waste water treated by local water treatment stations fails to meet the present-day standard requirements. Moreover, potable water shall not be used for the purpose of washing transport vehicles. Within the recent 10 years, MGSU has developed a number of research projects aimed at the resolution of this problem. The concept developed by the MGSU specialists is to attain the highest quality of treated waste water generated by car washes and transport enterprises using the most advanced technologies of water treatment rather than to design new water treatment plants. Various methods may be applied for this purpose: restructuring of water treatment facilities, advanced feed, updated regulations governing the operation of water treatment plants.
As is the case in many countries, the transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland is primarily regulated by the national regulations for the transport of dangerous goods. Currently these regulations, in the case of radioactive material, incorporate the 1985 IAEA Safety Series 6 Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (As amended 1990). However, as is also the case in some other countries, consignors, shippers and carriers of radioactive materials must also comply with additional laws when shipping radioactive materials. The most important of these other laws and their accompanying regulations are those concerned with radiation protection (import, export and carriers licences) and nuclear power (import, export, inland transport and transit licences). This paper sets out to describe the collective requirements resulting from all three of these sets of regulations. (Author)
In hospitals that have a radiotherapy service, the contaminated sewage follows a specific way, first it comes from specific toilets that must be use by patients undergoing a radiotherapy treatment, and secondly it is stored in tanks and its radioactivity is measured regularly and when the radioactivity level is in conformity with regulations, sewage is disposed as any non-contaminated sewage. Regulations impose a radioactive level below 100 Becquerel per liter for I 131 and 10 Becquerel per liter for other nuclides for the sewage to be disposed. A new system named ST-10 allows the in-line and real-time measurement and the identification of nuclides in sewage and can say if the measured values are consistent with the patient treatment. (A.C.)
The Next Nuclear Gamble examines risks, costs, and alternatives in handling irradiated nuclear fuel. The debate over nuclear power and the disposal of its high-level radioactive waste is now nearly four decades old. Ever larger quantities of commercial radioactive fuel continue to accumulate in reactor storage pools throughout the country and no permanent storage solution has yet been designated. As an interim solution, the government and utilities prefer that radioactive wastes be transported to temporary storage facilities and subsequently to a permanent depository. If this temporary and centralized storage system is implemented, however, the number of nuclear waste shipments on the highway will increase one hundredfold over the next fifteen years. The question directly addressed is whether nuclear transport is safe or represents the American public's domestic nuclear gamble. This Council on Economic Priorities study, directed by Marvin Resnikoff, shows on the basis of hundreds of government and industry reports, interviews and surveys, and original research, that transportation of nuclear materials as currently practiced is unsafe
In this text we give the modifications bringed to the French regulation to take into account the IAEA recommendations of 1990 and the regulations of the European agreements RID and ADR. 3 figs., 6 refs
The report on returning transport and interim storage of processed radioactive waste from France and Great Britain in vitrified block containers covers the following issues: German contracts with radioactive waste processing plants concerning the return of processed waste to Germany; optimized radioactive waste processing using vitrified block containers; the transport casks as basic safety with respect to radiation protection; interim storage of processes high-level waste by GNS in Gorleben; licensing, inspections and declarations; quality assurance and control.
Price, M.S.T.; Lafontaine, I.
The purpose of this volume is to introduce the main types of nuclear reactor in the European Community (EC), select reference plants for further study, estimate the waste streams from the reference reactors, survey the transport regulations and assess existing containers
General descriptions of the main types of reactors in the European Economic Community are given, a series of reference plants selected for further study. Estimates are made of the radioactive decommissioning wastes for each, including neutron-activated and contaminated materials. Regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials, both international and national, are reviewed. (U.K.)
Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.
This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.
Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.
This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers
Kubik, I.; Kusovska, Z.; Hanusik, V.; Mrskova, A.; Kapisovsky, V.
Radioactive waste products from the nuclear power plants (NPPs) must be isolated from contact with people for very long period of time. Low and intermediate-level waste will be disposed of in Slovakia in specially licensed Regional disposal facility which is located near the NPP Mochovce site. Radioactive waste accumulated in the Jaslovsk. Bohunice site, during the decommissioning process of the NPP A-1 and arising from the NPP V-1 and NPP V-2 operation, will be processed and shipped in standard concrete containers to the Mochovce Regional disposal facility. The treatment centre was build at the NPP Jaslovsk? Bohunice site which is in the trial operation now. It is supposed that radioactive waste containers will be transported by train from the treatment centre Jaslovsk? Bohunice to the site of Radioactive Waste Repository at Mochovce and by truck in the area of repository. To estimate the occupational radiation exposure during the transport the calculations of dose rates from the containers are necessary. The national regulations allow low level of radiation to emanate from the casks and containers. The maximum permissible volume radioactivity of wastes inside the container is limited in such a way that irradiation level should not exceed 2 mGy/h for the contact irradiation level and 0,1 mGy/h at 2-meter distance. MicroShield code was used to analyse shielding and assessing exposure from gamma radiation of containers to people. A radioactive source was conservatively modelled by homogenous mixture of radionuclides with concrete. Standard rectangular volume source and shield geometry is used in model calculations. The activities of the personnel during the transport and storage of containers are analysed and results of the evaluation of external dose rates and effective doses are described. (author)
Full Text Available Regulations concerning different modes of transport of dangerous goods are well harmonized at global level: they were then looked at as a model for developing Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS, (on which CLP Regulations is based. Transport regulations do not cover some hazard classes, such as germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, having been evaluated that such hazards are not relevant in transport because in general, in case of accident, no repeated and prolonged exposure takes place. Other differences with CLP Regulation are related to the use of "building block approach". Transport labels, which were used as a basis for GHS, can be used, instead of CLP pictograms, on packages during transport.
Pandey, Pramod K; Soupir, Michelle L; Ikenberry, Charles
The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water
On February 17,1989, the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments and the US Department of Energy entered into a cooperative agreement authorizing the initiation of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project. The transportation project continued to receive funding from DOE through amendments to the original cooperative agreement, with December 31, 1993, marking the end of the initial 5-year period. This progress report reflects the work completed by the Midwestern Office from February 17,1989, through December 31,1993. In accordance with the scopes of work governing the period covered by this report, the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments has worked closely with the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Committee. Project staff have facilitated all eight of the committee's meetings and have represented the committee at meetings of DOE's Transportation Coordination Group (TCG) and Transportation External Coordination Working Group (TEC/WG). Staff have also prepared and submitted comments on DOE activities on behalf of the committee. In addition to working with the committee, project staff have prepared and distributed 20 reports, including some revised reports (see Attachment 1). Staff have also developed a library of reference materials for the benefit of committee members, state officials, and other interested parties. To publicize the library, and to make it more accessible to potential users, project staff have prepared and distributed regular notices of resource availability
Barnes, Richard L
The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment.
These Regulations give effect to certain provisions of Community Legislation in Council Directive No. 78/319/EEC concerned with toxic and dangerous waste which will be special waste. Regulation 3 deals with radioactive waste which will be special waste if it has dangerous properties other than radioactivity. Precautions against radioactivity are dealt with under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960. (NEA) [fr
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and electric...
Gasmi, Farid; Oviedo, Juan Daniel
This paper develops a simple model in which a regulated (upstream) transporter provides capacity to a marketer competing in output with an incumbent in the (downstream) gas commodity market. The equilibrium outcome of the firms' interaction in the downstream market is explicitly taken into account by the regulator when setting the transport charge. We consider various forms of competition in this market and derive the corresponding optimal transport charge policies. We then run simulations that allow us to perform a comparative welfare analysis of these transport infrastructure investment policies based on different assumptions about the intensity of the competition that prevails in the gas commodity market. (author)
Gasmi, Farid [Toulouse School of Economics (ARQADE and IDEI), Universite Toulouse 1 Capitole (France); Oviedo, Juan Daniel [Universidad del Rosario (Colombia)
This paper develops a simple model in which a regulated (upstream) transporter provides capacity to a marketer competing in output with an incumbent in the (downstream) gas commodity market. The equilibrium outcome of the firms' interaction in the downstream market is explicitly taken into account by the regulator when setting the transport charge. We consider various forms of competition in this market and derive the corresponding optimal transport charge policies. We then run simulations that allow us to perform a comparative welfare analysis of these transport infrastructure investment policies based on different assumptions about the intensity of the competition that prevails in the gas commodity market. (author)
Lange, F.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.
A safety analysis has been conducted for the transport of non-heat-generating (low- to medium level) radioactive waste to the planned Konrad final repository in Germany. The results of the risk analysis show that it is unlikely that transport accidents with a release of radioactive substances will occur in the region of the final repository during the operating period of approximately 40 years. Because of the lower accident risk of transport by rail as compared with road, the envisaged high fraction of rail transport of the entire transport volume has a beneficial effect. In the case of an accident with a release of radioactive substances, the potential radiological consequences, in general, decrease rapidly with distance; starting from around 250 m by a factor of 10 up to about 1200 m and a further factor of 10 at a distance of about 6200 m. The releases associated with accidents are frequently so small that the potential radiation exposure, even without countermeasures, is below the natural radiation exposure for one year, at a distance of about 250 m from the accident location: this is true for 9 out of 10 accidents with goods trains and 19 out of 20 accidents with trucks. With the hypothetical assumption of continuous operation of the repository, a potential effective dose of 50 mSv without countermeasures would result, on average, once every 500,000 years at a distance of 250 m in the direction of atmospheric dispersion for the scenario 100% rail transport and once every 400,000 years for the scenario 80% rail/20% road. 50 mSv corresponds to the design guideline exposure of 28 Para. 3 of the German Radiological Protection Ordinance and the annual dose limit for persons occupationally exposed to radiation. The expected frequencies of corresponding accident consequences are considerably lower for the Braunschweig marshalling yard. It can thus be concluded that waste transport does not pose any major additional risk to the region of the repository. (author)
Cheung, S.C.H.; Chan, T.
In the geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste, one option is to emplace the waste container in a borehole drilled into the floor of the underground vault. In the borehole, the waste container is surrounded by a compacted soil material known as the buffer. A finite-element simulation has been performed to study the effect of localized partial failure of the waste container on the steady-state radionuclide transport by diffusion from the container through the buffer to the surrounding rock and/or backfill. In this study, the radionuclide concentration at the buffer-backfill interface is assumed to be zero. Two cases are considered at the interface between the buffer and the rock. In case 1, a no-flux boundary condition is used to simulate intact rock. In case 2, a constant radionuclide concentration condition is used to simulate fractured rock with groundwater flow. The results show that the effect of localized partial failure of the waste container on the total flux is dependent on the boundary condition at the buffer-rock interface. For the intact rock condition, the total flux is mainly dependent on the location of the failure. The total flux increases as the location changes from the bottom to the top of the emplaced waste container. For a given localized failure of the waste container, the total flux remains unaffected by the area of failed surface below the top of the failure. For fractured rock, the total flux is directly proportional to the failed surface area of the waste container regardless of the failure location
Shay, M.R.; Buxbaum, M.E.
The WASTES II model was developed to provide detailed analyses beyond the capabilities of other available models. WASTES uses discrete event simulation techniques to model the generation of commercial spent nuclear fuel, the buildup of spent fuel inventories within the system, and the transportation requirements for the movement of radioactive waste throughout the system. The model is written in FORTRAN 77 as an extension to the SLAM commercial simulation language package. In addition to the pool storage and dry storage located at the reactors, the WASTES model provides a choice of up to ten other storage facilities of four different types. The simulation performed by WASTES may be controlled by a combination of source- and/or destination-controlled transfers that are requested by the code user. The user supplies shipping cask characteristics for truck or rail shipment casks. As part of the facility description, the user specifies which casks the facility can use. Shipments within the system can be user specified to occur optimally, or proximally. Optimized shipping can be used when exactly two destination facilities of the same facility type are open for receipt of fuel. Optimized shipping selects source/destination pairs so that the total shipping distance or total shipping costs in a given year are minimized when both facilities are fully utilized. Proximity shipping sequentially fills the closest facility to the source according to the shipment priorities without regard for the total annual shipments. This results in sub-optimal routing of waste material but can be used to approximate an optimal shipping strategy when more than two facilities of the same type are available to receive waste. WASTES is currently able to analyze each of the commercial spent fuel logistics scenarios specified in the 1985 DOE Mission Plan
In September, 2000 the IAEA formally began a two year, continuing regulatory review process. To no one's surprise, the initial review process has evolved and corrections and improvements have been implemented with each successive cycle. To the credit of both the agency and the participants from Member States and industry, the first cycles have created a viable and stable review process which is more efficient and far simpler than the previous review process. Unfortunately, problems still exist in the transport community. It is my opinion that these issues have little to do with review process and more to do with program management and the culture of the community. I believe it is time for IAEA transport division (IAEA) and the Transport Safety Series Committee (TRANSSC) to recognize the transport program is more than just a regulatory development program and begin to face the difficult issues in front of them. Toward that end, this paper will identify the five largest issues facing the radioactive material transport industry and recommend how the IAEA, TRANSSC, Member States, industry and the general public can address these issues
Regulations and rules for the safe transport of radioactive materials by all kinds of conveyance are offered. Different types of packages and the conditions associated with the methods of safe packaging are given
Barenghi, Leonardo; Capadona, Nancy M.; Lopez Vietri, Jorge R.; Panzino, Marina; Ceballos, Jorge
The paper describes the quality management procedure used by the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority to establish the regulations concerning the safe transport of radioactive materials. The quality management system is based on the family of the ISO 9000 norms [es
The implementation of a national transportation system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste that merits public trust and confidence will require the delivery of consistent, accurate and timely transportation messages; stakeholder and public understanding of the need for, and safety of, shipments; and effective two-way communication to address stakeholder concerns in its decision-making processes. Building the trust and consent of stakeholders and the public is complex and challenging. In order to accomplish this goal, it is imperative to understand how and why members of society develop various perceptions of risks and assessments of benefits with regard to the nuclear energy cycle. Understanding the basis and reasons for the public's beliefs concerning the nuclear energy cycle will allow OCRWM to more effectively address concerns regarding the national transportation program. This paper will examine how a person's gender, sources of information, world-view, culture, emotion, cognition, and other factors affect their beliefs and perceptions of risk. It will also explore the reasons why nuclear energy and nuclear waste are viewed with such a distinctly different attitude than other hazardous materials that pose a comparable or greater hazard. Drawing on research from prominent experts in risk perception and communication methods, this study will conduct a unique investigation into the perspectives of a diverse set of key stakeholders and experts involved in the transportation process. This paper will present several hypotheses on why there are unique challenges involved in communicating about transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear fuel cycle activities, and also present recommendations for remediating such challenges. (authors)
Cheshire, R.D.; Straw, R.J.
During late 1984 the IAEA Regulations were identified as an area of application for an expert system adviser which could offer many advantages. Over the following year some simple tests were carried out to examine its feasibility, but TRANAID did not get underway until 1986 when British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Corporate Management services were engaged on the product. By this time a greater choice of suitable software, in the form of expert system shells, had become available. After a number of trial systems the shell Leonardo was finally adopted for the final system. In order for TRANAID to emulate the expert it was necessary to spend time extracting and documenting the expert knowledge. This was a matter of investigating how the regulations are used and was achieved by a series of meetings including opportunity for the computer specialists to interview the regulations experts. There are several benefits in having an expert system advisor in this area. It is useful to both experienced and inexperienced users of regulations. For those who are learning to use the regulations it is an excellent training aid. For those who know the regulations but use them infrequently it can save time and provide a valuable reassurance. The adviser has enabled the expert user's know how to be captured and to be made widely available to those with less experience. (author)
Alagoez, Aylin Zeren; Kocasoy, Guenay
Handling of health-care wastes is among the most important environmental problems in Turkey as it is in the whole world. Approximately 25-30 tons of health-care wastes, in addition to the domestic and recyclable wastes, are generated from hospitals, clinics and other small health-care institutions daily on the European and the Asian sides of Istanbul [Kocasoy, G., Topkaya, B., Zeren, B.A., Kilic, M., et al., 2004. Integrated Health-care Waste Management in Istanbul, Final Report of the LIFE00 TCY/TR/054 Project, Turkish National Committee on Solid Wastes, Istanbul, Turkey; Zeren, B.A., 2004. The Health-care Waste Management of the Hospitals in the European Side of Istanbul, M.S. Thesis, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey; Kilic, M., 2004. Determination of the Health-care Waste Handling and Final Disposal of the Infected Waste of Hospital-Medical Centers in the Anatolian Side of Istanbul. M.S. Thesis, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey]. Unfortunately, these wastes are not handled, collected or temporarily stored at the institutions properly according to the published Turkish Medical Waste Control Regulation [Ministry of Environment and Forestry, 2005. Medical Waste Control Regulation. Official Gazette No. 25883, Ankara, Turkey]. Besides the inappropriate handling at the institutions, there is no systematic program for the transportation of the health-care wastes to the final disposal sites. The transportation of these wastes is realized by the vehicles of the municipalities in an uncontrolled, very primitive way. As a consequence, these improperly managed health-care wastes cause many risks to the public health and people who handle them. This study has been conducted to develop a health-care waste collection and transportation system for the city of Istanbul, Turkey. Within the scope of the study, the collection of health-care wastes from the temporary storage rooms of the health-care institutions, transportation of these wastes to the final disposal areas
Seo, Myung Hwan; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) began to operate the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in Gyeongju and to transport the radioactive waste containing radioactive isotopes from Daejeon to the disposal facility for the first time at 2015. For this radioactive waste transportation, in this study, radiological impact assessment is carried out for workers and public. The dose rate to workers and public during the transportation is estimated with consideration of the transportation scenarios and is compared with the Korean regulatory limit. The sensitivity analysis is carried out by considering both the variation of release ratios of the radioactive isotopes from the waste and the variation of the distances between the radioactive waste drum and worker during loading and unloading of radioactive waste. As for all the transportation scenarios, radiological impacts for workers and public have met the regulatory limits.
Transportation fuels derived from fossil fuels are subjected to the price fluctuations of the global marketplace, and constitute a major expense in the operation of a vehicle. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these fuels contribute to a range of environmental problems, causing poor air quality and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuels created from domestic sources have been proposed as a solution to these problems, and many fuels are being developed based on biomass and other renewable sources. Natural State Research, Inc. developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel which is produced from waste plastic materials.
The main body of this report is a broad-based examination of human and social factors in the transportation of nuclear wastes. It deals with pair interested problems that, while familiar to the social science community, appear to have received little attention from the risk assessment community to data: The human and social attenuation of risk estimates, and the organizational amplification of risks. Second, given the special opportunities for learning that are presented by the recent Alaska oil spill, in particular, the Appendix to this report examines the issue of organizational foresight in the context of the Exxon oil spill
Deborger, Bruno; Fosgerau, Mogens
We study the interaction between pricing, frequency of service and information provision by public transport firms offering scheduled services, and we do so under various regulatory regimes. The model assumes that users can come to the bus stop or rail station at random or they can plan their trips...
Petrushenko, V. G.; Baal, E. P.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Korb, V. R.; Nikitin, V. S.; Mikheev, A. A.; Griffith, A.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.
The Russian Shipyard ''Zvyozdochka'' has designed a new container for transportation and storage of solid radioactive wastes. The PST1A-6 container is cylindrical shaped and it can hold seven standard 200-liter (55-gallon) drums. The steel wall thickness is 6 mm, which is much greater than standard U.S. containers. These containers are fully certified to the Russian GOST requirements, which are basically identical to U.S. and IAEA standards for Type A containers. They can be transported by truck, rail, barge, ship, or aircraft and they can be stacked in 6 layers in storage facilities. The first user of the PST1A-6 containers is the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, under a program sponsored jointly by the U.S. DoD and DOE. This paper will describe the container design and show how the first 400 containers were fabricated and certified
Carlson, J.H.; Lake, W.H.; Thompson, J.H.
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation program is a multifaceted undertaking to transport spent nuclear fuel from commercial reactors to temporary and permanent storage facilities commencing in 1998. One of the significant ingredients necessary to achieving this goal is the development and acquisition of shipping casks. Efforts to design and acquire high capacity casks is ongoing, as are efforts to purchase casks that can be made available using current technology. By designing casks that are optimized to the specifications of the older cooler spent fuel that will be shipped, and by designing to current NRC requirements, OCRWM's new generation of spent fuel casks will be more efficient and at least as safe as current cask designs. (J.P.N.)
...; Docket Number 2010-0011, sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ03 Federal Management Regulation; Transportation Management AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration (GSA) is amending the Federal Management Regulation (FMR) by...
-membrane spanning protein Tac, thereby creating an extracellular antibody epitope. Upon expression in HEK293 cells this TacDAT fusion protein displayed functional properties similar to the wild type transporter. In an ELISA based internalization assay, TacDAT intracellular accumulation was increased by inhibitors...... of lysosomal degradation and moreover TacDAT colocalized with the late endosomal marker Rab7. In the DA cell line 1Rb3An27 TacDAT also co-localized with EGFP-Rab7 and not with the recycling endosomal marker EGFP-Rab11. To assess whether sorting to late endosomes/lysosomes was a property also inherent...... to natively expressed transporter, DAT was visualized directly in cultured DA neurons using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC 1-64. These data showed pronounced colocalization upon constitutive internalization with Lysotracker, a late endosomal/lysosomal marker; however only little cololization was observed...
The transport of radioactive material is controlled by numerous legislative and regulatory actions at the federal, state, and local levels. This document is a compilation of the state level laws and regulations. The collected material is abstracted and indexed by states. Each state section contains three divisions: (1) abstracts of major statutes, (2) legislative rules, and (3) photocopies of relevant paragraphs from the law or regulation. This document was prepared for use by individuals who are involved in the radioactive material transportation process. This document will not be updated. The legislative rules section contains the name of the state agency primarily responsible for monitoring the transport of radioactive materials
Edling, D.A.; Hopkins, D.R.; Walls, H.C.
Transportation, the link between TRU waste generation and WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Project) and a vital link in the overall TRU waste management program, must be addressed. The program must have many facets: ensuring public and carrier acceptance, formation of a functional and current transportation data base, systems integration, maximum utilization of existing technology, and effective implementation and integration of the transport system into current and planned operational systems
Selling, H.A.; Brittinger, M.T.M.
This paper presents a historic review of 30 years experience with the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material as the basis for regulatory control of those materials worldwide. It is demonstrated that the underlying principles and fundamental philosophy have proven their validity and have been the main reason for the excellent safety record of transport operations. The IAEA Regulations are currently halfway a comprehensive revision process aiming at the publication of a new edition by 1996. Although the main principles are likely to be maintained in the next edition of the Regulations, some developments in this area will undoubtedly have an effect on their structure. The main new developments are: the air transport of large quantities of radioactive material, requiring that a risk basis be established which is comparable with other modes of transport, transport of uranium hexafluoride requiring provisions which include the associated chemical hazards, the transport of large volumes of radioactive waste originating from decommissioning of nuclear power stations, and the influence of the new risk estimates for exposure to ionizing radiation and consequently the lower dose limits as recommended by ICRP. This paper will make an attempt to identify the problems associated with those developments, to outline its programme of activities intended to address the problems and to suggest possible solutions as recommended by the IAEA senior advisory group in this subject area. (J.P.N.)
