WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste tire rubber

  1. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  2. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  3. Devulcanization of Waste Tire Rubber Using Amine Based Solvents and Ultrasonic Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Walvekar Rashmi; Afiq Zulkefly Mohammad.; Ramarad Suganti; Khalid Siddiqui

    2018-01-01

    This research project focuses on an alternative pathway of devulcanizing waste tire rubber by using amine based chemicals. Waste tire rubbers are known to be as toxic, non-degradable material due to their vulcanized crosslink carbon structure, and disposing of such waste could impose hazardous impacts on the environment. The current rubber recycling methods that are practiced today are rather uneconomical, non-environmentally friendly, and also producing recycled rubber with low quality due t...

  4. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications.

  5. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used

  6. Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete with Cubed Waste Tire Rubbers as Coarse Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Y.; Hermanto, N. I. S.; Pamudji, G.; Wardana, K. P.

    2017-11-01

    One feasible solution to overcome the issue of tire disposal waste is the use of waste tire rubber to replace aggregate in concrete. We have conducted an experimental investigation on the effect of rubber tire waste aggregate in cuboid form on the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of concrete. The test was performed on 72 cylindrical specimens with the height of 300 mm and diameter of 150 mm. We found that the workability of concrete with waste tire rubber aggregate has increased. The concrete density with waste tire rubber aggregate was decreased, and so was the compressive strength. The decrease of compressive strength is up to 64.34%. If the content of waste tire rubber aggregate is more than 40%, then the resulting concrete cannot be categorized as structural concrete. The modulus of elasticity decreased to 59.77%. The theoretical equation developed to determine the modulus of elasticity of concrete with rubber tire waste aggregate has an accuracy of 84.27%.

  7. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., Lima, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  8. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer–GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties. - Highlights: ► In this study ground tire rubber was incorporated into polyethylene (LDPE) matrix. ► Compatibilizing effects of irradiation and ethylene-vinyl acetate were investigated. ► The samples were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion and injection molding. ► Both compatibilizing methods improved the rubber-like properties of the blends. ► This improvement was especially significant when they were applied together.

  9. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-09-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer-GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Hot Mix Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Concrete Using Waste Tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak Seok; Lee, Woo Yeol [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea)

    1998-06-30

    Wheel tracking and ravelling tests were conducted on the hot mix crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete using waste tire to evaluate the mechanical properties in comparison with conventional asphalt concrete. According to the test results, the modified product was superior to the conventional one by 50% in the resistance of permanent deformation and by 15% in the resistance of durability. The experimental results should recommend that the waste tire is positively recycled for asphalt concrete. (author). 11 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, L.; Barany, T.; Czvikovszky, T.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. One of the principal problems of common recycling of technical polymers is the thermodynamical incompatibility. The change of the Gibbs 'free energy' during the mixing - determined by the changes of enthalpy and entropy - should be directed towards the miscibility. In most of cases, even between closely related polymers, the compatibility is on low level which leads to phase separation and weak adhesion between the phases. Radiation treatment may help in this problem making the polymers more compatible by creating covalent bonds between the polymer phases. Such problem arises at the recycling of ground tire rubbers (GTR). The rubber properties of GTR could be utilized by mixing the GTR with thermoplastic olefins. With the aid of radiation treatment the rubber-like properties of these types of thermoplastic elastomers can be increased. In this study polyethylene (PE) (50-70 wt%) as thermoplastic olefin, 30 wt% of GTR and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) (0-20 wt%) as rubber-like compatibilizing material were used for preparation of a recycled rubber containing blend, processable by thermoplastic processes. The melt-mixing of the samples was made by extrusion and then the test specimens were injection molded. The injection molded samples were than treated by high energy electron beam. On the specimens tensile tests, hysteresis, falling weight impact tests, hardness measurements, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA) were carried out. The results proved the benefit of the electron beam treatment.

  12. Study of microcellular injection-molded polypropylene/waste ground rubber tire powder blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Zhen Xiang; Zhang, Zhen Xiu; Pal, Kaushik; Byeon, Jong Ung; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2010-01-01

    Microcellular polypropylene/waste ground rubber tire powder blend processing was performed on an injection-molding machine with a chemical foaming agent. The molded samples produced based on the design of experiments (DOE) matrices were subjected to tensile testing and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. Molding conditions and waste ground rubber tire (WGRT) powder have been found to have profound effects on the cell structures and mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) and waste ground rubber tire powder composite samples. The result shows that microcellular PP/WGRT blend samples exhibit smaller cell size and higher cell density compare with polypropylene resin. Among the molding parameters studied, chemical foaming agent weight percentage has the most significant effect on cell size, cell density, and tensile strength. The results also suggest that tensile strength of microcellular PP/WGRT composites is sensitive to weight reduction, and skin thickness.

  13. Characterization of the properties of thermoplastic elastomers containing waste rubber tire powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuling; Xin Zhenxiang; Zhang Zhenxiu; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to recycle waste rubber tires by using powdering technology and treating the waste rubber tire powder with bitumen. It has been proven that the elongation at break, thermal stability and processing flowability of composites of polypropylene (PP), waste rubber tire powder (WRT) and bitumen composites are better than those of PP/WRT composite. A comparative study has been made to evaluate the influence of bitumen content and different compatibilizers on the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites, using a universal testing machine (UTM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a capillary rheometer. The results suggested that the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites were dependent on the bitumen content and the kind of compatibilizer used

  14. Using Crumb Rubber from Waste Tires to Reduce Road Traffic Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of measurements of sound pressure levels on an experimental road section (road pavement with addition of crumb rubber from waste tires in Mala Ida village (Kosice region, Slovakia and on a road with stone mastic asphalt in Haniska village (Presov region, Slovakia are presented in the paper. The results obtained using statistical pass-by methods were compared and they confirmed that road surface with addition of crumb rubber from waste tires produced quieter pavement than stone mastic asphalt road pavement alone.

  15. Chromium removal from water by activated carbon developed from waste rubber tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Ali, Imran; Saleh, Tawfik A; Siddiqui, M N; Agarwal, Shilpi

    2013-03-01

    Because of the continuous production of large amount of waste tires, the disposal of waste tires represents a major environmental issue throughout the world. This paper reports the utilization of waste tires (hard-to-dispose waste) as a precursor in the production of activated carbons (pollution-cleaning adsorbent). In the preparation of activated carbon (AC), waste rubber tire (WRT) was thermally treated and activated. The tire-derived activated carbon was characterized by means of scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectrophotometer, and X-ray diffraction. In the IR spectrum, a number of bands centred at about 3409, 2350, 1710, 1650, and 1300-1000 cm(-1) prove the present of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of AC in addition to C═C double bonds. The developed AC was tested and evaluated as potential adsorbent removal of chromium (III). Experimental parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH were optimized. A rapid uptake of chromium ions was observed and the equilibrium is achieved in 1 h. It was also found that the adsorption process is pH dependent. This work adds to the global discussion of the cost-effective utilization of waste rubber tires for waste water treatment.

  16. Acoustic Behavior of Hollow Blocks and Bricks Made of Concrete Doped with Waste-Tire Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fraile-Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the acoustic behaviour of building elements made of concrete doped with waste-tire rubber. Three different mixtures were created, with 0%, 10%, and 20% rubber in their composition. Bricks, lattice joists, and hollow blocks were manufactured with each mixture, and three different cells were built and tested against aerial and impact noise. The values of the global acoustic isolation and the reduction of the sound pressure level of impacts were measured. Results proved that highly doped elements are an excellent option to isolate low frequency sounds, whereas intermediate and standard elements constitute a most interesting option to block middle and high frequency sounds. In both cases, the considerable amount of waste-tire rubber recycled could justify the employment of the doped materials for the sake of the environment.

  17. Devulcanization of Waste Tire Rubber Using Amine Based Solvents and Ultrasonic Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walvekar Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project focuses on an alternative pathway of devulcanizing waste tire rubber by using amine based chemicals. Waste tire rubbers are known to be as toxic, non-degradable material due to their vulcanized crosslink carbon structure, and disposing of such waste could impose hazardous impacts on the environment. The current rubber recycling methods that are practiced today are rather uneconomical, non-environmentally friendly, and also producing recycled rubber with low quality due to the alteration in the main polymeric chains of waste rubber. This project aims to answer the question of whether the usage of amine can produce high quality rubber, where the properties of recycled rubber is almost the same as new/virgin rubber. With known potential of amine, it is a challenge for the chemical to selectively cleave the sulfur bonds without affecting the main carbon backbone chain in the rubber structure and diminishing much of the rubber properties. To study this research, amine-treated rubber must undergo devulcanisation process by applying heat and sonication energy. Then, the properties of the amine-treated rubber were determined through a set of characterization tests and analysis which are: gel content test to determine the weight of rubber before and after devulcanization, the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA to determine the thermal degradation and stability of rubber, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR to determine any structural change of the rubber. In this research so far, the first two preliminary analysis tests have been performed. The gel content test has shown that tertiary amine samples possessed a lower gel content (% of (77 – 63 %, compared to primary amine samples (falls within the range of 80%, as well as the TGA test in which tertiary amine samples degrade faster than primary amine samples (suggesting a higher degree of rubber structure breakdown. For each type of amine, the concertation of amine did

  18. DURABILITY OF GREEN CONCRETE WITH TERNARY CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEM CONTAINING RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE AND TIRE RUBBER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID MATOUQ ASSAS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All over the world billions of tires are being discarded and buried representing a serious ecological threat. Up to now a small part is recycled and millions of tires are just stockpiled, landfilled or buried. This paper presents results about the properties and the durability of green concrete contains recycled concrete as a coarse aggregate with partial replacement of sand by tire rubber wastes for pavement use. Ternary cementious system, Silica fume, Fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust are used as partial replacement of cement by weight. Each one replaced 10% of cement weight to give a total replacement of 30%. The durability performance was assessed by means of water absorption, chloride ion permeability at 28 and 90 days, and resistance to sulphuric acid attack at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. Also to the compression behaviors for the tested specimens at 7, 14, 28 and 90 days were detected. The results show the existence of ternary cementitious system, silica fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust minimizes the strength loss associated to the use of rubber waste. In this way, up to 10% rubber content and 30% ternary cementious system an adequate strength class value (30 MPa, as required for a wide range of common structural uses, can be reached both through natural aggregate concrete and recycled aggregate concrete. Results also show that, it is possible to use rubber waste up to 15% and still maintain a high resistance to acid attack. The mixes with 10%silica fume, 10% fly ash and 10% Cement Kiln Dust show a higher resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix independently of the rubber waste content. The mixes with rubber waste and ternary cementious system was a lower resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix.

  19. Marshall properties of asphalt concrete using crumb rubber modified of motorcycle tire waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the effect of Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) of motorcycle tire waste on Marshall properties of asphalt mix. Two types of aggregate gradation, asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC) and asphalt concrete base (ACB), and CRM passing #50 sieve size were used. Seven levels of CRM content were investigated in this study, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, and 6% by weight of aggregate. Marshall test is conducted on Marshall specimens. The specimens are tested in their optimum binder content (OBC). The results indicate that CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste increases the Marshall stability of the both mix, ACWC and ACB. In addition, 1% CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste of the total mix weight is the best mix.

  20. Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, Jielun

    1998-01-01

    There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

  1. Behavior of granular rubber waste tire reinforced soil for application in geosynthetic reinforced soil wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. D. RAMIREZ

    Full Text Available AbstractLarge quantities of waste tires are released to the environment in an undesirable way. The potential use of this waste material in geotechnical applications can contribute to reducing the tire disposal problem and to improve strength and deformation characteristics of soils. This paper presents a laboratory study on the effect of granular rubber waste tire on the physical properties of a clayey soil. Compaction tests using standard effort and consolidated-drained triaxial tests were run on soil and mixtures. The results conveyed an improvement in the cohesion and the angle of internal friction the clayey soil-granular rubber mixture, depending on the level of confining stress. These mixtures can be used like backfill material in soil retaining walls replacing the clayey soil due to its better strength and shear behavior and low unit weight. A numerical simulation was conducted for geosynthetic reinforced soil wall using the clayey soil and mixture like backfill material to analyzing the influence in this structure.

  2. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  3. A comparative study of natural rubber modified with ground tire rubber of truck

    OpenAIRE

    Binti Haridan, Ili Liyana

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of waste rubber has considerable significance in term of environmental protection and energy conservation. Considering that most of the relevant literature is concerned with tire recycling, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize the elastomeric samples of natural rubber (NR) composites filled with ground tire rubber of truck (GTR) devulcanized by microwave (DGTR). The tire rubber was ground under ambient conditions and subjected to microwave exposure for 3, 5 and ...

  4. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  5. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  6. Analysis of Cement-Based Pastes Mixed with Waste Tire Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, O. C.; Ozyazgan, C.; Sayin, B.

    2017-03-01

    Using the methods of thermal gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, Furier transform infrared analysis, and capillary absorption, the properties of a cement composite produced by introducing waste tyre rubber into a cement mixture were investigated. It was found that the composite filled with the rubber had a much lower water absorption ability than the unfilled one.

  7. Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber for Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire crumb rubber derived from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. An estimated 95% of the over 12,000 installed fields in the U.S. use tire crumb rubber infill alone or mixed with sand or alternative materials. Concerns...

  8. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  9. Parametric Study for Devulcanization of Waste Tire Rubber Utilizing Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walvekar Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste rubber is a polymeric material containing 50% of rubber and is generally referred to as waste tyre rubber. The main purpose of this research is to study ultrasonic devulcanisation of waste rubber utilising deep eutectic solvent (DES of ZnCl2:Urea by improving process parameters such as sonication time, reaction temperature and rubber: DES mass ratio by effectively cleaving cross-link sulphur bonds. DES was created and prepared by mixing ZnCl2 with urea at 2:7 and 1:4 molar ratios respectively. Physicochemical properties of the prepared DES was measured using DSC, KFT and TGA analysis to find the freezing point, moisture content and degradation temperature, whereby their freezing point below 60°C, moisture content lower than 3.0 wt.% and 200°C degradation temperature average. Rubber to DES mass ratio was varied at 1:20, 1:30 and 1:40 and sonicated for 15 minutes inside ultrasonic water-bath. Samples were placed onto hot plate whereby heating temperature was varied at room temperature, 130°C, 150°C, and 180°C for 15 minutes. Samples were filtered, washed with distilled water and dried in oven for 24 hours. Once dried, samples were taken for analysis using TGA, EDX, FESEM, FTIR and Gel content. Under TGA analysis, most samples have an average degradation temperature of 200°C, hence justifying a successful devulcanisation. EDX analysis shows two occurrences during devulcanisation process which is bond reformation and cleavage. Furthermore, it is determined that heating temperature of 130°C is an important parameter as it is the optimum temperature for ZnCl2:Urea. Under FTIR analysis, it shows that disulphide bond, S-S is the only bond that is being broken while the rest still remains the same. Gel content analysis showed that samples have a lower soluble fraction after devulcanisation process. Finally, FESEM proves that at 130°C and 15 minutes is the optimum temperature and time which is illustrated by the smooth surface at that

  10. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  11. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  12. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowei, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Sheng, Huang [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Xiaoyang, Guo, E-mail: guoxiaoyangswpi@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Wenhui, Duan, E-mail: wenhui.duan@monash.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne 3800 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was modified by plasma polymerization of ethanol. • Hydrophilic groups were introduced onto WTR surface and improved its hydrophilia. • The functionalized crumb WTR was applied in oil-well cement. • The mechanical properties of modified oil-well cement were intensively enhanced. - Abstract: Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as –COOH, C–OH, and –CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization

  13. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaowei, Cheng; Sheng, Huang; Xiaoyang, Guo; Wenhui, Duan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was modified by plasma polymerization of ethanol. • Hydrophilic groups were introduced onto WTR surface and improved its hydrophilia. • The functionalized crumb WTR was applied in oil-well cement. • The mechanical properties of modified oil-well cement were intensively enhanced. - Abstract: Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as –COOH, C–OH, and –CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization

  14. Laboratory Investigation on the Effects of Natural Fine Aggregates and Recycled Waste Tire Rubber in Pervious Concrete to Develop More Sustainable Pavement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicelli, Alessandra; Fuentes, Luis G.; Khalil Dawd Bermejo, Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Pervious concrete pavement is a recognized sustainable solution for urban roads. To enhance mechanical properties of pervious concrete material, in order to allow wider use of this technology, a lot of studies are going on all over the world. The use of a little percentage of fine aggregates is proven to increase the material resistance without an excessive reduction of permeability. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing the fine virgin aggregates with r cycled tire rubber. 14 different mixes were analysed in terms of indirect tensile strength resistance, void content and density. Two different dimensions of crumb rubber were studied, as well as two different dosages, which were applied to different no-fine control mixes. All results were compared with the same control mixes containing natural fine aggregate. The mixes had a fixed granulometric curve but varied in water/cement ratio; this in order to evaluate the effect of recycled rubber depending to w/c ratio of the mix. An image analysis was also conducted to verify the rubber distribution in the mixture and the cracking surfaces. The experimental analysis showed that a correct proportioning of fine sand significantly increased the strength of the material. Moreover, the use of recycled waste tire rubber, gave interesting improvements respect to the no-fine control mixes, even though the developed resistance was lower respect to mixes containing mineral sand. This result was expected because of the cementing property of mineral sand. Although, the important result was that it was possible to use waste tire rubber in pervious concrete, with an appropriate dosage and granular dimension, for increasing the performance of traditional mix design, in order to achieve pavement materials more and more sustainable.

  15. Upscaling of a Batch De-vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Reuvekamp, Louis A.E.M.; Heideman, G.; Blume, Anke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount

  16. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0054; Notice 2] Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper) \\1\\, has determined that approximately 6,964 passenger car...

  17. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...-0054; Notice 1] Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 6,964 passenger car replacement tires manufactured between January 23, 2011 and March 26, 2011, do not fully comply...

  18. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  19. Interactive effect of trivalent iron on activated sludge digestion and biofilm structure in attached growth reactor of waste tire rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafat, Iqra; Saeed, Dania Khalid; Yasmin, Sumera; Imran, Asma; Zafar, Zargona; Hameed, Abdul; Ali, Naeem

    2018-01-01

    Waste tire rubber (WTR) has been introduced as an alternative, novel media for biofilm development in several experimental systems including attached growth bioreactors. In this context, four laboratory-scale static batch bioreactors containing WTR as a support material for biofilm development were run under anoxic condition for 90 days using waste activated sludge as an inoculum under the influence of different concentrations (2.5, 6.5, 8.5 mg/l) of trivalent ferric iron (Fe 3+ ). The data revealed that activated sludge with a Fe 3+ concentration of 8.5 mg/l supported the maximum bacterial biomass [4.73E + 10 CFU/ml cm 2 ]; besides, it removed 38% more Chemical oxygen demand compared to Fe 3+ free condition from the reactor. Biochemical testing and 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis of WTR-derived biofilm communities further suggested the role of varying concentrations of Fe 3+ on the density and diversity of members of Enterobacteria(ceae), ammonium (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria. Furthermore, Fluorescent in situ hybridization with phylogenetic oligonucleotide probes and confocal laser scanning microscopy of WTR biofilms indicated a significant increase in density of eubacteria (3.00E + 01 to.05E + 02 cells/cm 2 ) and beta proteobacteria (8.10E + 01 to 1.42E + 02 cells/cm 2 ), respectively, with an increase in Fe 3+ concentration in the reactors, whereas, the cell density of gamma proteobacteria in biofilms decreased.

  20. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete.

  1. Dry ripened mortar with quarry waste and rubber powder from unserviceable tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone-quarry fines have been evaluated in mortar and concrete, but have presented drying shrinkage and consequently higher incidence of cracks than those with natural sand. This study compared the dry ripened mortar in two types of aggregates added of 8% rubber powder. It was used quicklime, artificial and natural sand in volumetric proportions of 1:6. Mixtures were oven-dried, received the cement, establishing the volumetric proportion of 1: 1.5:9. Inplastic state, we evaluated aspects such as consistence, air content, water retention and bleeding; whereas compressive strength, static deformation modulus and water absorption by capillarity was determined in hardened state. Cracking aspects were evaluated in substrate. As a result, the mortar with artificial sand showed higher increases in compressive strength, capillarity rate and cracking, and greater reductions in air content and bleeding. As for the rubber powder, exhibited a greater reduction in the cracking rate and capillarity was found.

  2. Rubber - application of radiation to tire manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.D.; Alliger, G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the advent of commercial accelerators during the last several years capable of producing controllable electron beams of high energy, Firestone has devoted a considerable effort to the better understanding of the possible applications of such radiation to the production of tires or tire components. A number of chemical reactions can occur when elastomeric compounds are exposed to high energy waves, but crosslinking and degradation are the most important. The degree to which the crosslinking reaction predominates depends upon the nature of the rubber, compounding ingredients and the dosage. In general then, the effects achieved by the radiation of a rubber are quite similar to those resulting from heat. However, radiation cure or precure of compounds offers the advantage that the degree of crosslinking can be better controlled. Uniform crosslinking is possible since the high speed electrons penetrate uniformly throughout the sample. Curing with heat on the other hand may result in a greater degree of crosslinking on the surface of the sample than the center because of low heat conductivity. In general, radiation can be used to advantage to crosslink partially rubber tire components so that they retain better their shape and dimension during tire assembly and final cure or vulcanization. Added advantages of radiation precure include: a reduction of material usage, substitution of synthetic for natural rubber without loss in strength and the fact that partially crosslinked components will not thin out or become displaced during construction and vulcanization of the tire. (author)

  3. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowei, Cheng; Sheng, Huang; Xiaoyang, Guo; Wenhui, Duan

    2017-07-01

    Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as -COOH, C-OH, and -CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization treated WTR increased 11.03% and 13.36%, and the flexural strength increased 9.65% and 7.31%, respectively. A decrease in the compressive strength also occurred but was inconspicuous. A tight interface bonding for ethanol LTP polymerization treated WTR with cement matrix was observed via an SEM image.

  4. Improved crystallinity and dynamic mechanical properties of reclaimed waste tire rubber/EVA blends under the influence of electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramarad, Suganti; Ratnam, Chantara T.; Khalid, Mohammad; Chuah, Abdullah Luqman; Hanson, Svenja

    2017-01-01

    Dependence on automobiles has led to a huge amount of waste tires produced annually around the globe. In this study, the feasibility of recycling these waste tires by blending reclaimed waste tire rubber (RTR) with poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and electron beam irradiation was studied. The RTR/EVA blends containing 100-0 wt% of RTR were prepared in the internal mixer followed by electron beam (EB) irradiation with doses ranging from 50 to 200 kGy. The processing torques, calorimetric and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends were studied. Blends were found to have lower processing torque indicating easier processability of RTR/EVA blends compared to EVA. RTR domains were found to be dispersed in EVA matrix, whereas, irradiation improved the dispersion of RTR into smaller domains in EVA matrix. Results showed the addition of EVA improves the efficiency of irradiation induced crosslink formation and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends at the expense of the calorimetric properties. Storage and loss modulus of 50 wt% RTR blend was higher than RTR and EVA, suggesting partial miscibility of the blend. Whereas, electron beam irradiation improved the calorimetric properties and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends through redistribution of RTR in smaller domain sizes within EVA.

  5. Tire wear emissions for asphalt rubber and Portland cement concrete pavement surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Since 1990, it has been the policy of the State of Arizona that the recycling and reuse of : waste tires are the highest priority. The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) : has long supported the use of recycled waste tire rubber in asphalt r...

  6. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant portion of these tires : have been processed into finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt : (HMA) pavement...

  7. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated : annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant : portion of these tires have been processed into : finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, : for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt (HMA) : pa...

  8. Mechanical properties of concrete containing a high volume of tire-rubber particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaloo, Ali R; Dehestani, M; Rahmatabadi, P

    2008-12-01

    Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire-rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire-rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total mineral aggregate's volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire-rubber concrete.

  9. Recycling of rubber tires in asphalt paving materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piggott, M.R.; Woodhams, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    It has been known that the addition of rubber to asphalt used in paving will produced markedly superior road surfaces. Partly because of cost and because of the nonconventional paving techniques necessary, rubber has been largely ignored as a practical paving additive except in special cases. However, the large accumulation of old tires existing today provides a ready source for suitable rubber. If ground into a fine powder, this rubber can be mixed in a conventional pug mill along with sand, stone and asphalt to produce a hot mix which can be aplied in the normal manner without any special techniques. The extra cost of such modification is only 1% of a typical paving contract, whereas the advantages include lower maintenance cost, more durable road surface, and elimination of unwanted waste tires. This report has been prepared to assist civic and other authorities in the development of improved road surfacing formulations through the reuse of old tires. It includes the results of paving trials in Toronto and laboratory evaluations. These tests show that the addition of powdered rubber to asphalt paving materials markedly improves the durability and crack resistance, particularly at low temperatures. Additives in the rubber impart good strength retention in the presence of moisture. The toughness increases with age due to a slow interaction of the rubber with the asphalt which is accompanied by an increase in viscosity. As a result, performance is also enhanced at high temperatures and helps to minimize pavement distortions due to hot weather and traffic. 16 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Analysis of Physical Properties and Mineralogical of Pyrolysis Tires Rubber Ash Compared Natural Sand in Concrete material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Shahidan, Shahiron; Syazani Leman, Alif; Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    Waste tires pose significant health and environmental concerns if not recycled or discarded properly. At the same time, natural sand is becoming scarcer and costlier due to its non-availability. Waste tires as fine aggregate can be an economical and sustainable alternative to the natural sand. Recent years, the interest on recycling waste tires into civil engineering applications by the researchers has increased. In this research, the chemical and physical properties of the tires rubber ash and the natural sand have been analysed. The densities of the rubber ash are lower than the natural sand. Rubber ash had finer particle size compared to the natural sand. Almost all chemical in the natural sand had in rubber ash with the additional sulphur trioxide and zinc oxide in the rubber ash, made the rubber ash better than natural sand. Rubber ash seems to be a suitable material to use in concrete as sand replacement.

  11. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  12. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O' Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of the incorporation of rubber tire waste particles on the properties of PP, HIPS and PP/HIPS matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Stieven Montagna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the consumption of plastics has been increasing and as consequence, the waste generated has also increased. Rubber tire (RT waste is another residue which causes significant problems to society. In view of the considerable amounts of RT waste generated, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of the incorporation of RT particles into post-consumer thermoplastic matrices such as polypropylene (PP, high impact polystyrene (HIPS and PP/HIPS blends and the modification of the physical, morphological, rheological and mechanical properties. The particle sizes of the RT used were <500 and 500-1000 μm. The RT content was 10% w/w and the weight ratio for the PP/HIPS blend was 4/1, with processing by injection molding. The results showed that the smaller (500 μm particle size led to a decrease in the melt flow rate (MFR of the PP/RT composites (increased viscosity and an increase for the HIPS/RT composites. On the other hand, the larger particles (1000 μm led to a decrease in the mechanical performance of the PP/RT and HIPS/RT blends when compared with the neat polymers (PP and HIPS post-consumer. The observed decrease in the mechanical properties of these composites was due to weak filler/matrix interactions, which can be visualized in images by scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the fracture surface after tensile testing.

  14. Flexible and conductive waste tire-derived carbon/polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Boota, Muhammad; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-04-10

    A method of making a supercapacitor from waste tires, includes the steps of providing rubber pieces and contacting the rubber pieces with a sulfonation bath to produce sulfonated rubber; pyrolyzing the sulfonated rubber to produce a tire-derived carbon composite comprising carbon black embedded in rubber-derived carbon matrix comprising graphitized interface portions; activating the tire-derived carbon composite by contacting the tire-derived carbon composite with a specific surface area-increasing composition to increase the specific surface area of the carbon composite to provide an activated tire-derived carbon composite; and, mixing the activated tire-derived carbon composite with a monomer and polymerizing the monomer to produce a redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite. The redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite can be formed into a film. An electrode and a supercapacitor are also disclosed.

  15. Potential of waste tires as aggregates in concrete | Mutuku | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential use of this kind of concrete includes nonstructural purposes such as lightweight concrete walls and blocks, building facades and crash barriers. Keywords: concrete aggregates, rubber chips, rubberized concrete, used tires, waste recycling. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol. 3(1) 2006: 75-84 ...

  16. Strength and microstructure characteristics of the recycled rubber tire-sand mixtures as lightweight backfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Cai, Guojun; Duan, Weihong

    2018-02-01

    The disposal of scrap rubber tires has induced critical environmental issue worldwide due to the rapid increase in the number of vehicles. Recycled scrap tires as a construction material in civil engineering have significant environmental benefits from a waste management perspective. A systematic study that deals with strength and microstructure characteristics of the rubber-sand mixtures is initiated, and mechanical response of the mixtures is discussed in this investigation. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of rubber fraction on the basic properties including mass density (ρ), stress-strain characteristics, shear strength, and unconfined compression strength (q u ) of the rubber-sand mixtures. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to reveal the microstructure characteristics of the mixtures with various rubber fractions. A discussion on the micromechanics of the mixtures also was conducted. This study demonstrates that the ρ, friction angle, and q u decrease linearly with an increase in rubber fraction, whereas shear strain at peak increases. The stress-strain characteristics of the rubber-sand mixtures shift from brittle to ductile as the rubber fraction increase. These changes are attributed to remarkably lower stiffness and higher compressibility of the rubber particle compared with those of the conventional mineral aggregates. With an increase in the rubber fraction, the mechanical response of rubber-sand mixtures exhibits two types: sand-like material and rubber-like material. Rubber particle possesses the capacity to prevent the contacted sand particles from sliding at lower rubber fraction, whereas it transmits the applied loadings as the rubber fraction increased. This outcome reinforces the practicability of using recycled rubber tire-sand mixtures as a lightweight backfill in subbase/base applications.

  17. A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye-Acid Blue 113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Gupta, Bina; Rastogi, Arshi; Agarwal, Shilpi; Nayak, Arunima

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The system is cheap, efficient and fast for the removal of dyes from waters. → Higher adsorption capacity is due to higher mesoporous volume of the adsorbent. → The rate determining step of the adsorption process is particle diffusion. - Abstract: A mesoporous carbon developed from waste tire rubber, characterized by chemical analysis, FTIR, and SEM studies, was used as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous azo dye, Acid Blue 113. Surface area, porosity, and density were determined. The adsorption of the dye over the prepared adsorbent and a commercial activated carbon was achieved under different pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process follow first order kinetics and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative. By percolating the dye solution through fixed-bed columns the bulk removal of the Acid Blue 113 was carried out and necessary parameters were determined to find out the percentage saturation of both the columns. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting 0.1 M NaOH through the column.

  18. The use of mixed pyrrhotite/pyrite catalysts for co-liquefaction of coal and waste rubber tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Sharma, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research program is to determine the optimum processing conditions for tire/coal co-liquefaction. The catalysts used will be a ferric-sulfide-based materials, as well as promising catalysts from other consortium laboratories. The intent here is to achieve the maximum coal+tire conversion at the mildest conditions of temperature and pressure. Specific objectives include an investigation of the effects of time, temperature, pressure, catalyst and co-solvent on the conversion and product slate of the co-liquefaction. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  19. Application of waste tires to asphalt pavement. Improvement of adhesion of asphalt with rubber particles; Haitaiya no asphalt hoso eno tekiyo. Asphalt to gomu ryushi no fuchakusei no kairyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaoka, I. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-10-10

    With an objective to apply waste tires to asphalt pavement, an experiment was carried out to improve adhesion of asphalt with rubber particles by using polymers. The state of interface on rubber particle and asphalt mixture was observed by a scanning electron microscope. As a result, it was found that the surface of untreated rubber particles is not bonded with the asphalt, but polymer treated mixture was found to have the affinity of rubber particles with asphalt improved. Tensile bonding strength was tested on rubber plates and asphalt. The result revealed that the polymer-reformed mixture has two times as large tensile bonding strength as that of the untreated mixture. With regard to the characters of asphalt mixture mixed with rubber particles, the stability shows a decreasing trend as compared with the standard asphalt concrete, but presents an excellent performance in wear. The fluidity resistance value is inferior to the standard, but not as great as presenting a problem under normal using environment, where its applicability as a road paving material was verified. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Dielectric properties of various polymers (PVC, EVA, HDPE, and PP) reinforced with ground tire rubber (GTR)

    OpenAIRE

    Mujal Rosas, Ramón María; Marín Genescá, Marcos; Ballart Prunell, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Mass production of tires as well as its difficult storage or elimination is a real environmental problem. Various methods for recycling tires are currently used, such as mechanical crushing, which puts vulcanized rubber, steel, and fibers apart. The rubber may be used in several industrial applications such as flooring, insulations, and footwear. The present paper focuses on finding a new application for old used tires [ground tire rubber (GTR)]. To this end, tires dust has been mixed with va...

  1. 78 FR 54369 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... subject tires meet or exceed all applicable FMVSS performance standards for a tire labeled as either load...-0107; Notice 2] The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for Decision of... Petition Mootness. SUMMARY: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that certain...

  2. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... subject tires in fact have more tread plies than indicated and meet or exceed all performance requirements...-0109; Notice 1] Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that certain Cooper brand tires manufactured...

  3. 78 FR 47050 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ..., and tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings to assess performance capabilities of various tires...-0109; Notice 2] Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper) \\1\\ has determined that certain Cooper brand replacement tires...

  4. Direct molding of pavement tiles made of ground tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Gagliardi, Donatella; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Santo, Loredana; Musacchi, Ettore

    2016-10-01

    Large rubber products can be molded by using only ground tire rubber (GTR) without any additive or binder due to a new technology called "direct molding". Rubber granules and powders from tire recycling are compression molded at elevated temperatures and pressures. The feasibility of this process was clearly shown in laboratory but the step to the industrial scale was missing. Thanks to an European Project (SMART "Sustainable Molding of Articles from Recycled Tires") this step has been made and some results are reported in this study. The press used for compression molding is described. Some tests were made to measure the energy consumption so as to evaluate costs for production in comparison with conventional technologies for GTR molding (by using binders). Results show that 1 m2 tiles can be easily molded with several thicknesses in a reasonable low time. Energy consumption is higher than conventional technologies but it is lower than the cost for binders.

  5. Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    measure heat from the casing. Tread surface temperature. Tread (surface) infrared temperature can be inconsistent since the measurements are...have any adverse effect on rubber products. b. Avoid areas that are wet, humid, oily, greasy, or in direct sunlight. Do not store tires in the...used, from sticking to the tire. Do not let soapstone accumulate in the tire. Inspect and clean the tire beads to remove corrosion or residual rubber

  6. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cement production is highly energy intensive and requires large quantities of fuels. For both economical and environmental reasons, there is an increasing tendency for utilization of alternative fuels in the cement industry, examples being tire derived fuels, waste wood, or different types...... of industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns...

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone mastic asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix whereby stiffer asphalt cement is required to bind the stone matrix or arrangement of stones together. Although various asphalt additives are traditionally available, the use of rubber crumbs in SMA is still a new rresearch endeavor. Many countries around the world are facing serious problems on what to do with reject or discarded tires. In the present study, commercial truck tires, containing 70% natural rubber, were ground and pre-blended in 80-100 penetration asphalt for use in SMA mixtures. An assessment was made of the laboratory performance of rubberized SMA in terms of stability, resilent modulus, dynamic creep and tensile strength ratio. It was observed that the performance of SMA with ground tire rubber was for superior as compared to SMA mix with unmodified asphalt. Sulfur and Styrene Butadeline Rubber (SBR were used in rubberized SMA mixes as additives to test the sensitivity of SMA mixtures. As standard practice a 0.3% newly developed cellulose oil palm fiber was used in SMA to minimize the asphalt drain-down effects.

  8. Rubber industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    Following chapter presents short introductory description of rubber and rubber industry. The main problem of rubber industry is the way of the usage of spent tires. Furthermore very important group of problems arise considering the metal and nonmetal additives which are significant component of the vulcanized rubber. The key attention is dedicated to typical ways of rubber usage in utilization and recovery of metals from spent rubber materials concentrating specifically on used tires processing. The method of recovery of rare metals from rubber tires was described. The rubber debris finds widest use in the field of waste metal solutions processing. The environmental pollution caused by metals poses serious threat to humans. Several applications of the use of waste rubber debris to remove metals from environmental waters were described. Moreover, the agriculture usage of waste tire rubber debris is described, presenting systems where the rubber material can be useful as a soil replacement.

  9. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  10. Pavement system with rubber tire chips in subgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtakala, B.; Hoque, A.K.M.M. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A pavement design method was developed in which shredded rubber tire chips mixed with sand were used as a material for pavement subgrade. Rubber tire chips are highly compressible and produce both elastic and plastic deformations under the application of loads. Sand was added to fill the void between the tire chips and make the mixture a strong material. The design method considered the vertical compressive strain produced by the design life traffic load 18k (80 KN) repetitions. The equivalent thicknesses of the layers above the subgrade corresponding to this vertical compressive strain were determined using contour charts. From this equivalent thickness, the thicknesses for asphalt pavement, base, and sub-base were determined by Odemark`s method. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  11. 77 FR 2775 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0033; Notice 2] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential.... SUMMARY: Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company,(Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 26,224 Goodyear...

  12. 76 FR 73007 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0080; Notice 2] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential... Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance. SUMMARY: Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has...

  13. 75 FR 81712 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ..., all of the tires included in this petition meet or exceed the performance requirements of FMVSS No...-0174; Notice 1] The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear) \\1\\ has determined that certain Goodyear commercial...

  14. 75 FR 36472 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...-0080; Notice 1] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 14,826 passenger car tires manufactured between August of 2007 and May of 2009, do not fully comply with paragraph...

  15. 76 FR 15045 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...-0033; Notice 1] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 26,224 Goodyear Assurance ComforTred Touring passenger replacement car tires manufactured between January 4, 2010 and...

  16. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER FROM USED CAR TIRES IN MINERAL ASPHALT MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Plewa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the automotive industry the disposal of used tires is constantly growing problem. Storage of waste rubber is associated with a very long period of decomposition of rubber in the natural conditions. Simultaneously new technologies are developed every year, which in the future may significantly promote recycling of this type of materials. The crumb rubbery modification of the road bitumen is the one of the environmentally safe solutions of rubbery decomposition. Improvement of resistance of the crumb rubbery modification of the road asphalt mixtures is the very important ecological aspect of the future. The article presents the results of research on the fatigue life resistance of asphalt concretes AC16P and AC22P with asphalt-rubber binders. The above analyses have been based on the results of tests of fatigue life of mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes determined by the method of prismatic four-point bending (4PB-PR. Mineral-rubber -asphalt mixes have been diversified according to the amount of the additive of rubber fines in asphalt-rubber binder. On the basis of the test results have been proven improvements functional properties mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes compared with mineral-asphalt mixes with unmodified asphalt.

  17. Rubber-based carbon electrode materials derived from dumped tires for efficient sodium-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yue; Ma, Chao; Bai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yu-Si; Wang, Shi-Feng; Wei, Xiao; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2018-04-03

    The development of sustainable and low cost electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries has attracted considerable attention. In this work, a carbon composite material decorated with in situ generated ZnS nanoparticles has been prepared via a simple pyrolysis of the rubber powder from dumped tires. Upon being used as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries, the carbon composite shows a high reversible capacity and rate capability. A capacity as high as 267 mA h g-1 is still retained after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g-1. The well dispersed ZnS nanoparticles in carbon significantly enhance the electrochemical performance. The carbon composites derived from the rubber powder are proposed as promising electrode materials for low-cost, large-scale energy storage devices. This work provides a new and effective method for the reuse of dumped tires, contributing to the recycling of valuable waste resources.

  18. Upgrading pyrolytic residue from waste tires to commercial carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Hengxiang; Cao, Qing; Jin, Li'e; Wang, Fumeng

    2018-05-01

    The managing and recycling of waste tires has become a worldwide environmental challenge. Among the different disposal methods for waste tires, pyrolysis is regarded as a promising route. How to effectively enhance the added value of pyrolytic residue (PR) from waste tires is a matter of great concern. In this study, the PRs were treated with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids in turn under ultrasonic waves. The removal efficiency for the ash and sulfur was investigated. The pyrolytic carbon black (PCB) obtained after treating PR with acids was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, laser Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and physisorption apparatus. The properties of PCB were compared with those of commercial carbon black (CCB) N326 and N339. Results showed PRs from waste tires were mainly composed of carbon, sulfur, and ash. The carbon in PCB was mainly from the CCB added during tire manufacture rather than from the pyrolysis of pure rubbers. The removal percentages for the ash and sulfur of PR are 98.33% (from 13.98 wt % down to 0.24 wt %) and 70.16% (from 1.81 wt % down to 0.54 wt %), respectively, in the entire process. The ash was mainly composed of metal oxides, sulfides, and silica. The surface properties, porosity, and morphology of the PCB were all close to those of N326. Therefore, PCB will be a potential alternative of N326 and reused in tire manufacture. This route successfully upgrades PR from waste tires to the high value-added CCB and greatly increases the overall efficiency of the waste tire pyrolysis industry.

  19. Properties of tire rubber with zinc-containing technological additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kayushnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the influence of zinc-containing technological additives on partial replacement of zinc oxide and stearic acid on deformation-strength and performance properties of tire elastomeric compositions based on polyisoprene rubber and combination of oil-filled butadiene-styrene and polybutadiene rubbers. It was revealed that partial replacement of zinc oxide and stearic acid with zinc-containing technological additives does not significantly affect the basic physico-mechanical properties of rubbers based on synthetic rubbers of general use. It was determined that the introduction of zinc-containing technological additives SCC2 in combination with zinc oxide in all the studied ratios and SCC3 in combination with zinc oxide in 4: 1 and 3: 1 ratios leads to increase (up to 10.4% of the resistance of these rubbers under the action of temperature-force fields, which is probably due to a more even distribution of polar components of curing system in non-polar elastomeric matrix, as well as the type of cross-links formed during vulcanization under the action of surface-active additives. It has been found that the introduction of zinc-containing additives into the elastomeric compositions based on SRMS-30 ARKM-15 + SRD in combination with zinc oxide leads to increase to 6.3% of wear resistance of rubbers, which may be due to a lower defectiveness of vulcanization structure of these rubbers, concentration of stress centers in the material. For rubbers based on SRI-3, preservation of bond strength of rubber with a textile cord at a sufficiently high level is shown.

  20. Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhe; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Peng, Zhiwei; Andriese, Matthew; Li, Bowen; Huang, Xiaodi; Wang, Xinli

    The recycling of waste tires has been a big environmental problem. About 280 million waste tires are produced annually in the United States and more than 2 billion tires are stockpiled, which cause fire hazards and health issues. Tire rubbers are insoluble elastic high polymer materials. They are not biodegradable and may take hundreds of years to decompose in the natural environment. Microwave irradiation can be a thermal processing method for the decomposition of tire rubbers. In this study, the microwave absorption properties of waste tire at various temperatures are characterized to determine the conditions favorable for the microwave heating of waste tires.

