WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste transmutation driven

  1. A new concept for accelerator driven transmutation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    A new concept for an accelerator-driven transmutation system is described. The central feature of the concept is generation of intense fluxes of thermal neutrons. In the system all long-lived radionuclides comprising high-level nuclear waste can be transmuted efficiently. Transmutation takes place in a unique, low material inventory environment. Presently two principal areas are being investigated for application of the concept. The first is associated with cleanup of defense high-level waste at DOE sites such as Hanford. The second, longer term area involves production of electric power using a coupled accelerator-multiplying blanket system. This system would utilize natural thorium or uranium and would transmute long-lived components of high-level waste concurrently during operation. 5 refs., 5 figs

  2. Optimization of accelerator-driven technology for LWR waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The role of accelerator-driven transmutation technology is examined in the context of the destruction of actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. It is pointed out that the commercial plutonium is much easier to use for entry-level nuclear weapons than weapons plutonium. Since commercial plutonium is easier to use, since there is very much more of it already, and since it is growing rapidly, the permanent disposition of commercial plutonium is an issue of greater importance than weapons plutonium. The minor actinides inventory, which may be influenced by transmutation, is compared in terms of nuclear properties with commercial and weapons plutonium and for possible utility as weapons material. Fast and thermal spectrum systems are compared as means for destruction of plutonium and the minor actinides. it is shown that the equilibrium fast spectrum actinide inventory is about 100 times larger than for thermal spectrum systems, and that there is about 100 times more weapons-usable material in the fast spectrum system inventory compared to the thermal spectrum system. Finally it is shown that the accelerator size for transmutation can be substantially reduced by design which uses the accelerator-produced neutrons only to initiate the unsustained fission chains characteristic of the subcritical system. The analysis argues for devoting primary attention to the development of thermal spectrum transmutation technology. A thermal spectrum transmuter operating at a fission power of 750-MWth fission power, which is sufficient to destroy the actinide waste from one 3,000-MWth light water reactor, may be driven by a proton beam of 1 GeV energy and a current of 7 mA. This accelerator is within the range of realizable cyclotron technology and is also near the size contemplated for the next generation spallation neutron source under consideration by the US, Europe, and Japan

  3. Feasibility analysis of constant TRU feeding in waste transmutation system using accelerator-driven subcritical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Jai; Cho, Nam Zin; Jo, Chang Keun; Park, Chang Je; Kim, Do Sam; Park, Jeong Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    It is probable that the issue of nuclear spent fuel and high-level waste can have negative impact on the future expansion of nuclear power programs. Accelerator-driven nuclear waste transmutation with constant composition TRU feeding which satisfies non-proliferation condition will help establish the long-range nuclear waste disposal strategy. In this study, current status of accelerator-driven transmutation of waste technology, and feasibility analysis of constant composition TRU feeding system were investigated. We ascertained that solid system using constant composition TRU is feasible with the the capability of transmutation. (author). 13 refs., 53 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Transmutation of nuclear waste in accelerator-driven systems

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A

    2004-01-01

    Today more than ever energy is not only a cornerstone of human development, but also a key to the environmental sustainability of economic activity. In this context, the role of nuclear power may be emphasized in the years to come. Nevertheless, the problems of nuclear waste, safety and proliferation still remain to be solved. It is believed that the use of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production would address these problems in a simple, clean and economically viable, and therefore sustainable, manner. This thesis covers the major nuclear physics aspects of ADSs, in particular the spallation process and the core neutronics specific to this type of systems. The need for accurate nuclear data is described, together with a detailed analysis of the specific isotopes and energy ranges in which this data needs to be improved and the impact of their uncertainty. Preliminary experimental results for some of these isotopes, produced by the Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) ...

  5. Feasibility of waste transmutation using accelerator-driven IRIS subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroviae, B.; Carelli, M.; Paramonov, D.

    2001-01-01

    Waste transmutation is considered for reducing radio-toxicity of nuclear waste generated in power reactors. Accelerator driven subcritical systems (ADS) offer certain advantages over the use of nuclear reactors. Transmutation of fission products (e.g. 99 Tc) generally requires thermal neutron spectrum, while for actinides fast spectrum provides better performance. Proposed solutions to this problem include a multi-strata approach as well as a multi-zone (thermal/fast-spectrum) single systems. In this paper we examine the feasibility of employing a dual-spectrum two-zone accelerator-driven IRIS subcritical for waste transmutation. (author)

  6. Accelerator driven systems: Energy generation and transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The report includes 31 individual contributions by experts from six countries and two international organizations in different areas of the accelerator driven transmutation technology intended to be applied for the treatment of highly radioactive waste and power generation. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  7. Accelerator driven systems: Energy generation and transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The report includes 31 individual contributions by experts from six countries and two international organizations in different areas of the accelerator driven transmutation technology intended to be applied for the treatment of highly radioactive waste and power generation. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs, tabs.

  8. Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical System for the Radioactive Waste Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramovic, I.; Pesic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear power plants is the main problem during design of radioactive waste disposal. Most of the hazard stems from only a few chemical elements. The radiotoxicity of these elements can be efficiently reduced using partitioning and transmutation in fast reactors and accelerator driven subcritical systems. (author)

  9. Accelerator-driven transmutation: a high-tech solution to some nuclear waste problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses current technical and political issues regarding the innovative concept of using accelerator-driven transmutation processes for nuclear waste management. Two complex and related issues are addressed. First, the evolution and improvements of the design technologies are identified to indicate that there has been sufficient technological advancement with regard to a 1991 scientific peer review to warrant the advent of a large-scale national research and development program. Second, the economics and politics of the transmutation system are examined to identify non-technical barriers to the implementation of the program. Transmutation of waste has been historically viewed by nuclear engineers as one of those technologies that is too good to be true and probably too expensive to be feasible. The concept discussed in the present paper uses neutrons ( which result from protons accelerated into spallation targets)to transmute the major very long-lived hazardous materials such as the radioactive isotopes of technetium, iodine, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium. Although not a new concept, accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) lead by a team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has made some significant advances which are discussed in the present paper. (authors)

  10. Energy Production and Transmutation of Nuclear Waste by Accelerator Driven Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivkov, P. K.

    2018-05-01

    There is a significant amount of highly radiotoxic long-life nuclear waste (NW) produced by NPP (Nuclear Power Plants). Transmutation is a process which transforms NW into less radiotoxic nuclides with a shorter period of half-life by spallation neutrons or radiative capture of neutrons produced by ADS (Accelerator Driven System). In the processes of transmutation new radioactive nuclides are produced. ADS is big energy consumer equipment. It is a method for production of a high-flux and high-energy neutron field. All these processes occur in ADS simultaneously. ADS is able to transmute actinides and produce energy simultaneously. The article considers the energy production problems in ADS. Several ideas are developed regarding the solution of the global energy supply.

  11. Accelerator-driven transmutation technology: a high-tech solution to some nuclear waste problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses current technical and non-technical issues regarding the innovative concept of using accelerator-driven transmutation processes for nuclear waste management. Two complex and related issues are addressed. First, the evolution of the current U.S. conceptual design is identified to indicate that there has been sufficient technological advancement with regard to a 1991 scientific peer review to warrant the advent of a large-scale national research and development program. Second, the economics and politics of the transmutation system are examined to identify non-technical barriers to the implementation of the program. Although a number of key challenges are identified in this paper, the benefits of the research and development effort and the potential paradigm shift in attitude toward resource stewardship could greatly enhance public confidence in nuclear waste management that will have rapid positive repercussions on nuclear technology research and commercial applications. (author)

  12. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.

    1995-01-01

    Accelerators can play a role in the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste: an alternative to the storage in deep underground repositories might transmuting long-lived elements into stable or short-lived ones in subcritical systems driven by spallation neutrons. These neutrons would be produced by a high intensity, intermediate energy proton accelerator irradiating a heavy target. Similar systems have also been proposed to produce energy with a minimized waste inventory. Since a good knowledge of the spallation process is essential for designing and optimizing the target-blanket assembly, new programmes aimed at studying spallation reactions are in progress. (author). 6 figs

  13. Studies of Accelerator-Driven Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlfors, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    Accelerator-driven systems for transmutation of nuclear waste have been suggested as a means for dealing with spent fuel components that pose potential radiological hazard for long periods of time. While not entirely removing the need for underground waste repositories, this nuclear waste incineration technology provides a viable method for reducing both waste volumes and storage times. Potentially, the time spans could be diminished from hundreds of thousand years to merely 1.000 years or even less. A central aspect for accelerator-driven systems design is the prediction of safety parameters and fuel economy. The simulations performed rely heavily on nuclear data and especially on the precision of the neutron cross section representations of essential nuclides over a wide energy range, from the thermal to the fast energy regime. In combination with a more demanding neutron flux distribution as compared with ordinary light-water reactors, the expanded nuclear data energy regime makes exploration of the cross section sensitivity for simulations of accelerator-driven systems a necessity. This fact was observed throughout the work and a significant portion of the study is devoted to investigations of nuclear data related effects. The computer code package EA-MC, based on 3-D Monte Carlo techniques, is the main computational tool employed for the analyses presented. Directly related to the development of the code is the extensive IAEA ADS Benchmark 3.2, and an account of the results of the benchmark exercises as implemented with EA-MC is given. CERN's Energy Amplifier prototype is studied from the perspectives of neutron source types, nuclear data sensitivity and transmutation. The commissioning of the n T OF experiment, which is a neutron cross section measurement project at CERN, is also described

  14. Accelerator driven systems. ADS benchmark calculations. Results of stage 2. Radiotoxic waste transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenreich, W.E.; Gruppelaar, H

    1998-12-01

    This report contains the results of calculations made at ECN-Petten of a benchmark to study the neutronic potential of a modular fast spectrum ADS (Accelerator-Driven System) for radiotoxic waste transmutation. The study is focused on the incineration of TRans-Uranium elements (TRU), Minor Actinides (MA) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP), in this case {sup 99}Tc. The benchmark exercise is made in the framework of an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme. A simplified description of an ADS, restricted to the reactor part, with TRU or MA fuel (k{sub eff}=0.96) has been analysed. All spectrum calculations have been performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. The burnup calculations have been performed with the code FISPACT coupled to MCNP-4A by means of our OCTOPUS system. The cross sections are based upon JEF-2.2 for transport calculations and supplemented with EAF-4 data for inventory calculations. The determined quantities are: core dimensions, fuel inventories, system power, sensitivity on external source spectrum and waste transmutation rates. The main conclusions are: The MA-burner requires only a small accelerator current increase during burnup, in contrast to the TRU-burner. The {sup 99} Tc-burner has a large initial loading; a more effective design may be possible. 5 refs.

  15. Accelerator driven systems. ADS benchmark calculations. Results of stage 2. Radiotoxic waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenreich, W.E.; Gruppelaar, H.

    1998-12-01

    This report contains the results of calculations made at ECN-Petten of a benchmark to study the neutronic potential of a modular fast spectrum ADS (Accelerator-Driven System) for radiotoxic waste transmutation. The study is focused on the incineration of TRans-Uranium elements (TRU), Minor Actinides (MA) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP), in this case 99 Tc. The benchmark exercise is made in the framework of an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme. A simplified description of an ADS, restricted to the reactor part, with TRU or MA fuel (k eff =0.96) has been analysed. All spectrum calculations have been performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. The burnup calculations have been performed with the code FISPACT coupled to MCNP-4A by means of our OCTOPUS system. The cross sections are based upon JEF-2.2 for transport calculations and supplemented with EAF-4 data for inventory calculations. The determined quantities are: core dimensions, fuel inventories, system power, sensitivity on external source spectrum and waste transmutation rates. The main conclusions are: The MA-burner requires only a small accelerator current increase during burnup, in contrast to the TRU-burner. The 99 Tc-burner has a large initial loading; a more effective design may be possible. 5 refs

  16. The Los Alamos accelerator driven transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) concept development of the ATW target/blanket system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Williamson, M.A.; Ning, L.

    1997-01-01

    The studies carried out in the frame of the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) program developed at Los Alamos in order to solve the nuclear waste problem and to build a new generation of safer and non-proliferant nuclear power plants, are presented

  17. Neutronic design and analysis on dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket for the fusion driven sub-critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanliang; Wu Yican; Gao Chunjing; Xu Dezheng; Li Jingjing; Zhu Xiaoxiang

    2004-01-01

    Neutronics design and analysis of dual-cooled multi-functional waste transmutation blanket (DWTB) for the fusion driven sub-critical system (FDS) are performed to ensure the system be able to meet the requirements of fuel-sufficiency and more waste transmutation ratio with low initial loading fuel inventory, which is based on 1-D burn-up calculations with home-developed code Visual BUS and the multi-group (175 neutron groups-42 Gamma groups coupled) data library HENDL1.0/MG (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library). (authors)

  18. Transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system: towards a demonstration device of industrial interest (EUROTRANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, Joachim U.; Ait Abderrahim, Hamid; Caron-Carles, Marylise

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EURopean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) within the ongoing EURATOM 6th Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the assessment of the design and the feasibility of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of accelerator components, fuel development, structural materials, thermal-hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of technological feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS is integrating activities of 51 participants from 16 countries, within the industry (10 participants), the national research centres (20) and 17 universities. 16 universities are collectively represented by ENEN (European Nuclear Education Network). EUROTRANS is the continuation of the three FP5 Clusters FUETRA, BASTRA and TESTRA together with the PDS-XADS Project. It is a five-year project which started in April 2005

  19. Accelerator-driven sub-critical target concept for transmutation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Todosow, M.; Aronson, A.L.; Takahashi, H.; Geiger, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW e . 19 refs., 20 figs

  20. Nuclear waste transmutation and related innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main topics of the summer school meeting were 1. Motivation and programs for waste transmutation: The scientific perspective roadmaps; 2. The physics and scenarios of transmutation: The physics of transmutation and adapted reactor types. Impact on the fuel cycle and possible scenarios; 3. Accelerator driven systems and components: High intensity accelerators. Spallation targets and experiments. The sub critical core safety and simulation physics experiments; 4. Technologies and materials: Specific issues related to transmutation: Dedicated fuels for transmutation. Fuel processing - the role of pyrochemistry. Materials of irradiation. Lead/lead alloys. 5. Nuclear data: The N-TOF facility. Intermediate energy data and experiments. (orig./GL)

  1. Waste transmutation: perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.

    1997-01-01

    After the introduction on the source and nature of nuclear waste, this lecture analyzes the different methods proposed to transmute long-lived isotopes into stable or short-lived isotopes. It is shown that direct methods (photonuclear reactions, spallation, muon catalyzed fusion) do not lead to a sufficient transmutation rate within a reasonable cost. Only the use of hybrid systems, fusion-fission or spallation-fission, can be foreseen. (author)

  2. Minor actinide transmutation in accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation of radioactive waste, the legacy of nuclear energy use, gains rising interest. This includes the development of facilities able to transmute minor actinides (MA) into stable or short-lived isotopes before final disposal. The most common proposal is to use a double-strata approach with accelerator-driven-systems (ADS) for the efficient transmutation of MA and power reactors to dispose plutonium. An ADS consists of a sub-critical core that reaches criticality with neutrons supplied by a spallation target. An MCNP model of the ADS system Multi Purpose Research Reactor for Hightech Applications will be presented. Depletion calculations have been performed for both standard MOX fuel and transmutation fuel with an increased content of minor actinides. The resulting transmutation rates for MAs are compared to published values. Special attention is given to selected fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129, which impact the radiation from the spent fuel significantly.

  3. Fusion-driven sub-critical dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket: design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weihua; Wu Yican; Ke Yan; Kang Zhicheng; Wang Hongyan; Huang Qunying

    2003-01-01

    The Fusion-Driven Sub-critical System (FDS) is one of the Chinese programs to be further developed for fusion application. Its Dual-cooled Waste Transmutation Blanket (DWTB), as one the most important part of the FDS is cooled by helium and liquid metal, and have the features of safety, tritium self-sustaining, high efficiency and feasibility. Its conceptual design has been finished. This paper is mainly involved with the basic structure design and thermal-hydraulics analysis of DWTB. On the basis of a three-dimensional (3-D) model of radial-toroidal sections of the segment box, thermal temperature gradients and structure analysis made with a comprehensive finite element method (FEM) have been performed with the computer code ANSYS5.7 and computational fluid dynamic finite element codes. The analysis refers to the steady-state operating condition of an outboard blanket segment. Furthermore, the mechanical loads due to coolant pressure in normal operating conditions have been also taken into account. All the above loads have been combined as an input for a FEM stress analysis and the resulting stress distribution has been evaluated. Finally, the structure design and Pb-17Li flow velocity has been optimized according to the calculations and analysis

  4. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, O (Uppsala Univ., Aangstroem laboratory, div. of electricity, Uppsala (Sweden)); Moiseenko, V.E. (Inst. of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Noack, K. (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany))

    2008-10-15

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  5. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aagren, O; Moiseenko, V.E.; Noack, K.

    2008-10-01

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  6. Towards standardized calculation tools for the Accelerator-Driven Systems and their application to various scenarios for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto, M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis discusses the question of partitioning and transmutation of actinides and some long-lived fission products as a way of reducing the mass and radio-toxicity of wastes from nuclear power facilities. Numerical benchmarking and computational exercises carried out in related projects are discussed and the quantitative assessment of the advantages and drawbacks of various transmutation strategies are discussed, as is the role of Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) and Advanced Fast Reactors (FR) in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. According to the author, the study allows three main options in nuclear waste management - open cycle, plutonium recycling and the recycling of all actinides - to be compared. The last part of the dissertation is dedicated to two phase-out schemes employing either ASDs or critical reactors

  7. Transmutation and accelerator driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Today, countries who are presently involved in nuclear energy are facing many challenges to maintain this option open for the next few decades. Among them, management of nuclear wastes produced in nuclear reactors and in fuel cycle operations has become a very strong environmental issue among the public. In most countries with sizeable commercial nuclear programs, deep geological disposal of ultimate highly active and long-lived nuclear wastes is considered as the reference long-term management scheme. But, many questions arise on the possibility to demonstrate that such wastes can be dealt in such a way as to protect the future generations and the environment. The characteristics of nuclear wastes, the various back end policies concerning spent fuels and the nuclear wastes long-term management options will be first described. Then recent proposals, based on transmutation, especially those using accelerator driven systems (ADS) and/or thorium will be presented. Finally, the possibility for the nuclear physics community to play a part in alleviating the nuclear wastes burden will be pointed out. (author)

  8. Accelerator-driven transmutation of high-level waste from the defense and commercial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.; Arthur, E.; Beard, C.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The major goal has been to develop accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system designs that will thoroughly and rapidly transmute nuclear waste, including plutonium from dismantled weapons and spent reactor fuel, while generating useful electrical power and without producing a long-lived radioactive waste stream. We have identified and quantified the unique qualities of subcritical nuclear systems and their capabilities in bringing about the complete destruction of plutonium. Although the 1191 subcritical systems involved in our most effective designs radically depart from traditional nuclear reactor concepts, they are based on extrapolations of existing technologies. Overall, care was taken to retain the highly desired features that nuclear technology has developed over the years within a conservative design envelope. We believe that the ATW systems designed in this project will enable almost complete destruction of nuclear waste (conversion to stable species) at a faster rate and without many of the safety concerns associated with the possible reactor approaches

  9. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Girard, C.; Delpech, M.; Slessarev, I.; Tommasi, J.

    1994-01-01

    Waste management strategies foresee the use of a deep geological repository either for final disposal of irradiated fuel or, after reprocessing and reuse of U and Pu for final disposal of long-lived radio-active materials. In the second case, partitioning and transmutation of these materials can be considered to reduce the impact of radiation on man due to the storage. On the basis of the SPIN programme developed by CEA in this field, the main features of transmutation is presented. The goal to achieve and the criteria to use are quite difficult to establish. The rights para-meters to characterize the risk are the potential radiotoxicity in the the repository and the residual radiotoxicity at the outlet. Transmutation studies in CEA used the potential radiotoxicity which is based on well-known parameters and less precise hazardous factors. The second point to appreciate the trans- mutation interest is to dispose of a criteria for the radio-radiotoxicity reduction. As there is no general agreement, we try to have a toxicity as low as possible within reasonable technical limits. To reduce the long term radio- toxicity, Pu, minor actinides and some long-lived fission products have to be transmuted. To assess the feasibility of such trans-mutation in reactors or advanced systems, one has to consider constraints on neutronic balance, safety, fuel cycle, technology , economy. Taking in account the main conclusions of this analysis, parametric studies of homogeneous and heterogenous transmutation permit a choice of promising solutions. Goals are to use every long-lived element with a minimized production of other long- lived elements in order to obtain an appreciable radiotoxicity reduction. It implies multi recycling of Pu which favours fast neutron reactors and different strategies of multi recycling for Np, Am, Cm. Multi recycling makes the results strongly dependant of losses. Researches to obtain the high partitioning efficiency needed are in progress. Calculations

  10. Waste transmutation and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of transmuting radioactive wastes with reactors or accelerators is appealing. It has the potential of simplifying or eliminating problems of disposing of nuclear waste. The transmutation concept has been renewed vigorously at a time when national projects to dispose of high-level and transuranic waste are seriously delayed. In this period of tightening federal funds and program curtailments, skilled technical staffs are available at US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and contractors to work on waste transmutation. If the claims of transmutation can be shown to be realistic, economically feasible, and capable of being implemented within the US institutional infrastructure, public acceptance of nuclear waste disposal may be enhanced. If the claims for transmutation are not substantiated, however, there will result a serious loss of credibility and an unjust exacerbation of public concerns about nuclear waste. The paper discusses the following topics: how public acceptance is achieved; the technical community and waste disposal; transmutation and technical communication; transmutation issues; technical fixes and public perception

  11. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and transmutation of nuclear waste: Options and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.

    2001-01-01

    The scope of the lecture is to present: 1) the rationale for transmutation, 2) the principle of ADS (spallation source, sub-critical blanket), 3) an overview of the main concepts being investigated and the ongoing R and D activities in this area, 4) development trends for this technology. (author)

  12. Transmutation of nuclear waste in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Pilate, S.; Wehmann, U.K.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this joint study of ECN, Belgonucleaire, and Siemens is to investigate possibilities for transmutation of nuclear waste in regular nuclear reactors or in special transmutation devices. Studies of possibilities included the limits and technological development steps which would be needed. Burning plutonium in fast reactors, gas-cooled high-temperature reactors and light water reactors (LWR) have been considered. For minor actinides the transmutation rate mainly depends on the content of the minor actinides in the reactor and to a much less degree on the fact whether one uses a homogeneous system (with the actinides mixed into the fuel) or a heterogeneous system. If one wishes to stabilise the amount of actinides from the present LWRs, about 20% of all nuclear power would have to be generated in special burner reactors. It turned out that reactor transmutation of fission products would require considerable recycling efforts and that the time needed for a substantial transmutation would be rather long for the presently available levels of the neutron flux. If one would like to design burner systems which can serve more light water reactors, a large effort would be needed and other burners (possibly driven by accelerators) should be considered. (orig.)

  13. Separations technology development to support accelerator-driven transmutation concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Arthur, E.; Bowman, C.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated separations technology development needed for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) concepts, particularly those associated with plutonium disposition (accelerator-based conversion, ABC) and high-level radioactive waste transmutation (accelerator transmutation of waste, ATW). Specific focus areas included separations needed for preparation of feeds to ABC and ATW systems, for example from spent reactor fuel sources, those required within an ABC/ATW system for material recycle and recovery of key long-lived radionuclides for further transmutation, and those required for reuse and cleanup of molten fluoride salts. The project also featured beginning experimental development in areas associated with a small molten-salt test loop and exploratory centrifugal separations systems

  14. Present status and issues for accelerator driven transmutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    2003-01-01

    Proper treatment of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) that are produced in operation of nuclear power plants is one of the most important problems for further utilization of nuclear energy. The purpose of the accelerator driven nuclear waste transmutation system (ADS) is to transmute these nuclei to stable or short-lived nuclei by various radiation-induced nuclear reactions. When ADS for HLW can be realized, burden to deep geological disposal can be considerably reduced. In the paper, present status and issues for ADS will be discussed. (author)

  15. Transmuting nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    With the problems of disposing of nuclear waste material increasingly the cause for widespread concern, attention is turning to possible new techniques for handling discarded radioactive material and even putting it to good use

  16. Transmuting nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-04-15

    With the problems of disposing of nuclear waste material increasingly the cause for widespread concern, attention is turning to possible new techniques for handling discarded radioactive material and even putting it to good use.

  17. Partitioning and transmutation: Radioactive waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Growing world population with increasing energy needs, especially in the developing countries, Threat of global warming due to CO 2 emissions demands non-fossil electricity production. Nuclear will have to be part of a sustainable mix of energy production options Figures show that 350 GWe worldwide capacity is 'nuclear'. Present worldwide spent fuel (containing high Pu inventory) and HLW would need large repositories. In view of the previous facts this lecture deals Partitioning and transmutation as radioactive waste management option. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is a complex technology i.e. advanced reprocessing, and demand transuranics fuel fabrication plants, as well as innovative and/or dedicated transmutation reactors. In addition to U, Pu, and 129 I, 'partitioning' extracts from the liquid high level waste the minor actinides (MA) and the long-lived fission products (LLFP) 99-Tc, 93-Zr, 135-Cs, 107-Pd, and 79-Se). 'Transmutation' requires fully new fuel fabrication plants and reactor technologies to be developed and implemented on industrial scale. Present LWRs are not suited for MA and LLFP transmutation (safety consideration, plant operation, poor incineration capability). Only specially licensed LWRs can cope with MOX fuel; for increased Pu loadings (up to 100%), special reactor designs (e.g., ABB80+) are required; a combination of these reactor types could allow Pu inventory stabilization. Long-term waste radiotoxicity can be effectively reduced only if transuranics are 'incinerated' through fission with very hard neutron spectra. New reactor concepts (dedicated fast reactors, Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), fusion/fission hybrid reactors) have been proposed as transmuters/incinerators. Significant Pu+MAs incineration rates can be achieved in symbiotic scenarios: LWR-MOX and dedicated fast reactors; fast neutron spectrum ADS mainly for MA incineration; very high thermal flux ADS concepts could also provide a significant transuranics

  18. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Zaetta, A.; Delpech, M.; Girard, C.; Slessarev, I.; Tommasi, J.

    1994-01-01

    A deep repository for safe long-term storage of long-lived radioactive materials (waste) arising from nuclear fuel irradiation in reactors is a need generally accepted, whatever the strategy envisaged for further use of the irradiated fuel (e.g.: reprocessing and re-use of uranium and plutonium; no reprocessing and final disposal). To assess the impact on the environment of a waste repository, one is lead naturally to consider the impact of radiation on man and to define the radiotoxicity of the different isotopes. The toxicity of the materials stored in a repository is function of time and at a given time is the sum of the activities of each radionuclide multiplied by appropriate danger coefficients. This time dependent sum R, is a source of 'potential' radiotoxicity. It has been pointed out (in reference 1), that R does not measure 'risk', which has to take into account 'actual pathways and probability of radioactive release to the biosphere'. It is well understood that (e.g. in the case of spent PWR fuel) the main contributor to R are actinides, Pu being the main component (see table I). In the case of risk, the situation is by far more complex and dependent on the modeling of different geological environments. In the analysis made in reference 1 the predominant role of Tc-99, I-129 and Cs-135 has been pointed out. The same analysis also stresses that actinides will be by far less relevant with respect to the highly soluble and mobile fission products. (authors). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, A; Buck, R

    2000-01-01

    Lack of a safe disposal method for radioactive nuclear waste (RNW) is a problem of staggering proportion and impact. A typical LWR fission reactor will produce the following RNW in one year: minor actinides (i.e. 237 Np, 242-243 Am, 243-245 Cm) ∼40 kg, long-lived fission products (i.e, 99 Tc, 93 Zr, 129 I, 135 Cs) ∼80 kg, short lived fission products (e.g. 137 Cs, 90 Sr) ∼50kg and plutonium ∼280 kg. The total RNW produced by France and Canada amounts to hundreds of metric tonnes per year. Obtaining a uniform policy dealing with RNW has been blocked by the desire on one hand to harvest the energy stored in plutonium to benefit society and on the other hand the need to assure that the stockpile of plutonium will not be channeled into future nuclear weapons. In the meantime, the quantity and handling of these materials represents a potential health hazard to the world's population and particularly to people in the vicinity of temporary storage facilities. In the U.S., societal awareness of the hazards associated with RNW has effectively delayed development of U.S. nuclear fission reactors during the past decade. As a result the U.S. does not benefit from the large investment of resources in this industry. Reluctance to employ nuclear energy has compelled our society to rely increasingly on non-reusable alternative energy sources; coal, oil, and natural gas. That decision has compounded other unresolved global problems such as air pollution, acid rain, and global warming. Relying on these energy sources to meet our increasing energy demands has led the U.S. to increase its reliance on foreign oil; a policy that is disadvantageous to our economy and our national security. RNW can be simplistically thought of as being composed of two principal components: (1) actinides with half lives up to 10 6 years and (2) the broad class of fission fragments with typical half lives of a few hundred years. One approach to the RNW storage problem has been to transmute the

  20. A review of research and development on accelerator-driven system for transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oigawa, H.

    2004-01-01

    The dedicated transmutation system using the accelerator driven subcritical system (ADS) has been studied in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to reduce the burden of the final disposal of the nuclear waste. A subcritical reactor with the thermal power of 800 MW is proposed, where 250 kg of minor actinide (MA) can be transmuted annually. A superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC) with the beam power of 20-30 MW is necessary for this ADS. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) is used for both the spallation target and the core coolant. Many research and development activities including the design study are under way and planned at JAERI to examine the feasibility of the ADS. In the design study, optimization of the ADS design is under way in terms of neutronics and structural feasibility. In the field of the proton accelerator, a superconducting LINAC is being developed. In the field of the LBE technology, material compatibility, thermal-hydraulics and polonium behavior are being studied. The irradiation effect of structural material to be used for the beam window is also being studied. In the field of the reactor physics of the subcritical core fueled with MA, the reliability of nuclear data is examined and the subcriticality monitoring technique is being investigated. Moreover, in the framework of J-PARC project (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex), JAERI plans to construct the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) to demonstrate the feasibility of the ADS with using high-energy proton beam, to accumulate valuable knowledge about reactor physics and operation of ADS, and to establish a database for LBE spallation target and relevant materials. (author)

  1. A Cost Benefit Analysis of an Accelerator Driven Transmutation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlen, D.; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper estimates the economical costs and benefits associated with a nuclear waste transmutation strategy. An 800 MWth, fast neutron spectrum, subcritical core design has been used in the study (the so called Sing-Sing Core). Three different fuel cycle scenarios have been compared. The main purpose of the paper has been to identify the cost drivers of a partitioning and transmutation strategy, and to estimate the cost of electricity generated in a nuclear park with operating accelerator driven systems. It has been found that directing all transuranic discharges from spent light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide (UOX) fuel to accelerator driven systems leads to a cost increase for nuclear power of 50±15%, while introduction of a mixed oxide (MOX) burning step in the LWRs diminishes the cost penalty to 35±10%. (authors)

  2. Transmutation of radioactive waste: Effect on the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, N.C.; Pigford, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    A committee of the National Research Council reviewed three concepts for transmuting radionuclides recovered from the chemical reprocessing of commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel: LWR transmutation reactors fueled with recycled actinides, advanced liquid-metal reactors (ALMRs), and accelerator-driven subcritical reactors for transmutation of waste (ATW). The concepts were evaluated in terms of: (1) the extent to which waste disposal would benefit from transmutation, (2) time required to reduce the total inventory of radionuclides in the waste and fuel cycle, (3) the complexity of the overall transmutation system, (4) the extent of new development required, and (5) institutional and economic problems of operating such systems. Transmutation could affect geologic disposal of waste by reducing the inventory of transuranics (TRUs), fission products, and other radionuclides in the waste. Reducing the inventory of transuranics does not necessarily affect radiation doses to people who use contaminated ground water if the dissolution rate of transuranics in waste is controlled by elemental solubilities. However, reducing inventories of Am and Pu would decrease potential hazards from human intrusion. The likelihood for underground nuclear criticality would also be reduced. The long-lived fission products Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135 and others typically contribute most to the long-term radiation doses to future populations who use contaminated water from the repository. Their transmutation requires thermal or epithermal neutrons, readily available in LWR and ATW transmutors. ALMR and LWR transmutors would require several hundred years to reduce the total transuranic inventory by even a factor of 10 at constant electric power, and thousands of years for a hundred-fold reduction. For the same electrical power, the ATW could reduce total transuranic inventory about tenfold more rapidly, because of its very high thermal-neutron flux. However, extremely low process losses would be

  3. Statistical Transmutation in Floquet Driven Optical Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrakyan, Tigran A; Galitski, Victor M; Kamenev, Alex

    2015-11-06

    We show that interacting bosons in a periodically driven two dimensional (2D) optical lattice may effectively exhibit fermionic statistics. The phenomenon is similar to the celebrated Tonks-Girardeau regime in 1D. The Floquet band of a driven lattice develops the moat shape, i.e., a minimum along a closed contour in the Brillouin zone. Such degeneracy of the kinetic energy favors fermionic quasiparticles. The statistical transmutation is achieved by the Chern-Simons flux attachment similar to the fractional quantum Hall case. We show that the velocity distribution of the released bosons is a sensitive probe of the fermionic nature of their stationary Floquet state.

  4. U.S. advanced accelerator applications program: plans to develop and test waste transmutation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.; Bennett, D.; Arthur, E.; Cappiello, M.; Finck, P.; Hill, D.; Herczeg, J.; Goldner, F.

    2001-01-01

    The primary mission of the U.S. Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) Program is to establish a national nuclear technology research capability that can demonstrate accelerator-based transmutation of waste and conduct transmutation research while at the same time providing a capability for the production of tritium if required. The AAA Program was created during fiscal year 2001 from the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) Program and the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. This paper describes the new AAA Program, as well as its two major components: development and testing of waste transmutation technologies and construction of an integrated accelerator-driven test facility (ADTF). (author)

  5. Transmutation of 129I Using an Accelerator-Driven System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Takano, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual blanket design for 129 I transmutation is proposed for an accelerator-driven system (ADS) that is designed to transmute minor actinides (MAs). In this ADS, 250 kg/yr of MA and 56 kg/yr of iodine are simultaneously transmuted, and they correspond to the quantities generated from ∼10 units of existing light water reactors. Furthermore, an introduction scenario and the benefit of iodine transmutation are studied for future introduction of fast breeder reactors. It is shown that the transmutation of iodine benefits the concept of underground disposal

  6. Accelerator transmutation of waste economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A parametric systems model of the accelerator transmutation of (nuclear) waste (ATW) is used to examine key system trade-offs and design drivers on the basis of unit costs. This model is applied primarily to a fluid-fuel blanket concept for an ATW that generates net electric power from the fissioning of spent commercial reactor fuel. An important goal of this study is the development of essential parametric trade-offs to aid in any future conceptual engineering design of an ATW that would burn spent commercial fuel and generate net electric power. As such, costing procedures and methodologies used to estimate and compare advanced nuclear power generation systems are applied. The cost of electricity required by an electrical power-generating ATW fueled with spent commercial fuels is generally found to be above that projected for other advanced fission power plants. The accelerator and the chemical plant equipment cost accounts are quantitatively identified as main cost drivers, with the capital cost of radio-frequency power dominating the former. Significant reductions of this cost differential are possible by increased blanket neutron multiplication, increased plant capacity, or increased thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. The benefits of reduced long-lived fission products and spent commercial fuel actinides provided by the ATW approach translate into a less tangible source of revenue to be provided by a charge that must be levied on the client fission power plants being serviced. The main goal of this study, however, is not a direct cost comparison but is instead a quantitative determination of cost-based sensitivity of key cost drivers and operational modes for an ATW concept that would address the growing spent commercial fuel problem; parametric results presented focus on this goal, and a specific ATW ''straw man'' is given to achieve this main objective

  7. The possible transmutation of radioactive waste from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear reactor power program produces high level and long lived radioactive wastes. The high level activity is associated with fission products, but beyond 400 years the principal waste hazard is from transuranic elements produced in the reactor. Several schemes have been proposed for the transmutation of the problem isotopes into more easily handled isotopes. The neutron flux in a thermal reactor is not high enough to significantly reduce the longer lived fission product isotopes 90 Sr and 132 Gs, but the transuranic elements can be reduced by recycling through power reactors. The limitation on recycling of the transuranic elements is the separation process to remove trace quantities from the waste stream. In fast reactors the transuranic elements are the principal fuel and fast reactor waste contains only half as much 90 Sr as thermal reactors. However, the overall waste hazard is similar to thermal reactors. A sufficiently intense neutron flux for fission product transmutation could perhaps be produced by a spallation reactor driven by a proton linear accelerator or a controlled thermonuclear reactor. However, both concepts are still some years in the future. Transmutation by accelerator sources of protons, electrons of gammas tend to require more energy than neutron transmutation. (author)

  8. Scenarios for minor actinides transmutation in the framework of the French Act on Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Meyer, M.; Tiphine, M.; Girieud, R.; Eschbach, R.; Chabert, C.; Garzenne, C.; Barbrault, P.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Caron-Charles, M.; Favet, D.; Arslan, M.; Caron-Charles, M.; Carlier, B.; Lefevre, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the French Act on Waste Management, options of minor actinides (MA) transmutation are studied, based on several scenarios of sodium fast reactor deployment. Basically, one of these scenarios considers the deployment of a 60 GWe SFR fleet in two steps (20 GWe from 2040 to 2050 and 40 GWe, as well as, from 2080 to 2100). For this scenario, the advantages and drawbacks of different transmutation options are evaluated: - transmutation of all minor actinides or only of americium; - transmutation in homogeneous mode (MA bearing fuel in all the core or just in the outer core) or in heterogeneous mode (MA bearing radial blankets). Scenarios have been optimised to limit the impacts of MA transmutation on the cycle: - reduction of the initial MA content in the core in the case of transmutation in homogeneous mode to reduce the impact on reactivity coefficients; - reduction of the number of rows of blankets and fuel decay heat in the case of transmutation in heterogeneous mode. The sensitivity of transmutation options to cycle parameters such as the fuel cooling time before transportation is also assessed. Thus, the transmutation of only americium in one row of radial blankets containing initially 10 pc % Am and irradiated during the same duration as the standard fuel assemblies appears to be a suitable solution to limit the transmutation impacts on fuel cycle and facilities. A comparison of results obtained with MA transmutation in dedicated systems is also presented with a symbiotic scenario considering ADS (accelerator-driven system) deployment to transmute MA together with a SFR fleet to produce energy. The MA inventory within the cycle is higher in the case of transmutation in ADS than in the case of transmutation in SFR. Considering the industrial feasibility of MA transmutation, it appears important to study 'independently' SFR deployment and MA transmutation. Consequently, scenarios of progressive introduction of MA options are assessed

  9. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  10. Nuclear Waste Separation and Transmutation Research with Special Focus on Russian Transmutation Projects Sponsored by ISTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Henri; Blomgren, Jan; Olsson, Nils

    2003-03-01

    for transmutation of long lived nuclear waste should be carried through on about the same level as present (5 MSEK/year). Support is also given for participation in international projects, primarily EU projects. The aim of the research is to provide knowledgeable experts in the field to assess the international research and development on transmutation. Swedish transmutation research, in general fundamental research, are performed at three universities CTH, KTH and Uppsala University with the essential support from SKB, SKI and Swedish Nuclear Technology Centre. The same university groups are also participating in a number of international transmutation related research projects, in particular, the projects under the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission. One of the main issues of the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) in Moscow, which is financially supported by USA, EU, Russia, Japan, South Korea and Norway, is to reduce the proliferation risk by engaging experts at the former Soviet Union nuclear weapon laboratories in civilian research. This issue has been more pronounced since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the following threats from the same group of terrorists. At a workshop in Saltsjoebaden in 1991 on Accelerator Based Radioactive Waste Transmutation it was concluded that research on incineration and transmutation of reactor- and weapons grade plutonium was a civilian research area well suited to occupy the former USSR weapon experts with support from ISTC. The Expert Group on Transmutation/SKI Reference Group has chosen to initiate ISTC projects, which are dealing with fundamental technical issues for the accelerator driven transmutation concepts. The possibility of finding a Swedish research group as a counterpart to the Russian group has also played a role in the reference group's selection of projects. The Swedish research groups from CTH, KTH and UU are at present collaborating in 9 transmutation projects

  11. Conceptual study on high performance blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixue; Wu Yican

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design on high performance dual-cooled blanket of fusion-driven transmuter is presented based on neutronic calculation. The dual-cooled system has some attractive advantages when utilized in transmutation of HLW (High Level Wastes). The calculation results show that this kind of blanket could safely transmute about 6 ton minor actinides (produced by 170 GW(e) Year PWRs approximately) and 0.4 ton fission products per year, and output 12 GW thermal power. In addition, the variation of power and critical factor of this blanket is relatively little during its 1-year operation period. This blanket is also tritium self-sustainable

  12. The Los Alamos accelerator-driven transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) concept development of the ATW target/blanket system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Williamson, M.A.; Ning, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the past several years, the Los Alamos ADTT program has conducted studies of an innovative technology for solving the nuclear waste problem and building a new generation of safer and non-proliferant nuclear power plants. The ATW concept destroys higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. In this paper special attention is given to the basic design of the ATW Molten Salt concept and the safety perspective. 40 refs., 11 figs

  13. Research on accelerator-driven transmutation and studies of experimental facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizuka, Takakazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    JAERI is carrying out R and Ds on accelerator-driven transmutation systems under the national OMEGA Program that aims at development of the technology to improve efficiency and safety in the final disposal of radioactive waste. Research facilities for accelerator-driven transmutation experiments are proposed to construct within the framework of the planned JAERI Neutron Science Project. This paper describes the features of the proposed accelerator-driven transmutation systems and their technical issues to be solved. A research facility plan under examination is presented. The plan is divided in two phases. In the second phase, technical feasibility of accelerator-driven systems will be demonstrated with a 30-60 MW experimental integrated system and with a 7 MW high-power target facility. (author)

  14. Safety characteristics of potential waste transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    For nuclear waste transmutation to alter significantly the need for geologic disposal of spent fuel from US Light-water reactors (LWRs), about 1.4% of the spent fuel (by mass) must be separated and transmuted. This includes the plutonium, the minor actinides, and four fission products: iodine. technetium, cesium and strontium. Regarding the actinides, fissioning of the plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium generates a great deal of heat, so much so that most of the plutonium should be used to produce power. However, these actinides have some undesirable neutronic characteristics, and their utilization in reactors or subcritical (proton-accelerator) targets requires either a fast neutronic spectrum or a very high thermal-neutron flux. Transmutation of the fission products is generally by neutron capture, although this is difficult in the case of cesium and strontium. In this paper, various proposed means of transmuting the actinides and fission products are discussed, with the main focus being on the safety characteristics of each approach

  15. Reliability studies of a high-power proton accelerator for accelerator-driven system applications for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano; Pierini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The main effort of the present study is to analyze the availability and reliability of a high-performance linac (linear accelerator) conceived for Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) purpose and to suggest recommendations, in order both to meet the high operability goals and to satisfy the safety requirements dictated by the reactor system. Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD) approach has been considered for system modelling, according to the present level of definition of the design: component failure modes are assessed in terms of Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), reliability and availability figures are derived, applying the current reliability algorithms. The lack of a well-established component database has been pointed out as the main issue related to the accelerator reliability assessment. The results, affected by the conservative character of the study, show a high margin for the improvement in terms of accelerator reliability and availability figures prediction. The paper outlines the viable path towards the accelerator reliability and availability enhancement process and delineates the most proper strategies. The improvement in the reliability characteristics along this path is shown as well

  16. Reliability studies of a high-power proton accelerator for accelerator-driven system applications for nuclear waste transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgazzi, Luciano [ENEA-Centro Ricerche ' Ezio Clementel' , Advanced Physics Technology Division, Via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: burgazzi@bologna.enea.it; Pierini, Paolo [INFN-Sezione di Milano, Laboratorio Acceleratori e Superconduttivita Applicata, Via Fratelli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    The main effort of the present study is to analyze the availability and reliability of a high-performance linac (linear accelerator) conceived for Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) purpose and to suggest recommendations, in order both to meet the high operability goals and to satisfy the safety requirements dictated by the reactor system. Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD) approach has been considered for system modelling, according to the present level of definition of the design: component failure modes are assessed in terms of Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), reliability and availability figures are derived, applying the current reliability algorithms. The lack of a well-established component database has been pointed out as the main issue related to the accelerator reliability assessment. The results, affected by the conservative character of the study, show a high margin for the improvement in terms of accelerator reliability and availability figures prediction. The paper outlines the viable path towards the accelerator reliability and availability enhancement process and delineates the most proper strategies. The improvement in the reliability characteristics along this path is shown as well.

  17. The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safer, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power

  18. The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venneri, F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safe, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power.

  19. Minor actinide transmutation - a waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1986-01-01

    The incentive to recycle minor actinides results from the reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk rather than from a better utilization of the uranium resources. Nevertheless, the gain in generated electricity by minor actinide transmutation in a fast breeder reactor can compensate for the costs of their recovery and make-up into fuel elements. Different recycling options of minor actinides are discussed: transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) is possible as long as plutonium is not recycled in light water reactors (LWRs). In this case a minor actinide burner with fuel of different composition has to be introduced. The development of appropriate minor actinide fuels and their properties are described. The irradiation experiments underway or planned are summarized. A review of minor actinide partitioning from the PUREX waste stream is given. From the present constraints of LMFBR technology a reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk by a factor of 200 is deduced relative to that from the direct storage of spent LWR fuel. Though the present accumulation of minor actinides is low, nuclear transmutation may be needed when nuclear energy production has grown. (orig.)

  20. Development of nuclear transmutation technology - A study on accelerator-driven transmutation of long-lived radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Chung, Kie Hyung; Hong, Sang Hee; Hwang, Il Soon; Park, Byung Gi; Yang, Hyung Lyeol; Kim, Duk Kyu; Huh, Chang Wook [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this study is to help establish the long-range nuclear waste disposal strategy through the investigations and comparisons of various= concepts of the accelerator-driven nuclear waste transmutation reactors, which have been suggested to replace the geological waste disposal due to the technical uncertainties in the long-time scale. Nuclear data, categorized in high -and low-energy neutron cross-sections, were investigated and the structures, principles, and recent progresses of proton linac were reviews, Also the accelerator power for transmutation and the economics were referred, The comparison of the transmutation concepts concentrated on two: Japanese OMEGA program of alloy fuelled system, Minor actinide molten salt system, and Eutectic alloy system and American ATW program of aqueous system and molten salt system. From the comparative study, a state-of-art of the technology has been identified as a concept employing proton-accelerate of 800 {approx} 1600 MeV with 100 mA capacity combined with liquid lead target, molten salt blanket and on-line chemical separation using centrifuge and electrowinning technology. 34 refs., 25 tabs., 64 figs. (author)

  1. Deep burn transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.; Baxter, A.; McEachern, D.; Venneri, F.; Williams, D.

    2002-01-01

    Helium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors with ceramic-coated fuel particles offer unique advantages for the destruction of transuranic materials discharged in Light Water Reactor spent fuel. This is accomplished by fission, and capture-followed-by-fission processes. Three major features make it practical: (1) ceramic-coated particles accommodate high levels of burnup in one pass, thus reducing the need for repeated reprocessing; (2) graphite moderation produces valuable opportunities for thermal and epithermal neutrons to interact with fissionable and non-fissionable materials respectively; and (3) ceramic-coated particle kernel sizes can be adjusted to control the rate of such interactions. In the transmutation scheme proposed here, virtually complete destruction of weapons-usable materials, and 95% destruction of all transuranic waste is achieved. Higher levels of destruction are possible by repeated reprocessing and recycling, but there is little incentive to do so since each reprocessing step generates new secondary waste. After transmutation, the impervious ceramic-coated fuel particles provide an ideal residual waste form. (author)

  2. Transmutation of transuranium elements in a gas-cooled accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biss, Klaus Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The peaceful usage of nuclear energy by light and boiling water reactors is connected with a buildup of long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Compared to the direct disposal, partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is considered as an effective way to reduce this waste in its quantity by converting it into short-lived radio nuclides. By that the long term radiotoxicity is reduced compared to direct disposal. Subcritical systems, which are powered by spallation processes for free neutron production to maintain the nuclear chain reaction, allow a target-oriented transmutation. As a subcritical system a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) for transmutation of transuranic elements has been modeled in this thesis to evaluate the reduction of the radio toxicity by P and T. The simulation of neutron-physical processes is based on the Monte Carlo computer program MCNPX. The development of an equilibrium core made it possible to study the transmutation and operating behavior for several fuel variations in a magnesium oxide matrix and develop a simplified burnup method. Americium as part of the fuel has a stabilizing effect on the neutron multiplication due to its conversion into plutonium during the operation. Thorium was investigated as an alternative matrix for the fuel in order to replicate the stabilizing effect of americium by the conversion of thorium in 233 U. By that a consistent operating cycle in the later P and T-process is ensured. Calculation of the nuclide composition at the end of a P and T-process leads to an expansion of the mathematical description of the mass reduction (transmutation efficiency) by the material located in the reactor. The achieved transmutation efficiency with the investigated ADS is 98.8 %. The transmutation time was examined with different operating strategies regarding the number, size and thermal power of use of transmutation facilities to determine the effort for the P and T-process depending on efficiency. It turns out

  3. Waste transmutation with minimal fuel cycle long-term risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.; Uematsu, M. [Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, Cadarache (France)

    1995-10-01

    Hybrid systems (source-driven subcritical reactors), are investigated at CEA, mainly from a conceptual point of view, in order to assess their potential to transmute radioactive wastes (mainly long-lived fission products, LLFP) and their potential to insure a minimal long-term radiological risk related both to the fuel inventory inside the system and to the full fuel cycle (mass flows, reprocessing transport, waste disposal). The physics of these systems has been explored and work is in progress both in the field of basic data and INC code validation, in the frame of international collaborations and in the field of conceptual design studies. The most interesting feature of subcritical source-driven system is related to the possibility to obtain an {open_quotes}excess{close_quotes} of neutrons per fission, which can be used to reduce the long-term radiological risk. A specific example will be discussed here.

  4. Transmutation of radioactive wastes: how and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2004-01-01

    After having evoked the natural or spontaneous transmutation of natural or artificial radioactive atoms, the author describes how this transmutation is technically obtained, indicates the two main families of atoms present in a used nuclear fuel and for which transmutation is to be investigated (long-lived fission residues or products, and transuranium elements) and of which the behaviour in neutron fluxes must be explored. He discusses the industrial means required for artificial transmutation. He discusses the interest of performing such a transmutation

  5. Accelerator driven nuclear energy and transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has been a mature industry for many years. However, despite the overall safety record and the great attractions of nuclear power, especially in times of concern about green house gases emissions, there continues to be some lack of public acceptance of this technology. This sensitivity to nuclear power has several elements in addition to the concern of a potential nuclear accident. These include the possible diversion of plutonium into nuclear weapon production and the concern about the long term storage of plutonium and other transuranic elements. A concept which seeks to allay these fears but still takes advantage of the nuclear fuel cycle and utilises decades of research and development in this technology, is the idea of using modern accelerators to transmute the long lived radio nuclides and simultaneously generate power. A review of the novel concepts for energy production and transmutation of isotopes will be presented. Of the various proposals, the most developed is the Energy Amplifier Concept promoted by Rubbia. The possibility of using high-energy, high-current accelerators to produce large fluxes of neutrons has been known since the earliest days of accelerator technology. E.O. Lawrence, for example, promoted the concept of producing nuclear material with such an accelerator. The Canadians in the early 50s considered using accelerators to produce fuel for their heavy water reactors and there were well advanced designs for a device called the Intense Neutron Generator. The speculative idea of using accelerator produced neutrons for the transmutation of transuranic elements (i.e. elements such as neptunium plutonium and other elements with higher Z atomic number) has also been studied extensively, notably at a number of laboratories in the US, Europe and Japan. However at this time, all facilities that have actually been constructed have been designed primarily for condensed matter studies i.e. studies of the structural properties

  6. Research on transmutation and accelerator-driven systems at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Heusener, G.