Sotta, Naoyuki; Duncan, Susan; Tanaka, Mayuki; Sato, Takafumi
Nutrient uptake by roots often involves substrate-dependent regulated nutrient transporters. For robust uptake, the system requires a regulatory circuit within cells and a collective, coordinated behaviour across the tissue. A paradigm for such systems is boron uptake, known for its directional transport and homeostasis, as boron is essential for plant growth but toxic at high concentrations. In Arabidopsis thaliana, boron uptake occurs via diffusion facilitators (NIPs) and exporters (BORs), each presenting distinct polarity. Intriguingly, although boron soil concentrations are homogenous and stable, both transporters manifest strikingly swift boron-dependent regulation. Through mathematical modelling, we demonstrate that slower regulation of these transporters leads to physiologically detrimental oscillatory behaviour. Cells become periodically exposed to potentially cytotoxic boron levels, and nutrient throughput to the xylem becomes hampered. We conclude that, while maintaining homeostasis, swift transporter regulation within a polarised tissue context is critical to prevent intrinsic traffic-jam like behaviour of nutrient flow. PMID:28870285
MacGregor, D.; Slovic, P.; Mason, R.G.; Detweiler, J.; Binney, S.E.; Dodd, B.
Transportation of hazardous materials, and particularly radioactive wastes, on public highways has become an important risk management issue. The unfavorability of public attitudes regarding hazardous and nuclear waste signals the potential for strong public opposition to programs for transporting these materials. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted to assess public reactions to a long-term nuclear waste transport program planned to follow a route through a portion of rural Oregon. The survey assessed a number of key risk perception issues, including perceived health and safety risks of nuclear waste transport, relative risks of transport vs. storage at an existing site, trust in state officials, and satisfaction with life in communities along the transport route. The survey identified a number of attitudes and concerns that need to be understood and considered by those in charge of designing and implementing the waste-transportation program. 22 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs
Codd, M H
The terms of reference of this review were: to examine the adequacy of the arrangements made for the transport of contaminated material from Lucas Heights and St Marys to Woomera, in terms of compliance with the Australian Code for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Substances 1990; to report to the Minister for Industry, Science and Technology on the quality of the planning and preparation for the move; the safety and effectiveness of the move itself; the adequacy of response to any `incidents` involved in the move, and of contingency arrangements; whether planning and transport arrangements might be improved for the future. Thus, the Review was focussed on movements of material in two specific cases - material owned by the CSIRO and stored at Lucas Heights and material owned by the Department of Defence and stored at St Marys. The report concludes that the movements of wastes were carried out consistent with the Transport Code, without any risk to public safety. Additional relevant information in support of the review is contained in 8 appendixes.
The terms of reference of this review were: to examine the adequacy of the arrangements made for the transport of contaminated material from Lucas Heights and St Marys to Woomera, in terms of compliance with the Australian Code for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Substances 1990; to report to the Minister for Industry, Science and Technology on the quality of the planning and preparation for the move; the safety and effectiveness of the move itself; the adequacy of response to any 'incidents' involved in the move, and of contingency arrangements; whether planning and transport arrangements might be improved for the future. Thus, the Review was focussed on movements of material in two specific cases - material owned by the CSIRO and stored at Lucas Heights and material owned by the Department of Defence and stored at St Marys. The report concludes that the movements of wastes were carried out consistent with the Transport Code, without any risk to public safety. Additional relevant information in support of the review is contained in 8 appendixes
This publication is the revised version of the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials as approved by the Board of Governors in September 1996. It establishes standards of safety which provide an acceptable level of control of the radiation, criticality and thermal hazards to persons, property and the environment that are associated with the transport of radioactive material. After an introductory section, the publication is structured as follows: Section 2 defines the terms that are required for the purposes of the Regulations; Section 3 provides general provisions; Section 4 gives the activity limits and material restrictions used throughout these Regulations; Section 5 provides requirements and controls for transport; Section 6 provides requirements for radioactive materials and for packagings and packages; Section 7 provides requirements for test procedures; Section 8 provides approval and administrative requirements. The requirements for the transport of specified types of consignments are included in an abbreviated form as Schedules. Refs, figs, tabs
Rice, P.M.; Moody, S.J.; Peterson, R. [and others
Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic ft of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic ft of waste is up to 10 million cubic ft of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate a technology for transporting exhumed transuranic wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at other hazardous or radioactive waste sites through the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conducted at the INEEL Robotics Center in the summer of 1995, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for remote transport of exhumed buried waste. The technology consisted of a Self-Guided Transport Vehicle designed to remotely convey retrieved waste from the retrieval digface and transport it to a receiving/processing area with minimal human intervention. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate performance parameters such as precision and accuracy of navigation and transportation rates.
Rice, P.M.; Moody, S.J.; Peterson, R.
Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic ft of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic ft of waste is up to 10 million cubic ft of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate a technology for transporting exhumed transuranic wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at other hazardous or radioactive waste sites through the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conducted at the INEEL Robotics Center in the summer of 1995, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for remote transport of exhumed buried waste. The technology consisted of a Self-Guided Transport Vehicle designed to remotely convey retrieved waste from the retrieval digface and transport it to a receiving/processing area with minimal human intervention. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate performance parameters such as precision and accuracy of navigation and transportation rates
In the past four years, almost all nations and international or intergovernmental transport organizations have effected transitions from the 1967 to 1973 IAEA standards as their basis for regulatory requirements for the safe transport of radioactive materials. One major exception to this transition is the USA itself, where this transition has not yet taken place. Major amendments to revise 49 CFR Parts 100-199 of the Department of Transportation regulations and 10 CFR Part 71 of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations are required to effect this transition. The notices of proposed rulemaking to effect this transition in the USA are expected to be published by DOT and NRC concurrently sometime in 1978. Final amendments can be expected later, after the public comment period on the notices and considerations of those comments. This paper summarizes the status of current thinking on US adoption of the 1973 IAEA standards, as well as the status of adoption of those standards by international intergovernmental organizations, such as the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Civil Aviation Organization, etc. A number of the differences between the expected US regulations and other regulations based on the 1973 IAEA standards are explained. This paper also discusses a number of other events or matters which have been taking place in the US in the past four years which have or may have an effect on transport of nuclear materials and its regulation, including air transport of plutonium, rail transport of spent fuel and other regulations by state or political subdivisions. The paper also discusses changes to US regulations accomplished in the past four years, which are not related to 1973 IAEA standards, as well as some other possible areas where regulatory proposals might be anticipated, such as control of radiation exposures to certain transport workers and other matters
The Regulation is established on the basis of The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Law for the prevention of radiation injuries due to radioisotopes.'' The prescriptions cover the transport of radioactive materials by railway, street rail way, ropeway, trolley buses, motorcars and light vehicles. Terms are explained, such as nuclear fuel materials, radioisotopes, radioactive substances, transported radioactive things, transported fissile things, vehicles, containers, exclusive loading, surrounding inspection area. Four types of transported radioactive things are specified, L and A types being less dangerous and BM and BU being more dangerous. Transported fissile things are classified to three kinds according to the safety to criticality of such things. Transported radioactive things except those of L type and containers with transported fissile things shall not be loaded or unloaded at the places where persons other than those concerned come in usually. Loading and unloading of such things shall be carried out so that the safety of such things is not injured. The maximum dose rate of radiation of the containers with transported radioactive things shall not be more than 200 millirem per hour on the surface and 10 millirem per hour at the distance of 1 meter. Specified transported radioactive things shall be particularly marked by the letter of ''radioactive'' or other signs indicating as such. (Okada, K.)
The move toward risk-informed, performance-based regulation of activities involving radioactive materials is becoming wide spread and broadly applied. While this approach may have some merit in specific applications in which there is a considerable body of experience, its strict application in regulation of geologic repositories for highly radioactive wastes may not be appropriate for this unproven and socially controversial technology. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes risk-informed, performance-based regulation as 'an approach in which risk insights, engineering analysis and judgement (eg. defense in depth), and performance history are used to (1) focus attention on the most important activities, (2) establish objective criteria based upon risk insights for evaluating performance, (3) develop measurable or calculable parameters for monitoring system and licensee performance, and (4) focus on the results as the primary basis for regulatory decision-making.' Both the risk-informed and performance-based elements of the approach are problematic when considering regulation of geologic repositories for highly radioactive wastes - an activity yet to be accomplished by any nation. In investigating potential sites for geologic repositories there will always be residual uncertainty in understanding the natural system and the events and processes that affect it. The more complex the natural system, the greater will be the uncertainty in both the data and the models used to describe the characteristics of the site's natural barriers, and the events and processes that could affect repository waste isolation. The engineered barriers also are subject to uncertainties that are important to the repository system. These uncertainties translate themselves into a range of probabilities that certain events or processes, detrimental to waste isolation, will occur. The uncertainties also translate to a range of consequences and magnitudes of consequences, should the
Juul-Jensen, P.; Ulbak, K.
The technical regulations for the transport of radioactive materials in Denmark are set down by the (Danish) National Board of Health in collaboration with the (Danish) National Institute for Radiation Hygiene in accordance with paragraph 3 of the Danish Ministry of Justice's Executive Order no. 2 of 2, January 1985 on the national road transport of dangerous goods by road, as amended by exutive order no. 251 of April 29th 1987 and no. 704 of November 1989. These regulations are presented here. They are almost identical, with only very few exceptions indicated in the publication, with the rules for Class 7 of the European convention on international transport of dangerous goods by road (ADR). In addition to the aforementioned regulations for national road transport of radioactive materials the general rules for the transport of radioactive materials found in the National Board of Health's executive order no. 721 of November 27th 1989 on the transport of radioactive materials are valid. The abovementioned executive orders, with the exception of certain supplements which are not part of the technical regulations, are also contained in this publication. (AB)
Miyazaki, M.; Une, H.
In Japan, the waste management practice is carried out in accordance with the Waste Disposal Law of 1970. The first rule of infectious waste management was regulated in 1992, and infectious wastes are defined as the waste materials generated in medical institutions as a result of medical care or research which contain pathogens that have the potential to transmit infectious diseases. Revised criteria for infectious waste management were promulgated by the Ministry of Environment in 2004. Infectious waste materials are divided into three categories: the form of waste; the place of waste generation; the kind of infectious diseases. A reduction of infectious waste is expected. We introduce a summary of the revised regulation of infectious waste management in this article
Radioactive waste management facilities are subject to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations under jurisdiction of the Atomic Energy Control Board. Before such a facility can be constructed and permitted to operate, the applicant must obtain from the AECB in turn, site approval, a construction approval, and an operating licence, different considerations (e.g. geological, security) being given priority at each stage. Operating licences are normally valid for one year only, their renewal being dependent on observance, by the applicant, of the procedures and conditions laid down by the Board. Licensing document No.23 offers guidance on the requirements involved both generally and in relation to specific methods of waste storage and disposal. A copy of this document is attached to the present paper. (NEA) [fr
The only method of final disposal of radioactive waste currently envisaged in the Netherlands is disposal in rock-salt. This question is at present being studied by governmental authorities, and a public discussion is foreseen for the near future. Various Ministries, as well as local authorities at both provincial and municipal levels, are involved in the licensing and control of waste disposal. The principal stages are site selection (including that for test-drilling), construction of the mine, and supervision of the repository. These activities are governed by the legislation on mining as well as by nuclear regulations. One matter still to be decided is the nature of the body to be responsible for conducting the disposal operations. (NEA) [fr
Nirwono, Muttaqin Margo; Choi, Kwang Sik
1.1. Background Indonesia is a biggest archipelago country with 17,508 islands in 33 provinces. In transportation Indonesia has large number of airports, railways, roadways, waterways, and merchant marines. Since nuclear and radiation utilizations are expanding on whole country, the mobilization of these is usually placed outside of controlled facilities, in the public domain, and often entails movement between countries. The Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is responsible for supervision and also authorization of the transport of radioactive material (TRM). TRM is the specific movement of a radioactive material consignment from origin to destination by public transportation (road or rail, water and air). This study aims to determine whether national regulation is harmonized with international practice in ensuring safety and security of TRM. The finding of this study will provide recommendation for enhancement of regulation on TRM. 1.2. Regulation of TRM in Indonesia Government Regulation (GR) No. 26, 2002 on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material is implemented pursuant to Act 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy. This GR was repealed GR 13, 1975 on TRM. The GR 26 consist of 16 chapters and 39 articles, included licensing: authority and responsibilities: packaging: radiation protection programme; training: quality assurance programme: type and activity limit of radioactive materials: radioactive materials with other dangerous properties: emergency preparedness: administrative sanction: and penal provisions. Principally, this GR adopted IAEA-TS-R-1, 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', 1996's Edition
Chapters are devoted to: background and policymaking for low-level waste management; commercial low-level waste generation; Department of Energy low-level waste generation; low-level waste treatment; packaging and transportation; commercial low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste management program; and laws and regulations
Obradović, Mario; Kalambura, Sanja; Smolec, Danijel; Jovicić, Nives
Increasing the production of hazardous waste during the past few years and stricter legislation in the area of permanent disposal and transportation costs were significantly elevated above activities. This creates a new, highly lucrative gray market which opens the way for the criminalization. Of great importance is the identification of illegal trafficking of hazardous waste since it can have a significant impact on human health and environmental pollution. Barriers to effective engagement to prevent these activities may vary from region to region, country to country, but together affect the ability of law enforcement authorities to ensure that international shipments of hazardous waste comply with national laws and maritime regulations. This paper will overview the legislation governing these issues, and to analyze the barriers to their implementation, but also try to answer the question of why and how this type of waste traded. Paper is an overview of how Croatia is prepared to join the European Union in this area and indicates the importance and necessity of the cooperation of all of society, and international organizations in the fight with the new trend of environmental crime.
Problems related to the handling, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive wastes (radwastes) are very important and the responsibility for the safe management of radioactive wastes for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. Safety and public welfare are to be considered within the radioactive waste management, particularly in the field of transportation because of the potential risk that it could pose to the public and to the environment. The IAEA regulations ensure safety in the transport of Radioactive Materials (RAM) by laying down detailed requirements, appropriate to the degree of hazard represented by the respective material, taking into account its form and quantity. Risk assessment provides a basis for routing radwastes and developing mitigation plans, prioritizing initiatives and enacting legislation to protect human beings and the environment. Factors such as shipment cost, distance, population exposed, environmental impacts or sensitivity, time in transit and infrastructure related issues, could be included in the terms of safety and risk. The paper presents risk assessment activities aimed to evaluate risk categories and the radiological consequences that may arise during normal (accident free) transport and those resulting from transport accidents involving waste shipments in Romania. (author)
Nuclear Waste Transportation Safety Act of 1979. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, first session on S. 535, July 18-20, 1979
The Nuclear Waste Transportation Safety Act of 1979 provides for the safe transportation of nuclear waste and nuclear fuel. The issues evaluated during the hearing included: (1) The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 conveyed to the NRC the prior existing authority of the former Atomic Energy Commission to regulate transportation of radioactive nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The Hazardous Material Transportation Act of 1974 consolidated within the Department of Transportation the regulatory authority for safety and transportation of all hazardous substances, including radioactive materials; should consultation and coordination between these regulating authorities continue to be used. (2) The specific areas of transportation regulation involved in this combination; (3) Should the Department of Transportation (DOT) become a separate office; (4) Is security against theft and sabotage necessary and realistically attainable; (5) Should DOT be responsible for assuring a coordinated Federal-State emergency response plan for possible nuclear related transportation emergencies; and (6) Is the Federal grant program of S. 535 necessary and adequate
... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? Sections 170.900 through 170.907 on transportation of nuclear and...
Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1 ( ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series No 7 and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series No 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS=113), compliance assurance (SS=112), the training manual and other
El-Shinawy, R M.K. [Radiation Protection Dept., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)
Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1 ( ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series No 7 and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series No 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS=113), compliance assurance (SS=112), the training manual and other.
Abdalla, M. K. E.
In the last couple of decades there has been an impressive increase in applications of radioactive material. Such an extensive and widely spread usage of radioactive materials demands safe transportation of radioactive material from the production site to the application location, as well as quick and effective response in a case of an unexpected transportation event according to Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) regulation. The thesis described the local practice for transport of radioactive material as compared to the international standards for radiation protection, and also discussed the emergency procedures that must be follow in case of accident during transport of radioactive material. Furthermore, the objective of this study was also to set proposals for how to cope in the event of a radiological accident. The study methods included survey of current literature on safe transport of radioactive material, survey of national regulations on the subjects in additional to case studies aimed at investigating the practical issues pertinent to transport of radioactive materials in Sudan. A comprehensive review was presented on how to classification of radioactive packages and general requirement for all packaging and packages according to international standard. transport of number of radioactive sources from Khartoum airport to the field was evaluated with regard transport index, category of source, type of package, dose rate around the source, time to destination and means of transport of doses to public, worker are be made. All results were within the limit specified in the national as well as international regulation. The study has addressed for the first time the practice of transport of radioactive material in Sudan. It is anticipated that the results will encourage national organizational and professional bodies to enhance radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. (Author)
This article presents the challenges that faces the spanish regulatory authority. The deregulation of electricity industry imposes severe changes in nuclear power economics and forces nuclear power to compete with other sources of electricity. A pressure is perceived for regulatory effectiveness primarily since the cost of regulation is a component of the cost of the product. This effectiveness gain in regulatory control will be reached through systematic strategic analysis, formulation and implementation. The regulatory aspects of plant life extension and of waste management are examined
Nordengen, Paul A
Full Text Available This paper describes the most recent developments of an initiative to introduce meaningful self-regulation in the heavy vehicle transport industry through a Road Transport Management System (RTMS) with the aim of contributing to the road authorities...
Full Text Available In plants, the vacuole builds up the cellular turgor and represents an important component in cellular responses to diverse stress stimuli. Rapid volume changes of cells, particularly of motor cells, like guard cells, are caused by variation of osmolytes and consequently of the water contents in the vacuole. Moreover, directed solute uptake into or release out of the large central vacuole allows adaptation of cytosolic metabolite levels according to the current physiological requirements and specific cellular demands. Therefore, solute passage across the vacuolar membrane, the tonoplast, has to be tightly regulated. Important principles in vacuolar transport regulation are changes of tonoplast transport protein abundances by differential expression of genes or changes of their activities, e.g. due to post-translational modification or by interacting proteins. Because vacuolar transport is in most cases driven by an electro-chemical gradient altered activities of tonoplast proton pumps significantly influence vacuolar transport capacities. Intense studies on individual tonoplast proteins but also unbiased system biological approaches have provided important insights into the regulation of vacuolar transport. This short review refers to selected examples of tonoplast proteins and their regulation, with special focus on protein phosphorylation.
Flow and solute transport in fractured rocks has been intensively studied in the last decade. The increased interest is mainly due to the plans in many countries to site repositories for high level nuclear waste in deep geologic formations. All investigated crystalline rocks have been found to be fractured and most of the water flows in the fractures and fracture zones. The water transports dissolved species and radionuclides. It is thus of interest to be able to understand and to do predictive modelling of the flowrate of water, the flowpaths and the residence times of the water and of the nuclides. The dissolved species including the nuclides will interact with the surrounding rock in different ways and will in many cases be strongly retarded relative to the water velocity. Ionic species may be ion exchanged or sorbed in the mineral surfaces. Charges and neutral species may diffuse into the stagnant waters in the rock matrix and thus be withdrawn from the mobile water. These effects will be strongly dependent on how much rock surface is in contact with the flowing water. It has been found in a set of field experiments and by other observations that not all fractures conduct water. Furthermore it is found that conductive fractures only conduct the water in a small part of the fracture in what is called channels or preferential flowpaths. This report summarizes the present concepts of water flow and solute transport in fractured rocks. The data needs for predictive modelling are discussed and both field and laboratory measurement which have been used to obtain data are described. Several large scale field experiments which have been specially designed to study flow and tracer transport in crystalline rocks are described. In many of the field experients new techniques have been developed and used. (81 refs.) (author)
Viable methods for packaging greater-than-class C (GTCC) low-level wastes and for transporting those wastes from the waste generator sites or from an eastern interim storage site to the Yucca Mountain repository site have been identified and evaluated. Estimated costs for packaging and transporting the population of GTCC wastes expected to be accumulated through the year 2040 have been developed for three waste volume scenarios, for two preferred packaging methods for activated metals from reactor operations and from reactor decommissioning, and for two packaging density assumptions for the activated metals from reactor decommissioning. 7 refs. 7 tabs
Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Bin; Chen, Shu
Rapid innovation in printed circuit board, and the uncertainties surrounding quantification of the human and environmental health impacts of e-waste disposal have made it difficult to confirm the influence of evolving e-waste management strategies and regulatory policies on materials. To assess these influences, we analyzed hazardous chemicals in a market-representative set of Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, 1996-2010). We used standard leaching tests to characterize hazard potential and USEtox® to project impacts on human health and ecosystem. The results demonstrate that command-and-control regulations have had minimal impacts on WPCBs composition and toxicity risks; whereas technological innovation may have been influenced more by resource conservation, including a declining trend in the use of precious metals such as gold. WPCBs remain classified as hazardous under U.S. and California laws because of excessive toxic metals. Lead poses the most significant risk for cancers; zinc for non-cancer diseases; copper had the largest potential impact on ecosystem quality. Among organics, acenaphthylene, the largest risk for cancers; naphthalene for non-cancer diseases; pyrene has the highest potential for ecotoxicological impacts. These findings support the need for stronger enforcement of international policies and technology innovation to implement the strategy of design-for-the-environment and to encourage recovery, recycling, and reuse of WPCBs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar
Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future
Bhuin, Tanmay [Cell and Developmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag 713104 (India); Roy, Jagat Kumar, E-mail: email@example.com [Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)
Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.
Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.
The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs
Dybeck, P.; Gustafsson, B.
Today the transports of radioactive waste in Sweden are done on routine basis without any negative publicity. An important contribution to this fact is probably the very good performance of the transport system and the receiving facilities. Since the start of operation of the transport system no accidents have occurred. Almost 1600 tonnes of spent fuel and 10,000 m 3 of radioactive waste have been transported. The capacity and availability of the ship and of the transport system as a whole is large enough to cover all needs for transports of radioactive material in Sweden, at least up to the turn of this century. (J.P.N.)
Questionnaire giving basic information for the public on nuclear wastes and radioactive waste management. Risk and regulations to reduce the risk to permissible limits are more particularly developed. A survey of radioactive wastes is made along the fuel cycle: production, processing, transport, disposal to end on effect of waste management on the cost of nuclear kWh [fr
Price, M.S.T.; Lafontaine, I.
The purpose of this volume is to assess the means of transportation of decommissioning wastes, costs of transport, radiological detriment attributable to transport and develops conceptual designs of large transport containers. The document ends with Conclusions and Recommendations
Full Text Available A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1 operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2 decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incident-free (normal transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.
Jeong, Jong Tae; Baik, Min Hoon; Kang, Mun Ja; Ahn, Hong Joo; Hwang, Doo Seong; Hong, Dae Seok; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1) operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2) decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incident-free (normal) transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.
Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be shown capable of surviving tests specified by regulations such as Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (called 10CFR71 in this paper) within the United States. Equivalent regulations hold for other countries such as Safety Series 6 issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The containers must be shown to be capable of surviving, in order, drop tests, puncture tests, and thermal tests. Immersion testing in water is also required, but must be demonstrated for undamaged packages. The thermal test is intended to simulate a 30 minute exposure to a fully engulfing pool fire that could occur if a transport accident involved the spill of large quantities of hydrocarbon fuels. Various qualification methods ranging from pure analysis to actual pool fire tests have been used to prove regulatory compliance. The purpose of this paper is to consider the alternatives for thermal testing, point out the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and to provide the designer with the information necessary to make informed decisions on the proper test program for the particular shipping container under consideration. While thermal analysis is an alternative to physical testing, actual testing is often emphasized by regulators, and this report concentrates on these testing alternatives
Dybeck, P.; Gustafsson, B.
