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Sample records for waste tire rubber

  1. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  2. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used.

  3. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., Lima, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  4. Radiation crosslinking of styrene-butadiene rubber containing waste tire rubber and polyfunctional monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Tariq; Khan, Sara; Shafiq, Muhammad; Gill, Rohama

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of polyfunctional monomers (PFMs) and absorbed dose on the final characteristics of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) mixed with waste tire rubber (WTR). A series of SBR/WTR blends were prepared by varying the ratios of WTR in the presence of PFMs, namely trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and crosslinked using gamma rays. The physicochemical characteristics of the prepared blends were investigated. It was observed that tensile strength, hardness and gel content of the blends increased with absorbed dose while the blends containing TMPTA showed higher tensile strength, gel content and thermal stability as compared to the blends containing TMPTMA. Higher thermal stability was observed in the blends which were crosslinked by radiation as compared to the blends crosslinked by sulfur. These blends exhibited higher rate of swelling in organic solvents, whereas negligible swelling was observed in acidic and basic environment.

  5. Using Crumb Rubber from Waste Tires to Reduce Road Traffic Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of measurements of sound pressure levels on an experimental road section (road pavement with addition of crumb rubber from waste tires in Mala Ida village (Kosice region, Slovakia and on a road with stone mastic asphalt in Haniska village (Presov region, Slovakia are presented in the paper. The results obtained using statistical pass-by methods were compared and they confirmed that road surface with addition of crumb rubber from waste tires produced quieter pavement than stone mastic asphalt road pavement alone.

  6. Chromium removal from water by activated carbon developed from waste rubber tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Ali, Imran; Saleh, Tawfik A; Siddiqui, M N; Agarwal, Shilpi

    2013-03-01

    Because of the continuous production of large amount of waste tires, the disposal of waste tires represents a major environmental issue throughout the world. This paper reports the utilization of waste tires (hard-to-dispose waste) as a precursor in the production of activated carbons (pollution-cleaning adsorbent). In the preparation of activated carbon (AC), waste rubber tire (WRT) was thermally treated and activated. The tire-derived activated carbon was characterized by means of scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectrophotometer, and X-ray diffraction. In the IR spectrum, a number of bands centred at about 3409, 2350, 1710, 1650, and 1300-1000 cm(-1) prove the present of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of AC in addition to C═C double bonds. The developed AC was tested and evaluated as potential adsorbent removal of chromium (III). Experimental parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH were optimized. A rapid uptake of chromium ions was observed and the equilibrium is achieved in 1 h. It was also found that the adsorption process is pH dependent. This work adds to the global discussion of the cost-effective utilization of waste rubber tires for waste water treatment.

  7. Acoustic Behavior of Hollow Blocks and Bricks Made of Concrete Doped with Waste-Tire Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fraile-Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the acoustic behaviour of building elements made of concrete doped with waste-tire rubber. Three different mixtures were created, with 0%, 10%, and 20% rubber in their composition. Bricks, lattice joists, and hollow blocks were manufactured with each mixture, and three different cells were built and tested against aerial and impact noise. The values of the global acoustic isolation and the reduction of the sound pressure level of impacts were measured. Results proved that highly doped elements are an excellent option to isolate low frequency sounds, whereas intermediate and standard elements constitute a most interesting option to block middle and high frequency sounds. In both cases, the considerable amount of waste-tire rubber recycled could justify the employment of the doped materials for the sake of the environment.

  8. DURABILITY OF GREEN CONCRETE WITH TERNARY CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEM CONTAINING RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE AND TIRE RUBBER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID MATOUQ ASSAS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All over the world billions of tires are being discarded and buried representing a serious ecological threat. Up to now a small part is recycled and millions of tires are just stockpiled, landfilled or buried. This paper presents results about the properties and the durability of green concrete contains recycled concrete as a coarse aggregate with partial replacement of sand by tire rubber wastes for pavement use. Ternary cementious system, Silica fume, Fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust are used as partial replacement of cement by weight. Each one replaced 10% of cement weight to give a total replacement of 30%. The durability performance was assessed by means of water absorption, chloride ion permeability at 28 and 90 days, and resistance to sulphuric acid attack at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. Also to the compression behaviors for the tested specimens at 7, 14, 28 and 90 days were detected. The results show the existence of ternary cementitious system, silica fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust minimizes the strength loss associated to the use of rubber waste. In this way, up to 10% rubber content and 30% ternary cementious system an adequate strength class value (30 MPa, as required for a wide range of common structural uses, can be reached both through natural aggregate concrete and recycled aggregate concrete. Results also show that, it is possible to use rubber waste up to 15% and still maintain a high resistance to acid attack. The mixes with 10%silica fume, 10% fly ash and 10% Cement Kiln Dust show a higher resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix independently of the rubber waste content. The mixes with rubber waste and ternary cementious system was a lower resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix.

  9. Removal of lead from aqueous solution using waste tire rubber ash as an adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi,H. Z.; Hosseynifar,A.; Jahed,V.; S. A. M. Dehghani

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of the utilization of waste tire rubber ash (WTRA) as a low cost adsorbent for removal of lead (II) ion from aqueous solution. The effect of different parameters (such as contact time, sorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH of the medium and temperature) were investigated. The sorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached after about 90 min of contact. The experimental data were analyzed by the Freundlich iso...

  10. Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, Jielun

    1998-01-01

    There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

  11. Behavior of granular rubber waste tire reinforced soil for application in geosynthetic reinforced soil wall

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    G. G. D. RAMIREZ

    Full Text Available AbstractLarge quantities of waste tires are released to the environment in an undesirable way. The potential use of this waste material in geotechnical applications can contribute to reducing the tire disposal problem and to improve strength and deformation characteristics of soils. This paper presents a laboratory study on the effect of granular rubber waste tire on the physical properties of a clayey soil. Compaction tests using standard effort and consolidated-drained triaxial tests were run on soil and mixtures. The results conveyed an improvement in the cohesion and the angle of internal friction the clayey soil-granular rubber mixture, depending on the level of confining stress. These mixtures can be used like backfill material in soil retaining walls replacing the clayey soil due to its better strength and shear behavior and low unit weight. A numerical simulation was conducted for geosynthetic reinforced soil wall using the clayey soil and mixture like backfill material to analyzing the influence in this structure.

  12. A comparative study of effect of compatibilization agent on untreated and ultrasonically treated waste ground rubber tire and polyolefin blends

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    Jin Kuk Kim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of thermoplastic elastomer blends from waste tire powder and two polyolefins, Viz. maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene and LDPE, was studied. The polymer blends were processed using a twin-screw extruder equipped with a well-designed screw configuration. The blends studied contained a dispersed phase of waste rubber powder obtained from waste tire in a thermoplastic matrix. The effect of ultrasonic treatment on the rubber powder was compared. Contrary to our expectation, ultrasonically treated samples gave poor mechanical properties compared to untreated samples. Significant improvement in the mechanical properties was obtained with the addition of maleic anhydride-grafted styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS-g-MA as a compatibilizer in treated and untreated waste tire powder / polyolefin blends.

  13. Removal of lead from aqueous solution using waste tire rubber ash as an adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Z. Mousavi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of the utilization of waste tire rubber ash (WTRA as a low cost adsorbent for removal of lead (II ion from aqueous solution. The effect of different parameters (such as contact time, sorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH of the medium and temperature were investigated. The sorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached after about 90 min of contact. The experimental data were analyzed by the Freundlich isotherm and the Langmuir isotherm. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 22.35 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics was investigated and the best fit was achieved by a first-order equation. The results of the removal process show that the Pb (II ion adsorption on WTRA is an endothermic and spontaneous process. The procedure developed was successfully applied for the removal of lead ions in aqueous solutions.

  14. Potential of activated carbon from waste rubber tire for the adsorption of phenolics: effect of pre-treatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Nayak, Arunima; Agarwal, Shilpi; Tyagi, Inderjeet

    2014-03-01

    Rubber tire activated carbon modification (RTACMC) and rubber tire activated carbon (RTAC) were prepared from waste rubber tire by microwave assisted chemical treatment and physical heating respectively. A greater improvement in porosity and total pore volume was achieved in RTACMC as compared to that of RTAC. But both have a predominantly mesoporous structure. Under identical operating conditions, an irradiation time of 10 min, chemical impregnation ratio of 1.50 and a microwave power of 600 W resulted in maximizing the efficiency of RTACMC for p-cresol (250 mg/g) at a contact time of 90 min while RTAC showed a 71.43 mg/g adsorption capacity at 150 min. Phenol, due to its higher solubility was adsorbed to a lesser extent by both adsorbents. Physical nature of interactions, pore diffusion mechanism and exothermicity of the adsorption process was operative in both adsorbents. The outcomes support the feasibility of preparing high quality activated carbon from waste rubber tire by microwave assisted chemical activation.

  15. A new class of magnetorheological elastomers based on waste tire rubber and the characterization of their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah; Imaduddin, Fitrian; Li, Yancheng; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Sutrisno, Joko; Koga, Tsuyoshi; Yahya, Iwan; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a new type of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) using rubber from waste tires and describes its performance characteristics. In this work, scrap tires were utilized as a primary matrix for the MRE without incorporation of virgin elastomers. The synthesis of the scrap tire based MRE adopted a high-temperature high-pressure sintering technique to achieve the reclaiming of vulcanized rubber. The material properties of the MRE samples were investigated through physical and viscoelastic examinations. The physical tests confirmed several material characteristics—microstructure, magnetic, and thermal properties-while the viscoelastic examination was conducted with a laboratory-made dynamic compression apparatus. It was observed from the viscoelastic examination that the proposed MRE has magnetic-field-dependent properties of the storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangent at different excitation frequencies and strain amplitudes. Specifically, the synthesized MRE showed a high zero field modulus, a reasonable MR effect under maximum applied current, and remarkable damping properties.

  16. Properties and potential environmental applications of carbon adsorbents from waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rameriz, D.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The properties of tire-derived carbon adsorbents (TDCA) produced from select tire chars were compared with those derived from an Illinois coal and pistachio nut shells. Chemical analyses of the TDCA indicated that these materials contain metallic elements not present in coal-and nut shell-derived carbons. These metals, introduced during the production of tire rubber, potentially catalyze steam gasification reactions of tire char. TDCA carbons contained larger meso-and macopore volumes than their counterparts derived from coal and nut shell (on the moisture-and ash-free-basis). Adsorptive properties of the tire-derived adsorbent carbons for air separation, gas storage, and gas clean up were also evaluated and compared with those of the coal-and nut shell derived carbons as well as a commercial activated carbon. The results revealed that TDCA carbons are suitable adsorbents for removing vapor-phase mercury from combustion flue gases and hazardous organic compounds from industrial gas streams.

  17. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined...\\ Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company (Cooper) is a replacement equipment manufacturer incorporated in...

  18. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz; Maria Rachel Russo Seydell

    2009-01-01

    The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber...

  19. Analysis of Cement-Based Pastes Mixed with Waste Tire Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, O. C.; Ozyazgan, C.; Sayin, B.

    2017-03-01

    Using the methods of thermal gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, Furier transform infrared analysis, and capillary absorption, the properties of a cement composite produced by introducing waste tyre rubber into a cement mixture were investigated. It was found that the composite filled with the rubber had a much lower water absorption ability than the unfilled one.

  20. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  1. Sorption of apolar and polar organic contaminants by waste tire rubber and its chars in single- and bi-solute systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian Fei; Huang Fang; Chen Wei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Zhu Lingyan, E-mail: zhuly@nankai.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Single- and bi-solute sorption of organic compounds [1,3-dichlorbenzene (DCB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP)] on ground tire rubber and its chars was studied. The chars were prepared by pyrolyzing tire rubber at different temperatures (200-800 deg. C). Their surface area, aromaticity and hydrophobicity increase greatly with pyrolytic temperature, and the polymeric phase is partly converted into a condensed phase. The sorption of DNB and DCP increases with pyrolytic temperature and is characterized by a transition from a partition dominant to an adsorption dominant process. However, the sorption of DCB linearly decreases with the pyrolytic temperature. The enhanced adsorption of DNB and DCP on carbonized phase is primarily attributed to nonhydrophobic interactions such as {pi}-{pi} electron-donor-acceptor interactions and/or H bonding. The higher partition of DCB to polymeric phase is attributed to its high hydrophobicity. Competitive sorption between DCB and DCP on the tire chars is highly dependent on dissociation of the latter. - Research highlights: > Tire chars consist of dual sorptive domains, i.e., partition and adsorption. > High hydrophobicity of apolar organic contaminant promotes its partition into polymeric phase. > Polar aromatic contaminants show high adsorption on carbonized phase with specific interactions. > Dissociation of ionzable organic chemical heavily influences its sorption on tire chars. - The partition and adsorption of organic contaminants on waste tire chars are highly dependent on the hydrophobicity, polarity and dissociation of solutes.