    2000-01-01

    Transmutation is considered a promising technology worldwide for significantly reducing the amount and, thereby, the long-term radiotoxicity of high active waste (HAW) produced by the operation of nuclear power plants such as light water reactors (LWR). The maximum reduction of radiotoxicity could be by a factor of about 100. Transmutation is thus an alternative to the direct deposition of large volumes of highly radioactive waste. Transmutation presents the possibility of closing the fuel cycle including the minor actinides. Plutonium, minor actinides and long-lived fission products can be transmuted in a so called Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS), which consists of an accelerator, a target module and a subcritical blanket. This paper describes the work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe which is critically evaluating an ADS mainly with respect to its potential for transmuting minor actinides, to its feasibility and to safety aspects. The work is being done in the area of core design, neutronics, safety, system analyses, materials and corrosion. (orig.) [de

  7. II. Inhibited Diffusion Driven Surface Transmutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2006-02-01

    This paper is the second of a set of three papers dealing with the role of coherent partitioning as a common element in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), by which is meant cold-fusion related processes. This paper discusses the first step in a sequence of four steps that seem to be necessary to explain Iwamura 2-α-addition surface transmutations. Three concepts are examined: salt-metal interface states, sequential tunneling that transitions D+ ions from localized interstitial to Bloch form, and the general applicability of 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional symmetry hosting networks.

  8. II. Inhibited diffusion driven surface transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubb, Talbot A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the second of a set of three papers dealing with the role of coherent partitioning as a common element in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), by which is meant cold-fusion related processes. This paper discusses the first step in a sequence of four steps that seem to be necessary to explain lwamura 2-α-addition surface transmutations. Three concepts are examined: salt metal interface states, sequential tunneling that transitions D + ions from localized interstitial to Bloch form, and the general applicability of 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional symmetry hosting networks. (author)

  9. II. Inhibited diffusion driven surface transmutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubb, Talbot A. [Greenwich Corp., 5023 N. 38th St., Arlington, VA 22207 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second of a set of three papers dealing with the role of coherent partitioning as a common element in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), by which is meant cold-fusion related processes. This paper discusses the first step in a sequence of four steps that seem to be necessary to explain lwamura 2-{alpha}-addition surface transmutations. Three concepts are examined: salt metal interface states, sequential tunneling that transitions D{sup +} ions from localized interstitial to Bloch form, and the general applicability of 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional symmetry hosting networks. (author)

  10. Status of nuclear transmutation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI is carrying out R and Ds on partitioning and transmutation under the OMEGA Program. The R and Ds include the design study of accelerator-driven transmutation systems and the development of transmutation experimental facilities. Accelerator-driven systems have received much interests due to their potential role as dedicated transmuters in the nuclear fuel cycle for minimizing long-lived waste. Principles of accelerator-driven system, its history, JAERI proposed system concepts, and the experimental program are overviewed. (author)

  11. Keynote address at the international conference on nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.

    1980-07-01

    Most of the US research effort on radioactive waste management is concentrated on its solidification and storage in geologic formations. Transmutation is an alternative. It can be applied to weapons plutonium as well to spent fuel

  12. Proposed partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Rawlins, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW e . 14 refs., 10 figs

  13. Tokamak transmutation of (nuclear) waste (TTW): Parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.T.; Krakowski, R.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated as part of the commercial-power and defense nuclear programs can be either stored or transmuted. The latter treatment requires a capital-intensive neutron source and is reserved for particularly hazardous and long-lived actinide and fission-product waste. A comparative description of fusion-based transmutation is made on the basis of rudimentary estimates of ergonic performance and transmutation capacities versus inventories for both ultra-low-aspect-ratio (spherical torus, ST) and conversional (aspect-ratio) tokamak fusion-power-core drivers. The parametric systems studies reported herein provides a preamble to more-detailed, cost-based systems analyses

  14. Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    .... The committee examines the currently used "once-through" fuel cycle versus different alternatives of separations and transmutation technology systems, by which hazardous radionuclides are converted...

  15. Application of variance reduction technique to nuclear transmutation system driven by accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In Japan, it is the basic policy to dispose the high level radioactive waste arising from spent nuclear fuel in stable deep strata after glass solidification. If the useful elements in the waste can be separated and utilized, resources are effectively used, and it can be expected to guarantee high economical efficiency and safety in the disposal in strata. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute proposed the hybrid type transmutation system, in which high intensity proton accelerator and subcritical fast core are combined, or the nuclear reactor which is optimized for the exclusive use for transmutation. The tungsten target, minor actinide nitride fuel transmutation system and the melted minor actinide chloride salt target fuel transmutation system are outlined. The conceptual figures of both systems are shown. As the method of analysis, Version 2.70 of Lahet Code System which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory in USA was adopted. In case of carrying out the analysis of accelerator-driven subcritical core in the energy range below 20 MeV, variance reduction technique must be applied. (K.I.)

  16. Experimental investigations of the accelerator-driven transmutation technologies at the subcritical facility ''Yalina''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigrinov, S.E.; Kiyavitskaya, H.I.; Serafimovich, I.G.; Rakhno, I.L.; Rutkovskaia, Ch.K.; Fokov, Y.; Khilmanovich, A.M.; Marstinkevich, B.A.; Bournos, V.V.; Korneev, S.V.; Mazanik, S.E.; Kulikovskaya, A.V.; Korbut, T.P.; Voropaj, N.K.; Zhouk, I.V.; Kievec, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    The investigations on accelerator-driven transmutation technologies (ADTT) focus on the reduction of the amount of long-lived wastes and the physics of a subcritical system driven with an external neutron source. This paper presents the experimental facility 'Yalina' which was designed and created at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus in the framework of the ISTC project no. B-070 to study the peculiarities of ADTT in thermal spectrum. A detailed description of the assembly, neutron generator and a preliminary analysis of some calculated and experimental data (multiplication factor, neutron flux density distribution in the assembly, transmutation rates of some long-lived fission products and minor actinides) are presented. (authors)

  17. Critique of rationale for transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    It has been suggested that nuclear transmutation could be used in the elimination or reduction of hazards from radioactive wastes. The rationale for this suggestion is the subject of this paper. The objectives of partitioning-transmutation are described. The benefits are evaluated. The author concludes that transmutation would appear at best to offer the opportunity of reducing an already low risk. This would not seem to be justifiable considering the cost. If non-radiological risks are considered, there is a negative total benefit

  18. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J.

    2001-05-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details

  19. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2001-05-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details.

  20. Development of transmutation technologies of radioactive waste by actinoid hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konashi, Kenji; Matsui, Hideki; Yamawaki, Michio

    2001-01-01

    Two waste treatment methods, geological disposal and transmutation, have been studied. The transmutation method changes long-lived radioactive nuclides to short-lived one or stabilizes them by nuclear transformation. The transmutation by actinoid hydride is exactly alike that transformation method from actinoid disposal waste to Pu fuel. For this object, OMEGA project is processing now. The transmutation is difficult by two causes such as large amount of long-lived radioactive nuclides and not enough development of control technologies of nuclear reaction except atomic reactor. The transmutation using actinoid hydride has merits that the amount of actinoid charged in the target increases and the effect of thermal neutrons on fuel decreases depending on homogeneous transmutation velocity in the target. Development of stable actinoid hydride under the conditions of reactor temperature and irradiation environment is important. The experimental results of U-ZrH 1.6 are shown in this paper. The irradiation experiment using Th hydride has been proceeding. (S.Y.)

  1. Analysis on Radioactive Waste Transmutation in Light Water cooled Hyb-WT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seonghee; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility of realization is much higher in FFHR compared with pure fusion. A combination of plasma fusion source for neutrons with a subcritical reactor at the blanket side has much higher capability in transmutation of waste as well as reactor safety compared with fission reactor options. Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor (FFHR) uses various coolants depending on the purpose. It is important that coolant being used should be suitable to reactor purpose, because reactor performance and the design constraints may change depending on the coolant. There are basically two major groups of coolants for FFHR. One group of coolant does not contain Li. They are Na, Pb-Bi, H 2 O and D 2 O. The other group contains Li for tritium breeding. They are Li, LiPb, LiSN, FLIBE and FLiNaBe. Currently, the issue in FFHR is its implication for radioactive waste transmutation (FFHR for WT). Because radioactive wastes of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are transmuted using fusion neutron source. Therefore a suitable coolant should be used for effective waste transmutation. . In FFHR for WT, LiPb coolant is being used mainly because of tritium production in Li and high neutron economic through reaction in Pb. However different coolants use such as Na, Pb-Bi are used in fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS) having same purpose. In this study, radioactive waste transmutation performance of various coolants mentioned above will be compared and analyzed. Through this study, the coolants are judged primarily for their support to waste transmutation disregarding their limitation to reactor design and tritium breeding capability. First, performance of the light water coolant regarding radioactive waste transmutation was analyzed among various coolants mentioned above. In this paper, performance of radioactive waste transmutation can be known depending on different volume fractions (54.53, 60.27, 97.94vol.%) of the light water. Light water dose required fusion power lower than LiPb due to

  2. Some basic advantages of accelerator-driven transmutation of minor actinides and iodine-129

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apse, V.A.; Kulikov, G.G. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    The blanket of accelerator-driven facility designed for I-129 transmutation doesn`t contain fissile and fertile materials. So the overheating of iodine compounds transmuted is practically excluded. The efficacy of I-129 transmutation is estimated. Curium being accumulated in nuclear reactors can be incinerated in blanket of accelerator-driven facility. The deep depletion of curium diluted with inert material can be achieved.

  3. Economic assessment of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauferts, U.; Van Heek, A.; Hart, J.

    2007-01-01

    This nuclear system study focuses on a realistic evolution of Partitioning and Transmutation technologies, which can be deployed incrementally on an industrial scale as well as on future developments such as reactors of the third and fourth generation and Accelerated Driven Systems (ADS). A set of five different fuel cycles has been selected, representing the options proposed in different European countries. Two industrial scenarios as continuation of the open nuclear fuel cycles and mono-recycling of plutonium in PWRs have been chosen as a reference. In addition, 3 more innovative cycles are considered using Fast Generation IV reactors and double strata scenarios with advanced PWR, ADS and fast reactors. This study shows, first, that closing the nuclear fuel cycle would be a useful strategy to mitigate concerns about a rapid depletion of natural uranium resources in this century. Secondly, all the 3 advanced fuel cycle strategies proposed reduce effectively the total amount of nuclear waste out of pile and consequently the need for large capacities of deep geological repositories. Thirdly, the most efficient strategy towards the mitigation of waste production is the utilization of fast reactors technology to burn plutonium and ADS to burn minor actinides

  4. Preliminary analyses of neutronics schemes for three kinds waste transmutation blankets of fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingchun; Feng Kaiming; Li Zaixin; Zhao Fengchao

    2012-01-01

    The neutronics schemes of the helium-cooled waste transmutation blanket, sodium-cooled waste transmutation blanket and FLiBe-cooled waste transmutation blanket were preliminarily calculated and analysed by using the spheroidal tokamak (ST) plasma configuration. The neutronics properties of these blankets' were compared and analyzed. The results show that for the transmutation of "2"3"7Np, FLiBe-cooled waste transmutation blanket has the most superior transmutation performance. The calculation results of the helium-cooled waste transmutation blanket show that this transmutation blanket can run on a steady effective multiplication factor (k_e_f_f), steady power (P), and steady tritium production rate (TBR) state for a long operating time (9.62 years) by change "2"3"7Np's initial loading rate of the minor actinides (MA). (authors)

  5. Accelerator-driven transmutation reactor analysis code system (ATRAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasa, Toshinobu; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    JAERI is proceeding a design study of the hybrid type minor actinide transmutation system which mainly consist of an intense proton accelerator and a fast subcritical core. Neutronics and burnup characteristics of the accelerator-driven system is important from a view point of the maintenance of subcriticality and energy balance during the system operation. To determine those characteristics accurately, it is necessary to involve reactions at high-energy region, which are not treated on ordinary reactor analysis codes. The authors developed a code system named ATRAS to analyze the neutronics and burnup characteristics of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor systems. ATRAS has a function of burnup analysis taking account of the effect of spallation neutron source. ATRAS consists of a spallation analysis code, a neutron transport codes and a burnup analysis code. Utility programs for fuel exchange, pre-processing and post-processing are also incorporated. (author)

  6. Phoenix type concepts for transmutation of LWR waste minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, M.

    1994-01-01

    A number of variations on the original Phoenix theme were studied. The basic rationale of the Phoenix incinerator is making oxide fuel of the LWR waste minor actinides, loading it in an FFTF-like subcritical core, then bombarding the core with the high current beam accelerated protons to generate considerable energy through spallation and fission reactions. As originally assessed, if the machine is fed with 1600 MeV protons in a 102 mA current, then 8 core modules are driven to transmute the yearly minor actinides waste of 75 1000 MW LWRs into Pu 238 and fission products; in a 2 years cycle the energy extracted is 100000 MW d/T. This performance cannot be substantiated in a rigorous analysis. A calculational consistent methodology, based on a combined execution of the Hermes, NCNP, and Korigen codes, shows, nonetheless that changes in the original Phoenix parameters can upgrade its performance.The original Phoenix contains 26 tons minor actinides in 8 core modules; 1.15 m 3 module is shaped for 40% neutron leakage; with a beam of 102 mA the 8 modules are driven to 100000 MW/T in 10.5 years, burning out the yearly minor actinide waste of 15 LWRs; the operation must be assisted by grid electricity. If the 1.15 m 3 module is shaped to allow only 28% leakage, then a beam of 102 mA will drive the 8 modules to 100000 MW/T in 3.5 years, burning out the yearly minor actinides waste of 45 LWRs. Some net grid electricity will be generated. If 25 tons minor actinides are loaded into 5 modules, each 1.72 m 3 in volume and of 24% leakage, then a 97 mA beam will drive the module to 100000 MW/T in 2.5 years, burning out the yearly minor actinides waste of 70 LWRs. A considerable amount of net grid electricity will be generated. If the lattice is made of metal fuel, and 26 tons minor actinides are loaded into 32 small modules, 0.17 m 3 each, then a 102 mA beam will drive the modules to 100000 MW/T in 2 years, burning out the yearly minor actinides waste of 72 LWRs. A considerable

  7. Transmutation of LWR waste actinides in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    Recycle of actinides to a reactor for transmutation to fission products is being considered as a possible means of waste disposal. Actinide transmutation calculations were made for two irradiation options in a thermal (LWR) reactor. The cases considered were: all actinides recycled in regular uranium fuel assemblies, and transuranic actinides recycled in separate mixed oxide (MOX) assemblies. When all actinides were recycled in a uranium lattice, a reduction of 62% in the transuranic inventory was achieved after 10 recycles, compared to the inventory accumulated without recycle. When the transuranics from 2 regular uranium assemblies were combined with those recycled from a MOX assembly, the transuranic inventory was reduced 50% after 5 recycles

  8. Transmutation of fission products and actinide waste at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, L.L.; Pitcher, E.J.; Russell, G.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The authors studied the neutronics of an ATW system for the transmutation of the fission products ({sup 99}Tc in particular) and the type of actinide waste stored in several tanks at Hanford. The heart of the system is a highly-efficient neutron production target. It is surrounded by a blanket containing a moderator/reflector material, as well as the products to be transmuted. The fission products are injected into the blanket in the form of an aqueous solution in heavy water, whereas an aqueous actinides slurry is circulated in the outer part of the blanket. For the sake of definiteness, the authors focussed on {sup 99}Tc (the most difficult fission product to transmute), and {sup 239}Pu, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 241}Am. Because of the low thermal neutron absorption cross-section of {sup 99}Tc, considerable care and effort must be devoted to the design of a very efficient neutron source.

  9. Spallation neutron source target design for radioactive waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive waste has long been one of the most serious problems facing the nuclear industry. Transmutation of this waste through particle bombardment has been suggested numerous times as a possible method of enhancing the waste management process. Due to advances in accelerator technology, the feasibility of an accelerator based transmutation system has increased enough to allow serious investigation of this process. Therefore, in pursuit of this goal, an accelerator target was designed for use in an accelerator based transmutation system. The target design consists of an array of tantalum rods, cooled by liquid sodium, which are arranged in a cylindrical configuration 40 cm in diameter and 125 cm in height. Tantalum was chosen as the target material over tungsten, lead, bismuth, and a lead-bismuth alloy (55 w/o bismuth) due to a large neutron yield, low activation, low chemical toxicity, and the fact that it does not produce significant amounts of long-lived isotopes through spallation or activation. The target yields a neutron source of 29.7 neutrons/proton when exposed to a 1600 MeV proton beam, and is suitable for use with both thermal or fast spectrum transmutation systems

  10. Application of gaseous core reactors for transmutation of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, B. G.; Paternoster, R. R.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An acceptable management scheme for high-level radioactive waste is vital to the nuclear industry. The hazard potential of the trans-uranic actinides and of key fission products is high due to their nuclear activity and/or chemical toxicity. Of particular concern are the very long-lived nuclides whose hazard potential remains high for hundreds of thousands of years. Neutron induced transmutation offers a promising technique for the treatment of problem wastes. Transmutation is unique as a waste management scheme in that it offers the potential for "destruction" of the hazardous nuclides by conversion to non-hazardous or more manageable nuclides. The transmutation potential of a thermal spectrum uranium hexafluoride fueled cavity reactor was examined. Initial studies focused on a heavy water moderated cavity reactor fueled with 5% enriched U-235-F6 and operating with an average thermal flux of 6 times 10 to the 14th power neutrons/sq cm-sec. The isotopes considered for transmutation were I-129, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, and Cm-246.

  11. Neutronics analysis of minor actinides transmutation in a fusion-driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Cao, Liangzhi; Wu, Hongchun; Zheng, Youqi; Zu, Tiejun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A fusion fission hybrid system for MA transmutation is proposed. • The analysis of neutronics effects on the transmutation is performed. • The transmutation rate of MA reaches 86.5% by 25 times of recycling. -- Abstract: The minor actinides (MAs) transmutation in a fusion-driven subcritical system is analyzed in this paper. The subcritical reactor is driven by a tokamak D-T fusion device with relatively easily achieved plasma parameters and tokamak technologies. The MAs discharged from the light water reactor (LWR) are loaded in transmutation zone. Sodium is used as the coolant. The mass percentage of the reprocessed plutonium (Pu) in the fuel is raised from 0 to 48% and stepped by 12% to determine its effect on the MAs transmutation. The lesser the Pu is loaded, the larger the MAs transmutation rate is, but the smaller the energy multiplication factor is. The neutronics analysis of two loading patterns is performed and compared. The loading pattern where the mass percentage of Pu in two regions is 15% and 32.9% respectively is conducive to the improvement of the transmutation fraction within the limits of burn-up. The final transmutation fraction of MAs can reach 17.8% after five years of irradiation. The multiple recycling is investigated. The transmutation fraction of MAs can reach about 61.8% after six times of recycling, and goes up to about 86.5% after 25

  12. Study of a neutronic potential of a modular fast spectrum ADS for radiotoxic waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.; Arkhipov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA has maintained an active interest in advanced nuclear technology related to Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The activities carried out by the IAEA within its Programme on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems for Energy Generation and Transmutation include preparation of status reports on advanced technologies development, conduct of technical information exchange meetings and co-operative Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs). Consultancy on Accelerator Driven Systems and Related Fuel Cycles held from 1-2 February 1996 in Cadarache, France reviewed the recent progress in studies on feasibility of Accelerator Driven Systems and participants recommended the IAEA to organize a CRP to investigate the accelerator driven systems potential. In 1996 the CRP: 'Use of Th-based Fuel Cycle in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) to Incinerate Pu and to Reduce Long-term Waste Toxicities' was established and the first Research Coordination Meeting was convened in March 1997 at the ENEA Research Center in Bologna, Italy. Results of the first stage 'Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)-Neutronic Benchmark' were reported to the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Feasibility and Motivation for Hybrid Concepts for Nuclear Energy Generation and Transmutation in Madrid, Spain, in September 1997. Results obtained during the second stage of the CRP were presented and analysed at the RCM in December 1998 in Petten, Netherlands. The meeting was attended by 21 representatives and observers from IAEA, Belarus, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden and USA. This paper was prepared on recommendation of the participants of the meeting in Petten, Netherlands. Accelerator Driven System (ADS) neutronic potential, i.e. capability to burnout transuranic elements (TRU) or minor actinides (MA) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP) with minimum ADS park as well as the rate of LLFP transmutation (mass/energy production) for nuclear waste

  13. Transmutation of fission products in reactors and accelerator-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Energy flows and mass flows in several scenarios are considered. Economical and safety aspects of the transmutation scenarios are compared. It is difficult to find a sound motivation for the transmutation of fission products with accelerator-driven systems. If there would be any hesitation in transmuting fission products in nuclear reactors, there would be an even stronger hesitation to use accelerator-driven systems, mainly because of their lower energy efficiency and their poor cost effectiveness. The use of accelerator-driven systems could become a 'meaningful' option only if nuclear energy would be banished completely. (orig./HP)

  14. Potential benefits of waste transmutation to the U.S. high-level waste respository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, G.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper reexamines the potential benefits of waste transmutation to the proposed U.S. geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site based on recent progress in the performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain base case of spent fuel emplacement. It is observed that actinides are assumed to have higher solubility than in previous studies and that Np and other actinides now dominate the projected aqueous releases from a Yucca Mountain repository. Actinides are also indentified as the dominant source of decay heat in the repository, and the effect of decay heat in perturbing the hydrology, geochemistry, and thermal characteristics of Yucca Mountain are reviewed. It is concluded that the potential for thermally-driven, buoyant, gas-phase flow at Yucca Mountain introduces data and modeling requirements that will increase the costs of licensing the site and may cause the site to be unattractive for geologic disposal of wastes. A transmutation-enabled cold repository is proposed that might allow licensing of a repository to be based upon currently observable characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  15. ACCELERATOR TRANSMUTATION OF WASTE TECHNOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION SCENARIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, D.; Tuyle, G. van

    2000-01-01

    During 1999, the U.S. Department of Energy, in conjunction with its nuclear laboratories, a national steering committee, and a panel of world experts, developed a roadmap for research, development, demonstration, and deployment of Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The ATW concept that was examined in this roadmap study was based on that developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during the 1990s. The reference deployment scenario in the Roadmap was developed to treat 86,300 tn (metric tonnes initial heavy metal) of spent nuclear fuel that will accumulate through 2035 from existing U.S. nuclear power plants (without license extensions). The disposition of this spent nuclear reactor fuel is an issue of national importance, as is disposition of spent fuel in other nations. The U.S. program for the disposition of this once-through fuel is focused to characterize a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a geological repository for spent fuel and high-level waste. The ATW concept is being examined in the U.S. because removal of plutonium minor actinides, and two very long-lived isotopes from the spent fuel can achieve some important objectives. These objectives include near-elimination of plutonium, reduction of the inventory and mobility of long-lived radionuclides in the repository, and use of the remaining energy content of the spent fuel to produce power. The long-lived radionuclides iodine and technetium have roughly one million year half-lives, and they are candidates for transport into the environment via movement of ground water. The scientists and engineers who contributed to the Roadmap Study determined that the ATW is affordable, doable, and its deployment would support all the objectives. We report the status of the U.S. ATW program describe baseline and alternate technologies, and discuss deployment scenarios to support the existing U.S. nuclear capability and/or future growth with a variety of new fuel cycles

  16. Resonance self-shielding effect analysis of neutron data libraries applied for the dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket of the fusion-driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haibo; Wu Yican; Zheng Shanliang; Zhang Chunzao

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Fusion-Driven Subcritical System (FDS-I), the 25 groups, 175 groups and 620 groups neutron nuclear data libraries with/without resonance self-shielding correction are made with the Njoy and Transx codes, and the K eff and reaction rates are calculated with the Anisn code. The conclusion indicates that the resonance self-shielding effect affects the reaction rates strongly. (authors)

  17. Assessment of the transmutation capability an accelerator driven system cooled by lead bismuth eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, F.; Peluso, V.; Calabrese; Chen, X.; Maschek, W.

    2007-01-01

    1. PURPOSE The reduction of long-lived fission products (LLFP) and minor actinides (MA) is a key point for the public acceptability and economy of nuclear energy. In principle, any nuclear fast reactor is able to burn and transmute MA, but the amount of MA content has to be limited a few percent, having unfavourable consequences on the coolant void reactivity, Doppler effect, and delayed neutron fraction, and therefore on the dynamic behaviour and control. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are instead able to safely burn and/or transmute a large quantity of actinides and LLFP, as they do not rely on delayed neutrons for control or power change and the reactivity feedbacks have very little importance during accidents. Such systems are very innovative being based on the coupling of an accelerator with a subcritical system by means of a target system, where the neutronic source needed to maintain the neutron reaction chain is produced by spallation reactions. To this end the PDS-XADS (Preliminary Design Studies on an experimental Accelerator Driven System) project was funded by the European Community in the 5th Framework Program in order both to demonstrate the feasibility of the coupling between an accelerator and a sub-critical core loaded with standard MOX fuel and to investigate the transmutation capability in order to achieve values suitable for an Industrial Scale Transmuter. This paper summarizes and compares the results of neutronic calculations aimed at evaluating the transmutation capability of cores cooled by Lead-Bismuth Eutectic alloy and loaded with assemblies based on (Pu, Am, Cm) oxide dispersed in a molybdenum metal (CERMET) or magnesia (CERCER) matrices. It also describes the constraints considered in the design of such cores and describes the thermo-mechanical behaviour of these innovative fuels along the cycle. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK: The U-free composite fuels (CERMET and CERCER) were selected for this study, being considered at European level

  18. High intensity proton linear accelerator development for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Oguri, H.; Ito, N.; Kusano, J.; Okumura, Y.; Murata, H.; Sakogawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA has been proposed for various engineering tests for the transmutation system of nuclear waste by JAERI. The conceptual and optimization studies for this accelerator performed for a proper choice of operating frequency, high b structure, mechanical engineering considerations and RF source aspects are briefly described

  19. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, Per; Tucek, Kamil

    2000-05-01

    In 1996, SKB commenced funding of the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems and development of a spallation target'. The aim of the project was stated as: Development of a complete code for simulation of transmutation processes in an accelerator driven system. Application of the code for analysis of neutron flux, transmutation rates, reactivity changes, toxicity and radiation damages in the transmutation core. Build up of competence regarding issues related to spallation targets, development of research activities regarding relevant material issues. Performing of basic experiments in order to investigate the adequacy of using the spallation. target as a neutron source for a transmutation system, and participation in the planning and implementation of an international demonstration experiment. In the present report, activities within and related to the framework of the project, performed at the department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology during 1999, are accounted for

  20. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, J.; Carlsson, Johan; Gudowski, W.

    1997-12-01

    In November 1996, SKB started financing of the project ''System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems and development of a spallation target''. The aim of the project was stated as: 1) Development of a complete code for simulation of transmutation processes in an accelerator driven system. Application of the code for analysis of neutron flux, transmutation rates, reactivity changes, toxicity and radiation damages in the transmutation core. 2) Build up of competence regarding issues related to spallation targets development of research activities regarding relevant material issues. Performing of basic experiments in order to investigate the adequacy of using the spallation target as a neutron source for a transmutation system, and participation in the planning and implementation of an international demonstration-experiment. In the present report, activities within the framework of the project performed at the department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology during 1997, are accounted for

  1. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenius, J.; Carlsson, Johan; Gudowski, W. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1997-12-01

    In November 1996, SKB started financing of the project ``System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems and development of a spallation target``. The aim of the project was stated as: 1) Development of a complete code for simulation of transmutation processes in an accelerator driven system. Application of the code for analysis of neutron flux, transmutation rates, reactivity changes, toxicity and radiation damages in the transmutation core. 2) Build up of competence regarding issues related to spallation targets development of research activities regarding relevant material issues. Performing of basic experiments in order to investigate the adequacy of using the spallation target as a neutron source for a transmutation system, and participation in the planning and implementation of an international demonstration-experiment. In the present report, activities within the framework of the project performed at the department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology during 1997, are accounted for. 13 refs, 6 figs.

  2. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, Per; Tucek, Kamil [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2000-05-01

    In 1996, SKB commenced funding of the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems and development of a spallation target'. The aim of the project was stated as: Development of a complete code for simulation of transmutation processes in an accelerator driven system. Application of the code for analysis of neutron flux, transmutation rates, reactivity changes, toxicity and radiation damages in the transmutation core. Build up of competence regarding issues related to spallation targets, development of research activities regarding relevant material issues. Performing of basic experiments in order to investigate the adequacy of using the spallation. target as a neutron source for a transmutation system, and participation in the planning and implementation of an international demonstration experiment. In the present report, activities within and related to the framework of the project, performed at the department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology during 1999, are accounted for.

  3. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abanades, A., E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es [ETSII/Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, J.Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, C.; Garcia, L. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas. Quinta de los, Molinos, Ave. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Ciudad de la Habana, CP 10400, Apartado Postal 6163 (Cuba); Escriva, A.; Perez-Navarro, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, C.P. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rosales, J. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas. Quinta de los, Molinos, Ave. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Ciudad de la Habana, CP 10400, Apartado Postal 6163 (Cuba)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Utilization of Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for Hydrogen production. > Evaluation of the potential use of gas-cooled ADS for a sustainable use of Uranium resources by transmutation of nuclear wastes, electricity and Hydrogen production. > Application of the Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical process to subcritical systems. > Application of CINDER90 to calculate burn-up in subcritical systems. - Abstract: The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fuel flexibility opening the possibility to reduce the nuclear stockpile producing energy from actual LWR irradiated fuel with an efficiency of 45-46%, either in the form of Hydrogen, electricity, or both.

  4. Accelerator transmutation of wastes (ATW) - Prospects and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.; Pettersson, Kjell; Thedeen, T.

    1993-11-01

    Accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) has during last years gained interest as a technologically possible method to transform radioactive wastes into short-lived or stable isotopes. Different ATW-projects are described from the physical and technical point of view. The principal sketch of the safety analysis of the ATW-idea is given. Due to the very limited technical data for existing ATW-projects the safety analysis can cause some risks for the health and environmental safety for the closest environment. General public should not be affected. 35 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Simulations for the transmutation of nuclear wastes with hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillier, St.

    1998-06-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation, devoted to the spallation, has been built in the framework of the hybrid systems proposed for the nuclear wastes incineration. This system GSPARTE, described the reactions evolution. It takes into account and improves the nuclear codes and the low and high energy particles transport in the GEANT code environment, adapted to the geometry of the hybrid reactors. Many applications and abacus useful for the wastes transmutation, have been realized with this system: production of thick target neutrons, source definition, material damages. (A.L.B.)

  6. Multiple Tier Fuel Cycle Studies for Waste Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Taiwo, T.A.; Stillman, J.A.; Graziano, D.J.; Bennett, D.R.; Trellue, H.; Todosow, M.; Halsey, W.G.; Baxter, A.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Accelerator Applications Program, a systems study was conducted to evaluate the transmutation performance of advanced fuel cycle strategies. Three primary fuel cycle strategies were evaluated: dual-tier systems with plutonium separation, dual-tier systems without plutonium separation, and single-tier systems without plutonium separation. For each case, the system mass flow and TRU consumption were evaluated in detail. Furthermore, the loss of materials in fuel processing was tracked including the generation of new waste streams. Based on these results, the system performance was evaluated with respect to several key transmutation parameters including TRU inventory reduction, radiotoxicity, and support ratio. The importance of clean fuel processing (∼0.1% losses) and inclusion of a final tier fast spectrum system are demonstrated. With these two features, all scenarios capably reduce the TRU and plutonium waste content, significantly reducing the radiotoxicity; however, a significant infrastructure (at least 1/10 the total nuclear capacity) is required for the dedicated transmutation system. (authors)

  7. Multiple tier fuel cycle studies for waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Taiwo, T.A.; Stillman, J.A.; Graziano, D.J.; Bennett, D.R.; Trellue, H.; Todosow, M.; Halsey, W.G.; Baxter, A.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Accelerator Applications Program, a systems study was conducted to evaluate the transmutation performance of advanced fuel cycle strategies. Three primary fuel cycle strategies were evaluated: dual-tier systems with plutonium separation, dual-tier systems without plutonium separation, and single-tier systems without plutonium separation. For each case, the system mass flow and TRU consumption were evaluated in detail. Furthermore, the loss of materials in fuel processing was tracked including the generation of new waste streams. Based on these results, the system performance was evaluated with respect to several key transmutation parameters including TRU inventory reduction, radiotoxicity, and support ratio. The importance of clean fuel processing (∼0.1% losses) and inclusion of a final tier fast spectrum system are demonstrated. With these two features, all scenarios capably reduce the TRU and plutonium waste content, significantly reducing the radiotoxicity; however, a significant infrastructure (at least 1/10 the total nuclear capacity) is required for the dedicated transmutation system

  8. Transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.

    1992-10-01

    Nuclear waste disposal in geologically stable repositories is considered to be safe and effective, and the assumptions, which lead to very long term predictions seem to be satisfied. As possibilities to perturb repositories, can never be entirely excluded, it could be an attractive option to reduce the toxicity of waste by supplementing the uranium-plutonium cycle with minor actinide burning cycles. In this option the amount of mining waste is limited at the same time because uranium is used economically. If requests for reduction of long-lived actinide waste would result in much higher costs for nuclear energy, the innovative thorium-uranium cycle might become competitive. It is of vital interest that efforts are now being internationalized in networks to make proper use of experience from past civil and military programs. Visions for almost pollution-free energy production could arise if well prepared minds are concentrated on this issue. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. AIP conference on accelerator driven transmutation technologies and applications, Las Vegas, Nevada, July 25-29, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriber, S.O.; Arthur, E.; Rodriguez, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    This conference was the first to bring together US and foreign researchers to define Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) concepts in several important national and international application areas - nuclear waste transmutation, minimizing of world plutonium inventories, and long-term energy production. The conference covered a number of diverse technological areas - accelerators, target/blankets, separations, materials - that make up ADTT systems. The meeting provided one of the first opportunities for specialists in these technologies to meet together and learn about system requirements, components, and interface issues. It was also an opportunity to formulate plans for future developments in ADTT. During the conference over one hundred technical presentations were made describing ADTT system and technology concepts as well as the impact of ADTT on issues related to global plutonium management and the high-level nuclear waste problem areas. Separate abstracts have been entered into the database for articles from this report.

  10. AIP conference on accelerator driven transmutation technologies and applications, Las Vegas, Nevada, July 25-29, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.; Arthur, E.; Rodriguez, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This conference was the first to bring together US and foreign researchers to define Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) concepts in several important national and international application areas - nuclear waste transmutation, minimizing of world plutonium inventories, and long-term energy production. The conference covered a number of diverse technological areas - accelerators, target/blankets, separations, materials - that make up ADTT systems. The meeting provided one of the first opportunities for specialists in these technologies to meet together and learn about system requirements, components, and interface issues. It was also an opportunity to formulate plans for future developments in ADTT. During the conference over one hundred technical presentations were made describing ADTT system and technology concepts as well as the impact of ADTT on issues related to global plutonium management and the high-level nuclear waste problem areas. Separate abstracts have been entered into the database for articles from this report

  11. Transmutations of nuclear waste. Progress report RAS programme 1995: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Konings, R.J.M.; Bultman, J.H.; Dodd, D.H.; Franken, W.M.P.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Koning, A.J.; Wichers, V.A.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the progress of the Dutch RAS programme on 'Recycling and Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products' over the year 1995, which is the second year of the 4-year programme 1994-1997. An extensive listing of reports and publications from 1991 to 1995 is given. Highlights in 1995 were: -The completion of the European Strategy Study on Nuclear Waste Transmutation as a result of which the understanding of transmutation of plutonium, minor actinides and long-lived fission products in thermal and fast reactors has been increased significantly. Important ECN contributions were given on Am, 99 Tc and 129 I transmutation options. Follow-up contracts have been obtained for the study of 100% MOX cores and accelerator-based transmutation. - Important progress in the evaluation of CANDU reactors for burning very large amounts of transuranium mixtures in inert matrices. - The first RAS irradiation experiment in the HFR, in which the transmutation of technetium and iodine was examined, has been completed and post-irradiation examination has been started. - A joint proposal of the EFTTRA cooperation for the 4 th Framework Programme of the EU, to demonstrate the feasibility of the transmutation of americium in an inert matrix by an irradiation in the HFR, has been granted. - A bilateral contract with CEA has been signed to participate in the CAPRA programme, and the work in this field has been started. - The thesis work on Actinide Transmutation in Nuclear Reactor Systems was succesfully defended. New PhD studies on Pu burning in HTGR, on nuclear data for accelerator-based systems, and on the SLM-technique for separation of actinides were started. - A review study of the use of the thorium cycle as a means for nuclear waste reduction, has been completed. A follow-up of this work is embedded in an international project for the 4th Framework Programme of the EU. (orig./DG)

  12. Prompt nuclear analytical techniques for material research in accelerator driven transmutation technologies: Prospects and quantitative analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Cervena, J.; Perina, V.; Mach, R.

    1998-01-01

    Accelerator driven transmutation technology (ADTT) is a promising way toward liquidation of spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes and weapon grade Pu. The ADTT facility comprises a high current (proton) accelerator supplying a sub-critical reactor assembly with spallation neutrons. The reactor part is supposed to be cooled by molten fluorides or metals which serve, at the same time, as a carrier of nuclear fuel. Assumed high working temperature (400-600 C) and high radiation load in the subcritical reactor and spallation neutron source put forward the problem of optimal choice of ADTT construction materials, especially from the point of their radiation and corrosion resistance when in contact with liquid working media. The use of prompt nuclear analytical techniques in ADTT related material research is considered and examples of preliminary analytical results obtained using neutron depth profiling method are shown for illustration. (orig.)

  13. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2003/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Nilsson, L.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M.

    2004-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala univ. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from hydrogen at 96 MeV. The results corroborate the normalization of previously obtained data at TSL, which have been under debate. This is of importance since this reaction serves as reference for many other measurements. Compelling evidence of the existence of three-body forces in nuclei has been obtained. Within the project, one PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded. One PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded for work closely related to the project. A new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance has been built and commissioned at TSL

  14. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2003/2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Nilsson, L.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for Neutron Research

    2004-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala univ. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from hydrogen at 96 MeV. The results corroborate the normalization of previously obtained data at TSL, which have been under debate. This is of importance since this reaction serves as reference for many other measurements. Compelling evidence of the existence of three-body forces in nuclei has been obtained. Within the project, one PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded. One PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded for work closely related to the project. A new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance has been built and commissioned at TSL.

  15. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2004/2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Nilsson, L.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oehrn, A.; Oesterlund, M.

    2005-09-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala univ. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: An article on three-body force effects has been on the top-ten downloading list of Physics Letters B. Uppsala had the largest foreign delegation at the International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology in Santa Fe, NM, USA, and presented the largest number of papers of all experimental groups. A neutron flux monitor for the new FOI neutron beam facility has been developed, commissioned and taken into regular operation. Within the project, one licentiate exam has been awarded. The new neutron beam facility at TSL has been taken into commercial operation and is now having the largest commercial turnover of all European facilities in the field

  16. RF system considerations for accelerator production of tritium and the transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Lynch, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    RF driven proton accelerators for the transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) or for the production of tritium (APT) require unprecedented amounts of CW RF power at UHF frequencies. For both systems, the baseline design is for 246 MW at 700 MHz and 8,5 MW at 350 MHz. The main technical challenges are how to design and build such a large system so that it has excellent reliability, high efficiency, and reasonable capital cost. The issues associated with the selection of the RF amplifier and the sizes of the power supplies are emphasized in this paper

  17. Radioactive waste generated from JAERI partitioning-transmutation cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinichi, Nakayama; Yasuji, Morita; Kenji, Nishihara [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as {sup 14}C and {sup 59}Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (author)

  18. Radioactive Wastes Generated From JAERI Partitioning-Transmutation Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Morita, Yasuji; Nishihara, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI's processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as 14 C and 59 Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (authors)

  19. Waste management in future. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calic, D.

    2005-01-01

    Current research and development (R and D) in radioactive waste management is mainly associated with the quantities and toxicity of high level waste and spent fuel. One of the solutions that already exists, but has not yet reached scientific and technological maturity, is the process of partitioning and transmutation (P and T). Partitioning is the selective separation of radiotoxic isotopes from reprocessing streams. After the successive partitioning has been done, the long-lived radionuclides are converted into shorter-lived or stable nuclides by process called transmutation. P and T can reduce the radiotoxic inventory of spent fuel by a factor of 100 to 1000 and can achieve the reduction of time needed to reach the radioactivity level of the uranium ore from 100,000 to 5000 years. To achieve this, the separation of plutonium, minor actinides and long-lived fission products has to be implemented as early as possible in the fuel cycle strategy. Currently, P and T is still at the research and development stage and it needs to be scaled up, before it can be introduced on an industrial scale, therefore the paper will present the current status of the development of P and T and plans for the future. (author)

  20. Transmutation of 126Sn in spallation targets of accelerator-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chi Young; Saito, Masaki; Sagara, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The practical feasibility of 126 Sn transmutation in spallation targets of accelerator-driven systems was evaluated from the viewpoints of accumulation of radioactive spallation products and neutron production as well as transmutation amount of 126 Sn. A cylindrical liquid 126 Sn target whose length depends on proton beam energy was described, based on a Pb-Bi target design of accelerator-driven system being developed in JAEA. A proton beam of 1.5 GeV-20 mA was estimated to give the transmutation rate of 126 Sn 6.4 kg/yr, which corresponds to the amount of 126 Sn annually discharged in 27 LWRs of 1 GWt and 33 GWd/THM. The equilibrium radioactivity of spallation products would reach 9% of that of 126 Sn transmuted in the spallation target, and the equilibrium toxicity would be just 3%. Some parametric analyses showed that the effective half-life of 126 Sn could be reduced through a proper reduction of the target size. The 126 Sn target was calculated to produce 40 neutrons per proton of 1.5 GeV and give a neutron spectrum very similar to that of the reference Pb-Bi target. As a result, the transmutation of 126 Sn in the spallation target has a high feasibility in terms of better transmutation performance and comparable target performance. (author)

  1. Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Francesco; Williamson, Mark A.; Li, Ning

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

  2. Fuels and targets for the transmutation of high activity long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, S.; Warin, D.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present and comment the different strategies which can be adopted to transmute minor actinides (concerned reactors, in fast breeder reactors, in accelerator driven systems or ADS), and the chemical composition of transmutation fuels (actinide compounds, inert matrices, fuels and targets). They describe the behaviour of refractory ceramic fuels during their service life under irradiation with their different damage origins (neutrons, fission by-products, alpha particles), the fabrication of transmutation fuels and targets through different processes (metallurgical, co-precipitate, sol-gel, wax, infiltration of radioactive materials, VIPAC/SPHEREPAC) and the reprocessing or recycling of these transmutation fuels and targets

  3. Impact of Blanket Configuration on the Design of a Fusion-Driven Transmutation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Guen Hong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A configuration of a fusion-driven transmutation reactor with a low aspect ratio tokamak-type neutron source was determined in a self-consistent manner by using coupled analysis of tokamak systems and neutron transport. We investigated the impact of blanket configuration on the characteristics of a fusion-driven transmutation reactor. It was shown that by merging the TRU burning blanket and tritium breeding blanket, which uses PbLi as the tritium breeding material and as coolant, effective transmutation is possible. The TRU transmutation capability can be improved with a reduced blanket thickness, and fast fluence at the first wall can be reduced.  Article History: Received: July 10th 2017; Received: Dec 17th 2017; Accepted: February 2nd 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Hong, B.G. (2018 Impact of Blanket Configuration on the Design of a Fusion-Driven Transmutation Reactor. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 65-70. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.65-70

  4. Processing flowsheet for the accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, H.; Walker, R.; Yarbro, S.

    1992-01-01

    At Los Alamos, an innovative approach to transmuting long-lived radioactive waste is under investigation. The concept is to use a linear proton accelerator coupled to a solid target to produce an intense neutron flux. The intense stream of neutrons can then be used to fission or transmute long-lived radionuclides to either stable or shorter-lived isotopes. For the program to be successful, robust chemical separations with high efficiencies (>10 5 ) are required. The actual mission, either defense or commercial, will determine what suite of unit operations will be needed. If the mission is to process commercial spent fuel, there are several options available for feed preparation and blanket processing. The baseline option would be an improved PUREX system with the main alternative being the current ATW actinide blanket processing flowsheet. 99 Tc and 129 I are more likely to reach the biosphere than the actinides. Many models have been developed for predicting how the radionuclides will behave in a repository over long time periods. The general conclusion is that the actinides will be sorbed by the soil. Therefore, over a long time period, e.g., a million years their hazard will be lessened because of radioactive decay and dispersion. However, some of the long-lived fission products are not sorbed and could potentially reach the environment over a few thousand year period. Hence, they could present a significant safety hazard. Because of limited resources, most of the priority has been focused on the actinide and technetium blanket assemblies

  5. Laser enhanced radioactive decay and selective transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloman, R.; Aarnio, P.; Ala-Heikkila, J.; Hakola, A.; Santala, M.

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated narrow-band coherent laser radiation - ranging from visible to X- and to gamma-ray wave length region - and their interactions both directly with photon-nuclear couplings and indirectly through the photon-electron and electron-nucleus interactions. In particular we discuss various means of selective excitation of nuclear resonance states by narrowband lasers. During the relaxation process the active nucleus may return to its initial ground-state or find another final state. In the latter case the nucleus is transmuted into a state which may have beneficial properties for instance concerning radioactivity. One ideal case would be the destruction of long-lived nuclear waste isotopes into faster decaying ones. The essential presumption is that the excitation process is selective and efficient as regards background processes due to unwanted excitation channels of the primary isotope and due to other surrounding nuclides. The paper consists of 1) a short review of generating short-wave length coherent light sources, 2) a survey of potential photon-induced nuclear states and their decay channels, and 3) a determination of the selectivity of the transmutation process

  6. Comparative study of accelerator driven system (ADS) of different transmutation scenarios for actinides in advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embid-Segura, M.; Gonzalez Romero, M.E.; Perez Parra, A.

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. In recent years transmutation has raised as a complementary option to solve the problem of the long-lived radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants. The main advantages expected from transmutation are the reduction in volume of the high level waste and a significant decrease in the long-term radiotoxicity inventory, with a probable impact in the final costs and potential risks of the geological repository. This paper will describe the evaluation of different systems proposed for actinide transmutation, their integration in the waste management process, their viability, performances and limitations. Particular attention is taking of comparing transmutation scenarios where the actinides are transmuted inside fertile (U, Th) or inert matrix. This study has been supported by ENRESA inside the CIEMAT-ENRESA collaboration for the study of long-lived isotope transmutation. (authors)

  7. RED-IMPACT. Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensa, Werner von; Nabbi, Rahim; Rossbach, Matthias (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and waste reduction technologies on the nuclear waste management and particularly on the final disposal has been analysed within the EU-funded RED-IMPACT project. Five representative scenarios, ranging from direct disposal of the spent fuel to fully closed cycles (including minor actinide (MA) recycling) with fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS), were chosen in the project to cover a wide range of representative waste streams, fuel cycle facilities and process performances. High and intermediate level waste streams have been evaluated for all of these scenarios with the aim of analysing the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. For each scenario and waste stream, specific waste package forms have been proposed and their main characteristics identified. Both equilibrium and transition analyses have been applied to those scenarios. The performed assessments have addressed parameters such as the total radioactive and radiotoxic inventory, discharges during reprocessing, thermal power and radiation emission of the waste packages, corrosion of matrices, transport of radioisotopes through the engineered and geological barriers or the resulting doses from the repository. The major conclusions of include the fact, that deep geological repository to host the remaining high level waste (HLW) and possibly the long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) is unavoidable whatever procedure is implemented to manage waste streams from different fuel cycle scenarios including P and T of long-lived transuranic actinides.

  8. RED-IMPACT. Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensa, Werner von; Nabbi, Rahim; Rossbach, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and waste reduction technologies on the nuclear waste management and particularly on the final disposal has been analysed within the EU-funded RED-IMPACT project. Five representative scenarios, ranging from direct disposal of the spent fuel to fully closed cycles (including minor actinide (MA) recycling) with fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS), were chosen in the project to cover a wide range of representative waste streams, fuel cycle facilities and process performances. High and intermediate level waste streams have been evaluated for all of these scenarios with the aim of analysing the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. For each scenario and waste stream, specific waste package forms have been proposed and their main characteristics identified. Both equilibrium and transition analyses have been applied to those scenarios. The performed assessments have addressed parameters such as the total radioactive and radiotoxic inventory, discharges during reprocessing, thermal power and radiation emission of the waste packages, corrosion of matrices, transport of radioisotopes through the engineered and geological barriers or the resulting doses from the repository. The major conclusions of include the fact, that deep geological repository to host the remaining high level waste (HLW) and possibly the long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) is unavoidable whatever procedure is implemented to manage waste streams from different fuel cycle scenarios including P and T of long-lived transuranic actinides

  9. Researches on the management of high activity and long-lived radioactive wastes. Axis 1 - separation-transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of seven presentations given at a technical workshop of the French nuclear energy society (SFEN) about the researches on separation-transmutation of high activity and long-lived radioactive wastes. The presentations deal with: inventory and radiotoxicity of the rad-wastes in concern; industrial experience; experience on chemical separation: molecules and processes; reactors physics and transmutation - reactors for transmutation; fuels and targets; scenarios that include transmutation; environmental impacts of these different scenarios. (J.S.)

  10. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2002/2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for Neutron Research

    2003-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Department for neutron research, Uppsala university. The activities of the group is directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from carbon and lead at 96 MeV. The precision in the results surpasses all previous data by at least an order of magnitude. These measurements represent the highest energy in neutron scattering where the ground state has been resolved. The results show that all previous theory work has underestimated the probability for neutron scattering at the present energy by 0-30 %. A new method for measurements of absolute probabilities for neutron-induced nuclear reactions with experimental techniques only has been developed. Previously, only two such methods have been known. One student has reached his PhD exam. Two PhD students have been accepted. TSL has decided to build a new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance for these, and similar, activities. A new instrument for measurements of inelastic neutron scattering has been built, tested and found to meet the specifications. This work has been performed in collaboration with two French research groups from Caen and Nantes. The instrument is intended to be used for a series of experiments during the coming years. Previous work by the group on nuclear data for assessment of electronics reliability has lead to a new industry standard in the USA.

  11. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2002/2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M.

    2003-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Department for neutron research, Uppsala university. The activities of the group is directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from carbon and lead at 96 MeV. The precision in the results surpasses all previous data by at least an order of magnitude. These measurements represent the highest energy in neutron scattering where the ground state has been resolved. The results show that all previous theory work has underestimated the probability for neutron scattering at the present energy by 0-30 %. A new method for measurements of absolute probabilities for neutron-induced nuclear reactions with experimental techniques only has been developed. Previously, only two such methods have been known. One student has reached his PhD exam. Two PhD students have been accepted. TSL has decided to build a new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance for these, and similar, activities. A new instrument for measurements of inelastic neutron scattering has been built, tested and found to meet the specifications. This work has been performed in collaboration with two French research groups from Caen and Nantes. The instrument is intended to be used for a series of experiments during the coming years. Previous work by the group on nuclear data for assessment of electronics reliability has lead to a new industry standard in the USA

  12. Basis and objectives of the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) Project carries three approaches for dealing with waste from the defense and commercial nuclear energy enterprise. First, the problem of excess weapons plutonium in the US and Russia originating both from stockpile reductions and from defense production site clean-up is one of significant current and long-term concern. The ADTT technology offers the possibility of almost complete destruction of this plutonium by fission. The technology might be particularly effective for destruction of the low quality plutonium from defense site clean-up since the system does not require the fabrication of the waste into fuel assemblies, does not require reprocessing and refabrication, and can tolerate a high level of impurities in the feed stream. Second, the ADTT system also can destroy the plutonium, other higher actinide, and long-lived fission product from commercial nuclear waste which now can only be dealt with by geologic storage. And finally, and probably most importantly the system can be used for the production of virtually unlimited electric power from thorium with concurrent destruction of its long-lived waste components so that geologic containment for them is not required. In addition plutonium is not a significant byproduct of the power generation so that non-proliferation concerns about nuclear power are almost completely eliminated. All of the ADTT systems operate with an accelerator supplementing the neutrons which in reactors are provided only by the fission process, and therefore the system can be designed to eliminate the possibility for a runaway chain reaction. The means for integration of the accelerator into nuclear power technology in order to make these benefits possible is described including estimates of accelerator operating parameters required for the three objectives

  13. Basis and objectives of the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation technology project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Charles D.

    1995-09-01

    The Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) Project carries three approaches for dealing with waste from the defense and commercial nuclear energy enterprise. First, the problem of excess weapons plutonium in the U.S. and Russia originating both from stockpile reductions and from defense production site clean-up is one of significant current and long-term concern. The ADTT technology offers the possibility of almost complete destruction of this plutonium by fission. The technology might be particularly effective for destruction of the low quality plutonium from defense site clean-up since the system does not require the fabrication of the waste into fuel assemblies, does not require reprocessing and refabrication, and can tolerate a high level of impurities in the feed stream. Second, the ADTT system also can destroy the plutonium, other higher actinide, and long-lived fission product from commercial nuclear waste which now can only be dealt with by geologic storage. And finally, and probably most importantly the system can be used for the production of virtually unlimited electric power from thorium with concurrent destruction of its long-lived waste components so that geologic containment for them is not required. In addition plutonium is not a significant byproduct of the power generation so that non-proliferation concerns about nuclear power are almost completely eliminated. All of the ADTT systems operate with an accelerator supplementing the neutrons which in reactors are provided only by the fission process, and therefore the system can be designed to eliminate the possibility for a runaway chain reaction. The means for integration of the accelerator into nuclear power technology in order to make these benefits possible is described including estimates of accelerator operating parameters required for the three objectives.