This paper reports that since the Final Repository for Reactor Waste, SFR, was taken into operation in 1988, the SKB sea transportation system is operating at full capacity by transporting spent fuel and now also reactor waste from the 12 Swedish reactors to CLAB and SFR. Transports from the National Research Center, Studsvik to the repository has recently also been integrated in the system. CLAB, the central intermediate storage for spent fuel, has been in operation since 1985. The SKB Sea Transportation System consists today of the purpose built ship M/s Sigyn, 10 transport casks for spent fuel, 2 casks for spent core components, 27 IP-2 shielded steel containers for reactor waste and 5 terminal vehicles. During an average year about 250 tonnes of spent fuel and 3 -- 4000 m 3 of reactor waste are transported to CLAB and SFR respectively, corresponding to around 30 sea voyages
Department of Energy (DOE) waste storage sites will ship their contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) beginning FY 1989. The CH-TRU waste will be shipped in the Transuranic Package Transported (TRUPACT-I), a new packaging being developed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque/Transportation Technology Center. Some of the DOE TRU waste, however, might be unsuitable for shipment in TRUPACT-I, and is designated special-shipped (SS) TRU waste. The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify the quantity and characteristics of SS-TRU waste stored and generated at DOE facilities; (2) identify alternatives for managing the SS-TRU waste; and (3) make overall recommendations for managing the SS-TRU waste. Data on quantity and characteristics were gathered through coordinating visits to the sites and extracting information from each site's records. Representatives of DOE organizations and contractors set objectives for managing the SS-TRU waste. Alternative shipping systems were then identified for CH SS-TRU waste and RH SS-TRU waste. Evaluations of these alternatives considered how well they would satisfy each objective, and associated potential problems. The study recommends delaying the decision on how best to transport the CH SS-TRU waste to WIPP until the amount of SS-TRU processed waste in heavy drums is known. These conditions and choices are presented: a relatively small number of processed, heavy drums could be shipped most economically via TRUPACT-I, mixed with lighter drums of unprocessed waste. If a large number of heavy drums is to be shipped, a shorter and narrower version of TRUPACT-I would be preferred alternative. The Defense High-Level Waste cask is the recommended alternative system for shipping RH SS-TRU waste. 12 references, 15 figures, 22 tables
Raza, W.; Hussain, Q.; Shen, Q.
Bacillus subtilis produces a catecholate type siderophore 'Bacillibactin'. This review focuses on the non-ribosomal synthesis, transport and regulation of bacillibactin. Bacillibactin biosynthetic operon contains five genes (dhbACEBF). The uptake of bacillibactin requires the FeuABC transporter, inner-membrane permease, FepDG and YusV ATPase and an esterase encoding gene, besA and while export required YmfE major facilitator super-family (MFS)-type transporter. Fur is the major iron-controlled transcriptional regulator in B. subtilis, which acts as an iron-dependent repressor of the dhb operon in vivo while an iron-independent repressor in vitro. Knowledge of the Fur regulon will be useful in interpreting other global analysis of transcriptional responses. (author)
Marunaka, Yoshinori; Niisato, Naomi; Taruno, Akiyuki; Ohta, Mariko; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Nishio, Kyosuke; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Nakahari, Takashi; Kubota, Takahiro
Renal epithelial Na+ transport plays an important role in homeostasis of our body fluid content and blood pressure. Further, the Na+ transport in alveolar epithelial cells essentially controls the amount of alveolar fluid that should be kept at an appropriate level for normal gas exchange. The epithelial Na+ transport is generally mediated through two steps: (1) the entry step of Na+ via epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) at the apical membrane and (2) the extrusion step of Na+ via the Na+, K+-ATPase at the basolateral membrane. In general, the Na+ entry via ENaC is the rate-limiting step. Therefore, the regulation of ENaC plays an essential role in control of blood pressure and normal gas exchange. In this paper, we discuss two major factors in ENaC regulation: (1) activity of individual ENaC and (2) number of ENaC located at the apical membrane. PMID:22028593
Hakozaki, K.; Wada, R.
Kobe Steel, Ltd. (KSL) and Transnuclear Tokyo (TNT) have jointly developed a new waste management system concept (called ''Inner packaging system'') for high dose rate wastes generated from nuclear power plants under cooperation with Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The inner packaging system is designed as a total management system dedicated to the wastes from nuclear plants in Japan, covering from the wastes conditioning in power plants up to the disposal in final repository. This paper presents the new waste management system concept
Makkonen, Teemu; Repka, Sari
, contrasting views, arguing that environmental regulations will, in fact, enhance firms’ competitiveness by inducing innovation, have also been voiced. Here this issue is examined through a literature review on the innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations (i.e. the Porter Hypothesis......), in general, and the economic impacts of environmental regulations (here Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention) as it applies to shipping in Northern Europe, in particular. According to the review, the literature is still inconclusive and lacks a clear consensus on the economic and innovation inducement impacts......Maritime transport is facing wide-ranking challenges due to stricter environmental regulations. It has been positioned that these stricter environmental regulations will significantly hamper the competitiveness of the shipping industry and other export/import oriented industries. However...
The Radioactive Material Transportation Department (RMT) ensures regulatory compliance in radioactive material shipping within Ontario Power Generation (OPG). OPG provides a radioactive shipping program, high quality carrier service, stringent packaging maintenance, and quality assurance oversight to the corporation's nuclear facilities and its customers. This paper will speak to the transport of radioactive waste in Ontario Power Generation. It will also mention non-waste shipments and the quality assurance programme used at Ontario Power Generation to ensure a high quality transportation system. (author)
Eveloff, J.L.; Warnock, D.G.
This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K + and Cl - conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca 2+ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchange systems
DOE regulation of mixed waste. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power and the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H. R. 2009 and H. R. 2593, April 10, 1986
Testimony by representatives of the Environmental Protection Agency, citizen environmental organizations, DOE, and universities on the Mixed Hazardous Waste Amendment Act of 1985 (H.R. 2009) and the Military Radioactive Emissions Control Act of 1985 (H.R. 2593) focused on safety aspects of mixed wastes at DOE facilities from the point of view of the general public and the implications for tourism and recreation in affected areas. H.R. 2593 calls for standards and continuous independent monitoring, while H.R. 2009 ensures that wastes the Solid Waste Management Act covers solid wastes containing radioactive material. The testimony covered definitions and interpretations by byproduct material and the problems associated with self-regulation. The testimony of the 10 witnesses follows the text of the two bills.
DOE regulation of mixed waste. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power and the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 2009 and H.R. 2593, April 10, 1986
Testimony by representatives of the Environmental Protection Agency, citizen environmental organizations, DOE, and universities on the Mixed Hazardous Waste Amendment Act of 1985 (H.R. 2009) and the Military Radioactive Emissions Control Act of 1985 (H.R. 2593) focused on safety aspects of mixed wastes at DOE facilities from the point of view of the general public and the implications for tourism and recreation in affected areas. H.R. 2593 calls for standards and continuous independent monitoring, while H.R. 2009 ensures that wastes the Solid Waste Management Act covers solid wastes containing radioactive material. The testimony covered definitions and interpretations by byproduct material and the problems associated with self-regulation. The testimony of the 10 witnesses follows the text of the two bills
This report has been produced to be complementary to the previously issued report ''The Transport Implications of Regional Policies for The Disposal of Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes''. The same combinations of disposal facilities have been used so that direct comparison with intermediate waste results can be made. Low level wastes and short-lived intermediate level wastes for near-surface disposal are assumed to share a common infrastructure on the rail system and hence a methodology of separating total costs between these two waste types has been derived. Two transport modes, road and rail have been analysed. Hybrid transport, a combination of road and rail systems, has not been examined since no site is considered to produce sufficient waste to justify a dedicated rail service. Sellafield, has not been included in this examination since it is assumed to be served by its own disposal site at Drigg. (author)
Kristensen, Anders S; Andersen, Jacob; Jørgensen, Trine N
The neurotransmitter transporters (NTTs) belonging to the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) gene family (also referred to as the neurotransmitter-sodium-symporter family or Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters) comprise a group of nine sodium- and chloride-dependent plasma membrane transporters...... for the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), dopamine, and norepinephrine, and the amino acid neurotransmitters GABA and glycine. The SLC6 NTTs are widely expressed in the mammalian brain and play an essential role in regulating neurotransmitter signaling and homeostasis by mediating uptake...... of released neurotransmitters from the extracellular space into neurons and glial cells. The transporters are targets for a wide range of therapeutic drugs used in treatment of psychiatric diseases, including major depression, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy...
Trevorrow, L.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Kolba, V.M.; Steindler, M.J.
This report summarizes the information base that was collected and reviewed in preparation for carrying out an analysis of the compatibility with regulations of waste management technologies for disposal of H-3, I-129, C-14, and Kr-85. Based on the review of this literature, summaries are presented here of waste-form characteristics, packaging, transportation, and disposal methods. Also discussed are regulations that might apply to all operations involved in disposal of the four nuclides, including the processing of irradiated fuel in a fuel reprocessing plant, packaging, storage, transport, and final disposal. The compliance assessment derived from this information is reported in a separate document. 309 references
Michels, L.; Dybeck, P.
The ATB-8K container has been developed on behalf of SKB, the Swedish nuclear fuel and waste management organization, to transport large volumes of radioactive waste conditioned in moulds and drums, or large size scrap components, from nuclear facilities to the Swedish Final Repository for radioactive waste (SFR). In most cases the waste is under LSA form, but when the dose rate at 3 meters from the unshielded object exceeds 10 mSv/h, the transport packaging must been the regulatory requirements applicable to type B(U) packages, with no fissile content. Considering the dose rate around the package, it will be transported under exclusive use. The ATB-8k packaging is therefore a type B(U) packaging, specially designed for the transportation of high activity conditioned waste. (authors)
The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government
Whitehouse, J.C.; Burket, P.R.; Crowley, D.A.; Hansen, E.K.; Jantzen, C.M.; Smith, M.E.; Singer, R.P.; Young, S.R.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Overcamp, T.J.; Pence, I.W. Jr.
The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large-scale, fully-integrated, transportable, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level nuclear and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and similar waste streams. The TVS was built to demonstrate the vitrification of actual mixed waste at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is working with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to apply field scale vitrification to actual mixed waste at Oak Ridge Reservation's (ORR) K-25 Site. Prior to the application of the TVS to actual mixed waste it was tested on simulated K-25 B and C Pond waste at Clemson University. This paper describes the results of that testing and preparations for the demonstration on actual mixed waste
Australian transport safety and security regulatory framework is governed by Commonwealth, State and Territory legislations. There are eleven competent authorities in Australia that includes three Commonwealth authorities, six states and two territory authorities. IAEA Regulations for Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS-R-1, 2005 edition) is applied through Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) Code of Practice for Transport of Radioactive Material 2008 by road, rail and waterways not covered by marine legislations. All states and territories apply this Transport Code through their regulatory system. For air transport, the Civil Aviation Act 1988 adopts the requirements of the ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air DOC 9284, which also adopts TS-R-1. The security of radioactive material in air transport is achieved via the Aviation Transport Security Act 2004. For sea transport Australian Marine Order 41 applies the requirements of IMDG (International Maritime Dangerous Goods) Code which also adopts TS-R-1. The security of radioactive material (nuclear material) is governed by two Commonwealth Agencies namely, ARPANSA and ASNO (Australian Safeguards and Non-proliferation Office) . ARPANSA regulates the security of radioactive sources through ARPANSA Code of Practice for the Security of Radioactive Sources 2007 which is based on the IAEA Draft Security Series. ASNO regulates security of nuclear material including U, Th and Pu through the Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act, and the object of which is to give effect to certain obligations that Australia has as a party to the NPT, Australia’s safeguards agreement with the IAEA, and other bilateral safeguards agreements and certain obligations that Australia has as a party to the Convention for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (CPPNM). This paper presents the effectiveness of regulatory approaches for safe and secure
The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.
Full Text Available A unifying feature of solid tumors is a markedly altered pH profile compared to normal tissues. This reflects that solid tumors, despite completely different origins, often share several phenotypic properties with implications for intra- and extracellular pH. These include: a metabolic shift in most cancer cells towards more acid-producing pathways, reflecting both oncogenic signaling and the development of hypoxia in poorly perfused regions of the tumors; the poorly perfused and often highly dense tumor microenvironment, reducing the diffusive flux of acid equivalents compared to that in normal tissues; and the markedly altered regulation of the expression and activity of pH-regulatory transport proteins in the cancer cells. While some of these properties of tumors have been well described in recent years, the great majority of the research in this clinically important area has focused on proton transport, in particular via the Na+/H+-exchanger 1 (SLC9A1, NHE1 and various H+ ATPases. We have, however, recently demonstrated that at least under some conditions, including in vitro models of HER2 positive breast cancer, and measurements obtained directly in freshly dissected human mammary tumors, bicarbonate transporters such as the electroneutral Na+,HCO3--cotransporter (SLC4A7, NBCn1, are upregulated and play central roles in pH regulation. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding the regulation and roles of bicarbonate transport in cancer.
Okada, Naoyuki; Sato, Masamitsu
Spindle microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes and, therefore, their assembly is an essential event in mitosis. To carry out their mission, many key players for microtubule formation need to be strictly orchestrated. Particularly, proteins that assemble the spindle need to be translocated at appropriate sites during mitosis. A small GTPase (hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate), Ran, controls this translocation. Ran plays many roles in many cellular events: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear envelope, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and reorganization of the nuclear envelope at the mitotic exit. Although these events are seemingly distinct, recent studies demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are substantially the same as explained by molecular interplay of the master regulator Ran, the transport factor importin, and its cargo proteins. Our review focuses on how the transport machinery regulates mitotic progression of cells. We summarize translocation mechanisms governed by Ran and its regulatory proteins, and particularly focus on Ran-GTP targets in fission yeast that promote spindle formation. We also discuss the coordination of the spatial and temporal regulation of proteins from the viewpoint of transport machinery. We propose that the transport machinery is an essential key that couples the spatial and temporal events in cells. PMID:26308057
The Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB) is an on-line information service containing detailed information on legislation and regulations regarding the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The system is dedicated to serving the legislative and regulatory information needs of the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local governments; the hazardous materials transportation industry; and interested members of the general public. In addition to the on-line information service, quarterly and annual Legal Developments Reports are produced using information from the TLDB. These reports summarize important changes in federal and state legislation, regulations, administrative agency rulings, and judicial decisions over the reporting period. Information on significant legal developments at the tribal and local levels is also included on an as-available basis. Battelle's Office of Transportation Systems and Planning (OTSP) will also perform customized searches of the TLDB and produce formatted printouts in response to specific information requests
Wilmot, E.L.; Philpott, R.E.
Late in 1982, the United States Congress enacted legislation for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The policy, embodied in Public Law 97-425 and referred to as the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), mandates that the Department of Energy (DOE) be responsible for the transport of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste from their points of origin to facilities constructed under provisions of the NWPA. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the preliminary transportation policies and plans developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), within the DOE, to respond to the NWPA mandate
Vlahakis, J.G.; Palabrica, R.J.
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) has successfully negotiated the issuance of a Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters Order that provides for exemption of RW from certain DOE directives. This exemption assures precedence of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements in radiation protection, nuclear safety (including quality assurance), and safeguards and security of nuclear materials. This Order is necessary to avoid the unwarranted cost and potential confusion resulting from dual regulation of RW facilities and activities by DOE and NRC. Development of this Order involved a systematic review of applicable DOE directives and NRC requirements to identify potential overlaps and duplication when applied to the RW program. Following this review and extensive negotiations with appropriate DOE organizations responsible for directives development, this Order was issued as HQ 1321.1 on December 22, 1993
Allsop, R.E.; Banister, D.J.; Holden, D.J.; Bird, J.; Downe, H.E.
A methodology is proposed for taking into account non-radiological social aspects of the transport of low and intermediate level radioactive waste when considering the location of disposal facilities and the transport of waste to such facilities from the sites where it arises. As part of a data acquisition programme, an attitudinal survey of a sample of people unconnected with any suggested site or transport route is proposed in order to estimate levels of concern felt by people of different kinds about waste transport. Probabilities of accident occurrence during transport by road and rail are also discussed, and the limited extent of quantified information about consequences of accidents is reviewed. The scope for malicious interference with consignments of waste in transit is considered. (author)
Brittinger, M.T.M.; Wangler, M.E.
Based on a 1959 mandate from the United Nations Economic and Social Council, international safety requirements are embodied in the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' that were first published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1961 and revised in 1967, 1973, 1985 and 1996 to keep them abreast of scientific and technical developments. The requirements are incorporated into the regulatory documents of the International Civil Aviation Organization for air transport, and the International Maritime Organization for marine transport. As the requirements of the latter documents are legally-binding for the member states of the corresponding organizations, the IAEA safety requirements thus also become mandatory in those countries. The same situation applies for the surface modes in Europe, by means of the regulatory documents of the European Community for rail, road and inland waterways. Nevertheless, the IAEA has not relaxed its efforts to ensure that its Transport Regulations stay abreast of scientific and technical developments; on the contrary, it has been undertaking a regular and vigorous review of its safety requirements, and continues to do so with the assistance of Member States and relevant international organizations. Beyond providing the regulatory basis for the safe transport of radioactive material, however, the IAEA also offers a work programme under which it assists Member States in complying with the regulatory requirements. This assistance comes in the form of providing training on the safety requirements, and publishing documents that facilitate the exchange of information
Regulation of radioactive mixed waste is a topic that has received much attention in the past several years. Much of the discussion and confusion stemmed from uncertainty about applicable regulatory authorities. On July 3, 1986, EPA clarified its position that the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) applied to the hazardous component of radioactive mixed waste. The Agency announced this clarification in the Federal Register and informed States that they must seek authority to regulate mixed waste in order to obtain or maintain RCRA authorization to administer and enforce a hazardous waste program in lieu of EPA. Since that time, five States have received authorization to regulate mixed waste: Colorado, South Carolina, Tennessee, Washington, and Georgia. Authorized States issue RCRA permits in lieu of EPA. Currently, 44 States have been authorized for the base RCRA program, Conversely, 12 States and Trust Territories have no RCRA authorization. In these States and territories, EPA administers that RCRA hazardous waste program. A more stringent State requirement occurs when a State allows less time for compliance than would be provided under Federal law, for example. There is a third authorization category with respect to mixed waste that I have yet to address. This category is made up of States which have EPA authorization to regulate hazardous waste but have yet to obtain mixed waste authorization. Most States fall into this category. In these States, of which there are 39, mixed wastes are not hazardous wastes and subject to Subtitle C regulations
... Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM... General § 1300.3 Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. (a) The regulations in this part are supplemented by the regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board in...
Zsigraiova, Zdena; Tavares, Gilberto; Semiao, Viriato; Carvalho, Maria de Graca
Usually in islands both primary energy sources and drinking water are missing. Additionally, municipal solid waste (MSW) must be managed avoiding exclusive use of landfills, which limits sustainable development. Power generation from MSW incineration contributes significantly to replacing energy produced from fossil fuels and to reduce overall emissions. A solution based on thermodynamics, environmental and economic analyses and 3D-GIS modelling for the afore-mentioned problems for Cape Verde is proposed. This model integrates waste transportation optimisation and incineration with energy recovery combining production of heat and power (CHP), the heat being used for drinking water production. The results show that extraction condensing steam turbines are more suitable when power production is a priority (5.0 MW with 4000 m 3 /d of drinking water), whereas back-pressure turbines yield 5540-6650 m 3 /d of drinking water with an additional power production of 3.3-4.7 MW. The environmental and economic assessment performed shows the feasibility of the proposed CHP solution, which brings a considerable reduction in net air emissions (1.6 kt), including a significant decrease in the greenhouse gas emissions (131 ktCO 2 ), and that the revenue from energy sales ( Euro 15 million) has potential to balance the incineration cost. Moreover, when terrain relief is accounted for in the route optimisation for minimum fuel consumption, savings up to 11% are obtained.
A project devoted to evaluation of mechanisms and rates of radioactive waste transport in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks is described. The research effort includes/ (1) calculation of the range of concentration expected for different radionuclides in given geologic environments by computer simulation of the groundwater chemistry; (2) development of a comprehensive theory relating exchange constants (K/sub D/s) to significant variables; (3) fabrication of test equipment to measure waste radionuclide transport rates in rock samples; (4) identification of transport rate controlling mechanisms; (5) experiments to determine K/sub D/ values for important radioactive waste elements for a variety of rock types and environmental conditions
Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)
Metzger, J.C.; Snyder, A.M.
The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory stores transuranic (TRU)-contaminated waste emitting significant amounts of beta-gamma radiation. This material is referred to as intermediate-level TRU waste. The Energy Research and Development Administration requires that this waste be stored retrievably during the interim before a Federal repository becomes operational. Waste form and packaging criteria for the eventual storage of this waste at a Federal repository, i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), have been tentatively established. The packaging and storage techniques now in use at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are compatible with these criteria and also meet the requirement that the waste containers remain in a readily-retrievable, contamination-free condition during the interim storage period. The Intermediate Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) provides below-grade storage in steel pipe vaults for intermediate-level TRU waste prior to shipment to the WIPP. Designated waste generating facilities, operated for the Energy Research and Development Administration, use a variety of packaging and transportation methods to deliver this waste to the ILTSF. Transfer of the waste containers to the ILTSF storage vaults is accomplished using handling methods compatible with these waste packaging and transport methods
Regulation of above-ground oil and waste containers. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Tourism, and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, January 26, 1988
Representatives from the petroleum industry, US EPA, National Bureau of Standards and Congress were among those testifying at a hearing to discuss one of the worst inland environmental disasters in this Nation's history. The January 2 collapse of the Ashland Oil Co.'s storage tank in Floreffe, Pennsylvania resulted in the release of some 4 million gallons of diesel fuel. Approximately a million gallons escaped the containment structures and spilled over into the Monongahela River. This spill has contaminated the drinking water sources for millions of people downstream, from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati to Louisville, and beyond. Attention is focused on the causes of this tank's collapse, the response measures taken by Ashland Oil, the Coast Guard, the EPA, and the need for tighter federal regulations of above-ground tanks used for the storage of petroleum and hazardous substances.
Joy, D.S.; Holcomb, B.D.
Mathematical modeling of the logistics of waste shipment is an effective way to provide input to program planning and long-range waste management. Several logistics models have been developed for use in parametric studies, contingency planning, and management of transportation networks. These models allow the determination of shipping schedules, optimal routes, probable transportation modes, minimal costs, minimal personnel exposure, minimal transportation equipment, etc. Such information will permit OWI to specify waste-receiving rates at various repositories in order to balance work loads, evaluate surge capacity requirements, and estimate projected shipping cask fleets. The programs are tailored to utilize information on the types of wastes being received, location of repositories and waste-generating facilities, shipping distances, time required for a given shipment, availability of equipment, above-ground storage capabilities and locations, projected waste throughput rates, etc. Two basic models have been developed. The Low-Level Waste Model evaluates the optimal transportation policy for shipping waste directly from the source to a final destination without any intermediate stops. The Spent Fuel Logistics Model evaluates the optimal transportation policy for shipping unreprocessed spent fuel from nuclear power plants (1) indirectly, that is, to an Away-From-Reactor (AFR) storage facility, with subsequent transhipment to a repository, or (2) directly to a repository
A method of developing waste package performance requirements for specific nuclides is described. The method is based on: Federal regulations concerning permissible concentrations in solution at the point of discharge to the accessible environment; a simple and conservative transport model; baseline and potential worst-case release scenarios. Use of the transport model enables calculation of maximum permissible release rates within a repository in basalt for each of the scenarios. The maximum permissible release rates correspond to performance requirements for the engineered barrier system. The repository was assumed to be constructed in a basalt layer. For the cases considered, including a well drilled into an aquifer 1750 m from the repository center, little significant advantage is obtained from a 1000-yr as opposed to a 100-yr waste package. A 1000-yr waste package is of importance only for nuclides with half-lives much less than 100 yr which travel to the accessible environment in much less than 1000 yr. Such short travel times are extremely unlikely for a mined repository. Among the actinides, the most stringent maximum permissible release rates are for 236 U and 234 U. A simple solubility calculation suggests, however, that these performance requirements can be readily met by the engineered barrier system. Under the reducing conditions likely to occur in a repository located in basalt, uranium would be sufficiently insoluble that no solution could contain more than about 0.01% of the maximum permissible concentration at saturation. The performance requirements derived from the one-dimensional modeling approach are conservative by at least one to two orders of magnitude. More quantitative three-dimensional modeling at specific sites should enable relaxation of the performance criteria derived in this study. 12 references, 8 figures, 8 tables
Chaerul, M.; Mulananda, A. M.