  2. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  3. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  4. Properties of Concrete Containing Scrap-Tire Rubber

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    Mazyad Al-Fadhli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns all over the world and in Kuwait. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in Kuwait each year. Of these, more than 2 million scrap-tires (approximately 2 million tons are generated each year. In addition to this, about seven million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire–rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire–rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% of the total mineral aggregate’s volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire–rubber concrete.

  5. Interactive effect of trivalent iron on activated sludge digestion and biofilm structure in attached growth reactor of waste tire rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafat, Iqra; Saeed, Dania Khalid; Yasmin, Sumera; Imran, Asma; Zafar, Zargona; Hameed, Abdul; Ali, Naeem

    2017-03-16

    Waste tire rubber (WTR) has been introduced as an alternative, novel media for biofilm development in several experimental systems including attached growth bioreactors. In this context, four laboratory-scale static batch bioreactors containing WTR as a support material for biofilm development were run under anoxic condition for 90 days using waste activated sludge as an inoculum under the influence of different concentrations (2.5, 6.5, 8.5 mg/l) of trivalent ferric iron (Fe(3+)). The data revealed that activated sludge with a Fe(3+) concentration of 8.5 mg/l supported the maximum bacterial biomass [4.73E + 10 CFU/ml cm(2)]; besides, it removed 38% more Chemical oxygen demand compared to Fe(3+) free condition from the reactor. Biochemical testing and 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis of WTR-derived biofilm communities further suggested the role of varying concentrations of Fe(3+) on the density and diversity of members of Enterobacteria(ceae), ammonium (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria. Furthermore, Fluorescent in situ hybridization with phylogenetic oligonucleotide probes and confocal laser scanning microscopy of WTR biofilms indicated a significant increase in density of eubacteria (3.00E + 01 to.05E + 02 cells/cm(2)) and beta proteobacteria (8.10E + 01 to 1.42E + 02 cells/cm(2)), respectively, with an increase in Fe(3+) concentration in the reactors, whereas, the cell density of gamma proteobacteria in biofilms decreased.

  6. Dry ripened mortar with quarry waste and rubber powder from unserviceable tires

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    José Aparecido Canova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone-quarry fines have been evaluated in mortar and concrete, but have presented drying shrinkage and consequently higher incidence of cracks than those with natural sand. This study compared the dry ripened mortar in two types of aggregates added of 8% rubber powder. It was used quicklime, artificial and natural sand in volumetric proportions of 1:6. Mixtures were oven-dried, received the cement, establishing the volumetric proportion of 1: 1.5:9. Inplastic state, we evaluated aspects such as consistence, air content, water retention and bleeding; whereas compressive strength, static deformation modulus and water absorption by capillarity was determined in hardened state. Cracking aspects were evaluated in substrate. As a result, the mortar with artificial sand showed higher increases in compressive strength, capillarity rate and cracking, and greater reductions in air content and bleeding. As for the rubber powder, exhibited a greater reduction in the cracking rate and capillarity was found.

  7. Zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Emily P; Ren, Zhiyong; Mays, David C

    2012-12-04

    Because tires contain approximately 1-2% zinc by weight, zinc leaching is an environmental concern associated with civil engineering applications of tire crumb rubber. An assessment of zinc leaching data from 14 studies in the published literature indicates that increasing zinc leaching is associated with lower pH and longer leaching times, but the data display a wide range of zinc concentrations, and do not address the effect of crumb rubber size or the dynamics of zinc leaching during flow through porous crumb rubber. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crumb rubber size using the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), the effect of exposure time using quiescent batch leaching tests, and the dynamics of zinc leaching using column tests. Results indicate that zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber increases with smaller crumb rubber and longer exposure time. Results from SPLP and quiescent batch leaching tests are interpreted with a single-parameter leaching model that predicts a constant rate of zinc leaching up to 96 h. Breakthrough curves from column tests displayed an initial pulse of elevated zinc concentration (~3 mg/L) before settling down to a steady-state value (~0.2 mg/L), and were modeled with the software package HYDRUS-1D. Washing crumb rubber reduces this initial pulse but does not change the steady-state value. No leaching experiment significantly reduced the reservoir of zinc in the crumb rubber.

  8. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete.

  9. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  10. Improved crystallinity and dynamic mechanical properties of reclaimed waste tire rubber/EVA blends under the influence of electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramarad, Suganti; Ratnam, Chantara T.; Khalid, Mohammad; Chuah, Abdullah Luqman; Hanson, Svenja

    2017-01-01

    Dependence on automobiles has led to a huge amount of waste tires produced annually around the globe. In this study, the feasibility of recycling these waste tires by blending reclaimed waste tire rubber (RTR) with poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and electron beam irradiation was studied. The RTR/EVA blends containing 100-0 wt% of RTR were prepared in the internal mixer followed by electron beam (EB) irradiation with doses ranging from 50 to 200 kGy. The processing torques, calorimetric and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends were studied. Blends were found to have lower processing torque indicating easier processability of RTR/EVA blends compared to EVA. RTR domains were found to be dispersed in EVA matrix, whereas, irradiation improved the dispersion of RTR into smaller domains in EVA matrix. Results showed the addition of EVA improves the efficiency of irradiation induced crosslink formation and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends at the expense of the calorimetric properties. Storage and loss modulus of 50 wt% RTR blend was higher than RTR and EVA, suggesting partial miscibility of the blend. Whereas, electron beam irradiation improved the calorimetric properties and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends through redistribution of RTR in smaller domain sizes within EVA.

  11. The Fatigue Behaviour of Asphaltic Concrete Made With Waste Shredded Tire Rubber Modified Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELİK, Osman Nuri

    2001-01-01

    Pavement failure can be manifested by excessive cracking due to fatigue. Highway pavements are subjected to a repeated passage of wheel loading of varying magnitude and intensity. Fatigue has been defined as the phenomenon of fracture under repeated or fluctuating stress having a maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material. This paper examines a laboratory characterisation of the fatigue behaviour of rubberised asphaltic concrete and assesses the effect of waste shred...

  12. Mechanical properties of concrete containing a high volume of tire-rubber particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaloo, Ali R; Dehestani, M; Rahmatabadi, P

    2008-12-01

    Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire-rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire-rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total mineral aggregate's volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire-rubber concrete.

  13. Thermo-rheological behaviour and storage stability of ground tire rubber-modified bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.J. Navarro; P. Partal; F. Martinez-Boza; C. Gallegos [Universidad de Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

    2004-10-01

    This paper deals with the thermo-rheological behaviour at in-service and handling temperatures (i.e. pumping, mixing, compaction, etc.) of bitumens modified by 9 wt% crumb tire rubber. The use of waste tire rubbers as bitumen modifiers can contribute to alleviate pollution problems derived from discarding scrap tires. Thus, the mechanical characteristics and storage stability of crumb tire rubber modified bitumens (CTRMBs) have been studied as a function of rubber particle size. The addition of ground tire rubber to bitumen increases both the linear viscoelastic moduli and viscosity, at high in-service temperatures, and reduces the storage and loss moduli, at low temperatures, resulting in a more flexible binder in this temperature region. As a consequence, a crumb tire rubber modified bitumen displays enhanced mechanical properties, which improves its resistance to both rutting and fatigue cracking. The presence of insoluble non-spherical particles affects the flow behaviour observed at high temperatures. From the experimental results obtained, it may be concluded that the use of rubber particle sizes lower than 0.35 mm and high shear rates during manufacturing operations is highly recommended. Storage stability of CTRMBs decreases with increasing particle size and storage temperature and takes place by the precipitation of the non-dissolved rubber particles. Only the sample containing rubber particles with a mean particle size of 0.29 mm remains stable under the selected storage conditions. 35 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Analysis of Physical Properties and Mineralogical of Pyrolysis Tires Rubber Ash Compared Natural Sand in Concrete material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Shahidan, Shahiron; Syazani Leman, Alif; Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    Waste tires pose significant health and environmental concerns if not recycled or discarded properly. At the same time, natural sand is becoming scarcer and costlier due to its non-availability. Waste tires as fine aggregate can be an economical and sustainable alternative to the natural sand. Recent years, the interest on recycling waste tires into civil engineering applications by the researchers has increased. In this research, the chemical and physical properties of the tires rubber ash and the natural sand have been analysed. The densities of the rubber ash are lower than the natural sand. Rubber ash had finer particle size compared to the natural sand. Almost all chemical in the natural sand had in rubber ash with the additional sulphur trioxide and zinc oxide in the rubber ash, made the rubber ash better than natural sand. Rubber ash seems to be a suitable material to use in concrete as sand replacement.

  15. A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye--Acid Blue 113.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V K; Gupta, Bina; Rastogi, Arshi; Agarwal, Shilpi; Nayak, Arunima

    2011-02-15

    A mesoporous carbon developed from waste tire rubber, characterized by chemical analysis, FTIR, and SEM studies, was used as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous azo dye, Acid Blue 113. Surface area, porosity, and density were determined. The adsorption of the dye over the prepared adsorbent and a commercial activated carbon was achieved under different pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process follow first order kinetics and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative. By percolating the dye solution through fixed-bed columns the bulk removal of the Acid Blue 113 was carried out and necessary parameters were determined to find out the percentage saturation of both the columns. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting 0.1 M NaOH through the column.

  16. 75 FR 36472 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined... 573, Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports. \\1\\ Goodyear Tire and Rubber...

  17. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for.... ACTION: Receipt of Petition. SUMMARY: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that..., Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports. \\1\\ Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, is a...

  18. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  19. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of the incorporation of rubber tire waste particles on the properties of PP, HIPS and PP/HIPS matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Stieven Montagna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the consumption of plastics has been increasing and as consequence, the waste generated has also increased. Rubber tire (RT waste is another residue which causes significant problems to society. In view of the considerable amounts of RT waste generated, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of the incorporation of RT particles into post-consumer thermoplastic matrices such as polypropylene (PP, high impact polystyrene (HIPS and PP/HIPS blends and the modification of the physical, morphological, rheological and mechanical properties. The particle sizes of the RT used were <500 and 500-1000 μm. The RT content was 10% w/w and the weight ratio for the PP/HIPS blend was 4/1, with processing by injection molding. The results showed that the smaller (500 μm particle size led to a decrease in the melt flow rate (MFR of the PP/RT composites (increased viscosity and an increase for the HIPS/RT composites. On the other hand, the larger particles (1000 μm led to a decrease in the mechanical performance of the PP/RT and HIPS/RT blends when compared with the neat polymers (PP and HIPS post-consumer. The observed decrease in the mechanical properties of these composites was due to weak filler/matrix interactions, which can be visualized in images by scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the fracture surface after tensile testing.

  1. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  2. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  3. [Contamination of solid-cast rubber tires by microscopic fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuienko, A I; Subbota, A H; Olishevs'ka, S V; Zaslavs'kyĭ, V A; Zhdanova, N M

    2010-01-01

    The main peculiarities of fungal resistance of two types of unit cast rubber tires of domestic manufacture have been investigated. Rubber tires which contained synthetic plasticizer were non-resistant to fungal contamination in contrast to ones with natural plasticizer. Using the method of confocal laser-scanning microscopy, it was shown that inner layers of two types of rubber tires were contaminated with fungal mycelium. Our findings indicate that the investigation of microscopic fungi resistance of new materials is necessary for general mechanical rubber goods, especially exported to tropical climate countries.