  14. An assessment of partition and transmutation against UK requirements for radioactive waste management: supporting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.; Crookshanks, C.E.; McAdams, R.; Rogers, J.M.; Sims, H.E.; Smith-Briggs, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    A study of partition and transmutation (P and T) has recently been reported: An Assessment of Partition and Transmutation Against UK Requirements for Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/RAS/96.007). The prospects were assessed for real safety or financial gains being made through the future use of partition and transmutation within the United Kingdom in radioactive waste management. The assessment was made by AEA Technology, on behalf of the Department of the Environment. The assessment was partly based on the results of a number of studies described here. (Author)

  15. Impact of partitioning and transmutation in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear energy provides a significant contribution to the overall energy supply in Europe. With 148 reactors in 13 of the 25 Member States producing a total power of 125 G We, the resulting energy generation of 850 TWh per year provides 35% of the total electrical energy requirements in the European Union. Worldwide, 441 commercial reactors operate in 31 countries and provide 17% of the electrical requirements. Currently 32 nuclear reactors are being built worldwide mostly in India, China and in neighbouring countries. The used fuel discharged from nuclear power plants constitutes the main contribution to nuclear waste in countries which do not undertake reprocessing. As such, its disposal requires isolation from the biosphere in stable deep geological formations for long periods of time (some hundred thousand years) until its radioactivity decreases through the process of radioactive decay. Ways for significantly reducing the volumes and radio toxicities of the waste and to shorten the very long times for which the waste must be stored safely are being investigated. This is the motivation behind the partitioning and transmutation (P and T) activities worldwide. Most of the hazard from the spent fuel stems from only a few chemical elements, namely plutonium, neptunium, americium, curium, and some long-lived fission products such as iodine, caesium and technetium. At present approximately 2500 t of spent fuel are produced annually in the EU, containing about 25 t of plutonium, and 3.5 t of the minor actinides neptunium, americium and curium, and about 3 t of long-lived fission products. These radioactive by-products, although present in relatively low concentrations in the used fuel, are a hazard to life forms when released into the environment. This paper addresses the potential impact of P and T on the long-term disposal of nuclear waste. In particular, it evaluates how realistic P and T scenarios can lead to a reduction in the time required for the waste to be

  16. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-09-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  17. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-01-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  18. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual report 1998/99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Renberg, P.U. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research. The Svedberg Lab.

    1999-09-01

    The present project, supported as a research task agreement by the Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Barsebaeck Kraft AB and Vattenfall AB, started according to the plan 1998-07-01. From 1999-01-01 the project also receives support from the Defence Research Institute. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting PhD students; push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation'; strengthen the Swedish influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network; and constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) at Uppsala University. In this document, we give a status report after the first year (1998-07-01--1999-06-30) of the project.

  19. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual report 1998/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Renberg, P.U.

    1999-09-01

    The present project, supported as a research task agreement by the Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Barsebaeck Kraft AB and Vattenfall AB, started according to the plan 1998-07-01. From 1999-01-01 the project also receives support from the Defence Research Institute. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting PhD students; push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation'; strengthen the Swedish influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network; and constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) at Uppsala University. In this document, we give a status report after the first year (1998-07-01--1999-06-30) of the project

  20. Probabilistic safety assessment of the dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket for the FDS-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, L.; Wu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The subcritical dual-cooled waste transmutation (DWT) blanket is one of the key components of fusion-driven subcritical system (FDS-I). The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) can provide valuable information on safety characteristics of FDS-I to give recommendations for the optimization of the blanket concepts and the improvement of the design. Event tree method has been adopted to probabilistically analyze the safety of the DWT blanket for FDS-I using the home-developed PSA code RiskA. The blanket melting frequency has been calculated and compared with the core melting frequencies of PWRs and a fast reactor. Sensitivity analysis of the safety systems has been performed. The results show that the current preliminary design of the FDS-I is very attractive in safety

  1. Some recent contributions of basic nuclear science to nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear waste transmutation aims at alleviating some long-term risks associated with actinides and with some long-lived fission products. Proposals of using accelerator driven system (ADS) to efficiently burn actinides in uranium free fuels have revitalized some basic researches in the field of nuclear and reactor physics. This is the case for high intensity accelerator in the ADS context and for the neutron source which relies to a large extent on basic nuclear physics related to spallation. There is also an experimental program called MUSE at Cadarache to study the sub-critical reactor physics with regard to its neutronics. A second area where basic research is involved is the measurement of new or more reliable neutron cross sections specific to transmutation and also to the thorium fuel cycle considered as a long-term option for ''clean'' energy production with reduced actinide production. This second area will possibly be covered by a new facility called n-TOF developed at CERN. (author)

  2. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, J.; Gudowski, W.; Carlsson, Johan; Eriksson, Marcus; Tucek, K.

    1998-12-01

    This annual report describes the accelerator-driven transmutation project conducted at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology. The main results are: development of the simulation tools for accelerator-driven transmutation calculations including an integrated Monte-Carlo burnup module and improvements of neutron energy fission yield simulations, processing of the evacuated nuclear data files including preparation of the temperature dependent neutron cross-sections, development of nuclear data for a medium energy range for some isotopes, development of the models and codes for radiation damage simulations, system studies for the spent fuel transmuter, based on heavy metal coolant and advanced nuclear fuel, contribution to the spallation target design being manufactured in IPPE, Obninsk, and accelerator reliability studies. Moreover a lot of efforts were put to further develop existing international collaboration with the most active research groups in the world together with educational activities in Sweden including a number of meetings and workshops and a graduate course in transmutation. This project has been conducted in close collaboration with the EU-project 'Impact of the accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety' - IABAT and in bilateral cooperation with different foreign research groups

  3. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenius, J.; Gudowski, W.; Carlsson, Johan; Eriksson, Marcus; Tucek, K. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1998-12-01

    This annual report describes the accelerator-driven transmutation project conducted at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology. The main results are: development of the simulation tools for accelerator-driven transmutation calculations including an integrated Monte-Carlo burnup module and improvements of neutron energy fission yield simulations, processing of the evacuated nuclear data files including preparation of the temperature dependent neutron cross-sections, development of nuclear data for a medium energy range for some isotopes, development of the models and codes for radiation damage simulations, system studies for the spent fuel transmuter, based on heavy metal coolant and advanced nuclear fuel, contribution to the spallation target design being manufactured in IPPE, Obninsk, and accelerator reliability studies. Moreover a lot of efforts were put to further develop existing international collaboration with the most active research groups in the world together with educational activities in Sweden including a number of meetings and workshops and a graduate course in transmutation. This project has been conducted in close collaboration with the EU-project `Impact of the accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety` - IABAT and in bilateral cooperation with different foreign research groups 31 refs, 23 figs

  4. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1993: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Bultman, J.H.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J.; Franken, W.M.P.; Klippel, K.T.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Konings, R.J.M.; Smit, J.

    1994-11-01

    The term ''nuclear transmutation'' means a conversion of long-lived radioactive nuclides into short-lived or stable nuclides and ''recycling'' means re-use of fissile material to generate energy in power reactors. With these two processes a reduction of the radiotoxicity and of its duration may be achieved, thus reducing the potential hazard to future generations. Firstly, the report gives a survey of the present situation regarding nuclear waste: its components, how the waste is produced in current LWR and possible options for interim and final storage. Then the objective of the RAS programme, the working methods and the state of the art of the research are considered. Two chapters deal with preliminary results of national and international research. A rather tentative prediction for the future is formulated. Some conclusions are drawn: It seems to be in the best interests of the Netherlands to continue the established line of reprocessing nuclear waste, should new reactors be introduced. It may be advisable to make international agreements so that in the future fission products will contain as few traces of transuranic actinides and long-lived components as possible. Consequently, nuclear waste would become cleaner in terms of long-lived components. For the transmutation of products separated in foreign countries, the Netherlands could pursue an active policy, perform research and also consider the use of MOX fuel in future Dutch reactors. Further contributions towards the solution of these problems can only be made by the Netherlands on an international level. As such, the research and study performed within the framework of the RAS-programme represents a useful international contribution. The possibilities offered by the HFR are particularly of great value. Finally, the choice of a new generation of nuclear reactors should be made not based only on the safety aspects, but also on the extent of waste production and on the transmutation possibilities (application

  5. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1993: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K; Bultman, J H; Cordfunke, E H.P.; Gruppelaar, H; Janssen, A J; Franken, W M.P.; Klippel, K T; Kloosterman, J L; Konings, R J.M.; Smit, J

    1994-11-01

    The term ``nuclear transmutation`` means a conversion of long-lived radioactive nuclides into short-lived or stable nuclides and ``recycling`` means re-use of fissile material to generate energy in power reactors. With these two processes a reduction of the radiotoxicity and of its duration may be achieved, thus reducing the potential hazard to future generations. Firstly, the report gives a survey of the present situation regarding nuclear waste: its components, how the waste is produced in current LWR and possible options for interim and final storage. Then the objective of the RAS programme, the working methods and the state of the art of the research are considered. Two chapters deal with preliminary results of national and international research. A rather tentative prediction for the future is formulated. Some conclusions are drawn: It seems to be in the best interests of the Netherlands to continue the established line of reprocessing nuclear waste, should new reactors be introduced. It may be advisable to make international agreements so that in the future fission products will contain as few traces of transuranic actinides and long-lived components as possible. Consequently, nuclear waste would become cleaner in terms of long-lived components. For the transmutation of products separated in foreign countries, the Netherlands could pursue an active policy, perform research and also consider the use of MOX fuel in future Dutch reactors. Further contributions towards the solution of these problems can only be made by the Netherlands on an international level. As such, the research and study performed within the framework of the RAS-programme represents a useful international contribution. Finally, the choice of a new generation of nuclear reactors should be made not based only on the safety aspects, but also on the extent of waste production and on the transmutation possibilities (application of MOX, etc.). (orig./HP).

  6. Materials compatibility and corrosion issues for accelerator transmutation of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudhammer, K.

    1992-08-01

    The need to understand the materials issues in an accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system is essential. This report focuses on the spallation container material, as this material is exposed to some of the most crucial environmental conditions of simultaneous radiation and corrosion in the system. The most severe design being considered is that of liquid lead. In previous investigations of lead compatibility with materials, the chemistry of the system was derived solely from the corrosion products; however, in an ATW system, the chemistry of the lead changes not only with the derived corrosion products of the material being tested but also with the buildup of the daughter production with time. Daughter production builds up and introduces elements that may have a great effect on the corrosion activity of the liquid lead. Consequently, data on liquid lead compatibility can be regarded only as a guide and must be reevaluated when particular daughter products are added. This report is intended to be a response to specific materials issues and concerns expressed by the ATW design working group and addresses the compatibility/corrosion concerns

  7. Criticality safety analysis of accelerator transmutation waste system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.; Cepraga, D.G.; Orazi, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Accelerator Transmutation Waste system (ATW) is under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists of a particle accelerator producing a proton beam having an energy of 1.5 GeV. These particles are introduced into the upper part of a molten Pb-Bi column and they produce, by a spallation reaction, a high strength neutron flux, 1.0x10 16 n/(square centimeters sec). The neutrons enter a heavy water blanket where actinides and long-lived fission products circulate in vertical tubes. The goal of this research effort is to perform an independent verification of the feasibility of actinide burning in the ATW system. The work is divided into four tasks: a) production of an actinide and long-lived fission product cross section library from JEF 2.2; b) simulation, using MCNP and KENO IV Monte Carlo codes, of the ATW configurations existing in literature; c) validation of the cross sections by comparison of Keff and reaction rate results, calculated with MCNP and KENO IV, with experimental benchmarks and intercomparison between calculations of a PWR unit cell and the computations carried out with various codes and cross section libraries (NEACRF criticality working group data); d) simulation of the ATW configuration. The two first tasks are almost complete with excellent agreement between this study's results and those of Los Alamos

  8. Ability of Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) to Transmute Long Lived Fission Fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Giao; Nguyen Thi Ai Thu; Tu Thanh Danh; Tran Thanh Dung; Huynh, Thi Kim Chi

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the research results of the possibility to transmute the long-lived radioactive isotopes into stable or short-lived, mainly the long-lived fission fragments as 99 Tc, 127 I, 129 I, 181 Ta, 107 Ag, 109 Ag by accelerator-driven systems. We use semi-empirical formulas to establish our calculating code with the support of computer programs. (author)

  9. Researches on the management of high activity and long-lived radioactive wastes. Axis 1 - separation-transmutation; Recherches sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue. Axe 1 - separation-transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    This document gathers the transparencies of seven presentations given at a technical workshop of the French nuclear energy society (SFEN) about the researches on separation-transmutation of high activity and long-lived radioactive wastes. The presentations deal with: inventory and radiotoxicity of the rad-wastes in concern; industrial experience; experience on chemical separation: molecules and processes; reactors physics and transmutation - reactors for transmutation; fuels and targets; scenarios that include transmutation; environmental impacts of these different scenarios. (J.S.)

  10. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste – present status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products becomes an im- ... Similar approach was performed for sub critical fast reactor core with Pu/MA .... The same might be addressed to masses of nuclei (the use of experimental values.

  11. A neutron amplifier: prospects for reactor-based waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanovsky, A.

    2004-01-01

    A design concept and characteristics for an epithermal breeder controlled by variable feedback and external neutron source intensity are presented. By replacing the control rods with neutron sources, we could maintain good power distribution and perform radioactive waste burning in high flux subcritical reactors (HFSR) that have primary system size, power density and cost comparable to a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Another approach for actinide transmutation is a molten salt subcritical reactor proposed by Russian scientists. To increase neutron source intensity the HFSR is divided into two zones: a booster and a blanket with solid and liquid fuels. A neutron gate (absorber and moderator) imposed between two zones permits fast neutrons from the booster to flow to the blanket. Neutrons moving in the reverse direction are moderated and absorbed in the absorber zone. In the HFSR, neptunium-plutonium fuel is circulated in the booster and blanket, and americium-curium in the absorber zone and outer reflector. Use of a liquid actinide fuel permits transport of the delayed-neutron emitters from the blanket to the booster, where they can provide additional neutrons (source-dominated mode) or all the necessary excitation without an external neutron source (self-amplifying mode). With a blanket neutron multiplication gain of 20 and a booster gain of 50, an external neutron source rate of at least 10 15 n/s (0.7 MW D-T or 2.5 MW electron beam power) is needed to control the HFSR that produces 300 MWt. Most of the power could be generated in the blanket that burns about 100 kg of actinides a year. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of HFSR design aspects including the wave model of observed relativistic phenomena, plant seismic diagnostics, fission electric cells (FEC) with a multistage collector (anode) and layered cathode. (author)

  12. Transmutation performance analysis on coolant options in a hybrid reactor system design for high level waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong-Hee; Siddique, Muhammad Tariq; Kim, Myung Hyun, E-mail: mhkim@khu.ac.kr

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Waste transmutation performance was compared and analyzed for seven different coolant options. • Reactions of fission and capture showed big differences depending on coolant options. • Moderation effect significantly affects on energy multiplication, tritium breeding and waste transmutation. • Reduction of radio-toxicities of TRUs showed different trend to coolant choice from performance of waste transmutation. - Abstract: A fusion–fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) is one of the most attractive candidates for high level waste transmutation. The selection of coolant affects the transmutation performance of a FFHR. LiPb coolant, as a conventional coolant for a FFHR, has problems such as reduction in neutron economic and magneto-hydro dynamics (MHD) pressure drop. Therefore, in this work, transmutation performance is evaluated and compared for various coolant options such as LiPb, H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, Na, PbBi, LiF-BeF{sub 2} and NaF-BeF{sub 2} applicable to a hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT). Design parameters measuring performance of a hybrid reactor were evaluated by MCNPX. They are k{sub eff}, energy multiplication factor, neutron absorption ratio, tritium breeding ratio, waste transmutation ratio, support ratio and radiotoxicity reduction. Compared to LiPb, H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O are not suitable for waste transmutation because of neutron moderation effect. Waste transmutation performances with Na and PbBi are similar to each other and not different much from LiPb. Even though molten salt such as LiF-BeF{sub 2} and NaF-BeF{sub 2} is good for avoiding MHD pressure drop problem, waste transmutation performance is dropped compared with LiPb.

  13. Conceptual design of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor for transmutation of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, L.J.; Wu, Y.C.; Yang, Y.W.; Wu, Y.; Luan, G.S.; Xu, Q.; Guo, Z.J.; Xiao, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of the transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste using fusion-fission hybrid reactors, we are studying all the possible types of blanket, including a comparison of the thermal and fast neutron spectrum blankets. Conceptual designs of a small tokamak hybrid blanket with small inventory of actinides and fission products are presented. The small inventory of wastes makes the system safer. The small hybrid reactor system based on a fusion core with experimental parameters to be realized in the near future can effectively transmute actinides and fission products at a neutron wall loading of 1MWm -2 . An innovative energy system is also presented, including a fusion driver, fuel breeder, high level waste transmuter, fission reactor and so on. An optimal combination of all types of reactor is proposed in the system. ((orig.))

  14. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J.; Chakarova, R.; Westlen, D.

    2002-03-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been focused in year 2001 on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics; c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache) and YALINA experiment in Minsk. The Dept. is very actively participating in many European projects in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Community. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to by appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details

  15. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, W; Wallenius, J; Tucek, K; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P; Cetnar, J; Chakarova, R; Westlen, D [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2002-03-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been focused in year 2001 on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics; c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache) and YALINA experiment in Minsk. The Dept. is very actively participating in many European projects in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Community. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to by appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details.

  16. Evaluation of systems incorporating transmutation for the reduction of the long term toxicity of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    One of the alternative high-level nuclear waste (HLW) management/disposal concepts proposed involves the separation from HLW of the elements with isotopes which dominate the radiotoxicity and the transmutation of these nuclides to shortlived or stable products. The waste management system required for transmutation employs chemical processing of HLW to recover waste nuclides for irradiation with neutrons in a transmutation device. The transmuter periodically requires replenishment of the target nuclides and chemical processing to remove the transmutation products. The waste streams from HLW processing and product recovery together comprise the discharge from the system. An imploding liner fusion reactor (ILFR) is assumed for the transmuter with the waste nuclides dissolved in a molten lead-lithium alloy blanket. The potential transmutation candidates are defined as the elements with toxicities per unit volume (toxicity indexes) in solidified HLW at 1000 years which are greater than that for 0.2% uranium ore (carnotite). The candidates which require separation for transmutation are the actinides; Np, Pu, Am, and Cu and the fission products; I and Tc. Certain assumptions were made for the parameters for the ILFR and its operating conditions, and a system evaluation was done. System evaluations indicate that blanket waste loadings on the order of several percent of the total concentration result in attractive performance in terms of high transmutation capacities and low blanket processing requirments. It appears that transmutation system goals in terms of toxicity reduction are achievable with a modest number of transmuters. In addition, requirements for transmuter performance, chemical processing capacity and chemical separation efficiency appear to be within projected values for this technology

  17. Planning the research and development necessary for accelerator transmutation of waste, leading to integrated proof of performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Finck, P.; Pitcher, E.; Khalil, H.; Todosow, M.; Hill, R.; Van Tuyle, G.; Laidler, J.; Crawford, D.; Thomas, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Research and Development (R and D) Plan for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) Program has been developed for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE/NE) to serve as a focus and progressional guide in developing critical transmutation technologies. It is intended that the Plan will serve as a logical reference considering all elements of an integrated accelerator-driven transmutation system, and will maximize the use of resources by identifying and prioritizing research, design, development and trade activities. The R and D Plan provides a structured framework for identifying and prioritizing activities leading to technically-justifiable integrated Proof of Performance testing within ten years and ultimate demonstration of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The Plan builds from the decision objectives specified for ATW, utilizes informational input from the ATW Roadmap and programmatic System Point Design efforts, and employs the knowledge and expertise provided by professionals familiar with ATW technologies. With the firm intent of understanding what, why and when information is needed, including critical interfaces, the Plan then develops a progressional strategy for developing ATW technologies with the use of a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale. The TRL approach is first used to develop a comprehensive, yet generic, listing of experimental, analytical and trade study activities critical to developing ATW technologies. Technology-specific and concept-specific aspects are then laid over the generic mapping to gage readiness levels. Prioritization criteria for reducing technical uncertainty, providing information to decision points, and levering off of international collaborations are then applied to focus analytical, experimental and trade activities. (author)

  18. Conceptual design study of Hyb-WT as fusion–fission hybrid reactor for waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Muhammad Tariq; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Conceptual design study of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for waste transmutation. • MCNPX and MONTEBURNS are compared for transmutation performance of WT-Hyb. • Detailed neutronic performance of final optimized Hyb-WT design is analyzed. • A new tube-in-duct core design is implemented and compared with pin type design. • Study shows many aspects of hybrid reactor even though scope was limited to neutronic analysis. - Abstract: This study proposes a conceptual design of a hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT). The design of Hyb-WT is based on a low-power tokamak (less than 150 MWt) and an annular ring-shaped reactor core with metal fuel (TRU 60 w/o, Zr 40 w/o) and a fission product (FP) zone. The computational code systems MONTEBURNS and MCNPX2.6 are investigated for their suitability in evaluating the performance of Hyb-WT. The overall design performance of the proposed reactor is determined by considering pin-type and tube-in-duct core designs. The objective of such consideration is to explore the possibilities for enhanced transmutation with reduced wall loading from fusion neutrons and reduced transuranic (TRU) inventory. TRU and FP depletion is analyzed by calculating waste transmutation ratio, mass burned per full power year (in units of kg/fpy), and support ratio. The radio toxicity analysis of TRUs and FPs is performed by calculating the percentage of toxicity reduction in TRU and FP over a burn cycle

  19. Designing a gas cooled ADS for enhanced waste transmutation. The PDS-XADS European Project contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimpault, G.; Sunderland, R.; Mueller, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    objective of accelerator driven systems (ADS) is for nuclear waste transmutation in order to reduce the radio-toxicity of the spent fuel in final storage disposal. Achieving this goal requires other technologies associated with an advanced fuel cycle with uranium-free fuel heavily loaded with minor actinides and associated fabrication and reprocessing capabilities. The primary or reference option for the advanced fuels for the ADS is based on the (Pu,MA)-O 2 material: a composite with Mo92 (CERMET) or MgO (CERCER). The size of the plant for a given fuel technology is of significant importance to achieve net MA consumption. The larger the size, the smaller amount of Plutonium is needed to achieve the requested reactivity level, and the greater amount of Minor Actinide (MA) can be provided and will, in the end, be burnt. A good compromise for a Helium cooled ADT core with roughened steel pin cladding leads to a volume power of 44 W/cm 3 and an installed power of 400 MWth. The design of this core takes advantage of previous studies by keeping the pressure drop over the core height below 0.5 bar hence preserving the decay removal capabilities and decreasing the pin diameter (7.71 mm) in order to keep the linear power below 152 W/cm. The 6. EUROTRANS Integrated Project will be targeting an European Transmutation Demonstrator (ETD) primarily with lead coolant but also with helium coolant (ETD/EFIT of several hundred MWth, EFIT for European Facility on Industrial scale Transmuter) able to transmute Nuclear Waste on a industrial scale with the full set of constraints taken into account. (authors)

  20. Comparison of different options for minor actinide transmutation in the frame of the French law for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, Christine; Leudet, Alain; Saturnin, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the French Act for waste management which has been passed by French Parliament on June 28th, 2006, it is requested to obtain in 2012 an assessment of industrial perspectives of partitioning and transmutation of long-lived elements. These studies must be carried out in tight connection with GENIV systems development. The expected results must include the evaluation of technical and economic scenarios taking into account the optimization options between the minor actinide transmutation processes, their interim storage and geological disposal, including an analysis of several criteria. In this perspective, the CEA has established a working group named 'GT TES' (Working Group on Technical and Economic Scenarios) involving EDF and AREVA to define scenarios, the various criteria to evaluate them, to conduct these evaluations and then to highlight the key results. The group also relied on ANDRA for the geological storage studies. The scenarios evaluations take place in the French context. The nuclear energy production is supposed to remain constant during the scenarios and equal to 430 TWhe/year in accordance with the current French nuclear power installed capacity of 60 GW(e). The deployment of the first Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) starts in 2040, considering that at this date the SFR technology should be mature. Several management schemes of minor actinides have been studied: Plutonium recycling in SFR (minor actinides are sent to the waste). Plutonium recycling and minor actinide (or Am alone) transmutation in SFR and in homogeneous mode ('Hom.'). Plutonium recycling and minor actinide (or Am alone) transmutation in SFR and in heterogeneous mode ('Het.'). Plutonium recycling in SFR and minor actinide transmutation in Accelerator-Driven-System (ADS). The criteria used to analyze these different scenarios, should take into account the viewpoint of scientists, industrials, administrations, and the general public. They are listed below: Inventories and

  1. Advances in conceptual design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rosales; Fajardo, Garcia; Curbelo, Perez; Oliva, Munoz; Hernandez, Garcia; Castells, Escriva; Abanades

    2011-01-01

    The possibilities of a nuclear energy development are considerably increasing with the world energetic demand increment. However, the management of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear power plants and its inventory minimization are the most important issues that should be addressed. Fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are the main options to reduce the long-lived radioactive waste inventory. Pebble Bed Very High Temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy development challenges. The conceptual design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) has been made in preliminary studies. The TADSEA is an ADS cooled by helium and moderated by graphite that uses as fuel small amounts of transuranic elements in the form of TRISO particles, confined in 3 cm radius graphite pebbles forming a pebble bed configuration. It would be used for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production. In this paper, the results of a method for calculating the number of whole pebbles fitting in a volume according to its size are showed. From these results, the packing fraction influence on the TADSEAs main work parameters is studied. In addition, a redesign of the previous configuration, according to the established conditions in the preliminary design, i.e. the exit thermal power, is made. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of the TRISO particles inside the pebbles can not be negligible. In this paper, a study of the power density distribution inside the pebbles by means of a detailed simulation of the TRISO fuel particles and using an homogeneous composition of the fuel is addressed. (author)

  2. An assessment of partition and transmutation against UK requirements for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.; Bush, R.P.; Crookshanks, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    A review of partition and transmutation is made with the objective of assessing the prospects for real financial of safety gains being made from the future use of partition and transmutation within the UK. The assessment covers all the civil high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing spent fuel, civil spent fuels where there are currently no plans or contracts for reprocessing, and intermediate-level waste (ILW). Both existing stocks and future arisings are included. The impact is also analysed of considering all the non-military uranium and plutonium extant in the UK as candidates for transmutation. The assessment takes full account of advances in technology since the earlier UK studies and changes in the UK situation. (Author)

  3. Study of spallation neutrons for the transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochard, F.; Boyard, J.L.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Durand, J.M.; Faivre, J.C.; Leray, S.; Milleret, G.; Plouin, F.; Whittal, D.M.; Beau, M.; Crespin, S.; Frehaut, J.; Lochard, J.P.; Martinez, E.; Patin, Y.; Petitbon, E.; Sigaud, J.; Legrain, R.; Lepretre, A.; Terrien, Y.; Bacha, F.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J.

    1994-01-01

    With the renewed interest in accelerator-driven systems to transmute long-lived nuclear waste or to produce energy, new requirements for intermediate-energy nuclear data are now emerging. In all these systems, neutrons are produced by spallation reactions induced by around 1 GeV protons on a heavy target. These neutrons then drive a sub-critical blanket in which wastes are burned or energy is produced. A good knowledge of the spallation process (energy and angular distribution of the neutrons) is necessary to design and optimize the target-blanket system: for instance, to determine the best choices of beam energy, of composition and geometry of the target, in order to have the maximum neutron yield at the lowest cost, or to minimize the back-scattering of neutrons to the accelerator. A programme aimed at measuring the double differential cross-sections for the production of spallation neutrons induced by protons and deuterons GeV beams on different targets, is beginning at SATURNE. (authors). 3 refs., 3 figs

  4. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste – present status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products becomes an important issue of the overall nuclear fuel cycle assessment, both for existing and future reactor systems. Reliable nuclear data are required for analysis of associated neutronics. The present paper gives a review of the status of nuclear data analysis ...

  5. Neutronics safety analysis in severe transients of the dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket for the FDS-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, S.; Wu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The conceptual design of the fusion-driven subcritical system FDS-I with the multifunctional subcritical dual-cooled waste transmutation (DWT) blanket proposed as a middle step toward the final application of fusion energy was presented previously. Safety is a key concern for the innovative conceptual system. The potential safety characteristic is expected as one of the advantages of FDS-I for the transmutation and incineration of nuclear waste compared with the critical reactor. With the intent of evaluating the inherent and passive safety features of FDS-I, the reactivity coefficients (e.g. the coolant density/void effect and the Doppler feedback), which are similar to those in critical reactors, and the kinetics quantities (e.g. neutron generation time and β eff ), which are influenced by the external neutron source of the source-driven system, are calculated and analyzed. In addition, the specific transient scenarios for FDS-I, which show the effects of the source power perturbation on the safety parameters, is presented

  6. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Tucek, Kamil [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics] [and others

    2004-12-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics reported here has been focused on different aspects of safety of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and on Transmutation research in more general terms. An overview of the topics of our research is given in the Summary which is followed by detailed reports as separate chapters or subchapters. Some of the research topics reported in this report are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. Topics, which are not yet published, are described with more details in the main part of this report. Main focus has been, as before, largely determined by the programme of the European projects of the 5th Framework Programme in which KTH is actively participating. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes even computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel so called Sing-Sing Core developed at KTH; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel so called ANSALDO design for the European Project PDS-XADS; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel a design investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS. b) analysis of potential of advance fuels, in particular nitrides with high content of minor actinides; c) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; d) emergency heat removal from ADS; e) participation in ADS: MUSE (CEA-Cadarache), YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; f) theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (and/or proton) fluxes; g) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, validation of the MCB code and sensitivity analysis; h) studies of

  7. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Tucek, Kamil

    2004-12-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics reported here has been focused on different aspects of safety of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and on Transmutation research in more general terms. An overview of the topics of our research is given in the Summary which is followed by detailed reports as separate chapters or subchapters. Some of the research topics reported in this report are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. Topics, which are not yet published, are described with more details in the main part of this report. Main focus has been, as before, largely determined by the programme of the European projects of the 5th Framework Programme in which KTH is actively participating. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes even computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel so called Sing-Sing Core developed at KTH; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel so called ANSALDO design for the European Project PDS-XADS; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel a design investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS. b) analysis of potential of advance fuels, in particular nitrides with high content of minor actinides; c) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; d) emergency heat removal from ADS; e) participation in ADS: MUSE (CEA-Cadarache), YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; f) theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (and/or proton) fluxes; g) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, validation of the MCB code and sensitivity analysis; h) studies of

  8. Determination of procedures for transmutation of fission product wastes by fusion neutrons. Volume 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, G.P.

    1980-12-01

    This study is concerned with the engineering aspects of the transmutation of fission products utilizing neutrons generated in fusion reactors. It is assumed that fusion reactors, although not yet developed, will be available around the turn of the century. Therefore, early studies of this type are appropriate as a guide to the large amount of further investigations that will be needed to fully evaluate this concept. Not all of the radioactive products from light water reactors can be economically transmuted, but it appears that the most hazardous can. This requires that fission-product wastes must first be separated into a number of fractions, and in some instances this must be accomplished with extremely high separation factors. A review of current commercial separation processes and of promising methods that are now in the laboratory stage indicate that the necessary processes can most likely be developed but will require an active and sustained development program. Current fusion reactor concepts were examined as to their suitability for transmuting the separated fission wastes. It was concluded that the long-lived fission products were most amenable to transmutation. The medium-lived fission products, Cs-137 and Sr-90, require higher neutron fluxes than are available in the most developed fusion reactor concepts. Concepts which are less developed may eventually be adaptable as transmuters of these fission products

  9. Summary of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanger, T.P.

    1995-10-01

    During the past 15 years many advances have been made in the technology of high-power accelerators, and in the understanding of the beam-physics issues associated with their high-performance requirements. These developments have contributed significantly to the high level of confidence in the practicality of the applications that were the central point of the international Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT) Conference. Even so, there are many accelerator topics that needed to be addressed, and the Conference provided the opportunity to address these issues.

  10. Collaboration between SCK·CEN and JAEA for partitioning and transmutation through accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This technical report reviews Research and Development (R and D) programs for the Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) technology through Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) at Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etude de l'Énergie Nucléaire (SCK·CEN) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The results obtained in the present Collaboration Arrangement between the two organizations for the ADS are also summarized, and possible further collaborations and mutual realizations in the future are sketched. (author)

  11. Accelerator-driven transmutation projects in Sweden in a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Ericsson, M.; Carlsson, J.; Cetnar, J.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator driven transmutation projects in Sweden are dealt with within the country's energy policy and energy plans as well as in relation to European perspectives. ADS activities at Royal Institute of Technology (RIT) and Sweden are concerned with: Conceptual design nitride fueled ADS) of Sing-Sing core (heavily 'poisoned'; Development of nitride fuel (in a EU-frame); transients of ADS; Managing nuclear data and stimulating development dedicated data libraries; Development of Monte-Carlo burnup; Design of RVACS for ADS. Besides the mentioned, this paper describes projects in fourth Framework Programme of European Union, fifth Framework Programme of EU and Experiments related to ADS

  12. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J.; Chakarova, R.; Jollkonen, Mikael; Westlen, D.

    2003-06-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been largely determined by the program of the European projects of the the 5th Framework Programme. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimized for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel - so called Sing-Sing Core; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel - both designs investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; c) emergency heat removal from ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE, YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; e) material studies for ADS, in particular theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (or proton) fluxes; f) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, special efforts were put in the frame of the European Project PDS-XADS to perform sensitivity studies of the different nuclear data libraries; g) studies of transmutation potential of critical reactors in particular High Temp Gas Cooled Reactor. Most important finding and conclusions from our studies: A strong positive void coefficient was found for lead/bismuth cooled cores. This considerable void effect is attributed to a high fraction of americium (60%) in the fuel. It was found that void reactivity insertion rates increases with P/D; in response to the beam overpower accident the Pb/Bi-cooled core featured the twice longer grace time compared to the sodium-cooled core; an important safety issue is the high void worth that could

  13. Transmutation of stable isotopes and deactivation of radioactive waste in growing biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskii, Vladimir I.; Kornilova, Alla A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The phenomena of isotope transmutation in growing microbiological cultures were investigated. ► Transmutation in microbiological associations is 20 times more effective than in pure cultures. ► Transmutation of radioactive nuclei to stable isotopes in such associations was investigated. ► The most accelerated rate of Cs 137 to stable Ba 138 isotope transmutation was 310 days. ► “Microbiological deactivation” may be used for deactivation of Chernobyl and Fukushima areas. - Abstract: The report presents the results of qualifying examinations of stable and radioactive isotopes transmutation processes in growing microbiological cultures. It is shown that transmutation of stable isotopes during the process of growth of microbiological cultures, at optimal conditions in microbiological associations, is 20 times more effective than the same transmutation process in the form of “one-line” (pure) microbiological cultures. In the work, the process of direct, controlled decontamination of highly active intermediate lifetime and long-lived reactor isotopes (reactor waste) through the process of growing microbiological associations has been studied. In the control experiment (flask with active water but without microbiological associations), the “usual” law of nuclear decay applies, and the life-time of Cs 137 isotope was about 30 years. The most rapidly increasing decay rate, which occurred with a lifetime τ * ≈ 310 days (involving an increase in rate, and decrease in lifetime by a factor of 35 times) was observed in the presence of Ca salt in closed flask with active water contained Cs 137 solution and optimal microbiological association

  14. Reduction and resource recycling of high-level radioactive wastes through nuclear transmutation with PHITS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    In the ImPACT program of the Cabinet Office, programs are underway to reduce long-lived fission products (LLFP) contained in high-level radioactive waste through nuclear transmutation, or to recycle/utilize useful nuclear species. This paper outlines this program and describes recent achievements. This program consists of five projects: (1) separation/recovery technology, (2) acquisition of nuclear transmutation data, (3) nuclear reaction theory model and simulation, (4) novel nuclear reaction control and development of elemental technology, and (5) discussions on process concept. The project (1) develops a technology for dissolving vitrified solid, a technology for recovering LLFP from high-level waste liquid, and a technology for separating odd and even lasers. Project (2) acquires the new nuclear reaction data of Pd-107, Zr-93, Se-79, and Cs-135 using RIKEN's RIBF or JAEA's J-PARC. Project (3) improves new nuclear reaction theory and structural model using the nuclear reaction data measured in (2), improves/upgrades nuclear reaction simulation code PHITS, and proposes a promising nuclear transmutation pathway. Project (4) develops an accelerator that realizes the proposed transmutation route and its elemental technology. Project (5) performs the conceptual design of the process to realize (1) to (4), and constructs the scenario of reducing/utilizing high-level radioactive waste to realize this design. (A.O.)

  15. Important requirements for RF generators for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.T.; Tallerico, P.J.; Lawrence, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    All Accelerator-Driven Transmutation applications require very large amounts of RF Power. For example, one version of a Plutonium burning system requires an 800-MeV, 80-mA, proton accelerator running at 100% duty factor. This accelerator requires approximately 110-MW of continuous RF power if one assumes only 10% reserve power for control of the accelerator fields. In fact, to minimize beam spill, the RF controls may need as much as 15 to 20% of reserve power. In addition, unlike an electron accelerator in which the beam is relativistic, a failed RF station can disturb the synchronism of the beam, possibly shutting down the entire accelerator. These issues and more lead to a set of requirements for the RF generators which are stringent, and in some cases, conflicting. In this paper, we will describe the issues and requirements, and outline a plan for RF generator development to meet the needs of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies. The key issues which will be discussed include: operating efficiency, operating linearity, effect on the input power grid, bandwidth, gain, reliability, operating voltage, and operating current

  16. Overall assessment of actinide partitioning and transmutation for waste management purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Croff, A.G.; Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A program to establish the technical feasibility and incentives for partitioning (i.e., recovering) actinides from fuel cycle wastes and then transmuting them in power reactors to shorter-lived or stable nuclides has recently been concluded at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The feasibility was established by experimentally investigating the reduction that can be practicably achieved in the actinide content of the wastes sent to a geologic repository, and the incentives for implementing this concept were defined by determining the incremental costs, risks, and benefits. Eight US Department of Energy laboratories and three private companies participated in the program over its 3-year duration. A reference fuel cycle was chosen based on a self-generated plutonium recycle PWR, and chemical flowsheets based on solvent extraction and ion-exchange techniques were generated that have the potential to reduce actinides in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plant wastes to less than 0.25% of those in the spent fuel. Waste treatment facilities utilizing these flowsheets were designed conceptually, and their costs were estimated. Finally, the short-term (contemporary) risks from fuel cycle operations and long-term (future) risks from deep geologic disposal of the wastes were estimated for cases with and without partitioning and transmutation. It was concluded that, while both actinide partitioning from wastes and transmutation in power reactors appear to be feasible using currently identified and studied technology, implementation of this concept cannot be justified because of the small long-term benefits and substantially increased costs of the concept

  17. Redesign of a pilot international online course on accelerator driven systems for nuclear transmutation to implement a massive open online course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Ramos, M.; Fernandez-Luna, A. J.; Gonzalez-Romero, E. M.; Sanchez-Elvira, A.; Castro, M.; Ogando, F.; Sanz, J.; Martin, S.

    2014-07-01

    In April 2013, a full-distance international pilot course on ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems) for advanced nuclear waste transmutation was taught by UNED-CIEMAT within FP7 ENEN-III project. The experience ran with 10 trainees from the project, using UNED virtual learning platform a LF. Video classes, web-conferences and recorded simulations of case studies were the main learning materials. Asynchronous and synchronous communication tools were used for tutoring purposes, and a final examination for online submission and a final survey were included. (Author)

  18. Redesign of a pilot international online course on accelerator driven systems for nuclear transmutation to implement a massive open online course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Ramos, M.; Fernandez-Luna, A. J.; Gonzalez-Romero, E. M.; Sanchez-Elvira, A.; Castro, M.; Ogando, F.; Sanz, J.; Martin, S.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, a full-distance international pilot course on ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems) for advanced nuclear waste transmutation was taught by UNED-CIEMAT within FP7 ENEN-III project. The experience ran with 10 trainees from the project, using UNED virtual learning platform a LF. Video classes, web-conferences and recorded simulations of case studies were the main learning materials. Asynchronous and synchronous communication tools were used for tutoring purposes, and a final examination for online submission and a final survey were included. (Author)

  19. Spallation radiation damage and dosimetry for accelerator transmutation of waste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, M.S.; Lin, C.

    1993-01-01

    Proposals are currently being made for systems to treat radioactive waste based on the use of accelerator-driven neutron sources. A linear proton accelerator with energies as high as 1600 MeV and currents up to 250 ma are anticipated for the driver. The neutron fluxes may reach up to 10 20 neutrons/m 2 s as generated by the spallation reactions that occur when the protons strike target materials. Calculations are described to determine radiation fluxes and flux spectra inherent in such systems and to estimate likely radiation effects on system components. The calculations use LAHET, a Monte Carlo high-energy transport code, and MCNP, a generalized-geometry, coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code. Cross sections for displacement and helium production are presented for spallation neutrons of energies from 21 MeV to 1600 MeV for Inconel 718 (Ni plus 18.5, 18.5, 5.1, and 3 wt % of Cr, Fe, Nb, and Mo, respectively), an alloy that is used for the proton beam entry window in several accelerators. In addition, results for this alloy are presented for the primary knocked-on atom (PKA) spectrum and the transmutation yield for 1600 MeV incident neutrons

  20. Neutronic Analysis on Coolant Options in a Hybrid Reactor System for High Level Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) which is a combination of plasma fusion tokamak as a fast neutron source and a fission reactor as of fusion blanket is another potential candidate. In FFHR, fusion plasma machine can supply high neutron-rich and energetic 14.1MeV (D, T) neutrons compared to other options. Therefore it has better capability in HLW incineration. While, it has lower requirements compared to pure fusion. Much smaller-sized tokamak can be achievable in a near term because it needs relatively low plasma condition. FFHR has also higher safety potential than fast reactors just as ADSR because it is subcritical reactor system. FFHR proposed up to this time has many design concepts depending on the design purpose. FFHR may also satisfy many design requirement such as energy multiplication, tritium production, radiation shielding for magnets, fissile breeding for self-sustain ability also waste transmutation. Many types of fuel compositions and coolant options have been studied. Effect of choices for fuel and coolant was studied for the transmutation purpose FFHR by our team. In this study LiPb coolant was better than pure Li coolant both for neutron multiplication and tritium breeding. However, performance of waste transmutation was reduced with increased neutron absorption at coolant caused by tritium breeding. Also, LiPb as metal coolant has a problem of massive MHD pressure drop in coolant channels. Therefore, in a previous study, waste transmutation performance was evaluated with light water coolant option which may be a realistic choice. In this study, a neutronic analysis was done for the various coolant options with a detailed computation. One of solutions suggested is to use the pressure tubes inside of first wall and second wall In this work, performance of radioactive waste transmutation was compared with various coolant options. On the whole, keff increases with all coolants except for FLiBe, therefore required fusion power is decreased. In

  1. Transmutation of waste actinides in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1979-04-01

    Actinide recycle and transmutation calculations were made for three irradiation options of a light water reactor (LWR). The cases considered were: all actinides recycled in regular uranium fuel assemblies; transuranic actinides recycled in separate MOX assemblies with 235 U enrichment of uranium; and transuranic actinides recycled in separate MOX assemblies with plutonium enrichment of natural uranium. When all actinides were recycled in a uniform lattice, the transuranic inventory after ten recycles was 38% of the inventory accumulated without recycle. When the transuranics from two regular uranium assemblies were combined with those recycled from a MOX assembly, the transuranic inventory was reduced 50% after five recycles

  2. Fusion-Fission Transmutation Scheme-Efficient destruction of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.M.; Mahajan, S.M.; Schneider, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic nuclear waste is developed by combining a subcritical fusion-fission hybrid assembly uniquely equipped to burn the worst thermal nonfissile transuranic isotopes with a new fuel cycle that uses cheaper light water reactors for most of the transmutation. The center piece of this fuel cycle, the high power density compact fusion neutron source (100 MW, outer radius <3 m), is made possible by a new divertor with a heat-handling capacity five times that of the standard alternative. The number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of waste is an order of magnitude below the corresponding number of critical fast-spectrum reactors (FRs) as the latter cannot fully exploit the new fuel cycle. Also, the time needed for 99% transuranic waste destruction reduces from centuries (with FR) to decades

  3. APEX accelerator cycle for transmutation of long-lived fission wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Steinberg, M.; Takahashi, H.; Grand, P.; Botts, T.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Based on preliminary studies, some conclusions can be drawn concerning the Accelerator Fuel Enricher and Fission Product Exterminator (APEX). APEX-1 and APEX-2 systems can destroy TU's, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr at acceptable cost and efficiency. The principal difference between APEX-1 and APEX-2 is the in-reactor and in-circuit inventory of 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Stable and low hazard wastes can be disposed of by burial. Accelerator breeders can effectively sustain a fission reactor economy indefinitely. Military waste can be blended into commercial fuel cycle for transmutation. Accelerator and target technologies appear practical and could be developed in a few years. More detailed studies are needed to better define the technical and economic features of the LAFER and APEX cycles, so that comparative assessments can be made between these cycles, as well as with other transmutation and waste disposal concepts

  4. Waste partitioning and transmutation as a means towards long-term risk reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1993-09-01

    It has been an idea for some time to reduce the long-term potential hazard of the waste by chemical removal of the actinides as well as some long-lived fission products and their subsequent transmutation in an intense neutron flux. Transmutation would thus shorten the required containment period of radioactive material in a repository. It is estimated, that development of such technology would take at least 40 years because facilities would be required to perform a clean actinide and fission product isolation and to fabricate the fuel elements that contained the separated nuclides. This latter requirements would involve a major expansion of new chemical process steps which are not available as yet. Development of new equipment to maintain occupational exposures as low as reasonably achievable and to minimize releases of radioactivity to the environment would also be necessary. Partitioning and transmutation should be introduced, if at all, as a long-term decision about new nuclear power technology as a future energy source. With regard to this, R and D work dealing with basic questions seems to be worthwhile, However, the introduction of partitioning and transmutation will not eliminate the need for radioactive waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  7. Role of accelerator-driven systems in waste incineration scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatores, M.; Slessarev, I.; Tchistiakov, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Spiro, M.; Terrien, Y.; Mouney, H.; Vergnes, J.

    1997-12-31

    At CEA accelerator-driven systems (ADS) are studied in the frame of the R and D required to answer the request of a law voted in 1991 by the French Parliament, `to search for solutions allowing to partition and transmute long lived radioactive wastes, in order to reduce their volume and toxicity`. These systems (called `INCAs`) are still at a conceptual level. However, the role of ADS has been clarified as a first step, and this will be the subject of the present paper. (author)

  8. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Arzhanov, Vasily; Jolkkonen, Mikael; Eriksson, Marcus; Seltborg, Per; Westlen, Daniel; Lagerstedt, Christina; Isaksson, Patrick; Persson, Carl-Magnus; Aalander, Alexandra [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2006-11-15

    The results of the research activities on System and Safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation (ADS) at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics are described in this report followed by the Appendices of the relevant scientific papers published in 2005. PhD and Licentiate dissertations of Marcus Ericsson, Per Seltborg, Christina Lagerstedt and Daniel Westlen (see Appendices) reflect the research mainstream of 2005. Year 2005 was also very rich in international activities with ADS in focus. Summary of conferences, seminars and lecturing activities is given in Chapter 9 Research activities of 2005 have been focused on several areas: system and safety studies of ADS; subcritical experiments; ADS source efficiency studies; nuclear fuel cycle analysis; potential of reactor based transmutation; ADS fuel development; simulation of radiation damage; and development of codes and methods. Large part of the research activities has been well integrated with the European projects of the 5th and 6th Framework Programmes of the European Commission in which KTH is actively participating. In particular European projects: RED-IMPACT, CONFIRM, FUTURE, EUROTRANS and NURESIM.

  9. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Arzhanov, Vasily; Jolkkonen, Mikael; Eriksson, Marcus; Seltborg, Per; Westlen, Daniel; Lagerstedt, Christina; Isaksson, Patrick; Persson, Carl-Magnus; Aalander, Alexandra

    2006-11-01

    The results of the research activities on System and Safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation (ADS) at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics are described in this report followed by the Appendices of the relevant scientific papers published in 2005. PhD and Licentiate dissertations of Marcus Ericsson, Per Seltborg, Christina Lagerstedt and Daniel Westlen (see Appendices) reflect the research mainstream of 2005. Year 2005 was also very rich in international activities with ADS in focus. Summary of conferences, seminars and lecturing activities is given in Chapter 9 Research activities of 2005 have been focused on several areas: system and safety studies of ADS; subcritical experiments; ADS source efficiency studies; nuclear fuel cycle analysis; potential of reactor based transmutation; ADS fuel development; simulation of radiation damage; and development of codes and methods. Large part of the research activities has been well integrated with the European projects of the 5th and 6th Framework Programmes of the European Commission in which KTH is actively participating. In particular European projects: RED-IMPACT, CONFIRM, FUTURE, EUROTRANS and NURESIM

  10. A Los Alamos concept for accelerator transmutation of waste and energy production (ATW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document contains the diagrams presented at the ATW (Accelerator Transmutation of Waste and Energy Production) External Review, December 10-12, 1990, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Included are the charge to the committee and the presentations for the committee's review. Topics of the presentations included an overview of the concept, LINAC technology, near-term application -- high-level defense wastes (intense thermal neutron source, chemistry and materials), advanced application of the ATW concept -- fission energy without a high-level waste stream (overview, advanced technology, and advanced chemistry), and a summary of the research issues

  11. Partitioning-transmutation technology: a potential future nuclear waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, S.; Morita, Y.; Nishihara, K.; Oigawa, H.

    2005-01-01

    Partitioning-transmutation technology (PT) will produce radioactive wastes of different physical and chemical properties and in different amounts from those generated in the current nuclear fuel cycle. To assess quantitatively the effects of PT on waste disposal, we first analyzed the amounts of the PT wastes, assumed conditioning for each type of the waste, and then made an attempt to estimate the repository area for disposal of the PT wastes. The properties of the hot Sr-Cs waste form are controlling factors in determining the size of the geologic repository. The disposal area could be reduced if the Sr-Cs fraction is disposed in a different subsurface repository or by long-term storage of the waste under institutional control. Disposal in a subsurface repository was found to comply with the Japanese law in terms of radioactivity constraint, through a performance assessment for disposal of the Sr-Cs fraction. (authors)

  12. The role of Z-pinch fusion transmutation of waste in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James Dean; Drennen, Thomas E.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Martin, William Joseph; Kamery, William; Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat; Grady, Ryan; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Guild-Bingham, Avery; Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich

    2007-01-01

    The resurgence of interest in reprocessing in the United States with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has led to a renewed look at technologies for transmuting nuclear waste. Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver to burn actinide waste in a sub-critical reactor. The baseline design has been modified to solve some of the engineering issues that were identified in the first year of work, including neutron damage and fuel heating. An on-line control feature was added to the reactor to maintain a constant neutron multiplication with time. The transmutation modeling effort has been optimized to produce more accurate results. In addition, more attention was focused on the integration of this burner option within the fuel cycle including an investigation of overall costs. This report presents the updated reactor design, which is able to burn 1320 kg of actinides per year while producing 3,000 MWth

  13. Accelerator technology for Los Alamos nuclear-waste-transmutation and energy-production concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Jameson, R.A.; Schriber, S.O.