Indonesia still adopts the concept of collect-haul-dispose for municipal solid waste handling and it leads to the queue of the waste trucks at final disposal site (TPA). The study aims to minimize the total distance of waste transportation system by applying a Transshipment model. In this case, analogous of transshipment point is a compaction facility (SPA). Small capacity of trucks collects the waste from waste temporary collection points (TPS) to the compaction facility which located near the waste generator. After compacted, the waste is transported using big capacity of trucks to the final disposal site which is located far away from city. Problem related with the waste transportation can be solved using Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). In this study, the shortest distance of route from truck pool to TPS, TPS to SPA, and SPA to TPA was determined by using meta-heuristic methods, namely Tabu Search 2 Phases. TPS studied is the container type with total 43 units throughout the West Jakarta City with 38 units of Armroll truck with capacity of 10 m3 each. The result determines the assignment of each truck from the pool to the selected TPS, SPA and TPA with the total minimum distance of 2,675.3 KM. The minimum distance causing the total cost for waste transportation to be spent by the government also becomes minimal.
Full Text Available In the future, not any society (even the most advanced society can exists without waste formed by production processes or by any human activity. Increasing of the waste volume as well as its structure influences the living space of the mankind in a negative way. Therefore, the production, disposal or the exploitation of the waste is not only ecological but also the economical problem for the whole society. New methods of handling and disposal of the waste are preferred. This contribution is oriented on the application of micrologistics proceedings in order to reach a more effective system of transporting and handling with the waste.
Kostyshak, Mikhail; Lunyakov, Mikhail
Relevance of the topic of selected research is conditioned with the growth of construction operations and growth rates of construction and demolition wastes. This article considers modern approaches to the management of turnover of construction waste, sequence of reconstruction or demolition processes of the building, information flow of the complete cycle of turnover of construction and demolition waste, methods for improvement of the material and transport component of the construction waste management system. Performed analysis showed that mechanism of management of construction waste allows to increase efficiency and environmental safety of this branch and regions.
McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.
Licensing and regulation of commercial low-level waste (CLLW) burial facilities require that anticipated risks associated with burial sites be evaluated for the life of the facility. This work reviewed the existing capability to evaluate dose to man resulting from the potential redistribution of buried radionuclides by plants and animals that we have termed biotic transport. Through biotic transport, radionuclides can be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man. We found that predictive models currently in use did not address the long-term risks resulting from the cumulative transport of radionuclides. Although reports in the literature confirm that biotic transport phenomena are common, assessments routinely ignore the associated risks or dismiss them as insignificant without quantitative evaluation. To determine the potential impacts of biotic transport, we made order-of-magnitude estimates of the dose to man for biotic transport processes at reference arid and humid CLLW disposal sites. Estimated doses to site residents after assumed loss of institutional control were comparable to dose estimates for the intruder-agricultural scenario defined in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by order of magnitude estimates presented in this study. 17 references, 10 figures, 8 tables
Peri, G; Ferrante, P; La Gennusa, M; Pianello, C; Rizzo, G
Municipal solid waste (MSW) management constitutes a highly challenging issue to cope with in order of moving towards more sustainable urban policies. Despite new Standards call for recycling and reusing materials contained in the urban waste, several municipalities still use landfilling as a waste disposal method. Other than the environmental pressure exerted by these plants, waste transportation from the collection points to the landfill needs a specific attention to correctly assess the whole burden of the waste management systems. In this paper, the Ecological Footprint (EF) indicator is applied to the actual MSW of the city of Palermo (Sicily). Results show that the effects produced by the involved transportation vehicles are not negligible, compared to those generated by the other segments of the waste management system. This issue is further deepened by analysing the role of transportation in an upgraded waste management system that is represented by the newly designed waste management plan of Palermo. The computed saved ecological footprint is used here for suitably comparing the environmental performances of the MSW system in both scenarios. Finally, the suitability of the EF method to address not only complete waste management plans but also single segments of the waste management system, is also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The notes attempt to provide some broad general guidance to users as to the purpose of the regulations and their working out in practice. They contain also the scientific background to the classification of radioisotopes for transport purposes given in the regulations. Furthermore, an approach was made to the difficult question of design of containers in relation to the factors that have to be taken into account by competent authorities in approving Type B containers, with a view both to helping those concerned on both sides of this transport problem, and to stimulating further thought on the subject, in order to build up a corpus of practical experience in this field.
Healthcare units generate substantial amounts of hazardous or potentially hazardous wastes as by-products of their medical services. The inappropriate management of these wastes poses significant risks to people and the environment. In Portugal, as in other EU countries, the collection, storage, treatment and disposal of healthcare waste is regulated by law. Although legal provisions covering the safe management of healthcare waste date back to the 1990s, little is known about the compliance ...
Tanaka, K.; Yoshida, K.; Miyamoto, J.; Sanui, T.; Noura, T.; Kitanishi, K.; Nara, S.
Nuclear Fuel Transport Co, Ltd. (hereafter called NFT) was the first in Japan to transport low-level radioactive waste (LLW). It is now engaged in preparatory operations with the slogan 'Improved Safety and Reliability' and is introducing advanced mechanization systems to provide safety and reliability in software management such as transportation planning and transportation information management. The following is an introduction of these systems, which provide overall support in transportation planning determination and transportation management operations related to the LLW transportation cycle. (J.P.N.)
Sharma, Prabhakar; Goel, Gaurav
Before installing any nuclear power- generation plants in India, it is important to implement stringent regulations for the health and safety of the people and for protection of the environment, soil and water from the nuclear and hazardous waste produced in the power plants. Although some initiatives have been taken for radioactive waste disposal in India, the current hazardous and nuclear waste storage/disposal regulations are still too soft and are not being implemented properly in the country
This document is an IAEA publication which identifies and discusses the interfaces and the interface requirements between high level waste, the waste transport system used for carriage of the waste to the disposal facility, and the high level waste disposal facility. The development of this document was prompted in part by the initiatives in various Member States to select, characterize and design the facilities for potential high level waste geological repositories. These initiatives have progressed to the point where an international document would be useful in calling attention to the need for establishing, in a systematic way, interfaces and interface requirements between the transport systems to be used and the waste disposal packages and geological repository. Refs, figs and tabs
In April 1985 the 1985 Edition of the IAEA Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, was issued. This is a completely revised edition which shall come into force internationally in the late eighties. This edition will supersede the 1973 (As Amended, 1979) edition. A paragraph by paragraph comparison is carried through, followed by a consideration on the impact on general requirements for packaging and transport. A detailed estimate on packaging design and transport is performed for typical products of the nuclear fuel cycle. The major practical consequences likely to be encountered are presented
Best, R.E.; Allen, J.H.; Aucoin, P.A.; Ball, G.D.; Hoffman, C.C.; Mason, M.E.; Propes, W.A.; Vizzini, T.A.
This document is a compilation of data and reports that provide an overview of the capabilities of U.S. domestic transportation systems for the shipment of materials that are or may be classified as radioactive wastes
This document describes the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM) Program as supported by the President's Fiscal Year (FY) 1987 Budget Request to Congress. It specifically addresses the program's organization, objectives, strategies, and plans for FY 1987
Within Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti, qualification tests were performed on packages, designed for transport and storage of low activity radioactive waste. Risk assessment activities aiming the evaluation of risk categories that many arise either during accident free transport or during accident conditions of waste transportation to the disposal center, in Romania, have been approached. The accident rates calculation, the distribution within accident scenarios and overall effective collective dose (man.Sv/year),for routine road transportation and the accidental Risk (man.Sv/Year) were determined
Pech, R.; Verdier, A.
A multiple-year research effort by Cogema culminated in the development of a new process to immobilize nuclear waste in concrete overpacks reinforced with metal fibers. The fiber concrete overpacks satisfy all French safety requirements relating to waste immobilization and disposal, and have been certified by Andra, the national radioactive waste management agency. This presentation will cover the use of the fiber-reinforced concrete overpack for disposal and transportation, and will discuss their fabrication. (J.P.N.)
McFarland, R.D.; Brewer, G.R.; Rofer, C.K.
Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is the destruction of hazardous waste by oxidation in the presence of water at temperatures and pressures above its critical point. A 1 gal/h SCWO waste destruction unit (WDU) has been designed, built, and operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This unit is transportable and is intended to demonstrate the SCWO technology on wastes at Department of Energy sites. This report describes the design of the WDU and the preliminary testing phase leading to demonstration
Semenova, Irina; Ikeda, Kazuho; Resaul, Karim; Kraikivski, Pavel; Aguiar, Mike; Gygi, Steven; Zaliapin, Ilya; Cowan, Ann; Rodionov, Vladimir
Microtubule (MT)-based transport of organelles driven by the opposing MT motors kinesins and dynein is tightly regulated in cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we tested the regulation of MT transport by the ubiquitous protein MAP4 using Xenopus melanophores as an experimental system. In these cells, pigment granules (melanosomes) move along MTs to the cell center (aggregation) or to the periphery (dispersion) by means of cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-2, respectively. We found that aggregation signals induced phosphorylation of threonine residues in the MT-binding domain of the Xenopus MAP4 (XMAP4), thus decreasing binding of this protein to MTs. Overexpression of XMAP4 inhibited pigment aggregation by shortening dynein-dependent MT runs of melanosomes, whereas removal of XMAP4 from MTs reduced the length of kinesin-2–dependent runs and suppressed pigment dispersion. We hypothesize that binding of XMAP4 to MTs negatively regulates dynein-dependent movement of melanosomes and positively regulates kinesin-2–based movement. Phosphorylation during pigment aggregation reduces binding of XMAP4 to MTs, thus increasing dynein-dependent and decreasing kinesin-2–dependent motility of melanosomes, which stimulates their accumulation in the cell center, whereas dephosphorylation of XMAP4 during dispersion has an opposite effect. PMID:25143402
Kempe, T.F.; Martin, A.
The objectives of the study were to review non site-specific engineering features of the storage, transport and handling of vitrified high level radioactive waste prior to its transfer into an underground repository, and to identify those features which require validation or development. Section headings are: introduction (historical and technical background); characteristics and arisings of vitrified high level waste; overpacks (additional containment barrier, corrosion resistant); interim storage of HLW; transport of HLW; handling; conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)
Sentuc, F.N.; Bruecher, W.
A transport risk assessment study has been conducted for transport of radioactive waste with negligible heat-generation to the German final repository Konrad. This study is a revision of the former Konrad Transport Study performed by GRS in 1991 implementing updated waste data among other improved methods and assumptions for the purpose of a more realistic approach to risk assessment. The first part of the transport risk assessment study concerns the radiological consequences from normal (accident-free) transportation of radioactive material, i.e. the radiation exposure of transport personnel and the public. Based on the assessed detailed information on transport arrangements and on the average number and radiological characteristics of waste packages the maximum annual effective doses for the representative persons were estimated. The risk associated with transport incidents and accidents has been quantified for the area within a radius of 25 km around the repository site. The probabilistic method adopted in this study considers parameters as the frequency and severity of railway or road accidents, characteristics of radioactive waste and transport packagings and the frequency of atmospheric dispersion conditions. From a large set of parameter combinations the spectrum of potential radiological consequences and of the associated probability of occurrence was assessed. (orig.)
Hamard, J.; Ringot, C.
The publication of new ICRP recommendations will involve the revision of IAEA standards and consequently the revision of transport regulations for radioactive materials. Transport regulations are briefly reviewed and application for radiation protection of workers and public is examined. Influence of new recommendations on transport regulations and eventual modifications on classification and transport of materials, packaging design and permissible exposure for workers and public in the prospect of regulation revision forecasted for 1995
Prior and after the conditioning of radioactive wastes is the packaging design of uppermost importance since it will be the first barrier against water and human intrusion. The choice of the proper package according waste category as well criteria utilized for final disposal are shown. (author) [pt
McLeod, Fraser; Cherrett, Tom
This paper models the effects of three different options for domestic waste collection using data from three Hampshire authorities: (i) joint working between neighbouring waste collection authorities; (ii) basing vehicles at waste disposal sites; and (iii) alternate weekly collection of residual waste and dry recyclables. A vehicle mileage savings of 3% was modelled for joint working, where existing vehicle allocations to depots were maintained, which increased to 5.9% when vehicles were re-allocated to depots optimally. Vehicle mileage was reduced by 13.5% when the collection rounds were based out of the two waste disposal sites rather than out of the existing depots, suggesting that the former could be the most effective place to keep vehicles providing that travel arrangements for the crews could be made. Alternate weekly collection was modelled to reduce vehicle mileage by around 8% and time taken by 14%, when compared with a typical scenario of weekly collection of residual and fortnightly collection of recyclable waste. These results were based on an assumption that 20% of the residual waste would be directly diverted into the dry recyclables waste stream.
McLeod, Fraser; Cherrett, Tom
This paper models the effects of three different options for domestic waste collection using data from three Hampshire authorities: (i) joint working between neighbouring waste collection authorities; (ii) basing vehicles at waste disposal sites; and (iii) alternate weekly collection of residual waste and dry recyclables. A vehicle mileage savings of 3% was modelled for joint working, where existing vehicle allocations to depots were maintained, which increased to 5.9% when vehicles were re-allocated to depots optimally. Vehicle mileage was reduced by 13.5% when the collection rounds were based out of the two waste disposal sites rather than out of the existing depots, suggesting that the former could be the most effective place to keep vehicles providing that travel arrangements for the crews could be made. Alternate weekly collection was modelled to reduce vehicle mileage by around 8% and time taken by 14%, when compared with a typical scenario of weekly collection of residual and fortnightly collection of recyclable waste. These results were based on an assumption that 20% of the residual waste would be directly diverted into the dry recyclables waste stream
Hutchinson, D.L.; Gray, I.L.S.; Manville, W.D.
UK Nirex Ltd is planning a deep repository for intermediate level radioactive waste, and also some low level waste. Part of this work is to develop a transport system to bring the packaged waste to the repository from nuclear industry sites across the United Kingdom. To assess the logistics and costs of this transport system and to provide inputs to the repository specification and design, Nirex has commissioned the development of a flexible computer model which can be used on a desktop PC. The requirements for the LOGCOST model are explained, and the solutions adopted, and then examples shown of the graphical and tabular outputs that LOGCOST can provide. (Author)
The author examines the background of this suit, which invalidated a municipal law prohibiting the transportation of large quantities of radioactive waste through city streets. The analysis focuses on two major issues: (1) whether the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act gives the Department of Transportation (DOT) the rulemaking power to preempt local law, and (2) whether DOT should have prepared an environmental impact statement before rulemaking. It concludes that DOT's action was arbitrary, and suggests some intermediate actions that would aid DOT in making a more informed decision. This could include a verification of DOT environmental assessment data and a more complete analysis of human error. The case illustrates the need for a lesser degree of judicial deference to federal agency action with respect to the volatile and unpredictable area of hazardous waste transportation
Floriani, E; Ciraolo, G; Ghendrih, Ph; Sarazin, Y; Lima, R
The interplay between turbulent bursts and transport barriers is analyzed with a simplified model of interchange turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. The turbulent bursts spread into the transport barriers and, depending on the competing magnitude of the burst and stopping capability of the barrier, can burn through. Simulations of two models of transport barriers are presented: a hard barrier where interchange turbulence modes are stable in a prescribed region and a soft barrier with external plasma biasing. The response of the transport barriers to the non-linear perturbations of the turbulent bursts, addressed in a predator–prey approach, indicates that the barriers monitor an amplification factor of the turbulent bursts, with amplification smaller than one for most bursts and, in some cases, amplification factors that can significantly exceed unity. The weak barriers in corrugated profiles and magnetic structures, as well as the standard barriers, are characterized by these transmission properties, which then regulate the turbulent burst transport properties. The interplays of barriers and turbulent bursts are modeled as competing stochastic processes. For different classes of the probability density function (PDF) of these processes, one can predict the heavy tail properties of the bursts downstream from the barrier, either exponential for a leaky barrier, or with power laws for a tight barrier. The intrinsic probing of the transport barriers by the turbulent bursts thus gives access to the properties of the barriers. The main stochastic variables are the barrier width and the spreading distance of the turbulent bursts within the barrier, together with their level of correlation. One finds that in the case of a barrier with volumetric losses, such as radiation or particle losses as addressed in our present simulations, the stochastic model predicts a leaky behavior with an exponential PDF of escaping turbulent bursts in agreement with the simulation
Liu, X.; Ortoleva, P.
The use of reaction-transport modeling for reservoir assessment and management in the context of deep well waste injection is evaluated. The study is based on CIRF.A (Chemical Interaction of Rock and Fluid), a fully coupled multiphase flow, contaminant transport, and fluid and mineral reaction model. Although SWIFT (Sandia Waste-Isolation Flow and Transport Model) is often the numerical model of choice, it can not account for chemical reactions involving rock, wastes, and formation fluids and their effects on contaminant transport, rock permeability and porosity, and the integrity of the reservoir and confining units. CIRF.A can simulate all these processes. Two field cases of waste injection were simulated by CIRF.A. Both observation data and simulation results show mineral precipitation in one case and rock dissolution in another case. Precipitation and dissolution change rock porosity and permeability, and hence the pattern of fluid migration. The model is shown to be invaluable in analyzing near borehole and reservoir-scale effects during waste injection and predicting the 10,000 year fate of the waste plume. The benefits of using underpressured compartments as waste repositories were also demonstrated by CIRF.A simulations
Hoffmann, Else Kay; Schettino, T; Marshall, W S
This review focuses on using the knowledge on volume-sensitive transport systems in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells and NIH-3T3 cells to elucidate osmotic regulation of salt transport in epithelia. Using the intestine of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) (an absorptive epithelium of the type...... on the apical side and the Na+/K+ ATPase, NKCC1 and a K+ channel on the basolateral side. Osmotic control of Cl- secretion across the operculum epithelium includes: (i) hyperosmotic shrinkage activation of NKCC1 via PKC, MLCK, p38, OSR1 and SPAK; (ii) deactivation of NKCC by hypotonic cell swelling...
The paper presents the national, international and European regulations regarding radioactive waste management. ANDRAD is the national authority charged with nation wide coordination of safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste including their final disposal. ANDRAD's main objectives are the following: - establishing the National Strategy concerning the safety management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel; - establishing the national repositories for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste; - developing the technical procedures and establishing norms for all stages of management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, including the disposal and the decommissioning of the nuclear and radiologic facilities
This comparison is based on the study of several regulations and conventions: French regulations for transports (by rail, road, river, sea, air, and mail), international regulations applicable in France for transports (by rail, road, air, sea, and mail), the general regulation for transport of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the convention on civil responsibility of the European Agency for Nuclear Energy. The author notices that IAEA regulation will probably prevail. He outlines the objectives and the necessity of regulations, identifies the risk factors (nature of radio-elements, physical condition of the material, type of packaging), discusses additional safety measures, outlines that risks must not be overestimated, and the importance of labelling, and then discusses the comparison of the different considered regulations. He addresses the determination of the risk associated with a transport, the issue of responsibility. The content of regulations is presented in several tables.
Fuente-Martín, Esther; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Granado, Miriam; de Ceballos, María L.; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Ángel; Sarman, Beatrix; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Dietrich, Marcelo O.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Díaz, Francisca; Argente, Jesús; Horvath, Tamas L.; Chowen, Julie A.
Glial cells perform critical functions that alter the metabolism and activity of neurons, and there is increasing interest in their role in appetite and energy balance. Leptin, a key regulator of appetite and metabolism, has previously been reported to influence glial structural proteins and morphology. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic status and leptin also modify astrocyte-specific glutamate and glucose transporters, indicating that metabolic signals influence synaptic efficacy and glucose uptake and, ultimately, neuronal function. We found that basal and glucose-stimulated electrical activity of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in mice were altered in the offspring of mothers fed a high-fat diet. In adulthood, increased body weight and fasting also altered the expression of glucose and glutamate transporters. These results demonstrate that whole-organism metabolism alters hypothalamic glial cell activity and suggest that these cells play an important role in the pathology of obesity. PMID:23064363
One of the goals of waste management in the Hanford Site 200 Areas is to prevent biological intrusion into, and transport from, waste storage and disposal sites. Practices established to achieve these goals include the elimination of deep-rooted vegetation on waste sites to prevent plant root intrusion into radioactivity, selective herbicide application to prevent regrowth of these plants, planting of shallow-rooted plants to successfully compete with deep-rooted plants for moisture, surface stabilization, and environmental surveillance. Past biological transport incidents have included transport by Russian thistle by way of physiological plant processes, bird access into exposed contamination, and animals burrowing into radioactive waste disposal sites. Rockwell Hanford Operations, through mitigative actions and continued surveillance, has made significant progress in eliminating, or better isolating source terms, thus preventing or inhibiting problems from recurring. Approximately 60% of source term acreage requiring stabilization or decontamination has been completed
Roland, V.; Chanzy, Y.
The present paper discusses experience gained in moving alpha wastes and its teachings regarding transport aspects of D and D. Alpha wastes are generated in fuel cycle facilities such as those involved in reprocessing, in manufacture of mixed oxide fuel, and by research laboratories. If a significant amount of wastes has to be transported, then a Type B packaging is required. Developed by Transnucleaire and COGEMA, the TN GEMINI container enables nuclear facilities operators to optimise their alpha waste transport management, and more generally contribute to their D and D projects. After describing succinctly the design of the TN GEMINI, the paper will explain how the packaging is being operated. Teachings from experience will be shared. (orig.)
Maryon, Edward B.; Molloy, Shannon A.; Ivy, Kristin; Yu, Huijun; Kaplan, Jack H.
Human copper transporter 1 (hCTR1) is a homotrimer of a 190-amino acid monomer having three transmembrane domains believed to form a pore for copper permeation through the plasma membrane. The hCTR1-mediated copper transport mechanism is not well understood, nor has any measurement been made of the rate at which copper ions are transported by hCTR1. In this study, we estimated the rate of copper transport by the hCTR1 trimer in cultured cells using 64Cu uptake assays and quantification of plasma membrane hCTR1. For endogenous hCTR1, we estimated a turnover number of about 10 ions/trimer/s. When overexpressed in HEK293 cells, a second transmembrane domain mutant of hCTR1 (H139R) had a 3-fold higher Km value and a 4-fold higher turnover number than WT. Truncations of the intracellular C-terminal tail and an AAA substitution of the putative metal-binding HCH C-terminal tripeptide (thought to be required for transport) also exhibited elevated transport rates and Km values when compared with WT hCTR1. Unlike WT hCTR1, H139R and the C-terminal mutants did not undergo regulatory endocytosis in elevated copper. hCTR1 mutants combining methionine substitutions that block transport (M150L,M154L) on the extracellular side of the pore and the high transport H139R or AAA intracellular side mutations exhibited the blocked transport of M150L,M154L, confirming that Cu+ first interacts with the methionines during permeation. Our results show that hCTR1 elements on the intracellular side of the hCTR1 pore, including the carboxyl tail, are not essential for permeation, but serve to regulate the rate of copper entry. PMID:23658018
Inghels, D.A.M.; Dullaert, W.E.H.; Vigo, D.