  4. A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye-Acid Blue 113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, V.K., E-mail: vinodfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gupta, Bina [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Rastogi, Arshi [Chemistry Department, K.L.D.A.V.(P.G.) College, Roorkee (India); Agarwal, Shilpi [School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, MP (India); Nayak, Arunima [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The system is cheap, efficient and fast for the removal of dyes from waters. {yields} Higher adsorption capacity is due to higher mesoporous volume of the adsorbent. {yields} The rate determining step of the adsorption process is particle diffusion. - Abstract: A mesoporous carbon developed from waste tire rubber, characterized by chemical analysis, FTIR, and SEM studies, was used as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous azo dye, Acid Blue 113. Surface area, porosity, and density were determined. The adsorption of the dye over the prepared adsorbent and a commercial activated carbon was achieved under different pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process follow first order kinetics and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative. By percolating the dye solution through fixed-bed columns the bulk removal of the Acid Blue 113 was carried out and necessary parameters were determined to find out the percentage saturation of both the columns. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting 0.1 M NaOH through the column.

  5. The use of mixed pyrrhotite/pyrite catalysts for co-liquefaction of coal and waste rubber tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Sharma, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research program is to determine the optimum processing conditions for tire/coal co-liquefaction. The catalysts used will be a ferric-sulfide-based materials, as well as promising catalysts from other consortium laboratories. The intent here is to achieve the maximum coal+tire conversion at the mildest conditions of temperature and pressure. Specific objectives include an investigation of the effects of time, temperature, pressure, catalyst and co-solvent on the conversion and product slate of the co-liquefaction. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonhighway tires. 48.4073-3 Section 48.4073-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  7. WASTE TIRES AS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre KISS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of energy applied is suitable for control of large amounts of old tires, from the standpoint of convenience, cost control and timeliness. With regard to energy recovery technology, the two processes are discussed in this paper include: direct combustion and pyrolysis.

  8. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cement production is highly energy intensive and requires large quantities of fuels. For both economical and environmental reasons, there is an increasing tendency for utilization of alternative fuels in the cement industry, examples being tire derived fuels, waste wood, or different types...... of industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns...

  9. 77 FR 2775 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for.... ACTION: Notice of Petition Grant. SUMMARY: Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company,(Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined... Responsibility and Reports (dated December 16, 2010). \\1\\ Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (Goodyear) is...

  10. 76 FR 15045 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has... Responsibility and Reports, dated December 16, 2010. \\1\\ Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (Goodyear) is...

  11. Direct molding of pavement tiles made of ground tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Gagliardi, Donatella; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Santo, Loredana; Musacchi, Ettore

    2016-10-01

    Large rubber products can be molded by using only ground tire rubber (GTR) without any additive or binder due to a new technology called "direct molding". Rubber granules and powders from tire recycling are compression molded at elevated temperatures and pressures. The feasibility of this process was clearly shown in laboratory but the step to the industrial scale was missing. Thanks to an European Project (SMART "Sustainable Molding of Articles from Recycled Tires") this step has been made and some results are reported in this study. The press used for compression molding is described. Some tests were made to measure the energy consumption so as to evaluate costs for production in comparison with conventional technologies for GTR molding (by using binders). Results show that 1 m2 tiles can be easily molded with several thicknesses in a reasonable low time. Energy consumption is higher than conventional technologies but it is lower than the cost for binders.

  12. On the Damping Properties of Modified Ground Rubber Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Large amounts of used rubber tires are discarded annually. A long time is neededfor them to degrade naturally. This poses two major problems: environmental pollutionand wastage of valuable rubber. On the other hand, with the harm of vibration and noisewidely recognized, desires to control them intensify. As an important means of vibrationcontrol, viscoelastic damping technology has advanced greatly. The need for cheap andhigh quality viscoelastic damping materials increases rapidly. This paper made a trial touse ground rubber tire (GRT) recovered from old tires to make damping materials. TheGRT is treated specially first. Then it was pressed into slabs and vulcanized. Finally, theproduct was cut into test samples. An Oberst beam was used to determine the loss factor βand storage modulus E. Results show that the damping materials exhibit good damping ability.

  13. Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Bi, [ORNL; Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

  14. 75 FR 7586 - Baled Natural Rubber in Tires; TSCA Section 21 Petition; Agency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... AGENCY Baled Natural Rubber in Tires; TSCA Section 21 Petition; Agency Response AGENCY: Environmental... prohibiting the use and distribution in commerce of Hevea brasiliensis baled natural-rubber for the... tire ] manufacturers to use Hevea brasiliensis baled natural-rubber that satisfies ASTM...

  15. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER FROM USED CAR TIRES IN MINERAL ASPHALT MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Plewa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the automotive industry the disposal of used tires is constantly growing problem. Storage of waste rubber is associated with a very long period of decomposition of rubber in the natural conditions. Simultaneously new technologies are developed every year, which in the future may significantly promote recycling of this type of materials. The crumb rubbery modification of the road bitumen is the one of the environmentally safe solutions of rubbery decomposition. Improvement of resistance of the crumb rubbery modification of the road asphalt mixtures is the very important ecological aspect of the future. The article presents the results of research on the fatigue life resistance of asphalt concretes AC16P and AC22P with asphalt-rubber binders. The above analyses have been based on the results of tests of fatigue life of mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes determined by the method of prismatic four-point bending (4PB-PR. Mineral-rubber -asphalt mixes have been diversified according to the amount of the additive of rubber fines in asphalt-rubber binder. On the basis of the test results have been proven improvements functional properties mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes compared with mineral-asphalt mixes with unmodified asphalt.

  16. Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llompart, Maria; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Pablo Lamas, J; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Roca, Enrique; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated. Direct material analyses using solvent extraction, as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample, were carried out. Twenty-one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds. In addition, seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company. All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy, followed by analysis of the extract by GC-MS. The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs, phthalates, antioxidants (e.g. BHT, phenols), benzothiazole and derivatives, among other chemicals. The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials. The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high, reaching values up to 1%. In addition, SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds. Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern.

  17. Supercritical Water Liquefaction of Coal and Waste Tires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prapan KUCHONTHARA; Yukihiko MATSUMURA

    2001-01-01

      Supercritical water liquefaction of scrap tire rubber and Ishikari coal, separately and in mixtures was investigated to study the possible synergetic effects of coliquefaction between the feedstocks...

  18. Devulcanization of ground tire rubber: Physical and chemical changes after different microwave exposure times

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Garcia; F. D. B. de Sousa; J.A. Lima; S. A. Cruz; C. H. Scuracchio

    2015-01-01

    Microwave devulcanization is known to be a promising and an efficient rubber recycling method which makes possible for the rubber to regain its fluidity, and makes it capable of being remolded and revulcanized. The focus of this work is to understand the physical and chemical changes that occur in the ground tire rubber after different microwave exposure periods. For this purpose chemical, thermal, rheological and morphological analyses were performed on the tire rubber, which contains natura...

  19. Utilization of waste tires as alternative fuel in cement plant

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Cement industry is regulated by legislation in which various measures are specified for prevention and reduction of air pollution as well as protection of human health, due to atmospheric emissions, which occur during cement production. Legislation also holds emission limit values for co-incineration of wastes i.e. alternative fuels. Waste tires as an alternative fuel can be co-incinerated i.e. co-processed in cement plants, where the high calorific value of the rubber is used to substitute f...

  20. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  1. Prompt non-tire rubber recycling : final report for phases 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. G.; Daniels, E. J.

    1999-06-25

    This report summarizes an assessment conducted by Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., under a subcontract to Argonne National Laboratory. The project was conducted in two phases. An assessment of alternative technologies for recycling of prompt non-tire rubber was conducted in the first phase, and an experimental program focusing on a new technology called the catalytic Regeneration Process offered the greatest opportunity for recovery of high-value recyclable rubber material. An experimental and large-scale test program was undertaken to further delineate the economic potential as an essential step leading to commercial deployment and to determine the course of continued development of the technology by the private sector. The experimental program defined process-operating conditions for the technology and verified the degree of devulcanisation achievable for two rubber compounds: ethylene-propylene-nonconjugated-diene monomer (EPDM) and neoprene. To determine product acceptance, samples of devulcanized EPDM and neoprene were prepared and used in factory trials for the production of automotive moldings (EPDM) and fiber-filled belting (neoprene). The factory trials indicated that the physical properties of the products were acceptable in both cases. The appearance of molded and calendared surface finishes was acceptable, while that of extruded finishes was unsatisfactory. The fiber-filled neoprene belting application offers the greatest economic potential. Process costs were estimated at $0.34/lb for neoprene waste rubber relative to a value of $0.57/lb. The results of the experimental program led to the decision to continue development of this technology is being planned, subject to the availability of about $3 million in financing from private-sector investors. The ability to recycle non-tire rubber scrap could conserve as much as 90,000 Btu/lb, thus yielding an estimated energy savings potential of about 0.25 quad/yr.

  2. Influence of the surface treatment of tire rubber residues added in mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Marques

    Full Text Available In this work it was evaluated the influence tire rubber addition in mortars in order to replace part of the sand (12% by volume. It was also intended to verify if the tire rubber treatment with NaOH saturated aqueous solution causes interference on the mechanical properties of the mixture. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, water absorption, modulus of elasticity, and flow test were made in specimens of 5cmx10cm and the tests were carried out to 7, 28, 56, 90, and 180 days. The results show reduction on mechanical properties values after addition of tire rubber and decrease of the workability. It was also observed that the tire rubber treatment does not cause any alteration on the results compared to the rubber without treatment.

  3. Radiation induced functionalism of polyethylene and ground tire rubber for their reactive compatibility in thermoplastic elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fainleib, A.; Grigoryeva, O. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev 02160 (Ukraine); Martinez B, G. [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Km. 12 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, San Cayetano 50200, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: fainleib@i.kiev.ua

    2009-07-01

    Reactive compatibility of recycled low-or high-density polyethylenes (LDPE and HDPE, respectively) and ground tire rubber (GTR) via chemical interactions of pre-functionalized components in their blend interface has been carried out. Polyethylene component was functionalized with maleic anhydride (MAH) as well as the rubber component was modified via functionalism with MAH or acrylamide using chemically or irradiation ({gamma} rays) induced grafting techniques. Additional coupling agents such as-p-phenylene diamine (PDA) and polyamide fiber (PAF, from fiber wastes) were used for some thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) producing. The grafting degree and molecular mass distribution of the chromatography analyses, respectively. TPE materials based on synthesized reactive polyethylenes and GTR as well as ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber were prepared by dynamic vulcanization of the rubber phase inside thermoplastic (polyethylene) matrix and their phase structure, and main properties have been studied using DSC, TGA, DMTA and mechanical testing. As a final result, the high performance TPE with improved mechanical properties has been developed. (Author)

  4. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  5. Optimization of mixing conditions for silica-reinforced natural rubber tire tread compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaewsakul, W.; Sahakaro, K.; Dierkes, W.K.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The dump temperature and mixing interval between rubber, silica, and silane coupling agent for silica-filled natural rubber (NR) tire tread compounds using bis-triethoxysilylpropyl tetrasulfide (TESPT) as silane were optimized. The dump temperature turns out to be the key parameter governing the pro

  6. Optimization of mixing conditions for silica-reinforced natural rubber tire tread compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaewsakul, W.; Sahakaro, K.; Dierkes, W.K.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The dump temperature and mixing interval between rubber, silica and silane coupling agent for silica-filled natural rubber (NR) tire tread compounds using bis-triethoxysilylpropyl tetrasulfide (TESPT) as silane were optimized. The dump temperature turns out to be the key parameter governing the prop

  7. Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    About 285 million tires are discarded every year; less than 100 million are currently being recycled, with the rest being placed in landfills and other waste sites. A solution to reduce the littering of the environment is to use ground tire rubber in road construction. Currently, about 27 million tons of asphalt are used each year in road construction and maintenance of the country`s 2 million miles of roads. If all of the waste tire rubber could be combined with asphalt in road construction, it would displace less than 6% of the total asphalt used each year, yet could save about 60 trillion Btus annually. Purpose of this project is to provide data needed to optimize the performance of rubber-asphalt concretes. The first phase is to develop asphalts and recycling agents tailored for compatibility with ground tire rubber. Chapter 2 presents results on Laboratory Testing and Evaluation: fractionate asphalt material, reblending for aromatic asphalts, verifying optimal curing parameters, aging of blends, and measuring ductilities of asphalt-rubber binders. Chapter 3 focuses on Evaluating Mixture Characteristics (modified binders). Chapter 4 covers Adhesion Test Development (water susceptibility is also covered). The final chapter focuses on the Performance/Economic Update and Commercialization Plan.