  1. Liquefaction of ground tire rubber at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiangyun; Song, Pan; Zhao, Xinyu; Peng, Zonglin; Wang, Shifeng

    2018-01-01

    Low-temperature liquefaction has been investigated as a novel method for recycling ground tire rubber (GTR) into liquid using an environmentally benign process. The liquefaction was carried out at different temperatures (140, 160 and 180 °C) over variable time ranges (2-24 h) by blending the GTR with aromatic oil in a range from 0 to 100 parts per hundred rubber (phr). The liquefied GTR was separated into sol (the soluble fraction of rubber which can be extracted with toluene) and gel fractions (the solid fraction obtained after extraction) to evaluate the reclaiming efficiency. It was discovered that the percentage of the sol fraction increased with time, swelling ratio and temperature. Liquefied rubber was obtained with a high sol fraction (68.34 wt%) at 140 °C. Simultaneously, separation of nano-sized carbon black from the rubber networks occurred. The separation of carbon black from the network is the result of significant damage to the cross-linked-network that occurs throughout the liquefaction process. During liquefaction, a competitive reaction between main chain scission and cross-link bond breakage takes place. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical and Physical Analysis Methods for Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber Used in Synthetic Turf Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire crumb rubber from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. Recycled crumb rubber is a complex and potentially variable matrix with many metal, VOC, and SVOC constituents, presenting challenges for characterization and ex...

  3. 75 FR 17827 - Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety performance standards. All of the markings related to tire service (load capacity..., and tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires...-0213; Notice 2] Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

  4. 77 FR 71678 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (GOODYEAR),\\1\\ has determined that certain Goodyear brand tires... LT 275/65R18 brand tires manufactured between April 8, 2012, and May 12, 2012 at its plant in Gadsden.... Electronically: By logging onto the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) Web site at http://www.regulations...

  5. Forensic analysis of tire rubbers based on their sulfur chemical states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatsuki, Atsushi; Shiota, Kenji; Takaoka, Masaki; Tamenori, Yusuke

    2015-05-01

    The chemical states of sulfur in 11 tires were analyzed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) in order to discriminate between various tire rubbers. All tires had peaks around 2471.5 and 2480.5eV, and the shapes and heights of these peaks differed among tires, suggesting that the sulfur chemical state could be used for discrimination between tire rubbers. Based on t-tests on the results of XANES, 43 of 55 combinations were different at a significance level of 5%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermolysis of scrap tire and rubber in sub/super-critical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghai; Li, Fuxin; Meng, Aihong; Tan, Zhongchao; Zhang, Yanguo

    2018-01-01

    The rapid growth of waste tires has become a serious environmental issue. Energy and material recovery is regarded as a promising use for waste tires. Thermolysis of scrap tire (ST), natural rubber (NR), and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) was carried out in subcritical and supercritical water using a temperature-pressure independent adjustable batch tubular reactor. As a result, oil yields increased as temperature and pressure increased, and they reached maximum values as the state of water was near the critical point. However, further increases in water temperature and pressure reduced the oil yields. The maximum oil yield of 21.21% was obtained at 420 °C and 18 MPa with a reaction time of 40 min. The relative molecular weights of the chemicals in the oil products were in the range of 70-140 g/mole. The oil produced from ST, NR, and SBR contained similar chemical compounds, but the oil yield of SR was between those of NR and SBR. The oil yield from thermolysis of subcritical or supercritical water should be further improved. The main gaseous products, including CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 , and C 3 H 8 , increased with reaction time, temperature, and pressure, whereas the solid residues, including carbon black and impurities, decreased. These results provide useful information to develop a sub/super-critical water thermolysis process for energy and material regeneration from waste tires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of the surface treatment of tire rubber residues added in mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Marques

    Full Text Available In this work it was evaluated the influence tire rubber addition in mortars in order to replace part of the sand (12% by volume. It was also intended to verify if the tire rubber treatment with NaOH saturated aqueous solution causes interference on the mechanical properties of the mixture. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, water absorption, modulus of elasticity, and flow test were made in specimens of 5cmx10cm and the tests were carried out to 7, 28, 56, 90, and 180 days. The results show reduction on mechanical properties values after addition of tire rubber and decrease of the workability. It was also observed that the tire rubber treatment does not cause any alteration on the results compared to the rubber without treatment.

  8. Microbial detoxification of waste rubber material by wood-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredberg, Katarina; Andersson, B Erik; Landfors, Eva; Holst, Olle

    2002-07-01

    The extensive use of rubber products, mainly tires, and the difficulties to recycle those products, has resulted in world wide environmental problems. Microbial devulcanisation is a promising way to increase the recycling of rubber materials. One obstacle is that several microorganisms tested for devulcanisation are sensitive to rubber additives. A way to overcome this might be to detoxify the rubber material with fungi prior to the devulcanisation. In this study, 15 species of white-rot and brown-rot fungi have been screened with regard to their capacity to degrade an aromatic model compound in the presence of ground waste tire rubber. The most effective fungus, Resinicium bicolor, was used for detoxification of rubber material. Increase in growth of the desulfurising bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in presence of the rubber treated with Resinicium bicolor compared to untreated rubber demonstrated that detoxification with fungi is possible.

  9. Fatigue of cord-rubber composites for tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaehoon

    Fatigue behaviors of cord-rubber composite materials forming the belt region of radial pneumatic tires have been characterized to assess their dependence on stress, strain and temperature history as well as materials composition and construction . Using actual tires, it was found that interply shear strain is one of the crucial parameters for damage assessment from the result that higher levels of interply shear strain of actual tires reduce the fatigue lifetime. Estimated at various levels of load amplitude were the fatigue life, the extent and rate of resultant strain increase ("dynamic creep"), cyclic strains at failure, and specimen temperature. The interply shear strain of 2-ply 'tire belt' composite laminate under circumferential tension was affected by twisting of specimen due to tension-bending coupling. However, a critical level of interply shear strain, which governs the gross failure of composite laminate due to the delamination, appeared to be independent of different lay-up of 2-ply vs. symmetric 4-ply configuration. Reflecting their matrix-dominated failure modes such as cord-matrix debonding and delamination, composite laminates with different cord reinforcements showed the same S-N relationship as long as they were constructed with the same rubber matrix, the same cord angle, similar cord volume, and the same ply lay-up. Because of much lower values of single cycle strength (in terms of gross fracture load per unit width), the composite laminates with larger cord angle and the 2-ply laminates exhibited exponentially shorter fatigue lifetime, at a given stress amplitude, than the composite laminates with smaller cord angle and 4-ply symmetric laminates, respectively. The increase of interply rubber thickness lengthens their fatigue lifetime at an intermediate level of stress amplitude. However, the increase in the fatigue lifetime of the composite laminate becomes less noticeable at very low stress amplitude. Even with small compressive cyclic

  10. Real-Time Dispatching of Rubber Tired Gantry Cranes in Container Terminals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNary, Bradley S

    2008-01-01

    ... significant growth in container traffic. Efficiently managing of rubber tired gantry cranes and planning container placement within the terminal are two ways to increase the overall efficiency of a terminal...

  11. Radiation induced functionalism of polyethylene and ground tire rubber for their reactive compatibility in thermoplastic elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fainleib, A.; Grigoryeva, O. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev 02160 (Ukraine); Martinez B, G. [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Km. 12 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, San Cayetano 50200, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: fainleib@i.kiev.ua

    2009-07-01

    Reactive compatibility of recycled low-or high-density polyethylenes (LDPE and HDPE, respectively) and ground tire rubber (GTR) via chemical interactions of pre-functionalized components in their blend interface has been carried out. Polyethylene component was functionalized with maleic anhydride (MAH) as well as the rubber component was modified via functionalism with MAH or acrylamide using chemically or irradiation ({gamma} rays) induced grafting techniques. Additional coupling agents such as-p-phenylene diamine (PDA) and polyamide fiber (PAF, from fiber wastes) were used for some thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) producing. The grafting degree and molecular mass distribution of the chromatography analyses, respectively. TPE materials based on synthesized reactive polyethylenes and GTR as well as ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber were prepared by dynamic vulcanization of the rubber phase inside thermoplastic (polyethylene) matrix and their phase structure, and main properties have been studied using DSC, TGA, DMTA and mechanical testing. As a final result, the high performance TPE with improved mechanical properties has been developed. (Author)

  12. Characterization of Irradiated and Non-Irradiated Rubber from Automotive Scrap Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Clécia Moura; Silva, Leonardo G.

    The aim of this work was to characterize the samples of irradiated and non-irradiated rubber from automotive scrap tires. Rubber samples from scrap tires were irradiated at irradiation doses of 200, 400 and 600kGy in an electron beam accelerator. Subsequently, both the irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength mechanical test, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry.

  13. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  14. Characterization of Semi-Volatile Organic Chemicals from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recycled tire crumb rubber (TCR) is often used as infill material in synthetic turf playing fields as well as some playgrounds. Concerns have been raised about the safety of this material and a multi-agency Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Field...

  15. A multi-site recycled tire crumb rubber characterization study: recruitment strategy and field sampling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, concerns have been raised by the public about the safety of tire crumb rubber infill used in synthetic turf fields. In response, the 2016 Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds (FRAP) was developed to examine key envir...

  16. Characterization of Exposure Potential during Activities on Synthetic Turf Fields with Recycled Tire Crumb Rubber Infill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds (FRAP), released in February 2016, is a multi-agency research plan in response to concerns over the use of tire crumb rubber as infill on synthetic turf fields. The FRAP outlines specif...

  17. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  18. National Innovation System and Disruptive Innovations in Synthetic Rubber and Tire Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray R. Gehani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current models of National Innovation Systems (NIS are based on interactions and learning across three institutions: government, university and industry. This empirical study of the evolution of innovations in rubber and tire technologies such as the collaborative innovative suppliers (of raw materials and human capital and disruptive rival innovators to the traditional tri-helical model of National Innovation System. This was empirically examined for the evolution of rubber and tire technology and the rise and decline of its innovative region: the Rubber Capital of the World in Akron, Ohio.

  19. Fate and effect of tire rubber ash nano-particles (RANPs) in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Sahar; Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir; Karimzadeh, Fatholah; Chaney, Rufus

    2015-05-01

    There are growing interests on effects of nano-materials on living organisms including higher plants. No report is available on positive and negative effects of rubber ash nano-particles (RANPs) on edible plants. Recently, we reported the possibility of using waste tire rubber and rubber ash as zinc (Zn) fertilizer for plants. In this nutrient solution culture study, for the first time, root uptake and the effects of RANPs on growth and Zn, cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) concentration in cucumber was investigated. Various Zn levels (0, 1, 5, 25, 125mgL(-1)) were applied in the form of RANPs or ZnSO4. The root RANPs uptake was visualized by light (LA), scanning electron (SEM), and transmission electron microcopies (TEM). At all Zn levels, cucumber plants supplied with RANPs produced higher shoot and root biomass compared with those supplied with ZnSO4. In addition, the RANPs resulted in higher accumulation of Zn in cucumber tissues in comparison with ZnSO4; although phytotoxicity of Zn from ZnSO4 was greater than that from RANPs. Clear evidence of the RANPs penetration into the root cells was obtained by using SEM and TEM. Filaments of RANPs were also observed at the end of roots by LM and TEM. Further research is needed to clarify the fate of the RANPs in plant cells and their possible risks for food chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of fuel cell rubber tired tram (FRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, J.K.; Chang, S.; Moon, K.H.; Lee, J.Y.; Koo, D.H. [Korea Railroad Research Inst., Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    This paper described a project to develop a fuel cell rubber-tired tram (FRT) transport system that both reduced emissions and increased operating efficiency in Seoul, Korea. The FRT was designed to have a transportation capacity of 2500 to 5000 persons per direction per hour, and a train set of 2 or 3 cars. Each vehicle was provided with a precise docking system in order to reduce boarding times. Vehicles were also equipped with low floors with easy access for handicapped and elderly passengers. The FRT system was primarily powered by fuel cells, had zero emissions, and were constructed of composite materials using a bimodal structure. The system was comprised of a hybrid power system with a combined compressed natural gas (CNG) and battery system alongside the fuel cell system. The paper included the results of a modelling study which examined the fuel cell at various energy production capacities. Details of the system's guidance system were also provided. Results of the modelling study showed that the FRT was capable of achieving the speed of a subway on roads and exclusive tracks through the use of a signaling system. 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  1. Respiratory tract disease from thermosetting resins. Study of an outbreak in rubber tire workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    doPico, G A; Rankin, J; Chosy, L W; Reddan, W G; Barbee, R A; Gee, B; Dickie, H A

    1975-08-01

    An outbreak of upper and lower respiratory tract inflammatory disease and conjunctivitis among synthetic rubber tire workers occurred. The outbreak began after the introduction of a new thermosetting resin, containing resorcinol and a trimere of methylene aminoacetronitrile, into the rubber tire carcass stock formulation. Two hundred ten workers were affected. Characteristically, symptoms improved during periods of sick leave or vacation, recurring upon the workers' return to the plant. Chest radiograms disclosed pneumonic infiltrates in about one fourth of the cases. Pulmonary function studies detected abnormal airways dynamics as well as abnormal diffusing capacity in more than one third of the workers tested. Lung biopsy showed evidence of focal interstitial fibrosis and peribronchiolar and perivascular chronic inflammatory reaction. The illness was ascribed to volatile products released during the manufacture of synthetic rubber tires. The exact chemical nature of these products is unknown.

  2. Devulcanization of ground tire rubber: Physical and chemical changes after different microwave exposure times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave devulcanization is known to be a promising and an efficient rubber recycling method which makes possible for the rubber to regain its fluidity, and makes it capable of being remolded and revulcanized. The focus of this work is to understand the physical and chemical changes that occur in the ground tire rubber after different microwave exposure periods. For this purpose chemical, thermal, rheological and morphological analyses were performed on the tire rubber, which contains natural rubber (NR and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR as polymeric material. The results showed that the microwave treatment promoted the breaking of sulfur cross-links and consequently increased the rubber fluidity. However, long periods of exposure led to degradation and modification of some properties. At nanoscale, the deformation of the devulcanized NR domain under stress was observed, and the morphology obtained appears to be a droplet dispersion morphology. The most exposed samples presented only one glass transition temperature, and from this it was concluded that the treatment may have played an important role in the compatibilization of the elastomeric blend. Based on the results, it is required to control the microwave exposure time and polymeric degradation in order to achieve a regenerated rubber with satisfactory properties.

  3. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  4. Chlorinated rubbers with advanced properties for tire industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, I. A.; Sukhareva, K. V.; Andriasyan, Yu. O.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper investigates the production and processing of halide-modified chlorinated rubbers, such as isobutylene isoprene rubber and ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer rubber (IIR and EPDM), which are perspective in terms of application in rubber industry. Prospects for their production and application are determined by the specific properties of these rubbers (low gas permeability of IIR, high heat and ozone resistance of EPDM). These properties are governed by the structure of both initial IIR and EPDM and chlorinated rubbers (ChIIR and ChEPDM). A new alternative technology of obtaining chlorinated elastomers based on solid-phase mechanochemical halide modification is proposed. Novel chlorinated polyolefin rubbers obtained by the developed technology show good technological properties under industrial production conditions due to enhanced covulcanization.

  5. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the contact between a solid-rubber tire and a chassis dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, A. E.; Semenov, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of modeling the test where a solid-rubber tire runs on a chassis dynamometer for determining the tire rolling resistance characteristics.We state the problem of free steady-state rolling of the tire along the test drum with the energy scattering in the rubber in the course of cyclic deformation taken into account. The viscoelastic behavior of the rubber is described by the Bergströ m-Boyce model whose numerical parameters are experimentally determined from the results of compression tests with specimens. The finite element method is used to obtain the solution of the three-dimensional viscoelasticity problem. To estimate the adequacy of the constructed model, we compare the numerical results with the results obtained in the solid-rubber tire tests on the Hasbach stand from the values of the rolling resistance forces for various loads on the tire.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles... person otherwise than in the recapping or retreading of tires of the type used on highway vehicles. In determining whether tread rubber is sold for a taxable or nontaxable use, the type of vehicle on which the...

  7. Assessment of geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITENDRA SINGH YADAV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Discarded waste tires are becoming a serious threat to health, environment, and ecological systems worldwide if it is not disposed of properly. Every year 1000 million of waste tires are discarded. This number may grow up to 1200 million by the year 2030. On the other hand, construction of civil engineering structures such as buildings, dams, highways, etc. are at high risk of differential settlement, especially in the case of weak or soft clay, which is due to its low shear strength and high compressibility. The paper aims to assess geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber. Compaction parameters, unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, toughness index, CBR values and swelling pressure of rubberized uncemented/cemented clayey soil (3%, and 6% cement and different percentage of crumb rubber have been obtained. After rigorous extensive study, it has been concluded that unconfined compressive strength and split tensile strength of rubberized cemented clayey soil decreases with the increase of the percentage of crumb rubber whereas the axial, and diametral strain are found to be increased with the addition of crumb rubber up to 5% after that it starts to decrease. The CBR values, swelling pressure, and toughness index of uncemented/cemented clayey soil was significantly affected by incorporation of crumb rubber. SEM studies have also been incorporated in this investigation.

  8. Preliminary studies of the rubber from unserviceable tires irradiated by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Clecia M.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e, E-mail: blgasilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays there is a growth in the developing processes for modification of polymers with ionizing radiation (gamma rays, electron beam) for several industrial applications. An option is ionizing radiation process due to their capacity of inducing crosslinking and scission on a wide range of polymeric materials without initiators or chemicals products. This method has significant advantages on economical and ecological fields, when compared to chemical, thermal and mechanical process. The rubber recycling has been extensively discussed, mainly related to tire. There are reports with data about production and consumption of rubber and unserviceable tire. There is very few information about the destination of others rubber items, incineration and landfill are the main methods for elimination of unserviceable tire, however those methods are not environmentally friendly. It is necessary to study better and effective methods to recycle and to give value to rubber residue. This work is about the use of ionizing radiation for the recovery and/or reuse and processing rubber of unserviceable tire. The samples were irradiated with 200, 400 and 600 kGy radiation dose, 22.39 kGy/s dose rates, at room temperature and in the presence of air using an 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were studied by thermogravimetry (TG). The analyses were performed from room temperature up to 600 deg C, heating rate of 10 deg C/min in the presence of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and air. By this technique it was possible to observe the effects of the radiation dose on the weight loss. (author)

  9. Preliminary studies of the rubber from unserviceable tires irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Clecia M.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a growth in the developing processes for modification of polymers with ionizing radiation (gamma rays, electron beam) for several industrial applications. An option is ionizing radiation process due to their capacity of inducing crosslinking and scission on a wide range of polymeric materials without initiators or chemicals products. This method has significant advantages on economical and ecological fields, when compared to chemical, thermal and mechanical process. The rubber recycling has been extensively discussed, mainly related to tire. There are reports with data about production and consumption of rubber and unserviceable tire. There is very few information about the destination of others rubber items, incineration and landfill are the main methods for elimination of unserviceable tire, however those methods are not environmentally friendly. It is necessary to study better and effective methods to recycle and to give value to rubber residue. This work is about the use of ionizing radiation for the recovery and/or reuse and processing rubber of unserviceable tire. The samples were irradiated with 200, 400 and 600 kGy radiation dose, 22.39 kGy/s dose rates, at room temperature and in the presence of air using an 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were studied by thermogravimetry (TG). The analyses were performed from room temperature up to 600 deg C, heating rate of 10 deg C/min in the presence of nitrogen (N 2 ) and air. By this technique it was possible to observe the effects of the radiation dose on the weight loss. (author)

  10. Mortality from cancer and other causes in an Italian cohort of male rubber tire workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Pelucchi, Claudio; Romano, Canzio; Manzari, Marco; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    To investigate mortality among workers of an Italian rubber tire factory employed between 1954 and 2008. This cohort study included 6246 men, totaling 190,512 man-years of observation. Employment data were obtained from personnel records, whereas vital status and causes of death were ascertained from local authorities. We computed standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) using national and regional death certification rates. Mortality was significantly lower than expected for all cancers (SMR = 79) and all causes (SMR = 85). The SMRs were 99 for cancer of stomach, 78 for lung, 121 for urinary bladder, 116 for lymphoma, and 89 for leukemia, none being significant. Decreased mortality emerged for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx (SMR = 45), esophagus (SMR = 29), colorectum (SMR = 71), liver (SMR = 57), and kidney (SMR = 33). This study shows no excess cancer risk among male rubber tire workers employed after 1954.

  11. Upscaling of a Batch De-Vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitisaiyidah Saiwari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount of SBR, a devulcanization process can be formulated, as well. This was proven for a laboratory-scale batch process in an internal mixer, using diphenyl disulfide as the devulcanization aid and powder-sized material. In this paper, the devulcanization process for passenger car tire rubber is upscaled from 15 g per batch and transformed into a continuous process in a co-rotating twin screw extruder with a capacity of 2 kg/h. As SBR is rather sensitive to devulcanization process conditions, such as thermal and mechanical energy input, the screw design was based on a low shear concept. A granulate with particle sizes from 1–3.5 mm was chosen for purity, as well as economic reasons. The devulcanization process conditions were fine-tuned in terms of: devulcanization conditions (time/temperature profile, concentration of devulcanization aid, extruder parameters (screw configuration, screw speed, fill factor and ancillary equipment (pre-treatment, extrudate handling. The influence of these parameters on the devulcanization efficiency and the quality of the final product will be discussed. The ratio of random to crosslink scission as determined by a Horikx plot was taken for the evaluation of the process and material. A best practice for continuous devulcanization will be given.

  12. Recycled tire crumb rubber anodes for sustainable power production in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Davidson, Matthew; Zuo, Yi; Ren, Zhiyong

    One of the greatest challenges facing microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in large scale applications is the high cost of electrode material. We demonstrate here that recycled tire crumb rubber coated with graphite paint can be used instead of fine carbon materials as the MFC anode. The tire particles showed satisfactory conductivity after 2-4 layers of coating. The specific surface area of the coated rubber was over an order of magnitude greater than similar sized graphite granules. Power production in single chamber tire-anode air-cathode MFCs reached a maximum power density of 421 mW m -2, with a coulombic efficiency (CE) of 25.1%. The control graphite granule MFC achieved higher power density (528 mW m -2) but lower CE (15.6%). The light weight of tire particle could reduce clogging and maintenance cost but posts challenges in conductive connection. The use of recycled material as the MFC anodes brings a new perspective to MFC design and application and carries significant economic and environmental benefit potentials.

  13. Harmonic filter design consideration for a tire-rubber factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebardast, A. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Abhar Branch]|[Sharif Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtari, H. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Nonlinear loads and arc furnace loads are the main sources of harmonic currents in power distribution systems. Harmonic currents can cause reductions in system efficiency, and shorten the lifespan of transformers and capacitor banks. This paper provided details of a filter designed to attenuate harmonic currents at a tire company in Iran. The tire company was supplied by 3 distribution transformers and an emergency transformer. Main supply was through a 132 kV/20 kV transformer, which was connected to 2 A and B stations. The AC/DC drivers generated harmonics. Harmonic measurements were performed to determine the type and size of the required filters. A summary of site harmonic measurements was provided. A passive filter was placed at a medium voltage location. A sensitivity analysis was then performed in order to assess loading effects on filter performance. The analysis was performed on all possible configurations in the plant, including load change, capacitor bank step change, and transformer energization. Resonance conditions were also examined. Results showed that attention must be paid to the filter component rating in addition to potential resonant conditions. It was concluded that resonant conditions alter when system operating conditions change. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Tire Log™

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2013-01-01

    The Tire Log™ is a patented innovation made from waste tires with a unique and energy efficient approach to recycling tires. Re-Tread Products (RTP) process takes full advantage of the embedded energy in tires that is wasted in conventional tire recycling that primarily involves the grinding, burying or burning of waste tires.

  15. Impact strength and abrasion resistance of high strength concrete with rice husk ash and rubber tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Barbosa

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the application of High Strength Concrete (HSC technology for concrete production with the incorporation of Rice Husk Ash (RHA residues by replacing a bulk of the material caking and rubber tires with partial aggregate volume, assessing their influence on the mechanical properties and durability. For concrete with RHA and rubber, it was possible to reduce the brittleness by increasing the energy absorbing capacity. With respect to abrasion, the RHA and rubber concretes showed lower mass loss than the concrete without residues, indicating that this material is attractive to be used in paving. It is thus hoped that these residues may represent a technological and ecological alternative for the production of concrete in construction works.

  16. Characteristics of styrene-butadiene rubber/silica/Nanoprene compounds for application in tire tread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byeongho; Kang, Jonghyub; Jang, Sukhee; Kang, Yonggu; Kim, Wonho

    2013-03-01

    Nanoprene is made from chemically cross-linked rubber particles, and has many hydroxyl groups on the surface of the particles. It is speculated that the Nanoprene could reduce the silica-silica network formation by introducing hydrogen bonding between the silanol group of silica and the hydroxyl group of Nanoprene. In this study, the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/silica compounds with two types of the Nanoprene (BM75OH, BM15OH) were evaluated and it could be well explained by the concept of the volume fraction of filler or the volume fraction of rubber. If the Nanoprene applied to the compound is considered as a kind of filler, the minimum torque values and bound rubber contents of the un-vulcanized compounds, the swelling ratio and the stress-strain relationship of the vulcanized compounds could be well explained by the volume fraction of filler (phi(F)). If Nanoprene is considered as a kind of rubber such as SBR, the properties such as peak tan delta, Payne effect, tan delta at 0 degrees C and 60 degrees C, and abrasion resistance could be well explained by the volume fraction of rubber (phi'(R)). However, the improvement of silica dispersion by addition of the Nanoprene particles in the compounds was not significant. The application of BM75OH as a polymer to the tread compound will be suitable for winter tires. In addition, the compound with BM15OH as an additive will be suitable as a tread compound for summer tires.

  17. Silane grafted natural rubber and its compatibilization effect on silica-reinforced rubber tire compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengloyluan, K.; Sahakaro, K.; Dierkes, W. K.; Noordermeer, J. W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Natural Rubber (NR) grafted with 3-octanoylthio-1-propyltriethoxysilane (NXT) was prepared by melt mixing using 1,1′-di(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane as initiator at 140 °C with NXT contents of 10 and 20 parts per hundred rubber [phr] and initiator 0.1 phr. The silane grafted on NR

  18. Prediction of properties of polymer concrete composite with tire rubber using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconescu, Rodica-Mariana; Barbuta, Marinela; Harja, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using waste a new composite material was obtained with specific characteristics. ► The objective was to maximize tire powder content with the minimum resin content. ► By direct modeling, the maximum compressive strength was obtained for 30% tire powder. ► Inverse neural modeling was used for obtaining maximum values of strengths. -- Abstract: The neural network method was used to investigate the influence of filler and resin content on the mechanical properties of polymer concrete with powdered tire waste. The mechanical strengths of 10 experimentally determined combinations using mixed epoxy resin, aggregates and tire powder as filler were optimized using direct neural modeling and inverse neural modeling, by imposing a minimum cost (content in resin). Direct neural modeling gave the optimum composition for obtaining maximum values for compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength. Inverse neural modeling analyzed the possibility of obtaining maximum values of mechanical properties by variations in the dosages of the epoxy resin and tire powder. Neural network modeling generated the mixes with the lowest cost and maximum strength. The modeling method has shown that two mechanical properties can be simultaneously optimized in the investigation domain. From direct modeling, the maximum compressive strength was obtained for a composition with 0.215 (fraction weight) epoxy resin and 0.3 (fraction weight) tire powder. Maximum flexural strength was obtained for experimental values of 0.23 epoxy resin and 0.17 tire powder with a severe reduction noted for smaller resin dosages. The maximum split tensile strength was obtained for a resin dosage of 0.24 and tire powder dosage of 0.17

  19. Ontario tire recycling and economic development (OnTRED) plan : a market approach to eliminating tire stockpiles and promoting recycled rubber product manufacturing in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    Details of the Ontario Tire Recycling and Economic Development (OnTRED) plan were presented. The plan was developed to address deficiencies in the Ontario Tire Stewardship's (OTS) Scrap Tire Diversion Program plan. The OTS promotes the burning of scrap tires contrary to the Waste Diversion Act, and transfers the financial responsibility for scrap tire management from manufacturers to retailers. The OnTRED plan will attempt to improve the current 87 per cent recovery rate for passenger scrap tires in Ontario, and prevent the formation of any new tire stockpiles. The aim of the OnTRED plan is to ensure reuse and recycling consistent with provisions in the Waste Diversion Act and enhance the existing workings of the tire and scrap tire market through the promotion of reuse and recycling. In addition, the plan aims to minimize administration and compliance costs. A program summary of the OnTRED plan was presented, as well as details of market development plans and buy-recycled rebates. Issues concerning collector registration and transaction tracking were presented, as well as details of brand-owner and first importer pay-in models. Stakeholder roles and responsibilities were reviewed. A budget scenario was presented, as well as a rebate and diversion scenario. It was concluded that Ontario's 87 per cent scrap tire diversion rate can be improved through a focus on patterns of reuse and recycling. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. Potential to use waste tires as supplemental fuel in pulp and paper mill boilers, cement kilns and in road pavement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlaz, M.A.; Eleazer, W.E. II (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Whittle, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the recycling potential of waste tires as an energy source and for use in road pavement. North Carolina, U.S.A., is used as a case study. Scrap tires may be burned for supplemental fuel in pulp and paper mill boilers and cement kilns. Five pulp and paper mill boilers in North Carolina could consume over 90% of the 6 million tires generated annually in the state. Cement kilns located within 400 km of North Carolina population centers could consume about 6.6 million tires annually. Based on the quantity of pavement laid in North Carolina, non-proprietary and proprietary versions of asphalt rubber concrete have the potential to consume 1.8 and 7.2 million tires, respectively. Rubber modified asphalt concrete has the potential to consume up to 16.5 million tires. However, technological and economic limitations suggest that large scale implementation is unlikely for the short term. Environmental considerations pertaining to each alternative are discussed. (author)

  1. Potential of scrap tire rubber as lightweight aggregate in flowable fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, C E; Blackwell, M C

    2003-01-01

    Flowable fill is a self-leveling and self-compacting material that is rapidly gaining acceptance and application in construction, particularly in transportation and utility earthworks. When mixed with concrete sand, standard flowable fill produces a mass density ranging from 1.8 to 2.3 g/cm(3) (115-145 pcf). Scrap tires can be granulated to produce crumb rubber, which has a granular texture and ranges in size from very fine powder to coarse sand-sized particles. Due to its low specific gravity, crumb rubber can be considered a lightweight aggregate. This paper describes an experimental study on replacing sand with crumb rubber in flowable fill to produce a lightweight material. To assess the technical feasibility of using crumb rubber, the fluid- and hardened-state properties of nine flowable fill mixtures were measured. Mixture proportions were varied to investigate the effects of water-to-cement ratio and crumb rubber content on fill properties. Experimental results indicate that crumb rubber can be successfully used to produce a lightweight flowable fill (1.2-1.6 g/cm(3) [73-98 pcf]) with excavatable 28-day compressive strengths ranging from 269 to 1194 kPa (39-173 psi). Using a lightweight fill reduces the applied stress on underlying soils, thereby reducing the potential for bearing capacity failure and minimizing soil settlement. Based on these results, a crumb rubber-based flowable fill can be used in a substantial number of construction applications, such as bridge abutment fills, trench fills, and foundation support fills.

  2. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, D.; Haydary, J.; Markos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  3. Blends of ground tire rubber devulcanized by microwaves/HDPE - Part A: influence of devulcanization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiula Danielli Bastos de Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe main objective of this work is the study of the influence of microwaves devulcanization of the elastomeric phase on dynamically revulcanized blends based on Ground Tire Rubber (GTR/High Density Polyethylene (HDPE. The devulcanization of the GTR was performed in a system comprised of a conventional microwave oven adapted with a motorized stirring at a constant microwaves power and at various exposure times. The influence of the devulcanization process on the final properties of the blends was evaluated in terms of mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal and rheological properties. The morphology was also studied.

  4. [Epidemiology of contact hypersensitivity to rubber components in manufacturers of automobile tires at the Stomil plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubisz-Brzezińska, J; Bogdanowski, T; Brzezińska-Wcisło, L; Mozdzanowska, K; Bajcar, S

    1990-01-01

    Dermatological examination and patch tests with 34 rubber components were carried out in 114 tire manufacturers, 78 women and 36 men aged 29 years on average, with a mean duration of work in the plant 7 years. For correct interpretation of the obtained results patch tests with the same components were done in two control groups that is in 120 healthy subjects and 120 patients with contact dermatitis. Patch tests with proper concentrations of the studied components were evaluated after 48, 72 and 96 hours. Positive patch tests were found most frequently with antioxidants--16.6% (including IPPD--8.6%), followed by vulcanization accelerators--10.6%, and other rubber components--11.4% in all. During about 3 years of follow-up in 4 manufacturers contact allergic eczema was noted and polyvalent hypersensitivity to antioxidants and vulcanization accelerators without clinical manifestations of this hypersensitivity was diagnosed in 3 other subjects.

  5. Performance of sand and shredded rubber tire mixture as a natural base isolator for earthquake protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Srijit; Sengupta, Aniruddha; Reddy, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a well-designed layer of sand, and composites like layer of sand mixed with shredded rubber tire (RSM) as low cost base isolators, is studied in shake table tests in the laboratory. The building foundation is modeled by a 200 mm by 200 mm and 40 mm thick rigid plexi-glass block. The block is placed in the middle of a 1m by 1m tank filled with sand. The selected base isolator is placed between the block and the sand foundation. Accelerometers are placed on top of the footing and foundation sand layer. The displacement of the footing is also measured by LVDT. The whole setup is mounted on a shake table and subjected to sinusoidal motions with varying amplitude and frequency. Sand is found to be effective only at very high amplitude (> 0.65 g) of motions. The performance of a composite consisting of sand and 50% shredded rubber tire placed under the footing is found to be most promising as a low-cost effective base isolator.

  6. Nano-reinforcement of tire rubbers: silica-technology for natural rubber : exploring the infuence of non-rubber constituents on the natural rubber-silica system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkawi, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Natural rubber is a renewable resource material with outstanding properties which offers significant advantages over its counterparts, the fossil-resource synthetic rubbers. In fact, a natural rubber tree is an efficient carbon dioxide sequester. Since natural rubber is a natural product, it is

  7. Cancer mortality and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and inhalable aerosols in rubber tire manufacturing in Poland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vocht, F.; Sobala, W.; Wilczynska, U.; Kromhout, H.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Peplonska, B.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Most data on carcinogenic risk in the rubber industry are based on data from Western countries. This study assessed cancer risks in a retrospective cohort in a Polish tire manufacturing plant, relying on quantified exposure to inhalable aerosols and aromatic amines instead of job titles or

  8. A comparative study of ground tire rubber devulcanization using twin screw extruder and internal mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujianto, O.; Putri, D. B.; Jayatin; AWinarto, D.

    2017-07-01

    Devulcanization of ground tire rubber (GTR) was done using twin screw extruder (TSE) and internal mixer (IM). Processing parameters were varied to analyze its effect on gel content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed as qualitative technique to confirm structural change. The devulcanized rubbers with the least gel content percentage produced in both TSE and IM were then used as filler in natural rubber (NR)/coconut coir (CC) composite preparation. Effects of gel content percentage on NR/CC composite tensile strength and elongation at break were analyzed. The results show that the gel content decreased by 41% for sample processed in TSE and 50% in IM compared to control sample. Overall, the devulcanization is influenced by high energy generated by thermal or thermo-mechanical process. FTIR spectra show chemically structural changes of GTR as C=C, CH2, CH3 with higher intensity for IM sample than its counterpart indicated devulcanization. The replacement of GTR to DGTR on NR/CC/GTR composites provided less network structures and resulted better tensile strength and elongation at break.

  9. Silane grafted natural rubber and its compatibilization effect on silica-reinforced rubber tire compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sengloyluan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural Rubber (NR grafted with 3-octanoylthio-1-propyltriethoxysilane (NXT was prepared by melt mixing using 1,1′-di(tert-butylperoxy-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane as initiator at 140 °C with NXT contents of 10 and 20 parts per hundred rubber [phr] and initiator 0.1 phr. The silane grafted on NR molecules was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. Based on 1H-NMR, the use of 10 and 20 phr (parts per hundred resin of silane resulted in grafted NXT onto NR of 0.66 and 1.32 mol%, respectively, or a grafting efficiency of approx. 38%. The use of NXT-grafted NR as compatibilizer in silica-filled NR compounds, to give a total amount of NXT in both grafted and non-grafted forms in the range of 0.8–6.1 wt% relative to the silica, decreases the Mooney viscosity and Payne effect of the compounds, improves filler-rubber interaction, and significantly increases the tensile properties of the silica-filled NR-compounds compared to the non-compatibilized one. At the same silane-content, the use of silane-grafted NR gives slightly better properties than the straight use of the same silane. With sulfur compensation, the use of NXT-grafted-NR with about 6 wt% NXT relative to the silica gives technical properties that reach the levels obtained for straight use of bis-(3-triethoxysilyl-propyltetrasulfide (TESPT at 8.6 wt% relative to the silica.

  10. Advantages of Concrete Mixing with Tyre Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Mazyad Al-Fadhli *

    2017-01-01

    Strong waste administration is one of the major natural concerns everywhere throughout the world. Tire-rubber particles made out of tire chips, piece elastic, and a mix of tire chips and scrap elastic, where utilized to supplant mineral totals in cement. These particles were utilized to supplant 10% , 15% , 20%, and 25% of the aggregate mineral totals volume in cement.Using rubber aggregates in such applications can help to prevent pollution and overcome the problem of storing used tyres. Adv...

  11. Use of waste materials in rubber matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtášová Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the use of waste materials as ecological fillers into rubber matrix. Waste materials were used as partial replacement of the commercial filler – carbon black, designated as N339. These prepared rubber compounds were characterized on the basis of the rheology and vulcanization characteristics – minimum torque (ML, maximum torque (MH, optimum time of vulcanization (t(c90, processing safety of compound (ts, rate coefficient of vulcanization (Rv. In the case of the prepared vulcanizates, physical-mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensibility and hardness and dynamic-mechanical properties (storage modulus, loss modulus, loss angle tan δ were investigated. Using the dependency of loss angle on temperature, the selected properties for tyre tread vulcanizates were evaluated, including traction on snow and ice, traction on the wet surface and rolling resistance.

  12. Energy recycling of plastic and rubber wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2003-01-01

    Major areas for applications of plastics and rubbers are building and construction, packaging, transportation, automobiles, furniture, house wares, appliances, electrical and electronics. Approximately 20% of all the plastics produced are utilized by the building and construction industry/sup (1-3)/. Categories of polymers mostly used in the above industries include poly (vinyl chloride), polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene phenolics, acrylics and urethanes. Tyres and tubes are almost exclusively made up of rubbers. One third of total consumption of plastics finds applications, like films, bottles and packaging, in food-products that have a maximum life-span of two years, after which these find way to waste dumps. As the polymer industry in Pakistan is set to grow very rapidly in the near future the increase in utilization of plastic products in synchronous with the advent of computers and information technology. About 0.60 Kg per capita of waste generated daily in Lahore /(7.14)/ contains considerable quantity of plastics. (AB)

  13. Study on recycling of waste rubbers as medium components for hydroponic culture of rose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Kuk; Lee, Hyung-Gyu; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong; Hwang, Seung-Jae [Gyeongsang National Univ., Kumi(Korea)

    2000-06-30

    Recently, the efficient disposal of the waste rubber is necessary due to increasing amount of the waste rubbers. In this paper, method of recycling waste rubbers as components of medium for hydroponic rose culture was suggested. We investigated growth of rose, and macro- and micro-elements, pH and EC of the media amended with waste rubber. In the beginning of culture, stress symptoms such as thin brittle stem and incipient wilting were observed, but they disappeared in a few weeks. Concentration of Zn{sup 2+} in media at flowering increased in proportion to contents of waste tire in the media. pH of media at flowering were in the range of 5.70 to 6.35. Rose growth in all media, except in waste rock wool mixed with EPDM powder at 9:3 ratio, was normal and equivalent to the control in terms of stem length, number of stems harvested and fresh weight. (author). 10 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. Fatigue Performance and Multiscale Mechanisms of Concrete Toughened by Polymers and Waste Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For improving bending toughness and fatigue performance of brittle cement-based composites, two types of water-soluble polymers (such as dispersible latex powder and polyvinyl alcohol powder and waste tire-rubber powders are added to concrete as admixtures. Multiscale toughening mechanisms of these additions in concretes were comprehensively investigated. Four-point bending fatigue performance of four series concretes is conducted under a stress level of 0.70. The results show that the effects of dispersible latex powder on bending toughness and fatigue life of concrete are better than those of polyvinyl alcohol powder. Furthermore, the bending fatigue lives of concrete simultaneously containing polymers and waste rubber powders are larger than those of concrete with only one type of admixtures. The multiscale physics-chemical mechanisms show that high bonding effect and high elastic modulus of polymer films as well as good elastic property and crack-resistance of waste tire-rubber powders are beneficial for improving bending toughness and fatigue life of cementitious composites.

  15. Release of Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On July 31, 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the Tire Retread- ing lndustry Access Conditions and Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Condi- tions with the No. 32 announcement of 2012. The state will lay a foundation for realizing the green, safe, efficient, eco-friendly and energy saving tar- gets in the "12th Five-year Plan" of the industry by raising access conditions, regulating industrial development order, strengthening environmental protection, promoting corporate optimizing and up- grading, improving resources comprehensive utiliza- tion technology and management level and guiding the "harmless recycling and eco-friendly utiliza- tion" of the industry.

  16. Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzing, II, James Alfred (Inventor); Kish, James Christopher (Inventor); Asnani, Vivake Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A tire includes a plurality of helical springs. Each helical spring includes a first end portion, a second end portion, and an arching middle portion. Each helical spring is interlaced with at least one other helical spring thereby forming a laced toroidal structure extending about an entire circumference of the tire.