    1991-01-01

    Powerful proton linacs are being studied at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux neutron sources that can transmute long-lived fission products and actinides in defense nuclear waste, and also as drivers of advanced fission-energy systems that could generate electric power with no long-term waste legacy. A transmuter fed by an 800-MeV, 140-mA cw conventional copper linac could destroy the accumulated 99 Tc and 129 I at the DOE's Hanford site within 30 years. A high-efficiency 1200-MeV, 140-mA niobium superconducting linac could drive an energy-producing system generating 1-GWe electric power. Preliminary design concepts for these different high-power linacs are discussed, along with the principal technical issues and the status of the technology base. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  14. System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhanov, Vasily; Fokau, Andrei; Persson, Calle; Runevall, Odd; Sandberg, Nils; Tesinsky, Milan; Wallenius, Janne; Youpeng Zhang

    2008-05-01

    Within the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation', research on design and safety of sub-critical reactors for recycling of minor actinides is performed. During 2007, the reactor physics division at KTH has calculated safety parameters for EFIT-400 with cermet fuel, permitting to start the transient safety analysis. The accuracy of different reactivity meters applied to the YALINA facility was assessed and neutron detection studies were performed. A model to address deviations from point kinetic behaviour was developed. Studies of basic radiation damage physics included calculations of vacancy formation and activation enthalpies in bcc niobium. In order to predict the oxygen potential of inert matrix fuels, a thermo-chemical model for mixed actinide oxides was implemented in a phase equilibrium code

  15. System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation. Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzhanov, Vasily; Fokau, Andrei; Persson, Calle; Runevall, Odd; Sandberg, Nils; Tesinsky, Milan; Wallenius, Janne; Youpeng Zhang (Div. of Reactor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    Within the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation', research on design and safety of sub-critical reactors for recycling of minor actinides is performed. During 2007, the reactor physics division at KTH has calculated safety parameters for EFIT-400 with cermet fuel, permitting to start the transient safety analysis. The accuracy of different reactivity meters applied to the YALINA facility was assessed and neutron detection studies were performed. A model to address deviations from point kinetic behaviour was developed. Studies of basic radiation damage physics included calculations of vacancy formation and activation enthalpies in bcc niobium. In order to predict the oxygen potential of inert matrix fuels, a thermo-chemical model for mixed actinide oxides was implemented in a phase equilibrium code

  16. Conceptual design of multi-purpose accelerator-driven transmutation test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Koichi; Hida, Kenzo; Yokobori, Hitoshi; Kamishima, Yoshio

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing a concept of accelerator-driven transmutation system using a high-power proton linac. To demonstrate the technical feasibility of this concept, accelerator-driven spallation experiments will be necessary. We believe our proposal of a multi-purpose test facility is a promising concept to clarify its feasibility from the basic neutronics and engineering standpoint. The main feature of our initial proposal is using an inclined beam injection. It enables to simplify the head of the test vessel as well as to facilitate easy replacing of the beam window and the testing device containing the test specimen, and also this system will minimize the complexity of the vessel head and surrounding structures. Next proposal is using an ordinary overhead beam injection system and is modified to be simple structural concept of the test vessel from inclined beam injection. At the first step, the basic neutronics experiments will be performed. At this step, the test device and the cooling device are simpler ones, due to only small heat will be generated. Then we plan using a gas cooling. At the following steps, the test device and the vessel internal structures will be remodeled or remade to adjust to the test purposes, if necessary. At these steps, target material tests and thermal hydraulic tests using some liquid metal coolants will be done. In this case, the natural circulation cooling will be done. To verify the transmutation technology, a larger heat will be generated, so a forced coolant circulation system will be installed in the test vessel. This system consists of a heat exchanger and a circulation pump. The vessel internal structure will be remade. Doing such step-wise remaking, initial construction cost of the proposed test facility will be expected to be reasonable. (author)

  17. Neutron detectors for transmutation of radioactive waste: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machrafi, R.

    2002-01-01

    We overview in short the neutron detectors currently used in the investigation of the transmutation of radioactive waste. Such detectors should comply with some specific requirements. In particular, they have to be small enough, non-expensive, easy in use, radiation-resistant and covering sufficiently large energy intervals. These conditions are met to the acceptable extent in the case of activation foils, gas detectors and solid track detectors, which are discussed briefly in our work

  18. Legal and regulatory issues regarding classification and disposal of wastes from actinide partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of actinide radioelements in spent nuclear fuel from civilian power reactors is potentially attractive because the resulting wastes might be acceptable for disposal using systems which are considerably less costly than a deep geologic repository. At present, there are no legal or regulatory prohibitions to seeking alternatives to a geologic repository for disposal of such wastes. However, additional laws and regulations would be needed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been reluctant to alter the current framework for radioactive waste management, in which geologic repositories or near-surface facilities are the only disposal options established in law and regulations unless a compelling need for alternatives with intermediate waste-isolation capabilities is demonstrated. There are also important technical considerations which are not encouraging with regard to the development of intermediate disposal systems for wastes from partitioning and transmutation of actinides in civilian spent fuel. First, the wastes may contain sufficient concentrations of fission products. Second, defense reprocessing wastes may contain sufficient concentrations of fission products and long-lived actinides. Thus, in developing the legal and regulatory framework for alternative disposal systems, there is a need to establish maximum concentrations of fission products and long-lived actinides that would be acceptable for intermediate disposal. 19 refs

  19. Advanced separation and transmutation, long dated behavior of vitrified wastes: 15 years of scientific researches; Separation poussee et transmutation, comportement a long terme des dechets vitrifies: 15 ans d'avancees scientifiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the results after 15 years of researches at the Cea, concerning the separation and transmutation of radioactive wastes and the conditioning and the long time storage of wastes at the surface. These researches were asked in the framework of the Bataille law. The first part devoted to the transmutation and separation of ling life radioactive elements presents the challenges, the advanced separation, the transmutation and the evaluation of the researches. The second part devoted to the long dated storage discusses the high activity wastes vitrification, the behavior of the vitrified wastes packages after thousand years, the international researches and the evaluation of the researches. (A.L.B.)

  20. Study on MAs transmutation of accelerator-driven system sodium-cooled fast reactor loaded with metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Song; Yang Yongwei

    2007-01-01

    Through the analysis of the effect of heavy metal actinides on the effective multiplication constant (k eff ) of the core in accelerator-driven system (ADS) sodium-cooled fast reactor loaded with metallic fuel, we gave the method for determining fuel components. the characteristics of minor actinides (MAs) transmutation was analyzed in detail. 3D burn-up code COUPLE, which couples MCNP4c3 and ORIGEN2, was applied to the neutron simulation and burn up calculation. The results of optimized scheme shows that adjusting the proportion of 239 Pu and maintaining the value during the burn-up cycle is an efficient method of designing k eff and keeping stable during the burn-up cycle. Spallation neutrons lead to the neutron spectrum harder at inner core than that at outer core. It is in favor of improving MA's fission cross sections and the capture-to-fission ratio. The total MAs transmutation support ratio 8.3 achieves excellent transmutation effect. For higher flux at inner core leads to obvious differences on transmutation efficiency,only disposing MAs at inner core is in favor of decreasing the loading mass and improving MAs transmutation effect. (authors)

  1. Wastes Management Through Transmutation in an ADS Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Verboomen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in nuclear fuel cycle closure is the reduction of the potential radiotoxicity, or of the time in which that possible hazard really exists. Probably, the transmutation of minor actinides with fast fission processes is the most effective answer. This work, performed in SCK⋅CEN (Belgium and DIMNP Pisa University, is focused on preliminary evaluation of industrial scale ADS (400 MWth, 2.5 mA burning capability. An inert matrix fuel of minor actinides, 50% vol. MgO and 50% vol. (Pu,Np,Am,CmO1.88, core content, with 150 GWd/ton discharge burn up, is used. The calculations were performed using ALEPH-1.1.2, MCNPX-2.5.0, and ORIGEN2.2. codes.

  2. Accelerator driven systems for energy production and waste incineration: Physics, design and related nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M; Stanculescu, A [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Paver, N [University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    2003-06-15

    This volume contains the notes of lectures given at the workshops 'Hybrid Nuclear Systems for Energy Production, Utilisation of Actinides and Transmutation of Long-lived Radioactive Waste' and 'Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Accelerator Driven Waste Incineration', held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in September 2001. The subject of the first workshop was focused on the so-called Accelerator Driven Systems, and covered the most important physics and technological aspects of this innovative field. The second workshop was devoted to an exhaustive survey on the acquisition, evaluation, retrieval and validation of the nuclear data relevant to the design of Accelerator Driven Systems.

  3. Accelerator driven systems for energy production and waste incineration: Physics, design and related nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.; Stanculescu, A.; Paver, N.

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains the notes of lectures given at the workshops 'Hybrid Nuclear Systems for Energy Production, Utilisation of Actinides and Transmutation of Long-lived Radioactive Waste' and 'Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Accelerator Driven Waste Incineration', held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in September 2001. The subject of the first workshop was focused on the so-called Accelerator Driven Systems, and covered the most important physics and technological aspects of this innovative field. The second workshop was devoted to an exhaustive survey on the acquisition, evaluation, retrieval and validation of the nuclear data relevant to the design of Accelerator Driven Systems

  4. Neutronics-processing interface analyses for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) aqueous-based blanket system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.; Battat, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Neutronics-processing interface parameters have large impacts on the neutron economy and transmutation performance of an aqueous-based Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system. A detailed assessment of the interdependence of these blanket neutronic and chemical processing parameters has been performed. Neutronic performance analyses require that neutron transport calculations for the ATW blanket systems be fully coupled with the blanket processing and include all neutron absorptions in candidate waste nuclides as well as in fission and transmutation products. The effects of processing rates, flux levels, flux spectra, and external-to-blanket inventories on blanket neutronic performance were determined. In addition, the inventories and isotopics in the various subsystems were also calculated for various actinide and long-lived fission product transmutation strategies

  5. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Implications of transmutation on the defect chemistry in crystalline waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uberuaga, B.P., E-mail: blas@lanl.go [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Jiang, C.; Stanek, C.R.; Sickafus, K.E. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Marks, N.A. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology, P.O. Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Carter, D.J.; Rohl, A.L. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology, P.O. Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); iVEC, Technology Park, Kensington, WA 6151 (Australia)

    2010-10-01

    Radioactive decay within the solid state creates chemical environments which are typically incommensurate with the initial host structure. Using a combined theoretical and computational approach, we discuss this 'transmutation problem' in the context of the short-lived fission products Cs-137 and Sr-90. We show how a Kroeger-Vink treatment is insufficient for understanding defects arising from transmutation, and present density functional theory data for chemical evolution within two prototypical hosts, CsCl and SrTiO{sub 3}. While the latter has a strong driving force for phase separation with increasing Zr content, the Cs(Ba)Cl system is surprisingly stable. The sharp difference between these two findings points to the need for better understanding of novel chemistry in nuclear waste forms.

  7. Topics under Debate - Transmutation of commercial waste should precede geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.; Thorson, I.M.; McDonald, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Technology has provided solutions for many of our problems. The generation and distribution of electricity to our homes and businesses has made possible our comfortable modern lifestyle. Of course, nothing comes without a price, and one of the prices we pay for our electrically powered world is the difficulty of managing the wastes resulting from power production. The basic methods used to deal with many types of waste are generally rather primitive. Waste products may be diluted, dispersed or buried in approved places. Rather few waste products resulting from the production of electric power are biodegradable. However, when it comes to nuclear waste, transmutation may offer a solution to a problem that has existed in many countries for many years, if it proves to be technologically and economically feasible. Recently, there have been severe electric power problems in the US. These problems have stimulated renewed interest in developing additional sources of power, with nuclear power being one of those sources. The prospect of increasing the number of nuclear power reactors, while the US capabilities for long-term geological storage of spent fuel are still unclear, is daunting. Transmutation of long-lived isotopes in spent fuel to shorter-lived or more benign isotopes may be necessary, if the process can be performed economically. (author)

  8. Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C.; Rosales, J.; Garcia, L. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (INSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Perez-Navarro, A.; Escriva, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Ingenieria Energetica; Abanades, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Grupo de Modelizacion de Sistemas Termoenergeticos

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite in the form of pebble beds, being cooled by helium which enables high temperatures, in the order of 1200 K, to facilitate hydrogen generation from water either by high temperature electrolysis or by thermo chemical cycles. To design this device several configurations were studied, including several reactors thickness, to achieve the desired parameters, the transmutation of nuclear waste and the production of 100 MW. of thermal power. In this paper we are presenting new studies performed on deep burn in-core fuel management strategy for LWR waste. We analyze the fuel cycle on TADSEA device based on driver and transmutation fuel that were proposed for the General Atomic design of a gas turbine-modular helium reactor. We compare the transmutation results of the three fuel management strategies, using driven and transmutation, and standard LWR spend fuel, and present several parameters that describe the neutron performance of TADSEA nuclear core as the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients and transmutation chain. (author)

  9. Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.; Rosales, J.; Garcia, L.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Escriva, A.; Abanades, A.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite in the form of pebble beds, being cooled by helium which enables high temperatures, in the order of 1200 K, to facilitate hydrogen generation from water either by high temperature electrolysis or by thermo chemical cycles. To design this device several configurations were studied, including several reactors thickness, to achieve the desired parameters, the transmutation of nuclear waste and the production of 100 MW. of thermal power. In this paper we are presenting new studies performed on deep burn in-core fuel management strategy for LWR waste. We analyze the fuel cycle on TADSEA device based on driver and transmutation fuel that were proposed for the General Atomic design of a gas turbine-modular helium reactor. We compare the transmutation results of the three fuel management strategies, using driven and transmutation, and standard LWR spend fuel, and present several parameters that describe the neutron performance of TADSEA nuclear core as the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients and transmutation chain. (author)

  10. Transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. A contribution to the reduction of the final repository problem; Transmutation radioaktiver Reststoffe aus Kernkraftwerken. Ein Beitrag zur Verringerung der Endlagerproblematik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mach, Manfred [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie und Management

    2015-07-01

    The brochure on transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants - a contribution to the reduction of the final repository problem covers the following issues: What is transmutation? Nuclear power in Germany; energy density of fuels; time span of energy resources; CO{sub 2} emissions from different energy sources; types of nuclear power plants in Germany; cost of German electricity generation plants; nuclear power plants worldwide; wastes from nuclear electricity production; radiation from fission products; radiation effects on humans, the nuclear fuel cycle, direct final disposal of radioactive wastes; risk assessment of the direct final disposal; partitioning of actinides; transmutation of actinides.

  11. Study on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of high-level waste. Status of R and D. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, Bruno; Glivici-Cotruta, Varvara

    2014-01-01

    The main project, where this sub project contributed to, has been structured into two modules: module A (funded by the federal ministry of economics, managed by KIT) and module B (funded by the federal ministry of education and research, managed by acatech). Partners in module A were DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), the Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen, in co-operation with the Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ). Modul B has been executed by the Zentrum fuer Interdisziplinaere Risiko- und Innovationsforschung der Universitaet Stuttgart (ZIRIUS). The overall coordination has been carried out by the Deutsche Akademie der Technikwissenschaften (acatech). The social implications have been evaluated in module B based on the analysis of the scientific and technological aspects in module A. Recommendations for communication and actions to be taken for the future positioning of P and T have been developed. In the project part, coordinated by HZDR - status of R and D - an overview on the whole topic P and T is given. The topic is opened by a short description of reactor systems possible for transmutation. In the following the R and D status of separation technologies, safety technology, accelerator technology, liquid metal technology, spallation target development, transmutation fuel and structural material development, as well as waste conditioning is described. The topic is completed by the specifics of transmutation systems, the basic physics and core designs, the reactor physics, the simulation tools and the development of Safety Approaches. Additionally, the status of existing irradiation facilities with fast neutron spectrum is described. Based on the current R and D status, the research and technology gaps in the topics: separation and conditioning, accelerator and spallation target, and reactor

  12. A partitioning-free transmutation concept of nuclear waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taczanowski, S.

    1996-01-01

    The idea of a symbiotic nuclear energy system, consisted of an Accelerator-driven Fuel Regenerator and a number of LWRs serviced by it, is the subject of this study, in view of supposed safety and partitioning avoidance advantages. The design premises leading to this concept are widely discussed. 7 refs, 7 figs

  13. Fission product yield data for the transmutation of minor actinide nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    A report issued by an international study group for the transmutation of nuclear waste using accelerator driven systems has highlighted the need for specific sets of nuclear data. These authoritative requirements include fission product yields at an intermediate incident neutron energy of up to 150 MeV. Before the start of the present CRP on fission product yield data for the transmutation of nuclear waste, only four types of evaluated fission yield data sets existed, namely for spontaneous fission, and for fission induced by thermal, fast (or fission) spectrum, and by 'high energy' (14-15 MeV) neutrons. A new type of evaluation for energy dependent neutron induced fission yields was required for this project. In view of the scarcity of experimental data, such an evaluation has to be based on systematics and theoretical model calculations. Unlike fission cross-sections, where nuclear models are being used successfully for the calculation of unmeasured cross-section ranges, such models or theories existed only for low energy fission yields. Hence the CRP participants entered a completely new field of research for which the progress and outcome were unpredictable. Clearly the ultimate goal of such an effort, namely an evaluation of energy dependent fission yields, could not be realized within the perceived lifetime of a CRP. The main emphasis of the CRP was on the development of adequate systematics and models for the calculation of energy dependent fission yields up to 150 MeV incident neutron energy. Several problems had to be solved, such as the correct choice of model parameters and multiplicity distributions of emitted neutrons, and the effect of multi-chance fission. Models and systematics have been tested for lower energy yields, but they failed to reproduce recent experimental data, particularly at higher energies, and the parameters had to be modified. Other models have been developed from the analysis of experimental data in order to derive systematic

  14. Preliminary assessment of partitioning and transmutation as a radioactive waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Tedder, D.W.; Drago, J.P.; Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1977-09-01

    Partitioning (separating) the actinide elements from nuclear fuel cycle wastes and transmuting (burning) them to fission products in power reactors represents a potentially advanced concept of radioactive waste management which could reduce the long-term (greater than 1000 years) risk associated with geologic isolation of wastes. The greatest uncertainties lie in the chemical separations technology needed to recover greater than 99 percent of the actinides during the reprocessing of spent fuels and their refabrication as fresh fuels or target elements. Preliminary integrated flowsheets based on modifications of the Purex process and supplementary treatment by oxalate precipitation and ion exchange indicate that losses of plutonium in reprocessing wastes might be reduced from about 2.0 percent to 0.1 percent, uranium losses from about 1.7 percent to 0.1 percent, neptunium losses from 100 percent to about 1.2 percent, and americium and curium from 100 percent to about 0.5 percent. Mixed oxide fuel fabrication losses may be reduced from about 0.5 percent to 0.06 percent for plutonium and from 0.5 percent to 0.04 percent for uranium. Americium losses would be about 5.5 percent for the reference system. Transmutation of the partitioned actinides at a rate of 5 to 7 percent per year is feasible in both fast and thermal reactors, but additional studies are needed to determine the most suitable strategy for recycling them to reactors and to assess the major impacts of implementing the concept on fuel cycle operations and costs. It is recommended that the ongoing program to evaluate the feasibility, impacts, costs, and incentives of implementing partitioning-transmutation be continued until a firm assessment of its potentialities can be made. At the present level of effort, achievement of this objective should be possible by 1980. 27 tables, 50 figures

  15. Long lived nuclear waste transmutation: context and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.; Pacton, L.

    1994-01-01

    After a recall of the actual strategy, in France, for the radioactive wastes, we give an overview of the programs CAPRA and SPIN (Separation-Incineration) for separate the minors actinides (Am,Np,..) and then to reduce the radiological risk create by these products by incineration in a LMFBR. 13 figs, 1 annexe

  16. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1994: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Gruppelaar, H.; Franken, W.M.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the status and progress of the Dutch RAS programme on 'Recycling and Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products' over the year 1994, which is the first year of the second 4-year programme. This programme is outlined and a short progress report is given over 1994, including a listing of 23 reports and publications over the year 1994. Highlights of 1994 were: The completion of long-lived fission-product transmutation studies, the initiation of small-scale demonstration experiments in the HFR on Tc and I, the issue of reports on the potential of the ALMR (Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) for transmutation adn the participation and international cooperation on irradiation experiments with actinides in inert matrices. The remaining chapters contain more extended contributions on recent developments and selected topics, under the headings: Benefits and risks of partitioning and transmutation, Perspective of chemical partitioning, Inert matrices, Evolutionary options (MOX), Perspective of heavy water reactors, Perspective of fast burners, Perspective of accelerator-based systems, Thorium cycle, Fission-product transmutation, End scenarios, and Executive summary and recommendations. (orig.)

  17. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1994: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordfunke, E H.P.; Gruppelaar, H; Franken, W M.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the status and progress of the Dutch RAS programme on `Recycling and Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products` over the year 1994, which is the first year of the second 4-year programme. This programme is outlined and a short progress report is given over 1994, including a listing of 23 reports and publications over the year 1994. Highlights of 1994 were: The completion of long-lived fission-product transmutation studies, the initiation of small-scale demonstration experiments in the HFR on Tc and I, the issue of reports on the potential of the ALMR (Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) for transmutation adn the participation and international cooperation on irradiation experiments with actinides in inert matrices. The remaining chapters contain more extended contributions on recent developments and selected topics, under the headings: Benefits and risks of partitioning and transmutation, Perspective of chemical partitioning, Inert matrices, Evolutionary options (MOX), Perspective of heavy water reactors, Perspective of fast burners, Perspective of accelerator-based systems, Thorium cycle, Fission-product transmutation, End scenarios, and Executive summary and recommendations. (orig.).

  18. Subcritical neutron generator-test facility for nuclear waste transmutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuvilo, I.V.; Kolomiets, A.A.; Kozodaev, A.M. [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The development of the optimal design of high power facility for NPP transmutation and for a number of applications can not be carried out without preliminary tests of much cheaper prototypes. It has been proposed to combine in new test facility 36 MeV Linac ISTRA constructed in ITEP, original Be target and subcritical blanket that will be mounted on the place of partly disassembled heavy water ITEP experimental reactor. The basic parameters of Linac, schemes of the target and blanket are described. It will provide the direct experiments on installation which can be considered as prototype for future linac driven high power facilities.

  19. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual report 2000 / 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Renberg, P.U.

    2001-09-01

    The present project, supported as a research task agreement by SKI, SKB, Barsebaeck Kraft AB and Vattenfall AB, started 1998-07-01. From 1999-01-01 the project also receives support from the Defence Research Establishment. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting licentiate and PhD students, push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation', strengthen the Swedish influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network, constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory. In this document, we give a status report after the third year (2000-07-01--2001-06-30) of the project. The annual report also includes a report with the title: Charge-exchange giant resonances as probes of nuclear structure. This report is indexed separately

  20. Proceedings of the international symposium on acceleration-driven transmutation systems and Asia ADS network initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-09-01

    An International Symposium on 'Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and Asia ADS Network Initiative' was held on March 24 and 25, 2003 at Gakushi-Kaikan, Tokyo, hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka University, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization and Tokyo Institute of Technology. The objectives of this symposium are to make participants acquainted with the current status and future plans for research and development (R and D) of ADS in the world and to enhance the initiation of an international collaborative network for ADS in Asia. This report records the papers and the materials of 15 presentations in the symposium. On the first day of the symposium, current activities for R and D of ADS were presented from United States, Europe, Japan, Korea, and China. On the second day, R and D activities in the fields of accelerator and nuclear physics were presented. After these presentations, a panel discussion was organized with regard to the prospective international collaboration and multidisciplinary synergy effect, which are essential to manage various technological issues encountered in R and D stage of ADS. Through the discussion, common understanding was promoted concerning the importance of establishing international network. It was agreed to establish the international network for scientific information exchange among Asian countries including Japan, Korea, China, and Vietnam in view of the future international collaboration in R and D of ADS. (author)

  1. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual report 1999/2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, A.; Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Renberg, P.U.

    2000-09-01

    The present project, supported as a research task agreement by SKI, SKB, Barsebaeck Kraft AB and Vattenfall AB, started 1998-07-01. From 1999-01-01 the project also receives support from the Defence Research Establishment. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting licentiate and PhD students, push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation', strengthen the Swedish influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network, constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory. In this document, we give a status report after the second year (1999-07-01--2000-06-30) of the project

  2. Neutronics design for lead-bismuth cooled accelerator-driven system for transmutation of minor actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Sasa, Toshinobu; Nishihara, Kenji; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Takano, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    Neutronics design study was performed for lead-bismuth cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides. Early study for ADS indicated two problems: a large burnup reactivity swing and a significant peaking factor. To solve these problems, effect of design parameters on neutronics characteristics were searched. The design parameters were initial plutonium loading, buffer region between spallation target and core, and zone fuel loading. Parametric survey calculations were performed considering fuel cycle consisting of burnup and recycle. The results showed that burnup reactivity swing depends on the plutonium fraction in the initial fuel loading, and the lead-bismuth buffer region and the two-zone loading were effective for solving the problems. Moreover, an optimum value for the effective multiplication factor was also evaluated using reactivity coefficients. From the result, the maximum allowable value of the effective multiplication factor for a practical ADS can be set at 0.97. Consequently, a new core concept combining the buffer region and the two-zone loading was proposed base on the results of the parametric survey. (author)

  3. A beamline systems model for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A.M.M.; Paulson, C.C.; Peacock, M.A. [Grumman Research and Development Center, Princeton, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A beamline systems code, that is being developed for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facility trade studies, is described. The overall program is a joint Grumman, G.H. Gillespie Associates (GHGA) and Los Alamos National Laboratory effort. The GHGA Accelerator Systems Model (ASM) has been adopted as the framework on which this effort is based. Relevant accelerator and beam transport models from earlier Grumman systems codes are being adapted to this framework. Preliminary physics and engineering models for each ADTT beamline component have been constructed. Examples noted include a Bridge Coupled Drift Tube Linac (BCDTL) and the accelerator thermal system. A decision has been made to confine the ASM framework principally to beamline modeling, while detailed target/blanket, balance-of-plant and facility costing analysis will be performed externally. An interfacing external balance-of-plant and facility costing model, which will permit the performance of iterative facility trade studies, is under separate development. An ABC (Accelerator Based Conversion) example is used to highlight the present models and capabilities.

  4. A beamline systems model for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Alan M. M.; Paulson, C. C.; Peacock, M. A.; Reusch, M. F.

    1995-01-01

    A beamline systems code, that is being developed for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facility trade studies, is described. The overall program is a joint Grumman, G. H. Gillespie Associates (GHGA) and Los Alamos National Laboratory effort. The GHGA Accelerator Systems Model (ASM) has been adopted as the framework on which this effort is based. Relevant accelerator and beam transport models from earlier Grumman systems codes are being adapted to this framework. Preliminary physics and engineering models for each ADTT beamline component have been constructed. Examples noted include a Bridge Coupled Drift Tube Linac (BCDTL) and the accelerator thermal system. A decision has been made to confine the ASM framework principally to beamline modeling, while detailed target/blanket, balance-of-plant and facility costing analysis will be performed externally. An interfacing external balance-of-plant and facility costing model, which will permit the performance of iterative facility trade studies, is under separate development. An ABC (Accelerator Based Conversion) example is used to highlight the present models and capabilities

  5. Optimisation of the neutron source based on gas dynamic trap for transmutation of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikeev, Andrey V.

    2012-06-01

    The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in collaboration with the Russian and foreign organizations develop the project of 14 MeV neutron source, which can be used for fusion material studies and for other application. The projected neutron source of plasma type is based on the plasma Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT), which is a special magnetic mirror system for plasma confinement. Presented work continues the subject of development the GDT-based neutron source (GDT-NS) for hybrid fusion-fission reactors. The paper presents the results of recent numerical optimization of such neutron source for transmutation of the long-lives radioactive wastes in spent nuclear fuel.

  6. Exhibit of ADS transmutation system to-Handle MA contained in Highly Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsodi; Lasman, A.N.; Nishihara, K.; Marsongkohadi; Su'ud, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This ADS transmutation system consists of a high intensity proton beam accelerator, spallation target, and sub-critical reactor core. The general approach was conducted using N-15 fuel to choose a strategy for destroying or minimizing the dangerously radioactive waste using a fast neutron spectrum. The fuel of this system was put surrounding the target with the some composition, i.e. the composition of MOX from PWR reactor spent-fuel with 5 year cooling time. Basic characteristics of this system have been conducted based on analysis of neutronics calculation results using ATRAS codes system

  7. Activities performed within the program of nuclear safety research on structural and cladding materials for innovative reactor system able to transmute nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, C.; Rieth, M.; Lindau, R.; Aktaa, J.; Schneider, H-C.; Konys, J.; Yurechko, M.; Mueller, G.; Weisenburger, A.

    2009-01-01

    The transmutation of nuclear waste to reduce the burden on a geological repository is a relevant topic within the Program of Nuclear Safety Research of the Research Centre Karlsruhe. Several studies have confirmed that a high efficiency of transmutation of actinides is reached in fast neutron spectrum reactor system. Therefore, an important effort is dedicated to the study of transmutation strategies with different fast reactors and their associated technologies. Moreover, in international contexts as Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP), fast reactors are considered in the frame of sustainable development of nuclear energy and reduction of waste. The systems that are currently under investigation, in the frame of the different fuel cycle scenarios, are liquid metal cooled and gas cooled fast reactors as well as Accelerator Driven Sub-critical Transmutation devices (ADS). These innovative reactor systems, call for structural and clad materials, which are able to perform in a safe manner under the envisaged operational and postulated transient conditions. In this context the European Commission supports the FP7 project GETMAT, with the objective to contribute to the development and selection of reference structure materials for core components and primary systems of fast neutron reactors. Several institutes of the Research Centre Karlsruhe are involved in this project with activities in the area of 9Cr ODS steel development and mechanical characterisation; optimisation and ranking of weld and joining techniques as Electron Beam, TIG and Diffusion Bonding; assessment of materials behaviour in corrosive environment and in neutron and neutron/proton irradiation field; and development of corrosion protection barriers for cladding and primary system components and their characterisation. The objective of this contribution is to describe the context in which the GETMAT activities are embedded in the Program

  8. Special scientific programme on use of high energy accelerators for transmutation of actinides and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Various techniques for the transmutation of radioactive waste through the use of high energy accelerators are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the present publication contains presentations on (i) requirements and the technical possibilities for the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides (background paper); (ii) high energy particle accelerators for bulk transformation of elements and energy generation; (iii) the resolution of nuclear energy issues using accelerator-driven technology; (iv) the use of proton accelerators for the transmutation of actinides and power production; (v) the coupling of an accelerator to a subcritical fission reactor (with a view on its potential impact on waste transmutation); (vi) research and development of accelerator-based transmutation technology at JAERI (Japan); and (vii) questions and problems with regard to accelerator-driven nuclear power and transmutation facilities. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Transmutation prospect of long-lived nuclear waste induced by high-charge electron beam from laser plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. L.; Xu, Z. Y.; Luo, W.; Lu, H. Y.; Zhu, Z. C.; Yan, X. Q.

    2017-09-01

    Photo-transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste induced by a high-charge relativistic electron beam (e-beam) from a laser plasma accelerator is demonstrated. A collimated relativistic e-beam with a high charge of approximately 100 nC is produced from high-intensity laser interaction with near-critical-density (NCD) plasma. Such e-beam impinges on a high-Z convertor and then radiates energetic bremsstrahlung photons with flux approaching 1011 per laser shot. Taking a long-lived radionuclide 126Sn as an example, the resulting transmutation reaction yield is the order of 109 per laser shot, which is two orders of magnitude higher than obtained from previous studies. It is found that at lower densities, a tightly focused laser irradiating relatively longer NCD plasmas can effectively enhance the transmutation efficiency. Furthermore, the photo-transmutation is generalized by considering mixed-nuclide waste samples, which suggests that the laser-accelerated high-charge e-beam could be an efficient tool to transmute long-lived nuclear waste.

  10. Fusion transmutation of waste: design and analysis of the in-zinerator concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, S. M.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Guild-Bingham, Avery (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Venneri, Francesco (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Meier, Wayne (LLNL, Livermore, CA); Alajo, A.B. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Johnson, T. R. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); El-Guebaly, L. A. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Youssef, M. E. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Young, Michael F.; Drennen, Thomas E. (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Morrow, Charles W.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Wilson, Paul (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Grady, Ryan (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Keith, Rodney L.; Smith, James Dean; Cook, Jason T.; Sviatoslavsky, Igor N. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Willit, J. L. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cleary, Virginia D.; Kamery, William (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2006-11-01

    Due to increasing concerns over the buildup of long-lived transuranic isotopes in spent nuclear fuel waste, attention has been given in recent years to technologies that can burn up these species. The separation and transmutation of transuranics is part of a solution to decreasing the volume and heat load of nuclear waste significantly to increase the repository capacity. A fusion neutron source can be used for transmutation as an alternative to fast reactor systems. Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver for this application. This report summarizes the initial design and engineering issues of this ''In-Zinerator'' concept. Relatively modest fusion requirements on the order of 20 MW can be used to drive a sub-critical, actinide-bearing, fluid blanket. The fluid fuel eliminates the need for expensive fuel fabrication and allows for continuous refueling and removal of fission products. This reactor has the capability of burning up 1,280 kg of actinides per year while at the same time producing 3,000 MWth. The report discusses the baseline design, engineering issues, modeling results, safety issues, and fuel cycle impact.

  11. Fusion transmutation of waste: design and analysis of the In-Zinerator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, S. M.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Guild-Bingham, Avery; Venneri, Francesco; Meier, Wayne; Alajo, A.B.; Johnson, T. R.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; Youssef, M. E.; Young, Michael F.; Drennen, Thomas E.; Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Morrow, Charles W.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Wilson, Paul; Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat; Grady, Ryan; Keith, Rodney L.; Smith, James Dean; Cook, Jason T.; Sviatoslavsky, Igor N.; Willit, J. L.; Cleary, Virginia D.; Kamery, William; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Due to increasing concerns over the buildup of long-lived transuranic isotopes in spent nuclear fuel waste, attention has been given in recent years to technologies that can burn up these species. The separation and transmutation of transuranics is part of a solution to decreasing the volume and heat load of nuclear waste significantly to increase the repository capacity. A fusion neutron source can be used for transmutation as an alternative to fast reactor systems. Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver for this application. This report summarizes the initial design and engineering issues of this ''In-Zinerator'' concept. Relatively modest fusion requirements on the order of 20 MW can be used to drive a sub-critical, actinide-bearing, fluid blanket. The fluid fuel eliminates the need for expensive fuel fabrication and allows for continuous refueling and removal of fission products. This reactor has the capability of burning up 1,280 kg of actinides per year while at the same time producing 3,000 MWth. The report discusses the baseline design, engineering issues, modeling results, safety issues, and fuel cycle impact

  12. Monte Carlo calculations on transmutation of trans-uranic nuclear waste isotopes using spallation neutrons difference of lead and graphite moderators

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Brandt, R; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Odoj, R; Sosnin, A N; Wan, J S; Westmeier, W

    2002-01-01

    Transmutation rates of sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu and some minor actinides ( sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np, sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am, sup 2 sup 4 sup 5 Cm and sup 2 sup 4 sup 6 Cm), in two accelerator-driven systems (ADS) with lead or graphite moderating environments, were calculated using the LAHET code system. The ADS that were used had a large volume (approx 32 m sup 3) and contained no fissile material, except for a small amount of fissionable waste nuclei that existed in some cases. Calculations were performed at an incident proton energy of 1.5 GeV and the spallation target was lead. Also breeding rates of sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu and sup 2 sup 3 sup 3 U as well as the transmutation rates of two long-lived fission products sup 9 sup 9 Tc and sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I were calculated at different locations in the moderator. It is shown that an ADS with graphite moderator is a much more effective transmuter than that with lead moderator.

  13. Nuclear transmutation of actinides other than fuel as a radioactive waste management scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecille, L.; Hage, W.; Hettinger, H.; Mannone, F.; Mousty, F.; Schmidt, E.; Sola, A.; Huber, B.; Koch, L.

    1977-01-01

    The bulk of fission products in the high-level waste (HLW) decays to innocuous hazard levels within about 600 years. Actinide waste and a few fission products however represent a potential risk up to some hundreds of thousand of years. An alternative to the disposal of the whole HLW in geological formations is its fractionation, a nuclear transmutation of long-lived isotopes in fission reactors and a geological disposal of the other components. This solution would decrease the potential long-term risks of the geological waste disposal and would also accomodate to the demand of public opinion. The results of studies related to this management scheme are outlined with special reference to areas, where additional effort is required for realistic cost/benefit evaluations. Reactor physics calculations demonstrated the feasibility of actinide incineration in thermal and fast reactors. Obtained transmutation rates are sufficiently high to garantee acceptably small actinide inventories in the reactor in the case of self-generated actinide recycling. It appears that fast breeders could be used as transmutation devices without major additional reactor devlopment work. The thermal power rating of actinide fuel elements and the contribution of actinides and of minor amounts of lanthanide impurities to the neutron economy of the reactor has been evaluated. Sensitivity studies indicated that the results are dependent on the reactor operation mode and on the accuracy of the nuclear data. These calculations permitted the identification of isotopes for which cross section masurements and improved theoretical methods are required. The chemical separation of actinides from the HLW with the envisaged decontamination factors is being studied by solvent extraction and precipitation techniques using waste simulates and samples of high activity waste from European reprocessing plants. Up to now, the obtained results do not yet allow a definitive judgement on the feasibility of actinides

  14. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001/2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Renberg, P.U.

    2002-07-01

    The present project started 1998-07-01. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting licentiate and PhD students; push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation'; strengthen the Swedish in influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network; constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research (INF)at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) at Uppsala University. Transmutation techniques in accelerator-driven systems (ADS) involve high-energy neutrons, created in the proton-induced spallation of a heavy target nucleus. The existing nuclear data libraries developed for reactors of today go up to about 20 MeV,which covers all available energies for that application; but with a spallator coupled to a core, neutrons with energies up to 1 - 2 GeV will be present. Although a large majority of the neutrons will be below 20 MeV, the relatively small fraction at higher energies still has to be characterized. Above ∼ 200 MeV, direct reaction models work reasonably well, while at lower energies nuclear distortion plays a non-trivial role. This makes the 20 - 200 MeV region the most important for new experimental cross section data. Very little high-quality neutron-induced data exist in this energy domain.Only the total cross section and the np scattering cross section have been investigated extensively. Besides this, there are data on neutron elastic scattering from UC Davis at

  15. The TARC experiment (PS211): neutron-driven nuclear transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, J.P.; Arnould, H.; Bompas, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of the TARC experiment is to demonstrate the possibility of using Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFFs) in accelerator-driven systems and to validate a new simulation developed in the framework of the Energy Amplifier programme. An experimental set-up was installed in a CERN PS beam line to study how neutrons produced by spallation at relatively high energy (E n ≥1 MeV) slow down quasi adiabatically with almost flat isolethargic energy distribution and reach the capture resonance energy of an element to be transmuted where they will have a high probability of being captured. Precision measurements of energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (using 2.5 GeV/c and 3.5 GeV/c protons) slowing down in a 3.3 m x 3.3 m x 3 m lead volume and of neutron capture rates of LLFFs 99 Tc, 129 I, and several other elements were performed. An appropriate formalism and appropriate computational tools necessary for the analysis and understanding of the data were developed and validated in detail. Our direct experimental observation of ARC demonstrates the possibility to destroy, in a parasitic mode, outside the Energy Amplifier core, large amounts of 99 Tc or 129 I at a rate exceeding the production rate, thereby making it practical to reduce correspondingly the existing stockpile of LLFFs. In addition, TARC opens up new possibilities for radioactive isotope production as an alternative to nuclear reactors, in particular for medical applications, as well as new possibilities for neutron research and industrial applications. (orig.)

  16. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J.; Chakarova, R.; Jollkonen, Mikael; Westlen, D. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2003-06-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been largely determined by the program of the European projects of the the 5th Framework Programme. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimized for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel - so called Sing-Sing Core; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel - both designs investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; c) emergency heat removal from ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE, YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; e) material studies for ADS, in particular theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (or proton) fluxes; f) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, special efforts were put in the frame of the European Project PDS-XADS to perform sensitivity studies of the different nuclear data libraries; g) studies of transmutation potential of critical reactors in particular High Temp Gas Cooled Reactor. Most important finding and conclusions from our studies: A strong positive void coefficient was found for lead/bismuth cooled cores. This considerable void effect is attributed to a high fraction of americium (60%) in the fuel. It was found that void reactivity insertion rates increases with P/D; in response to the beam overpower accident the Pb/Bi-cooled core featured the twice longer grace time compared to the sodium-cooled core; an important safety issue is the high void worth that could

  17. Impact of Transmutation Scenarios on Fuel Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saturnin, A.; Duret, B.; Allou, A.; Jasserand, F.; Fillastre, E.; Giffard, F.X.; Chabert, C.; Caron-Charles, M.; Garzenne, C.; Laugier, F.

    2015-01-01

    Minor actinides transmutation scenarios have been studied in the frame of the French Sustainable Radioactive Waste Management Act of 28 June 2006. Transmutation scenarios supposed the introduction of a sodium-cooled fast reactor fleet using homogeneous or heterogeneous recycling modes for the minor actinides. Americium, neptunium and curium (MA) or americium alone (Am) can be transmuted together in a homogeneous way embedded in FR-MOX fuel or incorporated in MA or Am-Bearing radial Blankets (MABB or AmBB). MA transmutation in Accelerator Driven System has also been studied while plutonium is being recycled in SFR. Assessments and comparisons of these advanced cycles have been performed considering technical and economic criteria. Transportation needs for fresh and used transmutation fuels is one of these criteria. Transmutation fuels have specific characteristics in terms of thermal load and neutron emissions. Thermal, radiation and criticality constraints have been taken into account in this study to suggest cask concepts for routine conditions of transport, to estimate the number of assemblies to be transported in a cask and the number of annual transports. Comparison with the no transmutation option, i.e. management of uranium and plutonium in SFRs, is also presented. Regarding these matters, no high difficulties appear for assemblies with limited content of Am (homogeneous or heterogeneous recycling modes). When fuels contain curium, technical transport uncertainties increase because of the important heat release requiring dividing fresh fuels and technological innovations development (MABB and ADS). (authors)

  18. Subcritical set coupled to accelerator (ADS) for transmutation of radioactive wastes: an approach of computational modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Mirta B.; Dominguez, Dany S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fission devices coupled to particle accelerators ADS are being widely studied. These devices have several applications, including nuclear waste transmutation and producing hydrogen, both applications with strong social and environmental impact. The essence of this work was to model an ADS geometry composed of small TRISO fuel loaded with a mixture of MOX uranium and thorium target material spallation of uranium, using methods of computational modeling probabilistic, in particular the MCNPX 2.6e program to evaluate the physical characteristics of the device and their ability to transmutation. As a result of the characterization of the spallation target, it can be concluded that production of neutrons per incident proton increases with increasing dimensions of the spallation target (thickness and radius), until it reached the maximum production of neutrons per incident proton or call the region saturation. The results obtained in modeling the ADS device bed kind of balls with respect to isotopic variation in the isotopes of plutonium and minor actinides considered in the analysis revealed that accumulation of mass of the isotopes of plutonium and minor actinides increase for subcritical configuration considered. In the particular case of the isotope 239 Pu, it is observed a reduction of the mass from the time of burning of 99 days. The increase of power in the core, whereas tungsten spallation targets and Lead is among the key future developments of this work

  19. Front-end and back-end electrochemistry of molten salt in accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.A.; Venneri, F.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop preparation and clean-up processes for the fuel and carrier salt in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology molten salt nuclear system. The front-end or fuel preparation process focuses on the removal of fission products, uranium, and zirconium from spent nuclear fuel by utilizing electrochemical methods (i.e., electrowinning). The same method provides the separation of the so-called noble metal fission products at the back-end of the fuel cycle. Both implementations would have important diversion safeguards. The proposed separation processes and a thermodynamic analysis of the electrochemical separation method are presented

  20. Study of particle transport in a high power spallation target for an accelerator-driven transmutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, Nikhil Vittal

    2013-01-01

    AGATE is a project envisaged to demonstrate the feasibility of transmutation in a gas (helium) cooled accelerator-driven system using solid spallation target. Development of the spallation target module and assessing its safety aspects are studied in this work. According to the AGATE concept parameters, 600 MeV protons are delivered on to the segmented tungsten spallation target. The Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 has been used in the simulation of particle transport. Binary cascade is used to simulate intra-nuclear cascades, along with the G4NDL neutron data library for low energy neutrons (<20 MeV).

  1. Study of particle transport in a high power spallation target for an accelerator-driven transmutation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Nikhil Vittal

    2013-01-31

    AGATE is a project envisaged to demonstrate the feasibility of transmutation in a gas (helium) cooled accelerator-driven system using solid spallation target. Development of the spallation target module and assessing its safety aspects are studied in this work. According to the AGATE concept parameters, 600 MeV protons are delivered on to the segmented tungsten spallation target. The Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 has been used in the simulation of particle transport. Binary cascade is used to simulate intra-nuclear cascades, along with the G4NDL neutron data library for low energy neutrons (<20 MeV).

  2. Study on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of high-level waste. Status of R and D. Final report; Studie zur Partitionierung und Transmutation (P and T) hochradioaktiver Abfaelle. Stand der Grundlagen- und technologischen Forschung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merk, Bruno; Glivici-Cotruta, Varvara

    2014-07-01

    The main project, where this sub project contributed to, has been structured into two modules: module A (funded by the federal ministry of economics, managed by KIT) and module B (funded by the federal ministry of education and research, managed by acatech). Partners in module A were DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), the Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen, in co-operation with the Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ). Modul B has been executed by the Zentrum fuer Interdisziplinaere Risiko- und Innovationsforschung der Universitaet Stuttgart (ZIRIUS). The overall coordination has been carried out by the Deutsche Akademie der Technikwissenschaften (acatech). The social implications have been evaluated in module B based on the analysis of the scientific and technological aspects in module A. Recommendations for communication and actions to be taken for the future positioning of P and T have been developed. In the project part, coordinated by HZDR - status of R and D - an overview on the whole topic P and T is given. The topic is opened by a short description of reactor systems possible for transmutation. In the following the R and D status of separation technologies, safety technology, accelerator technology, liquid metal technology, spallation target development, transmutation fuel and structural material development, as well as waste conditioning is described. The topic is completed by the specifics of transmutation systems, the basic physics and core designs, the reactor physics, the simulation tools and the development of Safety Approaches. Additionally, the status of existing irradiation facilities with fast neutron spectrum is described. Based on the current R and D status, the research and technology gaps in the topics: separation and conditioning, accelerator and spallation target, and reactor

  3. Transmutation of waste actinides in thermal reactors: survey calculations of candidate irradiation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1978-11-01

    Actinide recycle and transmutation calculations were made for twelve specific thermal reactor environments. The calculations included H 2 O-moderated reactor lattices with enriched U, recycled Pu, and 233 ' 235 U-Th. In addition two D 2 O reactor cases were calculated. When all actinides were recycled into 235 U-enriched fuel, about 10 percent of the transuranic actinides were fissioned per 3-year fuel cycle. About 9 percent of the actinides were fissioned per 3-year fuel cycle when waste actinides (no U or Pu) were irradiated in separate target rods in a U-fuel assembly. When actinides were recycled in separate target assemblies, the fission rate was strongly dependent on the specific loading of the target. Fission rates of 5 to 10 percent per 3-year fuel cycle were observed

  4. Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U.S. accelerator transmutation of waste system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system

  5. Fuel design for the U.S. accelerator driven transmutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M. K.; Hayes, S. L.; Crawford, D. C.; Pahl, R. G.; Tsai, H.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. concept for actinide transmutation is currently envisioned as a system to destroy plutonium as well as minor actinides in a single or two tier system. In order to maximize the actinide destruction rate, an inert matrix fuel is used. The effectiveness of transmutation in reducing the actinide inventory is linked to the development of a robust fuel system, capable of achieving very high burnup. Very little fuel performance data has been generated to date on inert matrix systems, and there are several issues specific to the behavior of higher actinides that do not allow extension of the existing uranium-plutonium fuel database to these new fuels. These issues include helium production, fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and americium migration. In the early 1990's, two U-Pu-Zr metal alloy fuel elements containing 1.2 wt.% Am and 1.3 wt.% Np were fabricated and irradiated to approximately 6 at.% burnup in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Postirradiation examination results were not published; however the recent interest in fuel for actinide transmutation has prompted a reexamination of this data. The results of the postirradiation examination of this experiment, including gas sampling, metallography, and gamma scanning are discussed. Available data on inert matrix fuels and other fuels incorporating actinides are used to assess the implications of minor-actinide specific issues on transmuter fuel. Considerations for the design of nitride and oxide fuels, metallic fuels, and metal-matrix dispersion fuels are discussed

  6. Fuel Design for the U.S. Accelerator Driven Transmutation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.K.; Hayes, S.L.; Crawford, D.C.; Pahl, R.G.; Tsai, H.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. concept for actinide transmutation is currently envisioned as a system to destroy plutonium as well as minor actinides in a single or two tier system. In order to maximize the actinide destruction rate, an inert matrix fuel is used. The effectiveness of transmutation in reducing the actinide inventory is linked to the development of a robust fuel system, capable of achieving very high burnup. Very little fuel performance data has been generated to date on inert matrix systems, and there are several issues specific to the behavior of higher actinides that do not allow extension of the existing uranium-plutonium fuel database to these new fuels. These issues include helium production, fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and americium migration. In the early 1990's, two U-Pu-Zr metal alloy fuel elements containing 1.2 wt.% Am and 1.3 wt.% Np were fabricated and irradiated to approximately 6 at.% burnup in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Postirradiation examination results were not published; however the recent interest in fuel for actinide transmutation has prompted a reexamination of this data. The results of the postirradiation examination of this experiment, including gas sampling, metallography, and gamma scanning are discussed. Available data on inert matrix fuels and other fuels incorporating actinides are used to assess the implications of minor-actinide specific issues on transmuter fuel. Considerations for the design of nitride and oxide fuels, metallic fuels, and metal-matrix dispersion fuels are discussed. (authors)

  7. Recycling and transmutation of nuclear waste. ECN-Petten and Belgonucleaire contributions in the framework of 'Partitioning and transmutation studies of the 4th CEC programme on rad waste management and disposal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Gruppelaar, H.; Brusselaers, P.; Evrard, G.; La Fuente, A.; Maldague, T.; Pilate, S.; Renard, A.

    1995-12-01

    A 'Strategy study on nuclear waste transmutation' by Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) and Belgonucleaire (BN) in the frame of the EU R and D Programme 1990/1994 on management and storage of radioactive waste has been executed in collaboration with AEA Technology, CEA and Siemens. First of all the motivation for transmuting long-lived radioactive products has been formulated, next transmutation of Tc-99 and I-129 in fission reactors has been studied for the PWR, HFR, Superphenix, and the CANDU reactor. Cross section libraries have been improved for ORIGEN-S on the basis of JEF2.2 and EAF3. This study has been amended by a graphical representation of important reactions for activation of cladding and inert matrix materials. By means of the derived new data libraries, some sample calculations on transmutation of americium in thermal reactors have been performed. Implications of recycling plutonium and americium in the form of MOX fuel in light water reactors have been investigated. It became clear from the present study that trasmutation of the existing plutonium has the highest priority and that reduction of minor-actinides is next on the priority list. Thirdly, the (difficult) large-scale transmutation of Tc-99 and of I-129 could reduce the leakage dose risks. It also seems most worthwhile to be careful with naturally occurring U-234 in the waste, as this will in the long run lead to a substantial increase of the 'natural' radon dose in the neighbourhood of the storage facility. (orig.)

  8. Recycling and transmutation of nuclear waste. ECN-Petten and Belgonucleaire contributions in the framework of `Partitioning and transmutation studies of the 4th CEC programme on rad waste management and disposal`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Kloosterman, J.L. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Gruppelaar, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Brusselaers, P. [Belgonucleaire S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Evrard, G. [Belgonucleaire S.A., Brussels (Belgium); La Fuente, A. [Belgonucleaire S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Maldague, T. [Belgonucleaire S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Pilate, S. [Belgonucleaire S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Renard, A. [Belgonucleaire S.A., Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    A `Strategy study on nuclear waste transmutation` by Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) and Belgonucleaire (BN) in the frame of the EU R and D Programme 1990/1994 on management and storage of radioactive waste has been executed in collaboration with AEA Technology, CEA and Siemens. First of all the motivation for transmuting long-lived radioactive products has been formulated, next transmutation of Tc-99 and I-129 in fission reactors has been studied for the PWR, HFR, Superphenix, and the CANDU reactor. Cross section libraries have been improved for ORIGEN-S on the basis of JEF2.2 and EAF3. This study has been amended by a graphical representation of important reactions for activation of cladding and inert matrix materials. By means of the derived new data libraries, some sample calculations on transmutation of americium in thermal reactors have been performed. Implications of recycling plutonium and americium in the form of MOX fuel in light water reactors have been investigated. It became clear from the present study that trasmutation of the existing plutonium has the highest priority and that reduction of minor-actinides is next on the priority list. Thirdly, the (difficult) large-scale transmutation of Tc-99 and of I-129 could reduce the leakage dose risks. It also seems most worthwhile to be careful with naturally occurring U-234 in the waste, as this will in the long run lead to a substantial increase of the `natural` radon dose in the neighbourhood of the storage facility. (orig.).