  8. [Species specificity of fungi isolated from the affected rubber tires and their components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuienko, A I; Nakonechna, L T; Zhdanova, N M

    2010-01-01

    The mycobiota of the rubber technical wares, containing different plasticizers (natural and synthetic) have been investigated. Violation of production technology and storage conditions of the staggered rubber tires, caused their deterioration by the microfungi. Twenty seven (27) species of micromycetes, related to 16 genera were isolated from the surface and internal layers of such objects and their components. A number of species, which can exist theoretically on investigated rubber tires and their components, is calculated. The unfavorableness of the existence conditions for majority of fungi on such substrates is proved. The groups of species, which make the most contribution to deterioration of rubber tires and their components were revealed. These data were obtained using the methods of floristic analysis and computer processing of the data.

  9. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  10. Water Treatment Residuals and Scrap Tire Rubber as Green Sorbents for Removal of Stormwater Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Morris, Ciapha; Rakshit, Sudipta; Landa, Edward; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-06-01

    Bench scale tests were performed to evaluate two recycled wastes, water treatment residuals (WTR) and scrap tire rubber (STR), for adsorption of selected metals from urban stormwater, and assess their release from used sorbents. Aluminum-WTR alone could rapidly and effectively remove Cu, Pb, and Zn, while STR alone continuously released Zn accompanied with Cu and Pb adsorption. Zn leaching from STR was significantly reduced in the presence of WTR. Very little metals released from used combined adsorbents in NaNO3 solution, and only part of them were extracted with EDTA (a strong chelating agent), suggesting that metal release is not a concern in a typical stormwater condition. A combination of WTR and STR is a new, effective method for mitigation of urban stormwater metals-WTR can inhibit the STR leaching, and STR improves the hydraulic permeability of WTR powders, a limiting factor for stormwater flow when WTR is used alone.

  11. Friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type 7, aircraft tires constructed with different tread rubber compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, R. C.; Yager, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    A test program was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to evaluate the friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type, aircraft tires constructed with experimental cut-resistant, tread rubber compounds. These compounds consisted of different blends of natural rubber (NR) and an alfin catalyzed styrene-butadiene copolymer rubber (SBR). One tire having a blend of 30 SBR and 70 NR and another having a blend of 60 SBR and 40 NR in the tread were tested together with a standard production tire with no SBR content in the tread rubber. The results of this investigation indicated that the test tires constructed with the special cut-resistant tread rubber compositions did not suffer any significant degradation in tire friction capability when compared with the standard tire. In general, tire friction capability decreased with increasing speed and surface wetness condition. As yaw angle increased, tire braking capability decreased while tire cornering capability increased. Tread-wear data based on number of brake cycles, however, suggested that the tires with alfin SBR blends experienced significantly greater wear than the standard production tire.

  12. Toxicological assessment of coated versus uncoated rubber granulates obtained from used tires for use in sport facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Joao; Mota, Helena; Bordado, Joao; Cadete, Manuela; Sarmento, Georgina; Ribeiro, Antonieta; Baiao, Miguel; Fernandes, Joao; Pampulim, Vasco; Custódio, Maria; Veloso, Isabel

    2010-06-01

    Reuse of tire crumb in sport facilities is currently a very cost-effective waste management measure. Considering that incorporation of the waste materials in artificial turf would be facilitated if the rubber materials were already colored green, coatings were specifically developed for this purpose. This paper presents an experimental toxicological and environmental assessment aimed at comparing the obtained emissions to the environment in terms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and ecotoxicity for coated and noncoated rubber granulates. This study is a comprehensive evaluation of the major potential critical factors related with the release of all of these classes of pollutants because previous studies were not systematically performed. It was concluded that between the two types of coatings tested, one is particularly effective in reducing emissions to the environment, simultaneously meeting the requirements of adherence and color stability.

  13. Computation of rolling resistance caused by rubber hysteresis of truck radial tire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Gai-ling; XU Hong; CUI Wen-yong

    2007-01-01

    Applying the results of stress and strain calculated by 3D finite element model of truck radial tire 11.00R20, a MATLAB program used to compute rolling resistance of the tire caused by hysteresis rolling resistance (HRR) is worked out. The HRR distribution on different part of tire section, and the effects of speed, load, internal pressure and the width of the rim on HRR are analyzed. The analysis results showed that energy loss produced by tread rubber contributes the most part to HRR of the whole tire, and that to decrease the HRR, the hysteresis factor of the tread rubber should be reduced, and the distribution of the stress and strain on the section be optimized.

  14. Green tire and new type rubber materials%绿色轮胎与橡胶新材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李花婷; 赵天琪; 陈名行

    2016-01-01

    Green tire is defined as one behaved durability,safety,fuel efficiency,which is manufactured from green raw materials via advanced process.The novel rubber materials and technology for manufacturing green tire,polices,laws and regulations on green tire are summarized in this paper.Green tire technology is a combination of various innovative technologies including the design of materials formulation,optimization of tire structure and processing technology.The new formulation and structure design need to be realized through the improvement of processing technology such as continuous one-step mixing process at low temperature,pre-vulcanization technology,automatic molding process and nitrogen-filled curing technology.The development of novel rubber materials is one of the key factors for the innovation of green tire.The application of novel rubber materials in manufacturing green tire is beneficial to the effect of energy saving and emission reduction,nature rubber (NR),solution polymerized styrene butadiene rubber (SSBR),emulsion polymerized styrene butadiene rubber (ESBR),high cis-polybutadiene rubber and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) are the main raw materials for manufacturing green tire.The mixing effect with silica improved,the rolling resistance can be decreased and the wet-skid resistance can be increased by using the functionalized SSBR.Neodymium-based high cis-polybutadiene rubber (Nd-BR) possesses excellent mechanical properties,dynamic mechanical properties,such as low heat build-up,rolling power loss,compression deformation,compression ratio and abrasion loss.Thermoplastic elastomer modified by halogenated butyl rubber,possesses excellent properties of high barrier,good fatigue and flexible performance,especially suitable for the inner-liner of green tire.The green tire technology in the variouslarge tyre companies,including Michelin,Bridgestone,Goodyear,and etc.,is summarized and the character of green tire technology in each company is described in

  15. Mechanical Properties of Light Weight Polymer Modified Concrete Made with Chopped Rubber Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanien Mohammed Thiyab

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight concrete is highly used as loaded and unloaded parts in structures. The low values of compressive strength leads to the production of lightweight concrete blocks that can be used in partitions and the types that have more than 17 MPa and in some structural members that are not highly loaded. This research includes study of mechanical properties of this type of concrete which produced from the waste materials ( chopped rubber tires that are used as a percentage from coarse aggregates by the replacing method. The replacement was as 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by weight of coarse aggregates. The mixes were modified by using the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR to increase the values of the mechanical properties and durability. The aim of this investigation is to product special mixes of concrete with a low density and good mechanical properties to reduce the dead load and more economic construction . This study proof the CRT effect on compressive strength whereas it dropped from 62.5 Mpa to 40.8 Mpa by increase percentage of the CRT from 10% to 50%, but in the same time the density lowered up to 33%. The mixes with 10%, 20%, 30% can be regarded as a structural lightweight concrete (exceeded 17 MPa and the other mixes can be used for the production of lightweight blocks used in partitions.

  16. Devulcanization of ground tire rubber: Physical and chemical changes after different microwave exposure times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave devulcanization is known to be a promising and an efficient rubber recycling method which makes possible for the rubber to regain its fluidity, and makes it capable of being remolded and revulcanized. The focus of this work is to understand the physical and chemical changes that occur in the ground tire rubber after different microwave exposure periods. For this purpose chemical, thermal, rheological and morphological analyses were performed on the tire rubber, which contains natural rubber (NR and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR as polymeric material. The results showed that the microwave treatment promoted the breaking of sulfur cross-links and consequently increased the rubber fluidity. However, long periods of exposure led to degradation and modification of some properties. At nanoscale, the deformation of the devulcanized NR domain under stress was observed, and the morphology obtained appears to be a droplet dispersion morphology. The most exposed samples presented only one glass transition temperature, and from this it was concluded that the treatment may have played an important role in the compatibilization of the elastomeric blend. Based on the results, it is required to control the microwave exposure time and polymeric degradation in order to achieve a regenerated rubber with satisfactory properties.

  17. Implications of non-carcinogenic pah-free extender oils in natural rubber based tire compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petchkaew, A.

    2015-01-01

    The oils are generally added in the rubber compounds to improve processing properties, low temperature properties, dispersion of fillers, and to reduce cost. The conventionally widely used oils in tire compounds are Distillate Aromatic Extract (DAE) oils, which contain a high concentration of Polycy

  18. Assessment of geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITENDRA SINGH YADAV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Discarded waste tires are becoming a serious threat to health, environment, and ecological systems worldwide if it is not disposed of properly. Every year 1000 million of waste tires are discarded. This number may grow up to 1200 million by the year 2030. On the other hand, construction of civil engineering structures such as buildings, dams, highways, etc. are at high risk of differential settlement, especially in the case of weak or soft clay, which is due to its low shear strength and high compressibility. The paper aims to assess geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber. Compaction parameters, unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, toughness index, CBR values and swelling pressure of rubberized uncemented/cemented clayey soil (3%, and 6% cement and different percentage of crumb rubber have been obtained. After rigorous extensive study, it has been concluded that unconfined compressive strength and split tensile strength of rubberized cemented clayey soil decreases with the increase of the percentage of crumb rubber whereas the axial, and diametral strain are found to be increased with the addition of crumb rubber up to 5% after that it starts to decrease. The CBR values, swelling pressure, and toughness index of uncemented/cemented clayey soil was significantly affected by incorporation of crumb rubber. SEM studies have also been incorporated in this investigation.

  19. The analysis of tire rubber traces collected after braking incidents using Pyrolysis-GasChromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkissian, Garry

    2007-09-01

    Automobile tire marks can routinely be found at the scenes of crime, particularly hit-and-run accidents and are left on road surfaces because of sudden braking or the wheels spinning. The tire marks are left due to the friction between the tire rubber and the solid road surface, and do not always demonstrate the tire tread pattern. However, the tire mark will contain traces of the tire. In this study, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze 12 tires from different manufacturer's and their traces collected after braking incidents. Tire marks were left on a conglomerate road surface with sudden braking. The samples were pyrolysed without removal of contaminant in a micro-furnace type pyrolyser. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were performed on all the samples. All 12 samples were distinguished from each other. Each of the tire traces were identified as coming from there original source.

  20. New approaches to recycling tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.

    1991-03-01

    Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

  1. Cheng Shin Rubber (Chongqing) to Expand the Production Ca- pacity of Radial Tires%Cheng Shin Rubber (Chongqing) to Expand the Production Ca- pacity of Radial Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoTian

    2011-01-01

    Based on the completion and putting into production of the 1 st phase radial tire project with the output of 3 million units, Cheng Shin Rubber (Chongqing) Co., Ltd. decides to in- crease investment to expand the radial tire production line with the annual out- put of 4 million units to reach the radial tire production scale of annual output of 7 million units designed at first as soon as possible.

  2. Tire Log™

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2013-01-01

    The Tire Log™ is a patented innovation made from waste tires with a unique and energy efficient approach to recycling tires. Re-Tread Products (RTP) process takes full advantage of the embedded energy in tires that is wasted in conventional tire recycling that primarily involves the grinding, burying or burning of waste tires.

  3. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... industry provides information relating tire strength and durability to the number of plies and types of ply... Cooper has met its burden of persuasion that the subject FMVSS No. 139 labeling noncompliances are...