A modal shift from road transport towards inland water or rail transport could reduce the total Green House Gas emissions and societal impact associated with Municipal Solid Waste management. However, this shift will take place only if demonstrated to be at least cost-neutral for the decision
Gibson, L. A.; Tyner, J. S.; Hawkins, S. A.; Lee, J.; Buchanan, J. R.
Steroidal hormones, such as 17β-estradiol (E2), are prevalent in animal waste and are a common subject of study due to potential stream and groundwater contamination. These particular hormones are labeled as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) because of their developmental effects in reptiles and amphibians. Dairy waste at concentrated animal feeding operations is typically stored in a pond that is regulated by law to include an underlying soil liner with a minimal hydraulic conductivity to limit leaching beneath the pond, yet some studies have traced stream and groundwater contamination to these ponds. Previous studies have shown that the soil underlying earthen ponds are always unsaturated. This increases the pore water velocity relative to a given flux, which itself is dictated almost entirely by an organic seal that forms at the bottom of a waste pond. This increased velocity results in more rapid transport and less retention time within the vadose zone where E2 could biodegrade into its daughter product, estrone (E1). And since the soil is unsaturated and therefore has a negative pressure, preferential flow should not serve as a method of transport. On the contrary, E2 and E1 may sorb to mobile colloids increasing their mobility. This study will evaluate the use of biochar, an increasingly common activated carbon source, as a soil liner amendment. Biochar has a specific surface area that can exceed 1,500 m2/g and is high in organic matter, which E2 sorbs to strongly. The biochar amendment should be most effective and enduring as a layer located at the bottom of the soil liner so that the leachate has been treated by the soil prior to contact. Another proposed amendment technique is to uniformly mix the biochar within the soil liner to increase the leachate contact time with the biochar, but realistically could prove to be too costly and energy-intensive. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to analyze hormone persistence and transport processes and
Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm; Gosch-Warning, Michaela
Until 2005 the German nuclear power plant operators have contracts with AREVA NC (former COGEMA) and NDA (former BNFL) concerning the reprocessing of spent fuel elements. The reprocessed and vitrified radioactive waste has to be repatriated to Germany. Due to the reprocessing of spent fuel elements with increased burnup and the repatriation after shorter cooling time the total activity and the Cm-244 content of the high-level-waste coquilles have increased since 2008. Consequently the heat output has increased to 2 kW/coquille. Therefore the new transport cask type CASTOR registered HAW28M was developed. The authors describe the design of the casks, the licensing according to the German transport regulations, loading procedures, radiation measurements and shipment completion. In autumn 2011 the repatriation of vitrified high-level waste from France is supposed to be completed with the transport of eleven CASTOR registered HAW28M.
Søeby, Karen; Larsen, Svend Ask; Olsen, Line
The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the primary drug target in the current antidepressant therapy. A functional polymorphism in the 2nd intron of the 5HTT gene encoding the SERT has been identified and associated with susceptibility to affective disorders and treatment response to antidepressants...... in the VNTRs of all mammalian SERT genes. The number of these putative binding sites varies proportionally to the length of the VNTR. We propose that the intronic VNTR have been selectively targeted through mammalian evolution to finetune transcriptional regulation of the serotonin expression....
Søeby, Karen; Larsen, Svend Ask; Olsen, Line
The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the primary drug target in the current antidepressant therapy. A functional polymorphism in the 2nd intron of the 5HTT gene encoding the SERT has been identified and associated with susceptibility to affective disorders and treatment response to antidepressants....... This study addresses the possible impact of the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) to behavior and disease by examining the evolutionary origin and mechanisms of differential transcriptional regulation of SERT. We trace the evolutionary origin of the VNTR and show that it is present and varies...
Raoelina Andriambololona; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Solofoarisina, W.C.; Randriantseheno, H.F.
Radioactive sources are widely used in medicine, in industrial exploration and development, as well as in basic scientific research and education in Madagascar. The ability to use such radioactive materials in these sectors depends on their safe and secure transport both within and between countries. Transport safety of radioactive materials within the country is regulated. The law No. 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar promulgated in January 1998 and the decree No.2735/94 dealing the transport of radioactive materials promulgated in June 1994 govern all activities related to the transport of radioactive material. This law was established to meet the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS, IAEA Safety Series 115). It is not fully consistent with current international standards (GS-R-1). Indeed, in order to enhance the security of radioactive sources, Madagascar has implemented the Code of Conduct and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Faced with delays and denials of shipment of radioactive materials issues, the National Focal Point has been appointed to work with ISC members and the regional networks on the global basis.
Andriambololona, Raoelina; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Solofoarisina, W.C.; Randriantseheno, H.F.
Radioactive sources are widely used in medicine, in industrial exploration and development, as well as in basic scientific research and education in Madagascar. The ability to use such radioactive materials in these sectors depends on their safe and secure transport both within and between countries. Transport safety of radioactive materials within the country is regulated. The law n° 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar promulgated in January 1998 and the decree n° 2735/94 dealing the transport of radioactive materials promulgated in June 1994 govern all activities related to the transport of radioactive material. This law was established to meet the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS, IAEA Safety Series 115). It is not fully consistent with current international standards (GS-R-1). Indeed, in order to enhance the security of radioactive sources, Madagascar has implemented the Code of Conduct and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Faced with delays and denials of shipment of radioactive materials issues, the National Focal Point has been appointed to work with ISC members and the regional networks on the global basis. (author)
Burns, R. E.
A method for utilizing the decay heat of actinide wastes to power an electric thrust vehicle is proposed. The vehicle, launched by shuttle to earth orbit and to earth escape by a tug, obtains electrical power from the actinide waste heat by thermionic converters. The heavy gamma ray and neutron shielding which is necessary as a safety feature is removed in orbit and returned to earth for reuse. The problems associated with safety are dealt with in depth. A method for eliminating fission wastes via chemical propulsion is briefly discussed.
In addition to arranging for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must develop a safe and efficient transportation system in order to deliver the material that has accumulated at various sites throughout the country. The ability to transport radioactive waste safely has been demonstrated during the past 20 years: DOE has made over 2,000 shipments of spent fuel and other wastes without any fatalities or environmental damage related to the radioactive nature of the cargo. To guarantee the efficiency of the transportation system, DOE must determine the optimal combination of rail transport (which allows greater payloads but requires special facilities) and truck transport Utilizing trucks, in turn, calls for decisions as to when to use legal weight trucks or, if feasible, overweight trucks for fewer but larger shipments. As part of the transportation system, the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) study contributes to DOE`s development of transportation plans for specific facilities. This study evaluates the ability of different facilities to receive, load and ship the special casks in which radioactive materials will be housed during transport In addition, the DOE`s Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) study (forthcoming) will evaluate the rail, road and barge access to 76 reactor sites from which DOE is obligated to begin accepting spent fuel in 1998. The NSTI study will also assess the existing capabilities of each transportation mode and route, including the potential for upgrade.
Loomis, G.G.; Miller, C.M.; Giansiracusa, J.A.; Kimmel, R.; Prewett, S.V.
This report presents the results of an experimental study investigating the potential uses for silicon-polymer encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste currently stored within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The study investigated two different applications of silicon polymer encapsulation. One application uses silicon polymer to produce a waste form suitable for disposal at a High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility directly, and the other application encapsulates the calcine material for transportation to an offsite melter for further processing. A simulated waste material from INTEC, called pilot scale calcine, which contained hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes was used for the study, which was performed at the University of Akron under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originators of the silicon polymer process called Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET). This document first discusses the PET process, followed by a presentation of past studies involving PET applications to waste problems. Next, the results of an experimental study are presented on encapsulation of the INTEC calcine waste as it applies to transportation or disposal of calcine waste. Results relating to long-term disposal include: (1) a characterization of the pilot calcine waste; (2) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of an optimum mixture of pilot calcine, polysiloxane and special additives; and, (3) Material Characterization Center testing MCC-1P evaluation of the optimum waste form. Results relating to transportation of the calcine material for a mixture of maximum waste loading include: compressive strength testing, 10-m drop test, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test
Tanaka, K.; Yoshida, K.; Sanui, T.
Nuclear Fuel Transport Co. (NFT) is to take charge of LLW transportation from each nuclear power plants to the final repository consigned by 10 electric power companies in Japan. In order to transport LLW safely and efficiently, NFT has developed and prepared various hardware, such as special packaging, an exclusive use vessel, automatic cranes and so forth together with software to use them. The procedure of transport is also described. (J.P.N.)
Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.
This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign.
Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.
This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign
Harrison, I.G.; Pope, R.B.; Kraemer, R.D.; Hilliard, M.R.
This paper discusses the feasibility of adapting concepts and tools that were developed for the US military's transportation management systems to the management of the Federal Waste Management System's (FWMS) Transportation System. Many of the lessons in the development of the planning and scheduling software for the US military are applicable to the development of similar software for the FWMS Transportation System. The resulting system would be invaluable to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), both initially, for long-range planning, and later, in day-to-day scheduling and management activities
Joy, D.S.; Shappert, L.B.; Boyle, J.W.
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel and requires the Secretary of Energy to evaluate five potential repository sites. One factor that is to be examined is transportation of radioactive materials to such a repository and whether transportation might be affected by shipments to a defense-only repository, or to one that accepts both defense and commercial waste. In response to this requirement, The Department of Energy has undertaken an evaluation of the cost and risk associated with the potential shipments. Two waste-flow scenarios are considered which are related to the total quantity of defense high-level waste which will be placed in a repository. The low-flow case is based on a total of 6700 canisters being transported from one site, while the high-flow case assumes that a total of 20,000 canisters will be transported from three sites. For the scenarios considered, the estimated shipping costs range from $105 million to $257 million depending upon the mode of transport and the repository location. The total risks associated with shipping defense high-level waste to a repository are estimated to be significantly smaller than predicted for other transportation activities. In addition, the cost of shipping defense high-level waste to a repository does not depend on whether the site is a defense-only or a commercial repository. Therefore, the transportation considerations are not a basis for the selection of one of the two disposal options
Full Text Available Crucial problem of transport in the cities, as a source of pollution of the environment, are uncontrolled individual motorization, permanently increasing number of motor vehicles on the roads and streets that expels human primary need for walking.Reduced social area is also loaded with vibrations and increased sound pressure which often exceeds recommended 80 dB/A.Accent is on ecological problems caused by: polluted air, which comes from gas emissions (full of aerosol, metals, dust, soot, smoke, cutting and disappearance of green areas in order to provide space for transport, making huge amount of secondary waste (e. g. tyres, metal, used oil, liquids.To improve present sequences and reduce negative effects in the future it is necessary to take different measures: fiscal, administrative, educational, which will restrict use of individual, particularly car traffic. Same measures should be used to encourage users to use public transportation.Transport in the cities, with all weaknesses and comparative advantages, should be separately analyzed mode of road transport and also be an individual part in strategic documents.The most important questions that such strategy of transport in the cities should include are: regulation, privatization or other more efficient mode of organization in public transport of passengers, as well as urban elements of sustainable development of the urban areas and transport.
Schneider, K.A.; Merz, E.
Reprocessing plants (RPPs) and final disposal sites for vitrified high level radioactive waste (HLW) will be at distant locations in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). HLW will also have to be shipped from RPPs located in foreign countries to a final disposal site in the FRG. Thus transportation of HLW on public routes will become necessary. A model of an HLW shipping system is presented which meets the needs of an established nuclear industry. Reference ages of the HLW were assumed to range between about 5 years and about 50 years. Thus HLW shipping systems covering this period are analyzed. The safety of nuclear installations is ensured by means of a design according to the design based accident. The same applies to shipping casks for radioactive materials (RAM) according to the IAEA Regulations. The aim of this work was to make as complete as reasonably possible an estimate of the risk of shipping HLW. The safety of the system was therefore analyzed by means of probabilistic risk assessment. Release of radioactive material due to transportation accidents is considered. 5 references, 5 figures, 6 tables
Watson, C.D.; Hudson, B.J.; Preston, M.K.; Keith, D.A.; McCreery, P.N.; Knox, W.; Easterling, E.M.; Lamprey, A.S.; Wiedemann, G.
This paper examines feasibility design concepts and feasibility studies of Fleet Servicing Facilities (FSF). Such facilities are intended to be used for routine servicing, preventive maintenance, and for performing requalification license compliance tests and inspections, minor repairs, and decontamination of both the transportation casks and their associated rail cars or tractor-trailers. None of the waste handling plants in the United States presently receiving radioactive wastes have an onsite FSF, nor is there an existing third party facility providing all of these services. This situation has caused the General Accounting Office to express concern regarding the quality of waste transport system maintenance once the transport system is placed into service. Thus a need is indicated for FSFs or their equivalent at various radioactive materials receiving sites. This paper also compares the respective capital costs and operating characteristics of the following three concepts of a spent fuel cask transportation FSF; integrated FSF, colocated FSF, and independent FSF
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects of transportation of fuel and waste... Environmental effects of transportation of fuel and waste—Table S-4. Under § 51.50, every environmental report... detailed analysis of the environmental effects of transportation of fuel and wastes to and from the reactor...
A special attention continues to be given to the management of radioactive wastes. The National Department of Radioactive Waste Management is a unique institute in Moldova that deals with reception, transportation and storage of radioactive wastes. It collaborates with International Atomic Energy Agency. The management of low- and intermediate-level waste has remained permanently focused at the IAEA work. In 2003 IAEA supported the construction and technique of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository in Moldova. During 2003-2005 the US Department of Energy supported financing of planning and building of the underground storage for keeping the installations with high-level radioactive sources with all safety systems (signalization, video-monitoring). In 2008 the construction of radioactive wastes conditioning station was initiated with support of the US Embassy's Bureau for military cooperation
The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.
NATALIA P MENA
Full Text Available Hepcidin (Hepc is a 25 amino acid cationic peptide with broad antibacterial and antifungal actions. A likely role for Hepc in iron metabolism was suggested by the observation that mice having disruption of the gene encoding the transcription factor USF2 failed to produce Hepc mRNA and developed spontaneous visceral iron overload. Lately, Hepc has been considered the "stores regulator," a putative factor that signals the iron content of the body to intestinal cells. In this work, we characterized the effect of Hepc produced by hepatoma cells on iron absorption by intestinal cells. To that end, human Hepc cDNA was cloned and overexpressed in HepG2 cells and conditioned media from Hepc-overexpressing cells was used to study the effects of Hepc on intestinal Caco-2 cells grown in bicameral inserts. The results indicate that Hepc released by HepG2 inhibited apical iron uptake by Caco-2 cells, probably by inhibiting the expression of the apical transporter DMT1. These results support a model in which Hepc released by the liver negatively regulates the expression of transporter DMT1 in the enterocyte
Darrough, M.E.; Lilly, M.J.
The US Department of Energy (DOE), through the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is planning and developing a transportation program for the shipment of spent fuel and defense high-level waste from current storage locations to the site of the mined geologic repository. In addition to its responsibility for providing a safe transportation system, the DOE will assure that the transportation program will function with the other system components to create an integrated waste management system. In meeting these objectives, the DOE will use private industry to the maximum extent practicable and in a manner that is cost effective. This paper discusses various methodologies used for estimating costs for the national radioactive waste transportation system. Estimating these transportation costs is a complex effort, as the high-level radioactive waste transportation system, itself, will be complex. Spent fuel and high-level waste will be transported from more than 100 nuclear power plants and defense sites across the continental US, using multiple transport modes (truck, rail, and barge/rail) and varying sizes and types of casks. Advance notification to corridor states will be given and scheduling will need to be coordinated with utilities, carriers, state and local officials, and the DOE waste acceptance facilities. Additionally, the waste forms will vary in terms of reactor type, size, weight, age, radioactivity, and temperature
Bruening, D.; Geiser, H.; Kloeckner, F.; Rittscher, D.; Schlesinger, H.J.
The aim of the study was the development, construction and testing of a transportation system that is able to transport cylindrical waste containers as well as containers from the deliverer to the 'KONRAD' final repository. A transport palette has been developed that can carry two cylindrical waste containers with type B requirement or classification II. An Open-All-Container for the transport of palettes and 'KONRAD' containers has been developed. A storage of cylindrical waste containers and containers in the final repository is possible with the newly developed transportation system. Safety specifications of the transportation system have been passed successfully. (orig.). 30 refs., 8 tabs., 74 figs [de
World-wide practice and regulation with regard to organic materials in radioactive wastes for land disposal have been examined with a view to establishing, where possible, their scientific justification and their relevance to disposal of organic-bearing wastes in the UK. (author)
Magner, Denise K.
After years of being ignored by federal regulators because of the low volume of hazardous waste in question, colleges and universities are facing increased enforcement of environmental laws concerning waste disposal and storage, at great cost in money, facilities, and personnel. (MSE)
Brill, Angie; Boles, Roger; Byars, Woody
The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) was a large-scale vitrification system for the treatment of mixed wastes. The wastes contained both hazardous and radioactive materials in the form of sludge, soil, and ash. The TVS was developed to be moved to various United States Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to vitrify mixed waste as needed. The TVS consists of four primary modules: (1) Waste and Additive Materials Processing Module; (2) Melter Module; (3) Emissions Control Module; and (4) Control and Services Module. The TVS was demonstrated at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) during September and October of 1997. During this period, approximately 16,000 pounds of actual mixed waste was processed, producing over 17,000 pounds of glass. After the demonstration was complete it was determined that it was more expensive to use the TVS unit to treat and dispose of mixed waste than to direct bury this waste in Utah permitted facility. Thus, DOE had to perform a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the facility and find a reuse for as much of the equipment as possible. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful RCRA closure project: TVS site closure design and implementation; characterization activities focused on waste disposition; pollution prevention through reuse; waste minimization efforts to reduce mixed waste to be disposed; and lessons learned that would be integrated in future projects of this magnitude
The regulations were prepared in line with the Safety Regulation for Ionizing Radiations 1988 of Vietnam. Its purpose is to provide requirements in transport of radioactive materials. The exposure levels of transport personnel are determined. The package for different types of materials is regulated. The orders and procedures in transport are defined. In addition, specific requirements for each mean of transport are given. (N.H.A)
A plan is currently in place to process the high-level radioactive wastes that resulted from uranium and plutonium recovery operations from Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Currently, millions of gallons of high-level radioactive waste in the form of liquids, sludges, and saltcake are stored in many large underground tanks onsite. This waste will be processed and separated into high-level and low-activity fractions. Both fractions will then be vitrified (i.e., blended with molten borosilicate glass) in order to encapsulate the toxic radionuclides. The immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass will be poured into LAW canisters, allowed to cool and harden to solid form, sealed by welding, and then transported to a double-lined trench in the 200 East Area for permanent disposal. This document presents the packaging design criteria (PDC) for an onsite LAW transportation system, which includes the ILAW canister, ILAW package, and transport vehicle and defines normal and accident conditions. This PDC provides the basis for the ILAW onsite transportation system design and fabrication and establishes the transportation safety criteria that the design will be evaluated against in the Package Specific Safety Document (PSSD). It provides the criteria for the ILAW canister, cask and transport vehicles and defines normal and accident conditions. The LAW transportation system is designed to transport stabilized waste from the vitrification facility to the ILAW disposal facility developed by Project W-520. All ILAW transport will take place within the 200 East Area (all within the Hanford Site)
The IAEA Strategic Approach to Education and Training in Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety (2011-2020) provides a framework for establishing a sustainable education and training infrastructure in Member States that addresses national needs for building and maintaining competence in radiation, transport and waste safety that is consistent with IAEA Safety Standards. For this purpose, IAEA's General Conference has encouraged Member States to develop a national strategy for education and training, underlining the fundamental importance of sustainable programmes for building competence in radiation, transport and waste safety, as a key component of safety infrastructure. Furthermore Member States that receive assistance from IAEA are obliged to apply IAEA Safety Standards which require, inter alia, governments to establish a national policy and strategy for safety, including provisions for acquiring and maintaining the necessary competence nationally for ensuring safety. IAEA's Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety is assisting Member States to develop their own national strategies in Asia and the Pacific via the Regional project RAS/9/066 on ''Strengthening Education and training Infrastructure, and Building Competence in Radiation Safety'', which includes, inter alia, Regional Workshops on National Strategies for education and training in radiation transport and waste safety. IAEA's Regional Training Centres (RTCs) in Malaysia and Syrian Arabic Republic are key partners in the Asian and the Pacific region.
The IAEA Strategic Approach to Education and Training in Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety (2011-2020) provides a framework for establishing a sustainable education and training infrastructure in Member States that addresses national needs for building and maintaining competence in radiation, transport and waste safety that is consistent with IAEA Safety Standards. For this purpose, IAEA's General Conference has encouraged Member States to develop a national strategy for education and training, underlining the fundamental importance of sustainable programmes for building competence in radiation, transport and waste safety, as a key component of safety infrastructure. Furthermore Member States that receive assistance from IAEA are obliged to apply IAEA Safety Standards which require, inter alia, governments to establish a national policy and strategy for safety, including provisions for acquiring and maintaining the necessary competence nationally for ensuring safety. IAEA's Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety is assisting Member States to develop their own national strategies in Europe via the Regional Project RER/9/109 on ''Strengthening Education and training Infrastructure, and Building Competence in Radiation Safety'', which includes, inter alia, Regional Workshops on National Strategies for education and training in radiation transport and waste safety. IAEA's Regional Training Centres (RTCs) in Greece and Belarus are key partners in the European region.
The IAEA Strategic Approach to Education and Training in Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety (2011-2020) provides a framework for establishing a sustainable education and training infrastructure in Member States that addresses national needs for building and maintaining competence in radiation, transport and waste safety that is consistent with IAEA Safety Standards. For this purpose, IAEA's General Conference has encouraged Member States to develop a national strategy for education and training, underlining the fundamental importance of sustainable programmes for building competence in radiation, transport and waste safety, as a key component of safety infrastructure. Furthermore Member States that receive assistance from IAEA are obliged to apply IAEA Safety Standards which require, inter alia, governments to establish a national policy and strategy for safety, including provisions for acquiring and maintaining the necessary competence nationally for ensuring safety. IAEA's Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety is assisting Member States to develop their own national strategies in Latin America via the Regional Project RLA/9/070 on ''Strengthening Education and training Infrastructure, and Building Competence in Radiation Safety'', which includes, inter alia, Regional Workshops on National Strategies for education and training in radiation transport and waste safety. IAEA's Regional Training Centres (RTCs) in Argentina and Brazil are key partners in the Latin-American region.