  17. A practical approach for solving disposal of rubber waste: Leachability of heavy metals from foamed concrete containing rubber powder waste (RPW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Hassan, Mohd Ikhmal Haqeem; Sarani, Noor Amira; Yatim, Fatin Syahirah Mohamed; Jaini, Zainorizuan Mohd

    2017-09-01

    Enormous disposal of rubber wastes has become an issue with the facts that all tires have its own life span. Inefficient disposal method of RPW from used tire can cause environmental impact as the heavy metals content in tire can easily leach out thus causing contamination to the soil and waterways. The goals of this study is to identify the heavy metals content of rubber powder waste (RPW) and to determine the potential of leachability of heavy metals from foamed concrete containing different percentages of RPW. Therefore, this study is focused on the leachability of RPW incorporated in foamed concrete. Different percentages of RPW were incorporated in foamed concrete (0%, 6%, 12% and 18%) for the investigation. Leachability tests were done by using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) on crushed samples of foamed concrete incorporated with RPW and were analyzed by using inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results from XRF indicated that RPW is high in metals such as Zn, Cu, Ba and Co. The highest concentration of heavy metals in raw RPW is Zn with 51403 ppm which is exceeded USEPA (2010) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of Zn with only 5 ppm. After RPW had been incorporated into a foamed concrete, the results demonstrated that the Zn, Cu, Ba and Co heavy metals were less leached and complied with USEPA standard. The incorporation of RPW into foamed concrete in this study demonstrated that it could be a potential alternative raw material for concrete thus enhancing the possibility of its reuse in safe and sustainable way.

  18. Possibility of using waste tire composites reinforced with rice straw as construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Kang, Chun-Won

    2004-10-01

    Agricultural lignocellulosic fiber (rice straw)-waste tire particle composite boards were manufactured for use as insulation boards in construction, using the same method as that used in the wood-based panel industry. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.8 and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of rice straw/waste tire particle). A commercial polyurethane adhesive for rubber was used as the composite binder. The water proof, water absorption and thickness swelling properties of the composite boards were better than those of wood particleboard. Furthermore, the flexibility and flexural properties of the composite boards were superior to those of other wood-based panel products. The composite boards also demonstrated good acoustical insulation, electrical insulation, anti-caustic and anti-rot properties. These boards can be used to prevent impact damage, are easily modifiable and are inexpensive. They are able to be used as a substitute for insulation boards and other flexural materials in construction.

  19. Effect of polyfunctional monomers on properties of radiation crosslinked EPDM/waste tire dust blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, Tariq; Khan, Sajid; Nho, Young-Chang; Ahmad, Rashid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, waste tire dust is recycled as filler and blended with ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber. Three different polyfuntional monomers (PFMs) are incorporated into the standard formulation and irradiated under electron beam at different doses up to maximum of 100 kGy. The combined effects of PFMs and absorbed dose on the physical properties of EPDM/WTD blend are measured and compared with sulfur crosslinked formulation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that radiation developed better crosslinked network with higher thermal stability than sulfur crosslinked structure. The physical properties of radiation crosslinked blend are similar to the sulfur crosslinked blend. The absence of toxic chemicals/additives in radiation crosslinked blends made them an ideal candidate for many applications such as roof sealing sheets, water retention pond, playground mat, sealing profile for windows etc. - Highlights: ► We have recycled waste tire dust and blended it with EPDM. ► EB crosslinking is carried in the presence of polyfuntional monomers. ► Radiation gave better network with higher thermal stability than sulfur. ► The absence of toxic chemicals in EB blends will increase its acceptability.

  20. Evaluation of moisture damage in asphalt concrete with CRM motorcycle tire waste passing #50 sieve size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Pranoto; Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experimental research is to evaluate moisture damage in Asphalt Concrete (AC) with Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) motorcycle tire waste passing #50 and retaining #100 sieve size. Two gradations were used in this research, the first gradation is usual for asphalt concrete base (ACB) and the second gradation is for asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC). Marshall testing apparatus was used for testing the Marshall specimens. Seven levels of CRM content were used, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5% and 6% by weight of mixtures. Retained stability represent the level of moisture damage of AC pavement. The result indicates that addition CRM to the AC mixture increases their the stability to a maximum value and subsequent addition decrease the stability. The addition CRM to AC decreases their moisture damage susceptibility. AC with 1% CRM is the best asphalt-CRM mix.

  1. Properties of concrete with tire derived aggregate and crumb rubber as a lighthweight substitute for mineral aggregates in the concrete mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringi, Gideon Momanyi

    Scrap tires continue to be a nuisance to the environment and this research proposes one way of recycling them as a lightweight aggregate which can substitute for mineral aggregates in concrete. Aggregates derived from scrap tires are often referred to as Tire Derived Aggregate (TDA). First, the focus is how much mineral aggregate can be replaced by these waste tires and how the properties of concrete are affected with the introduction of rubber. This is being mindful of the fact that for a new material to be acceptable as an engineering material, its properties and behavior has to be well understood, the materials must perform properly and be acceptable to the regulating agencies. The role played by the quantity of TDA and Crumb Rubber replacing coarse aggregate and fine aggregate respectively as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties are examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, Splitting Tensile Strength based on ASTM C496, Modulus of Rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78 and Bond strength of concrete developed with reinforcing steel based on ASTM C234.Through stress-strain plots, the rubberized concrete is compared in terms of change in ductility, toughness and Elastic Modulus. Results indicate that while replacement of mineral aggregates with TDA results in reduction in compressive strength, this may be mitigated by addition of silica fume or using a smaller size of TDA to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product with lower density while utilizing recycled TDA. From the results, it is observed that 7-10% of weight of mineral aggregates can be replaced by an equal volume of TDA to produce concrete with compressive strength of up to 4000 psi (27.5 MPa). Rubberized concrete would have higher ductility and toughness with

  2. USING THE SCRAP TIRES TO PRODUCE A FLEXIBLE COUPLER

    OpenAIRE

    Tahsean A. Hussain

    2018-01-01

    The scrap tires considered a problematic source of waste, the old rubber tires causes a big environmental problem that is need much money and effort to disposes it safely. In Iraq there are more than two million used tires disposed to the environment annually. one of the tire’s recycling methods is the use of tire layers to produce a new rubber parts used in the engineering and industrial purposes as the bridges and machines dampers, this trend of recycling doesn’t take a sufficient care comp...

  3. Effects of preparation process on performance of rubber modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Luo, Guobao; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    The rational utilization of waste rubber tire is essential for the environmental protection. Utilizing rubber particles to modify asphalt can not only improve asphalt performance, but also help the recycling of waste materials. Considering the effect of different preparation process parameters on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, this paper analyzes the effects of the shear temperature, shear time and shear rate on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, and provided a reference for its preparation.

  4. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  5. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly.

  6. A new recycling technique for the waste tires reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Zahra; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Faramarzian, Mohammad; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-10-01

    In this series of laboratory experiments, the feasibility of using fixed bed biofilm carriers (FBBC) manufactured from existing reclaimed waste tires (RWTs) for wastewater treatment was evaluated. To assess polyamide yarn waste tires as a media, the fixed bed sequence batch reactor (FBSBR) was evaluated under different organic loading rate (OLRs). An experimental model was used to study the kinetics of substrate consumption in biofilm. Removal efficiency of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) ranged by 76-98% for the FBSBR compared to 71-96% in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Removal efficiency of FBBC was significantly increased by inoculating these RWTs carriers. The results revealed that the sludge production yield (Y obs ) was significantly less in the FBSBR compared to the SBR (p 99%) in a FBSBR. Results from this study suggest that RWTs to support biological activity for a variety of wastewater treatment applications as a biofilm carrier have high potential that better performance as COD and TSS removal and sludge settling properties and effluent quality supported these findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  8. Complex processing of rubber waste through energy recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Smelík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the applied energy recovery solutions for complex processing of rubber waste for energy recovery. It deals specifically with the solution that could maximize possible use of all rubber waste and does not create no additional waste that disposal would be expensive and dangerous for the environment. The project is economically viable and energy self-sufficient. The outputs of the process could replace natural gas and crude oil products. The other part of the process is also the separation of metals, which can be returned to the metallurgical secondary production.

  9. Prospective of Macedonia for treatment and recycling of tire waste with Pirolitic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafov Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry is one of the ever-developing branches of modern society and therefore collecting and recycling of old tires must not be ignored. It must be taken into consideration that tire waste is decomposing at an extremely low pace under the influence of climate factors, that waste from used tires not only is covering large areas, but there is also a possibility of spontaneous fire that is usually long-lasting and emits gasses that have negative effect on human health. Tires are made of complex polymeric materials and contain chemical additives. When burning tires on an open field highly toxic and cancerous organic compounds are being released (biphenyl, anthracene, fluoranthene and other toxins. Pyrolysis is a process that offers sustainable management of this type of waste which in continuation is to be explained in detail.

  10. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    OpenAIRE

    Moinuddin Sarker; Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml an...

  11. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-11-01

    The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F trademark), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste

  12. Reinforcement of tire tread and radiator hose rubbers with short aramid fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Shirazi, Morteza; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Short fiber reinforced rubber composites have gained great importance due to their advantages in processing and low cost, coupled with high strength. Reinforcement with short fibers offers attractive features such as design flexibility, high modulus, tear strength, etc. The degree of reinforcement depends upon many parameters, such as: the nature of the rubber matrix, the type of fiber, the concentration and orientation of the fibers, fiber to rubber adhesion to generate a strong interface, f...

  13. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-01-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites

  14. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun; Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-01-01

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na 2 CO 3 , NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) ∼205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na 2 CO 3 addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H 2 , CO, CH 4 , CO 2 , C 2 H 4 and C 2 H 6 . Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher

  15. Rubber Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2007-01-01

    The safety and health hazards related to recycling of used rubber, due to the scarcity and high price of virgin rubber are reported. Various threats like stagnant water pools trapped in tires leading to diseases and ignited tires, which become very difficult to extinguish and generating smoke that is extremely detrimental to the environment, have…

  16. Rubber modification of asphalt binders and mixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.; Hesp, S.A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The physical properties of asphalt binders and concrete, modified with waste rubber tire, were examined. In an experiment designed to address the concern of waste disposal of scrap rubber, a control asphalt, devulcanized rubber modified asphalt and a crumb rubber modified asphalt were used to make asphalt concrete mixes. The three mixes were subjected to a thermal stress test to determine their low temperature fracture temperatures and strengths. Results were discussed in terms of the binder material used. At high service temperatures, the addition of 10% devulcanized rubber was found to have no beneficial effect, whereas the addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber produced a modest improvement in performance. At low temperatures, the addition of devulcanized rubber produced increased resistance to cracking up to 90%. The addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber increased fracture toughness by a factor of 3.3 times. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, we have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epi-chloro-hydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F), poly-tetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to ∼3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 deg. C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using VTR measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, screening criteria of ∼1 g/hr/m 2 for VTR and specific gravity change of 10% were used. Those materials that failed to meet these criteria were judged to have failed the screening tests and were excluded from the next phase of this experimental program. We have completed the comprehensive testing phase of liner materials in a simulant Hanford Tank waste consisting of an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. From the data analyses performed, we have identified the chloro-fluorocarbon Kel-F as having the greatest chemical durability after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the aqueous alkaline simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the extremely poor performance of Teflon under these conditions. We have also completed the comprehensive

  18. Investigation of the Influence of Acoustic Oscillation Parameters on the Mechanism of Waste Rubber Products Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakurov, R. F.; Sitnikov, O. R.; Galimova, A. I.; Sabitova, A. F.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents an analysis of the used methods of recycling of waste rubber products. The worn out tires are exposed to natural decomposition only after 50 - 100 years, and toxic organic compounds used in the manufacture constitute a danger to the environment. It contemplates a method of recycling waste rubber products in devices where pulsating combustion is realized. The dependence of the influence of acoustic pulsation parameters on the combustion mechanism of waste rubber products and on the composition of combustion products was experimentally investigated and established. For this purpose, the setup scheme based on the Rijke effect is optimized. The resonance pipe is coaxially embedded in the shaft. The known mathematical model of finding the combustion zones in the Rijke pipe, corresponding to the gas flow oscillations with the maximum amplitude, is applied to the chosen scheme. Investigations were carried out for three positions of the grate relative to the lower section of the experimental pipe, in which 1st, 2nd, 3rd modes of oscillation are formed. There are favorable conditions arise for the secondary combustion of mechanical particles entrained in the gas flow in the tube. The favorable conditions for afterburning also include the fact that through the upper section of the resonant pipe, the ambient air, caused by the features of the standing wave, is mixed into the gas stream. A comparative analysis of the change of gas concentration composition along the length of the resonance tube is carried out. It is established that the basic mode of oscillations contributes to the reduction of nitrogen oxides, in comparison with the oscillations occurring simultaneously at several harmonics, considering the main one. The results of research for the three positions of the grate in relation to the lower section of the installation are presented in tabular form, in which 1, 2, 3 modes of oscillation are formed. The analysis of experimental results confirms

  19. Waste tyre rubberized concrete: properties at fresh and hardened state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, M A; Leuzzi, F

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of various concrete mixtures at fresh and hardened state, obtained by a partial substitution of coarse and fine aggregate with different volume percentages of waste tyres rubber particles, having the same dimensions of the replaced aggregate. Workability, unit weight, compressive and flexural strength and post-cracking behaviour were evaluated and a comparison of the results for the different rubcrete mixtures were proposed in order to define the better mix proportions in terms of mechanical properties of the rubberized concrete. Results showed in this paper were also compared to data reported in literature. Moreover, a preliminary geometrical, physical and mechanical characterization on scrap tyre rubber shreds was made. The rubberized concrete mixtures showed lower unit weight compared to plain concrete and good workability. The results of compressive and flexural tests indicated a larger reduction of mechanical properties of rubcrete when replacing coarse aggregate rather than fine aggregate. On the other hand, the post-cracking behaviour of rubberized concrete was positively affected by the substitution of coarse aggregate with rubber shreds, showing a good energy absorption and ductility indexes in the range observed for fibrous concrete, as suggested by standard (ASTM C1018-97, 1997). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 3031 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... July 2010. A total of approximately 38,991 of these tires have been delivered to Goodyear's customers... is inconsequential to motor vehicle safety, and that its petition, to exempt from providing recall notification of noncompliance as required by 49 U.S.C. 30118 and remedying the recall noncompliance as required...

  1. Viability Analysis of Waste Tires as Material for Rail Vibration and Noise Control in Modern Tram Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study focused on the effect of using damping chamber elements made from waste tires on railway noise reduction. First, the energy absorption characteristics of damping chamber elements with various gradation combinations and compaction indices were measured in the laboratory using compression testing. The laboratory compression results demonstrated that the optimal gradation combination of damping chamber elements is as follows: the content of fine rubber particles is 10%, the content of coarse granules is 90%, and the optimal compaction index is 0.98. Next, the findings from the laboratory compression-test studies were used to produce damping chamber elements that were applied to a full-scale modern track model in the laboratory. The measurements of the dynamic properties indicated that the damping chamber elements could significantly reduce the vibration levels of the rail head. Finally, the damping chamber elements, which had been proven effective through laboratory dynamic tests, were widely applied to test rail sections in the field. The field tests demonstrated that damping chamber elements can significantly increase the track vibration decay rate in the frequency range of 200–10000 Hz. Therefore, damping chamber elements made from waste tires are able to control rail vibration and noise in modern tram track systems.

  2. Thermoplastic elastomers blends based on linear low density polyethylene, ethylene-1-octene copolymers and ground rubber tire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Cristina Guimarães Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE ethylene-1-octene copolymers (EOC, with different 1-octene (OC content, and ground rubber tire (GRT were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Five different compositions of LLDPE/EOC/GRT blends were processed in the extruder to evaluate the effect of EOC addition to the LLDPE/GRT blends. The addition of EOC to LLDPE/GRT blends improves the mechanical properties. Besides, the replacement of 5% of GRT by EOC grades (OC = 20 or 30 wt % in the 50/50 LLDPE/GRT blend, leads to a significant increase of ultimate tensile properties. The EOC comonomer content affects the properties of LLDPE/EOC and LLDPE/EOC/GRT blends. Dynamical-mechanical analyses showed that, with the addition of EOC to LLDPE/GRT blends, the Tg of GRT and the Tg of EOC are closer. This effect is more pronounced when the EOC with the highest content of comonomer (30 wt % is added to LLDPE/GRT blend. In this case, only one peak related to the Tg of the rubber phase can be visualized in the amorphous region. These findings indicate that EOC may act as compatibilizer agent for LLDPE/GRT blends.

  3. Cancer mortality and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and inhalable aerosols in rubber tire manufacturing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, Frank; Sobala, Wojciech; Wilczynska, Urszula; Kromhout, Hans; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Peplonska, Beata

    2009-08-01

    Most data on carcinogenic risk in the rubber industry are based on data from Western countries. This study assessed cancer risks in a retrospective cohort in a Polish tire manufacturing plant, relying on quantified exposure to inhalable aerosols and aromatic amines instead of job titles or external comparisons. Cumulative exposure for all exposures was assigned to cohort members based on estimates from a company-specific JEM. Cancer risks associated with cumulative exposure adjusted for co-exposures, gender and year of birth were calculated. Exposure levels were higher for women than for men. Aromatic amine exposure was significantly associated with increased urinary bladder cancer risk (RR=7.32-8.27), depending on exposure level, and prostate cancer at low levels only (RR=5.86). In women, increased risks were found for all cancers (RR=2.50) and of the digestive organs and peritoneum (RR=4.54) at low level only, while an exposure-response association with breast cancer risk was found. Inhalable aerosol exposure was associated with cancers of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts in a dose-dependent manner, while dose-dependent reduced risks were found for respiratory cancers (most notably the larynx) and cancer of the colon. Increased risks for specific cancer sites in this rubber plant were similar to Western Europe and the US. However, several cancer risks were gender-specific which could relate to higher exposure levels in women or to differences in exposures to chemicals not assessed in this study.

  4. Polyethylene-waste tire dust composites via in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes A, Y. K.; Narro C, R. I.; Ramos A, M. E.; Neira V, M. G.; Diaz E, J.; Enriquez M, F.; Valencia L, L. A.; Saade C, H.; Diaz de L, R.

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene/waste tire dust (WTD) composites were obtained by an in situ polymerization technique. The surface of the WTD was modified with deposition of polyethylene by using plasma polymerization. Ethylene polymerization was carried out using bis(cyclopentadienyl) titanium dichloride (Cp 2 TiCl 2 ) as homogeneous metallocenes catalyst, while diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC), ethyl aluminum sesquichloride (EASC) and methyl alumino xane (Mao) were used as co-catalysts at two different [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio. The main characteristics of the obtained polyethylenes were determined by size exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The results showed that by using EASC and Mao the highest catalytic activities were presented at a [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio of 9.17 and 18.33 respectively. Even though it was possible to obtain polyethylene using WTD (modified or unmodified) the catalytic activity was lower than in the case in which no WTD was added in ethylene polymerization. Scanning transmission electronic microscopy images evidenced that the original morphology of the polyethylenes was not modified by the presence of WTD. (Author)

  5. Polyethylene-waste tire dust composites via in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes A, Y. K.; Narro C, R. I.; Ramos A, M. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Blvd. Venustiano Carranza s/n, 25280 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Neira V, M. G.; Diaz E, J.; Enriquez M, F.; Valencia L, L. A.; Saade C, H.; Diaz de L, R., E-mail: ramon.diazdeleon@ciqa.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo No. 40, Col. San Jose de los Cerritos, 25293 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    Polyethylene/waste tire dust (WTD) composites were obtained by an in situ polymerization technique. The surface of the WTD was modified with deposition of polyethylene by using plasma polymerization. Ethylene polymerization was carried out using bis(cyclopentadienyl) titanium dichloride (Cp{sub 2}TiCl{sub 2}) as homogeneous metallocenes catalyst, while diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC), ethyl aluminum sesquichloride (EASC) and methyl alumino xane (Mao) were used as co-catalysts at two different [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio. The main characteristics of the obtained polyethylenes were determined by size exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The results showed that by using EASC and Mao the highest catalytic activities were presented at a [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio of 9.17 and 18.33 respectively. Even though it was possible to obtain polyethylene using WTD (modified or unmodified) the catalytic activity was lower than in the case in which no WTD was added in ethylene polymerization. Scanning transmission electronic microscopy images evidenced that the original morphology of the polyethylenes was not modified by the presence of WTD. (Author)

  6. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW th . A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign

  7. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel, E-mail: juand.martinez@upb.edu.co [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales, Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 N°70-01, Bloque 11, piso 2, Medellín (Colombia); Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW{sub th}. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  8. Reinforcement of tire tread and radiator hose rubbers with short aramid fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirazi, Morteza; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Short fiber reinforced rubber composites have gained great importance due to their advantages in processing and low cost, coupled with high strength. Reinforcement with short fibers offers attractive features such as design flexibility, high modulus, tear strength, etc. The degree of reinforcement

  9. Numerical analysis of some problems related to the mechanics of pneumatic tires: Finite deformation/rolling contact of a viscoelastic cylinder and finite deformation of cord-reinforced rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, J. T.; Becker, E. B.; Lin, T. L.; Hsieh, K. T.

    1984-01-01

    The formulation and numerical analysis of several problems related to the behavior of pneumatic tires are considered. These problems include the general rolling contact problem of a rubber-like viscoelastic cylinder undergoing finite deformations and the finite deformation of cord-reinforced rubber composites. New finite element models are developed for these problems. Numerical results obtained for several representative cases are presented.

  10. Economic and energy analysis about disposal interventions of waste tires produced in Calabria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, Gaetano; Cersosimo, Attilio.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper refers to an analysis aimed at researching disposal strategies, for waste tires produced in Calabria, which ensure correct disposal with regard to environmental compatibility and their evaluation in terms of material recovery and energy. The starting point has been an estimate of the quantities of potentially usable waste tires and disposal methods currently employed. It has therefore been possible to identify two specific disposal proposals for which an economic and energy evaluation has been conducted. The last part of the paper has faced the problem of plant location under consideration, with the aim of determining, for both proposal, the cost that each producer must bear to have his waste tires eliminated

  11. Formulation and characterization of structural lightweight concrete containing residues of porcelain tile polishing, tire rubber and limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. M. Sampaio

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent increase in the construction industry has transformed concrete into an ideal choice to recycle a number of residues formerly discarded into the environment. Among various products, porcelain tile polishing, limestone and tire rubber residues are potential candidates to replace the fine aggregate of conventional mixtures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of varying contents of these residues in lightweight concrete where expanded clay replaced gravel. To that end, slump, compressive strength, density, void ratio, porosity and absorption tests were carried out. The densities of all concrete formulations studied were 10% lower to that of lightweight concrete (<1.850 kg/m³. Nevertheless, mixes containing 10 to 15% of combined residues reduced absorption, void ratio and porosity, at least 17% lower compared to conventional concrete. The strength of such formulations reached 27 MPa at 28 days with consistency of 9 to 12 cm, indicating adequate consistency and increased strength. In addition, the combination of low porosity, absorption and voids suggested improved durability.

  12. Surface treated carbon catalysts produced from waste tires for fatty acids to biofuel conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Zachary D.; Adhikari, Shiba P.; Wright, Marcus W.; Lachgar, Abdessadek; Li, Yunchao; Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2018-02-06

    A method of making solid acid catalysts includes the step of sulfonating waste tire pieces in a first sulfonation step. The sulfonated waste tire pieces are pyrolyzed to produce carbon composite pieces having a pore size less than 10 nm. The carbon composite pieces are then ground to produce carbon composite powders having a size less than 50 .mu.m. The carbon composite particles are sulfonated in a second sulfonation step to produce sulfonated solid acid catalysts. A method of making biofuels and solid acid catalysts are also disclosed.

  13. Silica-filled tire tread compounds: an investigation into the viscoelastic properties of the rubber compounds and their relation to tire performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing the global concern for fossil fuel consumption, automotive industry moves toward more efficient vehicles. Tires are of great importance in this respect, as the tire compound material in contact with the road surface and under the cyclic deformation dissipates energy due to its

  14. Radiation Vulcanization of Polymeric Blends Based on Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Rubber/ Waste Materials in Presence of Different Additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOHAMED, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, the mechanical blending technique was applied for preparation of elastomeric blend of ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM)and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having a fixed ratio of (50/50) by weight. The prepared blend of EPDM/NBR (50/50) was used as a rubber matrix to be loaded with waste materials, namely rice husk (RH) as a natural waste filler and then with ground tire rubber (GTR) as an artificial one. The degree of loading varied from 5 p hr to 20 p hr. Ionizing radiation, namely ,gamma rays were applied for inducing vulcanization of prepared and loaded rubber blends, in the range from 5 kGy to 250 kGy. Different properties of prepared composites were followed up as a function of degree of loading with the waste material and dose of irradiation. The mechanical properties, namely tensile strength and elongation at break percent of the composites slightly decreased as the filler loading increased over the whole range of irradiation .Tensile modulus and hardness, on the other hand, showed an opposite trend, i.e. the increased. Other properties, namely physical, thermal and morphological confirmed the mechanical ones. Obtained results were affiliated with lack of interface adhesion between the waste materials and the rubber matrix elastomers. The lack of interface adhesion was improved by filling the composite with a limited content, up to 7 p hr, of the compatibilizer, namely, maleic anhydride (MAH). Measurements of different properties was carried out for composite loaded with 10 p hr of waste material. It has been found that the tensile properties were significantly improved with addition of the compatibilizing agent Further and significant improvement was attained in properties of prepared later composite by its loading with 40 p hr of either HAF- carbon black or Hisil as reinforcing fillers that participates in chemical as well as physical bonding. Similarly and lastly 8 p hr of N, N- methylene di acrylamide (MDA) were loaded

  15. Production of liquid fuels and chemicals from pyrolysis of Bangladeshi bicycle/rickshaw tire wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M. Rofiqul; Tushar, M.S.H.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Haniu, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami City, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    Tire wastes in the form of used bicycle/rickshaw tires available in Bangladesh were pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed fire-tube heating reactor under different pyrolysis conditions to determine the role of final temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and feed size on the product yields and liquid product composition. Final temperature range studied was between 375 and 575 C and the highest liquid product yield was obtained at 475 C. Liquid products obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and GC-MS techniques. The results show that it is possible to obtain liquid products that are comparable to petroleum fuels and valuable chemical feedstock from bicycle/rickshaw tire wastes if the pyrolysis conditions are chosen accordingly. (author)

  16. Exposure to aged crumb rubber reduces survival time during a stress test in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochron, Sharon; Nikakis, Jacqueline; Illuzzi, Kyra; Baatz, Andrea; Demirciyan, Loriana; Dhillon, Amritjot; Gaylor, Thomas; Manganaro, Alexa; Maritato, Nicholas; Moawad, Michael; Singh, Rajwinder; Tucker, Clara; Vaughan, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management struggles with the sustainable disposal of used tires. One solution involves shredding used tires into crumb rubber and using the material as infill for artificial turf. However, crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals, and it travels into the environment. Earthworms living in soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil, but the impact of aged crumb rubber on the earthworms is unknown. Since many athletic fields contain aged crumb rubber, we compared the body weight, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress for earthworms living in clean topsoil to those living in topsoil contaminated with aged crumb rubber. We also characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published values for soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber. Consistent with earlier research, we found that contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates. Aged crumb rubber, like new crumb rubber, had high levels of zinc. However, while exposure to aged crumb rubber did not reduce earthworm body weight as did exposure to new crumb rubber, exposure to aged crumb rubber reduced earthworm survival time during a stress test by a statistically significant 38 min (16.2%) relative to the survival time for worms that had lived in clean soil. Aged crumb rubber and new crumb rubber appear to pose similar toxic risks to earthworms. This study suggests an environmental cost associated with the current tire-recycling solution.

  17. The combustion characteristics of refuse derived fuels using coke/waste tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M.H. [Dep. of Mechanical Eng., Samcheok Nat' l Univ., Samcheok (Korea); Shin, D.Y. [Research Center for Advanced Mineral Aggregate Composite Products, Kangwon Nat' l Univ., Chuncheon (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    Today every nation faces serious problems of energy supply. Reasonable technologies to make use of coal (including coke) can not only help the mining-related economy which is showing a downward trend but also may fit in with the governmental energy policy. In this research, we aim to supply heating systems in factories, homes, and farms with a substitute fuel by developing coke/waste tire compound fuel with high efficiency for rational use of energy and for recycling of industrial products. A coke/waste boiler was used for this experiment, and different kinds of fuel were experimented including coke, waste tire, coke/waste A and coke/waste B. Four kinds of exhaust gas were also sampled by a gas analyzer, including CO, CO{sub 2}, NO and NO{sub 2} at different temperatures. (orig.)

  18. Use of epoxidized natural rubber as a compatibilizer in silica-filled natural rubber tire tread compounds ; Verwendung von epoxydiertem Naturkautschuk als Verträglichkeitsvermittler in Zusammensetzungen aus kieselsäuregefülltem Naturkautschuk für Reifenlaufflächen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengloyluan, K.; Sahakaro, Kannika; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Silica-reinforced natural rubber (NR) tire tread compounds with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as a compatibilizer are investigated. ENR contents of 2.5-15.0 phr, with epoxide levels of 10, 38 and 51 mol%, are used. The addition of ENRs, especially ENR-38 and ENR-51, as compatibilizers decreases

  19. Study of the Properties of Polyurethane-waste Rubber Granulate Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.W.Sulkowski; M.Moczy′ski; A.Sulkowska; A.Danch; J.Borek; S.Mistarz

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The production of rubber is very high and rises every year. Among other things it is directly connected with the growth of car production. Therefore, the processing of waste rubber and its management must be treated as a global problem. Used rubber may replace conventional fuel and, owing to its low price, can improve the economic effectiveness of combustion. Energy recovery by combustion of car tyres allows for rapid management of rubber waste. However, it is well-known that all kinds of wast...

  20. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Industrial waste treatment and application in rubber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, I. N.; Popova, L. V.; Repin, P. S.; Molokanova, L. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper provides for the relevance of various industrial waste treatment and application, as well as their secondary commercialization. It considers treatment of secondary polymer materials turning to additives applied in rubber production, in particular, in production of conveyor and V-type belts used in mechanical engineering. It is found that oligomers obtained from petroleum by-products can be used as an impregnating compound for fiber materials. Such adhesive treatment prior to introduction of impregnating compounds into elastomeric materials improves adhesion and complements performance of obtained composites.

  2. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  3. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  4. Modeling and Performance of Waste Tires as Media in Fixed Bed Sequence Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2016-12-01

    Results: The maximum removal efficiencies of dissolved chemical oxygen demand for FBSBR and SBR reactors were 98.3 % and 97.9 %, respectively. In addition, Stover-Kincannon model provided a very suitable fitness (R2   > 0.99 for loading the bioreactor FBSBR. Conclusion: According to the results, not only waste tires can be reused, but also these wastes can be employed as a proper biological bed in wastewater refineries to improve their efficiency.

  5. Reactive processing of silica-reinforced tire rubber : new insight into the time- and temperature-dependence of silica rubber interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihara, S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, silica has become one of the most important fillers used in tire tread compounds due to its contribution to a better environment. Silica is capable of not only reducing the rolling resistance but also improving the wet skid resistance of tires, compared to carbon black as a filler.

  6. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties of Crushed Sand Concrete containing Rubber Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the rubber wastes are an important part of municipal solid waste. This work focuses on the recycling of rubber waste, specifically rubber waste of used shoes discharged into the nature and added in the mass of crushed sand concrete with percentage (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The physical (workability, fresh density, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and thermal (thermal conductivity of different crushed sand concrete made are analyzed and compared to the respective controls. The use of rubber waste in crushed sand concrete contributes to reduce the bulk density and performance of sand concrete. Nevertheless, the use of rubber aggregate leads to a significant reduction in thermal conductivity, which improves the thermal insulation of crushed sand concrete.

  7. Physico Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Waste Rubber Cement Mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study a partial replacement of aggregate with two different ratios of waste rubber (5%, 10%) with the addition of a constant ratio of rice husk ash (RHA), 5% was carried out. The hardened cement mortar used the optimum water of consistency. The specimens were molded into 1 inch cubic moulds .The specimens were first cured for 24 hours, at 100% relative humidity and then cured under tap water for 3, 7 and 28 days followed by irradiation at different doses of gamma irradiation namely 5 and 10 kGy. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties such as compressive strength, total porosity and bulk density were studied for the three types of specimens. The results showed that the values of the compressive strength, bulk density and chemically combined water of the blended cement mortar paste (OPC-RHA) increase ,while blended cement mortar paste with 5% RHA and 5, 10% waste rubber decrease. The results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and thermal behavior of the specimens. Also, it was observed that the irradiated sample was thermally more stable than the unirradiated one

  8. Directions for material recovery of used tires and their use in the production of new products intended for the industry of civil construction and pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulei, C.; Todor, M. P.; Heput, T.; Kiss, I.

    2018-01-01

    The management of waste from used tires is one of the major principles of recycling and reuse, which involves encouraging a high level of material recovery components, preferably by recycling. Given the current pressure on natural resources on a global scale we must fully take into account the waste in a broader framework defined by the flow of raw materials and their sustainable use. Thus, the opportunity to use various waste from used tires as raw material in order to support economic activities becomes a priority. The recycling of raw materials from waste products and their use in new production processes for their material capitalization is becoming a sustainable approach. Used tire recycling, is the process of recycling waste tires that are no longer suitable for use on vehicles due to wear or irreparable damage. These tires are a problematic source of waste, due to the large volume produced, the durability of the tires, and the components in the tire that are ecologically problematic. Although tires are usually burnt, not recycled, efforts are continuing to find value. Tires can be recycled into, among other things, typically as crumb rubber modifier in recycled pavement. The paper presents aspects of the product resulting from crushing of used tires (powder), which can be used properly valued in the street furniture field or building materials containing rubber.

  9. Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, D. F.

    The word "rubber" immediately brings to mind materials that are highly flexible and will snap back to their original shape after being stretched. In this chapter a variety of materials are discussed that possess this odd characteristics. There will also be a discussion on the mechanism of this "elastic retractive force." Originally, rubber meant the gum collected from a tree growing in Brazil. The term "rubber" was coined for this material by the English chemist Joseph Priestley, who noted that it was effective for removing pencil marks from paper. Today, in addition to Priestley's natural product, many synthetic materials are made that possess these characteristics and many other properties. The common features of these materials are that they are made up of long-chain molecules that are amorphous (not crystalline), and the chains are above their glass transition temperature at room temperature.

  10. Rotary kiln and batch pyrolysis of waste tire to produce gasoline and diesel like fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayanoğlu, Abdulkadir; Yumrutaş, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste Tire Oil (WTO) is produced from waste tire at rotary kiln reactor. • Physical and chemical properties of WTO and fuel samples are analyzed. • Gasoline like fuel (GLF) and diesel like fuel (DLF) are produced from the WTO-10 wt% CaO mixture at fixed bed reactor. • Physical and chemical properties of the GLF and DLF are compared with the standard fuels. - Abstract: In this study, waste tire is pyrolyzed in a rotary kiln reactor to obtain more gas, light liquid, heavy liquid, wax products, and less carbon black at their maximum yields as, 20%, 12%, 25%, 8% and 35% of the total weight (4 tones), respectively. Then, the heavy and light oils are reacted with additives such as natural zeolite (NZ) and lime (CaO) at different mass ratio as 2, 6, and 10 wt%, respectively, in the batch reactor to produce liquids similar to standard petroleum fuels. The heavy and light oils mixture samples are distillated to observe their optimum graphics which are similar to gasoline and diesel like fuel. Consequently, the best results are obtained from the CaO sample with 10 wt% in comparison to the ones from the gasoline and diesel fuels. The 10 wt% CaO light liquid mixture resembles to gasoline named as gasoline like fuel (GLF) and the 10 wt% CaO heavy liquid mixture is similar to diesel called as diesel like fuel (DLF). The chemical and physical features of the waste tire, light oil, heavy oil, GLF, and DLF are analyzed by TG (thermogravimetric)/dTG (derivative thermogravimetric), proximate, ultimate, higher heating value (HHV), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), sulfur, density, viscosity, gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS), flash point, moisture, and distillation tests. The test results are turned out to be very close to the standard petroleum fuel.

  11. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... qualifies for the exemption. (d) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires. Units are exempt... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel oil.../rubber recycling units. Units are exempt from your State plan if four requirements are met: (1) The...

  12. 40 CFR 62.15020 - Can my small municipal waste combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires. Your unit is exempt from this subpart if three requirements are met: (1) Your municipal waste combustion unit combusts a single-item waste stream of tires and...) Plastics/rubber recycling units. Your unit is exempt from this subpart if four requirements are met: (1...

  13. Radiation Induced Grafting of Acrylate onto Waste Rubber: The Effect of Monomer Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirajuddin Siti Salwa M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different acrylate group monomers, namely n-butyl acrylate, methacrylic acid and tripropylene glycol diacrylate of radiation induced grafting onto waste rubber was studied. The electron beam accelerator operated at voltage of 2MeV was used to irradiate the waste rubber at 10 kGy and 100 kGy absorbed radiation dose, respectively. The formation of grafting was observed from the increase in the grafting yield and confirmed by Transformed Infra-Red Spectroscopy results. According to the result obtained, only tripropylene glycol diacrylate was selected to graft onto waste rubber. The carbonyl bond from acrylate groups was seen at 1726 cm-1 band which confirmed the presence of TPGDA in the polymer matrix. This indicates the successful preparation of the TPGDA-grafted waste rubber via radiation induced grafting techniques.

  14. USING THE SCRAP TIRES TO PRODUCE A FLEXIBLE COUPLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsean A. Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scrap tires considered a problematic source of waste, the old rubber tires causes a big environmental problem that is need much money and effort to disposes it safely. In Iraq there are more than two million used tires disposed to the environment annually. one of the tire’s recycling methods is the use of tire layers to produce a new rubber parts used in the engineering and industrial purposes as the bridges and machines dampers, this trend of recycling doesn’t take a sufficient care comparing with the other uses. There are a lot of studies conducted in these field, these studies suggests many methods to manage the huge number of scrap tires, the current paper aims to use the old rubber tires in engineering purposes (especially as a coupler joins the motor or engines with the other equipment as electric dynamo or pumps, the study focusing on the mechanical properties of a strip from a used tires and comparing with one prepared in the lab., and suggesting a new method to use as an engineering parts (for example the coupler lays between the IC engine and the dynamo of an electric generator. One of the results obtained from the experiments, there is no significant difference between the mechanical properties of the old and the new strip, (in the tensile test, the breaking force of the -Lab. tensile specimen- is 137 N whereas the specimen of old tire have a breaking force 113.27 N, but they are same in the elongation. A computational example is suggested to estimate the dimensions of a flexible coupler use an old tire pieces.

  15. Co-pyrolysis of waste tire/coal mixtures for smokeless fuel, maltenes and hydrogen-rich gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bičáková, Olga; Straka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-pyrolysis of waste tires/coal mixtures yields mainly smokeless fuel (55–74 wt%). • Alternatively, the smokeless fuel can serve as carbonaceous sorbent. • The obtained tar contained maltenes (80–85 wt%) and asphaltenes (6–8 wt%). • Tar from co-pyrolysis can serve as heating oil or a source of maltenes for repairing of asphalt surfaces. • The hydrogen-rich gas was obtained (61–65 vol% H_2, 24–25 vol% CH_4, 1.4–2 vol% CO_2). - Abstract: The processing of waste tires with two different types of bituminous coal was studied through the slow co-pyrolysis of 1 kg of waste tire/coal mixtures with 15, 30 and 60 wt% waste tires on a laboratory scale. The waste tire/coal mixtures were pyrolysed using a quartz reactor in a stationary bed. The mixtures were heated at a rate 5 °C/min up to the final temperature of 900 °C with a soaking time of 30 min at the required temperature. The mass balance of the process and the properties of the coke and tar obtained were evaluated, further, the influence of the admixture in the charge on the amount and composition of the obtained coke and tar was determined. It was found that the smokeless fuel/carbonaceous sorbent and a high yield of tar for further use can be obtained through the slow co-pyrolysis. The obtained tars contained mostly maltenes (80–85 wt%). FTIR analysis showed that the maltenes from the co-pyrolysis of coal/waste tires exhibited significantly lower aromaticity as compared with that from coal alone. The gas obtained from pyrolysis or co-pyrolysis of waste tire/coal mixtures contained a high amount of hydrogen (above 60 vol%) and methane (above 20 vol%).

  16. Waste Tire Particles and Gamma Radiation as Modifiers of the Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sadot Herrera-Sosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In polymer reinforced concrete, the Young’s modulus of both polymers and cement matrix is responsible for the detrimental properties of the concrete, including compressive and tensile strength, as well as stiffness. A novel methodology for solving such problems is based on use of ionizing radiation, which has proven to be a good tool for improvement on physical and chemical properties of several materials including polymers, ceramics, and composites. In this work, particles of 0.85 mm and 2.80 mm obtained from waste tire were submitted at 250 kGy of gamma radiation in order to modify their physicochemical properties and then used as reinforcement in Portland cement concrete for improving mechanical properties. The results show diminution on mechanical properties in both kinds of concrete without (or with irradiated tire particles with respect to plain concrete. Nevertheless such diminutions (from 2 to 16% are compensated with the use of high concentration of waste tire particles (30%, which ensures that the concrete will not significantly increase the cost.

  17. Improvement of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil and Performance Test with Diesel in CI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard of living, quality of life, and development of a nation depend on its per capita energy consumption. Global energy supply that mainly depends on fossil fuel is decreasing day by day. It is estimated that the energy demand will be increased five times by the year 2021 from present scenario. Due to the fossil fuel crisis, the development of alternative fuel technologies has drawn more attraction to deliver the replacement of fossil fuel. Pyrolysis is one of the promising alternative fuel technologies which produces valuable oil, char, and gas product from organic waste. Early investigations report that tire pyrolysis oil extracted from vacuum pyrolysis method seemed to have properties similar to diesel fuel. The main concern of this paper is to produce and improve the properties of crude tire pyrolysis oil by desulfurizing, distilling, and utilizing it with diesel in CI engine to analyze the efficiency for various compositions.

  18. Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C.; Braslaw, Jacob; Gealer, Roy L.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weight olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

  19. The use of gamma radiation in preparing rubber materials for purification of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hamid, M.M.H.

    1997-01-01

    Waste rubber originates from rejected worn-out tyres and other waste rubber materials. To eliminate or reduce waste rubber from the environment and to reduce costs of some rubber goods, attempts are being made to reuse waste rubber. In the present work rubber powder is going to be subjected to graft copolymerization with different vinyl monomers such as acrylamide (A Am), acrylic acid (A Ac) and acrylonitrile (A N). Graft copolymerization of these monomers onto rubber powder will be carried out using gamma radiation. The effects of different parameters such as monomer concentration, radiation dose, inhibitor concentration and type of solvent used in the reaction mixture on the graft yield will be studied. The recovery of different metal ions and the parameters affecting the recovery efficiency will be studied. These parameters include the type of the metal ions such as copper, lead, cobalt, and nickel, organic pollutant such as phenol, temperature of surrounding and the type of monomers used as well as some of their derivatives

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo; Sha, Tao

    2016-03-07

    Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete.

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete.