  4. Preliminary studies of the rubber from unserviceable tires irradiated by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Clecia M.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e, E-mail: blgasilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays there is a growth in the developing processes for modification of polymers with ionizing radiation (gamma rays, electron beam) for several industrial applications. An option is ionizing radiation process due to their capacity of inducing crosslinking and scission on a wide range of polymeric materials without initiators or chemicals products. This method has significant advantages on economical and ecological fields, when compared to chemical, thermal and mechanical process. The rubber recycling has been extensively discussed, mainly related to tire. There are reports with data about production and consumption of rubber and unserviceable tire. There is very few information about the destination of others rubber items, incineration and landfill are the main methods for elimination of unserviceable tire, however those methods are not environmentally friendly. It is necessary to study better and effective methods to recycle and to give value to rubber residue. This work is about the use of ionizing radiation for the recovery and/or reuse and processing rubber of unserviceable tire. The samples were irradiated with 200, 400 and 600 kGy radiation dose, 22.39 kGy/s dose rates, at room temperature and in the presence of air using an 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were studied by thermogravimetry (TG). The analyses were performed from room temperature up to 600 deg C, heating rate of 10 deg C/min in the presence of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and air. By this technique it was possible to observe the effects of the radiation dose on the weight loss. (author)

  5. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  6. Progress in research on tire tread rubber for high performance tire%高性能轮胎胎面胶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清洁; 赵建青; 贾德民

    2001-01-01

    综述了近些年来国内外文献,讨论了高性能胎面胶的研究进展和开发现状。评述了溶聚丁苯胶(SSBR)、集成橡胶SIBR、天然橡胶等经改性或并用后作为胎面胶的优缺点。%The recently published literatures on tire tread rubber for high performance were reviewed.In the aspects of the wet skid resistance and the rolling loss of the tire tread rubber,the advantages and disadvantages of the solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber(SSBR),the integral rubber(SIBR),the nature rubber(NR)and so on were discussed.

  7. Upscaling of a Batch De-Vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitisaiyidah Saiwari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount of SBR, a devulcanization process can be formulated, as well. This was proven for a laboratory-scale batch process in an internal mixer, using diphenyl disulfide as the devulcanization aid and powder-sized material. In this paper, the devulcanization process for passenger car tire rubber is upscaled from 15 g per batch and transformed into a continuous process in a co-rotating twin screw extruder with a capacity of 2 kg/h. As SBR is rather sensitive to devulcanization process conditions, such as thermal and mechanical energy input, the screw design was based on a low shear concept. A granulate with particle sizes from 1–3.5 mm was chosen for purity, as well as economic reasons. The devulcanization process conditions were fine-tuned in terms of: devulcanization conditions (time/temperature profile, concentration of devulcanization aid, extruder parameters (screw configuration, screw speed, fill factor and ancillary equipment (pre-treatment, extrudate handling. The influence of these parameters on the devulcanization efficiency and the quality of the final product will be discussed. The ratio of random to crosslink scission as determined by a Horikx plot was taken for the evaluation of the process and material. A best practice for continuous devulcanization will be given.

  8. Identification and Waste Reduction on Rubber Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputri, K.; Sari, R. M.; Rizkya, I.; Siregar, I.

    2017-03-01

    Lots of activities in production process can be lead to waste activities. The waste may cause a degree of efficiency of an industry to be low. This research was conducted in the rubber industry. In the rubber industry has been a decline in the level of efficiency. Decreased levels of efficiency occurs because many inefficient activities that take place during the production process. Activities that were not contributed to the value of the product lead to waste during the production process. Identification by the activity is a way to minimize the waste that occurs so that the efficiency of the production process can be improved. Process activity mapping in the rubber industry used to identify the activities that take place on the floor of production in order to reduce waste and propose improvements that can be done to improve efficiency. The total waste that occurs in crumb rubber industry amounted to 94 minutes or 1.56 hours. For the proposed improvements in order to reduce waste are based on two activities, such as transport and unnecessary motion. Transport activities proposed use of material handling in their daily activities and to unnecessary motion by doing a variety of work on the operator.

  9. Recycled tire crumb rubber anodes for sustainable power production in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Davidson, Matthew; Zuo, Yi; Ren, Zhiyong

    One of the greatest challenges facing microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in large scale applications is the high cost of electrode material. We demonstrate here that recycled tire crumb rubber coated with graphite paint can be used instead of fine carbon materials as the MFC anode. The tire particles showed satisfactory conductivity after 2-4 layers of coating. The specific surface area of the coated rubber was over an order of magnitude greater than similar sized graphite granules. Power production in single chamber tire-anode air-cathode MFCs reached a maximum power density of 421 mW m -2, with a coulombic efficiency (CE) of 25.1%. The control graphite granule MFC achieved higher power density (528 mW m -2) but lower CE (15.6%). The light weight of tire particle could reduce clogging and maintenance cost but posts challenges in conductive connection. The use of recycled material as the MFC anodes brings a new perspective to MFC design and application and carries significant economic and environmental benefit potentials.

  10. Securing the future of natural rubber – an American tire and bio-energy platform from guayule

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a high level of interest in alternative sources of natural rubber for the tire industry due to both the price and supply volatility of Hevea brasiliensis. The guayule plant (Parthenium argentatum) has served as a major source of domestic natural rubber in the early 20th century and is being...

  11. Mechanical properties of structural concrete with partial replacement of fine aggregate by tire rubber - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.11283

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Granzotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urbanization of big cities, the reduced number and size of landfills, the population growth rate, and the increased use of disposables have generated an expressive volume of waste in the environment. Some waste materials have been reused in recent years, as for example, those generated by the civil construction. However, other types of waste are not experiencing the same situation, such as tire rubbers. One alternative for the reutilization of this material consists of using their powder to replace the fine aggregate in the composition of concrete. This study presents experiments on normal strength concrete mixed with different rates of rubber powder. Results reveal the possibility of obtaining an optimum rate of powder incorporation without harming the compressive and tensile strength of concrete.  

  12. Impact strength and abrasion resistance of high strength concrete with rice husk ash and rubber tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Barbosa

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the application of High Strength Concrete (HSC technology for concrete production with the incorporation of Rice Husk Ash (RHA residues by replacing a bulk of the material caking and rubber tires with partial aggregate volume, assessing their influence on the mechanical properties and durability. For concrete with RHA and rubber, it was possible to reduce the brittleness by increasing the energy absorbing capacity. With respect to abrasion, the RHA and rubber concretes showed lower mass loss than the concrete without residues, indicating that this material is attractive to be used in paving. It is thus hoped that these residues may represent a technological and ecological alternative for the production of concrete in construction works.

  13. Investigation of reinforcement of the modified carbon black from wasted tires by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jie; YANG Yong-rong; REN Xiao-hong; STAPF Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis has the potential of transforming waste into recyclable products. Pyrolytic carbon black (PCB) is one of the most important products from the pyrolysis of used tires. Techniques for surface modifications of PCB have been developed. One of the most significant applications for modified PCB is to reinforce the rubber matrix to obtain high added values. The transverse relaxation and the chain dynamics of vulcanized rubber networks with PCB and modified PCB were studied and compared with those of the commercial carbon blacks using selective 1H transverse relaxation (T2) experiments and dipolar correlation effect (DCE) experiments on the stimulated echo. Demineralization and coupling agent modification not only intensified the interactions between the modified PCB and the neighboring polyisoprene chains, but also increased the chemical cross-link density of the vulcanized rubber with modified PCB. The mechanical testing of the rubbers with different kinds of carbon blacks showed that the maximum strain of the rubber with modified PCB was improved greatly. The mechanical testing results confirmed the conclusion obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). PCB modified by the demineralization and NDZ-105 titanate coupling agent could be used to replace the commercial semi-reinforcing carbon black.

  14. Low temperature decomposition of styrene-butadiene rubber and used tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Il; Hong, In Kwon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Hyung Jin [Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Kimpo College, Kimpo (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The disposal of automotive tires is an increasing environmental and economic problem but few methods have been proposed to tackle the problematic wastes in a systematic and efficient way. Therefore there is a demand for new recycling systems for automotive tires. Tire and raw material of tire i.e., SBR were degraded using supercritical fluid (SCF) process that is the low temperature degradation process relative to the convectional thermal degradation process. The oil yield was increased and that of char was decreased with the increased reaction temperature and pressure in SCF process. Byt the effect of temperature was larger than those of pressure. The oil yields of tire were 33.8-59.2% and 49.1-72.8% using THF and benzene respectively. So, benzene was suitable solvent in SCF process. The number average molecular weights of SBR and tire were decreased with the increased reaction time and temperature. The oil components were mostly 20 aromatic compounds. The optimum condition of SCF process was 320 degree C, 4000 psi in the case of benzene as a supercritical fluid. 16 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Hanbing Liu; Xianqiang Wang; Yubo Jiao; Tao Sha

    2016-01-01

    Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume content...

  16. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Hanbing Liu; Xianqiang Wang; Yubo Jiao; Tao Sha

    2016-01-01

    Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume content...

  17. Influence of triallyl cyanurate as co-agent on gamma irradiation cured high density polyethylene/reclaimed tire rubber blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Manoj N.; Arakh, Amar A.; Dubey, K. A.; Mhaske, S. T.

    2017-02-01

    Utilization of waste from tire industry as reclaimed tire rubber (RTR) by formation of blends with high density polyethylene (HDPE) is great area to be focused. Enhancement of properties by the addition of triallyl cyanurate (TAC) as a co-agent with 1%, 3% and 5% to blend of HDPE 50 wt% and RTR 50 wt% in presence of gamma irradiation curing were investigated. Specifically, mechanical and thermal properties were studied as a function of amount of TAC and gamma irradiation dose in range of 50-200 kGy. The resultant blends were evaluated for the values of impact strength, gel content, thermal stability, tensile properties, rheological properties and morphological properties with increasing irradiation dosage and TAC loading. The mechanical properties tensile strength, hardness, impact strength of blend containing 3% of TAC were substantially increased with increasing irradiation dosage up to 150 KGy. Rheological analysis has shown increase in viscosity with increase in TAC loading up to 3% and 150 KGy irradiation dosages. 3% loading of TAC lead to better set of properties with150 KGy gamma irradiation dosage.

  18. Blends of ground tire rubber devulcanized by microwaves/HDPE - Part A: influence of devulcanization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiula Danielli Bastos de Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe main objective of this work is the study of the influence of microwaves devulcanization of the elastomeric phase on dynamically revulcanized blends based on Ground Tire Rubber (GTR/High Density Polyethylene (HDPE. The devulcanization of the GTR was performed in a system comprised of a conventional microwave oven adapted with a motorized stirring at a constant microwaves power and at various exposure times. The influence of the devulcanization process on the final properties of the blends was evaluated in terms of mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal and rheological properties. The morphology was also studied.

  19. Release of Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On July 31, 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the Tire Retread- ing lndustry Access Conditions and Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Condi- tions with the No. 32 announcement of 2012. The state will lay a foundation for realizing the green, safe, efficient, eco-friendly and energy saving tar- gets in the "12th Five-year Plan" of the industry by raising access conditions, regulating industrial development order, strengthening environmental protection, promoting corporate optimizing and up- grading, improving resources comprehensive utiliza- tion technology and management level and guiding the "harmless recycling and eco-friendly utiliza- tion" of the industry.

  20. A styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/carbon nanotube-based smart force sensor for automotive tire deformation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min-Young; Kim, Ji-Sik; Lee, Ho-Geun; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Gi-Woo

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a preliminary study on the piezoresistive effect of a styrene-butadiene Rubber (SBR), one of the main ingredients of automotive tire, dispersed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to explore its feasibility as a force sensor embedded in automotive tires. Typically, the application of CNTs has been successfully applied to the mechanical sensing technology such as a stress/strain and impact sensor. In this study, the potential of using the SBR/CNT as a force sensor for monitoring automotive tire deformation is evaluated for the first time. Experimental results show that the electrical resistance of the SBR/CNT composite changes in response to the sinusoidal loading, as well as static compressive load. These piezoresistive responses of the SBR/CNT composite will be used for sensing the tire deformation caused by the vehicle loading or cracks of tires.