  9. Neutron and proton transmutation-activation cross section libraries to 150 MeV for application in accelerator-driven systems and radioactive ion beam target-design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Chadwick, M.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Mashnik, S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    New transmutation-activation nuclear data libraries for neutrons and protons up to 150 MeV have been created. These data are important for simulation calculations of radioactivity, and transmutation, in accelerator-driven systems such as the production of tritium (APT) and the transmutation of waste (ATW). They can also be used to obtain cross section predictions for the production of proton-rich isotopes in (p,xn) reactions, for radioactive ion beam (RIB) target-design studies. The nuclear data in these libraries stem from two sources: for neutrons below 20 MeV, we use data from the European activation and transmutation file, EAF97; For neutrons above 20 MeV and for protons at all energies we have isotope production cross sections with the nuclear model code HMS-ALICE. This code applies the Monte Carlo Hybrid Simulation theory, and the Weisskopf-Ewing theory, to calculate cross sections. In a few cases, the HMS-ALICE results were replaced by those calculated using the GNASH code for the Los Alamos LA150 transport library. The resulting two libraries, AF150.N and AF150.P, consist of 766 nuclides each and are represented in the ENDF6-format. An outline is given of the new representation of the data. The libraries have been checked with ENDF6 preprocessing tools and have been processed with NJOY into libraries for the Los Alamos transmutation/radioactivity code CINDER. Numerous benchmark figures are presented for proton-induced excitation functions of various isotopes compared with measurements. Such comparisons are useful for validation purposes, and for assessing the accuracy of the evaluated data. These evaluated libraries are available on the WWW at: http://t2.lanl.gov/. 21 refs

  10. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on high-level waste disposal for the fast breeder reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Ono, Kiyoshi; Shiotani, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    The impact of partitioning and/or transmutation (PT) technology on high-level waste management was investigated for the equilibrium state of several potential fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel cycles. Three different fuel cycle scenarios involving PT technology were analyzed: 1) partitioning process only (separation of some fission products), 2) transmutation process only (separation and transmutation of minor actinides), and 3) both partitioning and transmutation processes. The conventional light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle without PT technology, on which the current repository design is based, was also included for comparison. We focused on the thermal constraints in a geological repository and determined the necessary predisposal storage quantities and time periods (by defining a storage capacity index) for several predefined emplacement configurations through transient thermal analysis. The relation between this storage capacity index and the required repository emplacement area was obtained. We found that the introduction of the FBR fuel cycle without PT can yield a 35% smaller repository per unit electricity generation than the LWR fuel cycle, although the predisposal storage period is prolonged from 50 years for the LWR fuel cycle to 65 years for the FBR fuel cycle without PT. The introduction of the partitioning-only process does not result in a significant reduction of the repository emplacement area from that for the FBR fuel cycle without PT, but the introduction of the transmutation-only process can reduce the emplacement area by a factor of 5 when the storage period is extended from 65 to 95 years. When a coupled partitioning and transmutation system is introduced, the repository emplacement area can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude by assuming a predisposal storage of 60 years for glass waste and 295 years for calcined waste containing the Sr and Cs fraction. The storage period of 295 years for the calcined waste does not require a large

  11. Review of national accelerator driven system programmes for partitioning and transmutation. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    One of the current important issues of nuclear power is the long lived radioactive waste toxicity problem. The sharpness of this problem could be considerably reduced if, during energy production, there was the possibility to incinerate at least the most toxic radioactive isotopes (long lived fission products and minor actinides). The combination of external intensive neutron sources with facilities containing nuclear fuel, so-called hybrid systems, are under investigation in several countries. The surplus of neutrons in such systems may be used to convert most of the long lived radioactive nuclides into isotopes having a shorter lifetime. Currently, an increasing number of groups are entering this field of research. There is clearly a need for co-originated their efforts, and also for the exchange of information from nationally or internationally co-ordinated activities. Consideration of the advantages of hybrid systems, and the wide field of interdisciplinary areas of research involved, show the need for an international co-operation in this novel R and D area. The International Atomic Energy Agency has maintained an active interest in advanced nuclear technology related to accelerator driven systems (ADS), and related activities have been carried out within the framework of its programme on emerging nuclear energy systems. After thorough analyses of the outcomes of several international forums and recommendations of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Feasibility and Motivation for Hybrid Concepts for Nuclear Energy Generation and Transmutation (Madrid, Spain, 1997), the IAEA conducted an Advisory Group Meeting on Review of National Accelerator Driven System Programmes in Taejon, Republic of Korea, from 1 to 4 November 1999. The scope of the meeting included review of the current R and D programmes in the Member States and the assessment of the progress in the development of hybrid concepts. The programme of the AGM included the following topics

  12. Determination of transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Hess, N.J.; Strachan, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    'A team from two national laboratories is studying transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. Analyses are being done with 18 year old samples of 137 Cs-bearing pollucite (CsAlSi 2 O 6 267 0.5 H 2 O) obtained from a French company. These samples are unique in that the pollucite was made with various amounts of 137 Cs, which was then sealed in welded stainless- steel capsules to be used as tumor irradiation sources. Over the past 18 years, the 137 Cs has been decaying to stable Ba in the capsules, i.e., in the absence of atmospheric effects. This material serves as an analogue to a crystalline waste form in which such a transmutation occurs to possibly disrupt the integrity of the original waste form. Work this year consisted of determining the construction of the capsule and state of the pollucite in the absence of details about these components from the French company. The authors have opened one capsule containing nonradioactive pollucite. The information on the construction of the stainless-steel capsule is useful for the work that the authors are preparing to do on capsules containing radioactive pollucite. Microscopic characterization of the nonradioactive pollucite revealed that there are at least two compounds in addition to pollucite: a Cs-silicate and a Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO 4 ). These findings may complicate the interpretation of the planned experiments using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (fluorescence) have been used to characterize the nonradioactive pollucite. They have investigated the stability of the nonradioactive pollucite to β radiation damage by use of 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope. The samples were found to become amorphous in less than 10 minutes with loss of Cs. This is equivalent to many more years of β radiation damage than under normal decay of the 137 Cs. In fact, the dose was equivalent to several thousand years of normal

  13. Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Leidenfrost Driven Waste-Water Separator (LDS) is proposed in response to TA 6.1: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Habitation Systems. The LDS...

  14. Study of deep subcritical electronuclear systems and feasibility of their application for energy production and radioactive waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Baldin, A.; Vladimirova, N.

    2010-01-01

    Physical substantiation for investigation of new schemes of electronuclear power production and transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes based on nuclear relativistic technologies is presented. 'E and T RAW' ('Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Wastes') is aimed at complex study of interaction of relativistic beams of the Nuclotron-M with energies up to 10 GeV in quasi-infinite targets. Feasibility of application of natural/depleted uranium or thorium without the use of uranium-235, as well as utilization of spent fuel elements of atomic power plants is demonstrated based on analysis of results of known experiments, numerical, and theoretical works. The 'E and T RAW' project will provide fundamentally new data and numerical methods necessary for design of demonstration experimental-industrial setups based on the proposed scheme

  15. Conceptual design for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors using scale laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility study on conceptual design methodology for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors has been conducted to optimize the design parameters from the scale laws and validates the reactor performance with the integrated code system. A 1000 MWth sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactor has been scaled and verified through the methodology in this paper, which is referred to Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). A Pb-Bi target material and a partitioned fuel are the liquid phases, and they are cooled by the circulation of secondary Pb-Bi coolant and by primary sodium coolant, respectively. Overall key design parameters are generated from the scale laws and they are improved and validated by the integrated code system. Integrated Code System (ICS) consists of LAHET, HMCNP, ORIGEN2, and COMMIX codes and some files. Through ICS the target region, the core region, and thermal-hydraulic related regions are analyzed once-through Results of conceptual design are attached in this paper. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Palmiotti, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, numerous studies have been performed in order to identify appropriate 'Partitioning and Transmutation' (P and T) strategies, aiming to the reduction of the burden on a geological storage (see, among many others, Salvatores, 2005). P and T strategies are very powerful and unique tools to reduce drastically the radiotoxicity level of the wastes and to reduce the time needed to reach the reference level (from ∼100,000 years to few hundred years, i.e. comparable to the period in which technological and engineering means allow reasonably to control the radioactivity confinement). Moreover, P and T allows, in principle, also the reduction of the residual heat in a geological repository, with a potential significant impact on the repository size and characteristics. The first requirement of P and T strategies is the deployment of spent fuel reprocessing techniques (aqueous or dry), which are both in the continuity of today technologies (e.g. as implemented at La Hague in France, where Pu is separated up to 99.9%) or which represent innovative, adapted approaches (e.g. pyrochemistry). The requirement is to extend the performance of Pu separation to 99.9% also to Np, Am and Cm kept together or separated and in any case decontaminated from the lanthanides as much as possible. The separated TRU should then be 'transmuted' (or 'burned') in a neutron field. The essential mechanism is to fission them, transforming them into much shorter lived or stable fission products. However, the fission process is always in competition with other processes, and, in particular, with neutron capture, which does eliminate isotope A, but transforms it into isotope A+1, which can still be radioactive. Isotope A+1 can in turn be fissioned or transmuted into isotope A+2, and so on. The neutron field has to be provided by a fission reactor. The requirement for this (dedicated) reactor is to be able to privilege the fission process with respect to the capture process and to be

  17. J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, T.; Takei, H.; Saito, S.; Obayashi, H.; Nishihara, K.; Sugawara, T.; Iwamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Tsujimoto, K.; Oigawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Since the Fukushima accident, nuclear transmutation is considered as an option for waste management. Japan Atomic Energy Agency proposes the transmutation of minor actinides (MA) in accelerator-driven system (ADS) using lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) as a spallation target and a coolant of subcritical core. To obtain the data required for ADS design, we plan the building of a transmutation experimental facility (TEF) is planned within the J-PARC project. TEF consists of an ADS target test facility (TEF-T), which will be installed 400 MeV-250 kW LBE spallation target for material irradiations, and a transmutation physics experimental facility (TEF-P), which set up a fast critical/subcritical assembly driven by low power proton beam with MA fuel to study ADS neutronics. At TEF-T, various research plans to use emitted neutrons from LBE target are discussed. The paper summarises a road-map to establish the ADS transmuter and latest design activities for TEF construction. (authors)

  18. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on the high level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Romero, Enrique-Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The contribution is structured as follows: (i) Background on partitioning and transmutation; (ii) FP6 projects: RED-IMPACT; (iii) Advanced fuel cycle scenarios; (iv) Partitioning and transmutation expected performance; (v) Impact on the HLW thermal load; (vi) Impact on the deep geological disposal; and (vii) Impact on the performance assessment of deep geological disposal. (P.A.)

  19. Performances of actinide transmutation based accelerator-driven systems (ADS) at CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embid, M.; Cano, D.; Gonzales, E.; Villamarin, D.

    2000-01-01

    The FACET group at CIEMAT is studying the properties and potentialities of several liquid metal-cooled ADS designs for actinide and fission product. transmutation. The main characteristics of these systems are the use of lead or lead-bismuth eutectic as primary coolant, moderator and fuels made by transuranics. The program has two main research lines. The first one is dedicated to the development of concepts, designs, operation models and computer simulation tools characteristics of this kind of systems. The second line includes tlte participation and tlte data analysis of the most advanced experiments in the field and international benchmarks. (authors)

  20. Transmutation of skyrmions to half-solitons driven by the nonlinear optical spin Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayac, H; Solnyshkov, D D; Shelykh, I A; Malpuech, G

    2013-01-04

    We show that the spin domains, generated in the linear optical spin Hall effect by the analog of spin-orbit interaction for exciton polaritons, are associated with the formation of a Skyrmion lattice. In the nonlinear regime, the spin anisotropy of the polariton-polariton interactions results in a spatial compression of the domains and in a transmutation of the Skyrmions into oblique half-solitons. This phase transition is associated with both the focusing of the spin currents and the emergence of a strongly anisotropic emission pattern.

  1. Design considerations and evaluations of an accelerator-driven fluid fuel transmuter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizana, P.; Lypsch, F.; Phlippen, P.W. [Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology, Juelich (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    A fluid fuel transmuter is proposed on the basis of circulating lead forming the fluid carrier material for long-lived actinides. Thermalization of neutrons is achieved by the use of graphite in the blanket leading to low actinide concentrations, typically around 100 g/l. An eigenvalue of 0.95 is aimed at and the extraneous source neutrons are provided by the interaction of 1.6 GeV protons with a central lead target (spallation process). Fuel depletion and neutron transport calculations are discussed with a view to the technical feasibility and possible advantageous design modifications.

  2. Proceedings of the first topical meeting on Asian network for accelerator-driven systems and nuclear transmutation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, Toshinobu

    2016-03-01

    The first topical meeting on Asian Network for Accelerator-driven System (ADS) and Nuclear Transmutation Technology (NTT) was held on 26-27 October 2015 at the J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan. The topical meeting was an optional one in-between the regular meeting, which is held in every two years. Instead of the regular meetings, which cover all research fields for ADS and NTT, such as accelerator, spallation target, subcritical reactor, fuel, and material, the topical meeting is focused on a specific topic to make technical discussions more deeply. In this meeting, the technology for lead-bismuth eutectic alloy was selected, as it was one of the hot issues in the world, and the topic was deeply discussed by specialists in Asian countries. This report summarizes all presentation materials discussed in the meeting. (author)

  3. Current status on research and development of accelerator-driven system and nuclear transmutation technology in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho

    2013-01-01

    This status report describes the current status on research and development (R and D) of accelerator-driven system (ADS) and nuclear transmutation techniques (NTT), including nuclear data, accelerator techniques, Pb-Bi target, fuel technologies and reactor physics, in East Asian countries: Japan, Korea and China. The report also includes all presentation materials presented in 'the 10th International Workshop on Asian Network for ADS and NTT (ADS+NTT 2012)' held at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka, Japan on 6th and 7th December, 2012. The objective of this workshop is to make actual progress of ADS R and D especially in East Asian countries, as well as in European countries, through sharing mutual interests and conducting the information exchange each other. The 5 of 27 papers presented at the entitled report and meeting are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Safety assesment on radioactive waste from the partitioning and transmutation fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Kim, Sung Gi; Park, Won Suk

    2000-12-01

    A preliminary study on the quantitative effect of the partition and transmutation on the permanent disposal of HLW, which means the spent fuel in view of current Korean situation, was carried out. Two approaches in quantitative way are considered to be available for evaluating the deterministic influence of P and T strategy on the long-term disposal of this HLW are assessments of waste toxicity indices (TIs) and the repository performance assessments (PAs). TI is measures of the intrinsic radiotoxicity of the wastes and does not incorporate any detailed consideration of the feature, event and processes (FEPs) which might be lead to the release of the nuclides from the waste disposed of in the repository and the transport to and through the biosphere. Whereas, PA, which treated as main topic of present study, does include consideration of such FEPs even though it could not fully comprehensive at the current stage of R andD on geological disposal. Through the study, after reviewing the PA approaches which considered by some countries, relative advantages in case P and T will be performed before disposal over direct permanent disposal. Even though P and T could be an ideal solution to reduce the inventory which eventually decreases the release time as well as the peaks in the annual dose and even minimize the repository area through the proper handling of nuclides whose decay heat is significant and further produce the electricity, it should overcome the such major disadvantages as problems technically exposed during developing and improving the P and T system, economic point of view, and public acceptance in view of environment-friendly issues. In this regard some relevant issues are also discussed to show the direction for further studies

  5. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-01-01

    Spent fuel from nuclear power plants contains large quantities of Pu, other actinides, and fission products (FP). This creates challenges for permanent disposal because of the long half-lives of some isotopes and the potential for diversion of the fissile material. Two issues of concern for the US repository concept are: (1) long-term radiological risk peaking tens-of-thousands of years in the future; and (2) short-term thermal loading (decay heat) that limits capacity. An accelerator-driven neutron source can destroy actinides through fission, and can convert long-lived fission products to shorter-lived or stable isotopes. Studies over the past decade have established that accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) can have a major beneficial impact on the nuclear waste problem. Specifically, the ATW concept the authors are evaluating: (1) destroys over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroys over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separates Sr-90 and Cs-137; (4) separates uranium from the spent fuel; (5) produces electric power

  6. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. III. Transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.W.; Croff, A.G.

    1980-07-01

    Transmutation of the long-lived nuclides contained in fuel cycle wastes has been suggested as a means of reducing the long-term toxicity of the wastes. A comprehensive program to evaluate the feasibility and incentives for recovering the actinides from wastes (partitioning) and transmuting them to short-lived or stable nuclides has been in progress for 3 years under the direction of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report constitutes the final assessment of transmutation in support of this program. Included are (1) a summary of recent transmutation literature, (2) a generic evaluation of actinide transmutation in thermal, fast, and other transmutation devices, (3) a preliminary evaluation of 99 Tc and 129 I transmutation, and (4) a characterization of a pressurized-water-reactor fuel cycle with and without provisions for actinide recovery and transmutation for use in other parts of the ORNL program. The principal conclusion of the report is that actinide transmutation is feasible in both thermal and fast reactors, subject to demonstrating satisfactory fuel performance, with relatively little impact on the reactor. It would also appear that additional transmutation studies are unwarranted until a firm decision to proceed with actinide transmutation has been made by the responsible authorities

  7. Nuclear data for waste transmutation in the EURATOM RTD fifth framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, V.P.; Hugon, M.

    2002-01-01

    For the design of an Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS), nuclear cross section data are required over a wide energy range for the spallation target and structural materials. The paper summarises the EURATOM RTD Fifth Framework (FP5) Programme structure, nuclear data projects and the international collaboration in this field including that with International Science and Technology Centre (ISTC), Moscow. Two shared cost projects (HINDAS, total budget: 3.26 MEuro and n TOF ND ADS, 6.52 MEuro) in the EURATOM FP5 Programme aim to provide the above required data by performing experiments at most of the major accelerator facilities across Europe. The first project, HINDAS, will carry out basic cross section measurements, nuclear model simulations and data evaluations in the 20-200 MeV energy region and beyond for iron, lead and uranium. The second project, n TOF ND ADS, aims at the production, evaluation and dissemination of neutron cross sections for most of the radioisotopes (actinides and long-lived fission products) that are being considered for transmutation in the energy range from 1 eV up to 250 MeV. (author)

  8. Design and Optimization for the Windowless Target of the China Nuclear Waste Transmutation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desheng Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A windowless spallation target can provide a neutron source and maintain neutron chain reaction for a subcritical reactor, and is a key component of China's nuclear waste transmutation of coupling accelerator and subcritical reactor. The main issue of the windowless target design is to form a stable and controllable free surface that can ensure that energy spectrum distribution is acquired for the neutron physical design when the high energy proton beam beats the lead–bismuth eutectic in the spallation target area. In this study, morphology and flow characteristics of the free surface of the windowless target were analyzed through the volume of fluid model using computational fluid dynamics simulation, and the results show that the outlet cross section size of the target is the key to form a stable and controllable free surface, as well as the outlet with an arc transition. The optimization parameter of the target design, in which the radius of outlet cross section is 60 ± 1 mm, is verified to form a stable and controllable free surface and to reduce the formation of air bubbles. This work can function as a reference for carrying out engineering design of windowless target and for verification experiments.

  9. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 99 Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,α), (n,γ), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R = 1.0 to 3.0) requirements. These studies also indicate that masses on the order of 1.0 g at densities of rho greater than or equal to 500.0 g/cm 3 are required for a practical fusion-based fission product transmutation system

  10. Scenarios for Minor Actinides Transmutation in the Frame of the French Act for Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.; Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Girieud, R.; Tiphine, M.; Eschbach, R.; Chabert, C.; Garzenne, C.; Barbrault, P.; Gannaz, B.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Favet, D.; Arslan, M.; Carlier, B.; Caron-Charles, M.; Lefèvre, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: • Different transmutation scenarios have been evaluated: homogeneous transmutation, AmBB, MABB. • Homogeneous transmutation: – The MA content peak at the beginning of the transmutation can be reduced from 3,9% to 2,5% thanks to a reprocessing optimization. – Delaying the SFR deployment to 2080 increases this peak from 3,9% to 4,7%. Due to the constraints on reprocessing, the optimization may be less efficient in this case. • Heterogeneous transmutation: – Shorting the AmBB irradiation time from 10 cycles to 5 cycles and reducing their Am content from 20% to 10%: - reduces AmBB decay heat (-45% at the cooling beginning); - leads to an increase in the Am mass in cycle (+20% in 2150). • Impact of the CFV core: – In heterogeneous mode, the CFV transmutation rate being better than the SFRV2B one, the MA inventory is reduced by 22% in 2150. – In homogeneous mode, the reduction of the fissile mass in core leads to an increase of the MA peak at the beginning of the transmutation (3,9% → 5,6%). There’s no impact on the MA inventory

  11. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste by a charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides and fission products using proton accelerators has many advantages over a transmutor operated in a critical condition. The energy required for this transmutation can be reduced by multiplying the spallation neutrons in a subcritical assembly surrounding the spallation target. The authors have studied the relation between the energy requirements and the multiplication factor, k, of the subcritical assembly, while varying the range of several parameters in the spallation target. A slightly subcritical reactor is superior to a reactor with large subcriticality in the context of the energy requirement of a small proton accelerator, the extent of radiation damage, and other safety problems. To transmute the fission products, the transmutor reactor must have a good neutron economy, which can be provided by a transmutor operated by a proton accelerator. The paper discusses the use of minor actinides to improve neutronics characteristics, such as a long fuel burn-up rather than simply transmuting this valuable material

  12. Preliminary analysis of the induced structural radioactivity inventory of the base-case aqueous accelerator transmutation of waste reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdecny, J.A.; Vance, K.M.; Henderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Transmutation of (Nuclear) Waste (ATW) project is the substantial reduction in volume of long-lived high-level radioactive waste of the US in a safe and energy-efficient manner. An evaluation of the ATW concept has four aspects: material balance, energy balance, performance, and cost. An evaluation of the material balance compares the amount of long-lived high-level waste transmuted with the amount and type, of waste created in the process. One component of the material balance is the activation of structural materials over the lifetime of the transmutation reactor. A preliminary radioactivity and radioactive mass balance analysis has been performed on four structure regions of the reaction chamber: the tungsten target, the lead annulus, six tubing materials carrying the actinide slurry, and five reaction vessel structural materials. The amount of radioactive material remaining after a 100-yr cooling period for the base-case ATW was found to be 338 kg of radionuclides. The bulk of this material (313 kg) was generated in the zirconium-niobium (Zr-Nb) actinide tubing material. Replacement of the Zr-Nb tubing material with one of the alternative tubing materials analyzed would significantly reduce the short- and long-term radioactive mass produced. The alternative vessel material Al-6061 alloys, Tenelon, HT-9, and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo and the alternative actinide tubing materials Al-6061 alloy, carbon-carbon matrix, silicon carbide, and Ti-6 Al-4 V qualify for shallow land burial. Alternative disposal options for the base-case structural material Type 304L stainless steel and the actinide tubing material Zr-Nb will need to be considered as neither qualifies for shallow land burial

  13. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 99 Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,α), (n,γ), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R=1.0 to 3.0) requirements

  14. Basis and objectives of the Los Alamos accelerator driven transmutation technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes a new accelerator-based nuclear technology developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory which offers total destruction of the weapons Plutonium inventory, a solution to the commercial nuclear waste problem which greatly reduces or eliminates the requirement for geologic waste storage, and a system which generates potentially unlimited energy from Thorium fuel while destroying its own waste and operating in a new regime of nuclear safety

  15. Neutron dynamics of fast-spectrum dedicated cores for waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massara, S.

    2002-04-01

    Among different scenarios achieving minor actinide transmutation, the possibility of double strata scenarios with critical, fast spectrum, dedicated cores must be checked and quantified. In these cores, the waste fraction has to be at the highest level compatible with safety requirements during normal operation and transient conditions. As reactivity coefficients are poor in such critical cores (low delayed neutron fraction and Doppler feed-back, high coolant void coefficient), their dynamic behaviour during transient conditions must be carefully analysed. Three nitride-fuel configurations have been analysed: two liquid metal-cooled (sodium and lead) and a particle-fuel helium-cooled one. A dynamic code, MAT4 DYN, has been developed during the PhD thesis, allowing the study of loss of flow, reactivity insertion and loss of coolant accidents, and taking into account two fuel geometries (cylindrical and spherical) and two thermal-hydraulics models for the coolant (incompressible for liquid metals and compressible for helium). Dynamics calculations have shown that if the fuel nature is appropriately chosen (letting a sufficient margin during transients), this can counterbalance the bad state of reactivity coefficients for liquid metal-cooled cores, thus proving the interest of this kind of concept. On the other side, the gas-cooled core dynamics is very badly affected by the high value of the helium void coefficient (which is a consequence of the choice of a hard spectrum), this effect being amplified by the very low thermal inertia of particle-fuel design. So, a new kind of concept should be considered for a helium-cooled fast-spectrum dedicated core. (authors)

  16. First results and future trends for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.; Salvatores, M.; Guerin, Y.; Zaetta, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of the CEA SPIN program, a project has been set-up at the Direction of Nuclear Reactors of CEA, to study the transmutation of long-lived radioactive products (both minor actinides and fission products) resulting from the operation of current nuclear power plants. The program is focused on: transmutation in minor actinides (Np, Am) in fission reactors of known technology (both of the PWR or the fast reactor type), using the so-called ''homogeneous'' (mixed with Uranium or Uranium-Plutonium), and ''heterogeneous'' (mixed with inert matrices) recycling modes for both type of reactors. Transmutation studies in dedicated devices (both fission reactors with actinide/plutonium fuel or with high thermal flux, and particle accelerator-based systems). Fuel studies related to both homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling modes in fission reactors. For the homogeneous recycling mode, some experimental irradiations results are available from past PHENIX programs. For the heterogeneous mode, very limited experimental results are available, and new theoretical and experimental work is underway on the use of appropriate inert matrices. Basic data studies to assess the quality of existing nuclear data for fission reactor transmutation studies, future data needs of relevance, and model/data developments needed for accelerator-based systems. Strategy studies, to evaluate the consequences of the different transmutation options on the fuel cycle, according to different scenarios of nuclear power development. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Study on the transmutation of some radioactive wastes using the Bateman equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlandi, Horus Ibrahim; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a numerical solution for the nuclear transmutation equations using the Bateman algorithm. The numerical solution was implemented using the JAVA language and the program gives the time variation of isotope chain decays population which appears due to nuclear transmutation. With the present results it is possible to understand the radioactive decay and the need of storage the radioactive decay along the years. The chain decay studied were the 99 Tc, 99 Zr, 135 Cs, 137 Cs and the 90 Sr, due to their long half-lives and the high fission yield

  18. Results from the TARC experiment: spallation neutron phenomenology in lead and neutron-driven nuclear transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing.

    CERN Document Server

    Abánades, A; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Arnould, H; Belle, E; Bompas, C A; Brozzi, Delecurgo; Bueno, J; Buono, S; Carminati, F; Casagrande, Federico; Cennini, P; Collar, J I; Cerro, E; Del Moral, R; Díez, S; Dumps, Ludwig; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid, M; Fernández, R; Gálvez, J; García, J; Gelès, C; Giorni, A; González, E; González, O; Goulas, I; Heuer, R D; Hussonnois, M; Kadi, Y; Karaiskos, P; Kitis, G; Klapisch, Robert; Kokkas, P; Lacoste, V; Le Naour, C; Lèpez, C; Loiseaux, J M; Martínez-Val, J M; Méplan, O; Nifenecker, H; Oropesa, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pérez-Enciso, E; Pérez-Navarro, A; Perlado, M; Placci, A; Poza, M; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rubbia, Carlo; Rubio, J A; Sakelliou, L; Saldaña, F; Savvidis, E; Schussler, F; Sirvent, C; Tamarit, J; Trubert, D; Tzima, A; Viano, J B; Vieira, S L; Vlachoudis, V; Zioutas, Konstantin; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    2000-01-01

    The results of the TARC experiment are summarized herewith, whose main purpose is to demonstrate the possibility of using Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFFs) in accelerator-driven systems and to validate a new simulation developed in the framework of the Energy Amplifier programme. An experimental set-up was installed in a CERN PS proton beam line to study how neutrons, produced by spallation at relatively high energy (En * 1 MeV), slow down quasi adiabatically, with almost flat isolethargic energy distribution and reach the capture resonance energy of an element to be transmuted where they will have a high probability of being captured. Precision measurements of energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (using 2.5 GeV/c and 3.5 GeV/c protons) slowing down in a 3.3 m x 3.3 m x 3 m lead volume and of neutron capture rates on LLFFs 99Tc, 129I, and several other elements were performed. An appropriate formalism and appropriate computational t...

  19. Accelerator system model (ASM): A unique tool in exploring accelerator driven transmutation technologies (ADTT) system trade space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, T.J.; Favale, A.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Burger, E.C.; Paulson, C.C.; Peacock, M.A.; Piaszczyk, C.M.; Piechowiak, E.M.; Rathke, J.W. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States). Advanced Technology and Development Center

    1997-09-01

    To aid in the development and optimization of emerging Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) concepts, the Northrop Grumman Corporation, working together with G.H. Gillespie Associates and Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a computational tool which combines both accelerator physics layout/analysis capabilities with engineering analysis capabilities to create a standardized platform to compare and contrast accelerator system configurations. In this context, the accelerator system configuration includes not only the accelerating structures, but also the major support systems such as the vacuum, thermal control, RF power, and cryogenic subsystem (if superconducting accelerator operation is investigated) as well as estimates of the costs for enclosures (accelerating tunnel and RF halls). This paper presents an overview of the Accelerator System Model (ASM) code flow, as well as a discussion of the data and analysis upon which it is based. Also presented is material which addresses the development of the evaluation criteria employed by this code including a presentation of the economic analysis methods, and a discussion of the cost database employed. The paper concludes with examples depicting completed and planned trade studies for both normal and superconducting accelerator applications. 8 figs.

  20. Simulation of radioactive waste transmutation on the t.node parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacha, F.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J.

    1995-01-01

    Before any experiment on reactor driven by an accelerator, computer simulation supplies tools for optimization. Some of the key parameters are neutron production on a heavy target and neutronic distribution flux in the core. During two code benchmarks organized by the NEA-OECD, simulations of energetic incident proton collisions on a thin lead target for the first one, on a thick lead target for the second one, are described. One validation of the numeric codes is based on these results. A preliminary design of a burning waste system using benchmark result analysis and fission focused simulations is proposed

  1. Simulation of radioactive waste transmutation on the T. Node parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacha, F.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J.

    1995-01-01

    Before any experiment on reactor driven by an accelerator, computer simulation supplies tools for optimization. Some of the key parameters are neutron production on a heavy target and neutronic distribution flux in the core. During two code benchmarks organized by the NEA-OECD, simulations of energetic incident proton collisions on a thin lead target for the first one, on a thick lead target for the second one, are described. One validation of our numeric codes is based on these results. A preliminary design of a burning waste system using benchmark result analysis and fission focused simulations is proposed

  2. Simulation of radioactive waste transmutation on the t.node parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacha, F.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J. [LPC College de France, Paris (France)

    1995-10-01

    Before any experiment on reactor driven by an accelerator, computer simulation supplies tools for optimization. Some of the key parameters are neutron production on a heavy target and neutronic distribution flux in the core. During two code benchmarks organized by the NEA-OECD, simulations of energetic incident proton collisions on a thin lead target for the first one, on a thick lead target for the second one, are described. One validation of the numeric codes is based on these results. A preliminary design of a burning waste system using benchmark result analysis and fission focused simulations is proposed.

  3. Historical perspective, economic analysis, and regulatory analysis of the impacts of waste partitioning-transmutation on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Kocher, D.C.

    1990-10-01

    Partitioning-transmutation, sometimes called actinide burning, is an alternative approach to high-level radioactive waste management. It consists of removing long-lived radionuclides from wastes and destroying those radionuclides, thus reducing the long-term hazards of radioactive waste. It was studied in detail in the 1970's. New developments in technology and other factors are resulting in a reexamination of this waste management option. This report consists of three papers which summarize the historical work, update the analysis of the costs of waste disposal, and describe current regulatory requirements which might be impacted by P-T. The papers provide a starting point for future research on P-T. 152 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs

  4. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.J.; Laidler, J.J.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Thompson, M.; Toth, L.M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD and D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years

  5. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  6. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of graphite tubes for the non-aqueous system of accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.C.; Venneri, F.; Trujillo, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste offers exciting possibilities for the disposal of nuclear waste by converting it into more benign Species. The non-aqueous system discussed here contains the materials to be transmuted within a lithium-fluoride salt. The system consists of bundles of graphite tubes containing the salt Solution. The tubes are cooled as lithium flows across their exterior. These circular graphite tubes have an inner circular passage and an outer annulus. Natural convection within the tubes causes the salt to circulate. This paper deals with the thermal-hydraulics of the system; it does not consider the neutronics in detail. Heat transfer and fluid flow were modeled using a custom computer program the system behavior of an graphite tube. Different geometries were tried, while keeping the system volume the same, to determine an optimize graphite tube geometry. I considered both the parallel flow and the counterflow of the lithium coolant, and allowed limited boiling to occur to facilitate circulation. I achieved power densities as high as 200 W/cm 3 for the overall blanket

  7. Neutron dynamics of fast-spectrum dedicated cores for waste transmutation; Etude et amelioration du comportement cinetique de coeurs rapides a la transmutation de dechets a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massara, S

    2002-04-01

    Among different scenarios achieving minor actinide transmutation, the possibility of double strata scenarios with critical, fast spectrum, dedicated cores must be checked and quantified. In these cores, the waste fraction has to be at the highest level compatible with safety requirements during normal operation and transient conditions. As reactivity coefficients are poor in such critical cores (low delayed neutron fraction and Doppler feed-back, high coolant void coefficient), their dynamic behaviour during transient conditions must be carefully analysed. Three nitride-fuel configurations have been analysed: two liquid metal-cooled (sodium and lead) and a particle-fuel helium-cooled one. A dynamic code, MAT4 DYN, has been developed during the PhD thesis, allowing the study of loss of flow, reactivity insertion and loss of coolant accidents, and taking into account two fuel geometries (cylindrical and spherical) and two thermal-hydraulics models for the coolant (incompressible for liquid metals and compressible for helium). Dynamics calculations have shown that if the fuel nature is appropriately chosen (letting a sufficient margin during transients), this can counterbalance the bad state of reactivity coefficients for liquid metal-cooled cores, thus proving the interest of this kind of concept. On the other side, the gas-cooled core dynamics is very badly affected by the high value of the helium void coefficient (which is a consequence of the choice of a hard spectrum), this effect being amplified by the very low thermal inertia of particle-fuel design. So, a new kind of concept should be considered for a helium-cooled fast-spectrum dedicated core. (authors)

  8. Nuclear transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulaj, V.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nuclear transmutations are outlined, namely the radioactive transmutations and nuclear reactions. The basic characteristics are given of radioactive transmutations (gamma transmutations and isomeric transitions, beta, alpha transmutations, spontaneous fission and spontaneous emission of nucleons), their kinetics and the influence of the physical and chemical state of the radionuclide on the transmutation rate. The basic characteristics are described of nuclear reactions (reactions of neutrons including fission, reactions induced by charged particles and photons), their kinetics, effective cross sections and their mechanism. Chemical reactions caused by nuclear transmutations are discussed (recoil energy, properties of hot atoms, Szilard-Chalmers effect). A brief information is given on the behavior of radionuclides in trace concentrations. (Z.S.) 2 tabs., 19 figs., 12 refs

  9. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L.; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.

    1998-05-01

    ultimately applied, as a rule, it can be stated that 3-4 reactors are necessary with a high-energy neutron spectrum to transmute waste from the Swedish light water reactor park. Thus, the Swedish research programme on transmutation systems, should perhaps focus on studies of fast reactor systems for transmutation, especially heavy metal-cooled systems with or without connected neutron-producing accelerators. Studies of fuel types which are suitable for transmutation, such as oxides and mono nitrides are of particular interest. At the same time, calculations of the efficiency of the fission product transmutation in accelerator-driven systems should be carried out. Measurements of less well-known cross-sections for reactions which are of importance for the transmutation of certain actinides are also required as a basis for such work

  10. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1998-05-01

    ultimately applied, as a rule, it can be stated that 3-4 reactors are necessary with a high-energy neutron spectrum to transmute waste from the Swedish light water reactor park. Thus, the Swedish research programme on transmutation systems, should perhaps focus on studies of fast reactor systems for transmutation, especially heavy metal-cooled systems with or without connected neutron-producing accelerators. Studies of fuel types which are suitable for transmutation, such as oxides and mono nitrides are of particular interest. At the same time, calculations of the efficiency of the fission product transmutation in accelerator-driven systems should be carried out. Measurements of less well-known cross-sections for reactions which are of importance for the transmutation of certain actinides are also required as a basis for such work 80 refs, 6 tabs, 7 figs

  11. Beta transmutations in apatites with ferric iron as an electron acceptor - implication for nuclear waste form development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ge; Zhang, Zelong; Wang, Jianwei

    2017-09-27

    , which is consistent with the minor structure distortions. Increased stability with favorable energetics and structural distortion by incorporating ferric ion is significant with respect without variable valence ions. The results confirm the structural and compositional adaptability of apatites upon beta transmutations. The study suggests that apatite-structured materials could be promising nuclear waste forms to mitigate the beta decay induced instability, by incorporating variable valence cations such as ferric iron in the structure. The study demonstrates a methodology which evaluates the structural stability of waste forms incorporating fission products undergoing beta decay.

  12. Efficiency Of Transuranium Nuclides Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, Yu.A.; Klinov, D.A.; Semenov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the ways to create a wasteless nuclear power is based on transmutation of spent fuel nuclides. In particular, it is considered that the radioactivity of the nuclear power wastes should be the same (or smaller), than radioactivity of the uranium and the thorium extracted from entrails of the Earth. The problem of fission fragments transmutation efficiency was considered in article, where, in particular, the concepts of transmutation factor and the ''generalised'' index of biological hazard of the radioactive nuclides were entered. The transmutation efficiency has appeared to be a function of time and, naturally, dependent on nuclear power activity scenario, from neutron flux, absorption cross-sections of the nuclides under transmutation and on the rate of their formation in reactors. In the present paper the efficiency of the transmutation of transuranium nuclides is considered

  13. Results from the TARC experiment: spallation neutron phenomenology in lead and neutron-driven nuclear transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abánades, A.; Aleixandre, J.; Andriamonje, S.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Arnould, H.; Belle, E.; Bompas, C. A.; Brozzi, D.; Bueno, J.; Buono, S.; Carminati, F.; Casagrande, F.; Cennini, P.; Collar, J. I.; Cerro, E.; Del Moral, R.; Díez, S.; Dumps, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid, M.; Fernández, R.; Gálvez, J.; García, J.; Gelès, C.; Giorni, A.; González, E.; González, O.; Goulas, I.; Heuer, D.; Hussonnois, M.; Kadi, Y.; Karaiskos, P.; Kitis, G.; Klapisch, R.; Kokkas, P.; Lacoste, V.; Le Naour, C.; López, C.; Loiseaux, J. M.; Martínez-Val, J. M.; Méplan, O.; Nifenecker, H.; Oropesa, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Pérez-Enciso, E.; Pérez-Navarro, A.; Perlado, M.; Placci, A.; Poza, M.; Revol, J.-P.; Rubbia, C.; Rubio, J. A.; Sakelliou, L.; Saldaña, F.; Savvidis, E.; Schussler, F.; Sirvent, C.; Tamarit, J.; Trubert, D.; Tzima, A.; Viano, J. B.; Vieira, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Zioutas, K.

    2002-02-01

    We summarize here the results of the TARC experiment whose main purpose is to demonstrate the possibility of using Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFFs) in accelerator-driven systems and to validate a new simulation developed in the framework of the Energy Amplifier programme. An experimental set-up was installed in a CERN PS proton beam line to study how neutrons produced by spallation at relatively high energy ( E n⩾1 MeV) slow down quasi-adiabatically with almost flat isolethargic energy distribution and reach the capture resonance energy of an element to be transmuted where they will have a high probability of being captured. Precision measurements of energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (using 2.5 and 3.5 GeV/ c protons) slowing down in a 3.3 m×3.3 m×3 m lead volume and of neutron capture rates on LLFFs 99Tc, 129I, and several other elements were performed. An appropriate formalism and appropriate computational tools necessary for the analysis and understanding of the data were developed and validated in detail. Our direct experimental observation of ARC demonstrates the possibility to destroy, in a parasitic mode, outside the Energy Amplifier core, large amounts of 99Tc or 129I at a rate exceeding the production rate, thereby making it practical to reduce correspondingly the existing stockpile of LLFFs. In addition, TARC opens up new possibilities for radioactive isotope production as an alternative to nuclear reactors, in particular for medical applications, as well as new possibilities for neutron research and industrial applications.

  14. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  15. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  16. Conceptual Design of Low Fusion Power Hybrid System for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    DRUP (Direct Reuse of Used PWR) fuel has same process with DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel Into CANDU reactor). There are 2 big benefits by using DRUP fuel in Hybrid system. One is fissile production during operating period. Required power is decreased by fissile production from DRUP fuel. When the fusion power is reduced, integrity of structure materials is not significantly weakened due to reduction of 14.1MeV high energy neutrons. In addition, required amount of tritium for self-sufficiency TBR (Tritium Breeding Ratio ≥ 1.1) is decreased. Therefore, it is possible to further loading the SNF as much as the amount of lithium decreased. It is effective in transmutation. The other one is that DRUP fuel is also SNF. Therefore, using DRUP fuel is reusing of SNF, as a result it makes reduction of SNF from PWR. However, thermal neutron system is suitable for using DRUP fuel compared to fast neutron system. Therefore, transmutation zone designed (U-TRU)Zr fuel and fissile production zone designed DRUP fuel are separated in this study. In this paper, using DRUP fuel for low fusion power in hybrid system is suggested. Fusion power is decreased by using DRUP fuel. As a result, TBR is satisfied design condition despite of using natural lithium. In addition, not only (U-TRU)Zr fuel but also DRUP fuel are transmuted.

  17. Log live high activity radioactive wastes / Researches and results law of the 30 December 1991. Separation and transmutation of long lived radionuclides; Les dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue / recherches et resultats Loi du 30 decembre 1991. Separation et transmutation des radionucleides a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    The law of the 30 December 1991 on the high activity long lived radioactive wastes reached the end. This synthesis final document presents the scientific and technological results, obtained still the end of 2005, on the separation and the transmutation of long lived radionuclides of high activity long lived radioactive wastes. It is organized in five chapters: a presentation of the context and the historical aspects, the researches, the objectives and the strategy of the axis 1, the researches results on the advanced separation, the researches results on the transmutation, the scenario of separation-transmutation and their environmental, technical and economical impacts. (A.L.B.)

  18. A European roadmap for developing accelerator driven systems (ADS) for nuclear waste incineration. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Technical Working Group on ADS

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the Research Ministers of France, Italy and Spain, set up a Ministers' Advisors Group on the use of accelerator driven systems (ADS) for nuclear waste transmutation. This led to the establishing of a technical working group under the chairmanship of Prof. Carlo Rubbia to identify the critical technical issues and to prepare a 'Roadmap' for a demonstration programme to be performed within 12 years. In the following Roadmap, the technical working group (consisting of representatives from Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the JRC) has identified the steps necessary to start the construction of an experimental accelerator driven system towards the end of the decade. This is considered as an essential prerequisite to assess the safe and efficient behaviour of such systems for a large-scale deployment for transmutation purposes in the first half of this century. The development and deployment of accelerator driven systems requires three steps: a comprehensive mid- and long-term R and D program, to develop the single elements and components of the system. This includes development of new fuels and fuel cycle systems; planning, design, construction and operation of an Experimental Accelerator Driven System for the demonstration of the concept; planning, design, construction and operation of a large size prototype accelerator driven systems with subsequent large-scale deployment. Following a first phase of R and D focused on the understanding of the basic principles of ADS (already partly underway), the programmes should be streamlined and focused on a practical demonstration of the key issues. These demonstrations should cover high intensity proton accelerators (beam currents in the range 1-20 mA), spallation targets of high power (of power in excess of 1 megawatt), and their effective coupling with a sub-critical core. Cost estimates are taken into account as well as the ADS activities in Japan and USA

  19. A Comparison of Laser-induced Bremsstrahlung and Laser Compton Scattering for (γ, n) Photo-transmutation of Hazardous Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Haseeb ur; Lee, Jiyoung; Kim, Yonghee

    2015-01-01

    This paper also presents sensitivity analysis to yield the maximum possible photo-transmutation rates. In general the possibility of radionuclide transmutation using photo-neutron reaction is evaluated in this work. In this paper a detailed methodology to calculate transmutation reaction rates using Laser Induced Bremsstrahlung (LIB) and Laser Compton Scattering (LCS) has been discussed. The methodology was validated by comparing the calculated reaction rates against published data in publically accessed literatures. In the second half of the paper, the authors present a novel concept to narrow down the LCS photon spectrum to an energy range that matches with the resonance region of a particular radionuclide. This is particularly useful considering hazardous waste is usually a mix of different isotopes. As such, being able to tune the LCS photon into any narrow energy range so as to selectively transmute any particular isotope of interest in the hazardous waste mixture would be very desirable. LCS spectrum is highly sensitive to the electron beam energy, laser power, laser luminosity and Compton backscattering angle. From the results it is quite evident that LCS is much better option for the radionuclide transmutation as reaction rates for the LCS is much higher than LIB method even for very small laser power. It can be seen even for the optimistic reaction rate calculations with Bremsstrahlung method reaction rate is much lower than LCS case for 10 Hz repetition rate. If repetition rate of laser 100 Hz then LIB reaction rate has the same order of the magnitude as the reaction rate via LCS. Higher Laser Powers can yield very high transmutation rates

  20. A synthesis of possible separation and transmutation scenarios studied in the frame of the French law for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouiller, Jean-Paul; Boucher, Lionel; Bourdot, Patrick; Varaine, Frederic; Delpech, Marc; Warin, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the French law for the waste management, we have studied different dynamic scenarios from the present fleet which consists in a single stage of Plutonium recycling in PWRs to the future generation systems taking into account different possible solutions to transmute the minor actinides. This paper presents a synthesis of the different solutions with the accessible technologies (PWRs or SFRs) or with the innovative concepts (ADT, GFRs), analyses the impact on the fuel cycle and on the characteristics of the different waste packages and defines an optimised scenario for managing the actinides in the French fleet. The results presented in this paper give the impact on: The natural uranium resources, The inventory function of time, of different elements (Pu, Np, Am, Cm) at each stage of the fuel cycle and in the wastes, The physic characteristics (thermal power, radiation sources) of the fuel and of the wastes. The fast reactor systems are the more efficiency to manage minor actinides and present less impacts in the fuel cycle. (author)

  1. Partitioning and transmutation (P and D) 1995. A review of the current state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaalberg, M.; Landgren, A.; Spjuth, L.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Gudowski, W.

    1995-12-01

    The recent development in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P/T) is reviewed and evaluated. Current national and international R and D efforts are summarized. Nuclear transmutation with energy production is feasible in nuclear reactors where fast and thermal breeders are the most efficient for transmutation purposes. The operation of subcritical nuclear reactors by high current proton accelerators that generate neutrons in a spallation target is also an interesting option for transmutation and energy production, that has to be more carefully evaluated. These accelerator-driven systems are probably the only solution for the transmutation of long-lived fission products with small neutron capture cross sections and actinide isotopes with small fission cross sections. The requirements on the separation chemistry in the partitioning process depends on the transmutation strategy chosen. Recent developments in aqueous based separation chemistry opens some interesting possibilities to meet some of the requirements, such as separation of different actinides and some fission products and reduction of secondary waste streams. In the advanced accelerator-driven transmutation systems proposed, liquid fuels such as molten salts are considered. The partitioning processes that can be used for these types of fuel will, however, require a long term research program. The possibility to use centrifuge separation is an interesting partitioning option that recently has been proposed. 51 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program [fr

  3. Experimental verification of neutron phenomenology in lead and of transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing in accelerator driven systems a summary of the TARC project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Abánades, A; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Arnould, H; Belle, E; Bompas, C A; Brozzi, Delecurgo; Bueno, J; Buono, S; Carminati, F; Casagrande, Federico; Cennini, P; Collar, J I; Cerro, E; Del Moral, R; Díez, S; Dumps, Ludwig; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid, M; Fernández, R; Gálvez, J; García, J; Gelès, C; Giorni, A; González, E; González, O; Goulas, I; Heuer, R D; Hussonnois, M; Kadi, Y; Karaiskos, P; Kitis, G; Klapisch, Robert; Kokkas, P; Lacoste, V; Le Naour, C; López, C; Loiseaux, J M; Martínez-Val, J M; Méplan, O; Nifnecker, H; Oropesa, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pérez-Enciso, E; Pérez-Navarro, A; Perlado, M; Placci, Alfredo; Poza, M; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rubbia, Carlo; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Sakelliou, L; Saldaña, F; Savvidis, E; Schussler, F; Sirvent, C; Tamarit, J; Trubert, D; Tzima, A; Viano, J B; Vieira, S L; Vlachoudis, V; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2001-01-01

    The Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) experiment was carried out as PS211 at the CERN PS from 1996 to 1999. Energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (produced by 2.5 and 3.57 GeV/c CERN proton beams) slowing down in a 3.3*3.3*3 m/sup 3/ lead volume and neutron capture rates on long-lived fission fragments /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I demonstrate that Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) can be used to eliminate efficiently such nuclear waste and validate innovative simulation. (9 refs).

  4. Experience gained during 10 years transmutation experiments in Dubna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Fragopoulou, M.; Manolopoulou, M.; Stoulos, S.; Brandt, R.; Westmeier, W.; Krivopustov, M.; Sosnin, A.; Golovatyuk, S.

    2006-05-01

    Transmutation, the procedure of transforming long-lived radioactive isotopes into stable or short-lived, was proposed for reducing the amount of radioactive waste resulting from technological applications of nuclear fission. The Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) provide the possibility to generate intense neutron spectrum yielding in an effective transmutation of unwanted isotopes. Such experiments are being carried out for the last 10 years in Synchrophasotron / Nuclotron accelerators at the Veksler-Baldin Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Thick Pb and Pb-U targets, surrounded by moderators, have been irradiated by protons in the energy range of 0.5-7.4 GeV. Neutron fluence measurements have been performed by different techniques of passive detectors (neutron activation detectors, solid state nuclear track detectors). Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 239Pu was studied. The results of these experiments are presented and discussed.

  5. Transmutation of radioactive waste with the help of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.; Wan, J.S.; Ochs, M.

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out at the Synchrophasotron, LHE, JINR, Dubna, using 3.67 GeV protons and 18 GeV 12 C ion beams. Two massive lead and uranium targets surrounded by paraffin moderator were irradiated. The outer surface of the moderator was some small U- and La-sensors, to be studied by radiochemistry activation techniques, and also by solid-state nuclear track detectors. Both experimental techniques independently give approximately 28 low energy neutrons on the outer surface of the moderator per 3.67 GeV proton hitting the Pb-target. Theoretical estimations based on LAHET and DCM/CEM computer codes give considerably smaller fluences: approximately 7-9 low energy neutrons ( 129 I(T 1/2 =2.4 days), could be identified radiochemically as well as other spallation products. The transmutation rates are substantial: a 10 mA accelerator of 3.67 GeV protons could transmute at least 30% of 237 Np and 1% of 129 I per month under the given geometrical conditions

  6. Requirements for an evaluated nuclear data file for accelerator-based transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The importance of intermediate-energy nuclear data files as part of a global calculation scheme for accelerator-based transmutation of radioactive waste systems (for instance with an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor) is discussed. A proposal for three intermediate-energy data libraries for incident neutrons and protons is presented: - a data library from 0 to about 100 MeV (first priority), - a reference data library from 20 to 1500 MeV, - an activation/transmutation library from 0 to about 100 MeV. Furthermore, the proposed ENDF-6 structure of each library is given. The data needs for accelerator-based transmutation are translated in terms of the aforementioned intermediate-energy data libraries. This could be a starting point for an ''International Evaluated Nuclear Data File for Transmutation''. This library could also be of interest for other applications in science and technology. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations concerning future evaluation work are given. (orig.)