  2. Effect of waste rubber powder as filler for plywood application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Huei Ruey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the suitability of waste rubber powder (WRP use as filler in adhesive formulation for plywood application. Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF was employed as resin for formulating the wood adhesive. To improve chemical properties and bonding quality of adhesive, WRP was treated by different chemicals like 20% nitric acid, 30% hydrogen peroxide and acetone solution. The treated WRP were analysed by XRD and it showed that inorganic compounds were removed and carbon was remained as major component under the treatment of 20% HNO3. The treatment improved the mechanical properties like shear strength and formaldehyde emission of plywood (high shear strength and low formaldehyde emission. The physico-chemical interaction between the wood, resin and filler was investigated using fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR technique and the interactions among N-H of MUF and C=O of wood and WRP were identified. The morphology of wood-adhesive interface was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and light microscope (LM. It showed that the penetration of adhesives and fillers through the wood pores was responsible for mechanical interlocking. Therefore, chemically treated WRP proved its potential use as filler in MUF based adhesive for making plywood.

  3. Application of tire chips to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes in municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoor, Azadeh; Rowe, R Kerry

    2012-05-01

    Heat generated by the biodegradation of waste and other chemical processes in a landfill can potentially affect the long-term performance of landfill liner system, in particular that of a high-density polyethylene geomembrane. In a double liner system, the difference in leachate exposure and temperature might improve the long-term performance of the secondary geomembrane compared to that of the primary geomembrane. However, in some cases, the temperature is likely to be high enough to substantially reduce the service-life of the secondary geomembrane. This study explores the possible effectiveness of using tire chips as thermal insulation between primary and secondary liners to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes as compared to traditional soil materials. Heat and contaminant migration analyses are performed for cases with no insulation and for cases in which a layer of soil or tire chips has been used as thermal insulation between the primary and secondary liners. The effect of insulation on prolonging the service-life of a secondary geomembrane and, consequently, on contaminant transport through a liner system is examined for the case of a volatile organic compound (dichloromethane) found in landfill leachate. The study suggests that the use of tire chips warrants consideration, however there are other practical issues that require consideration in the detailed design and construction of landfill liners. Issues such as finite service-life, low working temperature, excessive settlement, ability to generate internal heat, leaching of tire chips and limitations in performing electrical resistivity leak detection tests are identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatigue Properties and Fracture Morphology of Micronised Rubber Powder (MRP) from Waste Tyres in Unfilled Elastomers

    OpenAIRE

    Habibah A.I.H., D; Abraham, F; Summerscales, J; Brown, P

    2018-01-01

    Ground rubber from waste tyres may be added to elastomers with economic and environmental benefits. The untreated or treated fillers have been investigated in different types of virgin rubber matrix. A principal concern is their crosslinked structure and large particle sizes. These additives introduce flaws leading to micro-crack initiation especially under dynamic loading. The incorporation of smaller particles at a suitable concentration may avoid deterioration in the key properties. The pr...

  5. Energy use in the rubber, and linoleum and plastics floor-covering sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Visits were made to 77 establishments producing linoleum and 16 establishments producing coated substrates to gather information on energy consumption, fuel types, and attitudes to energy management. Data are presented on percentages of electricity, wastes, fuel oil, gas, and coal consumed totally for plants visited and percentages consumed for establishments grouped under the following categories: new tires, remolded tires, solid rubber base, latex rubber base, and coated substrate industries. Data on energy consumed per employee and by size of buildings were determined. About 760 opportunities for saving energy within the 93 sites visited were identified with the greatest potential for saving energy identified as recovery of waste heat. (MCW)

  6. Load Absorption Characteristics of Tyre Production Waste Rubber for Playground Floor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The floor surfaces where slides and swings are placed in parks and playrooms should be soft and thick to ensure that whenever a child falls, the surface can withstand the impact and minimize injuries to the child. Shredded tyres from waste tyres or waste rubber from tyre manufacturing could become beneficial as shock absorber material which can be used as a playground floor. In this study, rubber cubes and rubber pads with 5%, 8% and 10% SBR mixes were prepared for mechanical testing. Two types of floor design surfaces with and without plywood on the surface were assembled for the shock test. Gmax and HIC of this waste rubber flooring system were investigated using the compression test for the rubber cube and the drop test for the rubber pad. The criteria of general protection standards are 200g for optimum acceleration and 1000 for HIC. The Gmax and HIC results indicated that the material and system could ensure a safe fall from up to 1.0m height.

  7. Case study of rutting performance of HMA modified with waste rubber powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Shafabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low resistance against dynamic loads and short service life of pavement are the most significant problems in the conservation and maintenance of roads, to the extent that, annually enormous costs are spent in order to improve capabilities of road services in the country. Research shows that the use of some wastes such as waste rubber powder in asphalt mixtures not only increase its serves life but also cause to reduce production costs; furthermore, recycling the crumb rubber has also considerably environmental benefits environmental benefits such as reduced need for landfill, less atmospheric pollution from burning. In this paper, the effect of adding waste rubber powder on the rutting performance of asphalt mixtures has been studied. In order to compare the performance of rubberized asphalt mixtures and conventional asphalt, wheel track test has been used. The results of this study show that the use of rubber powder caused a significant decrease in the rate of rutting depth of rubber asphalt mixtures compared to control samples.

  8. A Tire Gasification Senior Design Project That Integrates Laboratory Experiments and Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Brian; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    A reactor to convert waste rubber tires to useful products such as CO and H2, was investigated in a university undergraduate design project. The student worked individually with mentorship from a faculty professor who aided the student with professional critique. The student was able to research the background of the field and conceive of a novel…

  9. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, M; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, Amit K; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi; Gogotsi, Y

    2015-11-01

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m(2)  g(-1)) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π-π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life-a key challenge for redox active polymers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A Review on Reinforcement of Natural Rubber by Silica Fillers for Use in Low-Rolling Resistance Tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkawi, S.S.; Kaewsakul, Wisut; Sahakaro, Kannika; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2015-01-01

    High dispersion silica has recently become the preferred alternative to carbon black for low rolling resistance tyres. However, the combination of natural rubber with silica and a coupling agent remains a challenge, but also offers a tremendous potential for reduction of energy consumption of

  11. Comparative study of engineering properties of two-lime waste tire particle soil and soil with lime/loess ratio of 3:7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecheng, Yan; Xingyuan, Zhang; Hongping, Yang

    2018-03-01

    This study describes an analytical comparison of the engineering characteristics of two-lime waste tire particle soil and soil with lime/loess ratio of 3:7 using density measurements, results of indoor consolidation tests, and direct shear tests to examine the strength and deformation characteristics. It investigates the engineering performance of collapsible loess treated with waste tire particles and lime. The results indicate that (1) the shear strength of the two-lime waste tire particle soils increases continuously with soil age; and (2) the two-lime waste tire particle soils are light-weight, strong, and low-deformation soils, and can be applied primarily to improve the foundation soil conditions in areas with collapsible loess soils. This could address the problem of used tire disposal, while providing a new method to consider and manage collapsible loess soils.

  12. The effects of porosity in friction performance of brake pad using waste tire dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Mutlu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is focused on the effect of porosity on the friction-wear properties of automotive brake pads. Waste Tire Dust (WTD was used as a new friction material in brake pads. Newly formulated brake pad materials with five different components have been produced by conventional techniques. In the experimental studies, the change of the friction coefficient, the temperature of the friction surface, the specific wear rate, and the hardness, density and porosity were measured. In addition, the micro-structural characterizations of brake pads are determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The mean coefficient of friction, porosity and specific wear are increased due to a WTD rate increases, on the other hand, hardness and density are decreased. As a result, WTD can be considered as an alternative to revalorize this kind of waste products in the brake pads and the amount of porosity of the brake pad affected the friction coefficient and wear behavior of the pad.

  13. Promoting the use of crumb rubber concrete in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batayneh, Malek K; Marie, Iqbal; Asi, Ibrahim

    2008-11-01

    The use of accumulated waste materials in third world countries is still in its early phases. It will take courage for contractors and others in the construction industry to recycle selected types of waste materials in the concrete mixes. This paper addresses the recycling of rubber tires accumulated every year in Jordan to be used in concrete mixes. The main objectives of this research were to provide more scientific evidence to support the use of legislation or incentive-based schemes to promote the reuse of accumulated waste tires. This research focused on using crumb tires as a replacement for a percentage of the local fine aggregates used in the concrete mixes in Jordan. Different concrete specimens were prepared and tested in terms of uniaxial compression and splitting tension. The main variable in the mixture was the volumetric percentage of crumb tires used in the mix. The test results showed that even though the compressive strength is reduced when using the crumb tires, it can meet the strength requirements of light weight concrete. In addition, test results and observations indicated that the addition of crumb rubber to the mix has a limited effect toward reducing the workability of the mixtures. The mechanical test results demonstrated that the tested specimens of the crumb rubber concrete remained relatively intact after failure compared to the conventional concrete specimens. It is also concluded that modified concrete would contribute to the disposal of the non-decaying scrap tires, since the amount being accumulated in third world countries is creating a challenge for proper disposal. Thus, obliging authorities to invest in facilitating the use of waste tires in concrete, a fundamental material to the booming construction industry in theses countries, serves two purposes.

  14. Studless Winter Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company developed a material for Johnson Space Center used as parachute shrouds to soft land the Vikings through the tenuous Martian atmosphere and has been adapted to new radial tire five times stronger than steel. Fiber has a chain-like molecular structure that gives it incredible strength in proportion to its weight. Material is expected to increase tread life by 10,000 miles.

  15. Low-temperature gasification of waste tire in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gang; Ni Mingjiang; Chi Yong; Cen Kefa

    2008-01-01

    In order to recovery energy and materials from waste tire efficiently, low-temperature gasification is proposed. Experiments are carried out in a lab-scale fluidized bed at 400-800 deg. C when equivalence ratio (ER) is 0.2-0.6. Low heat value (LHV) of syngas increases with increasing temperature or decreasing ER, and the yield is in proportion to ER linearly. The yield of carbon black decreases with increasing temperature or ER lightly. When temperature is over 600 deg. C, characteristics of carbon black is similar. When temperature is over 700 deg. C, LHV of syngas rises up lightly with increasing temperature, which indicates that it hardly facilitates gasification any more. It is suitable for tire gasification when temperature is 650-700 deg. C and ER is 0.2-0.4. Under this condition, LHV and yield of syngas are about 4000-9000 kJ/Nm 3 and 1.8-3.7 Nm 3 /kg, respectively; surface area and yield of carbon black lie in range of 20-30 m 3 /g and 550-650 g/kg, respectively. The carbon balance of these experiments achieves 85-95% when temperature is over 600 deg. C

  16. Experimental Investigations on the Pull-Out Behavior of Tire Strips Reinforced Sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Hua; Chen, Yan-Jun; Ferreira, Pedro Miguel Vaz; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Heng-Lin

    2017-06-27

    Waste tires have excellent mechanical performance and have been used as reinforcing material in geotechnical engineering; however, their interface properties are poorly understood. To further our knowledge, this paper examines the pull-out characteristics of waste tire strips in a compacted sand, together with uniaxial and biaxial geogrids also tested under the same conditions. The analysis of the results shows that the interlocking effect and pull-out resistance between the tire strip and the sand is very strong and significantly higher than that of the geogrids. In the early stages of the pull-out test, the resistance is mainly provided by the front portion of the embedded tire strips, as the pull-out test continues, more and more of the areas towards the end of the tire strips are mobilized, showing a progressive failure mechanism. The deformations are proportional to the frictional resistance between the tire-sand interface, and increase as the normal stresses increase. Tire strips of different wear intensities were tested and presented different pull-out resistances; however, the pull-out resistance mobilization patterns were generally similar. The pull-out resistance values obtained show that rubber reinforcement can provide much higher pull-out forces than the geogrid reinforcements tested here, showing that waste tires are an excellent alternative as a reinforcing system, regardless of the environmental advantages.

  17. THE EFFECT OF GASOLINE-LIKE FUEL PRODUCED FROM WASTE AUTOMOBILE TIRES ON EMISSIONS IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTOP, H. F.; VAROL, Y.; ALTUN, Ş.; FIRAT, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, the effect of Gasoline-Like Fuel (GLF) on emissions was investigated for direct injection spark-ignited engine. The GLF was obtained from waste automobile tires by using the pyrolysis. The tires are installed to oven without any procedure such as cutting, melding etc. Obtained GLF was then used in a four-cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled and direct injection spark-ignited engine as blended with unleaded gasoline from 0% to 60% with an increment of 10%. Engine tests res...

  18. Co-pyrolysis of waste tire/coal mixtures for smokeless fuel, maltenes and hydrogen-rich gas production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Olga; Straka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, MAY 15 (2016), s. 203-213 ISSN 0196-8904 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : waste tires * coal * co-pyrolysis * smokeless fuel * tar * hydrogen -rich gas Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 5.589, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890416300991

  19. Burning characteristics and gaseous/solid emissions of blends of pulverized coal with waste tire-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Courtemanche, B.; Carlson, J.B. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

    1998-10-01

    The combustion behaviour and the emissions from blends of a pulverized bituminous coal and ground waste automobile tires were investigated. Combustion took place under steady flow conditions, in an electrically-heated drop-tube furnace in air at a gas temperature of 1150{degree}C and a particle heating rate of approximate to 10{sup 5}{degree}C/s. Combustion observations were conducted with simultaneous pyrometry and cinematography. Interparticle flame interactions were visually observed in the near-stoichiometric and fuel-rich regions. Volatile flame interactions were apparent at a lower phi for tire crumb particles than for coal particles and became progressively more intense with increasing phi until at sufficiently high phi`s large group flames formed for tire particles. As particle flame interactions increased, average maximum temperatures in the flame decreased. Coal particles resisted the formation of group flames, even at high phi`s. Such observations correlated with the trends observed for the PAH emissions of the two fuels, those of tire crumb being much higher than those of coal Some stratification in the combustion of blends of particles of the two fuels was observed. This kept the PAH emissions lower levels than expected. NO{sub x} emissions from tires were much lower than those of coal, while those of the blends were close to the weighted average emissions. SO{sub 2} emissions from the blends were close to the weighted average emissions of the two fuels. Blending coal with tire reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions of coal but increased the CO emissions. Particulate emissions (soot and ash), measured in the range of 0.4 to 8{mu}m, increased with phi. Generally, tire produced more mass of submicron particulates than coal. Particulate emissions of blends of the two fuels were close to those expected based on weighted average of the two fuels.

  20. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.R.; Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M.; Takai, K.; Haniu, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  1. Pyrolysis treatment of waste tire powder in a capacitively coupled RF plasma reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Waihuanxi Road, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, L. [Department of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University, Waihuanxi Road, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A capacitively coupled radio-frequency (RF) plasma reactor was tested mainly for the purpose of solid waste treatment. It was found that using a RF input power between 1600 and 2000 W and a reactor pressure between 3000 and 8000 Pa (absolute pressure), a reactive plasma environment with a gas temperature between 1200 and 1800 K can be reached in this lab scale reactor. Under these conditions, pyrolysis of tire powder gave two product streams: a combustible gas and a pyrolytic char. The major components of the gas product are H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} The physical properties (surface area, porosity, and particle morphology) as well as chemical properties (elemental composition, heating value, and surface functional groups) of the pyrolytic char has also been examined. (author)

  2. The use of styrene-butadiene rubber waste as a potential filler in nitrile rubber: order of addition and size of waste particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Baeta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR has large applications in the shoe industry, especially as expanded sheets used to produce insoles and inner soles. According to TG analysis, the rubber content in SBR residues (SBR-r was found to be around 26-wt%. Based on that data, a cost-effective technique for the reuse of SBR-r in Nitrile rubber (NBR was developed. Later, the effect of SBR-r on the cure behavior, mechanical performance, swelling, and crosslink density of reused rubber was investigated, with more emphasis placed on the effect of both particle size and loading of waste filler. Cure characteristics such as optimum cure time and scorch time were then reduced by the increasing amount of SBR-r filler. Owing to the reinforced nature of the largest particle size SBR-r, the best results for the mechanical properties of NBR were those in which SBR-r was added at the end of the cure process. The study has thus shown that SBR residue (SBR-r can be used as an economical alternative filler in NBR.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis for syngas production from volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Arauzo, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis experiments have been conducted in a continuous auger reactor. • Pyrolysis temperature influence on composition of both volatiles and char was studied. • A process for syngas production has been proposed from the volatiles. • Equivalence ratio down to 0.4 is a practical limit for syngas production. • The results provide essential data prior to perform any experimental campaign. - Abstract: This paper shows the maximum limit on syngas composition obtained from volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis when they are submitted to an air–steam partial oxidation process. Thus, from mass and energy balances and a stoichiometric equilibrium model, syngas composition and reaction temperature as well as some process parameters were predicted by varying both the equivalence ratio (ER) and the steam to fuel ratio (SF). In addition, pyrolysis experiments were performed using a continuous auger reactor, and the influence of pyrolysis temperature on composition of both volatiles and char was studied. Consequently, the resulting syngas characteristics were correlated with the pyrolysis temperature. The stoichiometric equilibrium model showed that an ER down to 0.4 is a practical limit to perform the air–steam partial oxidation process. When the process is carried out only with air, volatiles obtained at high pyrolysis temperature lead to lower reaction temperature and higher LHV of syngas in comparison with those found at low pyrolysis temperature. The H 2 production is favored between 0.20 and 0.40 of ER and seems to be more influenced by the H/C ratio than by the water gas-shift reaction. On the other hand, the steam addition shows a more notable effect on the H 2 production for volatiles obtained at the highest pyrolysis temperature (600 °C) in agreement with the lower reaction temperature under these experimental conditions. This thermodynamic analysis provides essential data on the optimization of syngas production from volatiles

  4. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Original equipment tires on imported articles..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on... than bicycle tires and inner tubes) that are original equipment for an imported article upon which no...

  5. A review on the suitability of rubberized concrete for concrete bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Shahidan, Shahiron; Radziah Abdullah, Siti; Anting Guntor, Nickholas; Syazani Leman, Alif

    2017-11-01

    Road authorities manage a large population of ageing bridges, a substantial number of which fail to meet the current requirements either due to deterioration and other structural deficiencies or as a result of the escalating demands imposed by increased traffic. This problem is related to the dynamic load from vehicles. This problem can be solved by producing a type of concrete that can reduce the amplitude of oscillation or vibration such as rubberized concrete. Green construction has been a very important aspect in concrete production field in the last decade. One of the most problematic waste materials is scrap tires. The use of scrap tires in civil engineering is increasing by producing rubberized concrete. Rubberized concrete is a type of concrete that is mixed with rubber. The purpose of this review is to justify the suitability of rubberized concrete for concrete bridge decks. Several parameters named physical, chemical and mechanical properties were measured to ensure the suitability of rubberized concrete for concrete bridge decks. Rubberized concrete has similar workability to normal concrete. The rubber reduced the density and compressive strength of the concrete while increased the flexural strength, water absorption and damping ratio. The used of rubber in concrete beyond 20% is not recommended due to decreasing in compressive strength. Rubberized concrete recommended to be used in circumstances where vibration damping was required such as in bridge construction as shock-wave absorber.

  6. Federal Research on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground rubber is recovered from scrap tires or from the tire retreading process. It is used in road construction and in athletic and recreational applications,like ground cover under playground equipment, running track material, and as a soil additive.

  7. Blast Resistance of Slurry Infiltrated Fibre Concrete with Waste Steel Fibres from Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drdlová Martina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste steel fibres (coming from the recycling process of the old tires in production of blast resistant cement based panels was assessed. Waste fibres were incorporated in slurry infiltrated fibre concrete (SIFCON, which is a special type of ultra-highperformance fibre reinforced concrete with high fibre content. The technological feasibility (i.e. suitability of the waste fibres for SIFCON technology was assessed using homogeneity test. Test specimens were prepared with three volume fractions (5; 7.5 and 10 % by vol. of waste unclassified fibres. SIFCON with industrial steel fibres (10% by vol. and ultra-highperformance fibre concrete with industrial fibres were also cast and tested for comparison purposes. Quasi-static mechanical properties were determined. Real blast tests were performed on the slab specimens (500x500x40 mm according to the modified methodology M-T0-VTU0 10/09. Damage of the slab, the change of the ultrasound wave velocity propagation in the slab specimen before and after the blast load in certain measurement points, the weight of fragments and their damage potential were evaluated and compared. Realized tests confirmed the possibility of using the waste fibres for SIFCON technology. The obtained results indicate, that the usage of waste fibres does not significantly reduce the values of SIFCON flexural and compressive strength at quasi-static load - the values were comparable to the specimens with industrially produced fibres. With increasing fibre content, the mechanical parameters are increasing as well. Using of the waste fibres reduces fragmentation of SIFCON at blast load due to the fibre size parameters. Using of low diameter fibres means more fibres in the matrix and thus better homogeneity of the whole composite with less unreinforced areas. Regarding the blast tests, the specimen with waste steel fibres showed the best resistance and outperformed also the specimen with commercial fibres. Using of

  8. Compósitos de cimento - borracha de pneus: efeito da escória nas propriedades Tire rubber-cement composites: effect of slag on properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Segre

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos de cimento-borracha de pneus preparados com cimentos tipo I e contendo adições de três diferentes escórias foram estudados. Resistência à flexão, absorção de água e resistência ao ataque ácido foram investigadas. Um decréscimo no módulo de ruptura (MOR foi observado para todos os corpos de prova contendo borracha, quando comparados com os corpos de prova sem borracha (controles. Para as pastas controle e com borracha e argamassas controle, preparadas com cimento com escória, o MOR aumenta com o aumento da atividade hidráulica da escória utilizada, até valores indistinguíveis dos obtidos para as argamassas e pastas preparadas com cimento tipo I. Argamassas com borracha apresentaram valores de MOR independentes do cimento utilizado. Uma redução na sorção de água é observada para corpos de prova controle e contendo borracha, preparados com todos os cimentos contendo adição de escória, quando comparados com os corpos de prova preparados com cimento tipo I. Para corpos de prova de argamassa com borracha, quanto mais baixa é a basicidade da escória, menor é a sorção de água dos compósitos. Estes resultados indicam baixa porosidade e consequentemente uma melhor adesão entre a borracha e a matriz de cimento nestes corpos de prova. Além disso, uma velocidade menor de sorção de água é observada para os corpos de prova com borracha, com destaque para os corpos de prova com cimento que contém a escória menos básica, quando comparados com os controles. Resultados de ataque ácido aos corpos e prova de argamassas, preparadas com os cimentos contendo adição de escória, mostram que a susceptibilidade dos corpos de prova frente à degradação por ácido é governada não somente por aspectos microestruturais, como porosidade e permeabilidade, mas também por aspectos químicos, como diferenças na quantidade de álcalis presentes nas escórias ou quantidade de escória não reagida nos corpos de prova.Tire

  9. Alternative fuel produced from thermal pyrolysis of waste tires and its use in a DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Bai, Chi-Jeng; Lin, Chi-Tung; Prakash, Samay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The liquid, solid and gas yields from pyrolysis of waste tires were investigated. • For energy and economic consideration, pre-treatments of TPO were avoided. • Various proportions of TPO-diesel mixture were tested in a DI diesel engine. • TPOs derived from various pyrolysis temperatures were also tested in engine. • Fuel consumption, cylinder pressure, engine power, and SO2 emission were discussed. - Abstract: Alternative fuels from waste material have been receiving attentions due to the increasing demand of fossil fuels. Pyrolysis has been a considerable solution for processing waste tires because it gives clean emissions and produces valuable liquid or solid products. Pyrolysis oil from waste tires has become a potential replacement for petroleum diesel due to the similar physical and chemical properties to diesel fuel. In this study, waste tires were pyrolyzed in a lab-scale fixed bed reactor with various reaction temperatures. The liquid, solid and gas product yields from different pyrolysis temperatures were compared, as well as the analyses of property and element for the oil product. Due to the energy and economic consideration, the pre-treatments of TPO before adding into regular diesel were avoided. The TPO derived from various pyrolysis temperatures were mixed with regular diesel at different proportions and subsequently tested in a DI diesel engine. The engine performance, such as fuel consumption, cylinder pressure, engine power, and SO_2 emission, were examined and discussed. The results indicated that increasing the TPO fraction in diesel lead to worse engine performance, but it can be recovered using TPOs produced from higher pyrolysis temperatures.

  10. Mechanical and Physical Performance of Concrete Including Waste Electrical Cable Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner Yildirim, Salih; Pelin Duygun, Nur

    2017-10-01

    Solid wastes are important environmental problem all over the World. Consumption of the plastic solid waste covers big portion within the total solid waste. Although a numerous plastic material is subjected to the recycling process, it is not easy to be destroyed by nature. One of the recommended way to prevent is to utilize as an aggregate in cement-based material. There are many researches on use of recycling rubber in concrete. However, studies on recycling of waste electrical cable rubber (WECR) in concrete is insufficient although there are many research on waste tyre rubbers in concrete. In this study, fine aggregate was replaced with WECR which were 5%, 10%, and 15 % of the total aggregate volume in the concrete and researched workability, unit weight, water absorption, compressive strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, modulus of elasticity, and abrasion resistance of concrete. As a result of experimental studies, increase of WECR amount in concrete increases workability due to lack of adherence between cement paste and WECR, and hydrophobic structure of WECR while it influences negatively mechanical properties of concrete. It is possible to use WECR in concrete taking into account the reduction in mechanical properties.

  11. USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF EMULSION RUBBER WASTE OF SUGAR MANUFACTURE – MOLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Nikulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, much attention is paid to development, allowing use of waste and by-products formed during certain manufacturing processes. This allows you to either reduce or completely eliminate the use of valuable and expensive raw materials. The use of this raw material in the production of synthetic rubber will not only reduce the cost of coagulation and acidifying agents, but also to improve the environmental situation. Featured in some cases effective coalescing agents based on polymeric quaternary ammonium salts (PCHSA have a high coagulating power, and hence low consumption of the allocation of the rubber latex (3-5 kg0t-1 rubber. Scarcity and high cost of these drugs leads to higher prices resulting rubber. Furthermore it is known that the application requires keeping PCHSA sufficiently precise dosage administered substances by the action of a latex, owing to the high capacity of the antiseptic may lead to discharge into natural waters polluted waters. However, using as the coagulating agent departing sugar production molasses solves a number of problematic steps in the production of synthetic rubber. First, a well-studied effective coagulation effect of different nitrogen derivatives relating to cationic surfactants. In freshly prepared solutions of molasses contained about 9 wt%, and this value increases significantly during enzymatic fermentation. Secondly, highly acidic environment of aqueous solutions of molasses after storage can allow their use in addition to or instead of the sulfuric acid used in large amounts (up to 15 kg m-1 rubber technology selection tests carried found that vulcanizates derived from rubber samples isolated molasses, consistent with the requirements and were similar to control samples prepared from the latex using sodium chloride.

  12. Preparation and Performance of Asphalt Compound Modified with Waste Crumb Rubber and Waste Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of modified asphalt were prepared by adding waste crumb rubber (WCR, waste polyethylene (WPE, and WCR/WPE to base asphalt, respectively. The influence of different doses on the performance of modified asphalt, such as 25°C penetration, softening point, 5°C ductility, and 135°C, 165°C viscosity, was studied, and the modification mechanism of modified asphalt was discussed through the fluorescence microscope. As the waterproofing materials, the waterproofness of WCR/WPE compound modified asphalt was tested. The results show that the WPE modified asphalt has excellent resistance to high temperature and WCR modified asphalt has good low temperature resistance. The resistance to deformation ability of WPE modified asphalt is better than that of the WCR modified asphalt. The 135°C viscosity of compound modified asphalt is better than that of WPE and WCR modified asphalt. In addition, the waterproofness of compound modified asphalt using waterproofing materials is better than that of common waterproofing materials.

  13. The optimum content of rubber ash in concrete: flexural strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, M. S.; Shahidan, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Ariffin, S. F. A.; Othman, N. H.; Rahman, R.; Khalid, F. S.; Nazri, F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Discarded scrap tyres have become one of the major environmental problems nowadays. Several studies have been carried out to reuse waste tires as an additive or sand replacement in concrete with appropriate percentages of tire rubber, called as rubberized concrete to solve this problem. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the flexural strength performance of concrete when adding the rubber ash and also to analyse the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prisms. The performance total of 30 number of concrete prisms in size of 100mm x 100mm x 500 mm were investigated, by partially replacement of rubber ash with percentage of 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% from the volume of the sand. The flexural strength is increased when percentage of rubber ash is added 3% from control concrete prism, RA 0 for both concrete prism age, 7 days and 28 days with value 1.21% and 0.976% respectively. However, for RA 5, RA 7 and RA 9, the flexural strength was decreased compared to the control for both age, 7 days and 28 days. In conclusion, 3% is the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prism for both concrete age

  14. USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF EMULSION RUBBER WASTE OF SUGAR MANUFACTURE – MOLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    S. S. Nikulin; .; N. S. Nikulina

    2015-01-01

    Currently, much attention is paid to development, allowing use of waste and by-products formed during certain manufacturing processes. This allows you to either reduce or completely eliminate the use of valuable and expensive raw materials. The use of this raw material in the production of synthetic rubber will not only reduce the cost of coagulation and acidifying agents, but also to improve the environmental situation. Featured in some cases effective coalescing agents based on polymeric qu...

  15. Processing methods, characteristics and adsorption behavior of tire derived carbons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Tawfik A; Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2014-09-01

    The remarkable increase in the number of vehicles worldwide; and the lack of both technical and economical mechanisms of disposal make waste tires to be a serious source of pollution. One potential recycling process is pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process to produce porous activated carbons. Many researchers have recently proved the capability of such carbons as adsorbents to remove various types of pollutants including organic and inorganic species. This review attempts to compile relevant knowledge about the production methods of carbon from waste rubber tires. The effects of various process parameters including temperature and heating rate, on the pyrolysis stage; activation temperature and time, activation agent and activating gas are reviewed. This review highlights the use of waste-tires derived carbon to remove various types of pollutants like heavy metals, dye, pesticides and others from aqueous media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Response of ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) to simulant Hanford tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-02-01

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the author performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. The author has determined that EPDM rubber has excellent resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that EPDM is an excellent seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

  17. Mixtures of rubber tyre and plastic wastes pyrolysis: A kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Miguel; Cabrita, I.; Pinto, Filomena; Gulyurtlu, I.

    2013-01-01

    The study performed aimed at analysing possible routes for pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of polymeric materials namely RT (rubber tyre) and plastic wastes (PE (polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PS (polystyrene)). Consequently, and seeking sustainable transformation of waste streams into valuable chemicals and renewable liquid fuels, mixture of 30% RT, 20% PE, 30% PP and 20% PS was subjected to pyrolysis. Different kinetic models were studied using experimental data. None of the mechanisms found in literature led to a numerical adjustment and different pathways were investigated. Kinetic studies were performed aiming to evaluate direct conversions into new solid, liquid and gaseous products and if parallel reactions and/or reversible elementary steps should be included. Experiments were performed in batch system at different temperatures and reaction times. Kinetic models were evaluated and reaction pathways were proposed. Models reasonably fit experimental data, allow explaining wastes thermal degradation. Kinetic parameters were estimated for all temperatures and dependence of Ea and pre-exponential factor on temperature was evaluated. The rate constant of some reactions exhibited nonlinear temperature dependence on the logarithmic form of Arrhenius law. This fact strongly suggests that temperature has a significant effect on reaction mechanism of pyrolysis of mixtures of rubber tyre and plastic wastes. - Highlights: • Kinetic study of rubber tyre (RT) and different plastic wastes (PE, PP and PS) was performed in batch reactor. • Definition of possible pathways taken into account for the formation of final products. • Kinetic parameters were estimated. • The effect of reaction temperature and reaction time on liquid composition was performed

  18. Dynamic Properties and Fatigue Life of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures Reinforced with Waste Tyre Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, virgin polymer modified asphalt mixes are comparatively more expensive for road pavement. One way to reduce the expense of such construction and to make it more convenient is the application of inexpensive polymer, such as waste polymer. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM on the stiffness and fatigue properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA mixtures. Various percentages of waste CRM with size of 0.60 mm were added to SMA mixtures. Indirect tensile stiffness modulus test was conducted at temperatures of 5, 25, and 40°C. Indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (2000, 2500, and 3000 N. The results show that the stiffness modulus of reinforced SMA samples containing various contents of CRM is significantly high in comparison with that of nonreinforced samples, and the stiffness modulus of reinforced samples is in fact less severely affected by the increased temperature compared to the nonreinforced samples. Further, the results show that CRM reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue lives compared to the nonreinforced mixtures help in and promotion of sustainable technology by recycling of waste materials in much economical and environmental-friendly manner.

  19. Structural and physico-mechanical properties of natural rubber/GTR composites devulcanized by microwaves: influence of GTR source and irradiation time

    OpenAIRE

    Colom Fajula, Xavier; Marin-Genesca, Marc; Mujal Rosas, Ramón María; Formela, Krzysztof; Cañavate Ávila, Francisco Javier

    2018-01-01

    Ground tire rubber from car and truck was modified using microwave irradiation at variable time. The irradiated ground tire rubber was used as filler in composites based on natural rubber. The composites, with high content of ground tire rubber, were prepared using an internal batch mixer and subsequently cross-linked at 160¿. The influence of the ground tire rubber source (car/truck) and irradiation time on structure, physico-mechanical behaviour, thermal properties and morphology of natural...

  20. Recycling of waste polymeric materials using ionizing radiation techniques for possible applications and practical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khozemy, E.E.Z.

    2007-01-01

    recycling of waste polypropylene (WPP) and waste rubber (WR) originated from rejected worn-out tires present very important problem due to their huge amount and their negative impact on environment. many communities in the world are struggling with this problem of how to manage waste disposal, in order to eliminate or reduce waste rubber from the environment and to reduce costs of some rubber and polypropylene articles. trials to reuse waste rubber and waste polypropylene, have encountered some difficulties.such two substrate polymers differ from each other in nature, since waste polypropylene is thermoplastic while waste rubber exists in thermosetting state. accordingly, the study and use of their mixtures should be very interesting.the aim of this work is to modify the physical and chemical properties of WR and WPP each in the form of powder (120,80 mech size), through a trial to graft some vinyl comonomers onto their surfaces using gamma radiation

  1. Chemi-thermomechanical pulping of para rubber waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, T.; Hosokawa, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The addition of NaOH to Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/-treated waste wood chips (Hevea brasiliensis) increased long fiber fraction, Klason lignin content and bulk density, improved breaking length and tear factor, and decreased energy consumption in refining and brightness of resulting chemithermomechanical pulp. Lowering in brightness by alkali treatment was recovered by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ bleaching, and bleaching with 8% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ on pulp gave pulp with 61.3% brightness.

  2. Economic and energy analysis about disposal interventions of waste tires produced in Calabria; Valutazioni economiche ed energetiche di interventi di smaltimento di penumatici fuori uso in Calabria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, Gaetano [Cosenza, Univ. della Calabria (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria. Dipt. di Meccanica; Cersosimo, Attilio

    1997-05-01

    The present paper refers to an analysis aimed at researching disposal strategies, for waste tires produced in Calabria, which ensure correct disposal with regard to environmental compatibility and their evaluation in terms of material recovery and energy. The starting point has been an estimate of the quantities of potentially usable waste tires and disposal methods currently employed. It has therefore been possible to identify two specific disposal proposals for which an economic and energy evaluation has been conducted. The last part of the paper has faced the problem of plant location under consideration, with the aim of determining, for both proposal, the cost that each producer must bear to have his waste tires eliminated.

  3. Federal Research Action Plan (FRAP) on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds (5th Annual Recycled Rubber Products Technology Conference)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides an overview and status update of the Federal Research Action Plan (FRAP) on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds. The presentation includes information on Federal research activities, stakeholder engagement, other studies, and the ...

  4. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  5. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2014-12-01

    This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbol Tileuberdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  7. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wen-liang [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, College of Material Science and Technology, Wood Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, 100083 Beijing (China); Chang, Jian-min, E-mail: cjianmin@bjfu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, College of Material Science and Technology, Wood Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, 100083 Beijing (China); Cai, Li-ping [Mechanical and Energy Engineering Department, University of North Texas, 3940 N. Elm, Denton 72076, TX (United States); Shi, Sheldon Q., E-mail: Sheldon.Shi@unt.edu [Mechanical and Energy Engineering Department, University of North Texas, 3940 N. Elm, Denton 72076, TX (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Rubber-pyrolysis oil is difficult to be fuel due to high proportion of PAHs. • The efficiency of pyrolysis was increased as the percentage of sawdust increased. • The adding of sawdust improved pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the PAHs content. • Adding sawdust reduced nitrogen/sulfur in oil and was easier to convert to diesel. - Abstract: This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG–FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis–gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2 s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil.

  8. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rubber-pyrolysis oil is difficult to be fuel due to high proportion of PAHs. • The efficiency of pyrolysis was increased as the percentage of sawdust increased. • The adding of sawdust improved pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the PAHs content. • Adding sawdust reduced nitrogen/sulfur in oil and was easier to convert to diesel. - Abstract: This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG–FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis–gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2 s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil

  9. Research of Sustainable Use of Tire Shreds in Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Bazienė

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies are on-going to establish the suitability of tire shreds in the landfill bottom drainage layer, to minimize clogging. Four experimental columns were constructed in which were 500 mm long and 200 mm in diameter. They were filled with different fillers and with a different amount of tire shreds. The most important problem with drainage filler in landfills is clogging. Over long periods of time in landfill operation, the drainage layer clogs (the pores of the layer become smaller and the porosity of the layer becomes smaller. The experiment was carried out for 365 days. Although the landfill for this period represents only one-fiftieth or less of the operation time, the laboratory tests found that the drainage layer bandwidth of reduction in one year can have a negative impact in the long run over time. The main elements that influence the decrease of conductivity are the total suspended solids and calcium and iron compounds. The change of these compounds was observed during the column study, where the concentration of each month in all the columns was decreasing. The results showed that the waste of rubber (tire shreds used for creating fillers in columns provided greater porosity of the layer. It is a beneficial reason to use a rubble and tire shreds waste mix for forming the drainage layer in landfills.

  10. Scrap tire rubber as modifier of asphalt cement for use in road paving Borracha de pneus como modificador de cimentos asfálticos para uso em obras de pavimentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Oda

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a research on the technical feasibility of the use of asphalt-rubber binder by the asphalt paving industry. In Brazil more than 30 million tires a year are disposed of, mostly in inadequate sites, causing serious health and environmental problems. The effects of the main factors (rubber content, rubber particle size, temperature of mixture, reaction time on the behavior of asphalt-rubber binders are evaluated by traditional and Superpave Method tests, the latter based on certain fundamental properties directly related to field performance. Results of the statistical analysis of the factorial design of laboratory experiments show the most significant effect of rubber contents, or rather, that asphalt-rubber binder may increase the resistance against permanent deformation and fatigue crackingEste trabalho apresenta estudo sobre a incorporação de borracha de pneus em ligantes asfálticos utilizados em obras de pavimentação. Trata-se de uma alternativa para solucionar um grave problema ambiental, pois no Brasil, anualmente, são descartados mais de 30 milhões de pneus, dos quais a maior parte é disposta em locais inadequados, servindo para a procriação de vetores de doenças e representando risco de contaminação do meio-ambiente. Os efeitos dos principais fatores que condicionam o comportamento do ligante asfalto-borracha (teor e granulometria da borracha, temperatura de mistura, tempo de reação são avaliados através de ensaios tradicionais de caracterização de ligantes asfálticos e ensaios do Método Superpave, diretamente relacionadas ao desempenho dos pavimentos no campo. Os resultados da análise estatística evidenciam o efeito preponderante do teor de borracha e, principalmente, que o ligante asfalto-borracha pode aumentar a resistência ao acúmulo de deformação permanente e ao aparecimento de trincas por fadiga do revestimento

  11. Factors Affecting the Adsorption of Trivalent Chromium Ions by Activated Carbon Prepared from Waste Rubber Tyres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia E. Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic gains are generally the outcome of industrialization and consequently urbanization. However, positive fiscal index generates a negative impact on natural environment sources heaving pollutant burden on soil, air and water. Industries throw tones of contaminated water into soil and water bodies without proper treatment and create a potential threat for both living and non-living species. Chromium in trivalent state (Cr3+ is added in water bodies and soil through waste water from tanneries, cooling water systems, chemical and pulp and paper industries. The present research work aims at the preparation of an inexpensive activated carbon prepared from non- degradable waste scrap rubber tyres. The carbon produced from scrap rubber tyres was activated by 5% solution of BaCl2 and 0.4 N solution of HCl and verified by ethylene blue solution. The adsorption capacity of the Tyre activated carbon (TAC was investigated for different parameters i.e., initial chromium (III ion concentration, activated carbon dosage, contact/ stirring time and pH. The adsorption capacity of TAC depends on the initial metal ion concentration and the TAC dose. pH of the chromium solution effects the adsorption capacity of TAC due to the formation of tetra hydroxochromate(III complexes,. The results show that TAC offers a cost effective reclamation process for the removal of Cr3+ from effluent waters.

  12. Experimental Investigation on Damping Property of Coarse Aggregate Replaced Rubber Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugapriya, P.; Ramkrishnan, R.; Keerthana, G.; Saravanamurugan, S.

    2018-02-01

    Rubber has good damping and vibrational characteristics and can reduce cracking significantly due to its elastic nature. This property of rubber can be incorporated in concrete to control vibrations and create better pavements. Crumb Rubber on being dumped in landfills has serious repercussions and causes soil and land pollution. An innovative use of waste tires is shredding them into small pieces and using them as a replacement for coarse aggregate. Crumb rubber is obtained by chopping scrap tires, and in this study it was added in two different sets named SET 1 - Treated Crumb Rubber and concrete, and SET 2 - Treated Crumb rubber with Ultra Fine GGBS as admixture in concrete. Coarse aggregate replaces Rubber in each of the 2 SET’s in proportions of 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Properties like Compressive Strength, Young’s Modulus, Direct and Semi direct Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, Sorptivity, Damping ratio and Frequency were found out. Deformation and mode shape were studied with modal analysis and static analysis by applying a uniform pressure corresponding to the highest compressive strength of the slab, using ANSYS.

  13. Innovative technologies of waste recycling with production of high performance products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmanshin, R; Azimov, Yu I; Gilmanshina, S I; Ferenets, A V; Galeeva, A I

    2015-01-01

    The innovative ways of recycling wastes as a tool for sustainable development are presented in the article. The technology of the production of a composite material based on the rubber fiber composite waste tire industry is presented. The results of experimental use of the products in the real conditions. The comparative characteristics of the composite material rubber fiber composite are given. The production technology of construction and repairing materials on the basis of foamed glass is presented. (paper)

  14. Innovative technologies of waste recycling with production of high performance products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, R.; Ferenets, A. V.; Azimov, Yu I.; Galeeva, A. I.; Gilmanshina, S. I.