  1. Study on recycling of waste rubbers as medium components for hydroponic culture of rose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Kuk; Lee, Hyung-Gyu; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong; Hwang, Seung-Jae [Gyeongsang National Univ., Kumi(Korea)

    2000-06-30

    Recently, the efficient disposal of the waste rubber is necessary due to increasing amount of the waste rubbers. In this paper, method of recycling waste rubbers as components of medium for hydroponic rose culture was suggested. We investigated growth of rose, and macro- and micro-elements, pH and EC of the media amended with waste rubber. In the beginning of culture, stress symptoms such as thin brittle stem and incipient wilting were observed, but they disappeared in a few weeks. Concentration of Zn{sup 2+} in media at flowering increased in proportion to contents of waste tire in the media. pH of media at flowering were in the range of 5.70 to 6.35. Rose growth in all media, except in waste rock wool mixed with EPDM powder at 9:3 ratio, was normal and equivalent to the control in terms of stem length, number of stems harvested and fresh weight. (author). 10 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Performance of sand and shredded rubber tire mixture as a natural base isolator for earthquake protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Srijit; Sengupta, Aniruddha; Reddy, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a well-designed layer of sand, and composites like layer of sand mixed with shredded rubber tire (RSM) as low cost base isolators, is studied in shake table tests in the laboratory. The building foundation is modeled by a 200 mm by 200 mm and 40 mm thick rigid plexi-glass block. The block is placed in the middle of a 1m by 1m tank filled with sand. The selected base isolator is placed between the block and the sand foundation. Accelerometers are placed on top of the footing and foundation sand layer. The displacement of the footing is also measured by LVDT. The whole setup is mounted on a shake table and subjected to sinusoidal motions with varying amplitude and frequency. Sand is found to be effective only at very high amplitude (> 0.65 g) of motions. The performance of a composite consisting of sand and 50% shredded rubber tire placed under the footing is found to be most promising as a low-cost effective base isolator.

  3. Sorption study of toluene and xylene in aqueous solutions by recycled tires crumb rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamo-Nole, Luis A; Perales-Perez, Oscar; Roman-Velazquez, Felix R

    2011-01-15

    Sorption of toluene and xylene by tire crumb rubber (TCR) and its main components: carbon black (CB) and styrene-butadiene polymer (SBP) were evaluated. The 12 starting concentrations of adsorbates in aqueous solutions ranged from 0.05 mg/L to 100.0mg/L. The amounts of CB and SBP used in the sorption tests were determined considering their typical contents in tire crumb rubber (30% and 60% w/w, respectively). Freundlich's isotherms and Scatchard plot parameters suggested a two-step sorption process when TCR was used as the sorbent; whereas a single-step route was apparent when the sorption experiments were carried out with CB or SBP. Freundlich's n parameter was estimated at 0.65 for CB and 1.0 for both TCR and SBP. A removal of 60% of toluene and 81% of xylene from starting 50 ppm solutions was attained in the first 30 minutes of contact using 5 g/L of TCR.

  4. Fundamental understanding of the thermal degradation mechanisms of waste tires and their air pollutant generation in a N2 atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann; Castaldi, Marco J

    2009-08-01

    The thermal decomposition of waste tires has been characterized via thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) tests, and significant mass loss has been observed between 300 and 500 degrees C. A series of gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) measurements, in which the instrument was coupled to a TGA unit, have been carried out to investigate the thermal degradation mechanisms as well as the air pollutant generation including volatile organic carbons (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a nitrogen atmosphere. In order to understand fundamental information on the thermal degradation mechanisms of waste tires, the main constituents of tires, poly-isoprene rubber (IR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), have been studied under the same conditions. All of the experimental work indicated that the bond scission on each monomer of the main constituents of tires was followed by hydrogenation and gas phase reactions. This helped to clarify the independent pathways and species attributable to IR and SBR during the pyrolysis process. To extend that understanding to a more practical level, a flow-through reactor was used to test waste tire, SBR and IR samples in the temperature range of 500-800 degrees C at a heating rate of approximately 200 degrees C. Lastly, the formation of VOCs (approximately 1-50 PPMV/10 mg of sample) and PAHs (approximately 0.2-7 PPMV/10 mg of sample) was observed at relatively low temperatures compared to conventional fuels, and its quantified concentration was significantly high due to the chemical structure of SBR and IR. The measurement of chemicals released during pyrolysis suggests not only a methodology for reducing the air pollutants but also the feasibility of petrochemical recovery during thermal treatment.

  5. Fatigue Performance and Multiscale Mechanisms of Concrete Toughened by Polymers and Waste Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For improving bending toughness and fatigue performance of brittle cement-based composites, two types of water-soluble polymers (such as dispersible latex powder and polyvinyl alcohol powder and waste tire-rubber powders are added to concrete as admixtures. Multiscale toughening mechanisms of these additions in concretes were comprehensively investigated. Four-point bending fatigue performance of four series concretes is conducted under a stress level of 0.70. The results show that the effects of dispersible latex powder on bending toughness and fatigue life of concrete are better than those of polyvinyl alcohol powder. Furthermore, the bending fatigue lives of concrete simultaneously containing polymers and waste rubber powders are larger than those of concrete with only one type of admixtures. The multiscale physics-chemical mechanisms show that high bonding effect and high elastic modulus of polymer films as well as good elastic property and crack-resistance of waste tire-rubber powders are beneficial for improving bending toughness and fatigue life of cementitious composites.

  6. Cancer mortality and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and inhalable aerosols in rubber tire manufacturing in Poland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vocht, F.; Sobala, W.; Wilczynska, U.; Kromhout, H.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Peplonska, B.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Most data on carcinogenic risk in the rubber industry are based on data from Western countries. This study assessed cancer risks in a retrospective cohort in a Polish tire manufacturing plant, relying on quantified exposure to inhalable aerosols and aromatic amines instead of job titles or exte

  7. Nano-reinforcement of tire rubbers: silica-technology for natural rubber : exploring the infuence of non-rubber constituents on the natural rubber-silica system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkawi, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Natural rubber is a renewable resource material with outstanding properties which offers significant advantages over its counterparts, the fossil-resource synthetic rubbers. In fact, a natural rubber tree is an efficient carbon dioxide sequester. Since natural rubber is a natural product, it is subj

  8. A comparative study of ground tire rubber devulcanization using twin screw extruder and internal mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujianto, O.; Putri, D. B.; Jayatin; AWinarto, D.

    2017-07-01

    Devulcanization of ground tire rubber (GTR) was done using twin screw extruder (TSE) and internal mixer (IM). Processing parameters were varied to analyze its effect on gel content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed as qualitative technique to confirm structural change. The devulcanized rubbers with the least gel content percentage produced in both TSE and IM were then used as filler in natural rubber (NR)/coconut coir (CC) composite preparation. Effects of gel content percentage on NR/CC composite tensile strength and elongation at break were analyzed. The results show that the gel content decreased by 41% for sample processed in TSE and 50% in IM compared to control sample. Overall, the devulcanization is influenced by high energy generated by thermal or thermo-mechanical process. FTIR spectra show chemically structural changes of GTR as C=C, CH2, CH3 with higher intensity for IM sample than its counterpart indicated devulcanization. The replacement of GTR to DGTR on NR/CC/GTR composites provided less network structures and resulted better tensile strength and elongation at break.

  9. Adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solution using porous carbon derived from rubber tires: experimental and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Tawfik A; Gupta, Vinod K; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A

    2013-04-15

    Effective activated porous carbon (AC) was prepared by thermal treatment of waste rubber tires and was further activated using oxidizing agents like nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The tire-derived porous carbon was characterized by means of FTIR and X-ray diffraction. Careful analysis of the IR spectra of the synthesized AC reveals a number of bands centered at about 3400, 2350, 1710, 1650, and 1300-1000cm(-1), proving the existence of hydroxyl and carboxylic groups on the surface of AC in addition to CC double bonds. The developed AC was tested and evaluated as a potential adsorbent for the removal of lead (II) ions. Experimental parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, and pH were optimized. AC was effective in a pH range between 4 and 7 with a highest uptake of lead ions at pH 5 and 6. For further understanding of the chemistry behind the process, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level adopting a functionalized pyrene molecule as a model. The binding energy of Pb(II) ion toward carboxylic acid, carbonyl, and hydroxyl groups was calculated. A binding energy in the range of 310-340kcal/mol, which is considered to be high and to be indicative of a chemisorptions process, was predicted. The adsorption of the lead ion toward the CO groups in relatively all cases shows more stable binding compared to the sorption toward the alcohol groups.

  10. Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzing, II, James Alfred (Inventor); Kish, James Christopher (Inventor); Asnani, Vivake Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A tire includes a plurality of helical springs. Each helical spring includes a first end portion, a second end portion, and an arching middle portion. Each helical spring is interlaced with at least one other helical spring thereby forming a laced toroidal structure extending about an entire circumference of the tire.

  11. Investigations on cementitious composites based on rubber particle waste additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucio Laun Nacif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The amount of waste rubber has gradually increased over recent years because of over-growing use of rubber products. The disposal of waste rubber has caused serious environmental problems. The incorporation of recycled materials into cementitious composites is a feasible alternative that has gained ground in civil construction. The performance of such materials is much affected not only by the rubber addition, but also the particle size which has been controversially reported in the literature. In order to investigate the single effect of rubber particles into cement based materials, rubber cementitious composites were prepared with no silica particle additions. A full factorial design has been conducted to assess the influence of the rubber particle size (0.84/0.58 mm and 0.28/0.18 mm; mass fraction used (5, 15 and 30%; and water/cement ratio (0.35 and 0.50 on the physic-mechanical properties of the composites. The materials were characterized through apparent density, porosity, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and microstructural analysis. The interactions of rubber particle size, rubber fraction and water/cement ratio affected significantly the density and compressive strength of the composites. The apparent porosity was influenced mainly by the rubber particle size. The flexural strength was affected by the main factors and the modulus of elasticity was affected by the interaction factors rubber particle size and fraction, and rubber fraction and w/c ratio.

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Y

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties.

  13. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  14. Seismic behavior of tire waste-sand mixtures for transportation infrastructure in cold regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aye Edinliler; Ozgur Yildiz

    2015-01-01

    Tire wastes have many properties that are valuable from a geotechnical engineering perspective, such as low density, high strength, thermal insulation, energy absorption capacity, permeability, durability, compressibility, resilience, and high frictional strength. Thus, tire wastes offer good thermal characteristics in resisting frost penetration and have good drainage characteristics, being as permeable as coarse granular soil for fill materials. The many advantages of tire wastes make the material suitable for transportation infrastructure construction in cold regions. Also, tire wastes with high damping prop-erty make them a preferable admixture with sand for transportation infrastructures in seismic regions. This study aimed to determine the seismic performance of certain tire waste-sand mixtures in cold regions. A 70% sand-30% tire crumb mixture by weight (TC30) with a very high damping property was selected for analysis as an engineering material for transportation infrastructure. Small-scale shake-table tests were conducted on this material as well as on a sand-only sample under two different temperatures, 0 °C and 20 °C, to simulate cold-region and moderate-temperature performance, respectively. The 1999İzmit Earthquake Excitation (EW) (Mw=7.4) was taken as the input motion. Test results showed that the tire waste-sand mixture at 0 °C showed better seismic performance than that at room temperature, suggesting that a tire waste-sand mixture in cold regions may reduce seismic hazards to infrastructure.