  7. Partitioning and Transmutation: IAEA Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, U.; Monti, S.; )

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The importance of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) processes for sustaining nuclear energy growth in the world has been realised in several countries across the world. P and T processes aim at separation and recycling of actinides including minor actinides (MAs) from the spent fuel or high-level liquid waste. The objective of these processes include reuse of separated fissile materials from spent nuclear fuels to obtain energy, enhance resource utilisation, reduce the disposal of toxic radio-nuclides and improve long-term performance of geological repositories. R and D programmes have been launched in many of the Member States to develop advanced partitioning process based on either aqueous or pyro to recover MAs along with other actinides as well as automated and remote techniques for manufacturing fuels containing MAs for the purpose of transmuting them either in fast reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. A number of Member States have been also developing such transmutation systems with the aim to construct and operate demo plants and prototypes in the next decade. The International Atomic Energy Agency has a high priority for the activities on partitioning and transmutation and regularly organises conferences, workshops, seminars and technical meetings in the areas of P and T as a part of information exchange and knowledge sharing at the international level. In the recent past, the Agency organised two technical meetings on advanced partitioning processes and actinide recycle technologies with the objective of providing a common platform for the scientists and engineers working in the areas of separation of actinides along with MAs from spent nuclear fuels and manufacturing of advanced fuels containing MAs in order to bridge the technological gap between them. In 2010, the Agency concluded a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) related to Assessment of Partitioning Processes. The Agency also conducted a first CRP on

  8. Role of accelerators in the Czech national transmuter project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bem, P.; Kugler, A.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of spent nuclear fuel from the so far operated PWRs has become a crucial issue in the Czech Republic. The first attempts to solve this problem by a final deposit of spent fuel into a suitable geological formation have been shown not to be fully acceptable. Therefore, the revival of nuclear transmutation technology application for nuclear incineration of nuclear waste and spent fuel in particular was welcomed. A realistic national project started to be developed in 1996. The four major nuclear research institutions of the country formed a consortium focused on an adoption of the world-wide experience and a development of a national project of a transmutation technology (experimental transmuter LA-0) or an efficient participation in the international effort in that field. Because the LA-0 transmuter concept of subcritical reactor with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides driven by an external neutron source has been adopted, the R and D effort has been focused on three regions. The first is devoted to the problem of a suitable neutron source, the second to a pre-conceptual design of a blanket for burning of actinides contained in spent fuel from PWRs. The third region is devoted to the utilisation of the experience from a specific field of dry (fluorine) reprocessing of spent fuel and a preparation of liquid fuel in the form of molten fluorides for the transmuter LA-0. (R.P.)

  9. Studies on separation, conversion and transmutation of long-living radionuclides. A contribution to advanced disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The future role and acceptance of nuclear energy will be decisively determined by the safe operation of existing and future facilities and by convincing solutions for nuclear waste management. With respect to the long half-lives of some radionuclides (actinides and fission products) and the related question as to whether the release of radionuclides from a repository can be prevented over very long periods of time, alternatives to the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels are discussed internationally. As a potential complementary solution, the technological option with partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is considered. This method separates and converts the long-lived radionuclides into stable, short-lived nuclides via neutron reactions in dedicated facilities. Against this background, the first main chapter of the present work looks at the chemical separation of actinides from high-level reprocessing wastes. In order to achieve a better understanding of the processes at the molecular level, basic investigations were also performed on separating actinides(III) via liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extraction. At the same time, reversible processes were developed and tested on the laboratory scale with the aid of mixer-settlers and centrifugal extractors. The subsequent chapter focuses on separating the long-lived fission product iodine-129 from radioactive wastes as well as from process effluents arising from reprocessing. As part of this work, different simple chemical and physical techniques were developed for complete recovery with respect to transmutation or conditioning in host matrices that are sufficiently stable for final storage. Its high mobility and radiological properties make iodine-129 relevant for the long-term safety assessment of final repositories. In addition, transmutation experiments on iodine-127/129 targets were performed using high-energy protons (145-2600 MeV). Due to the expected low cross sections (<100 mb), transmutation with protons

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Research in Neutron Spectra and Nuclear Waste Transmutation on Fast Subcritical Assembly with MOX Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, D. A.; Buttsev, V. S.; Chigrinov, S. E.; Kutuev, R. Kh.; Polanski, A.; Rakhno, I. L.; Sissakian, A.; Zulkarneev, R. Ya.; Zulkarneeva, Yu. R.

    2003-07-01

    The paper deals with theoretical and experimental investigation of transmutation rates for a number of long-lived fission products and minor actinides, as well as with neutron spectra formed in a subcritical assembly driven with the following monodirectional beams: 660-MeV protons and 14-MeV neutrons. In this work, the main objective is the comparison of neutron spectra in the MOX assembly for different external driving sources: a 660-MeV proton accelerator and a 14-MeV neutron generator. The SAD project (JINR, Russia) has being discussed. In the context of this project, a subcritical assembly consisting of a cylindrical lead target surrounded by a cylindrical MOX fuel layer will be constructed. Present conceptual design of the subcritical assembly is based on the core with a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to a multiplication coefficient, keff= 0.945, and an accelerator beam power of 0.5 kW. The results of theoretical investigations on the possibility of incinerating long-lived fission products and minor actinides in fast neutron spectrum and formation of neutron spectra with different hardness in subcritical systems based on the MOX subcritical assembly are discussed. Calculated neutron spectra emitted from a lead target irradiated by a 660-MeV protons are also presented.

  11. Parametric survey for benefit of partitioning and transmutation technology in terms of high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Kenji; Morita, Yasuji; Yokoo, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takao; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Benefit of implementing Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) technology was parametrically surveyed in terms of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal by discussing possible reduction of the geological repository area. First, the amount and characteristics of HLWs caused from UO 2 and MOX spent fuels of light-water reactors (LWR) were evaluated for various reprocessing schemes and cooling periods. The emplacement area in the repository site required for the disposal of these HLWs was then estimated with considering the temperature constrain in the repository. The results showed that, by recycling minor actinides (MA), the emplacement area could be reduced by 17-29% in the case of UO 2 -LWR and by 63-85% in the case of MOX-LWR in comparison with the conventional PUREX reprocessing. This significant impact in MOX fuel was caused by the recycle of 241 Am which was a long-term heat source. Further 70-80% reduction of the emplacement area in comparison with the MA-recovery case could be expected by partitioning the fission products (FP) into several groups for both fuel types. To achieve this benefit of P and T, however, it is necessary to confirm the engineering feasibility of these unconventional disposal concepts. (author)

  12. Preliminary investigation of actinide and xenon reactivity effects in accelerator transmutation of waste high-flux systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.R.; Henderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of an unstable positive reactivity growth in an accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW)-type high-flux system is investigated. While it has always been clear that xenon is an important actor in the reactivity response of a system to flux changes, it has been suggested that in very high thermal flux transuranic burning systems, a positive, unstable reactivity growth could be caused by the actinides alone. Initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change caused by the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or startup. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response caused by the actinides. The capabilities and applications of both the current actinide model and the xenon model are discussed. Finally, the need for a complete dynamic model for the high-flux fluid-fueled ATW system is addressed

  13. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  14. Determination of transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Hess, N.J.; Strachan, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    interpreted. The authors conclude that Cs and Ba K-edge EXAFS can be used successfully for materials where the structure is relatively simple and the material is well ordered. However, in materials with low atomic number backscatterers and low symmetry such as pollucite, it is not possible to determine the effects of 137 Cs beta decay and transmutation on the pollucite structure. However, one can reasonably hope to identify the presence of metallic Ba clusters or BaO, if either are the result of transmutation. To overcome the shortcomings with the high-energy EXAFS, they have explored the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to examine the local structure of the cesium in some laboratory-prepared pollucite. Small quantities, typical of what they expect to recover from the sealed capsules, proved to be sufficient material to obtain spectra with both magic-angle spinning and static NMR techniques (Figure 2). The chemical shift is expected to be sensitive to local structure and to disorder. They expect to prepare a sample from the 137 Cs pollucite when the authors open a capsule.'

  15. Proceedings of 14th international workshop on Asian network for accelerator-driven system and nuclear transmutation technology (ADS-NTT 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho

    2016-09-01

    The proceedings describe the current status on research and development (R and D) of accelerator-driven system (ADS) and nuclear transmutation techniques (NTT), including nuclear data, accelerator techniques, Pb-Bi target, fuel technologies and reactor physics, in East Asian countries: China, Korea and Japan. The proceedings also include all presentation materials presented in 'the 14th International Workshop on Asian Network for ADS and NTT (ADS-NTT2016)' held at Mito, Japan on 5th September, 2016. The objective of this workshop is to make actual progress of ADS R and D especially in East Asian countries, as well as in European countries, through sharing mutual interests and conducting the information exchange each other. The report is composed of these following items: Presentation materials: ADS-NTT 2016. (author)

  16. Proceedings of 12th international workshop on Asian network for accelerator-driven system and nuclear transmutation technology (ADS+NTT 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho

    2015-01-01

    The proceedings describe the current status on research and development (R and D) of accelerator-driven system (ADS) and nuclear transmutation techniques (NTT), including nuclear data, accelerator techniques, Pb-Bi target, fuel technologies and reactor physics, in East Asian countries: China, Japan and Korea. The proceedings also include all presentation materials presented in 'the 12th International Workshop on Asian Network for ADS and NTT (ADS+NTT 2014)' held at the Institute of Nuclear Energy and Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China on 15th and 16th December, 2014. The objective of this workshop is to make actual progress of ADS R and D especially in East Asian countries, as well as in European countries, through sharing mutual interests and conducting the information exchange each other. The report is composed of these following items: Presentation materials: ADS+NTT 2014. (author)

  17. Proceedings of 11th international workshop on Asian network for accelerator-driven system and nuclear transmutation technology (ADS+NTT 2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings describe the current status on research and development (R and D) of accelerator-driven system (ADS) and nuclear transmutation techniques (NTT), including nuclear data, accelerator techniques, Pb-Bi target, fuel technologies and reactor physics, in East Asian countries: Korea, China and Japan. The proceedings also include all presentation materials presented in 'the 11th International Workshop on Asian Network for ADS and NTT (ADS+NTT 2013)' held at the Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea on 12th and 13th December, 2013. The objective of this workshop is to make actual progress of ADS R and D especially in East Asian countries, as well as in European countries, through sharing mutual interests and conducting the information exchange each other. The report is composed of these following items: Presentation materials: ADS+NTT 2013. (author)

  18. Study of potential of nuclear waste transmutation and safety characteristics of an hybrid system: sub critical accelerator reactor; Etude du potentiel de transmutation et des caracteristiques de surete d`un systeme hybride: accelerateur reacteur sous critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchistiakov, A

    1998-04-01

    The study of potential of nuclear waste transmutation for the new reactor systems - hybrid reactors - was the object of this work. Global review of different projects is presented. The basic physical parameters definitions, as neutron surplus and relative importance of external source neutrons, are introduced and explained. For these parameters, numerical values are obtained. The advantage in neutron surplus of fast system is noted. Equilibrium model and corresponding toxicities of different isotopes nd nuclear cycles are presented. Numerical analysis for equilibrium model converge validation are performed also. The study of neutron consumption by `transmutable` Long-Lived Fission Products (Tc, I and Cs) show the possibility of their incineration in dedicated fast hybrid reactors. Equilibrium model shown the influence of reprocessing losses level to cycle toxicity level. Relations between specific fuel inventories (mass normalised by power unit) for thermal and fast spectra are examined. The differences are relatively small. Finally, few hybrid reactor concepts with different objects were analysed. These studies confirm that in frameworks of certain Nuclear Energy scenarios the fast hybrid systems can reduce significantly the radio-toxicity of fuel cycle. Preliminary analyses of sub-critical reactor behaviour show big potential of this reactor type in `Transient of Power` kind of accident, even if more detailed study is necessary. (author)

  19. Separation and transmutation. A picture of the applications in Sweden; Separation och transmutation. Belysning av tillaempning i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil; Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    This report contains a review of the transmutation technology and an elucidation of the consequences of the use of transmutation in Sweden. Transmutation has often been mentioned in the public debate as a way of rendering harmless the high-level waste from nuclear power such that the final disposal of the waste can be substantially simplified or even completely avoided. However, it can be noted that even with an exploitation of transmutation, significant amounts of radioactive waste requiring qualified final disposal will be generated. The transmutation technology will make it possible to reduce the longevity of the high-level waste by converting primarily the transuranic elements to fission products with shorter half lives. The long-term radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel is dominated by the transuranics. Hence, transmutation will lead to a substantial decrease of the long-term radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. The research on transmutation has been focussed on sub-critical so called ADS-reactors (Accelerator Driven System). In such a system protons are accelerated to very high energy levels (in the order of GeV) in an electromagnetic field. The accelerated protons are impacted on a spallation source consisting of heavy atoms, e.g. lead or a mixture of lead and bismuth. At the impact the heavy nuclei are spalled releasing a number of neutrons that can be used for fissioning the nuclei of the substances to be transmuted, primarily the transuranics. ADS-reactors are still at the research stage. It is a common view that it will take several decades before the technology has reached a maturity that allows the construction of a demonstration facility. Calculations performed at Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm show that using the ADS-technology would allow a reduction of the inventory of transuranics in the spent fuel from Swedish reactors by 50-85% within a 50-100 years period. The goal to transmute 99% of the transuranics inventory has been achieved in

  20. HYPERFUSE: a novel inertial confinement system utilizing hypervelocity projectiles for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs or 90 Sr. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n, 2n), (n, α), etc.) that convert the long lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product

  1. Hyper fuse: a novel inertial confinement system utilizing hypervelocity projectiles for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1979-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with a target in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs or 90 Sr. The 14 MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions [e.g., (n, 2n), (n, α), etc.] that convert the long lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product

  2. Performance Analysis of Waste Heat Driven Pressurized Adsorption Chiller

    KAUST Repository

    LOH, Wai Soong; SAHA, Bidyut Baran; CHAKRABORTY, Anutosh; NG, Kim Choon; CHUN, Won Gee

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the transient modeling and performance of waste heat driven pressurized adsorption chillers for refrigeration at subzero applications. This innovative adsorption chiller employs pitch-based activated carbon of type Maxsorb III

  3. sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I targets for studies of nuclear waste transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Ingelbrecht, C; Raptis, K; Altzitzoglou, T; Noguere, G

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear incineration of long-lived fission products and minor actinides is being investigated as an alternative means of reactor waste disposal. sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I is of particular interest because of its long half-life and high mobility in the environment. Lead iodide targets of sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I for neutron capture cross-section measurements were prepared from 210 l fuel reprocessing waste solution containing 1.3 g l sup - sup 1 iodine and other fission products. The iodine was separated by oxidation to I sub 2 and extraction into chloroform, reduction to iodide by sodium sulphite and re-extraction into an aqueous phase. Iodide was precipitated using lead nitrate and dried. The chemistry was carried out batch-wise using 400 ml starting solution each time and recycling the chloroform. An extraction efficiency of about 90%, determined by gamma-ray spectrometry, was achieved.

  4. Accelerator-based systems for plutonium destruction and nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerator-base systems are described that can eliminate long-lived nuclear materials. The impact of these systems on global issues relating to plutonium minimization and nuclear waste disposal can be significant. An overview of the components that comprise these systems is given, along with discussion of technology development status and needs. A technology development plan is presented with emphasis on first steps that would demonstrate technical performance

  5. A review of reprocessing, partitioning, and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and the implications for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The current status of the reprocessing, partitioning, and transmutation of used nuclear fuel are reviewed in the context of assessing the possible application of these technologies to used CANDU fuel. The status of commercial reprocessing is briefly surveyed and recent progress in world R and D programs on the transmutation of FP's and actinides using Accelerator Driven Systems is summarized. The implications of reprocessing for Canada are explored from the point of view of a long strategy for managing used CANDU fuel in terms of the costs of initiating reprocessing domestically at some time in the future including public and occupational radiation doses, and the wastes generated. (author)

  6. Vortex transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández

    2005-09-16

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials.

  7. Chemical separations schemes for partitioning and transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.

    2002-01-01

    In the initial phase of the U.S. Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program, a single-tier system was foreseen in which the transuranics and long-lived fission products (specifically, 99 Tc and 129 I) recovered from spent LWR oxide fuel would be sent directly to an accelerator-driven transmuter reactor [1]. Because the quantity of fuel to be processed annually was so large (almost 1,500 tons per year), an aqueous solvent extraction process was chosen for LWR fuel processing. Without the need to separate transuranics from one another for feed to the transmuter, it became appropriate to develop an advanced aqueous separations method that became known as UREX. The UREX process employs an added reagent (acetohydroxamic acid) that suppresses the extraction of plutonium and promotes the extraction of technetium together with uranium. Technetium can then be efficiently removed from the uranium; the recovered uranium, being highly decontaminated, can be disposed of as a low-level waste or stored in an unshielded facility for future use. Plutonium and the other transuranic elements, plus the remaining fission products, are directed to the liquid waste stream. This stream is calcined, converting the transuranics and fission products to their oxides. The resulting oxide powder, now representing only about four percent of the original mass of the spent fuel, is reduced to metallic form by means of a pyrometallurgical process. Subsequently, the transuranics are separated from the fission products in another pyro-metallurgical step involving molten salt electrorefining

  8. Synthesis and Properties of Metallic Technetium and Technetium-Zirconium Alloys as Transmutation Target and Radioactive waste storage form in the UREX+1 Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Thomas [Idaho State University/Idaho National Laboratory, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)]|[Harry Reid Center, University Nevada - Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R. [Harry Reid Center, University Nevada - Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In the application of UREX+1 process, technetium will be separated together with uranium and iodine within the first process step. After the separation of uranium, technetium and iodine must be immobilized by their incorporation in a suitable waste storage-form. Based on recent activities within the AFCI community, a potential candidate as waste storage form to immobilize technetium is to alloy the metal with excess zirconium. Alloys in the binary Tc-Zr system may act as potential transmutation targets in order to transmute Tc-99 into Ru-100. We are presenting first results in the synthesis of metallic technetium, and the synthesis of equilibrium phases in the binary Tc-Zr system at 1400 deg. C after arc-melting and isothermal annealing under inert conditions. Samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction, Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe micro-analysis, which allows us to construct the binary Tc-Zr phase diagram for the isothermal section at 1400 deg. C. (authors)

  9. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enarsson, Aa; Landgren, A; Liljenzin, J O; Skaalberg, M; Spjuth, L [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    1997-12-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. Refs, figs, tabs.

  10. Thermalhydraulic and material specific investigations into the realization of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) to transmute minor actinides. 1999 Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Cheng, X.; Mueller, G.; Schumacher, G.; Konys, J.; Wedemeyer, O.; Groetzbach, G.; Carteciano, L.

    2000-10-01

    At Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe an HGF Strategy Fund Project entitled ''Thermalhydraulic and Material Specific Investigations into the Realization of an accelerator-driven system (ADS) to Transmute Minor Actinides'' is performed which is funded by the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF) in the section ''Energy Research and Energy Technology'' over a time period from 07/1999 to 06/2002 with a financial support of 7.0 million DM (35 man years). The objective of this HGF Strategy Fund Project is the development of new methods and technologies to design and manufacture thin-walled thermally highly-loaded surfaces (e.g. beam window) which are cooled by a corrosive heavy liquid metal (lead-bismuth eutectic). The beam window is a vital component of an ADS spallation target. The results of this project will provide the scientific-technical basis which allows the conception and the design of an ADS spallation target and later on a European Demonstrator of an ADS system. The work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is embedded in a broad European research and development programme on ADS systems. (orig.)

  11. Vortex Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, Albert; Garcia-March, Miguel-Angel; Zacares, Mario; Monsoriu, Juan A.; Cordoba, Pedro Fernandez de

    2005-01-01

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a 'transmutation pass rule' determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials

  12. Multi-faceted evaluation for nuclear fuel cycles with transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    Environment impact, economy and proliferation resistance were estimated for nuclear fuel cycles involving transmutation by fast reactor and accelerator-driven system in equilibrium state. As a result, the transmutation scenario using only fast reactor was superior to the scenarios combined with accelerator-driven system in all estimation, but the differences were insignificant. (author)

  13. Experimental verification of neutron phenomenology in lead and transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing in accelerator driven systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, H; Del Moral, R; Lacoste, V; Vlachoudis, V; Aleixandre, J; Bueno, J; Cerro, E; González, O; Tamarit, J; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Brozzi, Delecurgo; Buono, S; Carminati, F; Casagrande, Federico; Cennini, P; Collar, J I; Dumps, Ludwig; Gelès, C; Goulas, I; Fernández, R; Kadi, Y; Klapisch, Robert; Oropesa, J; Placci, Alfredo; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rubbia, Carlo; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Saldaña, F; Embid, M; Gálvez, J; López, C; Pérez-Enciso, E; Poza, M; Sirvent, C; Vieira, S L; Abánades, A; García, J; Martínez-Val, J M; Perlado, M; González, E; Hussonnois, M; Le Naour, C; Trubert, D; Belle, E; Giorni, A; Heuer, R D; Loiseaux, J M; Méplan, O; Nifenecker, H; Schussler, F; Viano, J B; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Karaiskos, P; Sakelliou, L; Kokkas, P; Pavlopoulos, P; Eleftheriadis, C; Kitis, G; Papadopoulos, I M; Savvidis, E; Tzima, A; Zioutas, Konstantin; Díez, S; Pérez-Navarro, A

    1999-01-01

    Energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (from 2.5 and 3.57 GeV/c CERN proton beams) slowing down in a 3.3*3.3*3 m/sup 3/ lead volume and neutron capture rates on long-lived fission fragments /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I demonstrate that Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) can be used to eliminate efficiently such nuclear waste and validate innovative simulation. (17 refs).

  14. A code system for ADS transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolly, A.; Vertes, P.

    2001-01-01

    An accelerator driven reactor physical system can be divided into two different subsystems. One is the neutron source the other is the subcritical reactor. Similarly, the modelling of such system is also split into two parts. The first step is the determination of the spatial distribution and angle-energy spectrum of neutron source in the target region; the second one is the calculation of neutron flux which is responsible for the transmutation process in the subcritical system. Accelerators can make neutrons from high energy protons by spallation or photoneutrons from accelerated electrons by Bremsstrahlung (e-n converter). The Monte Carlo approach is the only way of modelling such processes and it might be extended to the whole subcritical system as well. However, a subcritical reactor may be large, it may contain thermal regions and the lifetime of neutrons may be long. Therefore a comprehensive Monte Carlo modelling of such system is a very time consuming computational process. It is unprofitable as well when applied to system optimization that requires a comparative study of large number of system variants. An appropriate method of deterministic transport calculation may adequately satisfy these requirements. Thus, we have built up a coupled calculational model for ADS to be used for transmutation of nuclear waste which we refer further as M-c-T system. Flow chart is shown in Figure. (author)

  15. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-01-01

    Studies have shown that the repository long-term radiological risk is from the long-lived transuranics and the fission products Tc-99 and I-129, thermal loading concerns arise mainly form the short-lived fission products Sr-90 and Cs-137. In relation to the disposition of nuclear waste, ATW is expected to accomplish the following: (1) destroy over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroy over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separate Sr and Cs (short half-life isotopes); (4) separate uranium; (5) produce electricity. In the ATW concept, spent fuel would be shipped to a ATW site where the plutonium, other transuranics and selected long-lived fission products would be destroyed by fission or transmutation in their only pass through the facility. This approach contrasts with the present-day reprocessing practices in Europe and Japan, during which high purity plutonium is produced and used in the fabrication of fresh mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) that is shipped off-site for use in light water reactors

  16. Reduction of the radio-toxicity of long-lived nuclear wastes. Theoretical and strategic studies of the transmutation of minor actinides and fission products in electronuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, Stephanie

    1995-01-01

    The first objective of this research thesis is to establish an assessment of the current situation regarding long-lived nuclear wastes: their identification, quantities produced in electronuclear reactors and during the fuel cycle, and their toxicity on the long term (until millions of years). The author then proposes a synthesis of possible solutions of management, particularly the solution based on separation and transmutation of these materials in electronuclear reactors, as well as of the consequences on the core and fuel cycle parameters. An application study is performed on an electronuclear fleet which, according to different scenarios, may comprise Pressurised Water Reactors and Fast Breeder Reactors, in order to assess the opportunities and constraints of such a solution, as well as expected benefits on assessments regarding materials, activity and radio-toxicity on the long term while taking present technologies into account [fr

  17. Transmutation of long-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.

    1994-01-01

    The time-accumulated dose related to technetium dominates the leakage doses in most scenarios for imperturbed geological disposal. If human intrusion into geologically stable repositories or other disturbances is taken into account, the actinides determine the maximum value of the expected individual dose rates of shorter storage times. Therefore actinides dominate the discussion on transmutation of nuclear waste. In principle current LWRs could be used for a massive transmutation of Tc and perhaps I. Fast reactors and HWRs have attractive potential with respect to transmutation in moderated assemblies. HWRs like CANDU have easy refuelling possibilities. (orig.)

  18. Determination of spatial and energy distributions of neutrons in experiments on transmutation of radioactive waste using relativistic protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, I.V.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Boulyga, S.F.; Kievitskaia, A.I.; Rakhno, I.L.; Chigrinov, S.E.; Bradnova, V.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Kulakov, B.A.; Brandt, R.; Ochs, M.; Wan, J.-S.

    1999-01-01

    The experiments on transmutation of 129 I and 237 Np using uranium-lead targets surrounded by a paraffin moderator were performed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Russia). The targets were irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 7.4 GeV protons at the Synchrophasotron of JINR. In the frame of present work spatial and energy distributions of neutrons on the surface of the paraffin moderator were measured using SSNTD technique. It is shown that measured values of spectral indices do not depend on the energy of incident protons but depend on the target composition. The presence of the uranium insertion softens neutron spectra

  19. Development of nuclear transmutation technology for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko

    1996-01-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P-T) of long-lived radioactive nuclides is conceived as the technology to improve the high-level radioactive waste management. This report discusses the incentives of P-T, generation of long-lived nuclides in fission reactors, nuclear transmutation technologies, R and D activities of the partitioning and transmutation technology development programs at JAERI and in the world. (author)

  20. Determination of spatial and energy distributions of neutrons in experiments on transmutation of radioactive waste using relativistic protons

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuk, I V; Boulyga, S F; Kievitskaia, A I; Rakhno, I L; Chigrinov, S E; Bradnova, V; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Brandt, R; Ochs, M; Wan, J S

    1999-01-01

    The experiments on transmutation of sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I and sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np using uranium-lead targets surrounded by a paraffin moderator were performed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Russia). The targets were irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 7.4 GeV protons at the Synchrophasotron of JINR. In the frame of present work spatial and energy distributions of neutrons on the surface of the paraffin moderator were measured using SSNTD technique. It is shown that measured values of spectral indices do not depend on the energy of incident protons but depend on the target composition. The presence of the uranium insertion softens neutron spectra.

  1. Determination of spatial and energy distributions of neutrons in experiments on transmutation of radioactive waste using relativistic protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuk, I.V.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Boulyga, S.F.; Kievitskaia, A.I.; Rakhno, I.L.; Chigrinov, S.E.; Bradnova, V.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Kulakov, B.A.; Brandt, R.; Ochs, M.; Wan, J.-S

    1999-06-01

    The experiments on transmutation of {sup 129}I and {sup 237}Np using uranium-lead targets surrounded by a paraffin moderator were performed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Russia). The targets were irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 7.4 GeV protons at the Synchrophasotron of JINR. In the frame of present work spatial and energy distributions of neutrons on the surface of the paraffin moderator were measured using SSNTD technique. It is shown that measured values of spectral indices do not depend on the energy of incident protons but depend on the target composition. The presence of the uranium insertion softens neutron spectra.

  2. Impacts of new developments in partitioning and transmutation on the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.; Jor-Shan Choi; Halsey, W.; Pasternak, A.; Cotton, T.; Burns, J.; McCabe, A.; Colglazier, W.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1992-03-01

    During the 1970s, the United States and other countries thoroughly evaluated the options for the safe and final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The worldwide scientific community concluded that deep geologic disposal was clearly the most technically feasible alternative. They also ranked the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of radionuclides among the least favored options. A 1982 report by the International Atomic Energy Agency summarized the key reasons for that ranking: ''Since the long-term hazards are already low, there is little incentive to reduce them further by P-T. Indeed the incremental costs of introducing P-T appear to be unduly high in relation to the prospective benefits.'' Recently, the delays encountered by the US geologic disposal program for HLW, along with advanced in the development of P-T concepts, have led some to propose P-T as a means of reducing the long-term risks from the radioactive wastes that require disposal and thus making it easier to site, license, and build a geologic repository. This study examines and evaluates the effects that introducing P-T would have on the US geologic disposal program

  3. Physics and safety of transmutation systems. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The safe and efficient management of spent fuel from the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is an important issue. Worldwide, more than 250 000 tons of spent fuel from currently operating reactors will require disposal. These numbers account for only high-level radioactive waste generated by present-day power reactors. Nearly all issues related to risks to future generations arising from the long-term disposal of such spent nuclear fuel is attributable to only about 1% of its content. This 1% is made up primarily of plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium (called transuranic elements) and the long-lived isotopes of iodine and technetium.When transuranics are removed from discharged fuel destined for disposal, the toxic nature of the spent fuel drops below that of natural uranium ore (that which was originally mined for the nuclear fuel) within a period of several hundred to a thousand years. This significantly reduces the burden on geological repositories and the problem of addressing the remaining long-term residues can thus de done in controlled environments having timescales of centuries rather than millennia stretching beyond 10 000 years. Transmutation is one of the means being explored to address the disposal of transuranic elements. To achieve this, advanced reactors systems, appropriate fuels, separation techniques and associated fuel cycle strategies are required. This status report begins by providing a clear definition of partitioning and transmutation (P and T), and then describes the state of the art concerning the challenges facing the implementation of P and T, scenario studies and specific issues related to accelerator-driven systems (ADS) dynamics and safety, long-lived fission product transmutation and the impact of nuclear data uncertainty on transmutation system design. The report will be of particular interest to nuclear scientists working on P and T issues as well as advanced fuel cycles in general. (author)

  4. Study of nuclear energy systems and double strata scenarios for minor actinides transmutation in ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    The French law of 28 June 2006 regarding advanced nuclear waste management requires a scientific assessment to define future industrial strategies. The present PhD thesis was carried in this framework and concerns specifically the research axis of minor actinides transmutation. A high power Accelerator Driven System (ADS) concept is developed at SUBATECH for this purpose. A 1 GeV proton beam feeds three liquid lead-bismuth spallation targets. The Multiple Spallation Target (MUST) ADS reaches the thermal powers up to 1 GW with a high specific power. A nuclear reactor dimensioning method has been developed and applied to different double strata scenarios. In these scenarios, SFR (Sodium Fast Reactors) or PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors) power reactors produce minor actinides that will be transmuted into ADS. In each core (SFR and ADS), the plutonium multi-reprocessing strategy is performed while ADS subcritical core also multi-reprocesses minor actinides. To limit the core reactivity and improve the fuel thermal conductivity, the minor actinides fuel is mixed with MgO inert matrix. Nuclear branches with lead and sodium coolants for the ADS, have been studied for different irradiation times and two transmutation strategies have been assessed: whether whole minor actinides, whether americium only is transmuted. The thesis presents precisely the MUST ADS design methodology and the calculations to get a fuel composition at equilibrium. Then a one cycle evolution is performed and analysed for the fuel and the multiplication factor. Radiotoxicity and thermal power of the waste produced are then compared. Finally, the study of double strata scenarios is performed to analyse the plutonium and minor actinides inventories in cycle and also the waste produced according to the transmutation strategies applied and the first stratum evolution. (author)

  5. Introduction of fusion driven subcritical system plasma design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Wu

    2003-01-01

    Fusion driven subcritical nuclear system (FDS) is a multifunctional hybrid reactor, which could breed nuclear fuel, transmute long-lived wastes, producing tritium and so on. This paper presents an introduction of FDS plasma design. Several different advance equilibrium configurations have been proposed and a 1.5-D discharge simulation of FDS was also present

  6. A Study on the Kinetic Characteristics of Transmutation Process Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Doh Hyung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the transient heat transfer characteristics of liquid mental as the coolant used in accelerator-driven transmutation process reactor which is related the disposal of high-level radioactive nuclide. At current stage, the accelerator-driven transmutation process is investigated as the most appropriate method among many transmutation process methods. In this study, previous research works are investigated especially about the thermal hydraulics and kinetic behavior of coolant material including heat transfer of coolant in transmutation process reactor. A study on the heat transfer characteristics of liquid metal is performed based on the thermal hydraulic kinetic characteristics of liquid metal reactor which uses liquid metal coolant. Based on this study, the most appropriate material for the coolant of transmutation reactor will be recommended. 53 refs., 15 tabs., 33 figs. (author)

  7. Actinide partitioning and transmutation program progress report, October 1, 1976--March 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Tedder, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental work on the 16 tasks comprising the Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation Program was initiated at the various sites. This work included the development of conceptual material balance flowsheets which define integrated waste systems supporting an LWR fuel reprocessing plant and a mixed (U-Pu) oxide fuel refabrication plant. In addition, waste subsystems were defined for experimental evaluation. Computer analysis of partitioning-transmutation, utilizing an LMFBR for transmutation, was completed for both constant and variable waste actinide generation rates

  8. Analysis of the transmutational characteristics of a novel molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gy.; Feher, S.; Szieberth, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the arguments most frequently brought up by the opponents of the utilization of nuclear energy is the requirement that the radioactive waste and the long-lived radioisotopes accumulated in the spent fuel should be isolated for a very long time from the biosphere. The solution is the elimination of long-lived actinides (plutonium isotopes and minor actinides) and long-lived fission products by transforming (transmuting) them into short-lived or stable nuclei. The high neutron flux required for transmutation can be realized in nuclear installations. these may be conventional therma; and fast reactors, furthermore dedicated devices, namely thermal and fast reactors and accelerator driven subcritical systems (ADSs), which are specifically designed for this purpose. Some of the most promising systems are the molten salt reactors and subcritical systems, in which the fuel and material to be transmuted circulate dissolved in some molten salt. In the present paper this transmutational device, as well as recommendations for the improvement are discussed in detail (Authors)

  9. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Gustavsson, C.; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2000-05-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. During 1999 two of the three PhD students in this project have finalised their dissertations. Lena Spjuth has been working with oligo pyridines, triazines and malonamides; Anders Landgren has studied Aliquat-336 and redox kinetics. Two papers, included as appendices in the report, have been separately indexed.

  10. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Gustavsson, C.; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Spjuth, L.

    2000-05-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. During 1999 two of the three PhD students in this project have finalised their dissertations. Lena Spjuth has been working with oligo pyridines, triazines and malonamides; Anders Landgren has studied Aliquat-336 and redox kinetics. Two papers, included as appendices in the report, have been separately indexed

  11. A repository released-dose model for the evaluation of long-lived fission product transmutation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology has been developed to quantify the total integrated dose due to a radionuclide species i emplaced in a geologic repository; the focus is on the seven long-lived fission products (LLFPs). The methodology assumes continuous exposure water contaminated with species i at the accessible environment (i.e., just beyond the geologic barrier afforded by the geologic repository). The dose integration is performed out to a reference post-release time. The integrated dose is a function of the total initial inventory of radionuclide i the repository, the time at which complete and instantaneous failure of the engineered barrier (e.g., waste canister) in, a geologic repository occurs, the fractional dissolution rate (from waste solid form) of radionuclide i in ground water, the ground water travel time to the accessible environment, the retardation factor (sorption on the geologic media) for radionuclide i, the time after radionuclide begins to enter the biosphere. In order to assess relative dose, the ratio of total integrated dose to that for a reference LLFP species j (e.g., 99 Tc) was defined. This ratio is a measure of the relative benefit of transmutation of other LLFPs compared to 99 Tc. This methodology was further developed in order to quantify the integrated dose reduction per neutron utilized for LLFP transmutation in accelerator-driven transmutation technologies (ADTT). This measure of effectiveness is a function of the integrated dose due to LLFP species i, the number of total captures in LLFP species i chain per LLFP nuclide fed to the chain at equilibrium, and the number of total captures in related transmutation product (TP) chains per capture in the LLFP species i chain. To assess relative transmutation effectiveness, the ratio of integrated dose reduction per neutron utilization to that for a reference LLFP species j (e.g., 99 Tc) was defined. This relative measure of effectiveness was evaluated LLFP transmutation strategy

  12. Performance Analysis of Waste Heat Driven Pressurized Adsorption Chiller

    KAUST Repository

    LOH, Wai Soong

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the transient modeling and performance of waste heat driven pressurized adsorption chillers for refrigeration at subzero applications. This innovative adsorption chiller employs pitch-based activated carbon of type Maxsorb III (adsorbent) with refrigerant R134a as the adsorbent-adsorbate pair. It consists of an evaporator, a condenser and two adsorber/desorber beds, and it utilizes a low-grade heat source to power the batch-operated cycle. The ranges of heat source temperatures are between 55 to 90°C whilst the cooling water temperature needed to reject heat is at 30°C. A parametric analysis is presented in the study where the effects of inlet temperature, adsorption/desorption cycle time and switching time on the system performance are reported in terms of cooling capacity and coefficient of performance. © 2010 by JSME.

  13. TRANSMUTED EXPONENTIATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    MEROVCI, FATON

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we generalize the exponentiated exponential distribution using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw etal. [6] to develop a transmuted exponentiated exponential distribution. Theproperties of this distribution are derived and the estimation of the model parameters is discussed. An application to real data set are finally presented forillustration

  14. Recycling and transmutation of spent fuel as a sustainable option for the nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, Jose R.; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the option of recycling and transmutation of radioactive waste against Once-through Fuel Cycle (OTC) based on uranium feed under the perspective of sustainability. We use a qualitative analysis to compare OTC with closed fuel cycles based on studies already performed such as the Red Impact Project and the comparative study on accelerator driven systems and fast reactors for advanced fuel cycles performed by the Nuclear Energy Agency. The results show that recycling and transmutation fuel cycles are more attractive than the OTC from the point of view of sustainability. The main conclusion is that the decision about the construction of a deep geological repository for spent fuel disposal must be reevaluated. (author)

  15. Long lived nuclear waste transmutation: context and trends; L`incineration des dechets nucleaires a vie longue, contexte et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prunier, C; Pacton, L

    1994-12-31

    After a recall of the actual strategy, in France, for the radioactive wastes, we give an overview of the programs CAPRA and SPIN (Separation-Incineration) for separate the minors actinides (Am,Np,..) and then to reduce the radiological risk create by these products by incineration in a LMFBR. 13 figs, 1 annexe.

  16. Heterogeneous fuels for minor actinides transmutation: Fuel performance codes predictions in the EFIT case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, R., E-mail: rolando.calabrese@enea.i [ENEA, Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle Closure Division, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Vettraino, F.; Artioli, C. [ENEA, Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle Closure Division, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Sobolev, V. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Thetford, R. [Serco Technical and Assurance Services, 150 Harwell Business Centre, Didcot OX11 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Plutonium recycling in new-generation fast reactors coupled with minor actinides (MA) transmutation in dedicated nuclear systems could achieve a decrease of nuclear waste long-term radiotoxicity by two orders of magnitude in comparison with current once-through strategy. In a double-strata scenario, purpose-built accelerator-driven systems (ADS) could transmute minor actinides. The innovative nuclear fuel conceived for such systems demands significant R and D efforts in order to meet the safety and technical performance of current fuel systems. The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EUROpean research programme for the TRANSmutation of high level nuclear waste in ADS), part of the EURATOM Framework Programme 6 (FP6), undertook some of this research. EUROTRANS developed from the FP5 research programmes on ADS (PDS-XADS) and on fuels dedicated to MA transmutation (FUTURE, CONFIRM). One of its main objectives is the conceptual design of a small sub-critical nuclear system loaded with uranium-free fuel to provide high MA transmutation efficiency. These principles guided the design of EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) in the domain DESIGN of IP EUROTRANS. The domain AFTRA (Advanced Fuels for TRAnsmutation system) identified two composite fuel systems: a ceramic-ceramic (CERCER) where fuel particles are dispersed in a magnesia matrix, and a ceramic-metallic (CERMET) with a molybdenum matrix in the place of MgO matrix to host a ceramic fissile phase. The EFIT fuel is composed of plutonium and MA oxides in solid solution with isotopic vectors typical of LWR spent fuel with 45 MWd/kg{sub HM} discharge burnup and 30 years interim storage before reprocessing. This paper is focused on the thermomechanical state of the hottest fuel pins of two EFIT cores of 400 MW{sub (th)} loaded with either CERCER or CERMET fuels. For calculations three fuel performance codes were used: FEMALE, TRAFIC and TRANSURANUS. The analysis was performed at the beginning of fuel life

  17. Transmutation Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, T. Y.; Park, W. S.; Kim, Y. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The spent fuel coming from the PWR is one of the most difficult problems to be solved for the continuous use of nuclear power. It takes a few million years to be safe under the ground. Therefore, it is not easy to take care of the spent fuel for such a long time. Transmutation technology is the key technology which can solve the spent fuel problem basically. Transmutation is to transmute long-lived radioactive nuclides in the spent fuel into short-lived or stable nuclide through nuclear reactions. The long-lived radioactive nuclides can be TRU and fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129. Although the transmutation technology does not make the underground disposal totally unnecessary, the period to take care of the spent fuel can be reduced to the order of a few hundred years. In addition to the environmental benefit, transmutation can be considered to recycle the energy in the spent fuel since the transmutation is performed through nuclear fission reaction of the TRU in the spent fuel. Therefore, transmutation technology is worth being developed in economical aspect. The results of this work can be a basis for the next stage research. The objective of the third stage research was to complete the core conceptual design and verification of the key technologies. The final results will contribute to the establishment of Korean back end fuel cycle policy by providing technical guidelines.

  18. Hybrid systems for transuranic waste transmutation in nuclear power reactors: state of the art and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, D. V.; Prikhod'ko, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The features of subcritical hybrid systems (HSs) are discussed in the context of burning up transuranic wastes from the U-Pu nuclear fuel cycle. The advantages of HSs over conventional atomic reactors are considered, and fuel cycle closure alternatives using HSs and fast neutron reactors are comparatively evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of two HS types with neutron sources (NSs) of widely different natures -- nuclear spallation in a heavy target by protons and nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasma -- are discussed in detail. The strengths and weaknesses of HSs are examined, and demand for them for closing the U-Pu nuclear fuel cycle is assessed.

  19. Minor actinides transmutation potential: state of art for GEN IV sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiron, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the R and D program relative to the 1991 French act on nuclear waste management, fast neutron systems have shown relevant characteristics that meet both requirements on sustainable resources management and waste minimization. They also offer flexibility by mean of burner or breeder configurations allowing mastering plutonium inventory without significant impact on core safety. From the technological point of view, sodium cooled fast reactor are considered in order to achieve mean term industrial deployment. The present document summaries the main results of R and D program on minor actinides transmutation in sodium fast reactor since 2006 following recommendation of the first part of the 1991 French act. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous management achievable performances are presented for 'evolutionary' SFR V2B core as well as low void worth CFV core for industrial scale configurations (1500 MWe). Minor actinides transmutation could be demonstrated in the ASTRID reactor with the following configurations: - a 2%vol Americium content for the homogeneous mode, - a 10%vol Americium content for the heterogeneous mode, without any substantial modification of the main core safety parameters and only limited impacts on the associated fuel cycle (manufacturing issues are not considered here). In order to achieve such goal, a wide range of experimental irradiations driven by transmutation scenarios have to be performed for both homogeneous and heterogeneous minor actinides management. (author) [fr

  20. Transmutation of fission products with the use of an accelarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, T.; Harada, H.; Takahashi, T.

    1995-01-01

    The three transmutation methods with the use of an accelerator, the proton method, the spallation neutron method and the μCF method, are employed for the transmutation of long-lived nuclides in high level radioactive wastes. The transmutation energies and the effective half-lives of 99 Tc and 137 Cs for these transmutation methods are calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation codes for particle transport. The transmutation energies of the proton method are larger than those of the spallation neutron method and the μCF method under the condition of the same effective half life. The proton method is difficult to meet energy balance criterion. On the other hand, the spallation neutron method and the μCF method have possibility to meet the energy balance criterion. (author)

  1. Development and application of new parameters for TRU transmutation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chi Young

    2005-02-01

    Four new parameters (incineration branching ratio, incineration rate, incineration time, and incineration buckling) have been developed to evaluate quantitatively the TRU transmutation effectiveness and applied to transmutation of uranium and TRU. From the incineration branching ratio, it is possible to analyze the main contributors to fission reaction for transmutation of a target nuclide. From the incineration rate, it is available to evaluate the transmutation effectiveness in the viewpoint of a relative incineration rate to incineration potential of a target nuclide and its family. This parameter is also used to calculate the incineration time and incineration buckling together with the incineration branching ratio. The incineration time makes it possible to discuss more practically the transmutation speed instead of the existing other parameters. The incineration buckling can be used to evaluate the time behavior of the incineration rate and also employed to support the results from the incineration time. Taking into account the transmutation effectiveness and potential of uranium and TRU derived by using the parameters and an existing neutron economy parameter, it was noted that the thermal neutron energy is very preferable from the transmutation effectiveness point of view, on the other hand the fast neutron energy is effective from the transmutation potential. Applying them to the typical critical and subcritical TRU burners, it is indicated that the critical reactor containing fertile uranium undergoes effectively the selective TRU transmutation on the present fast spectrum. It was also noted that the uranium-free subcritical reactor could be operated effectively on a little softer spectrum due to the larger neutron excess in the present spectrum. It is expected that the new parameters developed in this study and the results are directly applicable to practical transmutation reactor design, in particular accelerator-driven transmutation reactor

  2. Overview of EU research activities in transmutation and innovative reactor systems within the Euratom framework programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, V.

    2009-01-01

    European Community (EC) (currently 27 Member States) shared-cost research has been organised in Framework Programmes (FP) of durations of 4 - 5 years since 1984. The 6th European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) Framework Programme (2002 - 06) and the current 7th FP (2007 - 11) have been allocated a fission research budget respectively of 209 and 287 Million Euro from the EC. There are 10 projects (total budget 70 M Euro, EC contribution 38 M Euro) in all aspects of transmutation ranging from road-mapping exercise to large integrated projects on accelerator driven systems, lead-cooled fast critical systems for waste transmutation, technology, fuel, accelerator facilities for nuclear data etc. In Innovative Reactor concepts, there are about half-a-dozen projects (total budget 30 M Euro, EC contribution 16 M Euro) including High Temperature Reactors, Gas-cooled Fast reactors, road-mapping exercise on sodium fast reactors etc. The main research and training activities in FP7 are: management of radioactive waste, reactor systems, radiation protection, infrastructures, human resources and mobility and training. In the two call for proposals (2007 and 2008) in FP7, 8 projects have been accepted in transmutation and innovative reactor concepts (total budget 53 M Euro, EC contribution 32 M Euro). These research projects cover activities ranging from materials, fuels, treatment of irradiated graphite waste, European sodium fast reactor to the establishment of a Central Design Team of a fast-spectrum transmutation device in Europe. The third call for proposals is underway requesting proposals on nuclear data, thermal hydraulics, gas and lead-cooled fast reactor systems with a total EC budget of 20 M Euro. International collaboration is an important element of the EU research policy. This overview paper will present elements of the strategy of EURATOM research and training in waste management including accelerator driven transmutation systems and Innovative reactor concepts

  3. International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Development of Computational Models for Pyrochemical Electrorefiners of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, M.F.; Kim, K.-R.

    2010-01-01

    In support of closing the nuclear fuel cycle using non-aqueous separations technology, this project aims to develop computational models of electrorefiners based on fundamental chemical and physical processes. Spent driver fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is currently being electrorefined in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). And Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing electrorefining technology for future application to spent fuel treatment and management in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Electrorefining is a critical component of pyroprocessing, a non-aqueous chemical process which separates spent fuel into four streams: (1) uranium metal, (2) U/TRU metal, (3) metallic high-level waste containing cladding hulls and noble metal fission products, and (4) ceramic high-level waste containing sodium and active metal fission products. Having rigorous yet flexible electrorefiner models will facilitate process optimization and assist in trouble-shooting as necessary. To attain such models, INL/UI has focused on approaches to develop a computationally-light and portable two-dimensional (2D) model, while KAERI/SNU has investigated approaches to develop a computationally intensive three-dimensional (3D) model for detailed and fine-tuned simulation.

  4. Conceptual design of the fusion-driven subcritical system FDS-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Zheng, S.; Zhu, X.; Wang, W.; Wang, H.; Liu, S.; Bai, Y.; Chen, H.; Hu, L.; Chen, M.; Huang, Q.; Huang, D.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Chu, D.; Jiang, J.; Song, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The fusion-driven subcritical system (named FDS-I) was previously proposed as an intermediate step toward the final application of fusion energy. A conceptual design of the FDS-I is presented, which consists of the fusion neutron driver with relatively easy-achieved plasma parameters, and the He-gas/liquid lithium-lead Dual-cooled subcritical Waste Transmutation (DWT) blanket used to transmute long-lived radioactive wastes and to generate energy on the basis of self-sustainable fission and fusion fuel cycle. An overview of the FDS-I is given and the specifications of the design analysis are summarized

  5. Flexibility of ADS for minor actinides transmutation in different two-stage PWR-ADS fuel cycle scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shengcheng; Wu, Hongchun; Zheng, Youqi

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •ADS reloading scheme is optimized to raise discharge burnup and lower reactivity loss. •ADS is flexible to be combined with various pyro-chemical reprocessing technologies. •ADS is flexible to transmute MAs from different spent PWR fuels. -- Abstract: A two-stage Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)-Accelerator Driven System (ADS) fuel cycle is proposed as an option to transmute minor actinides (MAs) recovered from the spent PWR fuels in the ADS system. At the second stage, the spent fuels discharged from ADS are reprocessed by the pyro-chemical process and the recovered actinides are mixed with the top-up MAs recovered from the spent PWR fuels to fabricate the new fuels used in ADS. In order to lower the amount of nuclear wastes sent to the geological repository, an optimized scattered reloading scheme for ADS is proposed to maximize the discharge burnup and lower the burnup reactivity loss. Then the flexibility of ADS for MA transmutation is evaluated in this research. Three aspects are discussed, including: different cooling time of spent ADS fuels before reprocessing, different reprocessing loss of spent ADS fuels, and different top-up MAs recovered from different kinds of spent PWR fuels. The ADS system is flexible to be combined with various pyro-chemical reprocessing technologies with specific spent fuels cooling time and unique reprocessing loss. The reduction magnitudes of the long-term decay heat and radiotoxicity of MAs by transmutation depend on the reprocessing loss. The ADS system is flexible to transmute MAs recovered from different kinds of spent PWR fuels, regardless of UOX or MOX fuels. The reduction magnitudes of the long-term decay heat and radiotoxicity of different MAs by transmutation stay on the same order.