The IAEA Strategic Approach to Education and Training in Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety (2011-2020) provides a framework for establishing a sustainable education and training infrastructure in Member States that addresses national needs for building and maintaining competence in radiation, transport and waste safety that is consistent with IAEA Safety Standards. For this purpose, IAEA's General Conference has encouraged Member States to develop a national strategy for education and training, underlining the fundamental importance of sustainable programmes for building competence in radiation, transport and waste safety, as a key component of safety infrastructure. Furthermore Member States that receive assistance from IAEA are obliged to apply IAEA Safety Standards which require, inter alia, governments to establish a national policy and strategy for safety, including provisions for acquiring and maintaining the necessary competence nationally for ensuring safety. IAEA's Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety is assisting Member States to develop their own national strategies in Africa via the Regional project RAF/9/04 on ''Strengthening Education and training Infrastructure, and Building Competence in Radiation Safety'', which includes, inter alia, Regional Workshops on National Strategies for education and training in radiation transport and waste safety. AFRA Regional Designated Centres, in Algeria, Ghana and Morocco, equivalent to the IAEA's Regional Training Centres (RTCs) present in all the other regions, are key partners in the African region.
Toste, A.P.; Myers, R.B.
Our laboratory is studying the role of organic compounds in the subsurface transport of radionuclides at shallow-land burial sites of low-level nuclear waste, including a commercial site at Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and an aqueous waste disposal site. At the Maxey Flats site, several radionuclides, notably Pu and 60 Co, appear to exist as anionic, organic complexes. Waste-derived organics, particularly chelating agents such as EDTA, HEDTA and associated degradation products (e.g., ED3A), are abundant in aqueous waste leachates and appear to account for the complexation. EDTA, and probably other waste-derived chelating agents as well, are chelated to the Pu and 60 Co in the leachates, potentially mobilizing these radionuclides. In contrast, at the low-level aqueous waste disposal site, naturally-occurring organics, ranging from low molecular weight (MW) acids to high MW humic acids, account for the bulk of the groundwater's organic content. Certain radionuclides, notably 60 Co, 103 Ru and 125 Sb, are mobile as anionic complexes. These radionuclides are clearly associated with higher MW organics, presumably humic and fulvic acids with nominal MW's > 1000. It is clear, therefore, that naturally-occurring organics may play an important role in radionuclide transport, particularly at nuclear waste burial sites containing little in the way of waste-derived organics
Lopez Vietri, Jorge; Capadona, Nancy; Barenghi, Leonardo
Full text: The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics and fundamentals of the Nuclear regulatory Authority's (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN) management system applied to the regulation of transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TRM process from now on. ARN's quality management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TRM process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of quality system. Such sub processes were defined taking account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials and are listed below: 1) Development and updating of standards and regulatory guides; 2) Licensing of packages, special radioactive materials and consignments of radioactive materials; 3) Compliance assurance during the transport of radioactive materials, and 4) Training, advising and communications. For each of these sub processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, the clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. It was decided to develop a quality plan to organize and manage activities to meet quality requirements, to optimize the use of limited resources of the organization and to be used as a basis for monitoring and assessing compliance with the requirements, both internal and external. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to implement continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measure the sub processes as a way to show
Full Text Available Abstract Background The dopamine transporter (DAT plays a critical role in terminating the action of dopamine by rapid reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. Previous studies have revealed that the DAT carboxyl terminus (DAT-CT can directly interact with other cellular proteins and regulate DAT function and trafficking. Results Here, we have identified that carboxypeptidase E (CPE, a prohormone processing exopeptidase and sorting receptor for the regulated secretory pathway, interacts with the DAT-CT and affects DAT function. Mammalian cell lines coexpressing CPE and DAT exhibited increased DAT-mediated dopamine uptake activity compared to cells expressing DAT alone. Moreover, coexpression of an interfering DAT-CT minigene inhibited the effects of CPE on DAT. Functional changes caused by CPE could be attributed to enhanced DAT expression and subsequent increase in DAT cell surface localization, due to decreased DAT degradation. In addition, CPE association could reduce the phosphorylation state of DAT on serine residues, potentially leading to reduced internalization, thus stabilizing plasmalemmal DAT localization. Conclusion Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for CPE in the regulation of DAT trafficking and DAT-mediated DA uptake, which may provide a novel target in the treatment of dopamine-governed diseases such as drug addiction and obesity.
Morley, Bob; Butler, Gregg; Mc Glynn, Grace
billion per annum, orders of magnitude below the level assumed by National Radiological Protection Board in their 1993 valuation of collective dose. Arguably, UK Operators have already been driven by the Regulator to go considerably beyond the (subjective) requirements of ALARA with respect to discharges from their sites, and the resources invested to reach the current very low levels of discharges have been, and continue to be, clearly disproportionate to any benefits gained. Despite this, the UK nuclear industry is under intense pressure from the regulatory bodies to reduce its already small discharges still further. This is not the case in other European countries. The consequences of such socio-political primacy in decision making has been a significant contributory factor in driving the costs of UK nuclear generation and waste management to levels where the economics of nuclear generation in the GB have been artificially skewed to make it more prohibitive. This paper questions the practical application of ALARA, especially consistency in the treatment of risk and hazard; and proportionate and cost effective delivery of public, worker and environmental protection. It then suggests a solution to these issues. (author)
Full Text Available Hazardous waste management system as a separate segment includes the transportation of hazardous waste, which specifically includes transportation from the place of its origin to the place of storage, treatment or final disposal. This function includes all forms of transport, but experience has shown that the most used one is a road traffic, which also carries an extremely high risk of possible occurrence of accident and endangering the local community, material resources and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to establish control over transport option, and the risk too, which is achieved by conducting risk assessments and then selecting the optimal transport routes. In each of these phases GIS has found its major application, enabling operation with different types of data, a simplified procedure of multi-criteria analysis and a clear visual representation of the received results. .
The objective of this Statement of Work (SOW) is to present the scope, the deliverables, the organization, the technical and schedule expectations for the development of a Package Design Criteria (PDC), cost and schedule estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system for the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). This transportation system which includes the truck, the trailer, and a shielded cask will be used for on-site transportation of the IHLW canisters from the private vendor vitrification facility to the Hanford Site interim storage facility, i.e., vaults 2 and 3 of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This Statement of Work asks Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations, to provide Project W-464 with a Design Criteria Document, plus a life-cycle schedule and cost estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system (shielded cask, truck, trailer) for IHLW on-site transportation.
Devillers, C.; Grenier, M.; Lombard, J.; Mathieu, F.
The introduction of the 10 mSv.h -1 at 3 m limit for LSA unshielded material makes it impossible to transport, as LSA material, the highest radiation level wastes from EdF PWR's operations. At present, the EdF's waste blocks can be transported as LSA III material by special arrangement. A new package design, equivalent to a Type B package, will be available for their transport before the end of the year 1995. It consists of a re-usable steel cylinder over-packing each block. Compliance of this package model with transport safety requirements will be demonstrated by taking into account the non-dispersability, as LSA III material, of the irradiating waste. A two-step approach has been accepted by the French Competent Authority for the transport of these wastes: (1) a specific ISO 20 container, thermally insulated, can be used by special arrangement for the transport of LSA combustible material having a total activity per conveyance higher than 100 A2. Furthermore, additional safety measures have to be implemented for these consignments. (2) After the end of 1995, a Type B package must be used for activity contents per conveyance higher than 100 A2. A specific 20' ISO container, complying with Type B requirements, is being developed for that purpose. (author)
Zhu, Yun; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhong, Yilong; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Che-Jen; Chen, Chunyi
In this paper, the design and cost analysis of a real-time, geographical information system (GIS) based management system for hazardous waste transportation are described. The implementation of such a system can effectively prevent illegal dumping and perform emergency responses during the transportation of hazardous wastes. A case study was conducted in Guangzhou, China to build a small-scale, real-time management system for waste transportation. Two alternatives were evaluated in terms of system capability and cost structure. Alternative I was the building of a complete real-time monitoring and management system in a governing agency; whereas alternative II was the combination of the existing management framework with a commercial Telematics service to achieve the desired level of monitoring and management. The technological framework under consideration included locating transportation vehicles using a global positioning system (GPS), exchanging vehicle location data via the Internet and Intranet, managing hazardous waste transportation using a government management system and responding to emergencies during transportation. Analysis of the cost structure showed that alternative II lowered the capital and operation cost by 38 and 56% in comparison with alternative I. It is demonstrated that efficient management can be achieved through integration of the existing technological components with additional cost benefits being achieved by streamlined software interfacing.
Vo, D.V.; Epperson, E.M.
This document examines high-/low-level radioactive liquid waste transport alternatives. Radioactive liquid waste will be transported from the 200 West Area to the 200 East Area and within the 200 East Areas for safe storage and disposal. The radioactive waste transport alternatives are the Aboveground Transport System (French LR-56 Cask System [3,800 L (1,000 gal)]), 19,000-L (5,000-gal) trailer tanker system, 75,700-L (20,000-gal) rail tanker system and Underground Transport System (buried pipe [unlimited transfer volume capability]). The evaluation focused on the following areas: initial project cost, operational cost, secondary waste generation, radiation exposure, and final decommissioning. The evaluation was based on the near term (1995 to 2005) estimated volume of 49.509 million L (13.063 million gal) and long term (1995 to 2028) estimated volume of 757.1 million L (200 million gal). The conclusion showed that the buried pipe (Underground Transport System) resulted in the lowest overall total cost for near and long term, the trailer container resulted in the highest total cost for near and long term, and the French truck was operationally impractical and cost prohibitive
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing today a Regulation Interpretation Memorandum (RIM) which provides official interpretation of the issue of whether a generator who accumulates hazardous waste pursuant to 40 CFR 262.34, may qualify for interim status after November 19, 1980. This issue arose when the requirements for submitting a Part A permit application (one of the prerequisites to qualifying for interim status) were amended on November 19, 1980. The provisions interpreted today are part of the Consolidated Permit Regulations promulgated under Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA).
Elshinawy, R.K.M.; Gomaa, M.A.
In november 1990, the (ICRP) adopted its 1990 recommendations (ICRP-60) ( 1). These recommendations will significantly influence not only IAEA's basic safety standards (safety series 9) ( 2), but also the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material ( 3) and its supporting documents ( 4-6). IAEA experts are currently engaged in the revision of the transport regulations. This revision process led to the publication of the revised transport regulations of 1966. The transport regulations are developed to ensure safety during movement of radioactive materials, and to provide reasonable assurance that the transport activities comply with the basic safety standards for radiation protection
Obradović, Mario; Kalambura, Sanja; Smolec, Danijel; Jovičić, Nives
Increasing the production of hazardous waste during the past few years and stricter legislation in the area of permanent disposal and transportation costs were significantly elevated above activities. This creates a new, highly lucrative gray market which opens the way for the criminalization. Of great importance is the identification of illegal trafficking of hazardous waste since it can have a significant impact on human health and environmental pollution. Barriers to effective engagement ...
Hamel, P.E.; Smythe, W.D.; Duncan, R.M.; Coady, J.R.
The goal of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board in regulating the management of radioactive wastes is to ensure the protection of people and the environment. A program of cooperation with other agencies, identification and adoption of baselines for describing radioactive wastes, development of explicit criteria and requirements, publication of related regulatory documents, establishment of independent consultative processes with technical experts and the public, and maintenance of awareness and compatibility with international activities is underway. Activities related to high-level radioactive waste, uranium mine and mill tailings, low- and medium-level wastes, radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities, and decommissioning and decontamination are described
The use of nuclear energy produces radioactive waste which may present risks of pollution for man and his environment. Their protection must be ensured by technical or institutional controls. The report examines the second, i.e. the administrative, legal and financial measures, dealing with the management of radioactive waste in existence or under consideration within the Member States of the European Community. The following aspects are studied: laws and regulations, authorities concerned, costs and financing of radioactive waste management, civil liability, national policies, international aspects of radioactive waste management
Holm, J.A.; Denny, S.
The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program consists of various technical and institutional program activities which engender concern from the general public and from policymakers at federal, state, and local levels. Most familiar are the concerns centered around selection of a site for a repository; however, the transportation portion of the OCRWM program also engenders similar concerns for safety, efficiency and effectiveness. The major Transportation institutional issues were detailed in the Institutional Plan, issued in 1986, and include topics such as liability, defense waste, routing, emergency response, risk identification and mitigation, cash integrity, inspection and enforcement of high-level waste shipments and use of overweight trucks as part of the modal mix. This paper will define the process being used to identify and resolve institutional issues, show how the technical and institutional issues interface and are addressed, and briefly describe four specific activities which illustrate the process of resolving institutional issues in the Transportation program
A successful transportation system for nuclear waste must be safe, efficient, and widely acceptable. To achieve the necessary public understanding, there must be an exchange of information and an identification of issues. This booklet has been developed to assist in that exchange of information and help in the communication of issues. It will provide a glossary of commonly used terms, a list of acronyms, a bibliography selected from the public information developed by the OCRWM Program, and contacts for additional information. Transportation is an integral and essential part of the projected waste management system. The United States has a long history of transporting radioactive material. Commercial spent fuel has been shipped for over 20 years and high-level waste from defense activities for an even longer period. These shipments have been conducted without any accidents causing death or environmental damage because of the radiological nature of the cargo. DOE is taking measures to ensure that this safety record continues. 24 refs
Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, have developed and implemented a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 3 tabs
In recent years, within the framework of national as well as international programmes, notable advances and considerable experience have been reached, in particular in the areas of minimisation of the production of radioactive waste, conditioning and disposal of short-lived low and intermediate level waste, vitrification of fission product solution on an industrial scale and engineered storage of long-lived high level waste, i.e. vitrified waste and spent fuel. Based on such results near-surface repositories have successfully been operated in many countries. Furthermore, geological repository development programmes are now being pursued, addressing the development and application of appropriate methods for site-specific safety assessments, too. In addition to scientific-technical areas, issues regarding economical, environmental, ethical and political aspects have been considered increasingly during the last years. Hence, there is a need for the examination of such issues in more detail and, if appropriate, for introducing respective results in further radioactive waste management and disposal options and/or planning work. Taking differences in national approaches, practices and constraints into account, it is to be recognised that future developments and decisions will have to be extended in order to include further important aspects and, finally, to enhance acceptance and confidence in safety-related planning work as well as proposed radioactive waste management and disposal solutions. In particular, international expertise and peer reviews are to be integrated. (author)
The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and groundwater. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However, the input parameters used in these models are highly variable; and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results
Das, Arup; Mazumder, T.N.; Gupta, A.K.
Highlights: ► Posteriori method using multi-objective approach to solve bi-objective routing problem. ► System optimization (with multiple source–destination pairs) in a capacity constrained network using non-dominated sorting. ► Tools like cost elasticity and angle based focus used to analyze Pareto frontier to aid stakeholders make informed decisions. ► A real life case study of Kolkata Metropolitan Area to explain the workability of the model. - Abstract: Transportation of hazardous wastes through a region poses immense threat on the development along its road network. The risk to the population, exposed to such activities, has been documented in the past. However, a comprehensive framework for routing hazardous wastes has often been overlooked. A regional Hazardous Waste Management scheme should incorporate a comprehensive framework for hazardous waste transportation. This framework would incorporate the various stakeholders involved in decision making. Hence, a multi-objective approach is required to safeguard the interest of all the concerned stakeholders. The objective of this study is to design a methodology for routing of hazardous wastes between the generating units and the disposal facilities through a capacity constrained network. The proposed methodology uses posteriori method with multi-objective approach to find non-dominated solutions for the system consisting of multiple origins and destinations. A case study of transportation of hazardous wastes in Kolkata Metropolitan Area has also been provided to elucidate the methodology.
The physical characteristics of the virgin site and of the disturbed site after burial drastically affect the transport of radionuclides from buried waste. The disturbance of the land surface during the waste burial operation causes changes in the local ground-water regimen. These changes can increase the water table elevation and cause the occurrence of perched water in burial trenches. The combination of these changes may lead to submersion of the waste and to increased radionuclide transport from the burial site in both surface and ground water. Factors such as ion exchange can retard or in some cases, with competing ions, can also mobilize radionuclides and increase their discharge into ground and surface water. Because of complexing agents (organics) contained in the waste, increased mobility of some radionuclides can be expected. The chemical form of radionuclides in the water, the ground-water quality, and the chemistry of the geologic formation in which the waste is buried all influence the movement of radionuclides in the hydrologic system. For the assessment of the environmental impact of low-level waste burial, models capable of simulating both the chemical and the physical factors that affect hydrologic transport must be available. Several models for conducting such simulation are presently available. However,the input parameters used in these models are highly variable, and the accuracy of parameter measurement must be considered in evaluating the reliability of simulated results
In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (now known as the Nevada Site Office) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the 'Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada' (DOE/EIS 0243). The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at Area 5 and Area 3. No shipments were disposed of at Area 3 in fiscal year (FY) 2008. This document satisfies requirements regarding low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) transported to or from the NTS during FY 2008. No transuranic (TRU) waste shipments were made from or to the NTS during FY 2008
Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.
This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes
There are several hydrologic factors that can affect contaminant migration at a waste disposal site. Many studies recognize surface water and groundwater controls as major factors. But what are the specific hydrologic processes most often associated with contaminant transport. Studies of solid waste storage areas (SWSAs) for low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is located in the humid environment of east Tennessee, have identified several mechanisms. Most of the processes are associated with groundwater movement, but in at least one case, surface runoff has played a dominant role. In all cases, consideration of localized hydrologic conditions has been the key to understanding the factors responsible for radionuclide migration
Smith, F.G. III.
Gas generation from the radiolytic decomposition of organic material contaminated with plutonium is modeled. Concentrations of gas throughout the waste drum are determined using a diffusional transport model. The model accurately reproduces experimentally measured gas concentrations. With polyethylene waste in unvented drums, the model predicts that hydrogen gas can accumulate to concentrations greater than 4 mole percent (lower flammable limit) with about 5 Ci of plutonium. Polyethylene provides a worst case for combustible waste material. If the drum liner is punctured and a carbon composite filter vent is installed in the drum lid, the plutonium loading can be increased to 240 Ci without generating flammable gas mixtures. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs
This decision from the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) aims at validating the new versions of the guidebook for the elaboration of 'waste studies' for nuclear facilities and of the specifications for the elaboration of 'waste statuses' for nuclear facilities. This paper includes two documents. The first one is a guidebook devoted to nuclear facility operators which fixes the rules of production of waste studies according to the articles 20 to 26 of the inter-ministry by-law from December 31, 1999 (waste zoning conditions and ASN's control modalities). The second document concerns the specifications for the establishment of annual waste statuses according to article 27 of the inter-ministry by-law from December 31, 1999 (rational management of nuclear wastes). (J.S.)
Oliveira, Elizabeth E.M.; Barbosa, Celina C.R.; Bastos, Edna T.R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeira, RJ (Brazil); Afonso, Julio C., E-mail: Julio@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica
The application of membrane separation processes (PSM) for treatment of radioactive waste requires the selection of a suitable membrane for the treatment of waste, as the membrane will be directly exposed to the radioactive liquid waste, and also exposed to ionizing radiation. The nanofiltration membrane is most suitable for treatment of radioactive waste, since it has high rejection of multivalent ions. Usually the membranes are made of polymers and depending on the composition of the waste, type and dose of radiation absorbed may be changes in the structure of the membrane, resulting in loss of its transport properties. We tested two commercial nanofiltration membranes: NF and SW Dow/Filmtec. The waste liquid used was obtained in the process of conversion of uranium hexafluoride gas to solid uranium dioxide, known as 'carbonated water'. The membranes were characterized as their transport properties (hydraulic permeability, permeate flux and salt rejection) before and after their immersion in the waste for 24 hours. The surface of the membranes was also evaluated by SEM and FTIR. It was observed that in both the porosity of the membrane selective layer was altered, but not the membrane surface charge, which is responsible for the selectivity of the membrane. The NF membranes and SW showed uranium ion rejection of 64% and 55% respectively. (author)
May, R.A.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Romesberg, L.E.; Joseph, B.J.
Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the response of a Type B packaging containing drums of contact-handled transuranic waste (CH-TRU) as a part of a program to evaluate the adequacy of experimental and analytical methods for assessing the safety of waste transport systems in accident environments. A US NRC certified Type B package known as the Super Tiger was selected for the study. This overpack consists of inner and outer steel shells separated by rigid polyurethane foam and can be used for either highway or rail transportation. Tests using scale models of the vehicular system are being conducted in conjunction with computer analyses
In accordance with the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, environmental assessments for potential candidate sites are required to provide a basis for selection of the first site for disposal of commercial radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. A preliminary analysis of the impacts of transportation for each of the five potential sites will be described. Transportation was assumed to be entirely by truck or entirely by rail in order to obtain bounding impacts. This paper presents both radiological and nonradiological risks for the once-through fuel cycle
Salzer, Peter; Butler, Gregg; McGlynn, Grace; Chapman, Neil; McCombie, Charles
This paper describes the results of a survey and study performed for the European Commission on 'Regulations Governing Radioactive Waste Disposal in EU Countries'. Its main purposes were to provide a survey of the regulations governing the disposal of all forms of radioactive waste in all EU Members States and, based on this study, to consider the potential for harmonization in different regulatory areas. Three key parts of the study are presented and the results discussed: collection and assessment of national data, including its verification by national stakeholders, application of multi-attribute analysis methodology to identify optimal waste classification scheme and a workshop of national authorities regulating disposal of radioactive waste. For five determined regulatory issues, the workshop carried out a 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) analysis of the impacts of harmonization. (authors)
Leenheer, J.A.; Hsu, J.; Barber, L.B.
In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community. Copyright ?? 2001 .
Bishop, W.P.; Hoos, I.R.; Hilberry, N.; Metlay, D.S.; Watson, R.A.
This document contains a collection of essays prepared by the individuals who participated in a Special Task Group for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the purpose of identifying and proposing goals (or guiding principles) for the regulation of radioactive waste management. The report of the Special Task group to the NRC is contained in 'Proposed Goals for Radioactive Waste Management'. The titles of the essays are as follows: History and interpretation of radioactive waste management in the United States; The credibility issue; Assessment of methodologies for radioactive waste management; Remarks on managerial errors and public participation; Observations and impressions on the nature of radioactive waste management problems; and Goals for nuclear waste management
Evans, P.; Partridge, E.
This document details the regulation governing numerical standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in water under the special waste and contaminated sites regulations of British Columbia. Groundwater containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene or xylenes in excess of the leachate standards is exempted from the regulatory regime of the Special Waste Regulation. The document contains a description of the conditions that apply to the management of petroleum hydrocarbons in water at contaminated sites. Some definitions are included, followed by an overview of the regulation. The third section deals with authorization and mandatory conditions, while additional requirements that might apply are enumerated in section four. This protocol directly affects the Environmental Management, and the Environmental Protection Regional Operations organizations. 1 tab
Risk assessment for the transportation of hazardous waste and hazardous waste components of low-level mixed waste and transuranic waste for the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement
Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Chang, Y.S.
This report, a supplement to Appendix E (Transportation Risk) of the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), provides additional information supporting the accident data for chemical risk assessment and health risk methodology described in that appendix (Part II) and presents the uncertainty analysis and on-site risk calculations. This report focuses on hazardous material truck accident rates, release probabilities, and release quantities; provides the toxicological values derived for each hazardous chemical assessed in the WM PEIS and further details on the derivation of health criteria; describes the method used in the transportation risk assessments to address potential additivity of health effects from simultaneous exposure to several chemicals and the method used to address transportation risks for maximally exposed individuals; presents an expanded discussion of the uncertainty associated with transportation risk calculations; and includes the results of the on-site transportation risk analysis. In addition, two addenda are provided to detail the risk assessments conducted for the hazardous components of low-level mixed waste (Addendum I) and transuranic waste (Addendum II)
Risk assessment for the transportation of hazardous waste and hazardous waste components of low-level mixed waste and transuranic waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement
Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.