    2015-06-01

    The innovative ways of recycling wastes as a tool for sustainable development are presented in the article. The technology of the production of a composite material based on the rubber fiber composite waste tire industry is presented. The results of experimental use of the products in the real conditions. The comparative characteristics of the composite material rubber fiber composite are given. The production technology of construction and repairing materials on the basis of foamed glass is presented.

  15. Development of rubberized geopolymer interlocking bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar S Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste tires contribute badly to the environment on a huge scale as they are bulky, non-biodegradable, and prone to fire and being a shelter for mosquitos and other insects. This paper reports on a novel approach towards the development of rubberized brick by utilizing crumb rubber as the sole fine aggregate in the production of geopolymer interlocking bricks. The response surface methodology (RSM from Design Experts software has been used to determine the numbers of trial mixes and their corresponding ingredients. A total of thirteen trial mixes were carried out and tested for compressive strength and the RSM model was developed to predict the design mix based on the targeted compressive strength. The mix design was obtained to be an 18 M for NaOH and 0.8 solution to fly ash ratio. The geopolymer interlocking rubberized bricks were then produced and tested for compressive strength, dimension, modulus of rupture, water absorption, initial rate of absorption, and efflorescence. The geopolymer interlocking rubberised bricks presented a low compressive and flexural strength and a high-water absorption capacity. The bricks were rated as non-effloresced and classified as 3rd class bricks which can be used as non-load bearing material. It is recommended to utilize nano silica in order to increase the strength of the brick. Keywords: Rubberized bricks, Crumb rubber, Interlocking bricks, Geopolymer, Response surface methodology

  16. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  17. Fundamental studies on dynamic wear behavior of SBR rubber compounds modified by SBR rubber powder

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Heinrich, Gert; Michael, Hannes; Gehde, Michael; Stocek, Radek; Kratina, Ondrej; Kipscholl, Reinhold; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the experimental investigation of dynamic wear behavior of carbon black filled rubber compounds comprising pristine styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) together with incorporated SBR ground rubber (rubber powder). We also analyzed and described quantitatively the service conditions of some dynamically loaded rubber products, which are liable to wear (e.g. conveyor belts, tires). Beside the well-known standard test method to characterize wear resistance at steady...

  18. Amphiphilic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks using pulverized rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Nima

    Scrap rubber materials provide a significant challenge to either reuse or safe disposal. Every year, millions of tires are discarded to landfills in the United States, consuming a staggering amount of land space, creating a high risk for large fires, breeding mosquitoes that spread diseases, and wasting the planet's natural resources. This situation cannot be sustained. The challenge of reusing scrap rubber materials is mainly due to the crosslinked structure of vulcanized rubber that prevent them from melting and further processing for reuse. The most feasible recycling approach is believed to be a process in which the vulcanized rubber is first pulverized into a fine powder and then incorporated into new products. The production of fine rubber particles is generally accomplished through the use of a cryogenic process that is costly. Therefore, development of a cost effective technology that utilizes a large quantity of the scrap rubber materials to produce high value added materials is an essential element in maintaining a sustainable solution to rubber recycling. In this research, a cost effective pulverization process, solid state shear extrusion (SSSE), was modified and used for continuous pulverization of the rubber into fine particles. In the modified SSSE process, pulverization takes place at high compressive shear forces and a controlled temperature. Furthermore, an innovative particle modification process was developed to enhance the chemical structure and surface properties of the rubber particles for manufacturing of high value added products. Modification of rubber particles was accomplished through the polymerization of a hydrophilic monomer mixture within the intermolecular structure of the hydrophobic rubber particles. The resulting composite particles are considered as amphiphilic particulate phase semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (PPSIPNs). The modified rubber particles are water dispersible and suitable for use in a variety of aqueous media

  19. Batch study, equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption of naphthalene using waste tyre rubber granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A. Aisien

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of waste tyre rubber granules (WTRG for the batch adsorption of naphthalene from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effect of various operational variables such as contact time, initial naphthalene concentration, adsorbent dose, size of adsorbent particles, and temperature of solution on the adsorption capacity of WTRG was evaluated. The adsorption of naphthalene by WTRG was a fast kinetic process with an equilibrium contact time of 60 min. A low temperature (5°C, small adsorbent particle size (0.212 mm and higher adsorbent dosage favored the adsorption process. Results of isotherm studies revealed that adsorption of naphthalene was best described by the Langmuir isotherm equation (R2=0.997 while the kinetics of the process was best described by the Lagergren pseudofirst order kinetic equation (R2=0.998. This study has demonstrated the suitability of WTRG for the removal of naphthalene from aqueous solution.

  20. US rubber markets recover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic rubber markets in North America bounced back in no uncertain terms last year, with demand climbing an impressive 9.5%, to 2.97 million m.t.; and, according to the International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers (IIS-RP; Houston) latest five-year forecast, producers can look forward to a 3.3% increase in demand during 1993. This growth rate outpaced out 1992 forecast and demonstrates the resilience of the synthetic rubber industry, says William E. Tessemer, managing director of IISRP. We expect demand in 1993 to surpass 1992 and level off at a 2%/year growth rate for synthetic rubber - 2.5% including thermoplastic elastomers [TPEs]-over the 1993-97 period. The improvement reflects signs of a recovery in North America, especially the pickup in the auto and tire industry. The two major tire rubbers - styrene butadiene and polybutadiene rubber - notched up double-digit gains, and other materials that have autos uses, such as nitrile rubber and many of the specialty elastomers, also advanced strongly

  1. Natural rubber: leather composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran,K.; Natchimuthu,N.

    2005-01-01

    Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties of the natural rubber - scrap rubber composites containing neutralized leather have ...

  2. Utilization of waste expanded polystyrene: Blends with silica-filled natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharan, Renju Vaikathusseril; Abraham, Beena Thattekatt; Thachil, Eby Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tensile strength of the silica filled blend is comparable with silica filled NR. ► Modulus and compression set were the best for compatibilized NR/EPS blends. ► Tear strength has increased by 25% for compatibilized blends. ► A 5% waste EPS can be incorporated into NR compounds as a waste management measure. -- Abstract: Expanded polystyrene (EPS) constitutes a considerable part of thermoplastic waste in the environment in terms of volume. In this study, this waste material has been utilized for blending with silica-reinforced natural rubber (NR). The NR/EPS (35/5) blends were prepared by melt mixing in a Brabender Plasticorder. Since NR and EPS are incompatible and immiscible a method has been devised to improve compatibility. For this, EPS and NR were initially grafted with maleic anhydride (MA) using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) to give a graft copolymer. Grafting was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy. This grafted blend was subsequently blended with more of NR during mill compounding. Morphological studies using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed better dispersion of EPS in the compatibilized blend compared to the noncompatibilized blend. By this technique, the tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus, tear strength, compression set and hardness of the blend were found to be either at par with or better than that of virgin silica filled NR compound. It is also noted that the thermal properties of the blends are equivalent with that of virgin NR. The study establishes the potential of this method for utilising waste EPS.

  3. Analysis of automotive tire construction. Jidosha tire no kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, K. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    This paper introduces features and trends of analyzing performance and construction of automotive tires. Tires are demanded of high durability, high motion performance, good comfort performance for vibration and noise, and low fuel consumption performance. A feature of analyzing the construction is to execute a modelling assuming that a tire has air-rigid flexible structure and rubber materials show hyperelastic behavior, hypothesizing a strain energy density function. In addition, a tire is highly incompressible. Visco elasticity and anti-friction performance are also important points. Rubber and cord layers have elastic characteristic of three-dimensional perpendicular anisotropy as well as non-linearity with which characteristics change according to transformation. A structural analysis must cover from static analysis to steady dynamic analysis, non-steady dynamic analysis, and eigenvalue analysis. Thermal analysis of tires simulates phenomena by combining dynamical analysis with thermal analysis. Super-computers have now come to be used for formulating equilibrium equations using finite element methods, developing finite elements, and performing heat or visco elasticity analysis and applied analysis. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  4. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  5. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production...

  6. 40 CFR 63.6006 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.6006 Section 63.6006... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord... tire cord production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate continuous compliance with each...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must use...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5999 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5999 Section 63.5999 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5999 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire cord...

  9. A utilização de resíduos de pneus inservíveis em argamassa de revestimento = The use of scrap rubber tire residues in finishing mortar for construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia uma argamassa de revestimento com resíduos de pneus inservíveis, produzida com cimento, cal virgem e areia, no traço 1: 1,5: 9 (em volume e adição de pó de borracha moída, nas proporções 0, 6, 8, 10 e 12% do volume de agregado. Avaliou-se a massa específica, o teor de ar incorporado e a retenção de água no estado plástico e em corpos de prova cilíndricos, a resistência à compressão axial, a resistência à tração por compressão diametral, o módulo de deformação estática e a absorção de água por imersão no estado endurecido; e a resistência de aderência à tração e a fissuração em corpos de prova aplicados sobre substrato. A argamassa com resíduo apresentou menores incidências de fissuras no revestimento, redução no módulo e na resistência e aumento noteor de ar incorporado. O produto estudado é uma alternativa que contribui para a redução de fissuras em revestimentos argamassados.This work evaluates a finishing mortar containing residues of discarded rubber tires, produced with cement, lime and sand, in a ratio of 1:1.5: 9, mixed by volume, with the addition of crushed rubber powder in the proportions of 0, 6, 8, 10 and 12% ofaggregate volume. Specific mass, the level of air content and water retention were evaluated in the plastic state. In cylindrical specimens, the axial compressive strength, traction resistance by diametral compression, static deformation module and water absorption by immersion were evaluated in the dry state; and the tensile bond strength and the fissuration in the specimens applied on substratum. The mortar with tire residues presented lower incidences of visible fissures in the finishing, reduction in the deformation module andresistance, and an increase in the level of air content. The studied product is an alternative that can contribute to the reduction of fissures in cemented coverings.

  10. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  11. Incorporação de pó de pneu em uma formulação para banda de rodagem de pneu de motocicleta Incorporation of solid rubber tire powder into a formulation for motorcycle tire tread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela A. Gujel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A reciclagem de elastômeros vulcanizados tem sido um problema para as empresas geradoras de resíduos elastoméricos, e ao mesmo tempo um amplo campo de estudo para pesquisadores da área. Diante da possibilidade de recuperação desses resíduos, deu-se início a este trabalho, relacionado à incorporação de pó de pneu de automóvel (STR-r como uma carga, em uma formulação típica para banda de rodagem de pneu de motocicleta (formulação base - FB. O estudo teve início com a caracterização do STR-r, com base na análise granulométrica, análise termogravimétrica (TG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC. A incorporação do STR-r na FB foi realizada em misturador aberto, nas proporções de 5 a 20 phr. Foram calculados os parâmetros reométricos de vulcanização e determinadas as propriedades mecânicas como resiliência, dureza (Shore A, resistência à abrasão, à tração e ao rasgamento dos compósitos preparados. Os resultados foram comparados aos da FB de um processo produtivo de uma empresa de pneus para motocicleta. A partir da análise dos resultados dos diferentes compósitos, foi escolhida a formulação com 10 phr de STR-r para ser produzida em escala industrial, ou seja, em misturador fechado, tipo Banbury. Os cálculos do custo de produção foram realizados com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade econômica deste desenvolvimento.The recycling of vulcanized elastomers represents a problem for companies generating elastomeric residues and has become a wide field of study for researchers in this area. This study addresses the possible use of these residues and investigates an alternative for their recovery through incorporation of tread powder of cars tires (STR-r as a filler into a typical formulation for motorcycle tire tread (base formulation - BF. The study began with the characterization of the STR-r, based on granulometric, thermogravimetric (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses. The

  12. Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past several years, parents, athletes, schools, and communities have raised concerns about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used as infill for playing fields and playgrounds in the United States. The public has expressed concerns that the use of these fields could potentially be related to certain health effects. Studies to date have not shown an elevated health risk from playing on fields with tire crumb rubber, but these studies have limitations and do not comprehensively evaluate the concerns about health risks from exposure to tire crumb rubber. This status report provides a summary of activities to date, including: (1) stakeholder outreach, (2) the tire crumb rubber manufacturing industry, (3) the final peer-reviewed Literature Review/Gaps Analysis (LRGA), (4) progress on the research activities, and (5) next steps and a timeline for completion of the final report. The status report does not include research findings.

  13. Caracterização térmica e reológica de borracha de pneu desvulcanizada por microondas Thermal and rheological characterization of ground tire rubber devulcanized by microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. Scuracchio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Borracha de pneu pós-consumo previamente particulada foi submetida a um tratamento em microondas, de forma a promover a quebra de suas ligações cruzadas, ou seja, sua desvulcanização. A influência das variáveis do processo, tais como tempo de exposição às microondas e número de etapas de tratamento, foi investigada. Após o tratamento, estes materiais foram caracterizados em termos de suas propriedades térmicas por calorimetria exploratória diferencial e reológicas por reometria capilar. Também foi feita extração de solúveis em soxhlet, para avaliar a quantidade de borracha que foi efetivamente desvulcanizada durante o tratamento por microondas. O processo de desvulcanização mostrou-se um método viável para produzir um material passível de ser moldado, de forma semelhante a uma borracha virgem. No entanto, em nenhuma condição de desvulcanização utilizada foi possível obter um material 100% solúvel, ou seja, totalmente desvulcanizado. A análise térmica sugere que ocorre um processo semelhante ao envelhecimento do material durante o tratamento com as microondas.Ground tire rubber was submitted to a microwaves treatment in order to promote its devulcanization, that is, the breaking of the crosslinks between the chains. The influence of the processing parameters, such as time of exposure to the microwaves and number of treatment steps, was investigated. After the treatment, the material was characterized in terms of its thermal, by DSC, dynamic-mechanical, by DMA and rheological, by capillary rheometry, properties. In addition, the extraction of soluble fractions was made in soxhlet, to evaluate the amount of rubber that effectively was devulcanized during the microwaves treatment. The devulcanization treatment showed to be a viable method to produce a material which can be molded, in a similar way to virgin rubber. However, the complete devulcanization of the material was not possible in any devulcanization condition

  14. Stress-based viscoelastic master curve construction of model tire tread compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.; Dierkes, W.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.; Tolpekina, T.; Schultz, S.; Gögelein, C.; Wrana, C.; Gil-Negrete, Nere; Asier, Alonso

    2013-01-01

    One of the important aspects in the development of new tire compounds is the correlation between the dynamic mechanical properties of the rubber, measured on laboratory scale, and the actual tire performance. In order to predict wet traction, the viscoelastic behavior of the rubber materials at high

  15. Tech Transfer Office discusses the finer points of tire recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis worked with a tire recycling company in St. Francisville, La., to help the company make better use of the cryogenics, or supercold fluids, in its recycling process. The process separates the rubber from the steel belts and other particles. The rubber is broken down into a material called crumb. Other parts of the tire particle removed is called fluff.

  16. Cementitious Spray Dryer Ash-Tire Fiber Material for Maximizing Waste Diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Riley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray dryer absorber (SDA material, also known as spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of coal combustion and flue gas scrubbing processes that has self-cementing properties similar to those of class C fly ash. SDA material does not usually meet the existing standards for use as a pozzolan in Portland cement concrete due to its characteristically high sulfur content, and thus unlike fly ash, it is rarely put to beneficial use. This paper presents the results of a study with the objective of developing beneficial uses for SDA material in building materials when combined with tire fiber reinforcement originating from a recycling process. Specifically, spray dryer ash was investigated for use as the primary or even the sole binding component in a mortar or concrete. This study differs from previous research in that it focuses on very high contents of spray dryer ash (80 to 100 percent in a hardened product. The overarching objective is to divert products that are normally sent to landfills and provide benefit to society in beneficial applications.

  17. Post-consumer tires back into new tires: de-vulcanization and re-utilization of passenger car tires

    OpenAIRE

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The opportunity lies in the wide availability of the material and in the fact that passenger car tires form a huge potential market for recycled rubber. The aim of this study is to develop a de-vulcanizatio...

  18. Influence Of Gamma Irradiation On Mechanical And Thermal Properties Of Waste Polyethylene / Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma irradiation radical-radical interaction crosslinking of elastomers and thermoplastic is a special type of crosslinking technique that has gained importance over conventional chemical crosslinking method as process is fast, pollution free and simple. In this study, a blend polymer, based on waste polyethylene and nitrile butadiene rubber, has been irradiated with gamma rays then mechanically and thermally investigated at varying NBR content. FTIR and SEM techniques were used in addition to the swelling behaviour by toluene solvent to emphasize the blend formation. The mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus at different elongations were studied and compared with those of non-irradiated ones. A relatively low radiation dose was found effective in improving the level of mechanical properties. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis were used to study the thermal characteristics of the irradiated polymer. Enhancement in thermal stability has been observed for higher NBR containing blends and via radiation-induced crosslinking up to ≅ 50 kGy

  19. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  20. A new use for old tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.

  1. A new use for old tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.

  2. 78 FR 71032 - Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...-0063; Notice 2] Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...). ACTION: Denial of Petition. SUMMARY: Foreign Tire Sales, Inc. (FTS), as importer for ProMeter brand medium truck radial replacement tires manufactured by Shandlong Linglong Rubber Company Limited, has...

  3. 75 FR 32536 - Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...-0063; Notice 1] Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Foreign Tire Sales, Inc. (FTS) \\1\\, as importer of record for ProMeter brand medium truck radial replacement tires manufactured by Shandlong Linglong Rubber Company Limited has determined that certain...

  4. Deterministic and Stochastic Semi-Empirical Transient Tire Models

    OpenAIRE

    Umsrithong, Anake

    2012-01-01

    The tire is one of the most important components of the vehicle. It has many functions, such as supporting the load of the vehicle, transmitting the forces which drive, brake and guide the vehicle, and acting as the secondary suspension to absorb the effect of road irregularities before transmitting the forces to the vehicle suspension. A tire is a complex reinforced rubber composite air container. The structure of the tire is very complex. It consists of several layers of synthetic polymer, ...

  5. Use of recycled tires in non-structural concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rawahi Zamzam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the issue of tire waste management and natural aggregate resource depletion. It investigates use of commercially produced recycled tire rubber as replacement for fine and coarse aggregate in non-structural concrete. Two replacement levels of 10% and 20% were considered for fine aggregate with 0% or 10% of coarse aggregate. The study employed a mix proportion of 1:5:4 (cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregate with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.25, which is normally utilized in concrete block manufacturing in Oman. The mixes were tested for their thermal conductivity, water absorption and compressive strength. The behavior of mixes exposed to 100 and 200°C was also studied and the samples were later tested for compressive strength. The results showed improvements in compressive strength after exposure to heat. Thermal conductivity was reduced as the percentage replacement increased for both fine and coarse aggregate. During heat exposure, the temperature rise was faster in rubberized mixes, and the compressive strength of all mixes improved after the exposure to heat. Water absorption and void content increased with increase in replacement percentage. The compressive strength did not show a clear trend with the replacement and this is due to the sensitivity of the stiff mix used in the study and its inherent lean nature. The results indicate that the lean nature of the mix makes it insensitive to small replacement investigated in this research.

  6. Natural rubber: leather composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ravichandran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties of the natural rubber - scrap rubber composites containing neutralized leather have been discussed. Use of chrome leather particles has been found to improve the consumption of scrap rubber powder in natural rubber formulations. Polymer composites based on leather wastes as fillers are reported to be useful for many applications such as in construction materials, automobile interior moldings, heat and sound insulating boards, shoe soles, flooring materials and moldings with good anti-static properties, air permeability and good appearances.

  7. Use of rubber crumbs in cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvinenko, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    Rubber crumb obtained from worn out tires has been increasingly used over the last 15-20 years, especially in manufacture of asphalt and cement concrete mixtures. This review pays principal attention to application of the rubber crumb to cement concrete mixtures. Use of the rubber crumb in cement concrete is not as successful as in asphalt concrete mixtures, due to incompatibility problems linked to chemical composition and a significant difference in rigidity between the rubber crumb and concrete mixture aggregates. Different methods are proposed and studied to mitigate the adverse influence and increase the beneficial effects of the rubber crumb when added to cement concrete.

  8. STUDI PENENTUAN JENIS OUTLET LIMBAH CAIR KARET REMAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN MIKROALGA DENGAN SISTEM OPEN PONDS [Study of determination the type of crumb rubber waste water outlet for the growth of microalgae with open ponds system

    OpenAIRE

    Tanto Pratondo Utomo; Otik Nawansih; Anggun KOmalasari

    2015-01-01

    Waste water of crumb rubber industry is originated from coagulation, milling and leaching stage contains organic material that is derived from serum and rubber particles which haven’t been coagulated yet. The materials are potential to pollute the water therefore the crumb rubber industry must be treated through the wastewater plant. However, the characteristics of waste water are predicted suitable for the cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. media a biofuel feedstock, especially biodiesel tha...

  9. Numerical Study of Tire Hydroplaning Based on Power Spectrum of Asphalt Pavement and Kinetic Friction Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Shengze Zhu; Xiuyu Liu; Qingqing Cao; Xiaoming Huang

    2017-01-01

    Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by ...

  10. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Waste Short Nylon Fibers and Nanoclay Reinforced NR/SBR Rubber Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Andideh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber and styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR reinforced with short nylon fibers along with nanoclay (Cloisite 15A hybrid composites were prepared in an internal and a two roll-mill mixer by a three-step mixingprocess. The effects of fiber content at a constant loading of 3 wt% nanoclay were studied on the microstructure, mechanical and morphological properties of the prepared nanocomposites. The adhesion between the fiber and the rubber was enhanced by the addition of a dry bonding system consisting of resorcinol, hexamethylene tetramine and hydrated silica (HRH. The curing characteristics of the composites were determined and subsequently vulcanized at 150°C using a hot press. It was observed that the cure time and swelling index of the composites decreased while maximum torque, and cure rate increased with increasing of short fiber and nanoclay contents. Thestructure and fracture surface morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction results of nanocomposites indicated that the interlayer distance of silicate layers increased. The mechanical properties (tensile, tear strength, elongation-at-break and hardness ofnanocomposites containing virgin and waste fibers in the longitudinal direction are compared.

  11. Preliminary measurements on heat balance in pneumatic tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, G. H.; Collart, D. Y.; Staples, R. J.; Lackey, J. I.; Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    A variety of tests was undertaken to determine the nature of heat generation associated with a pneumatic tire operating under various conditions. Tests were conducted to determine the magnitude and distribution of internally generated heat caused by hysteresis in the rubber and ply fabric in an automobile tire operating under conditions of load, pressure, and velocity representative of normal operating conditions. These included tests at various yaw angles and tests with braking applied. In other tests, temperature sensors were mounted on a road to measure the effect of a tire rolling over and an attempt was made to deduce the magnitude and nature of interfacial friction from the resulting information. In addition, tests were performed using the scratch plate technique to determine the nature of the motion between the tire and road. Finally, a model tire was tested on a roadwheel, the surface covering which could be changed, and an optical pyrometer was used to measure rubber surface temperatures.

  12. The Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds - Background and Exposure Research Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised by the public about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used in synthetic turf fields and playgrounds in the United States (U.S.). Several studies have been identified that examine potential exposure to tire crumb rubber infill in these settings. Th...

  13. PROPERTIES TYRE TREAD RUBBERS DEPENDING ON PARTICULARITY OF RUBBER COMPOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Shashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The results of studies of the elastomeric compositions based on natural rubber containing curatives different ratio "curing agent : vulcanization accelerator" listed in this article. Influence of the composition of the vulcanizing group on stress-strain and elastic- deformation properties of tire tread rubber was installed. It has been shown that a significant effect on thermo-oxidative aging of vulcanizates was the composition of the vulcanizing group. Results of studies resistance tread rubber to exposure to elevated temperatures were presented . Vulcanizates differing type and density by varying the cross-linking ratio of "curing agent : vulcanization accelerator" were obtained . Research results in the formation of rubber resistance and crack growth at different temperatures were presented. Revealed that the best education and resistance to tear propagation under normal conditions characterized by rubber ratio "curing agent : vulcanization accelerator" equal to 1.5:1. It has been established that a dynamic endurance study rubbers depends largely on the nature and concentration of the cross-linking cross-links and movable promote increase efficiency due to the grid and reduce the sulfidity rearrangement. During loading mode alternating deformations at elevated temperatures lability of polysulfide bonds negatively affects the performance of rubber, and the decisive role of providing strength and thermal cross-linking. It is shown that the performance of the spatial grid rubbers allow indirectly judge the dynamic vulcanizates endurance and predict performance rubbers at elevated temperatures under conditions of repeated cyclic deformation. Revealed that the vulcanizing system containing sulfur and vulcanization accelerator TBBS 1:2, promotes the formation of the optimal structure of vulcanized rubber , which provides the best resistance to repeated cyclic deformations in the operating temperatures of the tire.

  14. Design of the Nonlinear Pin Rubber Forming Equipment Integrating the Functions of Extruding, Dewatering, Drying & Expanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuefeng Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The top priority of car-tire suppliers is to improve wetland grip force of the using tires, reduce the rolling resistance and the rolling noise of tires. It is urgent for the tire industry to research and develop high-performance tires to solve the above problems. They must use the high- performance synthetic rubber and auxiliary rubber to develop the most advanced manufacturing technologies and equipment. Silica, a kind of important tire auxiliary rubber, can significantly reduce the rolling resistance of tires, improve the grip force and properties resistant to ice, wetness or slippery of tires. In this paper, based on the conventional tire rubber forming technologies of extrusion, dewatering, drying and expanding, a study is made on the conical screw, the dewatering barrel, the drying barrel, the pin layout scheme, the expanding die head, cutter and the control system. The nonlinear pin rubber forming equipment integrating the functions of extrusion, dewatering, drying and expanding is designed and applied to tire auxiliary rubber forming. The experiment shows that the forming device can realize the one-step forming, with high forming efficiency, low cost and less labor.

  15. Manufacture of Partially Biodegradable Composite Materials Based on PLA-Tires Powder: Process and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rolando Rios-Soberanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work focuses on the processability and mechanical characterization of blends of polylactic acid (PLA and tire (elastomeric part. Wasted tires used as filler in the PLA matrix were reduced by two different processes (thermal shock and pyrolysis in order to acquire the solid residuals in powder to be characterized and compared. Elastomeric solids obtained from scraped tires were used as filler in the PLA matrix and mixed in a Brabender 60 cc mixer at different concentrations ranging from 0% to 60% of filler volume fraction. The blend was laminated, and then samples were obtained in order to undertake mechanical properties at tension and Izod impact tests. A fully detailed analysis on the solid powders by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, infrared analysis (IR, and scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM identified them as a rich source of carbon. Blends were characterized thermally and mechanically showing a direct effect due to the tire nature (thermoset rubber and concentration. Fracture mechanisms were also identified.

  16. Recycling of chlorobutyl rubber compounds subjected of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Santos, Renato G. dos; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, as in the world, the correct destination of solid waste and its impacts on the environment are so worrying that have been treated as public policy of the State, leading to behavioral change on the part of business and society. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a growing proportion of urban and industrial waste sent to landfills. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric residues that are acceptable from an environmental point of view, and which are effective in terms of cost, has proven a difficult challenge due to the inherent complexities of all reuse polymers. To establish more efficient processes for reuse / recycling of polymeric materials remains a challenge throughout the world. Due to ionizing radiation ability to alter the structure and properties of materials and the fact that it is applicable to all types of polymers, irradiation is promising and effective for the management of solid waste which can be used as raw materials or additives chemicals. Halogenated polymers have been used on a large scale in a broad variety of applications, such as tires, spare parts (tubes, tire liners, etc.) and various artifacts (covers, gaskets, etc.). Due to the low unsaturation of chlorobutyl rubber (about 3%), shows significant levels of degradation upon exposure to radiation. The main effect of gamma rays on butyl polymers is the formation of free radicals and the chain scission. This paper aims to introduce a rubber recovery technique chlorobutyl rubber the characterization of non-irradiated and irradiated samples based on the following properties: tensile strength and elongation at break, hardness, and rheological properties. The radiation doses used in the study were degradation range: 0 kGy, 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy, in order to confirm the feasibility of recycling chlorobutyl rubber. It was observed that doses greater than 100 kGy, the material exhibits a high degree of degradation. Research on rubber

  17. Science and technology of rubber reclamation with special attention to NR based waste latex products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, V.V.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Joseph, R.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of reclamation of cured rubber with special emphasis on latex reclamation is depicted in this paper. The latex industry has expanded over the years to meet the world demands for gloves, condoms, latex thread, etc. Due to the strict specifications for the products and the

  18. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  19. Fine granular of shredded waste tyre for road kerb application as improvised road furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munikanan, Vikneswaran; Yahya, Muhamad Azani; Yusof, Mohammed Alias; Radzi, Muhammad Haris Fauzan

    2018-02-01

    Solid waste management in Malaysia was still in a backward stage. Population growth, urbanization and rapid industrialization led to an increase in the solid waste generated by society. Solid waste management is one of the main problems faced by the community, especially in the city. Solid waste management costs of the collection, collecting, transporting waste to the landfill, is very high. The quantity of solid waste should be reduced in order to reduce government spending. Moreover, improper solid waste management caused a negative impact on people and the environment. Method of recycling is one of the best alternatives to reduce the number of solid waste. Therefore, this study was to identify methods of recycling used tires to be used in civil engineering. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness and properties of rubber from used tires to be add in the road kerb design.

  20. Thickness measuring instrument for rubber cord calender production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Songfeng

    1988-01-01

    The thickness measuring gauge has been used to measure the rubber film thickness on the coating of textile cord at tire four cord calenders. Combined with micro-computer it completes the automatic control system and acheives automatic thickness measurement and adjustment. The fundamentals, construction, specifications, characteristic and application results are described. Prominent economic benefit has been gained for tire production

  1. Thermoplastic Elastomers From Chemically or Irradiation Activated Polyolefin Wastes and Ground Tyre Rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstov, A.M.; Grigoryeva, A.L.; Bardash, O.P.

    2005-01-01

    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) are known as materials with unique combination of elastomeric properties and thermo plasticity. Among the TPE of different type the polymer blends of thermoplastics and rubbers are the most commonly used. Recently a very effective technology of dynamic vulcanization of rubber component inside thermoplastic matrix has been developed. As a result of rubber vulcanization and dispersion inside thermoplastic the new type of TPE so-called thermoplastic dynamic vulcanizations (TPV) are obtained. In our work we have applied the technology of dynamic vulcanization for recycled components (PP, HDPE, GTR). It has appeared that such components are not mixed well and the resulting TPV have poor mechanical properties. To solve a problem of poor compatibility of the components used we carried out a pre-modification (functionalization) of the component surfaces by gamma-irradiation or by chemically or gamma-irradiation induced grafting of reactive monomers. Both the polyolefin (HDPE) and GTR were functionalized before mixing. The monomers were selected by such a way that being grafted to be able to react to each other in interface during the components blending. For example, we used maleic anhydride and acrylamide. The effect of better compatibility has appeared in higher tensile characteristics of TPV synthesized

  2. Preparation Parameter Analysis and Optimization of Sustainable Asphalt Binder Modified by Waste Rubber and Diatomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, crumb rubber and diatomite were used to modify asphalt binder. Wet process was adopted as a preparation method, and the corresponding preparation process was determined firstly. The effects of six preparation parameters (crumb rubber concentration, diatomite concentration, shear time, shear speed, shear temperature, and storing time on properties of modified asphalt binder (penetration at 25°C, softening point, ductility, viscosity at 135°C, elastic recovery, and penetration index were investigated, and multiresponse optimization was conducted using the response surface method. The results revealed that softening points, viscosity, elastic recovery, and penetration index increase, while penetration and ductility decrease with the increase of crumb rubber concentration. Softening points, viscosity, and penetration index increase, while penetration and ductility decrease with the increase of diatomite concentration, which presents little influence on elastic recovery of binder. Shear temperature presented significant effects on penetration, softening point, viscosity, and ductility. Shear speed, shear time, and storing time have similar effects on binder properties because of their similar mechanism of action. Based on the model obtained from the response surface method, optimized preparation parameters corresponding to specific criteria can be determined, which possess favorable accuracy compared with experimental results.

  3. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  4. Study of montmorillonite nanoparticles and electron beam irradiation interaction of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/de-vulcanized waste rubber thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen; Sin, Lee Tin; Hoe, Tie Teck; Ratnam, C. T.; Bee, Soo Ling; Rahmat, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of montmorillonite (MMT) loading level and electron beam irradiation on the physical-mechanical properties and thermal stability of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)- devulcanised waste rubber blends. The addition of MMT particles has significantly increased the d-spacing and interchain separation of deflection peak (0 0 2) of MMT particles. This indicates that MMT particles have effectively intercalated in polymer matrix of EVA-devulcanised waste rubber blends. Besides, the application of electron beam irradiation dosages <150 kGy could also significantly induce the effective intercalation effect of MMT particles in polymer matrix by introducing crosslinking networks. The increasing of electron beam irradiation dosages up to 250 kGy has gradually increased the gel content of all EVA-devulcanized rubber blends by inducing the formation of crosslinking networks in polymer matrix. Also, the tensile strength of all EVA-devulcanized waste rubber blends was gradually increased when irradiated up to 150 kGy. This is due to the occurrence of crosslinking networks by irradiation could significantly provide reinforcement effect to polymer matrix by effectively transferring the stress applied on polymer matrix throughout the whole polymer matrix.

  5. Propriedades mecânicas de blendas de PS/resíduo de borracha: influência da concentração, granulometria e método de moldagem Mechanical properties of PS/rubber waste blends: effects of concentration, particle size and moulding procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcleide M. Araújo

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Resíduos de borracha, provenientes de indústrias de calçados e de pneus, foram adicionados ao poliestireno visando tenacificá-lo. As misturas foram realizadas em extrusora dupla-rosca e a moldagem feita por compressão e por injeção. Os efeitos da concentração ( 5-25% em peso e granulometria (1200 a 180mm dos resíduos nas propriedades mecânicas destas blendas, foram avaliados e as suas superfícies de fratura examinadas. Ficou evidenciado que a resistência à tração tende a diminuir e a resistência ao impacto aumentar conforme o teor de borracha aumenta e a granulometria diminui. A análise morfológica das superfícies de fratura confirma estes resultados. As amostras obtidas pelo processo de injeção apresentaram maior uniformidade e, consequentemente, melhores propriedades mecânicas.Polystyrene was toughened by blending with rubber waste obtained from shoe and tire industries. The blends were twin-screw extruded and test specimens were compression and injection moulded. The effects of concentration (0-15% w/w and particle size (1200 to 180 µm of the waste rubbers on the blend's mechanical properties were evaluated and their fracture surfaces examined. It was shown that tensile strength tends to lower and impact resistance to increase with increasing rubber content of decreasing particle sizes. Morphological analysis confirms these results. Injection moulded specimens showed greater sample uniformity and consequently, better mechanical properties than compression moulded samples.

  6. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  7. Influence of physical and chemical polymer-filler bonds on wet skid resistance and related properties of passenger car tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cichomski, E.M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Tolpekina, T.V.; Schultz, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the influence of rubber – filler interactions on the wet skid behavior of tire treads is insufficient, in order to quickly develop new compounds with improved wet skid performance. The rubber compound used for a tire tread is in fact a composite material of which the dynamic

  8. Use of zinc and copper (I) salts to reduce sulfur and nitrogen impurities during the pyrolysis of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C.; Braslaw, Jacob; Gealer, Roy L.

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in a process for the pyrolytic conversion of rubber and plastic waste to hydrocarbon products which results in reduced levels of nitrogen and sulfur impurities in these products. The improvement comprises pyrolyzing the waste in the presence of at least about 1 weight percent of salts, based on the weight of the waste, preferably chloride or carbonate salts, of zinc or copper (I). This invention was made under contract with or subcontract thereunder of the Department of Energy Contract #DE-AC02-78-ER10049.

  9. Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the silica-reinforcement of synthetic rubber compounds for passenger tire treads with the objective to gain insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins, derived from natural and synthetic monomers, on the major tire performance factors: rolling resistance and (wet)

  10. Understanding the Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the silica reinforcement of styrene–butadiene rubber compounds for passenger car tire treads, with the objective of gaining greater insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins. The major tire performance factors predicted are rolling resistance and (wet) skid

  11. Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study concerns the silica-reinforcement of synthetic rubber compounds for passenger tire treads with the objective to gain insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins, derived from natural and synthetic monomers, on the major tire performance factors: Rolling Resistance and (Wet)

  12. Recovering/recycling of butyl and halogenated butyl rubber via ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Sandra Regina Scagliusi

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) attain a continuous and raising proportion of urban and industrial scraps discarded in landfills; their impact on environment are more and more concerning. The implementation of new technologies in order to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment, at an effective cost, proved to be a great problem, due to inherent complexity for polymers re-using. Ionizing radiation is capable to modify structure and properties of polymeric material. Butyl and halobutyl rubbers have been used within a comprehensive scale, applications such as tires spare parts and diverse artifacts. The major high energy photon effect, as gamma-rays in butyl and halo butyl rubbers consists in free-radicals generation along changes in mechanical properties.This work aims to the development of controlled degradation processes (devulcanization) of butyl and halo butyl (chlorine and bromine) rubbers, in order to characterize their availability for transformation and modification of properties. Experimental results obtained showed that butyl and halobutyl rubbers,irradiated at 25 kGy and further sheared, are able to be used as an initial point for mixtures with pristine. (author)

  13. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Minimum Data for Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 11 Table 11 to Subpart XXXX of Part... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 11 Table 11 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Minimum Data for Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord...

  14. A Strain-Based Method to Detect Tires' Loss of Grip and Estimate Lateral Friction Coefficient from Experimental Data by Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tire Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunta, Jorge; Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Diaz, Vicente; Olatunbosun, Oluremi

    2018-02-06

    Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire's loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

  15. Proceedings of the Rubber Association of Canada's 7. biennial 2006 rubber recycling symposium : changing concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Rising energy costs and concerns over the environment have contributed to a renewed focus on recycling for many governments and industries. This conference examined recent trends affecting rubber recycling activities as well as the legislative environment and its impacts on future recycling activities. Major rubber recycling markets were reviewed, and emerging product ideas were evaluated. Industry stewardship model and governance models were discussed. The impacts of new advances in tire technology and manufacturing on the rubber recycling industry were also investigated. Issues concerning fixed tipping fees and incentive structures were discussed, and effective management strategies for the recycling of large off-the-road tires were evaluated. Tire-derived fuel (TDF) is the largest market in North America for scrap tires, and TDF may continue to grow as a result of rising fossil fuel costs. Issues and challenges related to the introduction of TDF to new communities were discussed. New developments in tire derived aggregates (TDA) and ground rubber were also reviewed. Twenty-eight presentations were given at this conference, 3 of which were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  16. The use of Crumb Rubber as Substitute of Fine Aggregate for Hot Asphalt Mixture using Polymer Modified Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Nugroho, S. K.; Irsyad, A. M.; Mutaqo, H. F.; Ramadhan, P.; Sumarsono, A.; Pramesti, F. P.

    2018-03-01

    The development of road pavement to fulfilled the need of modern life is not only focused on heavy duty road, but also a light duty road for the convenience of road users according to its function. For example the use of pavement on the jogging track, rail crossing, playground and so on. Due to the need of an alternative and the innovation of a comfortable pavement layer, but sufficiently strong in holding the load on the layer. The alternative innovation that can be used for the respective requirement is the utilization of waste old tires as substitute material in pavement construction. In this case the use of crumb rubber made from old tire rubber as an 100% fine aggregate substitute on the asphalt mixtures is investigated. To improve the strength and durability of the mixtures, the addition of polymer modified bitumen was incorporated. The two types of asphalt mixture selected in this study by using a continuous gradation of asphalt concrete and a gap gradation of hot roll asphalt. Testing to be implemented in this research is volumetric characteristics, Marshall characteristics, resistance to abrasion and impact and permeability. Replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber on asphalt concrete mixture with 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and polymer modified asphalt SBS E-55 in this research are expected to be an alternative in improving the quality of pavement and overcoming the environmental problems by reuse the waste materials.

  17. Exposure to rubber fume and rubber process dust in the general rubber goods, tyre manufacturing and retread industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, A A; Redman, D; Cox, G

    2000-08-01

    This study assesses the current patterns and levels of exposure to rubber fume and rubber process dust in the British rubber industry and compares and contrasts the data obtained from the general rubber goods (GRG), retread tire (RT) and new tire (NT) sectors. A total of 179 rubber companies were visited and data were obtained from 52 general rubber goods, 29 retread tire and 7 new tire manufacturers. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire and included a walk-through inspection of the workplace to assess the extent of use of control measures and the nature of work practices being employed. The most recent (predominantly 1995-97) exposure monitoring data for rubber fume and rubber process dust were obtained from these companies; no additional sampling was conducted for the purpose of this study. In addition to the assessment of exposure data, evaluation of occupational hygiene reports for the quality of information and advice was also carried out.A comparison of the median exposures for processes showed that the order of exposure to rubber fume (E, in mg m(-3)) is: E(moulding) (0.40) approximately E(extrusion) (0.33)>E(milling) (0.18) for GRG; E(press) (0. 32)>E(extrusion) (0.19)>E(autoclave) (0.10) for RT; and E(press) (0. 22) approximately E(all other) (0.22) for NT. The order of exposure to rubber fume between sectors was E(GRG) (0.40)>E(RT) (0.32)>E(NT) (0.22). Median exposures to rubber process dust in the GRG was E(weighing) (4.2)>E(mixing) (1.2) approximately E(milling) (0.8) approximately E(extrusion) (0.8) and no significant difference (P=0. 31) between GRG and NT sectors. The findings compare well with the study carried out in the Netherlands [Kromhout et al. (1994), Annals of Occupational Hygiene 38(1), 3-22], and it is suggested that the factors governing the significant differences noted between the three sectors relate principally to the production and task functions and also to the extent of controls employed. Evaluation of occupational

  18. Mechanistic study of the rubber-brass adhesion interphase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashirgade, Akshay

    Brass-plated steel tire cords form an essential strengthening component of a radial automobile tire. Adhesion between rubber compound and brass-plated steel tire cord is crucial in governing the overall performance of tires. The rubber-brass interfacial adhesion is influenced by the chemical composition and thickness of the interfacial layer. It has been shown that the interfacial layer consists mainly of sulfides and oxides of copper and zinc. This thesis discusses the effect of changes in the chemical composition and the structure of the interfacial layers due to addition of adhesion promoter resins. Grazing incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) experiments were run on sulfidized polished brass coupons previously bonded to six experimental rubber compounds. It was confirmed that heat and humidity conditions lead to physical and chemical changes of the rubber-steel tire cord interfacial layer, closely related to the degree of rubber-brass adhesion. Morphological transformation of the interfacial layer led to loss of adhesion after aging. The adhesion promoter resins inhibit unfavorable morphological changes in the interfacial layer thus stabilizing it during aging and prolonging failure. Tire cord adhesion tests illustrated that the one-component resins improved adhesion after aging using a rubber compound with lower cobalt loading. Based on the acquired diffraction profiles, these resins were also found to impede crystallization of the sulfide layer after aging leading to improved adhesion. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiles, SEM micrographs and AFM images strongly corroborated the findings from GIXRD. FTIR was utilized in a novel way to understand the degradation mechanism due to aging. A model for rubber and interfacial layer degradation is proposed to illustrate the effect of aging and the one-component resins. This interfacial analysis adds valuable new information to our understanding of the complex nature of the rubber-brass bonding

  19. Environmental impact caused by incorrect discard of tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Emanuella da Silva Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tires are wastes that need special treatment, because when buried whole, its shape facilitates the accumulation of gases from the decomposition of other waste and in case of emerge surface provides shelter for diseases. Thus, this research aimed to provide information about the environmental impacts caused by the improper disposal of unserviceable tires and about some techniques for reusing and recycling them. We opted for the literature search using databases SCIELO, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, CAPES journals, resolutions of the MMA, the ANIP and regulations of IBAMA instructions. The consultation material comprises a period from 1992 to 2015 with the following descriptors: industrial waste; laws of tires; environmental impacts caused by improper disposal of tires and technological alternatives usable by tires and scrap therefore improper disposal of scrap tires can cause negative impacts such as floods, by reducing the flow capacity of water bodies and drains. In contrast, after use, the tire can undergo reform and be reused, but the wear out is completely characterized as waste tire and the correct disposal are the possible ways of recycling. Thus it is very important compliance of laws that deal with the proper disposal of tires.