  6. Transmutation of Minor Actinide in well thermalized neutron field and application of advanced neutron source (ANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Hirakawa, Naohiro

    1995-01-01

    Transmutation of Minor Actinide (MA) in a well thermalized neutron field was studied. Since MA nuclides have large effective cross sections in the well thermalized neutron field, the transmutation in the well thermalized neutron field has an advantage of high transmutation rate. However, the transmutation rate largely decreases by accumulation of 246 Cm when MA is transmuted only in the well thermalized neutron field for a long period. An acceleration method of burn-up of 246 Cm was studied. High transmutation rate can be obtained by providing a neutron field with high flux in the energy region between 1 and 100 eV. Two stage transmutation using the well thermalized neutron field and this field can transmute MA rapidly. The applicability of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) to the transmutation of MA was examined for a typical MA with the composition in the high-level waste generated in the conventional PWR. If the ANS is applied without changing the fuel inventory, the amount of MA which corresponds to that produced by a conventional 1,175 MWe PWR in one year can be transmuted by the ANS in one year. Furthermore, the amount of the residual can be reduced to about 1g (10 -5 of the initial MA weight) by continuing the transmutation for 5 years owing to the two stage transmutation. (author)

  7. Gamma ray beam transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, K.; Li, D.; Miyamoto, S.; Amano, S.; Motizuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a new approach to nuclear transmutation by a gamma ray beam of Compton scattered laser photon. We obtained 20 MeV gamma ray in this way to obtain transmutation rates with the giant resonance of 1 97Au and 1 29Iodine. The rate of the transmutation agreed with the theoretical calculation. Experiments on energy spectrum of positron, electron and neutron from targets were performed for the energy balance and design of the system scheme. The reaction rate was about 1.5∼4% for appropriate photon energies and neutron production rate was up to 4% in the measurements. We had stored laser photon more than 5000 times in a small cavity which implied for a significant improvement of system efficiency. Using these technologies, we have designed an actual transmutation system for 1 29Iodine which has a 16 million year's activity. In my presentation, I will address the properties of this scheme, experiments results and transmutation system for iodine transmutation

  8. Transmutation potential of reactor WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.; Sebian, V.; Necas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical evaluation of WWER-440 transmutation potential by HELIOS - code is presented. Transmutation method proposal comprising special transmutation pins, combined FA and simple reprocessing is described. Transmutation efficiency of the method is characterized (Authors)

  9. Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) have now been established worldwide and, as a result, many countries are pursuing R and D programmes to advance the technologies associated with P and T. In this context, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has organised a series of biennial information exchange meetings to provide experts with a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the field of partitioning and transmutation since 1990. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Information Exchange Meeting on Actinides and Fission Products Partitioning and Transmutation is a forum for experts to present and discuss the state-of-the-art development in the field of P and T. Thirteen meetings have been organised so far and held in Japan, the United States, France, Belgium, Spain, the Republic of Korea and the Czech Republic. This 13. meeting was hosted by Seoul National University (Seoul, Republic of Korea) and was organised in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Community (EC). The meeting covered strategic and scientific developments in the field of P and T such as: fuel cycle strategies and transition scenarios, the role of P and T in the potential evolution of nuclear energy as part of the future energy mix; radioactive waste management strategies; transmutation fuels and targets; advances in pyro and aqueous separation processes; P and T specific technology requirements (materials, spallation targets, coolants, etc.); transmutation systems: design, performance and safety; impact of P and T on the fuel cycle; fabrication, handling and transportation of transmutation fuels. A total of 103 presentations (39 oral and 64 posters) were discussed among the 110 participants from 19 countries and 2 international organisations. The meeting consisted of one plenary session where national and international programmes were presented followed by 5 technical sessions: - Fuel Cycle Strategies and Transition

  10. Status report on actinide and fission product transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today's political and public discussions on nuclear energy. One of the fields that looks into the future possibilities of nuclear technology is the neutronic transmutation of actinides and of some most important fission products. Studies on transmutation of actinides are carried out in various countries and at an international level. This status report which gives an up-to-date general overview of current and planned research on transmutation of actinides and fission products in non-OECD countries, has been prepared by a Technical Committee meeting organized by the IAEA in September 1995. 168 refs, 16 figs, 34 tabs

  11. Transmutation of actinide 237Np with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Huang, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of fusion reactors to transmute fission reactor wastes to stable species is an attractive concept. In this paper, the feasibility of transmutation of the long-lived actinide radioactive waste Np-237 with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor has been investigated. A new waste management concept of burning HLW (High Level Waste), utilizing released energy and converting Np-237 into fissile fuel Pu-239 through transmutation has been adopted. The detailed neutronics and depletion calculation of waste inventories was carried out with a modified version of one-dimensional neutron transport and burnup calculation code system BISON1.5 in this study. The transmutation rate of Np with relationship to neutron wall loading, Pu and Np with relationship to neutron wall load, Pu and Np concentration in the transmutation zone have been explored as well as relevant results are also given

  12. Study on a waste heat-driven adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the performance analysis of a waste heat-driven adsorption cycle. With the implementation of adsorption-desorption phenomena, the cycle simultaneously produces cooling energy and high-grade potable water. A mathematical model

  13. Use of fast reactors for actinide transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today's discussions on nuclear energy, especially the long term disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The recycling of plutonium in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) would allow 'burning' of the associated extremely long life transuranic waste, particularly actinides, thus reducing the required isolation time for high level waste from tens of thousands of years to hundreds of years for fission products only. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) decided to include the topic of actinide transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors in its programme. The IAEA organized the Specialists Meeting on Use of Fast Breeder Reactors for Actinide Transmutation in Obninsk, Russian Federation, from 22 to 24 September 1992. The specialists agree that future progress in solving transmutation problems could be achieved by improvements in: Radiochemical partitioning and extraction of the actinides from the spent fuel (at least 98% for Np and Cm and 99.9% for Pu and Am isotopes); technological research and development on the design, fabrication and irradiation of the minor actinides (MAs) containing fuels; nuclear constants measurement and evaluation (selective cross-sections, fission fragments yields, delayed neutron parameters) especially for MA burners; demonstration of the feasibility of the safe and economic MA burner cores; knowledge of the impact of maximum tolerable amount of rare earths in americium containing fuels. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. EC-FP7 ARCAS: technical and economical comparison of Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems for transmutation of Minor Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Eynde, G.; Romanello, V.; Heek, A. van; Martin-Fuertes, F.; Zimmerman, C.; Lewin, B.

    2015-01-01

    The ARCAS project aims to compare, on a technological and economical basis, Accelerator Driven Systems and Fast Reactors as Minor Actinide burners. It is split in five work packages: the reference scenario definition, the fast reactor system definition, the accelerator driven system definition, the fuel reprocessing and fabrication facilities definition and the economical comparison. This paper summarizes the status of the project and its five work packages. (author)

  15. Transmutation of minor actinides in a spherical torus tokamak fusion reactor, FDTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Zhang, G.S.; Deng, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a concept for the transmutation of minor actinide (MA) nuclear wastes based on a spherical torus (ST) tokamak reactor, FDTR, is put forward. A set of plasma parameters suitable for the transmutation blanket was chosen. The 2-D neutron transport code TWODANT, the 3-D Monte Carlo code MCNP/4B, the 1-D neutron transport and burn-up calculation code BISON3.0 and their associated data libraries were used to calculate the transmutation rate, the energy multiplication factor and the tritium breeding ratio of the transmutation blanket. The calculation results for the system parameters and the actinide series isotopes for different operation times are presented. The engineering feasibility of the center-post (CP) of FDTR has been investigated and the results are also given. A preliminary neutronics calculation based on an ST transmutation blanket shows that the proposed system has a high transmutation capability for MA wastes. (author)

  16. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products

  17. Sensitivity to Nuclear Data and Neutron Source Type in Calculations of Transmutation Capabilities of the Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlfors, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    This text is a summary of two studies the author has performed within the field of 3-D Monte Carlo calculations of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste. The simulations were carried out with the state-of-the-art computer code package EA-MC, developed by C. Rubbia and his group at CERN. The concept studied is ANSALDOs 80 MWth Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility based on classical MOX-fuel technology and on molten Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooling. A review of neutron cross section sensitivity in numerical calculations of an ADS and a comparative assessment relevant to the transmutation efficiency of plutonium and minor actinides in fusion/fission hybrids and ADS are presented

  18. Sensitivity to Nuclear Data and Neutron Source Type in Calculations of Transmutation Capabilities of the Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlfors, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    This text is a summary of two studies the author has performed within the field of 3-D Monte Carlo calculations of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste. The simulations were carried out with the state-of-the-art computer code package EA-MC, developed by C. Rubbia and his group at CERN. The concept studied is ANSALDOs 80 MWth Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility based on classical MOX-fuel technology and on molten Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooling. A review of neutron cross section sensitivity in numerical calculations of an ADS and a comparative assessment relevant to the transmutation efficiency of plutonium and minor actinides in fusion/fission hybrids and ADS are presented.

  19. Method for the transmutation of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the systematic and optimal manufacture of nuclides with beneficial properties as well as for the transmutation of noxious nuclides into innocuous ones, e.g. radioactive wastes. For that purpose, use is made of the periodic system of atoms and of the so-called twin-subshell model of nuclear structure, in order to trace the possible transformations of the nuclide through irradiation with appropriate particles or radiation. (G.J.P.)

  20. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Tongxiang; Tang Chunhe

    2003-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclides have profound benefits for economic development, global political stability and the environment. This technology would reduce nuclear waste disposal requirements, prevent proliferation and eliminate a major hurdle to the development of nuclear power. This paper reviews the advanced fuel cycle process and development of ATW in the world, and some suggestions about the R and D of nuclear power in China are proposed

  1. Transmutations for Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Boumenir

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and representation of transmutations, also known as transformation operators, for strings. Using measure theory and functional analytic methods we prove their existence and study their representation. We show that in general they are not close to unity since their representation does not involve a Volterra operator but rather the eigenvalue parameter. We also obtain conditions under which the transmutation is either a bounded or a compact operator. Explicit examples show that they cannot be reduced to Volterra type operators.  

  2. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringer, O.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of 241 Am and 237 Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the 241 Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  3. Evaluation of alternative partitioning/transmutation scenarios using transmutation in light-water reactors (LWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Renier, J.P.; Del Cul, B.; Spencer, B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) studies were made to assess the effects of the existing accumulation of LWR spent fuel in the United States on the capability to partition/transmute actinides using existing and advanced LWR. The concept of treating the oldest fuel first indicated that significant advantages could be gained in both partitioning, transmutation, and in overall cost reduction. The processing scenarios previously evaluated assumed that (1) 2000 MT/year of spent fuel, irradiated to 45 GWd/MT and decayed for 30 years is processed; (2) recovered plutonium and 90% of the neptunium are transmuted in LWR MOX fuel; and (3) minor actinides, consisting of americium, curium, and 10% of the neptunium are transmuted in burnable poison type targets. Results of the previous study showed that significant benefits could be obtained, including (1) lower costs for partitioning and transmutation and for storage of spent fuel, (2) maintenance of proliferation resistance for the fissile plutonium in spent fuels, and (3) extended lifetime for the repository. The lower costs would be achieved primarily because no capital investment for a special transmuter reactor (fast reactor, accelerator-driven system, etc.) would be required. Instead, only existing and new LWRs would be utilized. Moreover, no new storage capacity could be needed for spent fuels and irradiated targets because the number of spent fuel assemblies would remain the same after the scenario is begun. Even though the total inventory of plutonium would rise during the early cycles, ∼98% of the plutonium would be contained in stored spent fuel and would be protected by high radiation (the Spent Fuel Standard). This is because the spent fuel would be reprocessed and re-irradiated at intervals within which the fission products, 137 Cs and 90 Sr, both with half-lives of ∼ 30 years, exist in significantly high concentrations.The lifetime of the repository would be extended significantly because all of

  4. The Physics of transmutation systems : system capabilities and performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    This document is complementary to a document produced by Prof. Salvatores on ''The Physics of Transmutation in Critical or Subcritical Reactors and the Impact on the Fuel Cycle''. In that document, Salvatores describes the fundamental of transmutation, through basic physics properties and general parametric studies. In the present document we try to go one step further towards practical implementation (while recognizing that the practical issues such as technology development and demonstration, and economics, can only be mentioned in a very superficial manner). Section 1 briefly overviews the possible objectives of transmutation systems, and links these different objectives to possible technological paths. It also describes the overall constraints which have to be considered when developing and implementing transmutation systems. In section 2 we briefly overview the technological constraints which need to be accounted for when designing transmutation systems. In section 3 we attempt to provide a simplified classification of transmutation systems in order to clarify later comparisons. It compares heterogeneous and homogeneous recycle strategies, and single and multi-tier systems. Section 4 presents case analyses for assessing the transmutation performance of various individual systems, starting with LWR's ((1) generic results; (2) multirecycle of plutonium; (3) an alternative: transmutation based on a Thorium fuel cycle), followed by Gas-Cooled Reactors (with an emphasis on the ''deep burn'' approach), and followed by Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven systems ((1) generic results; (2) homogeneous recycle of transuranics; (3) practical limit between Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems) Section 5 summarizes recent results on integrated system performances. It focuses first on interface effects between the two elements of a dual tier system, and then summarizes the major lessons learned from recent global physics studies

  5. Enhancing TRU burning and Am transmutation in Advanced Recycling Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazumi; Kochendarfer, Richard A.; Moriwaki, Hiroyuki; Kunishima, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This ARR is an oxide fueled sodium cooled reactor based on innovative technologies to destruct TRU. → TRU burning core is designed to burn TRU at 28 kg/TW th h, adding moderator pins of B 4 C (Enriched B-11). → Am transmutation core can transmute Am at 34 kg/TW th h, adding uranium free AmN blanket to TRU burning core. → The TRU burning core improves TRU burning by 40-50% than the previous core. → The Am transmutation core can transmute Am effectively, keeping the void reactivity acceptable. - Abstract: This paper presents about conceptual designs of Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) focusing on enhancement in transuranics (TRU) burning and americium (Am) transmutation. The design has been conducted in the context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) seeking to close nuclear fuel cycle in ways that reduce proliferation risks, reduce the nuclear waste in the US and further improve global energy security. This study strives to enhance the TRU burning and the Am transmutation, assuming the development of related technologies in this study, while the ARR based on mature technologies was designed in the previous study. It has followed that the provided TRU burning core is designed to burn TRU at 28 kg/TW th h, by adding moderator pins of B 4 C (Enriched B-11) and the Am transmutation core will be able to transmute Am at 34 kg/TW th h, by locating Am blanket of AmN around the TRU burning core. It indicates that these concepts improve TRU burning by 40-50% than the previous core and can transmute Am effectively, keeping the void reactivity acceptable.

  6. Specific contributions of the Dutch progamme ''RAS'' towards accelerator-based transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H.; Heil, J.A.; Koning, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation is being studied by ECN within its general nuclear waste transmutation programme RAS. In this paper the following contributions are presented: (1) Evaluation of cross sections at intermediate energies, within an international frame given by NEA, (2) Cell calculations on the equilibration of transuranium actinides in thermal molten-salt transmuters, (3) Irradiation facilities at the European research reactor HFR in Petten, which have been constructed with the purpose to demonstrate and investigate the transmutation of waste in a high neutron flux, (4) Studies of accelerator-based neutron generating systems to transmute neptunium and technetium, (5) Comparison of several systems on the basis of criteria for successful nuclear waste-management. (orig.)

  7. Capabilities of a DT tokamak fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The capabilities of a DT fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor are characterized by identifying limits on transmutation rates that would be imposed by tokamak physics and engineering limitations on fusion neutron source performance. The need for spent nuclear fuel transmutation and the need for a neutron source to drive subcritical fission transmutation reactors are reviewed. The likely parameter ranges for tokamak neutron sources that could produce an interesting transmutation rate of 100s to 1000s of kg/FPY (where FPY stands for full power year) are identified (P fus ∼ 10-100 MW, β N ∼ 2-3, Q p ∼ 2-5, R ∼ 3-5 m, I ∼ 6-10 MA). The electrical and thermal power characteristics of transmutation reactors driven by fusion and accelerator spallation neutron sources are compared. The status of fusion development vis-a-vis a neutron source is reviewed. (author)

  8. Helium and fission gas behaviour in magnesium aluminate spinel and zirconia for actinide transmutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, P.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel, many studies are performed on partitioning and transmutation of actinides. In such a scenario, the long-lived radio-isotopes (mostly actinides) are partitioned from the nuclear waste, and subsequently transmuted or fissioned in a

  9. Technologies using accelerator-driven targets under development at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Recent development work conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory on technologies which use particle accelerator-driven targets is summarized. These efforts include development of the Spallation-Induced Lithium Conversion (SILC) Target for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), the Accelerator-Driven Assembly for Plutonium Transformation (ADAPT) Target for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of excess weapons plutonium. The PHOENIX Concept for the accelerator-driven transmutation of minor actinides and fission products from the waste stream of commercial nuclear power plants, and other potential applications

  10. Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Utilization and Transmutation of Actinides in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is strengthening the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies (Articles III-A.1 and III-A.3). The major challenges facing the long term development of nuclear energy as a part of the world's energy mix are improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptability. The concern linked to the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission has led to increased R and D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount of long lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. In recent years, in various countries and at an international level, more and more studies have been carried out on advanced and innovative waste management strategies (i.e. actinide separation and elimination). Within the framework of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (http://www.iaea.org/inisnkm/nkm/aws/fnss/index.html), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long lived radioactive waste, accelerator driven systems, thorium fuel options, innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles, non-conventional nuclear energy systems, and fusion/fission hybrids. These activities are implemented under the guidance and with the support of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). This publication compiles the analyses and findings of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste (2002

  11. Development of a fast reactor for minor actinides transmutation - (1) Overview and method development - 5092

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Usami, S.; Fujimura, K.; Takakuwa, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan has launched a national project entitled 'technology development for the environmental burden reduction' in 2013. The present study is one of the studies adopted as the national project. The objective of the study is the efficient and safe transmutation and volume reduction of minor actinides (MA) with long-lived radioactivity and high decay heat contained in high level radioactive wastes by using sodium cooled fast reactors. We are developing MA transmutation core concepts which harmonize efficient MA transmutation with core safety. To accurately design the core concepts we have improved calculation methods for estimating the transmutation rate of individual MA nuclides, and estimating and reducing uncertainty of MA transmutation. The overview of the present project is first described. Then the method improvement is presented with numerical results for a minor-actinide transmutation fast reactor. The analysis is based on Monju reactor data. (authors)

  12. Fuel cycle of fast reactor Brest with non-proliferation, transmutation of long-lived nuclides and equivalent disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatkin, A.V.; Orlov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The declared objectives in the fuel cycle of fast reactor BREST achieved by the following measures. Proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle being developed for BREST reactors is provided along two lines: reactors physics and design features; spent fuel reprocessing technology excluding plutonium separation at all process stages. Surplus neutrons produced in a chain reaction in a fast reactor without uranium blanket and the high flux of fast neutrons, allow efficient transmutation of not only all actinides in the core but also long-lived fission products (I, Te) in lead blanket by leakage neutrons without detriment to the inherent safety of this reactor. (author)

  13. Transmutation of Isotopes --- Ecological and Energy Production Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowski, Waclaw

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes principles of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Wastes (ATW) and gives some flavour of the most important topics which are today under investigations in many countries. An assessment of the potential impact of ATW on a future of nuclear energy is also given. Nuclear reactors based on self-sustained fission reactions --- after spectacular development in fifties and sixties, that resulted in deployment of over 400 power reactors --- are wrestling today more with public acceptance than with irresolvable technological problems. In a whole spectrum of reasons which resulted in today's opposition against nuclear power few of them are very relevant for the nuclear physics community and they arose from the fact that development of nuclear power had been handed over to the nuclear engineers and technicians with some generically unresolved problems, which should have been solved properly by nuclear scientists. In a certain degree of simplification one can say, that most of the problems originate from very specific features of a fission phenomenon: self-sustained chain reaction in fissile materials and very strong radioactivity of fission products and very long half-life of some of the fission and activation products. And just this enormous concentration of radioactive fission products in the reactor core is the main problem of managing nuclear reactors: it requires unconditional guarantee for the reactor core integrity in order to avoid radioactive contamination of the environment; it creates problems to handle decay heat in the reactor core and finally it makes handling and/or disposal of spent fuel almost a philosophical issue, due to unimaginable long time scales of radioactive decay of some isotopes. A lot can be done to improve the design of conventional nuclear reactors (like Light Water Reactors); new, better reactors can be designed but it seems today very improbable to expect any radical change in the public perception of conventional

  14. Evaluation of actinide partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    After a few centuries of radioactive decay the long-lived actinides, the elements of atomic numbers 89-103, may constitute the main potential radiological health hazard in nuclear wastes. This is because all but a very few fission products (principally technetium-99 and iodine-129) have by then undergone radioactive decay to insignificant levels, leaving the actinides as the principal radionuclides remaining. It was therefore at first sight an attractive concept to recycle the actinides to nuclear reactors, so as to eliminate them by nuclear fission. Thus, investigations of the feasibility and potential benefits and hazards of the concept of 'actinide partitioning and transmutation' were started in numerous countries in the mid-1970s. This final report summarizes the results and conclusions of technical studies performed in connection with a four-year IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme, started in 1976, on the ''Environmental Evaluation and Hazard Assessment of the Separation of Actinides from Nuclear Wastes followed by either Transmutation or Separate Disposal''. Although many related studies are still continuing, e.g. on waste disposal, long-term safety assessments, and waste actinide management (particularly for low and intermediate-level wastes), some firm conclusions on the overall concept were drawn by the programme participants, which are reflected in this report

  15. Current Status of the Transmutation Reactor Technology and Preliminary Evaluation of Transmutation Performance of the KALIMER Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Ser Gi; Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeong Il; Kim, Young Gyum; Lee, Byung Woon; Song, Hoon; Lee, Ki Bog; Jang, Jin Wook; Lee, Dong Uk

    2005-08-15

    Recently the most countries using the nuclear power plants for electricity generation have been faced with the problem of the preparation of the repository for the disposition of the nuclear waste generated from LWR. It was well-known that the issues related with long term risk of the radioactive wastes for the future generations are due only to 1% of the total waste. This small fraction of 1% consists of transuranic (TRU) nuclides such as Pu, Np, Am, Cm and the long lived fission products such as Tc and I. For the transuranic (TRU) nuclides, their half lives range from several years to several hundred thousands years and hence their radioactive toxicity can be lasted over very long time period. This has made the change of the rule of the fast spectrum reactor from the economical use of uranium resource through breeding to the reduction of the nuclear waste through the transmutation. The purpose of this study is to obtain the basic knowledge on the nuclear transmutation technology and to suggest the technical solution ways for the future technology development and enhancement through a survey of the state-of-art of the international research on the nuclear transmutation. The increase of the transmutation rate requires the reduction of the breeding ratio. In fact, the transmutation rate is determined by the breeding ratio. The reduction of the breeding ratio can be achieved by reducing the U-238 content in fuel or increasing the neutron leakage through core boundary or absorbing the neutrons by using some absorbers. However, the reduction of the U-238 content results in the degradation of the fuel Doppler coefficient that is one of the most important safety-related parameters and the reduction of the effective delayed neutron fraction that is related with the controllability of the reactor core. Also, the increase of the transmutation rate can lead to the increase of the coolant void reactivity worth unless some ways to reduce the coolant void reactivity are not

  16. Transmutations across hierarchical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    The development of large-scale ecological models depends implicitly on a concept known as hierarchy theory which views biological systems in a series of hierarchical levels (i.e., organism, population, trophic level, ecosystem). The theory states that an explanation of a biological phenomenon is provided when it is shown to be the consequence of the activities of the system's components, which are themselves systems in the next lower level of the hierarchy. Thus, the behavior of a population is explained by the behavior of the organisms in the population. The initial step in any modeling project is, therefore, to identify the system components and the interactions between them. A series of examples of transmutations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are presented to show how and why changes occur. The types of changes are summarized and possible implications of transmutation for hierarchy theory, for the modeler, and for the ecological theoretician are discussed

  17. Transmutation in ASTRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouiller, Jean-Paul; Buiron, Laurent; Mignot, Gérard; Palhier, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Summary and future prospects for incorporating Am in ASTRID: → Potential to demonstrate the minor actinide transmutation on an industrial scale in the CFV V1 core of ASTRID: • Homogeneous concept: 2% of Am in a standard fuel; • Heterogeneous concept: 10% on UO 2 in the radial blanket. • The objective of ensuring a balance in the Am (and total minor actinides) flow in the ASTRID fuel cycle may be obtained without any impact on the design of the core and handling systems for the management of the new and spent fuel subassemblies. • Several experimental phases in ASTRID to implement different transmutation scenarios using homogeneous and heterogeneous concepts. ⇒ the availability of facilities involved in the ASTRID material cycles

  18. Neutronic assessment of strontium-90 transmutation in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Transmutation of 90 Sr using fusion neutrons has been suggested as a possible technique for disposing of this waste nuclide. For transmutation to be attractive, high transmutation rates relative to natural decay are required. Effective half-lives for 90 Sr were computed for fusion reactor blankets constructed of various materials. To obtain satisfactory transmutation rates, fusion reactors with high first wall neutron currents and with highly moderating blankets were found to be necessary. An effective half-life for 90 Sr of 90 Sr inventory and the number of burners required for various fission usage scenarios. Efficient and fast chemical separations were needed to reap the benefits of a short effective half-life. For the fusion burners considered, it was found that the 90 Sr inventory could not be reduced to less than one-fourth of the inventory without transmutation if fission usage continued at a constant rate. Such a reduction is not sufficient to justify the transmutation disposal of 90 Sr

  19. Transmutation studies of minor actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioni, G.; Bolognese, T.; Cribier, M.; Marie, F.; Roettger, S.; Faust, H.; Leconte, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    Integral measurements of nuclear data and of the transmutation potential in specific neutron fluxes, constitute the fastest and essential way to overcome to the large uncertainties present in the nuclear data libraries. In the frame of the activities of the Directorate for Science of Matter (DSM) of the French Atomic Energy Authority (CEA), a new project is proposed so as to carry out integral measurements relevant for nuclear waste transmutation systems. A new beam tube will be installed to irradiate actinides and fission fragment samples at different distances from the fuel element of the ILL reactor. Variable neutron energy spectra could then be obtained by choosing the distance between the sample and the fuel element, opening the way to the determination of the ideal physical conditions to incinerate nuclear waste in hybrid transmutation systems. (author)

  20. Minor actinide transmutation on PWR burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenchao; Liu, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Tu, Jing; Liu, Fang; Huang, Liming; Fu, Juan; Meng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Key issues associated with MA transmutation are the appropriate loading pattern. • Commercial PWRs are the only choice to transmute MAs in large scale currently. • Considerable amount of MA can be loaded to PWR without disturbing k eff markedly. • Loading MA to PWR burnable poison rods for transmutation is an optimal loading pattern. - Abstract: Minor actinides are the primary contributors to long term radiotoxicity in spent fuel. The majority of commercial reactors in operation in the world are PWRs, so to study the minor actinide transmutation characteristics in the PWRs and ultimately realize the successful minor actinide transmutation in PWRs are crucial problem in the area of the nuclear waste disposal. The key issues associated with the minor actinide transmutation are the appropriate loading patterns when introducing minor actinides to the PWR core. We study two different minor actinide transmutation materials loading patterns on the PWR burnable poison rods, one is to coat a thin layer of minor actinide in the water gap between the zircaloy cladding and the stainless steel which is filled with water, another one is that minor actinides substitute for burnable poison directly within burnable poison rods. Simulation calculation indicates that the two loading patterns can load approximately equivalent to 5–6 PWR annual minor actinide yields without disturbing the PWR k eff markedly. The PWR k eff can return criticality again by slightly reducing the boric acid concentration in the coolant of PWR or removing some burnable poison rods without coating the minor actinide transmutation materials from PWR core. In other words, loading minor actinide transmutation material to PWR does not consume extra neutron, minor actinide just consumes the neutrons which absorbed by the removed control poisons. Both minor actinide loading patterns are technically feasible; most importantly do not need to modify the configuration of the PWR core and

  1. Oxide fuels and targets for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudreau, F.; Bonnerot, J.M.; Warin, D.; Gaillard-Groleas, G.; Ferroud-Plattet, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Direction 1 of the French Act dated 30 December 1991 on the management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste involves exploring solutions designed to separate long-lived radionuclides from the spent fuel and to transmute them under neutron flux into shorter half-lives or stable elements. In the French research programme conducted by CEA, these radionuclides are mainly minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium) and fission products (particularly caesium, iodine and technetium). Within this context, this paper aims at illustrating the vast programme that CEA has performed in order to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of minor actinide transmutation. An important part of the research was carried out in collaboration with French research (CNRS) and industrial (EDF, AREVA) organisations, and also in the framework of international co-operation programmes with the European Institute for Transuranium Elements in Karlsruhe (ITU), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (now JAEA) and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and the Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy (ROSATOM). Such research made it possible to evaluate the capacity of MOX fuels to be used as a support for minor actinide transmutation (homogeneous method). Simulations of pressurised water reactor (PWR) fuels have revealed the limits of this transmutation method, which are mainly related to the pressurization of the fuel rods and the formation of high active californium. On the contrary, for sodium-cooled fast reactor fuels possibly designed with large expansion plenums a first experimental demonstration of the transmutation of americium and neptunium has been successful in the Phenix reactor. Various studies designed to demonstrate the theoretical and experimental feasibility of transmutation using an inert support (heterogeneous method) have been carried out in HFR (EFTTRA

  2. Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Roger Carson

    This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long

  3. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on core's safety parameters. Applying the SAS4A/SASSYS transient analysis code, it is demonstrated that the power rating needs to be reduced by 6% for each percent additional americium introduction into the reference MOX fuel, maintaining 100 K margin to fuel melting, which is the most limiting failure mechanism. Safety analysis of a new Accelerator Driven System design with a smaller pin pitch-to-diameter ratio comparing to the reference EFIT-400 design, aiming at improving neutron source efficiency, was also performed by simulating performance for unprotected loss of flow, unprotected transient overpower, and protected loss-of-heat-sink transients, using neutronic parameters obtained from MCNP calculations. Thanks to the introduction of the austenitic 15/15Ti stainless steel with enhanced creep rupture resistance and acceptable irradiation swelling rate, the suggested ADS design loaded with nitride fuel and cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic could survive the full set of transients, preserving a margin of 130 K to cladding rupture during the most limiting transient. The thesis concludes that efficient transmutation of americium in a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor loaded with MOX fuel is possible but leads to a severe power penalty. Instead, preserving transmutation rates of minor actinides up to 42 kg/TWh th , the suggested ADS design with enhanced proton source efficiency appears like a better option for americium transmutation

  4. Comparative analysis of sub-critical transmutation reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The long-lived nuclear wastes have been substantially generated from the light water reactor for a few decades. The toxicity of these spent fuels will be higher than that of the uranium ore, even if those will be stored in the repository more than ten thousands. Hence the means of transmuting the key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides, using a hybrid proton accelerator and subcritical transmutation reactor, are proposed. Until now, the representative concepts for a subcritical transmutation reactor are the Energy Amplifier, the OMEGA project, the ATW and the MSBR. The detailed concepts and the specifications are illustrated in Table 1. The design requirements for the subcritical transmutation reactor are the high transmutation rate of long-lived nuclear wastes, safety and economics. And to propose the subcritical transmutation reactor concepts, the coolant, the target material and fuel type are carefully considered. In these aspects, the representative concepts for a subcritical transmutation reactor in Table 1 have been surveyed. The requirements for a target and a coolant are the reliable, low maintenance operation and safe operation to minimize the wastes. The reliable, low maintenance operation and safe operation to minimize the wastes. The reliable coolant must have the low melting point, high heat capacity and excellent physical properties. And the target material must have high neutron yield for a given proton condition and easy heat removal capability. Therefore in respect with the above requirements, Pb-Bi is proposed as the coolant and the target material for the subcritical reactor. Because the neutron yield for a given proton energy increases linearly with mass number up to bismuth but in heavier elements spallation events sharply increase both the neutron and heat outputs, Pb-Bi meets not only such the requirements as the above for the coolant but also those for the coolant and target, the simplification of system can be achieved

  5. Effects of actinide compositional variability in the US spent fuel inventory on partitioning-transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michaels, G.E.; Hanson, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P-T) is an advanced waste management concept by which certain undesirable nuclides in spent fuel are first isolated (partitioned) and later destroyed (transmuted) in a nuclear reactor or other transmutation device. There are wide variabilities in the nuclide composition of spent fuel. This implies that there will also be wide variabilities in the transmutation device feed. As a waste management system, P-T must be able to accept (all) spent fuel. Variability of nuclide composition (i.e., the feed material for transmutation devices) may be important because virtually all transmutation systems propose to configure transuranic (TRU) nuclides recovered from discharged lightwater reactor (LWR) spent fuel in critical or near-critical cores. To date, all transmutation system core analyses assume invariant nuclide concentrations for startup and recycle cores. Using the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Characteristics Data Base (CDB) and the ORIGEN2 computer code, the current and projected spent fuel discharges until the year 2016 have been categorized according to combinations of fuel burnup, initial enrichment, fuel age (cooling time) and reactor type (boiling-water or pressurized-water reactors). The variability of the infinite multiplication factor (k ∞ ) is calculated for both fast (ALMR) and thermal (accelerator-based) transmuter systems

  6. Partitioning and transmutation - Technical feasibility, proliferation resistance and safeguardability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.; Glatz, J.-P.; Magill, J.; Mayer, K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The advantages of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of minor actinides and selected fission products are largely discussed and described in literature. The advantages of separation of the long-lived alpha-emitters for the long-term storage of highly radioactive waste have been highlighted. After separation, these nuclides shall be transmuted by means of a dedicated reactor or accelerator driven system into shorter-lived fission products that are less hazardous. This, however, requires the development and implementation of a P and T fuel cycle, involving chemical separation of the minor actinides and the fabrication of MA containing fuels or targets. Concepts for P and T fuel cycles have been developed and technical issues are being addressed in various research programs. With the recognition of the proliferation potential associated with the minor actinides by the IAEA, also the proliferation and safeguards aspects need to be addressed. It is important to raise these points at an early stage of process development, in order to identify potential problems and to develop appropriate solutions. The oxide fuels used worldwide in thermal reactor systems for energy production are reprocessed by aqueous techniques. Therefore these systems, primarily the PUREX process, are fully developed and implemented commercially. Furthermore, the safeguards approach is fully implemented in existing facilities, covering uranium and plutonium. Pyroprocess systems have largely been associated with fast reactors and metallic fuels and their development has therefore only reached the pilot-scale stage and the feasibility of minor actinide (MA) separation still needs to be demonstrated. Hydrometallurgical and pyrochemical reprocessing should however not be considered as competing but rather as complementary technologies. For instance in a so-called double strata concept (foreseen for instance in the Japanese OMEGA project), the PUREX process (first stratum) would be

  7. Preliminary design and neutronic analysis of a laser fusion driven actinide waste burning hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Duderstadt, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    The laser fusion driven actinide waste burner (LDAB) system investigated uses partitioned fission power reactor generated actinide wastes dissolved in a molten tin alloy as feed material (or fuel). A novel fuel processing concept based on the high-temperature precipitation of ''actinide--nitrides'' from a liquid tin solution is proposed. This concept will allow for fission product removal to be performed entirely within the device at high burnup. No attempt has been made to optimize this system, but potential performance is impressive. The equilibrium LDAB design consumes 7.6 MT/y of actinide waste. This corresponds to the waste output from 136 light water reactors [1000 MW (electric)]. The mean life of an actinide atom in the LDAB is only 4.5 y; and actinides, once charged to the LDAB, might be reprocessed fewer times during irradiation than in previously proposed systems

  8. The French partitioning-transmutation programme, assets and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.; Salvatores, M.; Mouney, H.

    1997-01-01

    Partitioning-transmutation studies are covered by the 1991 French law concerning radioactive waste management. The programme is progressing with a dual approach: - What can be done in partitioning-transmutation? At what cost? In what timescale? - How can long-term gains and short-term disadvantages be qualified and quantified? The first approach concerns technical know-how. The studies based on today's technologies are continuing (reactors, fuels and targets, separation of radionuclides by solvents). The second approach involves an assessment activity, based firstly on studies of scenarios. Pertinent assessment criteria must be brought out. (authors)

  9. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  10. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bultman, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP)

  11. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J H

    1995-01-17

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  12. Calculations of different transmutation concepts. An international benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In April 1996, the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Expert Group on Physics Aspects of Different Transmutation Concepts launched a benchmark exercise to compare different transmutation concepts based on pressurised water reactors (PWRs), fast reactors, and an accelerator-driven system. The aim was to investigate the physics of complex fuel cycles involving reprocessing of spent PWR reactor fuel and its subsequent reuse in different reactor types. The objective was also to compare the calculated activities for individual isotopes as a function of time for different plutonium and minor actinide transmutation scenarios in different reactor systems. This report gives the analysis of results of the 15 solutions provided by the participants: six for the PWRs, six for the fast reactor and three for the accelerator case. Various computer codes and nuclear data libraries were applied. (author)

  13. A study for optimal transmutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.S.; Song, T.Y.; Shin, H.S.; Park, C.K.

    1996-01-01

    Couple of transmutation systems are being under investigation to design the optimal transmutation device. Several basic studies were performed for that objectives: (1) select the radioactive nuclides to be transmuted: (2) investigate the physical characteristics of each nuclide; (3) study the most favorable neutron energy environment for the transmutation. The existing LWR and LMFBR cores were found to be not a satisfiable ones in terms of transmutation rate itself. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  14. HILBILAC development for accelerator-driven transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirozhenko, V.; Plink, O. [Moscow Radiotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    High-Intensity Low-Beta Ion Linac (HILBILAC) is intended for acceleration of ion beams with current of about 1 A and higher. The CW HILBILAC with beam current of 2l50 mA is under development at MRTI. Concept of parameters choice is presented along with results of beam dynamics and resonator parameters calculations. A pulse prototype HILBILAC-TEST will have to be constructed and tested for the CW accelerator development, its scheme and parameters are presented.

  15. Partitioning and transmutation. Current developments - 2007. A report from the Swedish reference group on P-T-research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, Per-Eric; Blomgren, Jan; Eriksson, Marcus; Seltborg, Per; Wallenius, Jan; Westlen, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    This report is written on behalf of the Swedish reference group for research on partitioning and transmutation. The reference group has been assembled by SKB and its members represent the teams that are active in this field at Swedish universities. The present report summarises the progress in the field through the years 2004-2006. A prerequisite for transmutation by irradiation with neutrons is that the nuclides to be transmuted are separated (partitioned) from the other nuclides in the spent fuel. In particular the remaining uranium must be taken away unless you want to produce more plutonium and other transuranium elements. Separation of the various elements can at least in principle be achieved by mechanical and chemical processes. Currently there exist some large scale facilities for separation of uranium and plutonium from the spent fuel-reprocessing plants. These can, however, not separate the minor actinides - neptunium, americium and curium - from the high level waste that goes to a repository. Plutonium constitutes about 90% of the transuranium elements in fuel from light water reactors. The objective of current research on partitioning is to find and develop processes suitable for separation of the heavier actinides (and possibly some long-lived fission products) on an industrial scale. The objective of current research on transmutation is to define, investigate and develop facilities that may be suitable for transmutation of the aforementioned long-lived radionuclides. The research on partitioning has made important progress in recent years. In some cases one has succeeded to separate americium and curium. Many challenges remain however. Within hydrochemistry one has achieved sufficiently good distribution and separation factors. The focus turns now towards development of an operating process. The search for ligands that give sufficiently good extraction and separation will continue but with less intensity. The emphasis will rather be on improving

  16. Partitioning and transmutation. Current developments - 2007. A report from the Swedish reference group on P-T-research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstroem, Per-Eric (ed.) [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Blomgren, Jan [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research; Ekberg, Christian; Englund, Sofie; Fermvik, Anna; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eriksson, Marcus; Seltborg, Per; Wallenius, Jan; Westlen, Daniel [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-06-15

    This report is written on behalf of the Swedish reference group for research on partitioning and transmutation. The reference group has been assembled by SKB and its members represent the teams that are active in this field at Swedish universities. The present report summarises the progress in the field through the years 2004-2006. A prerequisite for transmutation by irradiation with neutrons is that the nuclides to be transmuted are separated (partitioned) from the other nuclides in the spent fuel. In particular the remaining uranium must be taken away unless you want to produce more plutonium and other transuranium elements. Separation of the various elements can at least in principle be achieved by mechanical and chemical processes. Currently there exist some large scale facilities for separation of uranium and plutonium from the spent fuel-reprocessing plants. These can, however, not separate the minor actinides - neptunium, americium and curium - from the high level waste that goes to a repository. Plutonium constitutes about 90% of the transuranium elements in fuel from light water reactors. The objective of current research on partitioning is to find and develop processes suitable for separation of the heavier actinides (and possibly some long-lived fission products) on an industrial scale. The objective of current research on transmutation is to define, investigate and develop facilities that may be suitable for transmutation of the aforementioned long-lived radionuclides. The research on partitioning has made important progress in recent years. In some cases one has succeeded to separate americium and curium. Many challenges remain however. Within hydrochemistry one has achieved sufficiently good distribution and separation factors. The focus turns now towards development of an operating process. The search for ligands that give sufficiently good extraction and separation will continue but with less intensity. The emphasis will rather be on improving

  17. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This scientific document presents an introduction to the nuclear wastes problems, the separation process and the transmutation, the political and technical aspects of the storage, the radioprotection standards and the biological effects. (A.L.B.)

  18. Specific contributions of the Dutch programme {open_quotes}RAS{close_quotes} towards accelerator-based transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K.; Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation is being studied by ECN within its general nuclear waste transmutation programme RAS. In this paper the following contributions are presented: (1) Evaluation of cross sections at intermediate energies, within an international frame given by NEA, (2) Cell calculations on the equilibration of transuranium actinides in thermal molten-salt transmuters, (3) Irradiation facilities at the European research reactor HFR in Petten, which have been constructed with the purpose to demonstrate and investigate the transmutation of waste in a high neutron flux, (4) Studies of accelerator-based neutron generating systems to transmute neptunium and technetium, (5) Comparison of several systems on the basis of criteria for successful nuclear waste-management.

  19. Advances in thermal-hydraulic studies of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, Laura Garcia; Castells, Facundo Alberto Escriva; Lira, Carlos Brayner de Olivera

    2013-01-01

    The Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste trans- mutation and for obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In previous work, the TADSEA's nuclear core was considered as a porous medium performed with a CFD code and thermal-hydraulic studies of the nuclear core were presented. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant was analyzed for three core states during normal operation. The heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements was also studied. Three critical fuel elements groups were defined regarding their position inside the core. Results were compared with a realistic CFD model of the critical fuel elements groups. During the steady state, no critical elements reached the limit temperature of this type of fuel. (author)

  20. New stage in the design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Leorlen Y.; Rosales, Jesus; Castro, Landy Y.; Gamez, Abel; Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia, Carlos; Oliveira, Carlos Brayner de; Dominguez, Dany S.; Silva, Alexandro S.

    2015-01-01

    Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste transmutation and obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In this new stage in the design of TADSEA, it was proposed and modelled a new burn-up strategy, simulating a multi-pass scheme of the pebbles through the core. In order to obtain the axial density power distribution more uniform, for more realistic thermal-hydraulic calculations. In the neutronic calculations it was considered the double heterogeneity of the fuel, by means of a detailed geometry modelling. In previous thermal-hydraulic studies of the TADSEA using CFD code, the pebble-bed nuclear core was considered as a porous medium. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel elements to the coolant was analysed using a realistic approach in ANSYS CFX 14. The maximum heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements with a body centered cubic (BCC) cell and the entire height of core was studied. During the steady state, critical elements don't reached the limit temperature value for this type of fuel. (author)

  1. Recent research and development activities on partitioning and transmutation of radioactive nuclides in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K.; Ikegami, T.; Inoue, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, research and development activities for partitioning and transmutation (P and T) have been promoted under the OMEGA programme for more than 15 years. These activities were reviewed by the Atomic Energy Commission in Japan in 2000. In accordance with the results of the review, three institutes, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), are continuing the research and development on the P and T technology. This report summarises the recent activities in Japan by these institutes. JAERI is engaging in the research and development on the Double-strata Fuel Cycle concept consisting of the partitioning process of the high-level waste and the dedicated transmutation cycle using the accelerator driven system (ADS) fuelled with the minor actinide (MA) nitride fuel. JNC and CRIEPI are engaging in the research and development on the P and T technology using commercialized fast reactors (FR), where JNC is mainly in charge of the MOX fuel and the aqueous reprocessing, while CRIEPI is mainly in charge of the metallic fuel and the dry reprocessing. The research and development activities on FR are organised under the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems. (authors)

  2. New stage in the design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Leorlen Y.; Rosales, Jesus; Castro, Landy Y.; Gamez, Abel; Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia, Carlos, E-mail: leored1984@gmail.com, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu, E-mail: lcastro@instec.cu, E-mail: agamezgmf@gmail.com, E-mail: danielgonro@gmail.com, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Oliveira, Carlos Brayner de, E-mail: abol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Dominguez, Dany S.; Silva, Alexandro S., E-mail: dsdominguez@gmail.com, E-mail: alexandrossilva@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste transmutation and obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In this new stage in the design of TADSEA, it was proposed and modelled a new burn-up strategy, simulating a multi-pass scheme of the pebbles through the core. In order to obtain the axial density power distribution more uniform, for more realistic thermal-hydraulic calculations. In the neutronic calculations it was considered the double heterogeneity of the fuel, by means of a detailed geometry modelling. In previous thermal-hydraulic studies of the TADSEA using CFD code, the pebble-bed nuclear core was considered as a porous medium. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel elements to the coolant was analysed using a realistic approach in ANSYS CFX 14. The maximum heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements with a body centered cubic (BCC) cell and the entire height of core was studied. During the steady state, critical elements don't reached the limit temperature value for this type of fuel. (author)

  3. Nuclear transmutation by flux compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    2001-01-01

    A new idea for the transmutation of minor actinides, long (and even short) lived fission products is presented. It is based an the property of neutron flux compression in nuclear (fast and/or thermal) reactors possessing spatially non-stationary critical masses. An advantage factor for the burn-up fluence of the elements to be transmuted in the order of magnitude of 100 and more is obtainable compared with the classical way of transmutation. Three typical examples of such transmuters (a subcritical ringreactor with a rotating reflector, a sub-critical ring reactor with a rotating spallation source, the socalled ''pulsed energy amplifier'', and a fast burn-wave reactor) are presented and analysed with regard to this purpose. (orig.) [de

  4. Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim; Ahmed, Alaa

    2013-01-01

    A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull dis- tribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM) in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking generalized inverse Weibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expression...

  5. 1. round table - Spent fuels composition. Back-end of the fuel cycle and reprocessing, plutonium and other nuclear materials management. 2. round table - Separation-transmutation. 3. round table - Scenarios for a long term inventory of nuclear materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Paris on the reprocessing of spent fuels. Three aspects are discussed: the risks linked with the recovery of valorizable materials, the economical viability of the separation/transmutation option, and the future of the nuclear option in the French energy policy. Six presentations (transparencies) are attached with these proceedings which treat of: the reprocessing/recycling to the test, perspectives of future wastes, present day wastes/valorizable materials and future scenarios, critical analysis scenarios, why reprocessing spent fuels?, processing of spent fuels and recycling, separation and transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes, thorium-uranium cycle. (J.S.)

  6. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation. Status and assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Implementation and partitioning technology is intended to reduce the inventory of actinides and long-lived fission products in nuclear waste. Such technology can decrease hazards of pre-disposal waste management and of physical disturbance of a waste repository. An authoritative analysis is given of the technical, radiological and economic consequences of the proposed partitioning and transmutation operations on the present and future fuel cycle options. The report is subdivided to a general part for non-specialist readers, and to a technical systems analysis discussing issues on partitioning, transmutation and long-term waste management. (R.P.)

  7. Chemico-technological support of transmutation objectives: Solid, molten salt and liquid blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, V.I.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Vakhrushin, A.Y. [VNIINM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    Chemical and technological provision for the transmutation process, independantly on the scheme of its conduction, includes: fuel composition separation for fractions of components, subjected to annihilation; their transition into chemical form, in which they are present in the reactor; discharge and return into the form, convenient for chemical reprocessing, providing for the transmutation products separation from the components being transmutated and transferring of short-lived isotopes into the form of their temporary storage. The authors discuss different chemical processes which can be used in these steps to either improve efficiency or minimize additional waste generation and expense associated with decontamination. They consider processes involving molten salts for circulation of wastes thru transmutation steps, and possible advantages in extraction processes.

  8. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Isabelle; Englund, Sofie; Fermvik, Anna; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Neumayer, Denis; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2007-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 79}Se, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs) and activation products ({sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 93} Zr, {sup 94} To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the EUROPART project within the European Union sixth framework program. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes, NEWPART and PARTNEW, respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since the basic understanding is still needed we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Work is progressing in relation to a proposal for the 7th framework programme. This proposal will be aiming at a pilot plant for separation for transmutation purposes.

  9. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Christopher P., E-mail: cj0810@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Brenner, Ceri M. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Stitt, Camilla A. [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Mirfayzi, Seyed R. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wilson, Lucy A. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Allott, Ric [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Butler, Nicholas M.H. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Clarke, Robert J.; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Higginson, Adam [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Murphy, Christopher [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Notley, Margaret [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Jowsey, John [Ground Floor North B582, Sellafield Ltd, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • X-ray generation was achieved via laser interaction with a tantalum thin foil target. • Picosecond X-ray pulse from a sub-mm spot generated high resolution images. • MeV X-ray emission is possible, permitting analysis of full scale waste containers. • In parallel neutron emission of 10{sup 7}–10{sup 9} neutrons per steradian per pulse was attained. • Development of a 10 Hz diode pumped laser system for waste monitoring is envisioned. - Abstract: A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28 mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500 keV), with a source size of <0.5 mm. BAS-TR and BAS-SR image plates were used for image capture, alongside a newly developed Thalium doped Caesium Iodide scintillator-based detector coupled to CCD chips. The uranium penny was clearly resolved to sub-mm accuracy over a 30 cm{sup 2} scan area from a single shot acquisition. In addition, neutron generation was demonstrated in situ with the X-ray beam, with a single shot, thus demonstrating the potential for multi-modal criticality testing of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10 Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned.

  10. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher P.; Brenner, Ceri M.; Stitt, Camilla A.; Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R.; Mirfayzi, Seyed R.; Wilson, Lucy A.; Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad; Allott, Ric; Butler, Nicholas M.H.; Clarke, Robert J.; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina; Higginson, Adam; Murphy, Christopher; Notley, Margaret; Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos; Jowsey, John

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • X-ray generation was achieved via laser interaction with a tantalum thin foil target. • Picosecond X-ray pulse from a sub-mm spot generated high resolution images. • MeV X-ray emission is possible, permitting analysis of full scale waste containers. • In parallel neutron emission of 10"7–10"9 neutrons per steradian per pulse was attained. • Development of a 10 Hz diode pumped laser system for waste monitoring is envisioned. - Abstract: A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28 mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500 keV), with a source size of <0.5 mm. BAS-TR and BAS-SR image plates were used for image capture, alongside a newly developed Thalium doped Caesium Iodide scintillator-based detector coupled to CCD chips. The uranium penny was clearly resolved to sub-mm accuracy over a 30 cm"2 scan area from a single shot acquisition. In addition, neutron generation was demonstrated in situ with the X-ray beam, with a single shot, thus demonstrating the potential for multi-modal criticality testing of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10 Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned.

  11. The JAERI-KEK joint project on high intensity proton accelerator and overview of nuclear transmutation experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    A status of the JAERI/KEK joint project on High Intensity Proton Accelerator is overviewed. It is highlighted that Experimental facilities for development of the accelerator driven system (ADS) for nuclear transmutation technology is proposed under the project. (author)

  12. Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Daniel B [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bartholomew, Timothy V [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    With the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent Effluent Limitation Guidelines for Steam Electric Generators, power plants are having to install and operate new wastewater technologies. Many plants are evaluating desalination technologies as possible compliance options. However, the desalination technologies under review that can reduce wastewater volume or treat to a zero-liquid discharges standard have a significant energy penalty to the plant. Waste heat, available from the exhaust gas or cooling water from coal-fired power plants, offers an opportunity to drive wastewater treatment using thermal desalination technologies. One such technology is forward osmosis (FO). Forward osmosis utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient to passively pull water from a saline or wastewater stream across a semi-permeable membrane and into a more concentrated draw solution. This diluted draw solution is then fed into a distillation column, where the addition of low temperature waste heat can drive the separation to produce a reconcentrated draw solution and treated water for internal plant reuse. The use of low-temperature waste heat decouples water treatment from electricity production and eliminates the link between reducing water pollution and increasing air emissions from auxiliary electricity generation. In order to evaluate the feasibility of waste heat driven FO, we first build a model of an FO system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment at coal-fired power plants. This model includes the FO membrane module, the distillation column for draw solution recovery, and waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas. We then add a costing model to account for capital and operating costs of the forward osmosis system. We use this techno-economic model to optimize waste heat driven FO for the treatment of FGD wastewater. We apply this model to three case studies: the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) 550 MW model coal fired power plant without carbon

  13. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher P; Brenner, Ceri M; Stitt, Camilla A; Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R; Mirfayzi, Seyed R; Wilson, Lucy A; Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad; Allott, Ric; Butler, Nicholas M H; Clarke, Robert J; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina; Higginson, Adam; Murphy, Christopher; Notley, Margaret; Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos; Jowsey, John; McKenna, Paul; Neely, David; Kar, Satya; Scott, Thomas B

    2016-11-15

    A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500keV), with a source size of <0.5mm. BAS-TR and BAS-SR image plates were used for image capture, alongside a newly developed Thalium doped Caesium Iodide scintillator-based detector coupled to CCD chips. The uranium penny was clearly resolved to sub-mm accuracy over a 30cm(2) scan area from a single shot acquisition. In addition, neutron generation was demonstrated in situ with the X-ray beam, with a single shot, thus demonstrating the potential for multi-modal criticality testing of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. 1. round table - Spent fuels composition. Back-end of the fuel cycle and reprocessing, plutonium and other nuclear materials management. 2. round table - Separation-transmutation. 3. round table - Scenarios for a long term inventory of nuclear materials and wastes; 1. table ronde - La composition des combustibles uses. L'aval du combustible et le retraitement, la gestion du plutonium et des autres matieres nucleaires. 2. table ronde - Separation-transmutation. 3. table ronde - Scenarii pour un inventaire des matieres et des dechets nucleaires a LT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Paris on the reprocessing of spent fuels. Three aspects are discussed: the risks linked with the recovery of valorizable materials, the economical viability of the separation/transmutation option, and the future of the nuclear option in the French energy policy. Six presentations (transparencies) are attached with these proceedings which treat of: the reprocessing/recycling to the test, perspectives of future wastes, present day wastes/valorizable materials and future scenarios, critical analysis scenarios, why reprocessing spent fuels?, processing of spent fuels and recycling, separation and transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes, thorium-uranium cycle. (J.S.)