This report, a supplement to Appendix E (Transportation Risk) of the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), provides additional information supporting the accident data for chemical risk assessment and health risk methodology described in that appendix (Part II), as well as providing the uncertainty analysis and on-site risk calculations. This report focuses on hazardous material truck accident rates, release probabilities, and release quantities; provides the toxicological values derived for each hazardous chemical assessed in the WM PEIS and further details on the derivation of health criteria; describes the method used in the transportation risk assessments to address potential additivity of health effects from simultaneous exposure to several chemicals and the method used to address transportation risks for maximally exposed individuals; presents an expanded discussion of the uncertainty associated with transportation risk calculations; and includes the results of the on-site transportation risk analysis. In addition, two addenda are provided to detail the risk assessments conducted for the hazardous components of low-level mixed waste (Addendum I) and transuranic waste (Addendum II)
Aidun, C.K.; Bloom, S.G.; Raines, G.E.
Previous analytical models for the steady-state radionuclide release rate through perforations in nuclear waste containers into the surrounding medium are based on a zero wall thickness assumption. In this paper we investigate the effect of the wall thickness on the mass transfer rate through isolated cylindrical holes. We solve the steady-state diffusion equation for the concentration field and derive a model based on the analytical solution. By direct comparison, we show that the zero wall thickness model overpredicts the mass transfer rate by about 1300 percent for a circular hole with 1-cm radius and a wall thickness of 10 cm. As expected, the zero-thickness model becomes even less accurate as the hole radius decreases; it predicts a greater release rate from a large number of small holes than the mass transfer rate from an uncontained waste form cylinder. In contrast, the results predicted by our model remain bounded for isolated holes and never exceed the mass transfer from an uncontained waste form. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs
Biwer, B. M.; Gilette, J. L.; Poch, L. A.; Suermann, J. F.
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an authorized US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility constructed near the city of Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The facility is intended to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities. Under the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA), federal lands surrounding the WIPP facility were withdrawn from all public use and the title of those lands was transferred to the Secretary of Energy. The DOE's TRU waste is stored, and in some cases is still being generated, at 10 large-quantity and 13 small-quantity sites across the US. After applicable certification requirements have been met, the TRU waste at these sites will be sent to the WIPP to initiate the disposal phase of the facility, which according to current planning is projected to last for approximately 35 years
Jason M Williams
Full Text Available The behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulants such as amphetamine (AMPH arise from their ability to elicit increases in extracellular dopamine (DA. These AMPH-induced increases are achieved by DA transporter (DAT-mediated transmitter efflux. Recently, we have shown that AMPH self-administration is reduced in rats that have been depleted of insulin with the diabetogenic agent streptozotocin (STZ. In vitro studies suggest that hypoinsulinemia may regulate the actions of AMPH by inhibiting the insulin downstream effectors phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and protein kinase B (PKB, or Akt, which we have previously shown are able to fine-tune DAT cell-surface expression. Here, we demonstrate that striatal Akt function, as well as DAT cell-surface expression, are significantly reduced by STZ. In addition, our data show that the release of DA, determined by high-speed chronoamperometry (HSCA in the striatum, in response to AMPH, is severely impaired in these insulin-deficient rats. Importantly, selective inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 within the striatum results in a profound reduction in the subsequent potential for AMPH to evoke DA efflux. Consistent with our biochemical and in vivo electrochemical data, findings from functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments reveal that the ability of AMPH to elicit positive blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes in the striatum is significantly blunted in STZ-treated rats. Finally, local infusion of insulin into the striatum of STZ-treated animals significantly recovers the ability of AMPH to stimulate DA release as measured by high-speed chronoamperometry. The present studies establish that PI3K signaling regulates the neurochemical actions of AMPH-like psychomotor stimulants. These data suggest that insulin signaling pathways may represent a novel mechanism for regulating DA transmission, one which may be targeted for the treatment of AMPH abuse and potentially other dopaminergic disorders.
Buxbaum, M.E.; Shay, M.R.
The WASTES Version II (WASTES II) Programmer's Reference Manual was written to document code development activities performed under the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The manual will also serve as a valuable tool for programmers involved in maintenance of and updates to the WASTES II code. The intended audience for this manual are experienced FORTRAN programmers who have only a limited knowledge of nuclear reactor operation, the nuclear fuel cycle, or nuclear waste management practices. It is assumed that the readers of this manual have previously reviewed the WASTES II Users Guide published as PNL Report 5714. The WASTES II code is written in FORTRAN 77 as an extension to the SLAM commercial simulation package. The model is predominately a FORTRAN based model that makes extensive use of the SLAM file maintenance and time management routines. This manual documents the general manner in which the code is constructed and the interactions between SLAM and the WASTES subroutines. The functionality of each of the major WASTES subroutines is illustrated with ''block flow'' diagrams. The basic function of each of these subroutines, the algorithms used in them, and a discussion of items of particular note in the subroutine are reviewed in this manual. The items of note may include an assumption, a coding practice that particularly applies to a subroutine, or sections of the code that are particularly intricate or whose mastery may be difficult. The appendices to the manual provide extensive detail on the use of arrays, subroutines, included common blocks, parameters, variables, and files
Ghose, M.K.; Dikshit, A.K.; Sharma, S.K.
Uncontrolled growth of the urban population in developing countries in recent years has made solid waste management an important issue. Very often, a substantial amount of total expenditures is spent on the collection of solid waste by city authorities. Optimization of the routing system for collection and transport of solid waste thus constitutes an important component of an effective solid waste management system. This paper describes an attempt to design and develop an appropriate storage, collection and disposal plan for the Asansol Municipality Corporation (AMC) of West Bengal State (India). A GIS optimal routing model is proposed to determine the minimum cost/distance efficient collection paths for transporting the solid wastes to the landfill. The model uses information on population density, waste generation capacity, road network and the types of road, storage bins and collection vehicles, etc. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool by municipal authorities for efficient management of the daily operations for transporting solid wastes, load balancing within vehicles, managing fuel consumption and generating work schedules for the workers and vehicles. The total cost of the proposed collection systems is estimated to be around 80 million rupees for the fixed cost of storage bins, collection vehicles and a sanitary landfill and around 8.4 million rupees for the annual operating cost of crews, vehicles and landfill maintenance. A substantial amount (25 million rupees/yr) is currently being spent by AMC on waste collection alone without any proper storage/collection system and sanitary landfill. Over a projected period of 15 yr, the overall savings is thus very significant
McNair, G. W.; Schneider, K.; Smith, R.I.; Ross, W.; Faletti, D.
In planning for implementation of a safe and cost-effective transportation system, the Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop estimates of the radiation doses, both public and occupational, that would result from operation of a system postulated using current designs and practices. From that evaluation, PNL identified activities/operations that result in relatively high doses, proposed conceptual alternatives that would effectively reduce such exposures, and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of such alternatives. This study contains an analysis of routine operations and estimates of the public and worker radiation doses that would occur in a postulated generic reference spent fuel transportation system using both truck and rail modes. Total risks are not estimated (i.e., consideration of nonradiological or accident risks that will be the subject of future studies in the transportation systems study plan 9TSSP) are not included). The system encompasses spent fuel loading at the reactor, transportation of the fuel to and from a receiving and handling facility and unloading of the fuel at a repository. The analysis provides cost/dose trade-offs of the postulated reference system as well as selected potential alternatives to the transportation system
The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities
... Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste AGENCY: Nuclear... fuel and certain nuclear wastes for any shipment that passes within or across their reservations. The... irradiated reactor fuel and certain nuclear waste passing through or across the boundary of their States...
Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Chen, Yousu
This report documents numerical flow and transport simulations performed that establish initial waste acceptance criteria for the potential waste streams that may be safely sequestered in the 221-U Building and similar canyon structures. Specifically, simulations were executed to identify the maximum loading of contaminant mass (without respect to volume) that can be emplaced within the 221-U Building with no more than 1 pCi/m2 of contaminant migrating outside the structure within a 1,000 year time period. The initial scoping simulations were executed in one dimension to assess important processes, and then two dimensions to establish waste acceptance criteria. Two monolithic conditions were assessed: (1) a grouted canyon monolith; and (2) a canyon monolith filled with sand, both assuming no cracks or fissures were present to cause preferential transport. A three-staged approach was taken to account for different processes that may impact the amount of contaminant that can be safely sequestered in canyon structure. In the first stage, flow and transport simulations established waste acceptance criteria based on a linear (Kd) isotherm approach. In the second stage, impacts on thermal loading were examined and the differences in waste acceptance criteria quantified. In the third stage of modeling, precipitation/dissolution reactions were considered on the release and transport of the contaminants, and the subsequent impact on the maximum contaminant loading. The reactive transport modeling is considered a demonstration of the reactive transport capability, and shows the importance of its use for future performance predictions once site-specific data have been obtained.
As to the land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes, to which the countermeasures have become the urgent problem at present, it is considered to be a realistic method to finally store the solid wastes concentratedly outside the sites of nuclear power stations and others, and effort has been exerted by those concerned to realize it. Besides, as for extremely low level radioactive solid wastes, the measures of disposing them corresponding to the radioactivity level are necessary, and the concrete method has been examined. The Committee on Safety Regulation for Radioactive Wastes has discussed the safety regulation for those since April, 1984, and the basic concept on the safety regulation was worked up. It is expected that the safety of the land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes can be ensured when the safety regulation is carried out in conformity with this basic concept. The present status of the countermeasures to the land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes is shown. As the concrete method, the disposal in shallow strate has been generally adopted. At present, the plan for the final storage in Aomori Prefecture is considered, and it will be started with the first stage of four-stage control. (Kako, I.)
The Act of 15 July 1975 fixed the requirements for waste disposal and set up a National Agency for Waste Recovery and Disposal. The legislative decree of 4 August 1975 established an International Committee for Nuclear Safety. This has the task, among other things, of co-ordinating action taken to ensure the protection of persons and property against the hazards of nuclear facilities. An order of 2 November 1976 concentrated all responsibility for studies and research on nuclear safety and radioactive waste within an Institute of Nuclear Safety and Protection. Installations designed for the treatment and storage of radioactive waste are considered to be ''basic nuclear facilities'' and come under the legislative decree of 11 December 1963, as modified by the decree of 27 March 1973. The procedure for licensing basic nuclear facilities is conducted by the Ministry of Industry: this procedure includes a safety study, a public enquiry, consultations with other interested ministries and authorization by the Ministry of Health and Social Security. Finally, nuclear facilities are subject to a specific twofold surveillance by the public authorities: surveillance carried out by basic nuclear facility inspectors; surveillance carried out by agents of the Central Service for Protection Against Ionizing Radiations (SCPRI) under the Ministry of Health and Social Security. (author)
measures must be nationally and internationally taken to control disposal of such waste to ... legal framework for solving such environmental problems as well as the .... The Federal system under the 1979 constitution expressly or impliedly set out .... and in addition the forfeiture of any aircraft, vehicle or land connected with.
Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier
In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mudgil, Yashwanti; Ghawana, Sanjay; Jones, Alan M.
Background N-MYC DOWN-REGULATED-LIKE (NDL) proteins interact with the G? subunit (AGB1) of the heterotrimeric G protein complex and play an important role in AGB1-dependent regulation of lateral root formation by affecting root auxin transport, auxin gradients and the steady-state levels of mRNA encoding the PIN-FORMED 2 and AUXIN 1 auxin transport facilitators. Auxin transport in aerial tissue follows different paths and utilizes different transporters than in roots; therefore, in the presen...
Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Ferreira, Celio; Schaefer, Anima M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Seibert, Isabell; Hamburger, Matthias; Tirona, Rommel G
Levothyroxine replacement therapy forms the cornerstone of hypothyroidism management. Variability in levothyroxine oral absorption may contribute to the well-recognized large interpatient differences in required dose. Moreover, levothyroxine-drug pharmacokinetic interactions are thought to be caused by altered oral bioavailability. Interestingly, little is known regarding the mechanisms contributing to levothyroxine absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we aimed to determine whether the intestinal drug uptake transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1) may be involved in facilitating intestinal absorption of thyroid hormones. We also explored whether thyroid hormones regulate OATP2B1 gene expression. In cultured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney II/OATP2B1 cells and in OATP2B1-transfected Caco-2 cells, thyroid hormones were found to inhibit OATP2B1-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate. Competitive counter-flow experiments evaluating the influence on the cellular accumulation of estrone-3-sulfate in the steady state indicated that thyroid hormones were substrates of OATP2B1. Additional evidence that thyroid hormones were OATP2B1 substrates was provided by OATP2B1-dependent stimulation of thyroid hormone receptor activation in cell-based reporter assays. Bidirectional transport studies in intestinal Caco-2 cells showed net absorptive flux of thyroid hormones, which was attenuated by the presence of the OATP2B1 inhibitor, atorvastatin. In intestinal Caco-2 and LS180 cells, but not in liver Huh-7 or HepG2 cells, OATP2B1 expression was induced by treatment with thyroid hormones. Reporter gene assays revealed thyroid hormone receptor α -mediated transactivation of the SLCO2B1 1b and the SLCO2B1 1e promoters. We conclude that thyroid hormones are substrates and transcriptional regulators of OATP2B1. These insights provide a potential mechanistic basis for oral levothyroxine dose variability and drug interactions. Copyright © 2018 by The American
Maphoto, K.P.; Raubenheimer, E.; Swart, H.
The transport safety assessment was carried out with a view to assess the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the radioactive materials. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with the envisaged transport scenarios for the road transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of LILW along the R563 route, N14 and eventually to the Vaalputs National Waste Disposal Facility. Various parameters are needed by the RADTRAN code in calculating the human health impact and risk. These include: numbers of population densities following the routes undertaken, number of stops made, and the speed at which the transport will be traversing at towards the final destination. The human health impact with regard to the dose to the public, LCF and risk associated with transportation of Necsa's LILW to the Vaalputs Waste Disposal Facility by road have been calculated using RADTRAN 5 code. The results for both accident and incident free scenarios have shown that the overall risks are insignificant and can be associated with any non-radiological transportation. (authors)
Smith, D.R.; Thomas, J.T.
The outstanding record of transport of radioactive materials prompted this brief review of the history of the regulations. IAEA as well as DOT regulations are discussed, as are all classes of shipments and materials (Class I, II, III)
Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J.; Piepkho, M.G.
The concentration of low-level waste (LLW) contaminants in groundwater is determined by the amount of contaminant present in the solid waste, rate of release from the waste and surrounding barriers, and a number of geochemical processes including adsorption, desorption, diffusion, precipitation, and dissolution. To accurately predict radionuclide transport through the subsurface, it is essential that the important geochemical processes affecting radionuclide transport be identified and, perhaps more importantly, accurately quantified and described in a mathematically defensible manner
Foppen, J.W.A.; van Herwerden, M.; Kebtie, M.; Noman, A.; Schrijven, J.F.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; Uhlenbrook, S.
Recharge of waste water in an unconsolidated poorly sorted alluvial aquifer is a complex process, both physically and hydrochemically. The aim of this paper is to analyse and conceptualise vertical transport mechanisms taking place in an urban area of extensive wastewater infiltration by analysing
彭绪亚; 林晓东; 贾传兴; 王渝昆; 黄媛媛
On the basis of analyzing the typical waste collection and transportation mode,the evaluation index system for performance of the waste collection and transportation system was proposed with three grades,which related to six factors,such as economic evaluation,high efficient evaluation,environmental impact assessment,resource evaluation,evaluation of security and emergency,evaluation of management and society. With the performance evaluation theory,the performance evaluation model of waste collection and transportation system was constructed,which quantified the grading standard of index and determined the index weight in analytic hierarchy process (AHP). After evaluating the waste collection and transportation system of the main districts of Chongqing city,the results show that the it has an excellent performance evaluation grade with very high performance level of three indices involving evaluation of management and society,environmental impact assessment,evaluation of security and emergency and quite low performance level of two indices that include high efficient evaluation and economic evaluation.
Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund
) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection...
A case study of a solid waste storage area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The purpose of the study is to devise effective remedial actions based upon understanding of the underlying processes governing radionuclide migration. Discussion is presented under the following headings: site history; radionuclide transport studies; analysis of field results; and recommended remedial action
Kouba, S.; Everitt, J.
Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and several states and numerous local governments have been preparing for the transportation of transuranic (TRU) waste to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, near Carlsbad. Seven western states, represented by the Western Governors' Association (WGA), submitted a report to the US Congress that discussed the concerns of their constituents related to the transportation of TRU waste through their communities. One of the three major concerns identified was emergency preparedness. Initial funding to resolve concerns identified in the WGA report to Congress was provided by the US Department of Transportation. Upon receiving funding, lead states were assigned responsibilities to devise programs aimed at increasing public confidence in the areas of most concern. The responsibility for emergency response readiness, as demonstrated through a program of training and responding to simulated accident scenarios, was accepted by the state of Colorado. The state of Colorado laid out an exercise program which expanded upon the DOE training programs already offered to emergency responders along Colorado's designated TRU-waste transportation corridor. The ongoing program included a full-scale field exercise staged in Colorado Springs and dubbed, ''TRANSAX '90.''
The safety of handling and transportation of spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste has been studied. Only the operations which are performed in Sweden are included. That is: - Transportation of spent fuel from the reactors to an independant spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI). - Temporary storage of spent fuel in the ISFSI. - Transportation of the spent fuel from the ISFSI to a foreign reprocessing plant. - Transportation of vitrified high-level waste to an interim storage facility. - Interim storage of vitrified high-level waste. - Handling of the vitrified high-level waste in a repository for ultimate disposal. For each stage in the handling sequence above the following items are given: - A brief technical description. - A description of precautionary measures considered in the design. - An analysis of the discharges of radioactive materials to the environment in normal operation. - An analysis of the discharges of radioactive materials due to postulated accidents. The dose to the public has been roughly and conservatively estimated for both normal and accident conditions. The expected rate of occurence are given for the accidents. The results show that above described handling sequence gives only a minor risk contribution to the public
Eichholz, G.G.; Craft, T.F.; Powell, G.F.; Wahlig, B.G.
The role of suspended particles as carriers of dissolved nuclides from high-level radioactive waste repositories has been investigated. Depending on the concentrations of suspended particles and the nature of the invading water, it has been found that cationic nuclides may be competitively adsorbed on suspended clay particles, the partitioning being largely determined by pH, temperature, and comparative surface areas of particulates and surrounding rocks. Column tests with activated particles have been conducted and showed that the clay particles pass readily through porous mineral columns and are increasingly retained if salinity is increased. Retention in basalt columns is stronger in the presence of high concentrations of sodium and calcium ions and has been explained in terms of van der Waals forces. The range of particulate migration then depends on the condition of the rock surfaces, the persistence of a clay coating, and the total dissolved ion concentration. For adsorbable waste ions, this may represent a pathway comparable in significance to ion-exchange-controlled migration. For some bed materials, the particulate movement displayed a prompt and a delayed component; the nature of the delay mechanism is not fully understood at present
Font Vivanco, David, E-mail: email@example.com [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Puig Ventosa, Ignasi [ENT Environment and Management, Carrer Sant Joan 39, First Floor, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Gabarrell Durany, Xavier [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainability and proximity principles have a key role in waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Core indicators are needed in order to quantify and evaluate them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A systematic, step-by-step approach is developed in this study for their development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transport may play a significant role in terms of environmental and economic costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Policy action is required in order to advance in the consecution of these principles. - Abstract: In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy
Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier
Highlights: ► Sustainability and proximity principles have a key role in waste management. ► Core indicators are needed in order to quantify and evaluate them. ► A systematic, step-by-step approach is developed in this study for their development. ► Transport may play a significant role in terms of environmental and economic costs. ► Policy action is required in order to advance in the consecution of these principles. - Abstract: In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of
The discharge into a public sewer of trade effluent is governed by the Control of Pollution Act 1974, under which water authorities in England and Wales have certain powers to regulate such discharges. These provisions have not however applied hitherto to radioactive waste, the disposal of which required mainly authorisation by the Minister of State for the Environment. Under the present Regulations, the 1974 Act will apply to radioactive waste so as to give water authorities control over liquid discharges into their sewers, notwithstanding that they contain radioactive waste while the powers of the Minister of State are maintained regarding control and disposal of the radioactive parts of such waste under the 1960 act on Radioactive substances. (N.E.A.) [fr
Silalahi, Meslin; Mawengkang, Herman; Irsa Syahputri, Nenna
The crude palm oil industry is an agro-industrial commodity. The global market of this industry has experienced rapid growth in recent years, such that it has a strategic value to be developed for Indonesian economy. Despite these economic benefits there are a number of environmental problems at the factories, such as high water consumption, the generation of a large amount of wastewater with a high organic content, and the generation of a large quantity of solid wastes and air pollution. In terms of waste transportation, we propose a multiobjective programming model for managing business environmental risk in a crude palm oil manufacture which gives the best possible configuration of waste management facilities and allocates wastes to these facilities. Then we develop an interactive approach for tackling logistics and environmental risk production planning problem for the crude palm oil industry.
To cope with the inadequacies of the laws and regulations including the Law Concerning Prevention of Radiation Injuries Due to Radioisotopes, Etc., the Amended Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials in Japan has been issued. It is based on the Regulations of IAEA for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials and the Technical Standards for the Transport of Radioactive Materials decided by the AEC of Japan. In the amended regulations, emphasis is placed on the safety design of transporting goods. They are classified in Types L, A and B according to shock resistance and fire resistance, and the quantities of radioisotopes allowed to be contained in respective types are specified. The following matters are described: basic ideas concerning the types of transporting goods, test standards for the goods, transport standards for the goods, and nondestructive test apparatuses in transport. (Mori, K.)
Biwer, B.M.; Monette, F.A.; Chen, S.Y.
This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, Hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS
Biwer, B.M.; Monette, F.A.; Chen, S.Y.
This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS
WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs
WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.
In order to satisfy the global requirement for transport fuel sustainably, renewable liquid biofuels must be developed. Currently, two biofuels dominate the market; bioethanol for spark ignition and biodiesel for compression ignition engines. However, both fuels exhibit technical issues such as low energy density, poor low temperature performance and poor stability. In addition, bioethanol and biodiesel sourced from first generation feedstocks use arable land in competition with food producti...
Little, C.A.; Fields, D.E.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Emerson, C.J.
PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code developed under US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land burial trenches. The model is intended to be generic and to assess radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impact to a static local population for a 1000-y period following the end of burial operations. Human exposure scenarios considered by the model include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population inlude: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses are calculated as well as doses to the intruder and farmer. Cumulative health effects in terms of deaths from cancer are calculated for the population over the thousand-year period using a life-table approach. Data bases are being developed for three extant shallow land burial sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York
This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.
Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.
Based on regulatory requirements for Type A and B radioactive material packaging, a Testing Program was developed to evaluate the effects of mixed wastes on plastic materials which could be used as liners and seals in transportation containers. The plastics evaluated in this program were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile rubber), cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbons, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), butyl rubber, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). These plastics were first screened in four simulant mixed wastes. The liner materials were screened using specific gravity measurements and seal materials by vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements. For the screening of liner materials, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals. The tests also indicated that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. Those materials which passed the screening tests were subjected to further comprehensive testing in each of the simulant wastes. The materials were exposed to four different radiation doses followed by exposure to a simulant mixed waste at three temperatures and four different exposure times (7, 14, 28, 180 days). Materials were tested by measuring specific gravity, dimensional, hardness, stress cracking, VTR, compression set, and tensile properties. The second phase of this Testing Program involving the comprehensive testing of plastic liner has been completed and for seal materials is currently in progress
Arnett, R.C.; Brown, D.J.; Baca, R.G.