  15. Properties of concrete with tire derived aggregate and crumb rubber as a lighthweight substitute for mineral aggregates in the concrete mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringi, Gideon Momanyi

    Scrap tires continue to be a nuisance to the environment and this research proposes one way of recycling them as a lightweight aggregate which can substitute for mineral aggregates in concrete. Aggregates derived from scrap tires are often referred to as Tire Derived Aggregate (TDA). First, the focus is how much mineral aggregate can be replaced by these waste tires and how the properties of concrete are affected with the introduction of rubber. This is being mindful of the fact that for a new material to be acceptable as an engineering material, its properties and behavior has to be well understood, the materials must perform properly and be acceptable to the regulating agencies. The role played by the quantity of TDA and Crumb Rubber replacing coarse aggregate and fine aggregate respectively as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties are examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, Splitting Tensile Strength based on ASTM C496, Modulus of Rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78 and Bond strength of concrete developed with reinforcing steel based on ASTM C234.Through stress-strain plots, the rubberized concrete is compared in terms of change in ductility, toughness and Elastic Modulus. Results indicate that while replacement of mineral aggregates with TDA results in reduction in compressive strength, this may be mitigated by addition of silica fume or using a smaller size of TDA to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product with lower density while utilizing recycled TDA. From the results, it is observed that 7-10% of weight of mineral aggregates can be replaced by an equal volume of TDA to produce concrete with compressive strength of up to 4000 psi (27.5 MPa). Rubberized concrete would have higher ductility and toughness with

  16. Serbia: A new process for waste rubber and plastic recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozren Ocic

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to describe a new technological process for waste rubber and plastic recycling up to the commercial components in safe environmental friendly way. Researches and all relevant technical-technological data related to this process are checked at constructed pilot plant. The future construction of these units for waste rubber and plastic recycling will allow interested parties to achieve the environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency.

  17. Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    rubber gasket that provides an air seal. Always replace the plastic cap with a metal cap or a self-sealing nylon cap. (6) Bend the valve stem to...Bead base The inner portion of the bead that is seated on the bead seat. Bead bundle A circumferentially stiff hoop usually made of steel wires

  18. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly.

  19. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare, E-mail: ahmetli@selcuk.edu.tr; Gungor, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetli@selcuk.edu.tr; Kocaman, Suheyla, E-mail: ahmetli@selcuk.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selcuk University, 42031 Konya (Turkey)

    2014-05-15

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  20. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Chang, Jie

    2008-11-01

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na2CO3, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 degrees C to 600 degrees C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 degrees C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 degrees C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) approximately 205 degrees C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na2CO3 addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H2, CO, CH4, CO2, C2H4 and C2H6. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  1. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF RUBBERIZED GYPSUM BOARD

    OpenAIRE

    Taher Abu-Lebdeh; Ellie Fini; Ashraf Fadiel

    2014-01-01

    The disposal of scrap tires is a challenging task and hence an innovative solution to meet these challenges is needed. Extensive work has been done on the utilization of waste tires in a variety of applications in asphalt pavements and concrete. However, previous investigations focus only on the mechanical properties of the rubberized materials, but few on the thermal performance. This is especially true for rubberized gypsum. Limited or no experimental data on the thermal performance of rubb...

  2. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  3. Complex processing of rubber waste through energy recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Smelík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the applied energy recovery solutions for complex processing of rubber waste for energy recovery. It deals specifically with the solution that could maximize possible use of all rubber waste and does not create no additional waste that disposal would be expensive and dangerous for the environment. The project is economically viable and energy self-sufficient. The outputs of the process could replace natural gas and crude oil products. The other part of the process is also the separation of metals, which can be returned to the metallurgical secondary production.

  4. Influence of ground tire rubber on the transient loading response of a peat biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hornos, F J; Izquierdo, M; Martínez-Soria, V; Penya-Roja, J M; Sempere, F; Gabaldón, C

    2011-08-01

    The effect of using ground tire rubber (GTR) as an adsorptive material in the removal of a 2:1:1 weight mixture of n-butyl acetate, toluene and m-xylene by using a peat biofilter under different intermittent conditions was investigated. The performance of two identical size biofilters, one packed with fibrous peat alone and the other with a 3:1 (vol) fibrous peat and GTR mixture, was examined for a period of four months. Partition coefficients of both materials were measured. Values of 53, 118 and 402 L kg(-1) were determined for n-butyl acetate, toluene and m-xylene in peat, respectively; and values of 40, 609 and 3035 L kg(-1) were measured for the same compounds in GTR. Intermittent load feeding of 16 h per day, 5 days per week working at an EBRT of 60 s and an inlet VOC concentration of 0.3 g C m(-1), resulted in removal efficiencies higher than 90% for both biofilters, indicating that the addition of GTR did not adversely affect the behavior of the bioreactor. Full removal of n-butyl acetate was obtained for both biofilters. GTR improved the removal of the aromatics in the first part of the biofilter, facilitating lower penetration of the toluene and m-xylene into the bed. A 31-day starvation period was applied and intermittent operation subsequently restarted. In both biofilters, high removal efficiencies after a re-acclimation period of two days were achieved. A shock loading test related to 1-h peaks of three- and four-fold increases in its baseline concentration (0.30 g C m(-3)) was applied in both biofilters. For the biofilter packed with the peat and GTR mixture, attenuation greater than 60% was observed in the maximum outlet concentration when compared to the biofilter packed with peat alone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TIRE RUBBER CONCRETE = PROPRIEDADES MECÂNICAS DO CONCRETO ADICIONADO COM BORRACHA DE PNEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Akasaki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The residues disposal from tire rubber out of use has become a problem for most of countries. This work proposal is to provide an alternative and clean way to recycle this material that is harmful for the environment. The work’s aim is to study the behavior of tire rubber concrete through different mix proportions and two tire rubber aggregates gradation and evaluate properties as: compressive strength, splitting tensile test, modulus of elasticity, water absorption and workability. The tests were carried out to the ages of 7, 28 and 56 days using cylindrical specimens of (10x20 cm and (15x30 cm. The last specimens were used for modulus of elasticity tests. The results show that the addition of tire rubber in concrete reduces workability and mechanical properties values. = A disposição de resíduos provenientes de pneus fora de uso tem se tornado um problema para a maioria dos países. A proposta deste trabalho é proporcionar uma forma alternativa e limpa de reciclagem deste material prejudicial ao meio ambiente. O trabalho realizado tem como objetivo estudar o comportamento do concreto adicionado de resíduos de borracha de pneus; para isso, foram feitos vários traços com duas granulometrias diferentes e avaliadas propriedades como: resistência à compressão, resistência à tração, módulo de elasticidade, absorção de água e trabalhabilidade. Os ensaios foram feitos para as idades de 7, 28 e 56 dias em corpos-de-prova cilíndricos de dimensões (10x20 cm e (15x30 cm sendo o último utilizado apenas para o ensaio de módulo de elasticidade. Os resultados indicam redução nos valores referentes às propriedades mecânicas e perda na trabalhabilidade após a adição do resíduo.

  6. Fly ash reinforced thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained from waste tire powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, V; Xiu, Zhang Zhen; Xu, Deng; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk; Kang, Dong Jin; Bang, Dae-Suk

    2009-03-01

    Novel thermoplastic composites made from two major industrial and consumer wastes, fly ash and waste tire powder, have been developed. The effect of increasing fly ash loadings on performance characteristics such as tensile strength, thermal, dynamic mechanical and magnetic properties has been investigated. The morphology of the blends shows that fly ash particles have more affinity and adhesion towards the rubbery phase when compared to the plastic phase. The fracture surface of the composites shows extensive debonding of fly ash particles. Thermal analysis of the composites shows a progressive increase in activation energy with increase in fly ash loadings. Additionally, morphological studies of the ash residue after 90% thermal degradation shows extensive changes occurring in both the polymer and filler phases. The processing ability of the thermoplastics has been carried out in a Monsanto processability testing machine as a function of shear rate and temperature. Shear thinning behavior, typical of particulate polymer systems, has been observed irrespective of the testing temperatures. Magnetic properties and percolation behavior of the composites have also been evaluated.

  7. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml and liquid fuel conversion rate was 54.93 %. Fuel was analysis by GC/MS and compounds are present aliphatic group, aromatic group, alcoholic group, oxygen content and nitrogen content.Fuel can use refinery process as a refinery feed.Keywords: Tire, polystyrene, conversion, chemical product, vehicle, hydrocarbon

  8. Use of waste rubber as concrete additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang Hsing; Lu, Chun-Ku; Chang, Jen-Ray; Lee, Maw Tien

    2007-02-01

    For resource reutilization, scrap tyres have long been investigated as an additive to concrete to form 'Rubcrete' for various applications and have shown promising results. However, the addition of rubber particles leads to the degradation of physical properties, particularly, the compressive strength of the concrete. In this study, a theoretical model was proposed to shed light on the mechanisms of decrease in compressive strength due to the addition of rubber particles as well as improvement in compressive strength through modification of particle surfaces. The literature suggests that the compressive strength can be improved by soaking the rubber particles in alkaline solution first to increase the inter-phase bonding between the rubber particles and cement. Instead, we discovered that the loss in compressive strength was due to local imperfections in the hydration of cement, induced by the addition of heterogeneous and hydrophobic rubber particles. Microscopic studies showed that the rubber particles disturbed the water transfer to create channels, which were prone to cracking and led to a loss in the compressive strength. Unexpectedly, no cracking was found along the surfaces of the rubber particles, indicating that the bonding strength between the rubber particles and cement phases was not the critical factor in determining the compressive strength. Therefore, a theoretical model was proposed to describe the water transfer in the Rubcrete specimens to explain the experimental data. In the model, the local water available for hydration (Q) is: Q = -A(slv)/6piv, where Q, A(slv), and v are mass flow rate (kg s(-1)), Hamaker constant (J), and dynamic viscosity (m2 s(-1)), respectively. By maximizing the quantity Q and, in turn, the Hamaker constant A(slv), the compressive strength could be improved. The Hamaker constant A(slv) for water film on rubber particle surfaces was smaller than that for the hydrated cement particles; the water transfer rate was lower in

  9. Investigating the combined impact of plasticizer and shear force on the efficiency of low temperature reclaiming of ground tire rubber (GTR)

    OpenAIRE

    Formela, Krzysztof; Klein, Marek; Colom Fajula, Xavier; Reza Saeb, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, ground tire rubber (GTR) was mechano-chemically reclaimed at ambient temperature using two-roll mills. Road bitumen and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)-modified bitumen at variable content (in range: 2.5-20 phr) were applied as reactive plasticizers to enhance reclaiming of GTR. For better understanding the plasticizing effect of bitumen on the quality of obtained reclaimed rubber, mechano-chemically reclaimed GTR has been compared with GTR after thermo-mechanical reclaim...

  10. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Haiping; Holikatti, Sri; Vacura, Peter

    2014-01-01

    ...) and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process...

  11. Viability Analysis of Waste Tires as Material for Rail Vibration and Noise Control in Modern Tram Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study focused on the effect of using damping chamber elements made from waste tires on railway noise reduction. First, the energy absorption characteristics of damping chamber elements with various gradation combinations and compaction indices were measured in the laboratory using compression testing. The laboratory compression results demonstrated that the optimal gradation combination of damping chamber elements is as follows: the content of fine rubber particles is 10%, the content of coarse granules is 90%, and the optimal compaction index is 0.98. Next, the findings from the laboratory compression-test studies were used to produce damping chamber elements that were applied to a full-scale modern track model in the laboratory. The measurements of the dynamic properties indicated that the damping chamber elements could significantly reduce the vibration levels of the rail head. Finally, the damping chamber elements, which had been proven effective through laboratory dynamic tests, were widely applied to test rail sections in the field. The field tests demonstrated that damping chamber elements can significantly increase the track vibration decay rate in the frequency range of 200–10000 Hz. Therefore, damping chamber elements made from waste tires are able to control rail vibration and noise in modern tram track systems.