  15. Neutron transmutation doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Byung Jin

    2001-09-01

    HE OVERALL STATE OF THE ART RELATED WITH NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION DOPING(NCT) IS SURVEYED. ITEMS RELATED FOR THE REALIZATION OF NTD IN HANARO IS FOCUSED. IN ADDITION TO THE UNIFORM IRRADIATION AND ACHIEVING THE TARGET RESISTIVITY WHICH ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NTD, OTHER ITEMS SUCH AS THE FUNCTION AND ROLE OF NTD, MARKET TREND, QUALITY CONTROL ARE INCLUDED. MEANWHILE THE ONLY ADVANTAGE OF NTD IS ACHIEVING VERY HIGH UNIFORMITY OF DOPING, IT HAS SEVERAL DISADVANTAGES DUE TO THE USE OF NUCLEAR REACTOR. THEREFORE THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY HAS CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY TO REPLACE NTD, AND THE DEMAND OF NTD HAD BEEN DECREASED A LOT DURING 1990S. AS THE DEMAND FOR LARGE CRYSTAL INCREASES, HOWEVER, THE NTD DEMAND BEGAN TO INCREASE AGAIN FROM 2000. SINCE THE DEMAND FOR THE LARGER CRYSTAL WILL BE CONTINUED IN THE FUTURE, THE ROLE OF NTD WOULD BE NEEDED FOR THE LONGER TIME. IN ORDER TO MITIGATE THIS TREND OF DEMAND, THE REACTOR SHOULD BE CAPABLE OF ACCEPTING LARGE CRYSTAL AND THE EFFORT TO IMPROVE DOPING UNIFORMITY AND TO REDUCE THE COST SHOULD CONTINUED.

  16. The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is evaluating potential costs and benefits of partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, Abraham E.

    2003-01-01

    Abe van Luik (DOE, USA) stated that the U.S. Department of Energy is interested in P and T to the extent that transmutation is technically feasible and will reduce the toxicity of the waste to a point that makes it technically and economically justified. Therefore, research on P and T strategies incorporates the evaluation of its potential costs and benefits. A progress report to Congress (in preparation) will likely state that system studies in the USA and in Europe indicate a preference for reactor based transmutation rather than accelerator-driven systems. DOE proposes isolation of Cs and Sr, the recycling of Pu and Np in LWRs, and later the recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors. The report identifies the high-level waste volume reduction, the easier management of short-term heat load, the reduction of long-term heat load and radiotoxicity, and therefore long-term dose reduction as potential benefits. The goal of ongoing work is to quantify these benefits in order to allow an assessment of which alternatives can be economically useful in increasing the repository capacity, reducing the potential hazard from the repository and reducing uncertainties associated with the performance of the repository. This may, depending on the national nuclear power scenario, delay or avoid the need for a second repository for high-level waste in the USA. Furthermore DOE has received and is evaluating a proposal for simulation-based engineering to integrate all aspects of nuclear energy including reactor technology and waste disposal

  17. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sofie; Drouet, Francois; Ekberg, Christian; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Magnusson, Daniel; Nilsson, Mikael; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Materials and Surface Chemistry

    2005-01-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 93}Zr and {sup 126}Sn and activation products ({sup 14}C and {sup 36}Cl). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. This separation is necessary to obtain the desired efficiency in the transmutation process in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the European Union sixth framework program project EUROPART. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes NEWPART and PARTNEW respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development.

  18. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Hervieux, Nadege; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Magnusson, Daniel; Nilsson, Mikael; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ( 79 Se, 87 Rb, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 126 Sn, 129 I, 135 Cs) and activation products ( 14 C, 36 Cl, 59 Ni, 93 Zr, 94 N To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the EUROPART project within the European Union sixth framework program. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes, NEWPART and PARTNEW respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since the basic understanding is still needed we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work

  19. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  20. Design of an accelerator-driven system for the destruction of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadi, Y.; Revol, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in particle accelerator technology makes it possible to use a proton accelerator to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste efficiently. The Energy Amplifier (EA) proposed by Carlo Rubbia and his group is a sub-critical fast neutron system driven by a proton accelerator. It is particularly attractive for destroying, through fission, transuranic elements produced by present nuclear reactors. The EA could also transform efficiently and at minimal cost long-lived fission fragments using the concept of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) recently tested at CERN with the TARC experiment. (author)

  1. Decay and Transmutation of Nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Aarnio, Pertti A

    1999-01-01

    We present a computer code DeTra which solves analytically the Bateman equations governing the decay, build-up and transmutation of radionuclides. The complexity of the chains and the number of nuclides are not limited. The nuclide production terms considered include transmutation of the nuclides inside the chain, external production, and fission. Time dependent calculations are possible since all the production terms can be re-defined for each irradiation step. The number of irradiation steps and output times is unlimited. DeTra is thus able to solve any decay and transmutation problem as long as the nuclear data i.e. decay data and production rates, or cross sections, are known.

  2. Transmuted Complementary Weibull Geometric Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Z. A…fify

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new generalization of the complementary Weibull geometric distribution that introduced by Tojeiro et al. (2014, using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw and Buckley (2007. The new distribution is referred to as transmuted complementary Weibull geometric distribution (TCWGD. The TCWG distribution includes as special cases the complementary Weibull geometric distribution (CWGD, complementary exponential geometric distribution(CEGD,Weibull distribution (WD and exponential distribution (ED. Various structural properties of the new distribution including moments, quantiles, moment generating function and RØnyi entropy of the subject distribution are derived. We proposed the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the ‡exibility of the transmuted version versus the complementary Weibull geometric distribution.

  3. Transmutation Capability of a Once-Through Molten-Salt and Other Transmuting Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Lowenthal, M.; Barnes, D.; Kawasaki, D.; Kimball, D.; Matsumoto, H.; Sagara, H.; Vietez, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary assessment is done of the transmutation characteristics of three reactor technologies: a multi-batch liquid metal (LM) cooled transmuter, a once-through molten-salt (MS) transmuter and a pebble bed (PB) transmuter. It was found that for the same fractional transmutation and same k eff drop with burnup (Δk effBU ), lead-bismuth offers smaller peak-to-average core power density, and it requires a smaller pumping power but a larger and heavier core than a sodium cooled transmuter. 99 Tc cannot effectively serve as a burnable absorber to reduce Δk effBU of LM transmuters. However, addition of thorium can greatly flatten k eff and almost double the fractional transmutation of the LWR spent fuel from ∼20% to ∼40%. If the 'once-through' MS transmuter is operated with continuous complete removal of fission products, it can achieve ∼85% fractional transmutation provided that the equilibrium concentration of actinides in the MS can reach 4 mole %. If the fission products are not actively removed, the fractional transmutation is reduced to ∼75%. The fractional transmutation of a PB transmuter can exceed 40%. More thorough analysis is required to better quantify the transmutation capability of the different transmuter technologies. (authors)

  4. Set up of an innovative methodology to measure on-line the incineration potential of minor actinides under very high neutron sources in the frame of the future prospects of the nuclear waste transmutation; Mise au point d'une methodologie innovante pour la mesure du potentiel d'incineration d'actinides mineurs sous des sources tres intenses de neutrons, dans la perspective de transmutation des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadil, M

    2003-03-01

    This work deals generally with the problem of nuclear waste management and especially with the transmutation of it to reduce considerably its radiotoxicity potential. The principal objective of this thesis is to show the feasibility to measure on-line the incineration potential of minor actinides irradiated under very high neutron flux. To realize this goal, we have developed fission micro-chambers able to operate, for the first time in the world, in saturation regime under a severe neutron flux. These new chambers use {sup 235}U as an active deposit. They were irradiated in the high flux reactor at Laue-Langevin Institute in Grenoble. The measurement of the saturation current delivered by these chambers during their irradiation for 26 days allowed to evaluate the burn-up of {sup 235}U. We have determined the neutron flux intensity of 1,6 10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} in the bottom of the irradiation tube called 'V4'. The relative uncertainty of this value is less than 4 %. This is for the first time that such high neutron flux is measured with a fission chamber. To confirm this result, we have also performed independent measurements using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated Nb and Co samples. Both results are in agreement within error bars. Simple Deposit Fission Chambers (SDFC) as above were the reference of the new generation of fission chambers that we have developed in the framework of this thesis: Double Deposit Fission Chambers (DDFC). The reference active deposit was {sup 235}U. The other deposit was the actinide that we wanted to study (e.g. {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am). At the end of the thesis, we present some suggestions to ameliorate the operation of the DDFC to be exploited in other transmutation applications in the future. (author)

  5. The Beta Transmuted Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a beta transmuted Weibull distribution, which contains a number ofdistributions as special cases. The properties of the distribution are discussed and explicit expressions are derived for the mean deviations, Bonferroni and Lorenz curves, and reliability. The distribution and moments of order statistics are also studied. Estimation of the model parameters by the method of maximum likelihood is discussed. The log beta transmuted Weibull model is introduced to analyze censored data. Finally, the usefulness of the new distribution in analyzing positive data is illustrated.

  6. Transmutation studies in France, R and D programme on fuels and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boidron, M.; Chauvin, N.; Garnier, J.C.; PIllon, S.; Vambenepe, G.

    2001-01-01

    For the management of high level and long-lived radioactive waste, a large and continuous research and development effort is carried out in France, to provide a wide range of scientific and technical alternatives along three lines, partitioning and transmutation, disposal in deep geological formations and long term interim surface or subsurface storage. For the line one, and in close link with the partitioning studies, research is carried out to evaluate the transmutation potential of long-lived waste in appropriate reactors configurations (scenarios) relying on current technologies as well as innovative reactors. Performed to evaluate the theoretical feasibility of the Pu consumption and waste transmutation from the point of view of the reactor cores physics to reach the equilibrium of the material fluxes (i.e. consumption = production) and of the isotopic compositions of the fuels, these studies insure the 'scientific' part of the transmutation feasibility. For the technological part of the feasibility of waste transmutation in reactors, a large programme on fuel development is underway. This includes solutions based on the advanced concepts for plutonium fuels in PWR and the development of specific fuels and targets for transmutation in fast reactors in the critical or sub-critical state. For the waste transmutation in fast reactors, an important programme has been launched to develop specific fuels and targets with experiments at various stages of preparation in different experimental reactors including Phenix. Composite fuels as well as particle fuels are considered. This programme is presented and recent results concerning the preparation of the experiments, the characterisation of the compounds properties, the thermal and mechanical modelling and the behaviour of U free fuels are given. (author)

  7. Analysis of the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Design power plant studies were carried out for two applications of the plasma core reactor: (1) As a breeder reactor, (2) As a reactor able to transmute actinides effectively. In addition to the above applications the reactor produced electrical power with a high efficiency. A reactor subsystem was designed for each of the two applications. For the breeder reactor, neutronics calculations were carried out for a U-233 plasma core with a molten salt breeding blanket. A reactor was designed with a low critical mass (less than a few hundred kilograms U-233) and a breeding ratio of 1.01. The plasma core actinide transmutation reactor was designed to transmute the nuclear waste from conventional LWR's. The spent fuel is reprocessed during which 100% of Np, Am, Cm, and higher actinides are separated from the other components. These actinides are then manufactured as oxides into zirconium clad fuel rods and charged as fuel assemblies in the reflector region of the plasma core actinide transmutation reactor. In the equilibrium cycle, about 7% of the actinides are directly fissioned away, while about 31% are removed by reprocessing.

  8. Transmutation: a decade of revival issues, relevant experiments and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade, transmutation studies have been again a topic of wide interest and have triggered numerous international activities, like bilateral/multilateral collaborations, information exchanges, state-of-the-art reports, conferences, but also some co-ordinated programmes and experiments. It is legitimate to ask at this point, whether transmutation studies are still 'fashionable' and why; what is known, what has been done and what should be done. Since the motivations of national programmes are often different, due to a different context, we will take for granted that transmutation is generally seen as an option for the back-end of the fuel cycle in order to reduce the burden of potential geological storages of radioactive wastes (whatever their nature). Finally, we also acknowledge the fact that some highly respected scientists have at several occasions during this decade expressed their doubts about the value of the transmutation option. A typical example is the position expressed by Pigford and Rasmussen, reporting the results of a study for the US National Research Council. (author)

  9. Contribution of the European Commission to a European Strategy for HLW Management through Partitioning and Transmutation: Presentation of MYRRHA and its Role in the European P and T Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahim, H.A.; Van den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Vandeplassche, D.; Kochetkov, A.

    2015-01-01

    To be able to answer the world's increasing demand for energy, nuclear energy must be part of the energy mix. As a consequence of the nuclear electricity generation, high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is produced. The HLW is presently considered to be managed through its burying in geological storage. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) has been pointed out as the strategy to reduce the radiological impact of HLW. Transmutation can be achieved in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, both in critical fast reactors as well as in accelerator driven systems (ADSs). For more than two decades, the European Commission has been co-funding various research and development projects conducted in many European research organisations and industries related to P and T as a complementary strategy for high-level waste management to the geological disposal. In 2005, a European strategy for the implementation of P and T for a large part of the HLW in Europe indicated the need for the demonstration of its feasibility at an 'engineering' level. The R and D activities of this strategy were arranged in four 'building blocks': 1. Demonstration of the capability to process a sizable amount of spent fuel from commercial light water reactors (LWRs) in order to separate plutonium, uranium and minor actinides. 2. Demonstration of the capability to fabricate at a semi-industrial level the dedicated fuel needed as load in a dedicated transmuter. 3. Design and construction of one or more dedicated transmuters. 4. Provision of a specific installation for processing of the dedicated fuel unloaded from the transmuter, which can be of a different type than the one used to process the original spent fuel unloaded from the commercial power plants, together with the fabrication of new dedicated fuel. MYRRHA contributes to the third building block. MYRRHA is an ADS under development at SCK.CEN in collaboration with a large number of European partners. One of

  10. National assessment board for research and the studies into the management of radioactive waste and materials instituted by the law no. 2006-739 of June 28, 2006. Assessment report no. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplessy, Jean-Claude; Ledoux, Emmanuel; Leroy, Maurice; Laurent, Maurice; Pommeret, Stanislas; Jouvance, Chantal; Ledoux, Florence

    2013-11-01

    This report is to reflect the two complementary aspects of studies and research on the management of radioactive waste and materials. The first chapter addresses partitioning and transmutation (inventory and prospects, implementation methodologies for fast neutron reactors, partitioning technique, transmutation technique with its tools and its experimentations like Astrid, the transmutation of minor actinides, the benefit of Americium transmutation, the scenarios for the deployment of sodium-cooled fast-neutron reactors in the French nuclear power fleet, alternatives to sodium-cooled reactors like gas-cooled, molten salt reactors). The second part addresses the storage and disposal of long-lived high-level (LLHL) and long-lived intermediate-level (LLIL) waste in the Cigeo project: geological knowledge of the zones of interest, studies performed in underground and surface laboratories, research programme, digital simulation capabilities, conduct of the draft phase, project design, necessary flexibility of Cigeo, cost, socio-economic impact. The chapter 3 briefly addresses the management of long-lived low-level (LLLL) waste. Consistent with its mission, the National Assessment Board continues to observe the overall international situation. The main elements are reported in Chapter 4. These elements deal with: options in the management of various wastes, international legal context, research laboratories and underground disposal sites, sources of fast-spectrum irradiation, main international initiatives on Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), new technologies for partitioning-transmutation

  11. Study of minor actinides transmutation in heavy water cooled tight-pitch lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoqin; Shiroya, S.

    2002-01-01

    Minor actinides inhere long half-life and high toxicity. It is an alternative technical pathway and helpful for reducing environmental impact to incinerate minor actinides in spent fuel of nuclear power plants. Because of its high neutron, γ and β emitting rates and heat generation rate, it is necessary to imply more severe control and shielding techniques in the chemical treatment and fabrication. From economic view-point, it is suitable to transmute minor actinides in concentrated way. A technique for MA transmutation by heavy water cooled tight-pitch lattice system is proposed, and calculated with SRAC95 code system. It is shown that tight-pitch heavy water lattice can transmute MA effectively. The accelerator-driven subcritical system is practical for MA transmutation because of its low fraction of effective delay neutrons

  12. A proposal for a Los Alamos international facility for transmutations (LIFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Williamson, M.A.; Li, Ning; Doolen, G.

    1996-01-01

    The major groups engaged in transmutation research are converging towards a common objective and similar technology. It is now possible to envision an international program of research aimed at the destruction of reactor-generated (and other) nuclear waste using a series of multipurpose experimental facilities in the near future. Los Alamos National Laboratory, as the home of the highest power LINAC and a very active transmutation technology project, is the ideal host for the first of such facilities. The next step in the international program (a facility 10 times more powerful, for engineering-scale demonstrations) could be built in Europe, where there is substantial interest in the construction of such a device in the framework of international cooperation. A series of experiments at Las Alamos could explore the key transmutation technologies. Liquid lead loops, a liquid lead spallation target, and a large size liquid lead facility with provision for irradiation, cooling and diagnostics of several types of 'transmutation assemblies', where different transmutation concepts will be tested in different media and environments, from transmutation of fission products to destruction by fission of higher actinides, to other waste management applications. The engineering-scale facility, which will follow the initial testing phase, will extend the best concepts to full scale implementation

  13. Partitioning and transmutation of transuranium elements under nuclear phase-out conditions. Technically reliable?; Transmutation von Transuranen unter den Randbedingungen des Kernenergieausstiegs. Technisch machbar?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) could be considered as a technological option in the process of management of highly radioactive waste management, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In this group objectives for P and T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed using simulations of molten salt reactors with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible in 3 to 4 reactors in a time frame of 45 to 60 years. Further on a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation.

  14. Transmutation Studies of Radioactive Nuclides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Jindřich

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2007), s. 125-150 ISSN 1310-0157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : transmutation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders

  15. Neutron transmutation doped Ge bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.; Palaio, N. P.; Richards, P. L.; Rodder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Some conclusions reached are as follow. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) of high quality Ge single crystals provides perfect control of doping concentration and uniformity. The resistivity can be tailored to any given bolometer operating temperature down to 0.1 K and probably lower. The excellent uniformity is advantaged for detector array development.

  16. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes; Mesures des sections efficaces de capture et potentiels d'incineration des actinides mineurs dans les hauts flux de neutrons: Impact sur la transmutation des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O

    2007-10-15

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of {sup 241}Am and {sup 237}Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the {sup 241}Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  17. New options for developing of nuclear energy using an accelerator-driven reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    Fissile fuel can be produced at a high rate using an accelerator-driven Pu-fueled subcritical fast reactor. Thus, the necessity of early introduction of the fast reactor can be moderated. High reliability of the proton accelerator, which is essential to implementing an accelerator-driven reactor in the nuclear energy field can be achieved by a slight extension of the accelerator's length, with only a small economical penalty. Subcritical operation provides flexible nuclear energy options including high neutron economy producing the fuel, transmuting high-level wastes, such as minor actinides, and of converting efficiently the excess Pu and military Pu into proliferation-resistant fuel

  18. Planning and reporting of Russian transmutation research projects within ISTC. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, H. [Uppsala Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research; Gudowski, W. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Reactor Technology; Liljenzin, J.O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Mileikovsky, C. [Pully (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    The International Scientific and Technical Center (ISTC) in Moscow funds research of civil interest to counteract the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation. Recently, new technical concepts, Accelerator Transmutation of Nuclear Waste (ATW), have been proposed to incinerate and transmute long-lived radioactive nuclear waste to relax the time needed to store the waste in a geological repository. The Russian experts are knowledgeable and well equipped for doing research in the different technical fields of relevance for the transmutation concepts. Thus, a number of ISTC projects have been proposed to investigate different technical aspects of ATW with a result that a fair number of former weapon specialists have converted from military to peaceful civilian research. The present report describes the back ground, the status and near term activities of a few ISTC projects of relevance for the ATW concept, which are planned with the participation of a Swedish reference group. 4 refs.

  19. Planning and reporting of Russian transmutation research projects within ISTC. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, H.

    1997-02-01

    The International Scientific and Technical Center (ISTC) in Moscow funds research of civil interest to counteract the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation. Recently, new technical concepts, Accelerator Transmutation of Nuclear Waste (ATW), have been proposed to incinerate and transmute long-lived radioactive nuclear waste to relax the time needed to store the waste in a geological repository. The Russian experts are knowledgeable and well equipped for doing research in the different technical fields of relevance for the transmutation concepts. Thus, a number of ISTC projects have been proposed to investigate different technical aspects of ATW with a result that a fair number of former weapon specialists have converted from military to peaceful civilian research. The present report describes the back ground, the status and near term activities of a few ISTC projects of relevance for the ATW concept, which are planned with the participation of a Swedish reference group. 4 refs

  20. An accelerator-driven reactor for meeting future energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yang, Y.; Yu, A.

    1997-01-01

    Fissile fuel can be produced at a high rate using an accelerator-driven Pu-fueled subcritical fast reactor which avoids encountering a shortage of Pu during a high growth rate in the production of nuclear energy. Furthermore, the necessity of the early introduction of the fast reactor can be moderated. Subcritical operation provides flexible nuclear energy options along with high neutron economy for producing the fuel, for transmuting high-level waste such as minor actinides, and for efficiently converting excess and military Pu into proliferation-resistant fuel

  1. Accelerator-driven thermal fission systems may provide energy supply advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation discusses the energy supply advantages of using accelerator-driven thermal fission systems. Energy supply issues as related to cost, fuel supply stability, environmental impact, and safety are reviewed. It is concluded that the Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept, discussed here, has the following advantages: improved safety in the form of low inventory and subcriticality; reduced high-level radioactive waste management timescales for both fission products and actinides; and a very long-term fuel supply requiring no enrichment

  2. Safety analysis and neutronics of accelerator-driven transmutation of wastes with concurrent energy production. Annual report for the year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.; Thedeen, T.; Moeller, E.

    1997-02-01

    The research activities have significantly expanded compared to the earlier period and were during 1996 concentrated on the following major objectives: ATW system studies, simulations, optimization and design of spallation targets, benchmarking of the calculational tools in the frame of the IAEA coordinated research project, development of the computer codes for ADS and some experimental activities on the subcritical reactor MASURCA. Under 1996 a very extensive international collaboration network has been further developed and many collaborative research projects have been launched. 31 refs

  3. Accelerator driven sub-critical systems for waste transmutation: co-operation and co-ordination in Europe and the role of the technical working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Monti, S.

    2001-01-01

    The TWG under the chairmanship of Carlo Rubbia, enlarged from the three initial partners (France, Italy, Spain) to ten partners (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, JRC, Portugal, Spain, Sweden), has worked to identify critical technical issues, R and D needs and a strategy in view of an ADS demonstration programme. A road map document is being prepared, and state of the art reports have been issued in Accelerator and Fuel and Fuel Processing Technologies. The TWG allows also a monitoring and harmonization of other European projects, like: the MEGAPIE project for the construction and operation of a 1 MWt Pb/Bi target in the SINQ installation in PSI-Switzerland; the proposal for a preliminary design study of an XADS; which will be both submitted to the second call of P and T within the 5. European Framework Programme. (author)

  4. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. 'Buzz' Savage

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program is investigating spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies that have the potential to improve the performance of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. Separating actinides and selected fission products from spent fuel, storing some of them as low level waste and transmuting them in thermal and/or fast reactors has the potential to reduce the volume, short and long-term heat load and radiotoxicity of the high level waste destined for the repository, effectively increasing its capacity by a factor of 50 or more above the current legislative limit. (author)

  5. Accelerator driven reactors and nuclear waste management projects in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janouch, F. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mach, R. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rez near Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-10-01

    The Czech Republic is almost the only country in the central Europe which continues with the construction of nuclear power reactors. Its small territory and dense population causes public worries concerning the disposal of the spent nuclear fuel. The Czech nuclear scientists and the power companies and the nuclear industries are therefore looking for alternative solutions. The Los Alamos ATW project had received a positive response in the Czech mass-media and even in the industrial and governmental quarters. The recent scientific symposium {open_quotes}Accelerator driven reactors and nuclear waste management{close_quotes} convened at the Liblice castle near Prague, 27-29. 6. 1994 and sponsored by the Czech Energy Company CEZ, reviewed the competencies and experimental basis in the Czech republic and made the first attempt to formulate the national approach and to establish international collaboration in this area.

  6. Project 'Installation of a stand at the horizontal channel of the MARIA Research Reactor, Otwock-Swierk, Poland, for the research of transmutation of minor actinides and fission products'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuta, M.

    2006-01-01

    As a long range objective we would like to focus on management of the fuel economy in the sub-critical assembly of the accelerator driven system (ADS) in terms of long lived fission products (LLFP) and minor actinides (MA) transmutation. Transmutation of the radioactive waste (RW) is an important element within the technical objective of the optimal management of the fuel economy in the sub-critical assembly of the accelerator driven system (ADS). Analysis of possible ways of reduction of radioactive wastes by transmutation of radioactive long-lived fission products such as 99 Tc, 129 I and 135 Cs and by burning up of transuranic nuclides implies that the sub-critical assembly of the accelerator driven system should consist of three zones. The requirement of three zones comes out of the fact that each radioactive isotope to be reduced is to be located in a different spectrum of thermal, epithermal and high energy neutron fluxes. High flux thermal neutron environment (≥10 16 n/cm 3 ·s) is expected as the best way for the transmutation of most of the radioactive waste to stable or short-lived nuclides and for increasing the probability for fission such actinides as 237 Np and 238 Np. The concept of ADS system for energy production and for transmutation is quite new to some extent and from this reason it requires many theoretical and experimental studies. The research of transmutation is a very large area of study requiring a significant experimental and financial support, so it can be performed only within the international cooperation. Specifically, the proposed research within this CRP requires important means, in terms of high-energy proton beams, spallation targets, sub-critical assembly, measurement instrumentation, post-irradiation characterisation and its testing and, of course, manpower for the interpretation of results, modelling observed phenomena, and programme management. The personal involved in the research is to be a skilled personal of

  7. Neutronics design for a spherical tokamak fusion-transmutation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Meigen; Feng Kaiming; Yang Bangchao

    2002-01-01

    Based on studies of the spherical tokamak fusion reactors, a concept of fusion-transmutation reactor is put forward. By using the one-dimension transport and burn-up code BISON3.0 to process optimized design, a set of plasma parameters and blanket configuration suitable for the transmutation of MA (Minor Actinides) nuclear waste is selected. Based on the one-dimension calculation, two-dimension calculation has been carried out by using two-dimension neutronics code TWODANT. Combined with the neutron flux given by TWODANT calculation, burn-up calculation has been processed by using the one-dimension radioactivity calculation code FDKR and some useful and reasonable results are obtained

  8. Incentives and recent proposals for partitioning and transmutation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P-T) is perhaps the most elegant means of high level waste disposal. Currently, the cost of fuel obtained from reprocessing spent fuel exceeds the cost of fuel obtained by mining. This has resulted in the once through fuel cycle dominating the US nuclear industry. Despite this fact P-T continues to be examined and debated by the US as well as abroad. The US first seriously considered P-T between approximately 1976 and 1982 but rejected the concept in favor of reprocessing. More recently, since about 1989, as a result of the once through fuel cycle and the growing problems of waste disposal, studies concerning P-T have resumed. This essay will seek to outline the incentives and goals of partitioning and transmutation as it would apply to the disposal of spent fuel in the US. Recent proposals by various US national laboratories for implementing partitioning and transmutation as a high level waste management and disposal device will also be discussed. The review will seek to examine the technical concepts utilized in each of the proposals and their feasibility. The major focus of this essay will be the transmutation methods themselves, while the partitioning methods will be discussed only briefly. This is because of the fact that partitioning methods fall under reprocessing as an already fairly well established and accepted technology while feasible methods for transmutation are still being advanced

  9. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Englund, Sofie; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark St. J.; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Wald, Karin (Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE))

    2007-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products (79Se, 87Rb, 99Tc, 107Pd, 126Sn, 129I, 135Cs) and activation products (14C, 36Cl, 59Ni, 93Zr, 94Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT now in the 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since a further investigation on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour is required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Due to new recruitments we will now also work on ligand design and development. This will decrease the response time between new ligands and their evaluation.

  10. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sofie; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Hervieux, Nadege; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Magnusson, Daniel; Nilsson, Mikael; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2006-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 79}Se, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs) and activation products ({sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 94}N To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the EUROPART project within the European Union sixth framework program. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes, NEWPART and PARTNEW respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since the basic understanding is still needed we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work.

  11. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. I. Overall assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.; Finney, B.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report is concerned with an overall assessment of the feasibility of and incentives for partitioning (recovering) long-lived nuclides from fuel reprocessing and fuel refabrication plant radioactive wastes and transmuting them to shorter-lived or stable nuclides by neutron irradiation. The principal class of nuclides considered is the actinides, although a brief analysis is given of the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of 99 Tc and 129 I. The results obtained in this program permit us to make a comparison of the impacts of waste management with and without actinide recovery and transmutation. Three major conclusions concerning technical feasibility can be drawn from the assessment: (1) actinide P-T is feasible, subject to the acceptability of fuels containing recycle actinides; (2) technetium P-T is feasible if satisfactory partitioning processes can be developed and satisfactory fuels identified (no studies have been made in this area); and (3) iodine P-T is marginally feasible at best because of the low transmutation rates, the high volatility, and the corrosiveness of iodine and iodine compounds. It was concluded on the basis of a very conservative repository risk analysis that there are no safety or cost incentives for actinide P-T. In fact, if nonradiological risks are included, the short-term risks of P-T exceed the long-term benefits integrated over a period of 1 million years. Incentives for technetium and iodine P-T exist only if extremely conservative long-term risk analyses are used. Further RD and D in support of P-T is not warranted

  12. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  13. Evaluation on transmutation performance of minor actinides with high-flux BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, M.B.; Kitamoto, A.; Taniguchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of high-flux BWR (HFBWR) for burning and/or transmutation (B/T) treatment of minor actinides (MA) and long-lived fission products (LLFP) was discussed herein for estimating an advanced waste disposal with partitioning and transmutation (P and T). The concept of high-flux B/T reactor was based on a current 33 GWt-BWR, to transmute the mass of long-lived transuranium (TRU) to short-lived fission products (SLFP). The nuclide selected for B/T treatment was MA (Np-237, Am-241, and Am-243) included in the discharged fuel of LWR. The performance of B/T treatment of MA was evaluated by a new function, i.e. [F/T ratio], defined by the ratio of the fission rate to the transmutation rate in the core, at an arbitrary burn-up, due to all MA nuclides. According to the results, HFBWR could burn and/or transmute MA nuclides with higher fission rate than BWR, but the fission rate did not increase proportionally to the flux increment, due to the higher rate of neutron adsorption. The higher B/T fraction of MA would result in the higher B/T capacity, and will reduce the units of HFBWR needed for the treatment of a constant mass of MA. In addition, HFBWR had a merit of higher mass transmutation compared to the reference BWR, under the same mass loading of MA

  14. Transmutation of fission products through accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Tani, S.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamura, O.

    1995-01-01

    The transmutation of fission products through particle accelerators has been studied under the OMEGA program. The photonuclear reaction has also been investigated to be applied to transmuting long-lived fission products, such as Cesium and Strontium, which have difficulties on reaction with neutrons due to its so small cross section. It is applicable for the transmutation if the energy balance can be improved with a monochromatic gamma rays in the range of the Giant Dipole Resonance generated through an excellent high current electron linear accelerator. The feasibility studies are being conducted on the transmutation system using it through an electron accelerator. (authors)

  15. Lead cooled heterogeneous accelerator driven molten-fluoride blanket for incineration of long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatkin, A.V.; Matyushechkin, V.M.; Tretyakov, I.T.; Blagovolin, P.P.; Kazaritsky, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a tentative design description and evaluation of the basic parameters of a lead cooled heterogeneous accelerator driven molten fluoride blanket. The proton beam of a 1 GeV accelerator strikes the blanket from below and generates spallation neutrons in the flow of lead, which serves as a target. These neutrons leave the target zone and get into a heterogeneous blanket with separated volumes of molten salts and lead. Fissile materials are dissolved in the salt. On getting into the molten salt volume the neutrons cause fission (transmutation) of the actinides, the produced heat being removed by circulation of molten lead. Two versions of the blanket design are examined. The first version: molten salt circulates in the fuel channels, while lead cools the channels flowing through the interchannel space (the salt channel design). The second version: it is lead that circulates in the channels, while molten salt takes up the interchannel space (the lead channel design). A preliminary blanket design study showed that both blanket designs possess a potential for improving performance. At present time the blanket design, mentioned above as the salt channel design, seems to be more promising. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Study of irradiation damages in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels in the framework of nuclear waste transmutation; Dommages d'irradiation dans des ceramiques de structure spinelle MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} et ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} application a la transmutation des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet-Dodane, C

    2002-07-01

    The transmutation of minor actinides in-reactor is one solution currently being studied for the long time management of nuclear waste. In the heterogeneous concept the radionuclides are incorporating in an inert ceramic matrix. The support material must be insensitive to radiation damage. Fission product damage is the main radiation damage source during the transmutation process and therefore it is of the utmost importance to study their effects. We irradiated spinels MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (matrix of reference) and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} by fast ions (by example: {sup 86}Kr of approximately 400 MeV) simulating the fission products. Under these conditions, the damage is primarily due to the electronic energy losses (S{sub e}). One of the structural features of spinel AB{sub 2}O{sub 4} is that the two cations (A{sup 2+} and B{sup 3+}) can exchange their site. This phenomenon is quantified by the inversion parameter. We highlight by XRD in grazing incidence that the structural changes observed in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} correspond to an order-disorder transition from the cation sub-networks and not to a phase shift as described in the literature. Using other techniques characterizing the space group (Raman spectroscopy) as well as the local order (NMR 27Al, spectroscopy of absorption X with the thresholds K of Al and Zn), we confirm this interpretation. Moreover, for a fluence of 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}, the loss of the order at long distance is observed thus meaning a beginning of amorphization of material. The ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel presents the same behaviour. For this last spinel, an evolution of the inversion parameter according to the stopping power 2 was highlighted after irradiation by ions {sup 86}Kr from approximately 20 MeV. We illustrate our study by the analysis of the results obtained in XRD of an irradiation out of composite fuel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} + UO{sub 2}) called THERMHET. (authors)

  17. Dynamic criteria for partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, A.H.

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses dynamic criteria intended to optimize partitioning and transmutation (P-T) concept development supporting improved nuclear waste management. Six criteria are proposed initially and the rationale for each is briefly explained. Each criterion is used as a measure (or dimension) on which the developed concepts can be evaluated. The criteria allow the P-T concepts to be evaluated in an integral system including long-term energy needs, fuel cycle, and waste management. New criteria will be identified along with the P-T concept development, and each criterion will be realistically weighted so that it is comparable in an overall criteria evaluation. The weights are subject to change as a result of technical advancements and public perception on various issues. Incomplete criteria will result in a poor choice because important factors may not be considered when the decision is made. A successful decision on the optimal P-T system depends on the completeness of criteria (dimensions) as well as realistic weights assigned to each criterion

  18. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Nilsson, M.; Rogues, N.; Skarnemark, G.; Oestberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    How to deal with the spent fuel from nuclear power plants is an issue that much research is attracted to in many countries around the world. Several different strategies exist for treating the waste ranging from direct disposal to reprocessing and recycling of plutonium and other long-lived nuclides. In either case the remains have to be stored for a long time to render it radio-toxically safe. One method to deal with this long-lived waste is to separate (separation) out the most long lived components and then transform them into shorter-lived ones (transmutation). Several methods exist for performing the separation for example via molten salts and through solvent extraction. The work presented here has been focused on solvent extraction. This technique is well known since many years and process scale plants have been operating for decades. The new demand is to separate chemically very similar elements from each other. Within this project this is done by new extracting agents developed for this purpose alone within the EU fifth framework programme, the PARTNEW project, particularly from the University of Reading. In this work we investigate different extraction systems for the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides using extraction agents following the so-called CHON (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen) principle. The main focus is to understand the basic chemistry involved but also some processing behaviour for use in future full scale plants

  19. The sphinx project: experimental verification of design inputs for a transmuter with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.; Uhlir, J.; Vanicek, J.

    2002-01-01

    The current proposals for high-active long-lived (more then 10 4 years) waste from spent nuclear fuel disposal calls forth an increasing societal mistrust towards nuclear power. These problems are highly topical in the Czech Republic, a country which is operating nuclear power and accumulating spent fuel from PWRs and is further located on an inland and heavily populous Central European region. The proposed project, known under the acronym SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incineration by Neutron flux) deals with a solution to some of the principle problems through a very promising means of radioactive waste treatment. In particular, high-level wastes from spent nuclear fuel could be treated using this method, which is based on the transmutation of radionuclides through the use of a nuclear reactor with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides (Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor - MSTR) which might be a subcritical system driven by a suitable neutron source. Its superiority also lies in the fact that it makes possible to utilize actinides contained, by others, in spent nuclear fuel and so to reach a positive energy effect. After the first three-year stage of Research and Development which has been focused mostly on computer analyses of neutronics and corresponding physical characteristics, the next three-year stage of this programme will be devoted to experimental verification of inputs for the design of a demonstration transmuter using molten fluoride fuel. The Research and Development part of the SPHINX project in the area of fuel cycle of the MSTR is focused in the first place on the development of suitable technology for the preparation of an introductory liquid fluoride fuel for MSTR and subsequently on the development of suitable fluoride pyrometallurgical technology for the separation of the transmuted elements from the non-transmuted ones. The idea of the introductory fuel preparation is based on the reprocessing of PWR spent fuel using the Fluoride Volatility Method

  20. Calculation of the packing fraction in a pebble-bed ADS and redesigning of the Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, L.; Pérez, J.; García, C.; Escrivá, A.; Rosales, J.; Abánades, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We based our study on an ADS for TRU transmutation and high temperature production. ► We calculated the number of pebbles that fit in a cylindrical ADS core. ► In both ADS design options studied, the mass of Pu isotopes reduces considerably. ► The system can reach coolant outlet temperatures high enough for hydrogen production. ► The maximum temperature values obtained in the ADS are not dangerous for TRISO fuel. - Abstract: One of the main problems that should be addressed in the use of nuclear fuels for heat and electricity production is the management of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear power plants and its inventory minimization. Fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) are the main options for reducing the long-lived radioactive waste inventory. In previous studies, the conceptual design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) has been made. The TADSEA is a pebble-bed ADS cooled by helium and moderated by graphite; it uses as fuel small amounts of transuranic elements in the form of TRISO particles, confined in 3 cm radius graphite pebbles. It has been conceived for Plutonium (Pu) and Minor Actinides (MA) transmutation and for achieving very high helium temperatures at the core's outlet to match the thermal requirements for hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis (HTE) or by the iodine-sulfur (I–S) thermo-chemical cycle. In this paper, a geometrical method for calculating the real number of pebbles that fit in a cylindrical ADS core, according to its size and pebble configuration, is described. Based on its results, the packing fraction influence on the TADSEA's main work parameters is studied, and the redesign of the previous configuration is done in order to maintain the exit thermal power established in the preliminary design. Results have shown the capability of the system to reach coolant outlet temperatures high enough for its application to hydrogen

  1. The status of nuclear data for transmutation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.B.; England, T.R.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Muir, D.W.; Young, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this point, the accurate description of transmutation products in a radiation environment is more a nuclear data problem than a code development effort. We have used versions of the CINDER code for over three decades to describe the transmutation of nuclear reactor fuels in radiation environments. The need for the accurate description of reactor neutron-absorption, decay-power, and decay-spectra properties have driven many AEC, ERDA, and DOE supported nuclear data development efforts in this period. The level of cross-section, decay, and fission-yield data has evolved from rudimentary to a comprehensive ENDF/B-VI library permitting great precision in reactor calculations. The precision of the data supporting reactor simulations provides a sturdy foundation for the data base required for the wide range of transmutation problems currently studied. However, such reactor problems are typically limited to neutron energies below 10 MeV or so; reaction and decay data are required for actinides of, say, 90 ≤ Z ≤ 96 neutron-rich fission products of 22 ≤ Z ≤ 72. The expansion into reactor structural materials and fusion systems extends these ranges in energy and Z somewhat. The library of nuclear data, constantly growing in breadth and quality with international cooperation, is now described in the following table

  2. Chemistry of pyroprocessing for nuclear waste transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Pyrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel is an attractive approach for separating the transuranium (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium because of its simplicity, diversion resistance, and potentially low cost.

  3. Method to Reduce Long-lived Fission Products by Nuclear Transmutations with Fast Spectrum Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Wakabayashi, Toshio; Tachi, Yoshiaki; Takaki, Naoyuki; Terashima, Atsunori; Okumura, Shin; Yoshida, Tadashi

    2017-10-24

    Transmutation of long-lived fission products (LLFPs: 79 Se, 93 Zr, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 129 I, and 135 Cs) into short-lived or non-radioactive nuclides by fast neutron spectrum reactors without isotope separation has been proposed as a solution to the problem of radioactive wastes disposal. Despite investigation of many methods, such transmutation remains technologically difficult. To establish an effective and efficient transmutation system, we propose a novel neutron moderator material, yttrium deuteride (YD 2 ), to soften the neutron spectrum leaking from the reactor core. Neutron energy spectra and effective half-lives of LLFPs, transmutation rates, and support ratios were evaluated with the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MVP-II/MVP-BURN and the JENDL-4.0 cross section library. With the YD 2 moderator in the radial blanket and shield regions, effective half-lives drastically decreased from 106 to 102 years and the support ratios reached 1.0 for all six LLFPs. This successful development and implementation of a transmutation system for LLFPs without isotope separation contributes to a the ability of fast spectrum reactors to reduce radioactive waste by consuming their own LLFPs.

  4. Nudatra: nuclear data for transmutation in IP-Eurotrans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, E.M.; Koning, A.; Leray, S.; Plompen, A.; Sanz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of NUDATRA, Domain 5 of the EU Integrated Project EUROTRANS (FI6W-CT-2004- 516520), is to improve and validate the nuclear data and simulation tools required for the development and optimisation of nuclear waste transmutation, ADS dedicated transmutation systems and the associated fuel cycle. Activities are essentially aimed at supplementing the evaluated nuclear data libraries and improving the reaction models for materials in transmutation fuels, coolants, spallation targets, internal structures, and reactor and accelerator shielding, relevant for the design and optimisation of the ETD and XT-ADS. These activities are distributed over four Work Packages: Sensitivity Analysis and Validation of Nuclear Data and Simulation Tools; Low- and Intermediate-energy Nuclear Data Measurements; Nuclear Data Libraries Evaluation and Low-intermediate Energy Models; and High-energy Experiments and Modelling.The main accomplishments expected from NUDATRA are: 1) new measurements and evaluations of Pb-Bi cross-sections, i.e. inelastic, (n,xn) and isomer branching ratios (Po production); 2) new measurements and evaluations for minor actinides particularly the capture in 243 Am and fission on 244 Cm; 3) improvement of TALYS as an evaluation tool and as an a priori model for the estimation of low- and intermediate-energy reaction cross-section; 4) high-energy model improvement based on measurements, particularly for the prediction of the spallation products, and gas (H, He) production cross-sections; 5) sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of ETD fuel cycle and related covariance issues. (authors)

  5. Transmutation of minor actinide using BWR fueled mixed oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilo, Jati

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear spent fuel recycle has a strategic importance in the aspect of nuclear fuel economy and prevention of its spread-out. One among other application of recycle is to produce mixed oxide fuel (Mo) namely mixed Plutonium and uranium oxide. As for decreasing the burden of nuclear high level waste (HLW) treatment, transmutation of minor actinide (MA) that has very long half life will be carried out by conversion technique in nuclear reactor. The purpose of this study was to know influence of transition fuel cell regarding the percent weight of transmutation MA in the BWR fueled MOX. Calculation of cell BWR was used SRAC computer code, with assume that the reactor in equilibrium. The percent weight of transmutation MA to be optimum by increasing the discharge burn-up of nuclear fuel, raising ratio of moderator to fuel volume (Vm/Vf), and loading MA with percent weight about 3%-6% and also reducing amount of percent weight Pu in MOX fuel. For mixed fuel standard reactor, reactivity value were obtained between about -50pcm ∼ -230pcm for void coefficient and -1.8pcm ∼ -2.6pcm for fuel temperature coefficient

  6. Actinides transmutation - a comparison of results for PWR benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, Luiz H.

    2009-01-01

    The physical aspects involved in the Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) of minor actinides (MA) and fission products (FP) generated by reactors PWR are of great interest in the nuclear industry. Besides these the reduction in the storage of radioactive wastes are related with the acceptability of the nuclear electric power. From the several concepts for partitioning and transmutation suggested in literature, one of them involves PWR reactors to burn the fuel containing plutonium and minor actinides reprocessed of UO 2 used in previous stages. In this work are presented the results of the calculations of a benchmark in P and T carried with WIMSD5B program using its new cross sections library generated from the ENDF-B-VII and the comparison with the results published in literature by other calculations. For comparison, was used the benchmark transmutation concept based in a typical PWR cell and the analyzed results were the k∞ and the atomic density of the isotopes Np-239, Pu-241, Pu-242 and Am-242m, as function of burnup considering discharge of 50 GWd/tHM. (author)

  7. Consultancy to review and finalize the IAEA publication 'Compendium on the use of fusion/fission hybrids for the utilization and transmutation of actinides and long-lived fission products'. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the traditional fission reactor research, fusion R and D activities are becoming of interest also to nuclear fission power development. There is renewed interest in utilizing fusion neutrons, Heavy Liquid Metals, and molten salts for innovative systems (energy production and transmutation). Indeed, for nuclear power development to become sustainable as a long-term energy option, innovative fuel cycle and reactor technologies will have to be developed to solve the problems of resource utilization and long-lived radioactive waste management. In this context Member States clearly expressed the need for comparative assessments of various transmutation reactors. Both the fusion and fission communities are currently investigating the potential of innovative reactor and fuel cycle strategies that include a fusion/fission system. The attention is mainly focused on substantiating the potential advantages of such systems: utilization and transmutation of actinides and long-lived fission products, intrinsic safety features, enhanced proliferation resistance, and fuel breeding capabilities. An important aspect of the ongoing activities is the comparison with the accelerator driven subcritical system (spallation neutron source), which is the other main option for producing excess neutrons. Apart from comparative assessments, knowledge preservation is another subject of interest to the Member States: the goal, applied to fusion/fission systems, is to review the status of, and to produce a 'compendium' of past and present achievements in this area

  8. Recycling of actinides and nuclear waste products. Annual report of the research programme 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Boerrigter, H.; Damen, P.G.M.; Gruppelaar, H.; Huntelaar, M.E.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    The research program on the title subject started in 1994 and is planned to be completed in 1998. In this period several technical and scientific aspects of recycling and transmutation are investigated in different projects. The results of the 1997 projects, carried out in the period July 1997 to June 1998, are summarized and described in this report. The 1997 projects concern (1) transmutation of actinides in inert matrices with the aim to design, test and characterize uranium-free fission materials for the transmutation of actinides, both for single as for multiple recycling strategies; (2) scenario studies for plutonium recycling with the aim to gain insight into the possibilities to reduce plutonium reserves by using plutonium as a fissionable material in reactors; (3) transmutation by means of accelerator-driven systems with the aim to analyze the options for the burning of plutonium in accelerator-driven, thorium-based systems; and (4) separation of actinides and lanthanides by means of Supported Liquid Membranes with the aim to study the possibility to extract americium from nuclear waste materials. refs

  9. Research activities related to accelerator-based transmutation at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wydler, P.

    1993-01-01

    Transmutation of actinides and fission products using reactors and other types of nuclear systems may play a role in future waste management schemes. Possible advantages of separation and transmutation are: volume reductions, the re-use of materials, the avoidance of a cumulative risk, and limiting the duration of the risk. With its experience in reactor physics, accelerator-based physics, and the development of the SINQ spallation neutron source, PSI is in a good position to perform basic theoretical and experimental studies relating to the accelerator-based transmutation of actinides. Theoretical studies at PSI have been concentrated, so far, on systems in which protons are used directly to transmute actinides. With such systems and appropriate recycling schemes, the studies showed that considerable reduction factors for long-term toxicity can be obtained. With the aim of solving some specific data and method problems related to these types of systems, a programme of differential and integral measurements at the PSI ring accelerator has been initiated. In a first phase of this programme, thin samples of actinides will be irradiated with 590 MeV protons, using an existing irradiation facility. The generated spallation and fission products will be analysed using different experimental techniques, and the results will be compared with theoretical predictions based on high-energy nucleon-meson transport calculations. The principal motivation for these experiments is to resolve discrepancies observed between calculations based on different high-energy fission models. In a second phase of the programme, it is proposed to study the neutronic behaviour of multiplying target-blanket assemblies with the help of zero-power experiments set up at a separate, dedicated beam line of the accelerator. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  10. Program on fuels for transmutation: present status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C.; Chauvin, N.; Pillon, S. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles

    2001-07-01

    The performance calculations of appropriate fuel cycle facilities and reactor configurations (scenarios) relying on current reactor technologies (Pressurized Water Reactor and Fast neutrons Reactors) or innovative reactors (Accelerator Driven Systems) have proved the scientific feasibility of some P and T strategies. To insure the technological feasibility, a large program on fuels and materials is underway, including advanced concepts for PWRs and the development of specific targets (dispersed fuels) for transmutation in Fast Reactors. Experiments in different reactors including Phenix are being prepared. The program is presented and recent results are given. (author)

  11. Program on fuels for transmutation: present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C.; Chauvin, N.; Pillon, S.

    2001-01-01

    The performance calculations of appropriate fuel cycle facilities and reactor configurations (scenarios) relying on current reactor technologies (Pressurized Water Reactor and Fast neutrons Reactors) or innovative reactors (Accelerator Driven Systems) have proved the scientific feasibility of some P and T strategies. To insure the technological feasibility, a large program on fuels and materials is underway, including advanced concepts for PWRs and the development of specific targets (dispersed fuels) for transmutation in Fast Reactors. Experiments in different reactors including Phenix are being prepared. The program is presented and recent results are given. (author)

  12. A low power ADS for transmutation studies in fast systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panza, Fabio; Firpo, Gabriele; Lomonaco, Guglielmo; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Saracco, Paolo; Viberti, Carlo Maria

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we report studies on a fast low power accelerator driven system model as a possible experimental facility, focusing on its capabilities in terms of measurement of relevant integral nuclear quantities. In particular, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of minor actinides and fission products irradiation and estimated the fission rate within fission chambers in the reactor core and the reflector, in order to evaluate the transmutation rates and the measurement sensitivity. We also performed a photo-peak analysis of available experimental data from a research reactor, in order to estimate the expected sensitivity of this analysis method on the irradiation of samples in the ADS considered.

  13. New infrastructure for studies of transmutation and fast systems concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panza, Fabio; Firpo, Gabriele; Lomonaco, Guglielmo; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Saracco, Paolo; Viberti, Carlo Maria

    2017-09-01

    In this work we report initial studies on a low power Accelerator-Driven System as a possible experimental facility for the measurement of relevant integral nuclear quantities. In particular, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of minor actinides and fission products irradiation and estimated the fission rate within fission chambers in the reactor core and the reflector, in order to evaluate the transmutation rates and the measurement sensitivity. We also performed a photo-peak analysis of available experimental data from a research reactor, in order to estimate the expected sensitivity of this analysis method on the irradiation of samples in the ADS considered.

  14. Transmutation studies with GAMMA-2 setup using relativistic proton beams of the JINR Nuclotron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Jindřich; Balabekyan, AR.; Bradnova, V.; Brandt, R.; Golovatiouk, V. M.; Katovsky, K.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Odoj, R.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Robotham, H.; Siemon, K.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Vladimirova, NM.; Westmeier, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 562, č. 2 (2006), s. 741-742 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : spallation neutron source * transmutation * nuclear waste incineration Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.185, year: 2006

  15. Study on a waste heat-driven adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2012-05-01

    This article presents the performance analysis of a waste heat-driven adsorption cycle. With the implementation of adsorption-desorption phenomena, the cycle simultaneously produces cooling energy and high-grade potable water. A mathematical model is developed using isotherm characteristics of the adsorbent/adsorbate pair (silica gel and water), energy and mass balances for the each component of the cycle. The cycle is analyzed using key performance parameters namely (i) specific cooling power (SCP), (ii) specific daily water production (SDWP), (iii) the coefficient of performance (COP) and (iv) the overall conversion ratio (OCR). The numerical results of the adsorption cycle are validated using experimental data. The parametric analysis using different h