  20. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Approval Handbook for Japanese Certification, Safety Regulations for Road Vehicles, Technical Standards For... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act... vehicle safety, Motor vehicles, Rubber and rubber products, and Tires. In consideration of the foregoing...

  1. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  2. Environmental labeling of car tires--toxicity to Daphnia magna can be used as a screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, Anna; Dave, Göran

    2005-02-01

    Car tires contain several water-soluble compounds that can leach into water and have toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Due to tire wear, 10,000 tonnes of rubber particles end up along the Swedish roads every year. This leads to a diffuse input of emissions of several compounds. Emissions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of particular concern. PAHs are ingredients of the high aromatic oil (HA oil) that is used in the rubber as a softener and as a filler. The exclusion of HA oils from car tires has started, and an environmental labeling of tires could make HA oils obsolete. The toxicity to Daphnia magna from 12 randomly selected car tires was tested in this study. Rubber from the tread of the tires was grated into small pieces, to simulate material from tire wear, and the rubber was equilibrated with dilution water for 72 h before addition of test organisms. The 24-h EC50s of the rubber pieces ranged from 0.29 to 32 gl-1, and the 48-h EC50s ranged from 0.0625 to 2.41 gl-1. Summer tires were more toxic than winter tires. After the 48-h exposure, the daphnids were exposed to UV-light for 2 h, to determine if the tires contained compounds that were phototoxic. After UV-activation the EC50s ranged from 0.0625 to 0.38 gl-1. Four of the 12 tires had a very distinct photoactivation, with a toxicity increase of >10 times. This study has shown that the used method for toxicity testing with Daphnia magna according to ISO 6341 could be used as a basis for environmental labeling of car tires.

  3. Numerical Study of Tire Hydroplaning Based on Power Spectrum of Asphalt Pavement and Kinetic Friction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengze Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by combining pavement surface power spectrum and complex modulus of tread rubber through Persson’s friction theory. Finite element model of tire-fluid-pavement was established in ABAQUS, which was composed of a 225-40-R18 radial tire and three types of asphalt pavement covered with water film. Mechanical responses and physical behaviors of tire-pavement interaction were observed and compared with NASA equation to validate the applicability and accuracy of this model. Then contact force at tire-pavement interface and critical hydroplaning speed influenced by tire inflation pressure, water film thickness, and pavement types were investigated. The results show higher tire inflation pressure, thinner water film, and more abundant macrotexture enhancing hydroplaning speed. The results could be applied to predict hydroplaning speed on different asphalt pavement and improve pavement skid resistance design.

  4. Influence of gamma irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties of waste polyethylene/nitrile butadiene rubber blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf O. Aly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation radical–radical interaction crosslinking of elastomers and thermoplastic is a special type of crosslinking technique that has gained importance over conventional chemical crosslinking method as process is fast, pollution free, and simple. In this work a blend polymer, based on waste polyethylene and nitrile butadiene rubber, has been irradiated with gamma-rays, mechanically and thermally investigated at varying NBR content. FTIR and SEM techniques were used in addition to the swelling behavior to emphasize the blend formation. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus at different elongations were studied and compared with those of unirradiated ones. A relatively low-radiation dose was found effective in improving the level of mechanical properties. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis were used to study the thermal characteristics of the irradiated polymer. Enhancement in thermal stability has been observed for higher NBR containing blends and via radiation-induced crosslinking up to ≈50 kGy.

  5. Effect of Recycled Rubber Particles and Silica on Tensile and Tear Properties of Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu CHANDRAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of scrap rubber and worn out tires in natural rubber compounds has been studied. The scrap rubber can, however, be recycled and compounded with natural rubber and thus can be generated as a rubber composite. In this work, recycled rubber particles (RRP were prepared using pulverization process. Then, RRP was blended with natural rubber and silica compounds, and it was synthesized by two- roll mill and hydraulic press at specified operating conditions. The samples ranging from 0 to 40 phr of RRP loaded with silica were used as constant filler. The mechanical properties and morphological analysis were carried out. The results showed that tensile strength and elongation at break gradually decreased with increasing RRP loading in natural rubber and silica compounds. Tensile modulus went down at 10 phr of RRP and then showed an increasing trend. Hardness increased up to 30 phr of RRP and tear strength increased up to 20 phr of RRP. A comparative study was also carried out with virgin natural rubber vulcanizates. The incorporation of RRP and silica up to 20 phr in natural rubber did not lower the performance of rubber articles. Morphological studies revealed that better filler dispersion, interfacial adhesion, and cross link density could increase the tensile and tear strengths.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7330

  6. Investigation on dynamic performance of concrete column crumb rubber steel and fiber concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Nurul Nureda, M. Z.; Mariyana, A. K.; Khiyon, M. Iqbal; Rahman, M. S. Abdul; Nurizaty, Z.

    2017-11-01

    In general the Normal Concrete (NC) are by quasi-brittle failure, where, the nearly complete loss of loading capacity, once failure is initiated especially under dynamic loadings. The significance of this study is to improve the damping properties of concrete structure by utilization of the recycled materials from waste tires to be used in concrete as structural materials that improve seismic performance. In this study, the concrete containing 10% of fine crumb rubber and 1 % volume fraction of steel fiber from waste tires is use to investigate the dynamic performance (natural frequency and damping ratio).A small scale column were fabricated from Treated Crumb Rubber and Steel Fiber Concrete (TCRSFC) and NC were cast and cured for 28 days to investigate the dynamic performance. Based on analysis, dynamic modulus, damping ratio and natural frequency of TCRSFC has improved considerably by 5.18%, 109% and 10.94% when compared with NC. The TCRSFC producing concrete with the desired properties as well as to introduce the huge potential as dynamic resistance structure from severe damage especially prevention on catastrophic failure.

  7. Design of an automated solar concentrator for the pyrolysis of scrap rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeaiter, Joseph; Ahmad, Mohammad N.; Rooney, David; Samneh, Bechara; Shammas, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of a solar concentrator with high focal-point temperatures. • Development of an automated continuous solar tracking system. • Catalytic pyrolysis to convert waste rubber tire to gas and liquid products. • The liquid components had high yields of C 10 –C 29 hydrocarbons. • The gaseous components were mainly propene and cyclobutene. - Abstract: An automated solar reactor system was designed and built to carry out catalytic pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires at 550 °C. To maximize solar energy concentration, a two degrees-of-freedom automated sun tracking system was developed and implemented. Both the azimuth and zenith angles were controlled via feedback from six photo-resistors positioned on a Fresnel lens. The pyrolysis of rubber tires was tested with the presence of two types of acidic catalysts, H-beta and H-USY. Additionally, a photoactive TiO 2 catalyst was used and the products were compared in terms of gas yields and composition. The catalysts were characterized by BET analysis and the pyrolysis gases and liquids were analyzed using GC–MS. The oil and gas yields were relatively high with the highest gas yield reaching 32.8% with H-beta catalyst while TiO 2 gave the same results as thermal pyrolysis without any catalyst. In the presence of zeolites, the dominant gasoline-like components in the gas were propene and cyclobutene. The TiO 2 and non-catalytic experiments produced a gas containing gasoline-like products of mainly isoprene (76.4% and 88.4% respectively). As for the liquids they were composed of numerous components spread over a wide distribution of C 10 to C 29 hydrocarbons of naphthalene and cyclohexane/ene derivatives

  8. 75 FR 16037 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ...? The Tokusen USA, Inc. facility produces high-carbon steel tire cord for use in radial tire... Part 261 Environmental protection, Hazardous Waste, Recycling, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements...

  9. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  10. Alliances as a way to expand the collection of waste tires; Aliancas como forma de ampliar a coleta de pneus inserviveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Lauro Oliveira [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This job search to answer to the question: the alliances contribute with the process of reverse logistics of Tires? For development of the theme it is necessary discourse about tires, reverse logistics and strategic alliances. The hypothesis that orientates the job is that the alliances enlarge the potential of collect of useless tires. The job aims at to identify like the partnerships influence in the process of reverse logistics of useless tires, and specifically: to indicate the potential generated by the alliances for the process of reverse logistics of useless tires. In this exploratory work, the bibliography turns on tires and reverse logistics, while the collection of information through on interviews structured with entrepreneurs of the branch of tires and the public service of collection of residues seeks to perfect the understanding of the business alliances on the logistics process. The results indicate that the hypothesis is confirmed amid the great number of useless tires collected by the public service, less among resellers and transporters that establish partnerships. (author)

  11. Portland clinker production with carbonatite waste and tire-derived fuel: crystallochemistry of minor and trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. D. Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the composition of Portland clinkers produced with non-conventional raw-materials and fuels, focusing on the distribution of selected trace elements. Clinkers produced with three different fuel compositions were sampled in an industrial plant, where all other parameters were kept unchanged. The fuels have chemical fingerprints, which are sulfur for petroleum coke and zinc for TDF (tire-derived fuel. Presence of carbonatite in the raw materials is indicated by high amounts of strontium and phosphorous. Electron microprobe data was used to determine occupation of structural site of both C3S and C2S, and the distribution of trace elements among clinker phases. Phosphorous occurs in similar proportions in C3S and C2S; while considering its modal abundance, C3S is its main reservoir in the clinker. Sulfur is preferentially partitioned toward C2S compared to C3S. Strontium substitutes for Ca2+ mainly in C2S and in non-silicatic phases, compared to C3S.

  12. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SIMULATION AND INVESTIGATION OF TIRE TREAD BLOCKS INTERACTION WITH ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Ružinskas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The car tire is an essential subject analysing its interaction with the road. From tire’s tread condition, geometry and rubber compound depends grip and vehicle stability. This is especially relevant in winter time, when roads are covered with the layer of snow or ice. Generally, new tires are tested in real traffic conditions using vehicles. However, ensuring these conditions requires many resources and sometimes it could be a big challenge. For this reason, simulation of the tire interaction with the road becomes more important in nowadays tire researches. Since the tire is a complex engineering subject, the tire tread blocks could be separated for individual analysis. The interaction between the dry ice and the tread block with sipes was analysed using finite element analysis. The tread block was described using hyperelastic Mooney­Rivlin material model. The deformations, distribution of the contact pressure and shear stresses were obtained for the soft and hard rubber compounds with different vertical load conditions. Also a solid tread block interaction was analysed and it was found that values of contact pressure and shear stresses are much lower comparing to siped tread block.

  14. Parametric study and global sensitivity analysis for co-pyrolysis of rape straw and waste tire via variance-based decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Jiang, Yong; Qiu, Rong

    2018-01-01

    In present study, co-pyrolysis behavior of rape straw, waste tire and their various blends were investigated. TG-FTIR indicated that co-pyrolysis was characterized by a four-step reaction, and H 2 O, CH, OH, CO 2 and CO groups were the main products evolved during the process. Additionally, using BBD-based experimental results, best-fit multiple regression models with high R 2 -pred values (94.10% for mass loss and 95.37% for reaction heat), which correlated explanatory variables with the responses, were presented. The derived models were analyzed by ANOVA at 95% confidence interval, F-test, lack-of-fit test and residues normal probability plots implied the models described well the experimental data. Finally, the model uncertainties as well as the interactive effect of these parameters were studied, the total-, first- and second-order sensitivity indices of operating factors were proposed using Sobol' variance decomposition. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time global parameter sensitivity analysis has been performed in (co-)pyrolysis literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recovery and disposal of discarded tires in the Taiwan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J S; Roam, G D

    1994-12-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has resulted in a vast amount of artificial water containers in Taiwan, especially discarded automobile tires. 3.5 million automobile tires and several million motorcycle tires are discarded annually. The discarded tires contaminate the environment and also become a substantial number of breeding sites for the dengue vector mosquitoes. In order to establish a sound system for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires and to control dengue fever through source reduction, it has been emphasized that users must pay for their waste. It is necessary to recover and properly dispose of these discarded tired. The commercial firms which sell or manufacture tires are therefore advised to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Administration of the Executive Yuan, R.O.C. and follow the "Regulations of Recovery and Disposal of Discarded Tires". They are requested to establish foundations for the recovery of discarded tires. Those who are willing to join should prepay a deposit or related charge by the size of tire, which is imported or locally manufactured. The foundation utilizes the deposits for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires. From 1991 to 1993 the commercial tire firms had already achieved the 80% recovery rates declared by the authorities concerned. Some of the tires, after having been recovered, were recycled in the original form and the rest were cut into small pieces for recycling after physical treatment. It should be mentioned that the Department of Environmental Protection of Kaohsiung City has collected 80 thousand discarded automobile tires to be used as ocean jetty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Sustainable stabilization of sulfate-bearing soils with expansive soil-rubber technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The beneficial use of scrap tire rubber mixed with expansive soils is of interest to civil engineering : applications since the swell percent and the swell pressure can be potentially reduced with no deleterious : effect to the shear strength of the ...

  17. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  18. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  19. Research on the Microstructure and Property of an Anion Rubber Modified Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anion rubber modified asphalt (ARMA mixture was first successfully developed with a unique process. In the development process, rubber and asphalt were mixed in the same proportion. Furthermore, the microstructure and modification mechanism of the material were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, TG, and XRD tests. The mechanical property of the mixture was also tested in accordance with the relevant standards. In the end, the material’s capacity of releasing anion was measured by DLY-6A232 atmospheric ion gauge. The results indicated that the addition of anion additive into the rubber modified asphalt (RMA was a mere physical mixture, and the anion additives and rubber particles uniformly dispersed in the ARMA. The addition of anion additive could improve the thermal stability of the RMA. Compared with the traditional asphalt pavement material, the ARMA material shows excellent mechanical properties as well as the ability of releasing anion. Moreover, the material has enormous economic and social benefits by taking full advantage of a large amount of waste tires, thus improving the road surrounding environment.

  20. RoxB Is a Novel Type of Rubber Oxygenase That Combines Properties of Rubber Oxygenase RoxA and Latex Clearing Protein (Lcp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Jakob; Röther, Wolf; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2017-07-15

    Only two types of rubber oxygenases, rubber oxygenase (RoxA) and latex clearing protein (Lcp), have been described so far. RoxA proteins (RoxAs) are c -type cytochromes of ≈70 kDa produced by Gram-negative rubber-degrading bacteria, and they cleave polyisoprene into 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyltrideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD), a C 15 oligo-isoprenoid, as the major end product. Lcps are common among Gram-positive rubber degraders and do not share amino acid sequence similarities with RoxAs. Furthermore, Lcps have much smaller molecular masses (≈40 kDa), are b -type cytochromes, and cleave polyisoprene to a mixture of C 20 , C 25 , C 30 , and higher oligo-isoprenoids as end products. In this article, we purified a new type of rubber oxygenase, RoxB Xsp (RoxB of Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y). RoxB Xsp is distantly related to RoxAs and resembles RoxAs with respect to molecular mass (70.3 kDa for mature protein) and cofactor content (2 c -type hemes). However, RoxB Xsp differs from all currently known RoxAs in having a distinctive product spectrum of C 20 , C 25 , C 30 , and higher oligo-isoprenoids that has been observed only for Lcps so far. Purified RoxB Xsp revealed the highest specific activity of 4.5 U/mg (at 23°C) of all currently known rubber oxygenases and exerts a synergistic effect on the efficiency of polyisoprene cleavage by RoxA Xsp RoxB homologs were identified in several other Gram-negative rubber-degrading species, pointing to a prominent function of RoxB for the biodegradation of rubber in Gram-negative bacteria. IMPORTANCE The enzymatic cleavage of rubber (polyisoprene) is of high environmental importance given that enormous amounts of rubber waste materials are permanently released (e.g., by abrasion of tires). Research from the last decade has discovered rubber oxygenase A, RoxA, and latex clearing protein (Lcp) as being responsible for the primary enzymatic attack on the hydrophobic and water-insoluble biopolymer poly( cis -1,4-isoprene) in Gram

  1. Effects of leachate from crumb rubber and zinc in green roofs on the survival, growth, and resistance characteristics of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Mollee; Ryan, Allayna; Eckert, Cori; Baker, Katherine H; Herson, Diane S

    2014-05-01

    The use of green roofs is a growing practice worldwide, particularly in densely populated areas. In an attempt to find new methods for recycling crumb rubber, incorporation of crumb rubber into artificial medium for plant growth in green roofs and similar engineered environments has become an attractive option for the recycling of waste tires. Though this approach decreases waste in landfills, there are concerns about the leaching of zinc and other heavy metals, as well as nutrient and organic compounds, into the environment. The present study analyzed the impact of leachate from crumb rubber and zinc on the growth and viability of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Zinc was chosen for further studies since it has been previously implicated with other biological functions, including biofilm formation, motility, and possible cross-resistance to antimicrobial agents. The study showed that Salmonella can colonize crumb rubber and that crumb rubber extract may provide nutrients that are usable by this bacterium. Salmonella strains with reduced susceptibility (SRS) to zinc were obtained after subculturing in increasing concentrations of zinc. The SRS exhibited differences in gene expression of flux pump genes zntA and znuA compared to that of the parent when exposed to 20 mM added zinc. In biofilm formation studies, the SRS formed less biofilm but was more motile than the parental strain.

  2. NUMERICAL MODELLING AND EXPERIMENTAL INFLATION VALIDATION OF A BIAS TWO-WHEEL TIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUNG KET THEIN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parametric study on the development of a computational model for bias two-wheel tire through finite element analysis (FEA. An 80/90- 17 bias two-wheel tire was adopted which made up of four major layers of rubber compound with different material properties to strengthen the structure. Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model was applied to represent the behaviour of incompressible rubber compound. A 3D tire model was built for structural static finite element analysis. The result was validated from the inflation analysis. Structural static finite element analysis method is suitable for evaluation of the tire design and improvement of the tire behaviour to desired performance. Experimental tire was inflated at various pressures and the geometry between numerical and experimental tire were compared. There are good agreements between numerical simulation model and the experiment results. This indicates that the simulation model can be applied to the bias two-wheel tire design in order to predict the tire behaviour and improve its mechanical characteristics.

  3. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63...

  4. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63...

  5. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial...

  6. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial...

  7. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  8. Recommendations to prevention, recovery and disposal of used tires; Recomendacion para la prevencion, recuperacion y disposicion de los neumaticos usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Every year the European Union produces 2.000.000 tm of used tires. Most of them are disposed in sanitary landfills. the tires are not hazardous wastes and can be used as raw material for different uses. (Author)

  9. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edincliler, Ayse; Baykal, Goekhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-01-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  10. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinçliler, Ayşe; Baykal, Gökhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. World's largest off-road tires to be recycled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    Suncor Energy is the first company in Canada to use a new technology designed uniquely for tire recycling at oil sand facilities. The technology is owned by CuttingEdge Tire Recycling, a partnership between Denesoline Environmental Limited Partnership and Beaver Environmental Rubber Technologies Limited. Suncor has supported the development of this Aboriginal-owned and operated business by offering land, electricity, diesel fuel and stockpiles of used truck tires from its oil sand mining activities. These tires are the largest off-road tires in the world. In this new technology, tires that are worn-out through oil sand mining are shredded in a portable shredder before being recycled for subsequent use by the Alberta Recycling Management Association. 1 fig.

  12. Evaluation of rubber modified asphalt demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Ontario Government's medium-term scrap tire management strategy, 11 rubber modified asphalt demonstration projects were funded or completed, with 13 additional projects from small to large (1,500-65,000 passenger tire equivalents) approved for the 1993 paving season. This report presents the results of an August to November 1993 study of the 11 demonstration projects. The evaluation included a description of the technology; technical review of the projects; economic analysis; review of the environmental literature; environmental review of the projects; comparison of the projects with similar ones in other jurisdictions; and recommendations. Detailed information on asphalt technology is included in an appendix.

  13. Biological Reclaiming of Recycled Rubber and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties of New Rubber Vulcanizates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mansourirad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to environmental concerns, there has been great attention to recycling and reclaiming of tires. Different methods have been used for reclaiming or desulfurization of rubber. One of these methods, in which desulfurization of rubber happens with no damage to the polymer structure, is desulfurization by biological microorganisms. In this research the application and performance of thermophilic and sulfur oxidizing bacteria, Acidianus brierleyi for this purpose was investigated. Ground tire rubber was detoxified with organic solvents, and the optimum conditions for growing microorganisms in the existence of rubber powder in the shaker flasks were determined. In order to accelerate the process, the suitable conditions for growth of bacteria and desulfurization in the bioreactor were adopted. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to characterize desulfurization of bio-treated powder from bioreactor. The results indicated that morphological changes on powder surface and reduction of sulfur bonds have occurred. Samples from bioreactors, with and without bacteria and also untreated rubber powder were compounded with virgin styrene butadiene rubber. Tensile and dynamic properties were investigated using uni-direction tensile test and dynamic-mechanical-thermal analysis, respectively. Although some differences in dynamic-mechanical-thermal properties of samples pointed to stronger interaction between rubber matrix and treated rubber powder, no significant improvements in the mechanical properties of vulcanizates containing A.brierleyi-treated powder were observed. Low concentration of sulfur in rubber vulcanizates, chemical bonds of sulfur, and low efficiency of A. brierleyi in breaking sulfur bonds and reclaiming rubber were considered as the reasons for low efficiency of this treatment process.

  14. Tire safety : everything rides on it

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This booklet presents a comprehensive overview of tire safety, including information on the following topics: basic tire maintenance; Uniform Tire Quality Grading System; fundamental characteristics of tires; and tire safety tips.

  15. Proceedings of the Rubber Association of Canada's 7. biennial 2006 rubber recycling symposium : changing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Rising energy costs and concerns over the environment have contributed to a renewed focus on recycling for many governments and industries. This conference examined recent trends affecting rubber recycling activities as well as the legislative environment and its impacts on future recycling activities. Major rubber recycling markets were reviewed, and emerging product ideas were evaluated. Industry stewardship model and governance models were discussed. The impacts of new advances in tire technology and manufacturing on the rubber recycling industry were also investigated. Issues concerning fixed tipping fees and incentive structures were discussed, and effective management strategies for the recycling of large off-the-road tires were evaluated. Tire-derived fuel (TDF) is the largest market in North America for scrap tires, and TDF may continue to grow as a result of rising fossil fuel costs. Issues and challenges related to the introduction of TDF to new communities were discussed. New developments in tire derived aggregates (TDA) and ground rubber were also reviewed. Twenty-eight presentations were given at this conference, 3 of which were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    1 Stereo Vision Inside Tire P.S. Els C.M. Becker University of Pretoria W911NF-14-1-0590 Final...Stereo Vision Inside Tire 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-14-1-0590 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof PS Els CM...on the development of a stereo vision system that can be mounted inside a rolling tire , known as T2-CAM for Tire -Terrain CAMera. The T2-CAM system

  17. Industrial energy thrift scheme. Report No. 27. Energy use in the rubber, and linoleum and plastics floor-covering sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A total of 374 establishments manufacturing rubber products and 42 establishments producing linoleum or other coated substrates were invited to take part in the scheme, leading to 77 and 16 visits respectively. Both sectors manufacture products which contain as a main ingredient polymers of high molecular weight. For purposes of comparison, the different types of products have been grouped under five product headings: new tires, remoulded tires, solid rubber based products, latex based products, and coated substrates. Five sources of energy were used at the sites visited. Fuel oil was the main source, supplying 49 percent of the total, followed by gas with 25 percent. Coal, supplying only 10 percent of the total, contributed much less than it did in the past. Process wastes and reject products, used as fuels, contributed only 1.5 percent to the total supply of energy - but could supply much more. Within the 93 sites visited 760 opportunities for saving energy were noted; nineteen different types of opportunity were observed in at least 20 percent of the sites. Opportunities for saving energy, in descending order of significance, lay in the recovery of waste heat from manufacturing processes, in the reduction of heat loss from process equipment, in the improvement of insulation of buildings, in better control of space heating, and in the recovery of heat from the blowdown of boilers.

  18. Fabrication and Assessment of Crumb-Rubber-Modified Coatings with Anticorrosive Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeeli, Nasser

    2015-01-06

    Scrap tires continue to be a major source of waste due to the lack of valuable and effective disposal routes. A viable solution to this problem is to recycle crumb rubber (CR)-a granulated material derived from scrap tires-and use it to develop other valuable products. Herein we report the fabrication and characterization of CR-modified coatings with anticorrosive properties on metal substrates. By varying the particle size and concentration of CR, we have determined the coating composition that offers the highest level of erosion protection. Images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveal that CR is homogenously dispersed in the coating, especially when fine particles are used. As the concentration of CR increases, the hardness of the coating decreases as a result of the elastic properties of CR. More importantly, the erosion rate of the coating decreases due to increased ductility. Following Potentiodynamic tests, the utilization of these coatings proved to be beneficial as they showed good protection against aqueous corrosion when tested in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Our newly developed coatings offer an incentive to recycling CR and open up a safe and sustainable route to the disposal of scrap tires.

  19. Best Practice for the Devulcanization of Sulfur-cured SBR Rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, special attention will be devoted to thermo-chemical devulcanization of sulfur-cured styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) using diphenyldisulfide (DPDS) as devulcanization aid. SBR is the main component in whole passenger car tire rubber and, at the same time, the most critical one

  20. Analysis of asphalt mix surface-tread rubber interaction by using finite element method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srirangam, S.K.; Anupam, K.; Kasbergen, C.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    The surface texture of the pavement plays a very important role in driving the frictional properties at the tire rubber-pavement interface. Particularly, the hysteretic friction due to viscoelastic deformations of rubber depends mainly on the pavement surface texture. In the present paper, the

  1. Characterization of crumb rubber modified by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faldini, Sonia B.; Terence, Mauro C.; Miranda, Leila F.; Munhoz, Antonio H.; Domingues, Leandro S.; Coghetto, Gregory, E-mail: sfaldini@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mauroterence@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-07-01

    The use of crumb rubber from scrap tires has become a common practice in the construction of roads, leading to improved properties of the asphalt and decreasing the environmental pollution. In this study, crumb rubber was modified by gamma radiation to eventually incorporate it into the asphalt and verify potential improvements of their properties. The crumb rubber modified by gamma radiation in the dose 500 kGy and 1000kGy was characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The dose of radiation used has no effect on degradation temperatures. It is observed that the IV spectra of untreated rubbers and rubbers irradiated have substantially the same profile. The results indicate that despite small morphological changes in the irradiated rubber, they do not influence its degradation temperature and composition. (author)

  2. Characterization of crumb rubber modified by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faldini, Sonia B.; Terence, Mauro C.; Miranda, Leila F.; Munhoz, Antonio H.; Domingues, Leandro S.; Coghetto, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The use of crumb rubber from scrap tires has become a common practice in the construction of roads, leading to improved properties of the asphalt and decreasing the environmental pollution. In this study, crumb rubber was modified by gamma radiation to eventually incorporate it into the asphalt and verify potential improvements of their properties. The crumb rubber modified by gamma radiation in the dose 500 kGy and 1000kGy was characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The dose of radiation used has no effect on degradation temperatures. It is observed that the IV spectra of untreated rubbers and rubbers irradiated have substantially the same profile. The results indicate that despite small morphological changes in the irradiated rubber, they do not influence its degradation temperature and composition. (author)

  3. Recycling of chlorobutyl rubber compounds subjected of gamma radiation; Reciclagem de compostos de borracha clorobutilinica por meio de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Santos, Renato G. dos; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, as in the world, the correct destination of solid waste and its impacts on the environment are so worrying that have been treated as public policy of the State, leading to behavioral change on the part of business and society. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a growing proportion of urban and industrial waste sent to landfills. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric residues that are acceptable from an environmental point of view, and which are effective in terms of cost, has proven a difficult challenge due to the inherent complexities of all reuse polymers. To establish more efficient processes for reuse / recycling of polymeric materials remains a challenge throughout the world. Due to ionizing radiation ability to alter the structure and properties of materials and the fact that it is applicable to all types of polymers, irradiation is promising and effective for the management of solid waste which can be used as raw materials or additives chemicals. Halogenated polymers have been used on a large scale in a broad variety of applications, such as tires, spare parts (tubes, tire liners, etc.) and various artifacts (covers, gaskets, etc.). Due to the low unsaturation of chlorobutyl rubber (about 3%), shows significant levels of degradation upon exposure to radiation. The main effect of gamma rays on butyl polymers is the formation of free radicals and the chain scission. This paper aims to introduce a rubber recovery technique chlorobutyl rubber the characterization of non-irradiated and irradiated samples based on the following properties: tensile strength and elongation at break, hardness, and rheological properties. The radiation doses used in the study were degradation range: 0 kGy, 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy, in order to confirm the feasibility of recycling chlorobutyl rubber. It was observed that doses greater than 100 kGy, the material exhibits a high degree of degradation. Research on rubber

  4. Study on cord/rubber interface at elevated temperatures by H-pull test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, M.; Afshar, F.; Mohammadi, N.; Pourmahdian, S.

    2005-08-01

    Cords are used as reinforcing materials in rubber compounds. To increase cord/rubber interfacial adhesion, they are coated by an adhesive (usually based on resorcinol-formaldehyde-latex). These composites are used in many sectors such as tire and belt industries. Cord/rubber adhesion strength is an important aspect to determine the durability of system. Due to temperature increase during running tires, the adhesion energy becomes different from initial one. To study cord/rubber interface at elevated temperatures, H-adhesion test method was used. H-pull test is a simple method for adhesion evaluation at ambient temperature, so it is usually used for material quality control. In this research, cord/rubber systems were vulcanized at different temperatures and H-adhesion of samples were evaluated at elevated temperatures. Also cord/rubber interface was studied by ATR analyze to determine interfacial interactions kind.

  5. Recovering/recycling of butyl and halogenated butyl rubber via ionizing radiation; Recuperacao/reciclagem de compostos de borrachas butilica e halobutilica por meio de radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Sandra Regina Scagliusi

    2013-07-01

    Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) attain a continuous and raising proportion of urban and industrial scraps discarded in landfills; their impact on environment are more and more concerning. The implementation of new technologies in order to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment, at an effective cost, proved to be a great problem, due to inherent complexity for polymers re-using. Ionizing radiation is capable to modify structure and properties of polymeric material. Butyl and halobutyl rubbers have been used within a comprehensive scale, applications such as tires spare parts and diverse artifacts. The major high energy photon effect, as gamma-rays in butyl and halo butyl rubbers consists in free-radicals generation along changes in mechanical properties.This work aims to the development of controlled degradation processes (devulcanization) of butyl and halo butyl (chlorine and bromine) rubbers, in order to characterize their availability for transformation and modification of properties. Experimental results obtained showed that butyl and halobutyl rubbers,irradiated at 25 kGy and further sheared, are able to be used as an initial point for mixtures with pristine. (author)

  6. Soft matter: rubber and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Gregory B.

    2018-06-01

    Rubber networks are important and form the basis for materials with properties ranging from rubber tires to super absorbents and contact lenses. The development of the entropy ideas of rubber deformation thermodynamics provides a powerful framework from which to understand and to use these materials. In addition, swelling of the rubber in the presence of small molecule liquids or solvents leads to materials that are very soft and ‘gel’ like in nature. The review covers the thermodynamics of polymer networks and gels from the perspective of the thermodynamics and mechanics of the strain energy density function. Important relationships are presented and experimental results show that the continuum ideas contained in the phenomenological thermodynamics are valid, but that the molecular bases for some of them remain to be fully elucidated. This is particularly so in the case of the entropic gels or swollen networks. The review is concluded with some perspectives on other networks, ranging from entropic polymer networks such as thermoplastic elastomers to physical gels in which cross-link points are formed by glassy or crystalline domains. A discussion is provided for other physical gels in which the network forms a spinodal-like decomposition, both in thermoplastic polymers that form a glassy network upon phase separation and for colloidal gels that seem to have a similar behavior.

  7. Hyundai plans rubber unit despite overcapacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyoungjin Kim.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the oversupply of synthetic rubber in South Korea, the government has granted approval to Hyundai Petrochemical (Seoul) to build the country's second synthetic rubber unit, to be located alongside its petrochemical complex at Daesan. The plant is due for startup during second-half 1995, when the local market is expected to be in better balance. Hyundai will use Goodyear Tire ampersand Rubber technology for the plant, which will have annual capacities for 40,000 m.t. of polybutadiene rubber (BR), 30,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and 12,000 m.t. of nitrile rubber (NBR). Styrene and butadiene requirements will be met from Hyundai's own production at Daesan. The current local producer of synthetic rubber is Korea Kumho Petrochemicals (Seoul), which has annual capacities for 150,000 m.t. of SBR, 95,000 m.t. of BR, and 10,000 m.t. of NBR. Korean SBR demand is about 141,000 m.t./year but is expected to increase to 161,000 m.t./year by 1996 and reach 194,000 m.t./year by the end of the decade

  8. Heat Exchange with Air and Temperature Profile of a Moving Oversize Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinchuk, P. S.; Fisenko, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model of heat transfer in a tire with account for the deformation energy dissipation and heat exchange of a moving tire with air has been developed. The mean temperature profiles are calculated and transition to a stationary thermal regime is considered. The influence of the rate of energy dissipation and of effective thermal conductivity of rubber on the temperature field is investigated quantitatively.

  9. New developments in tire derived fuels (TDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, G. [Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Portland cement is a mixture of finely ground raw materials that are processed in a rotary kiln heated to 1500 degrees C by various fuels. Cooled clinker from the kiln is ground into portland cement. This presentation provided an overview of the role that tire-derived fuels is now playing in cement manufacturing. Data on the extent of TDF use in cement manufacturing processes were presented, as well as the results of air emissions monitoring programs conducted to assess the environmental impacts of TDF. During the cement manufacturing process, shredded and chipped tires are blown into the kiln to provide fuel, while whole tires are placed in the midpoint of long dry or wet kilns. For preheater and precalciner kilns, whole tires are added to raw material entering the kiln. The kiln's controlled combustion environment ensures the complete destruction of scrap tires. Approximately 130 million scrap tires were recycled in Portland cement plants in 2003. Forty-four portland cement plants are currently using TDF in North America. The United States Department of Energy has estimated that TDF produces less carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) per unit of energy than coal. Monitoring programs at Portland cement plants have indicated that the use of TDF in place of coal has resulted in moderate reductions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, slightly lower sulfuric oxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions and moderate reductions in carbon monoxide (CO). Some plants have reported slight reductions in particulate matter (PM) emissions. It was concluded that the use of scrap tires as a fuel reduces a waste stream and contributes to energy and raw material requirements. Moreover, plant air emissions are either reduced or are not impacted by TDF use. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Minimum Data for Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum Data for Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 9 Table 9 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 9 Table 9 to Subpart XXXX of...

  11. Vehicle Unsteady Dynamics Characteristics Based on Tire and Road Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During automotive related accidents, tire and road play an important role in vehicle unsteady dynamics as they have a significant impact on the sliding friction. The calculation of the rubber viscoelastic energy loss modulus and the true contact area model is improved based on the true contact area and the rubber viscoelastic theory. A 10 DOF full vehicle dynamic model in consideration of the kinetic sliding friction coefficient which has good accuracy and reality is developed. The stability test is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, and the simulation test is done in MATLAB to analyze the impact of tire feature and road self-affine characteristics on the sport utility vehicle (SUV unsteady dynamics under different weights. The findings show that it is a great significance to analyze the SUV dynamics equipped with different tire on different roads, which may provide useful insights into solving the explicit-implicit features of tire prints in systematically and designing active safety systems.

  12. Microstructure characterization of multi-phase composites and utilization of phase change materials and recycled rubbers in cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshgin, Pania

    2011-12-01

    This research focuses on two important subjects: (1) Characterization of heterogeneous microstructure of multi-phase composites and the effect of microstructural features on effective properties of the material. (2) Utilizations of phase change materials and recycled rubber particles from waste tires to improve thermal properties of insulation materials used in building envelopes. Spatial pattern of multi-phase and multidimensional internal structures of most composite materials are highly random. Quantitative description of the spatial distribution should be developed based on proper statistical models, which characterize the morphological features. For a composite material with multi-phases, the volume fraction of the phases as well as the morphological parameters of the phases have very strong influences on the effective property of the composite. These morphological parameters depend on the microstructure of each phase. This study intends to include the effect of higher order morphological details of the microstructure in the composite models. The higher order statistics, called two-point correlation functions characterize various behaviors of the composite at any two points in a stochastic field. Specifically, correlation functions of mosaic patterns are used in the study for characterizing transport properties of composite materials. One of the most effective methods to improve energy efficiency of buildings is to enhance thermal properties of insulation materials. The idea of using phase change materials and recycled rubber particles such as scrap tires in insulation materials for building envelopes has been studied.

  13. Tire traces - discrimination and classification of pyrolysis-GC/MS profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueissaz, Line; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2013-07-10

    Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward's method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces

  14. A demonstration of applying ATS thermal screw technology to the processing of separated construction and other waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Golan, A.; Bosschieter, H.A.

    1991-06-01

    A demonstration was carried out by Spider Recycling, a waste haulage company, to determine how to sort, process and recycle or reuse waste disposed of by the company, using a new processing system based on the ATS thermal screw press technology. Selected loads of waste totalling one thousand tonnes from construction, sawmill, landscape and tire industries located around greater Toronto were delivered to a pilot separation and processing site and separated into piles of similar material such as wood, drywall and tires. The separated piles were drawn on as feedstock for processing through the ATS thermal screw press system to produce useable forms of product and raw material. The applications included: turning wood waste into firelogs or wood fuel; yard waste into mulch; waste drywall into gypsum powder; tires into crumb rubber; asphalt shingles into a bitumix; and mixed garbage into densified logs or flakes. Wide ranges of throughput were found depending on the material processed, material size, density, moisture content and model of the ATS thermal screw press used. It was shown that it is practical to separate selected wastes from industry and process them with the ATS machine, and that the system could probably offer recycling and reuse solutions to separable waste where product markets are available and in some cases where the operation could collect the estimated $100/tonne tipping fees available in southern Ontario. 37 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. 75 FR 51671 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    .... facility produces high-carbon steel tire cord for use in radial tire manufacturing. The steel cord is... delisted waste. Lists of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 261 Environmental protection, Hazardous waste, Recycling...

  16. STUDY ON HEAT DYNAMIC LOADING OF RUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Igumenova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies on heat buildup in tire rubber surface scan method samples using a thermal imaging camera. Investigated the exothermic chemical reaction mechanical destruction rubber when loading designs permanent cyclic stretching with deformation of the working zone 50%. Percentage of deformation of the working zone was chosen on the basis of the actual data on the stretch-compression zone "Rusk" tires, which is the maximum level difference of deformation during run-in. Experiment plan provided for periodic relaxation samples of at least 72 hours for more accurate simulation of operation process of structural products. Created and processed data on temperature changes in samples for bar and line profile for rubber compounds with the introduction of nanomodifiers (fulleren technical carbon in comparison with the control sample without him. The data obtained reflect the nature of heat depending on the composition of the compound. Identified common patterns of thermal nature of physico-chemical process mechanical destruction rubbers. For rubber with nanomodifikatorom there has been an increase in the temperature interval reaction from a minimum to a maximum 2 degrees that is also linked to the rise in the average temperature of the reaction on the histogram also at 2-3 degrees of deformation under the same conditions and the level of cyclic loading. However, the temperature in the control sample that is associated with the beginning of the formation of hardened rubber structures, economies of Mallinz-Petrikeev, occurs with delay twice compared with modified Fullerenes. Measurement of physic-mechanical indicators selected in the course of testing of samples showed the beginning of formation of structure with increased strength of samples in the sample temperature zone that corresponds to the thermal effect of èndotermičeskomu recombination reactions of macromolecules.

  17. Design, Construction, and Evaluation of Rubber Friction Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Razzaghi Kashani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coeffcient of  friction  (COF  for  rubber parts  is one of  the key parameters in their interaction with solid rough surfaces (micrometer to millimeter scales,  such  as  tire-road  interactions. COF  of  rubber  depends  on  viscoelastic properties of rubber, roughness characteristics of the counter-part surface, and process variables such as contact nominal pressure and sliding speed. Due to the need for measuring COF  for  rubber,  a  new  friction  tester, with  continuous  variation  of nominal pressure and sliding speed, was designed and constructed in order to assess the effect of above mentioned parameters. Tire tread compounds, as the most common rubber part  in  the feld of  rubber  tribology, was used  for  this purpose. Viscoelastic properties of compounds were varied by changing composition of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR and butadiene rubber (BR in the blend. Effect of surface roughness was evaluated by using silicon-carbide papers with different roughness parameters. By statistical analysis it was shown that the designed friction tester has high accuracy in measuring the coeffcient of friction of rubber and differentiating the effective parameters. Increasing the nominal pressure led to reduction of COF and increase in sliding speed forced it through a maximum. In conclusion, the loss factor of the compound and asymmetry in roughness distribution of the counter-surface are considered as the most effective parameters on COF of rubber.