This report presents an analysis of the impact of subsurface contamination resulting from a series of hypothetical leaks or accidents involving Hanford high-level radioactive defense waste. Estimates of the amounts and concentrations of radionuclides reaching the Columbia River through the Hanford unconfined aquifer flow path were obtained by means of predictive models. The results of the study showed that the spatially averaged concentrations of 99 Tc, 3 H, and 106 Ru in the ground water as it discharges into the Columbia River are at all times far below the respective ERDA Manual Chapter 0524 Concentration Guides for uncontrolled areas. Upon entering the Columbia River, additional large dilutions of the water containing trace quantities of contaminants will occur
Gray, I.L.S.; Hutchinson, D.L.; Burgess, M.H.; Higson, J.; Randall, M.A.
This paper summarises the results of the studies and discussions which have led to the recommendation that Nirex should adopt NIREP as the Emergency Plan for the proposed transport arrangements of radioactive waste to the proposed UK deep repository for the disposal of low level and intermediate level waste. Although NIREP is currently specific to the road transport of radioactive materials, it is in the process of being extended to cover their transport by rail. An extended version of NIREP, covering both road and rail transport, could be operational by the end of 1992. NIREP is an established plan which meets all the current legal requirements and is flexible enough to accommodate any likely changes in legislation in the future. It is compatible with the Planning Basis and meets the requirements of the Emergency Plan Specification. The extended version of NIREP will be subject to an annual full-scale exercise and the Plan should be well-proven by the time that transport of waste packages to the repository commences. (J.P.N.)
The Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes that the success of its efforts to develop and operate a system for transporting nuclear waste under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) depends in large measure on the effectiveness of Departmental interactions with the affected parties. To ensure the necessary network of communication, the DOE is establishing lines of contact with those who are potential participants in the task of developing the policies and procedures for the NWPA transportation system. In addition, a number of measures have been initiated to reinforce broad-based involvement in program development. The Transportation Institutional Plan provides a preliminary road map of DOE's projected interactions over the next decade and is discussed in this paper
Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Lazaro, M.A.
In this presentation, a quantitative methodology for assessing the risk associated with the transportation of hazardous waste (HW) is proposed. The focus is on identifying air concentrations of HW that correspond to specific human health endpoints
General regulations and principles of radiation protection and safety are presented. In addition, the regulations for licensing and occupational and medical exposure as well as for safe transport of radioactive materials and wastes are given
This report shows the Ordinances No.84 (1967) and No.30 (1957) of the Ministry of transport. The Ordinance No.84 has been published in detail elsewhere. The provisions concerning shipping transport and storage of dangerous substances deal with isolation of each dangerous substance, method for loading (cleaning of container, etc.), certificate for ship for transporting dangerous substances, renewal of certificate for ship for transporting dangerous substances, return of certificate, fee (for renewal and reissue of certificate), definition of terms, type of radioactive cargo (L-type cargo, A-type cargo, BM-type cargo, BU type cargo), transport of radioactive substances, type of fissionable cargo (Type I, Type II and Type III), confirmation of safety concerning radioactive cargo (conformity to standards, inspection, approval, etc.), limit of cargo volume, transport index, marking (type of cargo), confirmation of safety of transport, inspection of contamination, notice of transport, special measures, inspection of cargo (radioactive substances), requirements for container and package, etc. (Nogami, K.)
Nikolay Anatolievich Atrokhov
Full Text Available This article examines the legal documents governing the securing of cargo in road transport, provides an overview of international experience in the safety of road transport of goods by means of securing.
A finite-element model is used to calculate the time-dependent transport of nitrate from a cement-based (saltstone) monolith with and without a clay cap. Model predictions agree well with data from two lysimeter field experiments begun in 1984. The clay cap effectively reduces the flux of nitrate from the monolith. Predictions for a landfill monolith design show a peak concentration occurring within 25 years; however, the drinking water guideline is exceeded for 1200 years. Alternate designs and various restrictive liners are being considered
Hossain, S.; Arens, G.; Fein, E.
The latest SWIFT model (SWIFT-GSF2) as available in GSF Braunschweig is described. The theoretical background has been elaborated using the SWIFT II documentation and other available internal notes of various enhancements. Thus the boundary condition implementations and source/sink considerations are now comprehensive. The computer implementation has also been extented to include the description of the matrix solution algorithms. Finally, the data input guide has been updated and when necessary illustrated with figures. The presentation begins with the basic transport equations. (orig.)
Pope, R.B.; Yoshimura, H.R.; McClure, J.D.; Huerta, M.
This paper discusses the environmental effects of radioactive materials transportation. The systems used or being designed for use in spent fuel and waste transportation are described. Accident rate and severity data are used to quantify risk. A test program in which subscale and full scale transportation systems were exposed to accident environments far in excess of those used in package design is used to relate package damage to accident severity levels. Analytical results and subscale and full scale test results are correlated to demonstrate that computational methods or scale modeling, or both, can be used to predict accident behavior of transportation systems. This work is used to show that the risks to the public from radioactive material transportation are low relative to other risks commonly accepted by the public
Statutory Instruments - 1984 No. 863 and 1985 No. 708. Public Health, England and Wales - Public Health Scotland. The Control of Pollution (Radioactive Waste) Regulations 1984, The Control of Pollution (Radioactive Waste) Regulations 1985
The Regulations provide that radioactive waste is to be treated as any other waste for pollution control purposes as opposed to special radioactive control purposes. In the former respect, radioactive waste is subject to Part II of the Control of Pollution Act 1974, but in the latter, it remains subject to the Radioactive Substances Act 1960. (NEA) [fr
The purpose of these Regulations is to establish standards of safety which provide an acceptable level of control of the radiation hazards to persons, property and the environment that are associated with the transport of radioactive material. These Regulations shall apply to the transport by land, water or air, including transport on own account, of radioactive material other than that which is an integral part of the means of transport. Transport shall be deemed to include any operation incidental to the whole course of carriage, such as loading, unloading and storage in transit. The term includes both normal transport and that under accident conditions. These Regulations do not apply within establishments where the radioactive material is produced, used or stored, other than in the course of transport, and in respect of which other appropriate safety regulations are in force. In the transport of radioactive materials, any other hazardous characteristics of these materials such as explosiveness, inflammability, pyrophoricity, chemical toxicity, and corrosiveness must be taken into account in such a manner as to be in compliance with the relevant transport regulations for dangerous goods of each of the countries through or into which the materials will be transported, as well as in compliance with these Regulations.
Rabbi, F.; Brinkman, K.; Amoroso, J.; Reifsnider, K.
Release of nuclear species from spent fuel ceramic waste form storage depends on the individual constituent properties as well as their internal morphology, heterogeneity and boundary conditions. Predicting the release rate is essential for designing a ceramic waste form, which is capable of effectively storing the spent fuel without contaminating the surrounding environment for a longer period of time. To predict the release rate, in the present work a conformal finite element model is developed based on the Nernst Planck Equation. The equation describes charged species transport through different media by convection, diffusion, or migration. And the transport can be driven by chemical/electrical potentials or velocity fields. The model calculates species flux in the waste form with different diffusion coefficient for each species in each constituent phase. In the work reported, a 2D approach is taken to investigate the contributions of different basic parameters in a waste form design, i.e., volume fraction, phase dispersion, phase surface area variation, phase diffusion co-efficient, boundary concentration etc. The analytical approach with preliminary results is discussed. The method is postulated to be a foundation for conformal analysis based design of heterogeneous waste form materials.
Lizcano, D.; Jimenez, J.
The technological development of the last decades produced an increment in the application of the radiations in different human activities. The effect of it has been it the production of radioactive wastes of all the levels. In Mexico, some of the stages of the administration of the waste of low and intermediate level have not been completely resolved, as the case of the treatment and the final storage. In this work aspects of the generation, the transport and the administration of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level produced in the non energy applications from the radioactive materials to national level, indicating the generated average quantities, transported and tried annually by the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). The main generators of wastes in Mexico, classified according to the activity in which the radioactive materials are used its are listed. Some of the main processes of treatment of radioactive wastes broadly applied in the world and those that are used at the moment in our country are also presented. (Author)
... may also provide contact information, such as a telephone number and/or e-mail address. PHMSA and the.... PHMSA-2010-0130 (Notice No.10-2)] Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport... (IAEA) ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' (TS-R-1), which is scheduled for...
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The general system is described for regulation of disposal of solid, long-lived radioactive wastes. The relevant Government policy is outlined, and the framework of legislation and arrangements for implementation, the associated guidance produced by regulatory bodies and the approach to assessment by regulators of a safety case for radioactive waste disposal are reported. Also, for the purposes of discussion in the Workshop, some of the practical issues are considered which are still in development in the UK in regard to regulatory methodology. (author)
Varadarajan, R.V.; Peterson, R.W.; Joy, D.S.; Gibson, S.M.
An essential element of the Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF) is a waste packaging facility capable of producing a small number Test and Evaluation Facility of packages consisting of several different waste forms. The study envisions three scenarios for such a packaging facility: (1) modify an existing hot cell facility such as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (EMAD) facility at the Nevada Test Site so that it can serve as a packaging facility for the TEF. This scenario is referred to as the EMAD Option. (2) Build a new generic packaging facility (GPF) at the site of the TEF. In other words, colocate the GPF and the TEF. This scenario is referred to as the GPF Option, and (3) utilize the EMAD facility in conjunction with a colocated GPF (of minimal size and scope) at the TEF. This scenario is referred to as the Split Option. The results of the system study clearly bring out the fact that transportation has a significant impact on the selection and siting of the waste packaging facility. Preliminary conclusions, subject to the assumptions of the study, include the following: (1) regardless of the waste form, the GPF option is preferable to the other two in minimizing both transportation costs and logistical problems, (2) for any given scenario and choice of waste forms, there exists a candidate TEF location for which the transportation costs are at a minimum compared to the other locations, (3) in spite of the increased transportation costs and logistical complexity, the study shows that the overall system costs favor modification of an existing hot cell facility for the particular case considered
Full Text Available Glucose transporter proteins are involved in many physiological and biochemical processes. In particular, the high expressions of sodium-glucose cotransporter and glucose transporter proteins in tumor cells show that these two transporters play a key role in tumor cell metabolism. Studying the crystal structure and conformation of human glucose transporter proteins has enabled the development of drugs based on specific binding sites, opening up a new path towards more effective cancer treatments. This mini review serves to summarize our existing understanding of the metabolic pathways of tumor cells, focusing on the roles of glucose transporter proteins.
Miller, J.J.; Campbell, S.; Church, B.W.; Shafer, D. S.; Gillespie, D.; Sedano, S.; Cebe, J.J.
The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is one of two regional sites where low-level radioactive waste (LLW) from approved DOE and U.S. DOD generators across the United States is disposed. In federal fiscal year (FY) 2002, over 57,000 cubic meters of waste was transported to and disposed at the NTS. DOE and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations ensure that radiation exposure from truck shipments to members of the public is negligible. Nevertheless, particularly in rural communities along transportation routes in Utah and Nevada, there is perceived risk from members of the public about incremental exposure from LLW trucks, especially when ''Main Street'' and the LLW transportation route are the same. To better quantify the exposure to gamma radiation, a stationary monitoring array of four pressurized ion chambers (PICs) have been set up in a pullout just before LLW trucks reach the entrance to the NTS. The PICs are positioned at a distance of one meter from the sides of the truck trailer and at a height appropriate for the design of the trucks that will be used in FY2003 to haul LLW to the NTS. The use of four PICs (two on each side of the truck) is to minimize and to correct for non-uniformity where radiation levels from waste packages vary from side to side, and from front to back in the truck trailer. The PIC array is being calibrated by collecting readings from each PIC exposed to a known 137Cs source that was positioned at different locations on a flatbed stationed in the PIC array, along with taking secondary readings from other known sources. Continuous data collection using the PICs, with and without a truck in the array, is being used to develop background readings. In addition, acoustic sensors are positioned on each side of the PIC array to record when a large object (presumably a truck) enters the array. In FY2003, PIC surveys from as many incoming LLW trucks as possible will be made and survey data
Full Text Available Research presented in this paper is primarily focused on the theoretical model of transportation routes' optimization, by means of using an innovative approach, projected to countries in transition. This paper presents part of the research, whose main parameters are directly related to basic research hypothesis, and are result of author's stay in vocational training in the Japanese city of Osaka, in the period 12.01. - 07.03.2015. Based on the transport routes' calculations, we came to an answer set in the research problem of this paper, as well as to the optimization of costs and avoiding a "downtime" during the collection of waste conducted by utility companies, who will be the beneficiaries of this model. The primary goal of the work is to, on the base of knowledge and experience acquired in Japan, create an Optimization Model of Transport Routes adjusted to countries in transition (Bosnia and Herzegovina and others, which will, in the long run, be of benefit to these countries, in terms of a sustainable waste management.
Crude or primitive recycling practices are often adopted in material resource recovery from E-waste in developing nations. Significant human health and environmental impacts may occur because of such practices. Literature on metal(loid)s pollution during E-waste processing is fragmented. Here, I review the health and environmental impacts of E-waste recycling operations and transport pathways of metal(loid)s, dispersed during operations. This paper is organised into five sections. Section 1 relates to the background of global E-waste generation and legal/illegal trade, citing specific cases from Ghana and other developing nations. Section 2 provides a brief information on sources of metal(loid)s in E-waste. Section 3 describes characteristics of informal E-waste recycling operations in developing nations. Section 4 examines the health and environmental impacts in E-waste recycling while section 5 evaluates major transport pathways of metal(loid)s contaminants.
The High-Level Radioactive Waste Committee of the Western Interstate Energy Board has been involved in a year-long cooperative project with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an information base on the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) so that western states can be constructive and informed participants in the repository program under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA). The historical safety record of transportation of HLW and spent fuel is excellent; no release of these radioactive materials has ever occurred during transportation. Projected shipments under the NWPA will, however, greatly exceed current shipments in the US. For example, over the past five years, 119 metric tons of civilian spent fuel have been shipped in this country, while shipments to the first and second repository are each expected to peak at 3000 metric tons per year. The Committee believes that the successful development and operation of a national HLW/spent fuel transportation system can best be accomplished through an open process based on the common sense approach of taking all reasonable measures to minimize public risk and performing whatever actions are reasonably required to promote public acceptance. Therefore, the Committee recommends that the Department of Energy further the goals of the NWPA by developing a Comprehensive Transportation Plan which adopts a systematic, comprehensive, and integrated approach to resolving all spent fuel and HLW transportation issues in a timely manner. The suggested scope of such a plan is discussed in this White paper. Many of the suggested elements of such a plan are similar to those being developed by the Department of energy for inclusion in the Department's Transportation Institutional Plan
Seitz, M.G.; Rickert, P.; Fried, S.; Friedman, A.M.; Steindler, M.
Laboratory experiments were performed with Cs, Pu, Np, and Am to examine the migratory characteristics of long-lived radionuclides that could be mobilized by groundwaters infiltrating a nuclear waste repository and the surrounding geologic body. In column infiltration experiments, the positions of peak concentrations of Cs in chalk or shale columns, Pu and Am in limestone, sandstone, or tuff and neptunium in a limestone column did not move when the columns were infiltrated with water. However, fractions of all of the nuclides were seen downstream from the peaks, indicating a large dispersion in the relative migration rates of the trace elements in the lithic materials studied. Static absorption experiments showed that plutonium and americium are strongly absorbed from solution by common rocks and that their migration relative to groundwater flow is thereby retarded. Reaction rates of these dissolved elements with rocks were found to vary considerably in different rock-element systems. Following a sorption step in batch experiments with granulated basalt and Am bearing water, Pu and Am were desorbed from rock and repartitioned between rock and solution to an extent comparable to their distribution during absorption. In contrast, when tablets of various rocks were allowed to dry between absorption and desorption tests, Pu and Am were not generally desorbed from the tablets.In batch experiments with Pu and Am-bearing water and granulated basalt of several different particle sizes, the partitioning of Am and Pu did not correlate with the calculated area of the fracture surfaces nor did the partitioning remain constant (as did the measured surface area). Partitioning is concluded to be a bulk phenomenon with complete penetration of 30 to 40 mesh and smaller particles. 9 tables, 4 figs
... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b) and...
Plecas, Ilija; Dimovic, Slavko
Document available in extended abstract form only. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source an equation for diffusion coupled to a first-order equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center. Radioactive waste is waste material containing radioactive chemical elements which does not have a practical purpose. It is often the product of a nuclear process, such as nuclear fission. Waste can also be generated from the processing of fuel for nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons. The main objective in managing and disposing of radioactive (or other) waste is to protect people and the environment. This means isolating or diluting the waste so that the rate or concentration of any radionuclides returned to the biosphere is harmless. Storage as the placement of waste in a nuclear facility where isolation, environmental protection and human control are provided with the intent that the waste will be retrieved at a later time. Disposal as the emplacement of waste in an approved, specified facility (e.g. near surface or geological repository) without the intention of retrieval. The processing of radioactive wastes may be done for economic reasons (e.g. to reduce the volume for storage or disposal, or to recover a 'resource' from the waste), or safety reasons (e.g. converting the waste to a more 'stable' form, such as one that will contain the radionuclide inventory for a long time). Typically processing involves reducing
The radiation protection principles are laid down in a binding from in IAEA SS No 9. Regulations of world-wide validity (and, hence, for Europe) are IMO/IMDG Code for sea-going traffic, and ICAO/Technical regulations or IATA/Hazardous goods transport regulations, resp. for air traffic. The regulations by the organizations ADR, RID, ADN, ADNR, and CMEA are valid as transfrontier regulations in Europe. (DG) [de
The Nevada Test Site (NTS) presently serves as a disposal site for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated by DOE-approved generators. The environmental impacts resulting from the disposal of LLW at the NTS are discussed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Nevada Test Site Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada (NTS EIS). During the formal NTS EIS scoping period, it became clear that transportation of LLW was an issue that required attention. Therefore, the Nevada Transportation Protocol Working Group (TPWG) was formed in 1995 to identify, prioritize, and understand local issues and concerns associated with the transportation of LLW to the NTS. Currently, generators of LLW ship their waste to the NTS by legal-weight truck. In 1995, the TPWG suggested the DOE could reduce transportation costs and enhance public safety by using rail transportation. The DOE announced, in October 1996, that they would study the potential for intermodal transportation of LLW to the NTS, by transferring the LLW containers from rail cars to trucks for movements to the NTS. The TPWG and DOE/NV prepared the NTS Intermodal Transportation Facility Site and Routing Evaluation Study to present basic data and analyses on alternative rail-to-truck transfer sites and related truck routes for LLW shipments to the NTS. This Environmental Assessment (EA) identifies the potential environmental impacts and transportation risks of using new intermodal transfer sites and truck routes or continuing current operations to accomplish the objectives of minimizing radiological risk, enhancing safety, and reducing cost. DOE/NV will use the results of the assessment to decide whether or not to encourage the LLW generators and their transportation contractors to change their current operations to accomplish these objectives
Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Rosbjerg, Dan
An application of an inverse flow and transport model to a contaminated aquifer is presented. The objective of the study is to identify physical and nonreactive flow and transport parameters through an optimization approach. The approach can be classified as a statistical procedure, where a flow...... to steady state versus transient flow conditions and to the amount of hydraulic and solute data used is investigated. The flow parameters, transmissivity and leakage factor, are estimated simultaneously with the transport parameters: source strength, porosity, and longitudinal dispersivity. This paper...
Browning, R.E.; Bell, M.J.; Dragonette, K.S.; Johnson, T.C.; Roles, G.W.; Lohaus, P.H.; Regnier, E.P.
On 27 December 1982, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended its regulations to provide specific requirements for licensing the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The regulations establish performance objectives for land disposal of waste; technical requirements for the siting, design, operations, and closure activities for a near-surface disposal facility; technical requirements concerning waste form and classification that waste generators must meet for the land disposal of waste; institutional requirements; financial assurance requirements; and administrative and procedural requirements for licensing a disposal facility. Waste generators must comply with the waste form and classification provisions of the new rule, on 27 December 1983, one year later. During this implementation period, licensees must develop programmes to ensure compliance with the new waste form and classification provisions. The NRC is also promulgating regulations specifying the technical criteria for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological repositories. The proposed rule was published for public comment in July 1981. Public comments have been received and considered by the Commission staff. The Commission will soon approve and publish a revised final rule. While the final rule being considered by the Commission is fundamentally the same as the proposed rule, provisions have been added to permit flexibility in the application of numerical criteria, some detailed design requirements have been deleted, and other changes have been made in response to comments. The rule is consistent with the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. (author)
Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Retallick, P.G.; Kehoe, J.H.; Webb, M.M.; Nielsen, D.B.; Spaanstra, J.R.; Kornfeld, L.M.
On January 31, 2005, Clean Harbors Environmental Services submitted a license application to the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) for the disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced radioactive material (TENORM) at Clean Harbor's Deer Trail RCRA Subtitle C landfill. Deer Trail is located 70 miles east of Denver, Colorado. The license application for Deer Trail was submitted under CCR 1007-1, Part 14  the Colorado State equivalent of 10 CFR Part 61  for radioactive waste disposal. A disposal license is required since some of the NORM/TENORM waste in Colorado is licensed by CDPHE. The license application does not extend to byproduct or source material, and thus does not include the broader categories found in Class A radioactive waste. The license application requires the establishment of a radiation protection program, assuring that all NORM/TENORM waste, even non-licensed waste disposed under RCRA, will have appropriate radiological controls for workers, the public, and the environment. Because Deer Trail is a RCRA Subtitle C facility with an active RCRA Permit and because of the overlapping and similar requirements in the process to obtain either a RCRA permit or a radioactive waste disposal license, the license process for Deer Trail was appropriately focused. This focusing was accomplished by working with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) and excluding or waiving selected radioactive materials license requirements from further consideration because they were found to be adequately addressed under the RCRA Permit. Of most significance, these requirements included: - Institutional Information - Federal or State ownership will not be required, since the State's Radiation Control regulations allow for private site ownership, consistent with the same financial assurance and institutional control requirements of RCRA. - Development of Additional Technical
Mohd Bakri Ishak
Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.
Chatterjee, R.M.; Coady, J.R.; Wagstaff, K.P.
Staff of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board are proposing to establish a general framework for assessing the radiological impact of radioactive waste management practices. This framework features, in addition to the familiar radiation protection principles concerning dose limits and optimization, the concept of trivial doses that are so low that for practical purposes they may be neglected. The rationale for the derivation of numerical criteria for trivial doses is based primarily on consideration of risks to individuals in small and large populations. The concept of trivial individual doses has wide application and significant implications for a variety of waste management practices, including the definition of contaminated materials that are exempt from regulations as radioactive wastes. Examples are given of the practical application of this approach to specific waste disposal issues
El Zarka, M.
A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner
Recently, in the Czech Republic, there is in the phase of development the Act on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy and Ionizing Radiation, so called the Nuclear Energy Act. This Act has to replace existing regulations and fulfill some not yet covered fields of that area. The act is developed as so called ''umbrella act'' and has to cover all aspects of the nuclear energy and ionizing radiation use, from uranium mining or isotopes use in medicine, to the power generation in nuclear power plants. It will include among others also provisions on registration and licensing, liability for nuclear damage, decommissioning and radioactive waste management funding, and some other topics, that were missing in the regulations up to today. The paper describes recent state policy in the field of radioactive waste management and the main provisions of proposed Nuclear Energy Act, concerning the radioactive waste management