  18. SINTESIS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK LIMBAH BIJI KARET SEBAGAI SUMBER ENERGI ALTERNATIF (Synthesis of Biodiesel From Waste of Rubber Seed Oil as Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasmadi Imam Supardi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Biji karet hanya ditemukan sebagai limbah padat dan belum termanfaatkan sepenuhnya. Minyak limbah biji karet yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini mengandung asam lemak bebas yang tinggi, yaitu 97,77% dan mempunyai bilangan asam yang tinggi pula yaitu setara dengan 6,2 mg KOH g minyak, sehingga perlu dilakukan esterifikasi untuk menurunkan kandungan asam lemak bebasnya menjadi ester. Metanol (20% volume minyak direaksikan dengan minyak limbah biji karet dengan katalis asam sulfat 98% (0,5% volume minyak menjadi ester. Dalam operasi reaksi transesterifikasi, digunakan variasi optimasi katalis yaitu pada 0,5% sampai 1,5% KOH dengan suhu operasi 60 o C dalam perbandingan metanol dengan minyak 1:3 (volume, dan dengan kecepatan pengadukan yang sama, didapatkan konsentrasi metil ester yang baik pada katalis 0,75%. Uji fisis minyak limbah biji karet hasil reaksi transesterifikasi adalah Specific Gravity 0,9000, Density 919,5, Korosi Lempeng Tembaga 1b, CCR 1,361% W, Kadar Air 0,22%, Viscosity 11,53mm 2 /s, dan Flash Point 182,5 o C. Hasil uji fisis menunjukkan belum semua parameter metil ester atau biodiesel memenuhi standar biodiesel. Hasil uji Performance unjuk kerja menunjukkan biodiesel yang dicampur solar dengan perbandingan volume 20:80 memberikan hasil emisi gas buang paling bersih dan waktu pembakaran yang paling lama. ABSTRACT Waste of rubber seeds is found only as a solid waste and has not fully exploited. Waste of rubber seed oil used in the research contains high free fatty acids, about 97.77% and higher acidity number, namely 6.2 mg KOH / g oil, so it needs esterification to reduce the free fatty acid content to be changed into ester. Methanol (20% volume of oil reacted with  waste of rubber seed oil to become methyl ester with sulfuric acid 98% (0,5% volume of oil as a catalyst. In the operations of transesterification variations of the optimization of catalyst 0.5% until 1.5% KOH was used with operating temperature of 60o C in

  19. Effects of crumb rubber content and curing time on the properties of asphalt concrete and stone mastic asphalt using dry process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. Tai Nguyen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the rapid increase in the number of road vehicles, a large amount of waste tires have been created, causing negative effects to the environment. Many attempts have been made to effectively reduce this type of solid waste including the reuse of recycled rubber powder from waste tires as an additive for improving the performance of asphalt mixtures. In this work, the authors aim to study the effects of crumb rubber (CR on the mechanical properties, especially the rutting resistance, of CR modified asphalt concrete (AC and stone mastic asphalt (SMA by varying two factors-namely, the content of additive and the curing time. The dimension of used CR ranges from 0 to 2.36 mm, which is not too coarse for promoting the CR–bitumen interaction and not too fine for facilitating the production of CR. The content of CR was increased gradually from 0 to 3% to examine the effects of CR content on the engineering properties and determine the optimal content in the mixture. It was observed that the optimal content is 1.5–2%, while the optimal curing time that contributes to the maximal increase in the mechanical characteristics of both mixtures could not be determined. In the range of 0–5 h of curing time, the longer the asphalt mixture is maintained at a high temperature, the better the performance of mixture will be. Ageing was found to have influence on the performance of asphalt mixtures; however, its effects are not as important as those of CR modification. Keywords: Crumb rubber, Dry process, Asphalt concrete, SMA, Curing time

  20. Performance of self-compacting rubberized concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Bensaci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Used tyre rubber wastes present a serious environmental problem of pollution and storage. The recycling of this waste in the industry of construction could be an appropriate solution to produce an eco-concrete and could contribute to the improvement of some of its properties. This paper aims to study the possibility of using tyre rubber waste as fine aggregate replacement in self-compacting concrete (SCC. Fines rubber particles of 0-2 mm of waste tyres were added SCC mixtures as a partial substitution of the total volume of sand at different percentages (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The influence of fines rubber of used tyres on fresh and hardened properties of the SCC was investigated. The fresh properties of SCC were performed by using slump-flow, T50 flow time, L-box, V-funnel and segregation resistance tests. Characteristics of the hardened state were obtained by compressive strength and thermal conductivity. The experimental results showed that the inclusion of fines rubber in SCC decreases the workability, reduced its passing capacity and increases the possibility of blocking. A decrease in compressive strength is observed with the increase in rubber content. On the other hand, the incorporation of the rubber fines aggregates enhances in a remarkably way the thermal conductivity.

  1. Performance of composites made with polymers of silicone rubber and waste of lead on the properties of attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Frieda S.; Paredes, Ramon S.C.

    2009-01-01

    All facilities and personnel protection equipment which use ionizing radiation need protection. Based on this statement, several researchers have aimed their projects searching for new materials that present good behavior facing the attenuation properties. This research aims at the development of a composite by using the silicon rubber associated to the residue of lead in powder, obtained via the recycling of components of lead from automobile batteries. In this work , were checked the morphological physical - chemical properties of the materials isolated and associated, the calorimetrical properties of the performance of the composite related to the attenuation for X-Rays and gamma, through experimental rehearsals and computational simulation. For mixtures with 40% of lead residue, referential value in mass, favorable results were obtained about armor. In this way, it was allied the good performance of the composite with a reduction of an environmental passive to the process of recycling lead. (author)

  2. Rubber friction on road surfaces: Experiment and theory for low sliding speeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J. [PGI, FZ Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Oh, Y. R.; Nam, S. K.; Jeon, S. H. [Hankook Tire Co. LTD., 112 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-725 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-21

    We study rubber friction for tire tread compounds on asphalt road surfaces. The road surface topographies are measured using a stylus instrument and atomic force microscopy, and the surface roughness power spectra are calculated. The rubber viscoelastic modulus mastercurves are obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis measurements and the large-strain effective modulus is obtained from strain sweep data. The rubber friction is measured at different temperatures and sliding velocities, and is compared to the calculated data obtained using the Persson contact mechanics theory. We conclude that in addition to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber surface by the road asperities, there is an important contribution to the rubber friction from shear processes in the area of contact. The analysis shows that the latter contribution may arise from rubber molecules (or patches of rubber) undergoing bonding-stretching-debonding cycles as discussed in a classic paper by Schallamach.

  3. A North American model to contain the spread of Aedes albopictus through tire legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, R J

    1995-12-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in the United States has been facilitated by used or waste tires. This species has not only caused considerable concern among public health officials but also highlighted that the growing accumulations of used tires are a serious solid waste problem and a challenge to the recycling industry. This paper illustrates how the State of Illinois addressed the public health and solid waste problems associated with waste tires, mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens. The goal of the State was to develop and implement through legislative process the Illinois Waste Tire Act. The purpose of the Waste Tire Act is: 1) to ensure that used and waste tires are collected for disposal and recycling, 2) to provide for the abatement of used and waste tire dumps and associated threats to public health, 3) to encourage the development of used and waste tire processing facilities and technologies, including energy recovery, and 4) to provide for research on vectors associated with used and waste tires, and the diseases they spread. The discussion will include key statutes from the Act and the model used to coordinate the effort of five different governmental agencies. An up-to-date presentation of vector-related research, mandated by the Act, ranging from applied investigations on mosquito control to more basic studies investigations on virus identification using molecular technology will be discussed. Finally a discussion of problems that have been encountered along with solutions dealing with legislative language, multidisciplined agency efforts and interactions with the general public are presented.

  4. Effects of Thermal and Humidity Aging on the Interfacial Adhesion of Polyketone Fiber Reinforced Natural Rubber Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Han Ki; Kim, Dae Sik; Won, Jong Sung; Jin, Da Young; Lee, Hyun Jae; Lee, Seung Goo

    2016-01-01

    Polyketone fiber is considered as a reinforcement of the mechanical rubber goods (MRG) such as tires, automobile hoses, and belts because of its high strength and modulus. In order to apply it to those purposes, the high adhesion of fiber/rubber interface and good sustainability to aging conditions are very important. In this study, polyketone fiber reinforced natural rubber composites were prepared and they were subjected to thermal and humidity aging, to assess the changes of the interfacia...

  5. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  6. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzabi, R Vaghar; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  7. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  8. Work environments and exposure to hazardous substances in korean tire manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Naroo; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Jeong, Sijeong; Yi, Gwang Yong; Shin, Jungah

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tire manufacturing work environments extensively and to identify workers' exposure to hazardous substances in various work processes. Personal air sampling was conducted to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon disulfide, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylcyclohexane, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and rubber fume in tire manufacturing plants using the National Institute for Occupational Safety Health Manual of Analytical Methods. Noise, carbon monoxide, and heat stress exposure were evaluated using direct reading instruments. Past concentrations of rubber fume were assessed using regression analysis of total particulate data from 2003 to 2007, after identifying the correlation between the concentration of total particulate and rubber fume. Workers were exposed to rubber fume that exceeded 0.6 mg/m(3), the maximum exposure limit of the UK, in curing and production management processes. Forty-seven percent of workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA. Workers in the production management process were exposed to 28.1℃ (wet bulb globe temperature value, WBGT value) even when the outdoor atmosphere was 2.7℃ (WBGT value). Exposures to other substances were below the limit of detection or under a tenth of the threshold limit values given by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. To better classify exposure groups and to improve work environments, examining closely at rubber fume components and temperature as risk indicators in tire manufacturing is recommended.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mitigation in the pyrolysis process of waste tires using CO₂ as a reaction medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Our work reported the CO2-assisted mitigation of PAHs and VOCs in the thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis). To investigate the pyrolysis of used tires to recover energy and chemical products, the experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale batch-type reactor. In particular, to examine the influence of the CO2 in pyrolysis of a tire, the pyrolytic products including C1-5-hydrocarbons (HCs), volatile organic carbons (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated qualitatively by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectroscopy (MS) as well as with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The mass balance of the pyrolytic products under various pyrolytic conditions was established on the basis of their weight fractions of the pyrolytic products. Our experimental work experimentally validated that the amount of gaseous pyrolytic products increased when using CO2 as a pyrolysis medium, while substantially altering the production of pyrolytic oil in absolute content (7.3-17.2%) and in relative composition (including PAHs and VOCs). Thus, the co-feeding of CO2 in the pyrolysis process can be considered an environmentally benign and energy efficient process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  11. Fabrication and Assessment of Crumb-Rubber-Modified Coatings with Anticorrosive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Aqeeli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires continue to be a major source of waste due to the lack of valuable and effective disposal routes. A viable solution to this problem is to recycle crumb rubber (CR—a granulated material derived from scrap tires—and use it to develop other valuable products. Herein we report the fabrication and characterization of CR-modified coatings with anticorrosive properties on metal substrates. By varying the particle size and concentration of CR, we have determined the coating composition that offers the highest level of erosion protection. Images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM reveal that CR is homogenously dispersed in the coating, especially when fine particles are used. As the concentration of CR increases, the hardness of the coating decreases as a result of the elastic properties of CR. More importantly, the erosion rate of the coating decreases due to increased ductility. Following Potentiodynamic tests, the utilization of these coatings proved to be beneficial as they showed good protection against aqueous corrosion when tested in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Our newly developed coatings offer an incentive to recycling CR and open up a safe and sustainable route to the disposal of scrap tires.

  12. Improving mechanical grip on winter tires. Finite element analysis on pressure profile of airless tire compared to conventional tire using ANSYS workbench

    OpenAIRE

    Ludvigsen, Sondre

    2017-01-01

    The harsh climate of the arctic has always been one of the most difficult areas to drive cars in. The severe loss in traction due to snow and icing on the roads, has led to an increased risk of collisions. The winter tires for cars has developed through the years after their introduction in the 1930’s. There have been three revolutionary changes made since then; implement of studs, changing in tread pattern and optimizing rubber characteristics. The implementation of studs is being shied away...

  13. A Strain-Based Method to Detect Tires’ Loss of Grip and Estimate Lateral Friction Coefficient from Experimental Data by Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tire Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Yunta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire’s loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

  14. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-06

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work.

  15. Tire deflation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  16. Michelin tire baby syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita V Vora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michelin tire baby syndrome (MTBS, is a rare genodermatosis, characterized by generalized folding of excess skin and may be associated with various phenotypic abnormalities. The pathogenesis of this condition is unclear. Various congenital anomalies can be associated with it. It may be a clinical finding associated with various syndromes. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, and skin folds gradually diminish and disappear with age without any intervention. Here, we report a case of MTBS associated with convergent squint and hydrocephaly.

  17. Ground rubber: Sorption media for ground water containing benzene and O-xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, D.S.; Pamukcu, S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the ability of ground rubber to sorb benzene and O-xylene from water contained with aromatic hydrocarbons. The study consisted of running both batch and packed bed column tests to determine the sorption capacity, the required sorption equilibration time, and the flow through utilization efficiency of ground rubber under various contact times when exposed to water contaminated with various amounts of benzene or O-xylene. Initial batch test results indicate that ground rubber can attain equilibrium sorption capacities up to 1.3 or 8.2 mg of benzene or O-xylene, respectively, per gram of tire rubber at solution equilibrium concentrations of 10 mg/L. Packed bed column tests indicate that ground tire rubber has on the average a 40% utilization rate when a hydraulic residence time of 15 min is used. Possible future uses of round rubber as a sorption media could include, but are not limited to, the use of ground rubber as an aggregate in slurry cutoff walls that are in contact with petroleum products. Ground rubber could also be used as a sorption media in pump-and-treat methodologies or as a sorption media in in-situ reactive permeable barriers

  18. Development of puncture resistance tire tube; Nirinsha no taipankusei kojo cube no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagiwa, T; Nakayama, K; Kiyota, S; Tanaka, A [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Makisaka, N

    1997-10-01

    A new tire tube with a puncture resistance function was developed. The tube is a two-chamber structure having an air chamber and a liquid chamber, and the liquid chamber at the crown-side half of the tube is filled with an anti-puncture sealant during a manufacturing process. In a market test, it was confirmed that the number of puncture cases were reduced by 90 % in comparison with conventional tire tubes by using the newly developed tube. This paper describes the structure of the tube and the characteristics of the tube rubber, and the manufacturing process and durability of the tube. 3 refs., 17 figs.

  19. Finite Element Modeling of an Aircraft Tire Rolling on a Steel Drum: Experimental Investigations and Numerical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Rosu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the thermal evolution of an aircraft tire rolling at high velocities up to take off values. As this kind of experiment is difficult to realize on a real runway, experimental tests were realized on aircraft tires rolling on a steel drum. The rotating drum facility allows to apply variable velocities beyond the take off limits, at fixed skidding angles and loadings. The rolling conditions, vertical loading, velocity and cornering conditions were adopted to correspond to the real conditions of an aircraft tire running or skidding on a flat runway. In the experimental part, the influence of skidding angle, velocity and loading on the thermal evolution of the tire tread were investigated. The thermo-mechanical finite element analysis of a pneumatic radial tire structure was performed taking into account the hyper-viscoelastic rubber behavior, with heating mechanisms developed by the inelastic deformation and by friction. Three-dimensional finite element simulations of an aircraft tire rolling on a steel drum were carried out using Abaqus/Standard finite element solver. The comparison of the temperature distribution on the tire tread between numerical results and the experimental data shows the same overall tendencies. The good correlation between numerical and experimental data shows that numerical simulation could predict the thermal evolution of the tire in critical situations. The authors would like to mention that for confidentiality reason, certain numerical data could not be revealed.

  20. Rubber glove wearing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tatsuo; Takada, Kaoru.

    1994-01-01

    Rubber groves are attached each to an upper end of a glove putting vessel having an air-sucking hole on the bottom by enlarging an opening end of the rubber glove and turning back the inside to the outside. When the sucking device is operated, air in the glove putting device is sucked and the rubber glove is expanded by an atmospheric pressure. After expansion of the rubber glove to some extent, the sucking device is stopped, and presence or absence of failures of the rubber glove is confirmed by shrinkage of the rubber glove and by an indication value of a pressure gauge for detecting the pressure change in the vessel. Then, a hand is inserted to the expanded rubber glove, and a detaching switch in the vessel is pushed by a finger tip. A detaching piece at the upper end of the vessel is protruded outwardly to enlarge the turned-back portion of the rubber glove to easily release the rubber glove from the putting vessel, and the rubber glove is put on. This enables to wear the rubber glove and conduct failure test simultaneously. Further, a user can put on the rubber glove without touching the outside of the rubber glove. (I.N.)

  1. Research of operational properties of compound based on high viscosity styrene-butadiene rubber SSBR-2560 TDAE HV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Falyakhov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consider the influence of replacement of SSBR-2560 TDAE batch production on high viscosity SSBR-2560-TDAE HV in the tread recipe on the tire performance properties. Obtained samples were highly viscosity styrene butadiene rubber did not differ in the microstructure of the SSBR-2560 TDAE batch production. Increasing the molecular weight possible to increase the Mooney viscosity of the rubber, however, is known to one of adverse factors is the deterioration of processability of rubber compounds based on polymers. In this connection, investigated the behavior in the step mixing compound based on high viscosity SSBR rubber. We chose recipes tread of the tire with a high content of organic silicon filler. It is established that the equivalent replacement of the polymer in the tread recipe does not lead to significant changes in the basic parameters of rubber mixing. We observed a slight increase in the energy consumption for the preparation of the rubber compounds, as well as the discharge temperature at each stage. It was shown to improve the distribution of the filler in the polymer matrix for the compound based on SSBR-2560 TDAE HV. The results showed that compound based on high viscosity SSBR improves rolling resistance and traction characteristics, while maintaining abrasion in comparison with the SSBR-2560-M27 batch production. Recommended use this brand in the production of rubber car tires.

  2. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name owner...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  5. Airplane tire inspection by image processing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jovancevic , Igor; Arafat , Al; Orteu , Jean-José; Sentenac , Thierry

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect and inspect airplane tires. We use normalized correlation based template matching to detect tires and GrabCut segmentation method to extract them from the background. We inspect the tires condition by investigating the tire treads. Ridge based intensity profiling gives satisfying inspection results.

  6. Natural rubber/high density polyethylene/ground rubber composites vulcanized by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, N.A.; Abou zeid, M.M.; Khalil, A.M.; El Miligy, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was blended mechanically with 50 phr high density polyethylene (HDPE). the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of NR/HDPE blend and its composites with different contents of ground tire rubber (GTR) before and after exposure to gamma irradiation to various doses up to 250 kGy were studied. Also, the change in structure morphology of irradiated NR/HDPE blend as well as NR/HDPE/GTR composites was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the substitution of a part of virgin NR with GTR decreases the mechanical and physical properties but not to the extent of deterioration . However, it was found that the mechanical and physical properties were improved after gamma irradiation . Composite of NR/GTR/HDPE (75/25/50) showed good properties. Scanning electron microscope showed homogeneity between the irradiated composites ingredients.

  7. Feasibility study of a soil-based rubberized CLSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason Y; Tsai, Mufan

    2009-02-01

    The development of beneficial uses of recycled scrap tires is always in great demand around the world. The disposal of on-site surplus excavated soil and the production of standard engineering aggregates have also been facing increasing environmental and ecological challenges in congested islands, such as Taiwan. This paper presents an experimental study using recycled crumb rubber and native silty sand to produce a lightweight, soil-based, rubberized controlled low strength material (CLSM) for a bridge approach repair. To assess the technical feasibility of this material, the effects of weight ratios of cement-to-water (C/W) and water-to-solid (W/S), and of rubber content on the engineering properties for different mixtures were investigated. The presented test results include flowability, unit weight, strength, settlement potential, and bearing capacity. Based on the findings, we conclude that a soil-based rubberized CLSM with 40% sand by weight and an optimal design ratio of 0.7 for C/W and 0.35 for W/S can be used for the proposed bridge approach repair. Such a mixture has demonstrated acceptable flowability, strength, and bearing capacity. Its lower unit weight, negligible compressibility, and hydrocollapse potential also help ensure that detrimental settlement is unlikely to occur. The results illustrate a novel scheme of CLSM production, and suggest a beneficial alternative for the reduction of scrap tires as well as conservation of resources and environment.

  8. Feasibility of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete in Cold Regions for High Volume Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Eid, Mahear A.

    There are many challenges faced with the use of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) in cold regions, but with the inclusion of new technologies such as steel fibers and recycled tire crumb rubber efficient construction may be possible. Research was conducted on a modified concrete material that included both steel fibers and crumb rubber. The composite material was called Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete (SFRRC). The objective of this investigation was to provide evidence showing that SFRRC can reduce tire rutting compared to asphaltic pavement. In addition, the research showed that the SFRRC could withstand freeze-thaw cycles and increase service life of roadways. Several tests were performed to determine the characteristics of the material. Freeze-thaw testing was performed to determine compressive strength loss and visual deterioration of the material. Wheel tracker rut testing was performed both with the standard steel wheel and with a modified studded rubber tire to determine plastic deformation and rut resistance. An experimental test slab was cast in place on a public approach to observe the construction procedures, the effects of studded tire wear and the frost actions in cold region conditions. Based on freeze-thaw and wheel tracker test results and observations of the experimental test slab, the SFRRC material shows viability in cold regions for resisting freeze-thaw actions. The freeze-thaw testing resulted in increased compressive strength after 300 freeze-thaw cycles and very low deterioration of material compared to standard PCC. The wheel tracker testing resulted in very low plastic deformation and minor material rutting with use of the studded rubber tire. The test slab showed very minor surface wear, no freeze-thaw cracking and no rutting after one winter of use. It is recommended that further testing of the material be conducted by means of a large-scale trial section. This would provide information with respect to cost analysis and

  9. Technical and environmental assessment of the scrap tire vacuum pyrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.; Caumia, B. de; Lebrecque, B.; Blanchette, D.; Pakdel, H.; Roy, V.

    1991-01-01

    Tire recycling has become a necessity because of the huge piles of tires which represent a threat to the environment. There is about one worn tire produced per year and per person in the developed countries. The used tires represent a source of energy and valuable chemical products. By thermal decomposition of rubber under reduced pressure, it is possible to recover the useful compounds. A step by step approach has been used, from bench-scale batch systems, to process development and finally pilot plant, to experiment and develop vacuum pyrolysis of used tires. Yields are: 55% oil, 25% carbon black, 9% steel, 5% fiber and 6% gas. The maximum recovery of oil was performed at 415 degree C below 2 kPa abs. The specific gravity of this oil was 0.95, its gross heating value was 43 MJ/kg and total sulfur content about 0.8%. It was rich in limonene, benzol and other petrochemical components. The carbon black favorably compared with the low standard grades and may find an application in low grade rubber goods following further research and development. From an environmental point of view, the quality of the gas emissions was found to be acceptable based on the province of Quebec regulations. The aqueous phase contains toxic substances which will be eliminated after blending and burning it with pyrolysis oils used to heat up the reactor. The heat of pyrolysis for the reactions is low, estimated around 700 kJ/kg. The process has been tested in a 200 kg/h pilot plant, which positively demonstrated the possibility of continuously feeding large chunks of rubber under a vacuo. The process feasibility is promising, with returns on the investment of 31% after three years of operation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  10. The role of oxide structure on copper wire to the rubber adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yea-Yang; Shemenski, Robert M.

    2000-07-01

    Most metals have an oxide layer on the surface. However, the structure of the oxide varies with the matrix composition, and depends upon the environmental conditions. A bronze coating, nominal composition of 98.5% Cu and balance of Sn, is applied to steel wire for reinforcing pneumatic tire beads and to provide adhesion to rubber. This work studied the influence of copper oxides on the bronze coating on adhesion during vulcanization. To emphasize the oxide structures, electrolytic tough pitch (ETP) copper wire was used instead of the traditional bronze-coated tire bead wire. Experimental results confirmed the hypothesis that cuprous oxide (Cu 2O) could significantly improve bonding between copper wire and rubber, and demonstrated that the interaction between rubber and oxide layer on wire is an electrochemical reaction.

  11. Study on heat under dynamic loading of rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Igumenova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies on heat buildup in tire rubber surface scan method samples using a thermal imaging camera. Investigated the exothermic chemical reaction mechanical destruction rubber when loading designs permanent cyclic stretching with deformation of the working zone 50%. Percentage of deformation of the working zone was chosen on the basis of the actual data on the stretch-compression zone "Rusk" tires, which is the maximum level difference of deformation during run-in. Experiment plan provided for periodic relaxation samples of at least 72 hours for more accurate simulation of operation process of structural products. Created and processed data on temperature changes in samples for bar and line profile for rubber compounds with the introduction of nanomodificator (fullerene-containing technical carbon in comparison with the control sample without him. The data obtained reflect the nature of heat depending on the composition of the compound. Identified common patterns of thermal nature of physicochemical process mechanical destruction rubbers. For rubber with nanomodifikatorom there has been an increase in the temperature interval reaction from a minimum to a maximum 2 degrees that is also linked to the rise in the average temperature of the reaction on the histogram also at 2-3 degrees of deformation under the same conditions and the level of cyclic loading. However, the temperature in the control sample that is associated with the beginning of the formation of hardened rubber structures, economies of Mallinza-Petrikeeva, occurs with delay twice compared with modified Fullerenes. Measurement of physic-mechanical indicators selected in the course of testing of samples showed the beginning of formation of structure with increased strength of samples in the sample temperature zone that corresponds to the thermal effect of èndotermičeskomu recombination reactions of macromolecules.

  12. Improvement of wheel skidder tractive performance by tire inflation pressure and tire chains

    OpenAIRE

    Stoilov, Stanimir

    2007-01-01

    The motion resistance ratio, gross traction ratio and net traction ratio of a wheel cable skidder were determined and mathematical models derived for three tire inflation pressure values with or without tire chains on forest road in mountainous conditions. The motion resistance ratio increases with the increase of tire inflation pressure. On the contrary, the gross traction ratio increases with the decrease of tire inflation pressure. However, when the tires are equipped with tire chains t...

  13. Developments in rubber technology 2 synthetic rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K

    1981-01-01

    This book is intended for those people who have a knowledge or understanding of rubber materials and processes but who wish to update their knowledge. It should be read in conjunction with Developments in Rubber Technology-l as that volume discussed developments in natural rubber and selected special purpose synthetic rubbers as well as additives. The authors have been selected for their expertise in each particular field and we, as editors, would like to express our appreciation to the individual authors and also to their companies. Such a book would be impossible to produce without such active cooperation as we have received. Volumes 1 and 2 of Developments in Rubber Technology cover rubbers which are processed and vulcanised in the traditional manner. It is appreciated that the omission of non-vulcanised rubber materials (the so­ called thermoplastic elastomers) will be unwelcome to many readers but it is intended, because of the size of the subject, to cover these materials in a subsequent volume. A.W. K...

  14. Effect of waste polymer addition on the rheology of modified bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Garcia-Morales; P. Partal; F.J. Navarro; C. Gallegos [Universidad de Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales

    2006-05-15

    This paper deals with the modification of petroleum bitumen with four different types of waste polymers. EVA, EVA/LDPE blend, crumb tire rubber and ABS, all of them coming from recycling plants of waste plastic materials, were used as modifying agents of the bitumen employed in the pavement building. Optical microscopy, modulated calorimetry and a set of different rheological tests were developed in order to characterise the modified bitumens. The results obtained reveal that tire rubber as well as its blends with other polymers can be considered as an interesting modifier of the bitumen in a wide range of temperatures. As an elastomer, it endows the pavement a higher flexibility, which makes it more resistant to the traffic loading. The blend composed of EVA and LDPE displays quite promising results at high in-service temperatures, due to the development of a polymer network throughout the modified bitumen. Furthermore, the calorimetry tests carried out demonstrate different degrees of compatibility between the bitumen and the polymers used. 45 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Predicting the compressibility behaviour of tire shred samples for landfill applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warith, M A; Rao, Sudhakar M

    2006-01-01

    Tire shreds have been used as an alternative to crushed stones (gravel) as drainage media in landfill leachate collection systems. The highly compressible nature of tire shreds (25-47% axial strain on vertical stress applications of 20-700 kPa) may reduce the thickness of the tire shred drainage layer to less than 300 mm (minimum design requirement) during the life of the municipal solid waste landfill. There hence exists a need to predict axial strains of tire shred samples in response to vertical stress applications so that the initial thickness of the tire shred drainage layer can be corrected for compression. The present study performs one-dimensional compressibility tests on four tire shred samples and compares the results with stress/strain curves from other studies. The stress/strain curves are developed into charts for choosing the correct initial thickness of tire shred layers that maintain the minimum thickness of 300 mm throughout the life of the landfill. The charts are developed for a range of vertical stresses based on the design height of municipal waste cell and bulk unit weight of municipal waste. Experimental results also showed that despite experiencing large axial strains, the average permeability of the tire shred sample consistently remained two to three orders of magnitude higher than the design performance criterion of 0.01cm/s for landfill drainage layers. Laboratory experiments, however, need to verify whether long-term chemical and bio-chemical reactions between landfill leachate and the tire shred layer will deteriorate their mechanical functions (hydraulic conductivity, compressibility, strength) beyond permissible limits for geotechnical applications.

  16. Sugarcane bagasse ash: new filler to natural rubber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renivaldo José dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste recycling has been the subject of numerous scientific researches regarding the environmental care. This paper reports the redirecting of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA as new filler to natural rubber (NR/SBA. The NR/SBA composites were prepared using an opened cylinder mixer to incorporate the vulcanization agents and different proportions of residue (SBA. The ash contains about 70-90% of inorganic compounds, with silica (SiO2 being the main compound. The SBA incorporation improved the mechanical properties of the vulcanized rubber. Based on these results, a new use is proposed for the agro-industry organic waste to be implemented in the rubber vulcanization process, aimed at improving the rubber physical properties as well as decreasing the prices of natural rubber composites.

  17. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  18. Method and apparatus for inspecting tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for inspecting tires by the use of x-rays is disclosed in which a tire is advanced to an inspection station, engaged along opposite bead rims and inflated to axially spread the bead rims and side walls. An x-ray source is advanced axially into the tire and the tire is eccentrically rotated relative to the x-ray source to enable radial positioning of the source relative to the tire near the tire bead rim diameter without requiring radial movement of the x-ray source. The x-ray source produces an x-ray beam which sweeps about the interior of the expanded tire from bead rim to bead rim while the tire is rotated about its centerline. An x-ray detection system detects x-rays which have penetrated the wall and produces inspection information concerning the tire construction. (Patent Office Record)

  19. Application of mathematical planning in production of filled emulsion rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, I. N.; Molokanova, L. V.; Popova, L. V.; Repin, P. S.

    2018-05-01

    The applicability of mathematical planning of experiment in the field of chemistry and chemical engineering, in particular in the industrial production of synthetic rubbers, is considered in the article. Possibility of using secondary material resources, which are waste products of light industry, in the production of elastomeric compositions is studied. The method of obtaining a powdered cellulose additive from wastes containing cellulose fiber is described. The best way of introducing the obtained additive into elastomeric compositions based on the emulsion rubber is established. Optimal conditions for obtaining filled emulsion rubber with the help of a powdered cellulose additive were established basing on the mathematical planning of experiment.

  20. Loading Effect on Tire Noise Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Rui; Bolton, J Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Noise radiated by tires is a prominent noise pollution source and it is affected by many different parameters. Here, the effect of static load on tire noise radiation in a laboratory environment was investigated. The measurement was conducted by using the Tire Pavement Testing Apparatus (TPTA), on which a loaded tire can be run at speeds up to 50 km/hr; the tire noise was measured using a nearfield microphone method. The tire loading was varied from 500 to 900 pounds, and several different co...

  1. Buffing dust as a filler of carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronska, K; Przepiorkowska, A

    2008-03-01

    Buffing dust from chrome tanned leather is one of the difficult tannery wastes to manage. It is also hazardous to both human health and the environment. The scientific literature rarely reports studies on dust management, especially on its utilization as a filler for elastomers. In this connection we have made an attempt to use this leather waste as a filler for rubbers such as XNBR and NBR. The addition of the buffing dust to rubber mixes brought improvement in mechanical properties, and increase in resistance to thermal ageing as well as in electric conductivity and crosslink density of vulcalizates.

  2. Magnetic rubber inspection (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, L.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic Rubber Inspection (MRI) was developed to inspect for small cracks and flaws encountered in high performance aircraft. A formula of very fine magnetic particles immersed in a room temperature curing rubber is catalysed and poured into dams (retainers) on the surface of the part to be inspected. Inducing a magnetic field then causes the particles to be drawn to discontinuities in the component under test. These indicating particles are held to the discontinuity by magnetic attraction, as the rubber cures. The solid rubber cast (Replica) is then removed and examined under a microscope for indicating lines of particle concentrations. 3 refs., 6 figs

  3. Viscoelasticity evaluation of rubber by surface reflection of supersonic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Nobuaki; Suga, Takahiro; Furusawa, Hirokazu; Urabe, Shinichi; Kondo, Takeru; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2006-12-22

    The main characteristic of rubber is a viscoelasticity. So it is important to research the characteristic of the viscoelasticity of the high frequency band for the friction between a rubber material and the hard one with roughness, for instance, the tire and the road. As for the measurement of the viscoelasticity of rubber, DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis) is general. However, some problems are pointed out to the measurement of the high frequency band by DMA. Then, we evaluated the viscoelasticity characteristic by the supersonic wave measurement. However, attenuation of rubber is large, and when the viscoelasticity is measured by the supersonic wave therefore, it is inconvenient and limited in a past method by means of bottom reflection. In this report, we tried the viscoelasticity evaluation by the method of using complex surface reflection coefficient and we compared with the friction coefficient under wide-range friction velocity. As a result, some relationships had been found for two properties. We report the result that character of viscoelasticity of rubber was comparable to friction coefficient.

  4. Irradiating rubber laminate containing sensitive agent in layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, G.G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rubber compounds may be sensitized to cure or partially cure when subjected to irradiation. If certain layers of a rubber laminate are treated with sensitizing materials and other layers wth densensitizing materials a composite is produced having cured and uncured layers after it has been subjected to irradiation. This technique enables the production of composite laminates in which predetermined layers have predetermined physical characteristics which are desirable in the manufacture of the ultimate end product, for example, automotive tires. Several chemicals have been found to accelerate the cure of rubber compounds by irradiation and several have been found which inhibit the cure. Paradichlorobenzene (PDCB) and certain of the thioetherpolythiols are effective cure promotors. Effective retarders include aromatic oils, sulfur, sulfur cure accelerators and some rubber antioxidants and/or antiozonants of the substituted diphenylamine type. The dosage of irradiation is dependent upon several variables: the type of rubber, the promotor or retarder utilized, the level of the promotor or retarder, the thickness of the layer of material, the thickness of adjacent layers of materials, the sequence of the layers of material, the number of the layers of material and whether the irradiation is applied to one or both sides of the composite strip. The dosage may be controlled by the amount of energy employed so that the electrons do not completely penetrate the entire strip. This results in the irradiaton of part of the strip, but not the entire strip. (LL)

  5. Degrading radiation effects on properties of bromobutyl rubber compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Pozenato, Cristina A.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The understanding of chemistry involved in degradation induced radiation is becoming more and more relevant in the re-use of polymeric materials, as well in beneficial radiation uses. Degrading radiation effects have been considered from viewpoint of controlled degradation for isoprene/isobutene in rubbers for recycling purposes. Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR) is an isobutylene/isoprene copolymer comprising 1.9 to 2.1% bromine and has a lot of applications including in tires air-chambers. In this work there were evaluated gamma-irradiation effects for re-use or recycling objectives in elastomeric bromobutyl compositions irradiated at 5, 15, 25, 50, 100,150 and 200 kGy. Mechanical properties, hardness and swelling were assessed in non-vulcanized and vulcanized rubber, non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses. The major gamma radiation effect in butyl rubber is the generation of free radicals along changes in mechanical properties. Irradiation effects in bromobutyl rubber compounds were comprehensively investigated, demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  6. Degrading radiation effects on properties of bromobutyl rubber compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Pozenato, Cristina A.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of chemistry involved in degradation induced radiation is becoming more and more relevant in the re-use of polymeric materials, as well in beneficial radiation uses. Degrading radiation effects have been considered from viewpoint of controlled degradation for isoprene/isobutene in rubbers for recycling purposes. Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR) is an isobutylene/isoprene copolymer comprising 1.9 to 2.1% bromine and has a lot of applications including in tires air-chambers. In this work there were evaluated gamma-irradiation effects for re-use or recycling objectives in elastomeric bromobutyl compositions irradiated at 5, 15, 25, 50, 100,150 and 200 kGy. Mechanical properties, hardness and swelling were assessed in non-vulcanized and vulcanized rubber, non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses. The major gamma radiation effect in butyl rubber is the generation of free radicals along changes in mechanical properties. Irradiation effects in bromobutyl rubber compounds were comprehensively investigated, demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  7. Tire-soil interaction model for turning (steered) tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafiath, L. L.

    1985-07-01

    A review of the experimental information on the development of lateral forces on tires traveling at an angle to their center plane is presented and the usefulness of the consideration of the lateral forces for the development of an analytical model is evaluated. Major components of the lateral force have been identified as the forces required to balance the tractive force and the drawbar pull vectorially. These are the shear stresses developing in the contact area and the horizontal component of the normal stresses acting on the in-ground portion or the curved side walls of the tire. The tire-soil interaction model for steady state straight travel has been expanded to include the necessary algorithms for the calculation of these lateral forces. The pattern of tractive force-slip and longitudinal-lateral force relationships is in general agreement with experiments.

  8. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  9. Combustion chamber for solid and liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vcelak, L.; Kocica, J.; Trnobransky, K.; Hrubes, J. (VSCHT, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-04-01

    Describes combustion chamber incorporated in a new boiler manufactured by Elitex of Kdyne to burn waste products and occasionally liquid and solid waste from neighboring industries. It can handle all kinds of solids (paper, plastics, textiles, rubber, household waste) and liquids (volatile and non-volatile, zinc, chromium, etc.) and uses coal as a fuel additive. Its heat output is 3 MW, it can burn 1220 kg/h of coal (without waste, calorific value 11.76 MJ/kg) or 500 kg/h of coal (as fuel additive, calorific value 11.76 MJ/kg) or 285 kg/h of solid waste (calorific value 20.8 MJ/kg). Efficiency is 75%, capacity is 103 m{sup 3} and flame temperature is 1,310 C. Individual components are designed for manufacture in small engineering workshops with basic equipment. A disk absorber with alkaline filling is fitted for removal of harmful substances arising when PVC or tires are combusted.

  10. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biodiversity in rubber agroforests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, Hendrien

    2013-01-01

    Jungle rubber tuinen zijn extensieve rubber agroforests die qua structuur op secundaire bossen lijken, en waarin wilde soorten door de boer worden getolereerd. Met het verdwijnen van het laaglandregenwoud rijst de vraag of de begroeiing die ervoor in de plaats komt een aantal kenmerken en functies

  12. Vulcanization of Rubber

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature 140 -180°C. Sulfur. 2-3 parts per. 100 parts of rubber (phr). Accelerator 0.5-1.0 phr. ZnO ... out an experiment, he spilt a mixture of rubber and sulfur with other ingredients on a hot .... both carbon-sulfur and sulfur-nitrogen bonds -.

  13. Numerical prediction of car tire wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Cheli, F.; Braghin, F.; Gelosa, E.; Keckman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their many economic and ecological implications, the possibility to predict tire wear is of major importance to tire manufacturers, fleet owners and governments. Based on these observations, in 2000, a three-year project named TROWS (Tire and Road Wear and Slip assessment was started. One of

  14. Analysis of asphalt mix surface-tread rubber interaction by using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Srirangam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface texture of the pavement plays a very important role in driving the frictional properties at the tire rubber-pavement interface. Particularly, the hysteretic friction due to viscoelastic deformations of rubber depends mainly on the pavement surface texture. In the present paper, the effect of micromechanical pavement surface morphology on rubber block friction was brought in by comparing the friction results for three different asphalt mix morphological surfaces, named stone mastic asphalt (SMA, ultra-thin surfacing (UTS and porous asphalt (PA. The asphalt surface morphologies of these mixes were captured by using an X-ray tomographer, from which the resulting images micromechanical finite element (FE meshes for SMA, UTS and PA pavements were developed by means of the SimpleWare software. In the FE model, the rubber and asphalt binder were modeled as viscoelastic (VE materials and the formulation was given in the large deformation framework. FE simulations were then carried out by using contact algorithm between rubber and the road surface. It was observed that the rubber friction inversely varies with the sliding speed and positively varies with the pressure for all the pavement morphological and stiffness conditions. Furthermore, it was observed that the highly porous pavement surface results in large dissipation of energy, hence, large rubber friction which shows that the mix characteristics of pavements have a significant effect on rubber friction.

  15. Gamma-radiation effect on thermal ageing of butyl rubber compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2015-01-01

    Butyl rubber has a comprehensive use in sealing systems, especially in tires inner tubes, due to their low permeability to gases. So, it is required that butyl rubber compounds show a better performance, more and more. Butyl rubber is provided with excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Besides showing these properties, radiation exposures impart modifications in physical-chemical and morphological properties on butyl rubber materials. When exposed to gamma-radiation, rubbers suffer changes in their mechanical and physical properties, caused by material degradation. The major radiation effect in butyl rubbers is chain scission; besides, ageing promotes too the same effect with further build-up of free radicals. This work aims to the study of gamma-radiation in physical-chemical properties of butyl rubber subjected to thermal ageing. Doses used herein were: 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 KGy. Samples were evaluated before and after ageing according to traditional essays, such as: hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break. From accomplished assessments it is possible to affirm that at doses higher than 50 kGy it was observed a sharp decreasing in butyl rubber physical-chemical properties, before and after exposure to ageing. (author)

  16. Gamma-radiation effect on thermal ageing of butyl rubber compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Butyl rubber has a comprehensive use in sealing systems, especially in tires inner tubes, due to their low permeability to gases. So, it is required that butyl rubber compounds show a better performance, more and more. Butyl rubber is provided with excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Besides showing these properties, radiation exposures impart modifications in physical-chemical and morphological properties on butyl rubber materials. When exposed to gamma-radiation, rubbers suffer changes in their mechanical and physical properties, caused by material degradation. The major radiation effect in butyl rubbers is chain scission; besides, ageing promotes too the same effect with further build-up of free radicals. This work aims to the study of gamma-radiation in physical-chemical properties of butyl rubber subjected to thermal ageing. Doses used herein were: 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 KGy. Samples were evaluated before and after ageing according to traditional essays, such as: hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break. From accomplished assessments it is possible to affirm that at doses higher than 50 kGy it was observed a sharp decreasing in butyl rubber physical-chemical properties, before and after exposure to ageing. (author)

  17. Obtenção e caracterização de carbono ativado a partir de resíduos provenientes de bandas de rodagem Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from thread of tire waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene T. S. Garcia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigada a preparação de carbonos ativados através da pirólise de composições elastoméricas provenientes de resíduos de bandas de rodagem de pneus de automóveis. O material foi processado nas temperaturas de 500, 620 e 700 °C, em atmosfera de N2, utilizando-se o hidróxido de potássio como agente ativador. Os produtos resultantes foram caracterizados pela fisisorção de N2 a 77 K, através de isotermas de Brunauer, Emmet e Teller e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Esses carbonos ativados apresentam estruturas típicas de sólidos mesoporosos e a temperatura de pirólise tem grande influência na área específica e distribuição de volume de poros. O carbono ativado obtido a 700 °C apresentou maior área específica e estrutura porosa compacta. Esse material apresenta melhor desempenho frente à adsorção de azul de metileno, removendo até 1,0 x 10-1 g de corante por grama de carbono utilizado, em tempos inferiores a 300 s.In this work, the preparation of activated carbons through the pyrolysis of elastomers, arising from car threads of tire waste, was investigated. The material was processed at 500, 620 and 700 °C, under N2 atmosphere, by using potassium hydroxide as activating agent. The resulting products were characterized by physisorption of N2 at 77 K, through Brunauer, Emmet and Teller isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy. The carbons obtained display a characteristic structure of mesoporous materials and the pyrolysis temperature has strong influence on the specific area and porous volume distribution. The activated carbon obtained at 700 °C has high specific area and compact structure. It exhibited high performance for adsorption of methylene blue solution, removing 1.1 x 10-1 g of the dye per gram of carbon in less than 300 s.

  18. Interfacial interaction between the epoxidized natural rubber and silica in natural rubber/silica composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tiwen [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jia, Zhixin, E-mail: zxjia@scut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Peng, Zheng [Agricultural Product Processing Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences, Zhanjiang 524001 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Substantiate the ring open reaction between Si-OH of silica and epoxy groups of ENR. • ENR can act as a bridge between NR and silica to enhance the interfacial interaction. • As a modifier, ENR gets the potential to be used in the tread of green tire for improving the wet skid resistance apparently. - Abstract: The epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as an interfacial modifier was used to improve the mechanical and dynamical mechanical properties of NR/silica composites. In order to reveal the interaction mechanism between ENR and silica, the ENR/Silica model compound was prepared by using an open mill and the interfacial interaction of ENR with silica was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and stress–strain testing. The results indicated that the ring-opening reaction occurs between the epoxy groups of ENR chains and Si-OH groups on the silica surfaces and the covalent bonds are formed between two phases, which can improve the dispersion of silica in the rubber matrix and enhance the interfacial combination between rubber and silica. The ring-opening reaction occurs not only in vulcanization process but also in mixing process, meanwhile, the latter seems to be more important due to the simultaneous effects of mechanical force and temperature.

  19. Pneumatic Tire Performance on Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Bhoopalam, Anudeep

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of vehicle safety systems, from the earliest brakes to today's accident avoidance systems, has led vehicles to have very high passenger safety. Driving on ice, though, still happens to be one of the driving conditions of low safety. A multitude of factors were identified by various studies to contribute to the complex frictional mechanism at the tire-ice interface. The tire is only force transmitting element of the vehicle, to the surface. Thus it is very essential to have in de...

  20. Energy requirements of tire pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Per M; Mamen, Asgeir

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the effect using walking poles and pulling tires at 4 and 6 km·h-1 (1.11 and 1.67 m·s-1) speeds on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and heart rate. Eleven subjects, 6 males, with a mean (SD) age of 25.2 (6.9) years participated in field tests involving walking without poles, walking with poles and tire pulling with poles. Increasing the load caused the largest increases in energy demand, more than 4 MET. Speed increase also caused substantial energy increase, approximately 4 MET. Increasing the inclination only modestly increased the oxygen uptake, approximately 2 MET. In both level walking and uphill walking, using poles marginally increased oxygen uptake compared to working without poles. Pulling one tire (12.5 kg) required an oxygen uptake of 27 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1 at 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination. Adding one more tire (6 kg) drove the oxygen uptake further up to 39 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1. This is close to the requirement of level running at 10.5 km·h-1. Pulling both tires at 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination required a V̇O2 of 54 (6) mL·kg-1·min-1, equal to running uphill at 5% inclination and 12.5 km·h-1 speed. Heart rate rose comparably with oxygen uptake. At 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination the increase was 29 bpm, from 134 (21) to 163 (22) bpm when going from pulling one tire to two tires. In the hardest exercise, 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination, heart rate reached 174 (14) bpm. The study showed that tire pulling even at slow speeds has an energy requirement that is so large that the activity may be feasible as endurance training.

  1. Measurement of whole tire profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongyue; Jiao, Wenguang

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, a precision measuring device is developed for obtaining characteristic curve of tire profile and its geometric parameters. It consists of a laser displacement measurement unit, a closed-loop precision two-dimensional coordinate table, a step motor control system and a fast data acquisition and analysis system. Based on the laser trigonometry, a data map of tire profile and coordinate values of all points can be obtained through corresponding data transformation. This device has a compact structure, a convenient control, a simple hardware circuit design and a high measurement precision. Experimental results indicate that measurement precision can meet the customer accuracy requirement of +/-0.02 mm.

  2. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations EPDM and NBR rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, Ludmila de Ysasa Pozzo

    2014-01-01

    The natural decomposition of rubber is a very slow process due to its three-dimensional network formed by vulcanized crosslinked structures becoming extremely difficult to reprocess this material. The present work aims to study the application of gamma irradiation as devulcanization process for material reuse/recycling. The interactions of elastomers with ionizing radiation of a gamma source were investigated and the changes in physicochemical properties of the materials were evaluated. Formulations of NBR (acrylonitrile - butadiene) and EPDM (ethylene - propylene - diene terpolymer) from the rubber industry were crosslinked by conventional sulfur-based mixing. Master - batch was processed with rubber powder (industrial waste) and virgin rubber. The raw material (master batch) was irradiated in 60 Co source at doses of 50, 100, 150 kGy and dose rate of 5 kGy h -1 at room temperature. The irradiated material was incorporated in classical sulfur-based formulations. The formulations were characterized by: infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG and DTG), tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, abrasion resistance, rheometry and swelling. The results showed a predominance of chain scission at a dose of 50 kGy for EPDM rubber. For nitrile predominance of chain scission was observed at a dose of 100 kGy. These results show the possibility of the use of gamma radiation for the reuse/recycling of EPDM and nitrile rubbers. (author)

  3. Factors affecting Thai rubber farmer production and marketing in the western province of Kanchanaburi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narisa Thongtrai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the factors affecting the production and marketing of rubber farmers in the western Thai province of Kanchanaburi. The sample group included 30 farmers involved in rubber production. From the questionnaire and statistical analysis by SPSS, 15 observed variables were determined to be factors affecting the production and marketing of rubber farmers. The conclusion from the researchers determined that 1 The area planted is not appropriate and is still expanding plantations without any control was found that the rubber plantations are expanding at high plains area flooding. 2 Farmers of rubber technology farmers are not valid and do not conform to the instructions of the Rubber Research Institute study found that the cause is the opportunity to access technology and lack of knowledge regarding the management, production, and marketing. 3 Use rubber tree tapping of the system to high frequency screaming systems correctly. Does not comply with the instructions of the Rubber Research Institute found that of rubber farmers and farmers opening tapped the tire rubber accelerator before opening a huge size tapped that affect productivity and the income of farmers depressed farmers. 4 Problems with the labor of producing rubber of the household. It was found that labor households in the production system are lower 5 Farmers of Thailand are not yet aware of the concept of livelihood along the sufficiency economy as should farmers be life according to the way of life that is not adjusted to prepare 6 Group integration it was found that is not yet strong.

  4. Radiation vulcanization of rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-02-01

    An abstract of the radiation process of polymer materials and the polymer reaction by radiation is explained. Main radiation is 250 keV to 10 MeV of electron rays in the industry. Radiation cross-linked rubber has less the tensile strength than that by sulfur and organic peroxide crosslinking. The main origins of low tensile strength are caused by cut of backbone chain and ozone depend on radiation. Acceleration of crosslinking and short time of radiation are necessary to improve these defects. To accelerate crosslinking, we used crosslinking accelerators, for example, three poly-functional monomers (PFM). The maximum tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) not added crosslinking accelerators showed 3 MPa at 110 kGy, but SBR added A-TMMT (tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate) showed 5.5 MPa at 110 kGy. Radiation crosslinking of many kinds of rubber: isoprene (IR), SBR, CR, nitrile rubber (NBR), hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), butyl rubber (IIR), chlorinated butyl rubber (CIIR), EPM and TPE are explained. (S.Y.)

  5. Multilayer graphene rubber nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Bernhard; Frasca, Daniele; Schulze, Dietmar; Wachtendorf, Volker; Krafft, Bernd; Morys, Michael; Böhning, Martin; Rybak, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer Graphene (MLG), a nanoparticle with a specific surface of BET = 250 m2/g and thus made of only approximately 10 graphene sheets, is proposed as a nanofiller for rubbers. When homogenously dispersed, it works at low loadings enabling the replacement of carbon black (CB), increase in efficiency, or reduction in filler concentration. Actually the appropriate preparation yielded nanocomposites in which just 3 phr are sufficient to significantly improve the rheological, curing and mechanical properties of different rubbers, as shown for Chlorine-Isobutylene-Isoprene Rubber (CIIR), Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Natural Rubber (NR), and Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR). A mere 3 phr of MLG tripled the Young's modulus of CIIR, an effect equivalent to 20 phr of carbon black. Similar equivalents are observed for MLG/CB mixtures. MLG reduces gas permeability, increases thermal and electrical conductivities, and retards fire behavior. The later shown by the reduction in heat release rate in the cone calorimeter. The higher the nanofiller concentration is (3 phr, 5 phr, and 10 phr was investigated), the greater the improvement in the properties of the nanocomposites. Moreover, the MLG nanocomposites improve stability of mechanical properties against weathering. An increase in UV-absorption as well as a pronounced radical scavenging are proposed and were proved experimentally. To sum up, MLG is interesting as a multifunctional nanofiller and seems to be quite ready for rubber development.

  6. Radiation vulcanization of rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2002-01-01

    An abstract of the radiation process of polymer materials and the polymer reaction by radiation is explained. Main radiation is 250 keV to 10 MeV of electron rays in the industry. Radiation cross-linked rubber has less the tensile strength than that by sulfur and organic peroxide crosslinking. The main origins of low tensile strength are caused by cut of backbone chain and ozone depend on radiation. Acceleration of crosslinking and short time of radiation are necessary to improve these defects. To accelerate crosslinking, we used crosslinking accelerators, for example, three poly-functional monomers (PFM). The maximum tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) not added crosslinking accelerators showed 3 MPa at 110 kGy, but SBR added A-TMMT (tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate) showed 5.5 MPa at 110 kGy. Radiation crosslinking of many kinds of rubber: isoprene (IR), SBR, CR, nitrile rubber (NBR), hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), butyl rubber (IIR), chlorinated butyl rubber (CIIR), EPM and TPE are explained. (S.Y.)

  7. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J K; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks to determine the effect of tire pressure (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of the recommended value), wheelchair mass (0 kg, 5 kg, or 10 kg extra) and tire type (pneumatic vs. solid). All test conditions (except pneumatic vs. solid) were performed with and without instrumented measurement wheels. Outcome measures were power output (PO), physical strain (heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), gross mechanical efficiency (ME)) and propulsion technique (timing, force application). At 25% tire pressure PO and subsequently VO2 were higher compared to 100% tire pressure. Furthermore, a higher tire pressure led to a longer cycle time and contact angle and subsequently lower push frequency. Extra mass did not lead to an increase in PO, physical strain or propulsion technique. Solid tires led to a higher PO and physical strain. The solid tire effect was amplified by increased mass (tire × mass interaction). In contrast to extra mass, tire pressure and tire type have an effect on PO, physical strain or propulsion technique of steady-state wheelchair propulsion. As expected, it is important to optimize tire pressure and tire type. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 33/4 inches of the flange. (g) Worn flanges... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires...

  9. Model-based state estimator for an intelligent tire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, J.; Teerhuis, A. P.; Schmeitz, A. J.C.; Besselink, I.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a Tire State Estimator (TSE) is developed and validated using data from a tri-axial accelerometer, installed at the inner liner of the tire. The Flexible Ring Tire (FRT) model is proposed to calculate the tire deformation. For a rolling tire, this deformation is transformed into

  10. Model-based State Estimator for an Intelligent Tire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, J.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work a Tire State Estimator (TSE) is developed and validated using data from a tri-axial accelerometer, installed at the inner liner of the tire. The Flexible Ring Tire (FRT) model is proposed to calculate the tire deformation. For a rolling tire, this deformation is transformed into

  11. Radioisotopic determination methods of sulphur dispersion and sulphur blooming in rubber compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraczka, W.; Koczorowska, E.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that the concentration of sulphur in rubber compounds essentially effects the structure of the vulkanizate network. But there are no efficient and accurate methods to estimate the dispersion and migration (blooming) of curatives in raw rubber. In the work radioisotope methods have been analyzed to study the dispersion of curatives, physical and chemical processes in rubber and to optimize technical conditions of tire production. The radioactivity of the 35 S isotope introduced into rubber compounds has been measured by volumetric and surface methods. It was proved that the radioisotopic methods can be used in the studies. Experimental data of the effect of selected technological factors on these processes are presented. Rubber compounds containing soluble sulphur were made for such investigations. These methods permit detection of concentrations 10 -6 g of the radioactive isotope per 0.1 g of rubber compound. The sensitivity of these methods enables the investigation of radioisotope behaviour in rubber compounds during processing on an industrial scale without any hazards for workers

  12. Investigation of the recycling of tires to elastomeric requirements by techniques of thermal compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Gisbert, Antonio V.

    In this work is investigated the recycling of tires to elastomeric requirements by thermal compression. The production of recycled products is carried out starting from the powder, of elastomeric nature, coming from the grinding of used tires denominated GTR (Ground Tire Rubber) of different grain size, although the fundamental objective is the recycling of powder of 0,2mm grain size. The process of forming used for obtaining the recycled product is thermal compression, due to its simplicity and low cost. The composition of the powder has been analyzed and also the influence, on the elastomeric characteristics of the recycled product, of different parameters: Grain size, compact pressure, temperature, time, thickness of the recycled product and combination of sizes. At last we give an hypothesis that justifies the mechanism that gives cohesion to the powder GTR and allows their recycling. We also have carried out an analysis of the investigation lines, at the present, on the recycling of tires in general and an economic study of the viability of the recycled product in front of present products in the market, agglomerated with polyurethane, that have their application in using it in different types of floors.

  13. Tire inspection machine presenting an X-ray image of the entire width of the tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray machine for production line inspection of tires places each tire in turn with one sector of the tire inside of a U-shaped arrangement of three fluorescent screens so that one screen faces the tread and the other two face the sides of the tire. An X-ray source inside the bead circle of the tire produces X-ray shadow pictures on the screens, which are separately viewed by a video camera, with an image of the picture on each screen transferred to a third of the target of a storage tube, so that a composite image of the entire width of the tire sector can be displayed on a picture tube. The tire is rotated step-wise for display of still pictures of every sector of the tire. (Auth.)

  14. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  15. Innovative Application of Biopolymer Keratin as a Filler of Synthetic Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber NBR

    OpenAIRE

    Prochoń, Mirosława; Przepiórkowska, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The current investigations show the influence of keratin, recovered from the tanning industry, on the thermal and mechanical properties of vulcanizates with synthetic rubber acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber NBR. The addition of waste protein to NBR vulcanizates influences the improvement of resistance at high temperatures and mechanical properties like tensile strength and hardness. The introduction of keratin to the mixes of rubber previously blended with zinc oxide (ZnO) before vulcanization ...

  16. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Tire Tread Block Friction Characteristics Based on a New Test Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new device was developed for tire tread block slip friction tests. Then the friction characteristics were investigated under different loads and contact roads. Based on this, a friction model for contact between tire tread block and different road surfaces was developed. A finite element slip friction model of rubber block was developed for studying the tread contact stress, stiffness under different pattern slope angles, and ditch radius. Results indicate that friction coefficient between tread and ice road increases when the temperature decreases; different tread patterns have a certain influence on the friction coefficient; its average difference was less than 10%. Different roads impact the coefficient of friction more significantly; the greater the pattern slope, the greater the radial stiffness.

  17. Influence of SEBS-MA and SBS compatibilizers on properties and morphology of blends of polystyrene/rubber residue (SBRr from the footwear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bruno Barreto Luna

    Full Text Available Abstract The reuse of rubber waste is very important today, both to reduce the harmful effects on the environment, and to reduce the cost of new material development. Considering that most of the studies reported in literature refer to the reuse of tire waste, this article aims to evaluate the influence of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS and styrene-(ethylene-butylene-styrene grafted with maleic anhydride (SEBS-MA compatibilizers on the blend performance of polystyrene (PS/styrene-butadiene rubber residue (SBRr, which come from the footwear industry. The blends were prepared in a co-rotating twin screw extruder and then were molded by injection. They were analyzed by impact and tensile tests, heat deflection temperature (HDT, ductile-brittle transition temperature, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results evidenced that the use of any of the compatibilizers on the PS/SBRr blend significantly increased the impact strength, while the tensile properties and HDT were lower when compared to the polymer matrix. The ductile-brittle transition temperature remains at approximately 25°C range for all the blends. In general, it has been proved that the SBS was the most effective compatibilization process in the PS/SBRr system. The DMTA test shows the presence of two distinct temperature peaks. The morphologies obtained by TEM of binary and ternary blends were quite different and typical of immiscible blend. The results show a good perspective regarding the use of industrial waste (SBRr, since it may enhance a material that would be discarded.

  18. Vehicle Tire and Wheel Creation in BRL-CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Tire Tread Modeling 4  4.  Setting Tire Thickness 7  5.  Changing the Rim Width 9  6.  Changing the Radial Location of the... treaded or nontreaded model in the tire -model.c combination based on the analysis. 4. Setting Tire Thickness Tire thickness is manipulated via... tread is not modeled by default but can be added using options. • Fine-grained control of parameters such as tire thickness is available with

  19. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction. PMID:24688369

  20. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  1. Tire Models for Use in Braking Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Svendenius, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The tire is a significant part for control of a vehicle. For a well-working brake system the contact properties between the tire and the ground is the limiting factor for a safe braking. To get optimal performance it is important that the system can utilize all friction resources. The brush tire model was a popular method in the 1960's and 1970's before the empirical approaches became dominating. The brush model gives an educational interpretation of the physics behind the tire behavi...

  2. An assessment of the use of tires as an alternative fuel : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, M.J.; Amyotte, P.R.; Fels, M.; Cumming, C.R.R.; Poushay, J.C. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Process Engineering and Applied Science

    2007-04-15

    This study examined the benefits of using scrap tires as tire-derived fuel (TDF) in industrial applications. The study was comprised of a literature review of emissions from TDF in cement plants; risk management frameworks for TDF applications; and a review of potential applications. The aim of the study was to consider a program for recycling waste tires in the province of Nova Scotia. In Canada, approximately 20 per cent of waste tires are used as TDF. The majority of TDF in Canada is used as a supplemental fuel in cement kilns. The fuel now has a number of potential industrial applications within the province of Nova Scotia in the pulp and paper industry as well as in generating stations. A review of reported emissions showed decreases in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) when tires were used as a supplementary fuel in industrial applications. However, carbon monoxide (CO) levels are typically higher when TDF fuels are used. Emission levels of dioxins and furans show wide variability. The study provided recommendations for future studies on dioxin and furan emissions, as well as a comprehensive testing program at a cement plant to determine stack emissions and off-site ground pollutant concentrations. Dispersion modelling and risk management assessments were also recommended. 59 refs., 19 tabs., 15 figs.

  3. An assessment of the use of tires as an alternative fuel : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, M.J.; Amyotte, P.R.; Fels, M.; Cumming, C.R.R.; Poushay, J.C.

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the benefits of using scrap tires as tire-derived fuel (TDF) in industrial applications. The study was comprised of a literature review of emissions from TDF in cement plants; risk management frameworks for TDF applications; and a review of potential applications. The aim of the study was to consider a program for recycling waste tires in the province of Nova Scotia. In Canada, approximately 20 per cent of waste tires are used as TDF. The majority of TDF in Canada is used as a supplemental fuel in cement kilns. The fuel now has a number of potential industrial applications within the province of Nova Scotia in the pulp and paper industry as well as in generating stations. A review of reported emissions showed decreases in nitrogen oxides (NO x ) when tires were used as a supplementary fuel in industrial applications. However, carbon monoxide (CO) levels are typically higher when TDF fuels are used. Emission levels of dioxins and furans show wide variability. The study provided recommendations for future studies on dioxin and furan emissions, as well as a comprehensive testing program at a cement plant to determine stack emissions and off-site ground pollutant concentrations. Dispersion modelling and risk management assessments were also recommended. 59 refs., 19 tabs., 15 figs

  4. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  5. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  6. Characterization of Hexsyn, a polyolefin rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, C R

    1987-07-01

    Hexsyn is the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company tradename for a polyolefin rubber synthesized from 1-hexene with 3-5% methylhexadiene as the source of residual double bonds for vulcanization. Under license from Goodyear, this same polymer has been manufactured by Lord Corporation for the hinge portion of finger joint prostheses using the tradename Bion. This rubber is currently licensed to the University of Akron and to the Cleveland Clinic Foundation for use in biomedical applications, and is being used primarily for biocompatible and highly fatigue resistant rubber components in ventricular assist and artificial heart systems. Results are presented from the physical, mechanical, and biological characterization of Hexsyn. Procedures are described for the synthesis, compounding, and post-molding extraction for Hexsyn. The physical testing of Hexsyn reported includes determinations of its density at 23 and 37 degrees C, initial hardness and hardness after aging in oxygen, blood, pseudoextracellular fluid and polyethylene glycol 600, typical molecular weights determined by gel permeation chromatography/low angle laser light scattering and intrinsic viscosity, thermal analyses by differential scanning calorimetry of Hexsyn gum, and vulcanized Hexsyn after exposure to blood and blood/fatigue conditions. Also reported are results of differential thermal analyses, thermomechanical analyses of virgin and annealed samples, and thermogravimetric analyses conducted in helium and in air. Dynamic mechanical analyses of Hexsyn include Clash-Berg and Rheovibron tests. Swelling was conducted to determine lot-to-lot and sheet-to-sheet variation for quality control and also a number of solvents were used so that the polymer-solvent interaction parameters could be determined. The permeability of Hexsyn to water, water vapor, and a variety of gases is reported. The permeability by contact angle measurements, refractive index, residual solvent analyses, migration of blood components

  7. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  8. Recent rubber crumb asphalt pavement projects in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleyman, H.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Pulles, B.C.M.; Treleaven, L.B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Several countries around the world have been using rubber crumb (RC) for pavement applications for more than 20 years. The performance of asphalt pavements is enhanced by the use of recycled tires, which has the added advantage of solving the problem of tire disposal. In 2002, the Tire Recycling Management Association of Alberta (TRMA) and Alberta Transportation (AT) evaluated the feasibility and performance of an overlay using asphalt rubber (AR) pavement in Alberta. A partnership in the project was formed by AT, the City of Calgary, the City of Edmonton, and Strathcona County, where each one paved one section of a road with AR in conjunction with a section using conventional or other asphalt mixture types. The roads selected were: (1) 112 Avenue North West in Calgary, (2) 17 Street and Baseline Road in Strathcona County, (3) 137 Avenue in Edmonton, and (4) highway 630 in the vicinity of North Cooking Lake (Alberta Transportation). Two different AR pavement thicknesses were used to study the effects of overlay thicknesses on the performance of the overlay. The structural and functional factors were monitored before, during and after the construction of all sections. The preliminary evaluation of the application of AR in Alberta was presented, along with a summary of test results and performances of AR pavement sections. A full freeze-thaw cycle is required (Spring 2003) before the results of the analysis of the testing are known. The reduced thickness AR sections performed in a similar manner to those with full thickness AC sections. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Post-consumer tires back into new tires: de-vulcanization and re-utilization of passenger car tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The

  10. Rubber molds for investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibtain, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to investigate different types of molding rubbers used for investment casting. The level of shape complexity which can be achieved by using these rubber molds is also studied. It was almost impossible to make complex shapes molds using metal molds, in that cases rubber molds are very important because they arc flexible and give accurate and precise part dimensions. Turbine blades are hi-tech components with air-foil geometries that have close dimensional tolerances. They are made of super-alloys and manufactured by investment casting. The final blade profile depends upon the dimensional accuracy in each of the processing steps. In the present work experimental study for the production of high quality low cost castings of turbine blades using rubber molds and injected wax patterns is presented. Natural Rubber molds and wax patterns from these molds were made. Different types of molding rubbers were studied including natural rubber, silicone rubber and liquid silicone rubber. It was found that by using rubber molds we can make most complex shape with very less finishing required. The shrinkage was 12% as compared to original master pattern. Rubber molds were made using laboratory hot press. Three layers of rubber above and below the master pattern. After that vulcanization was done by giving temperature and pressure. (author)

  11. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  12. Adsorptive removal of hydrophobic organic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: a comparative study of waste-polymer-based, coal-based activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fei; Chang, Chun; Du, Yang; Zhu, Lingyan; Xing, Baoshan; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,3-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) on five different carbonaceous materials was compared. The adsorbents included three polymer-based activated carbons, one coal-based activated carbon (F400) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). The polymer-based activated carbons were prepared using KOH activation from waste polymers: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and tire rubber (TR). Compared with F400 and MWNT, activated carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity toward the HOCs, attributed to their extremely large hydrophobic surface area (2700 m2/g) and highly mesoporous structures. Adsorption of small-sized TCE was stronger on the tire-rubber-based carbon and F400 resulting from the pore-filling effect. In contrast, due to the molecular sieving effect, their adsorption on HCH was lower. MWNT exhibited the lowest adsorption capacity toward HOCs because of its low surface area and characteristic of aggregating in aqueous solution.

  13. Adsorptive removal of hydrophobic organic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: A comparative study of waste-polymer-based,coal-based activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Lian; Chun Chang; Yang Du; Lingyan Zhu; Baoshan Xing; Chang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) trichloroethylene (TCE),1,3-dichlorobenzene (DCB),1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) on five different carbonaceous materials was compared.The adsorbents included three polymer-based activated carbons,one coal-based activated carbon (F400) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT).The polymerbased activated carbons were prepared using KOH activation from waste polymers:polyvinyl chloride (PVC),polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and tire rubber (TR).Compared with F400 and MWNT,activated carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity toward the HOCs,attributed to their extremely large hydrophobic surface area (2700 m2/g) and highly mesoporous structures.Adsorption of small-sized TCE was stronger on the tire-rubber-based carbon and F400 resulting from the pore-filling effect.In contrast,due to the molecular sieving effect,their adsorption on HCH was lower.MWNT exhibited the lowest adsorption capacity toward HOCs because of its low surface area and characteristic of aggregating in aqueous solution.

  14. Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene rubbers for high-dose dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lucas N. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias-IFG,Campus Goiania, Goiania -GO (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Vieira, Silvio L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias-UFG, Campus Samambaia, Goiania-GO (Brazil); Schimidt, Fernando [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias-IFG,Campus Inhumas, Inhumas-GO (Brazil); Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene are synthetical rubbers used widely for pneumatic tires manufacturing. In this research, the dosimeter characteristics of those rubbers were studied for application in high-dose dosimetry. The rubber samples were irradiated with doses of 10 Gy up to 10 kGy, using a {sup 60}Co Gamma Cell-220 system (dose rate of 1.089 kGy/h) and their readings were taken on a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-FTIR system (model Frontier/Perkin Elmer). The ratios of two absorbance peaks were taken for each kind of rubber spectrum, Polybutadiene (1306/1130 cm{sup -1}) and Styrene-Butadiene (1449/1306 cm{sup -1}). The ratio calculated was used as the response to the irradiation, and is not uniform across the sample. From the results, it can be concluded for both rubbers: a) the dose-response curves may be useful for high-dose dosimetry (greater than 250 Gy); b) their response for reproducibility presented standard deviations lower than 2.5%; c) the relative sensitivity was higher for Styrene-Butadiene (1.86 kGy{sup -1}) than for Polybutadiene (1.81 kGy{sup -1}), d) for doses of 10 kGy to 200 kGy, there was no variation in the dosimetric response. Both types of rubber samples showed usefulness as high-dose dosimeters. (authors)

  15. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  16. Usage of post-consumer tires as raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Vovk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  This article is devoted to the problem of post-consumer tires accumulation and recycling both in Europe and Ukraine. It describes general tires properties, their structure and composite elements which are valuable secondary resources. Also there are analyzed the most known methods of used tires treatment and final product of tires utilizations.

  17. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tire identification requirements. 574.5 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) TIRE IDENTIFICATION AND RECORDKEEPING § 574.5 Tire identification requirements. Each tire manufacturer shall conspicuously label on one...

  18. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable on a tire or tires having a tread pattern which...

  19. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol-Sánchez, Miguel; Moreno-Navarro, Fernando; Rubio-Gámez, Mª Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats) to be used in railway tracks. PMID:28788168

  20. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sol-Sánchez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats to be used in railway tracks.

  1. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol-Sánchez, Miguel; Moreno-Navarro, Fernando; Rubio-Gámez, Mª Carmen

    2014-08-18

    Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats) to be used in railway tracks.

  2. Forestry Tire Tractive Performance: New, Worn, and with Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Vechinski; C.R. Johnson; R.L. Raper; T.P. McDonald

    1999-01-01

    The tractive perfomance of a new tire, a worn tire, and a worn tire with forestry tire chains was measured in four soil types. Two of the soil types simulated forest-floor conditions with one soil type having a sulfate cover of pine straw and the other having a surface cover of sod. The two remaining soil types were bare. The worn tire with and without chains had...

  3. Survivability Enhanced Run-Flat Variable Footprint Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    with tire tread . By varying the thickness and geometry of the polyurethane soft layer, this unique tire -wheel assembly can generate a wide array of...carcass severely damaged/punctured, provide the same dynamic deflection as the normal pneumatic tire , and provide similar tread life. Could a tire be...be for an optimized shape. Fig 8 shows the actual process applied to a current tire . The carbon fiber was added by removing the tread , cutting

  4. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.

  5. Occupational injuries and illnesses in rubber factory: Profile, Potential Hazards and possible prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hari Irfani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is one of the important commodities in the world. Globally, workers are facing so many problems of hazards that produce by rubber process. In Indonesia, there are several data of occupational problems such as respiratory diseases, muscle and skeletal diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, diseases of the teeth and oral cavity, skin diseases and skin tissue. In Iranian rubber factory, Iran, workers had suffered from some kind of musculoskeletal symptoms. Stomach and liver cancers in workers are having in Shanghai tire factory. In addition, Germany has cancer problem of their workers who work in rubber factory. Most of the rubber process in the factory can cause some hazards of the workers. In unloading area and area that operator is taking the dirt manually, workers are facing ergonomic problems. The possible control is reduce weight of load, team lift the object with two or more workers and Use mechanical assist. Machine safeguarding is essential for protecting from Cutting process that can make workers amputation organs such as hands, and fingers. In bale process, the workers need to cut raw rubber into bale in bale cutting. Furthermore, workers are facing with amputation problem. To manage that, It must be designed as a standard which has interlocking guards to prevent access to the cutting area. When wrapped using plastic, workers use a heated iron and sticked in plastic so that it blends neatly. The risks are fingers can cut accidently and then the workers also get contamination from polyvinyl chloride (PVC. The possible preventions are use an automatic plastic wrapping machine with palletized product sitting on a turntable and respirator. Another problem is contact dermatitis that has been reported frequently among rubber workers. The prevention for that problem is using Gloves. The aim of researcher is to provide the profile of occupational injuries and illnesses, potential hazards in rubber factory to prevent the workers.

  6. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  7. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Haichao Zhou; Guolin Wang; Yangmin Ding; Jian Yang; Chen Liang; Jing Fu

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5) was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS). The ti...

  8. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...

  9. Risk assessment of soil compaction in Europe – Rubber tracks or wheels on machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Schjønning, Per

    2018-01-01

    Subsoil compaction is persistent and affects the wide diversity of ecological services provided by agricultural soils. Efficient risk assessment tools are required to identify sustainable agricultural practices. Vehicles should not transmit stresses that exceed soil strength. Wheel load is the pr......Subsoil compaction is persistent and affects the wide diversity of ecological services provided by agricultural soils. Efficient risk assessment tools are required to identify sustainable agricultural practices. Vehicles should not transmit stresses that exceed soil strength. Wheel load...... the magnitude of contact stresses, (ii) compare effects of traffic on soil physical properties using tires or tracks, and (iii) evaluate a state-of-the-art method for risk assessment of soil compaction beneath tracks or tires at the European level. We measured contact stress below a fully-loaded sugar beet....... The contact area was larger and the maximum and vertical stress smaller beneath the rubber track than beneath the tire. Nevertheless, stress distribution beneath the rubber track was far from uniform, presenting high peak stresses beneath the wheels and rollers. Dry bulk density was similar after traffic...

  10. Integrated forward and reverse supply chain: A tire case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Ali; Yusoff, Nukman Bin; Udoncy, Olugu Ezutah; Mahat, Abu Bakar; Pedram, Payam; Babalola, Ayo

    2017-02-01

    This paper attempts to integrate both a forward and reverse supply chain to design a closed-loop supply chain network (CLSC). The problem in the design of a CLSC network is uncertainty in demand, return products and the quality of return products. Scenario analyses are generated to overcome this uncertainty. In contrast to the existing supply chain network design models, a new application of a CLSC network was studied in this paper to reduce waste. A multi-product, multi-tier mixed integer linear model is developed for a CLSC network design. The main objective is to maximize profit and provide waste management decision support in order to minimize pollution. The result shows applicability of the model in the tire industry. The model determines the number and the locations of facilities and the material flows between these facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of pyrolytic oil obtained from pyrolysis of TDF (Tire Derived Fuel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banar, Müfide; Akyıldız, Vildan; Özkan, Aysun; Çokaygil, Zerrin; Onay, Özlem

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We pyrolyzed Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at different heating rates and temperatures. ► We determine convenient pyrolysis temperature for pyrolytic oil. ► The product can be used as fuel for combustion system in industry. ► TDF pyrolysis is advisable recycling system because of low hazardous constituents. - Abstract: In recent years, waste utilization before disposing to the land is the most important point about waste management. Due to the increasing emphasis on recycling, related to the two European Commission Directives (EC End of Life Vehicle Directive, EC Waste Landfill Directive) affecting the management of waste tires, there is interest in the development of alternative technologies for recycling waste tires. One of them is pyrolysis. For this purpose, a fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolysis of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at the temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C with the heating rates of 5 and 35 °C/min. The maximum pyrolytic oil yield (38.8 wt.%) was obtained at 400 °C with 5 °C/min heating rate. The yield of pyrolytic oil decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures whereas the yield of gases increased. The fuel properties of the pyrolytic oil including higher heating value (HHV), elemental composition, flash point, viscosity, distillation and density were determined. Pyrolytic oil was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) techniques and also, the amount of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and congener distribution characteristics were studied for determination of environmental effects. It was seen that the pyrolytic oils have similar fuel properties with the diesel. It was also found that pyrolytic oil contained 0.00118 I-TEQs/g at very low level. Finally, the pyrolytic oil can be evaluated for energy recovery according to Regulation

  12. Efeito de um resíduo do processo de galvanoplastia sobre a vulcanização da borracha natural (NR Effect from the waste from the electroplating process on the natural rubber (NR vulcanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. S. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Um resíduo gerado no processo de galvanoplastia (RG, rico em metais, foi incorporado em composições de borracha natural (NR em substituição parcial ou total ao ativador comum do processo de vulcanização, o óxido de zinco (ZnO. As diferentes misturas foram preparadas em um misturador de calandras e, após a reometria, foram vulcanizadas a 150 °C. As propriedades mecânicas de resistência à tração e rasgo foram determinadas, além do teor de gel. Além disso, o efeito do resíduo RG sobre a cinética de vulcanização foi analisado através do modelo de Coran, usando-se as temperaturas de 150, 160 e 170 °C. Os resultados mostraram que RG desenvolve algum efeito catalítico sobre a vulcanização de NR, embora exista uma considerável perda na resistência à tração quando o teor de RG excede o do ZnO nas composições. Quanto ao rasgo, a propriedade é mantida em um patamar satisfatório enquanto teores menores de RG são utilizados.A waste generated in the electroplating process (RG, rich in metals, was incorporated in natural rubber (NR compositions, as a partial or complete replacement of zinc oxide (ZnO, which is a typical activator of the vulcanization process. Different mixtures were prepared in a two-roll mixer, which were vulcanized at 150 ºC after the rheometry measurements. Mechanical properties such as tensile and tear strength were evaluated, as well as the gel content. In addition, the effect of RG waste upon the vulcanization kinetics was analyzed with the Coran model using temperatures at 150, 160 and 170 ºC. The results showed that RG develops some catalytic effect upon NR vulcanization, but there is a poor mechanical performance when RG loading is higher than that of ZnO in the compositions. For the tear strength, the property is maintained at a reasonable level if a small RG loading is utilized.

  13. Identification of benzothiazole derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists present in tire extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guochun; Zhao, Bin; Denison, Michael S

    2011-08-01

    Leachate from rubber tire material contains a complex mixture of chemicals previously shown to produce toxic and biological effects in aquatic organisms. The ability of these leachates to induce Ah receptor (AhR)-dependent cytochrome P4501A1 expression in fish indicated the presence of AhR active chemicals, but the responsible chemicals and their direct interaction with the AhR signaling pathway were not examined. Using a combination of AhR-based bioassays, we have demonstrated the ability of tire extract to stimulate both AhR DNA binding and AhR-dependent gene expression and confirmed that the responsible chemicals were metabolically labile. The application of CALUX (chemical-activated luciferase gene expression) cell bioassay-driven toxicant identification evaluation not only revealed that tire extract contained a variety of known AhR-active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons but also identified 2-methylthiobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole as AhR agonists. Analysis of a structurally diverse series of benzothiazoles identified many that could directly stimulate AhR DNA binding and transiently activate the AhR signaling pathway and identified benzothiazoles as a new class of AhR agonists. In addition to these compounds, the relatively high AhR agonist activity of a large number of fractions strongly suggests that tire extract contains a large number of physiochemically diverse AhR agonists whose identities and toxicological/biological significances are unknown. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  14. Full-scale aircraft tire pressure tests

    OpenAIRE

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests will focus on pressures from 15 bar to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of c...

  15. Full-scale aicraft tire pressure tests

    OpenAIRE

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests focus on pressures from 15 to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of current ai...

  16. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Shahzad; Ahmad Muhammad Imran; Naeem Khawar; Humayun Muhammad; Sebt-E-Zaeem; Faheem Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure a...

  17. High energy radiation effects on mechanical properties of butyl rubber compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozenato, Cristina A.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    The high energy radiation on butyl rubber compounds causes a number of chemical reactions that occur after initial ionization and excitation events. These reactions lead to changes in molecular mass of the polymer through scission and crosslinking of the molecules, being able to affect the physical and mechanical properties. Butyl rubber has excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance as well as low gas and water vapor permeability. Due to all these properties butyl rubber is widely used industrially and particularly in tires manufacturing. In accordance with various authors, the major effect of high energy, such as gamma rays in butyl rubber, is the yielding of free-radicals along with changes in mechanical properties. There were evaluated effects imparted from high energy radiation on mechanical properties of butyl rubber compounds, non-irradiated and irradiated with 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy. It was also observed a sharp reducing in stress rupture and elongation at break for doses higher than 50 kGy, pointing toward changes in polymeric chain along build-up of free radicals and consequent degradation. (author)

  18. Effects of Crumb Rubber Size and Concentration on Performance of Porous Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altan Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of size distribution and concentration of crumb rubber on the performance characteristics of porous asphalt mixture. The recycling of scrap tires in asphalt pavements appears as an important alternative providing a large-scale market. The characteristics of bitumen are very important with regard to service life of porous asphalt pavement. The experimental study consists of two main steps. Firstly, the mixture design was performed to determine the optimum bitumen content. In the latter step, the mixtures were modified by dry process using crumb rubber in three different grain size distributions of #4~#20, #20~#200, and #4~#200 and rubber content of 10%, 15%, and 20% as weight of optimum bitumen. The permeability, Cantabro abrasion loss, indirect tensile strength, moisture susceptibility, and resilient modulus tests were carried out on the specimens. Test results show that #20~#200 sized rubber particles reduced air voids and coefficient of permeability, while they increased the Cantabro abrasion loss. In general, increasing the crumb rubber size and content decreased the performance characteristics of the porous asphalt mixtures.

  19. Improving Asphalt Mixture Performance by Partially Replacing Bitumen with Waste Motor Oil and Elastomer Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concern about waste generation and the gradual decrease of oil reserves has led the way to finding new waste materials that may partially replace the bitumens used in the road paving industry. Used motor oil from vehicles is a waste product that could answer that demand, but it can also drastically reduce the viscosity, increasing the asphalt mixture’s rutting potential. Therefore, polymer modification should be used in order to avoid compromising the required performance of asphalt mixtures when higher amounts of waste motor oil are used. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the performance of an asphalt binder/mixture obtained by replacing part of a paving grade bitumen (35/50 with 10% waste motor oil and 5% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS as an elastomer modifier. A comparison was also made with the results of a previous study using a blend of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis and ground tire rubber modifier as a partial substitute for usual PG64-22 bitumen. The asphalt binders were tested by means of Fourier infrared spectra and dynamic shear rheology, namely by assessing their continuous high-performance grade. Later, the water sensitivity, fatigue cracking resistance, dynamic modulus and rut resistance performance of the resulting asphalt mixtures was evaluated. It was concluded that the new binder studied in this work improves the asphalt mixture’s performance, making it an excellent solution for paving works.

  20. Nonlinear Analysis and Modeling of Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop efficient modeling techniques and computational strategies for: (1) predicting the nonlinear response of tires subjected to inflation pressure, mechanical and thermal loads; (2) determining the footprint region, and analyzing the tire pavement contact problem, including the effect of friction; and (3) determining the sensitivity of the tire response (displacements, stresses, strain energy, contact pressures and contact area) to variations in the different material and geometric parameters. Two computational strategies were developed. In the first strategy the tire was modeled by using either a two-dimensional shear flexible mixed shell finite elements or a quasi-three-dimensional solid model. The contact conditions were incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach. A number of model reduction techniques were applied to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom used in describing the response outside the contact region. The second strategy exploited the axial symmetry of the undeformed tire, and uses cylindrical coordinates in the development of three-dimensional elements for modeling each of the different parts of the tire cross section. Model reduction techniques are also used with this strategy.