  12. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel, E-mail: juand.martinez@upb.edu.co [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales, Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 N°70-01, Bloque 11, piso 2, Medellín (Colombia); Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW{sub th}. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  13. Polyethylene-waste tire dust composites via in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes A, Y. K.; Narro C, R. I.; Ramos A, M. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Blvd. Venustiano Carranza s/n, 25280 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Neira V, M. G.; Diaz E, J.; Enriquez M, F.; Valencia L, L. A.; Saade C, H.; Diaz de L, R., E-mail: ramon.diazdeleon@ciqa.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo No. 40, Col. San Jose de los Cerritos, 25293 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    Polyethylene/waste tire dust (WTD) composites were obtained by an in situ polymerization technique. The surface of the WTD was modified with deposition of polyethylene by using plasma polymerization. Ethylene polymerization was carried out using bis(cyclopentadienyl) titanium dichloride (Cp{sub 2}TiCl{sub 2}) as homogeneous metallocenes catalyst, while diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC), ethyl aluminum sesquichloride (EASC) and methyl alumino xane (Mao) were used as co-catalysts at two different [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio. The main characteristics of the obtained polyethylenes were determined by size exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The results showed that by using EASC and Mao the highest catalytic activities were presented at a [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio of 9.17 and 18.33 respectively. Even though it was possible to obtain polyethylene using WTD (modified or unmodified) the catalytic activity was lower than in the case in which no WTD was added in ethylene polymerization. Scanning transmission electronic microscopy images evidenced that the original morphology of the polyethylenes was not modified by the presence of WTD. (Author)

  14. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Characterization of Metallurgical Coke Produced with Coal Mixtures and Waste Tires

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Guilherme Liziero Ruggio da; Silva,Renata Dias; Cheloni,Leticia; Moreira,Victor Eric de Souza; Haneiko,Natália Brasil Dias; Assis, Paulo Santos

    2016-01-01

    The use of scrap tires in the coal blends is an alternative to reduction of coke production costs as well as mitigates the impact caused by tire accumulation in the environment. Tests were carried out on a pilot scale, with coal blends and waste tire in 4 levels and 3 particle sizes, in order to assess the impact on the produced coke quality, especially on the Strength after Reaction with CO2 - CSR and Drum Index (DI150-15). In addition, it evaluated the mechanical resistance to compression, ...

  16. 78 FR 47050 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... number of plies and types of ply cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers and... foregoing, NHTSA has decided that Cooper has met its burden of persuasion that the FMVSS No. 139...

  17. 77 FR 3031 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... plies and types of ply cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers and customers... Goodyear has met its burden of persuasion that the subject FMVSS No. 119 labeling noncompliances are...

  18. 75 FR 17827 - Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... number of plies and types of ply cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers and... decided that Goodyear has met its burden of persuasion that the subject FMVSS No. 139 labeling...

  19. 76 FR 73007 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... number of plies and types of ply cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers and.... In consideration of the foregoing, NHTSA has decided that Goodyear has met its burden of persuasion...

  20. Waste tyre rubberized concrete: properties at fresh and hardened state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, M A; Leuzzi, F

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of various concrete mixtures at fresh and hardened state, obtained by a partial substitution of coarse and fine aggregate with different volume percentages of waste tyres rubber particles, having the same dimensions of the replaced aggregate. Workability, unit weight, compressive and flexural strength and post-cracking behaviour were evaluated and a comparison of the results for the different rubcrete mixtures were proposed in order to define the better mix proportions in terms of mechanical properties of the rubberized concrete. Results showed in this paper were also compared to data reported in literature. Moreover, a preliminary geometrical, physical and mechanical characterization on scrap tyre rubber shreds was made. The rubberized concrete mixtures showed lower unit weight compared to plain concrete and good workability. The results of compressive and flexural tests indicated a larger reduction of mechanical properties of rubcrete when replacing coarse aggregate rather than fine aggregate. On the other hand, the post-cracking behaviour of rubberized concrete was positively affected by the substitution of coarse aggregate with rubber shreds, showing a good energy absorption and ductility indexes in the range observed for fibrous concrete, as suggested by standard (ASTM C1018-97, 1997).

  1. On the Fresh/Hardened Properties of Cement Composites Incorporating Rubber Particles from Recycled Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Fiore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the ameliorative effects on some properties of cement-based materials which can be obtained by incorporating rubber particles as part of the fine aggregates. The aim is to find out optimal cement composite/mortar mixtures, containing recycled-tyre rubber particles, suitable for specific engineering applications. Different percentages of rubber particles, from 0% to 75%, were used and, for each percentage, the suitable amount of sand was investigated in order to achieve the best fresh/hardened performances. In particular the following characteristics were examined: density, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage, weight loss, flexural behaviour, thermal conductivity, rapid freezing and thawing durability, and chloride permeability. The experimental results were compared with the ones of cement composite specimens without rubber aggregates. Test results show that the proposed rubberized mortar mixes are particularly suitable for some industrial and architectural applications, such as under-rail bearings, road constructions, paving slabs, false facades, and stone backing.

  2. Production of activated carbons from waste tire--process design and economical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Danny C K; Mui, Edward L K; Lau, Ken S T; McKay, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    The process design and economic analysis of process plants to produce activated carbons from waste tires and coal have been performed. The potential range of products from each process has been considered, namely for waste tire--pyro-gas, active carbon, carbon black and pyro-oil; for coal--pyro-gas and active carbons. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out on the main process factors; these are product price, production capacity, total production cost, capital investment and the tipping fee. Net present values for the two plants at various discount factors have been determined and the internal rates of return have been determined as 27.4% and 18.9% for the waste tire plant and the coal plant, respectively.

  3. Rubber Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2007-01-01

    The safety and health hazards related to recycling of used rubber, due to the scarcity and high price of virgin rubber are reported. Various threats like stagnant water pools trapped in tires leading to diseases and ignited tires, which become very difficult to extinguish and generating smoke that is extremely detrimental to the environment, have…

  4. Strength and deformability of waste tyre rubber-filled reinforced concrete columns

    OpenAIRE

    Son, K.S.; Hajirasouliha, I.; Pilakoutas, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the efficiency of waste tyre rubber-filled concrete to improve the deformability and energy absorption capacity of RC columns by considering different concrete compressive strength, size of waste tyre rubber particles and rubber content. Twelve column specimens were tested using concrete of compressive strength 24 and 28 MPa mixed with 0.6 and 1 mm tyre rubber particles. For each concrete batch, 27 control specimens were prepared to examine the concrete properti...

  5. MUTAGENICITY OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP RUBBER TIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a follow-up to a small-scale combustion study to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open combustion of scrap tires. The initial study found that total estimated emissions of semi-volatile organics ranged from 10 to 50 g/kg o...

  6. Thermoplastic elastomers blends based on linear low density polyethylene, ethylene-1-octene copolymers and ground rubber tire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Cristina Guimarães Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE ethylene-1-octene copolymers (EOC, with different 1-octene (OC content, and ground rubber tire (GRT were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Five different compositions of LLDPE/EOC/GRT blends were processed in the extruder to evaluate the effect of EOC addition to the LLDPE/GRT blends. The addition of EOC to LLDPE/GRT blends improves the mechanical properties. Besides, the replacement of 5% of GRT by EOC grades (OC = 20 or 30 wt % in the 50/50 LLDPE/GRT blend, leads to a significant increase of ultimate tensile properties. The EOC comonomer content affects the properties of LLDPE/EOC and LLDPE/EOC/GRT blends. Dynamical-mechanical analyses showed that, with the addition of EOC to LLDPE/GRT blends, the Tg of GRT and the Tg of EOC are closer. This effect is more pronounced when the EOC with the highest content of comonomer (30 wt % is added to LLDPE/GRT blend. In this case, only one peak related to the Tg of the rubber phase can be visualized in the amorphous region. These findings indicate that EOC may act as compatibilizer agent for LLDPE/GRT blends.

  7. Scrap tire process turns waste into fuel. [USA - New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesla, M.R. (New York State Electric and Gas Corporation, Binghamton, NY (United States). Alternate Fuels Development)

    1994-05-01

    New York State Electric Gas Corp. (NYSEG) has in the last three years burned more than 1.3 million tyres to generate power, saving more than 16,000 tons of coal. The article describes how at the 73 MW Jennison power station scrap tires are chopped into 2x2 in. chips prior to mixing with coal near the coal pile (in a 20.80 tire chip to coal ratio) and combustion in stoker boilers with travelling chain grates. NYSEG has also test burned other alternative fuels such as creosote-treated wood and coal tar soils. 6 photos.

  8. Strength of Concrete Containing Rubber Particle as Partial Cement Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Siti Radziah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled issues of disposal waste tire rubber create huge environmental impact and health hazards. An alternative viable solution to minimize these problems is by utilizing the waste rubber tires in construction materials, which in turn can reduce the use of natural resources and eventually lessen the cost of construction. This paper mainly focuses on the use of waste rubber tires particles in concrete with different set of composition ranging from 3 to 12% of cement replacement. Concrete cubes size of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm were prepared for compressive strength test, and concrete cylinders size of 150m x 300mm were prepared for splitting tensile test. The result shows that the compressive and split tensile strength of concrete with rubber as cement replacements is 6-21% lower than the normal concrete.

  9. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  10. 胶粉/热塑性树脂共混技术研究进展%Progress in Blending Technology Research of Ground Tire Rubber/Thermoplastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁亚平; 李永华; 叶南飚

    2011-01-01

    综述了胶粉/热塑性树脂共混的技术研究进展.对胶粉的制备、表面改性及胶粉与热塑性树脂的相容性做了总结.%Progress in blend technology research of ground tire rubber (GRT)/thermoplastics was reviewed. Preparation of GRT, surface modification and compatibility between GRT and thermoplastics resin were summarized.

  11. Stress analysis of drum mixer supported by rubber tires%橡胶轮胎支撑圆筒混合机受力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万书华; 白明华; 任素波

    2012-01-01

    橡胶轮胎支撑圆筒混合机由多个橡胶轮胎支撑,求解各个轮胎的受力,属于多次静不定问题.通常采用三弯矩方程求解各个轮胎受力,需要求解多元一次方程组,求解过程比较繁琐.该文在详细分析了连续梁的受力特点利用叠加原理,提出采用弯矩分配法,只需三次迭代,就可求解出各个轮胎的受力.求解过程简单,结果精确.%The drum mixer is supported by a number of rubber tires. The force exerted on each tire is calculated and is known as a multi-time slatically indeterminate problem. In the past, Three-Bending Moment equation was generally used for solving the force exerted on each tire. However, the solving process of the equation is complicated. Based on the detailed analysis of the menchannical characteristics of continuous beam, the bending moment distribution method for solving the stress exerted on rubber tires is proposed in this paper according to the superposition principle, which only needs three-time iteration. Its solving process is simple, but accurate.

  12. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  13. Recycling of waste tyre rubber into oil absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Zhou, M H

    2009-01-01

    The abundant and indiscriminant disposal of waste tyres has caused both health and environmental problems. In this work, we provide a new way to dispose off waste tyres by reusing the waste tyre rubber (WTR) for oil absorptive material production. To investigate this feasibility, a series of absorbents were prepared by graft copolymerization-blending method, using waste tyre rubber and 4-tert-butylstyrene (tBS) as monomers. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) were employed as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. The existence of graft-blends (WTR-g-tBS) was determined by FTIR spectrometry and verified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). In addition, the thermal properties of WTR-g-tBS were confirmed by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Oil absorbency of the grafted-blends increased with increases in either feed ratio of WTR to tBS or DVB concentration. This absorbency reached a maximum of 24.0gg(-1) as the feed ratio and DVB concentration were 60/40 and 1wt%, respectively, after which it decreased. At other ratios and concentrations the absorbency decreased. The gel fraction of grafted-blends increased with increasing concentration of DVB. Oil-absorption processes in pure toluene and crude oil diluted with toluene were found to adhere to first-order absorption kinetics. Furthermore, the oil-absorption rate in diluted crude oil was observed to be lower than pure toluene.

  14. Recovery and Modification of Waste Tire Particles and Their Use as Reinforcements of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sadot Herrera-Sosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by solid wastes is increasing in the last decades; one of these is referred to automotive tires, which are recycled by different methods, including mechanical grinding. One of the most recurrent applications is to use recycled particles as fillers in building materials, as hydraulic concrete. Nevertheless, detrimental values on the mechanical properties are obtained when they are added. For solving these problems, in this work, a novel proposal is to modify the physicochemical properties of the waste automotive tire particles, previously obtained by grinding process, by using gamma irradiation in order to use them as reinforcements of hydraulic concrete. The results show that improvements on the mechanical properties depend of gamma irradiation as well as concentration and size of waste tire particles. Moreover, SEM images are related to mechanical properties; for instance, rough surface of the tire particles changes when applying irradiation; more smooth surfaces are created, due to the cross-linking of polymer chains. Nevertheless, for higher doses, cracks are observed which are produced by scission of the polymer chains.

  15. Study of the Properties of Polyurethane-waste Rubber Granulate Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.W.Sulkowski; M.Moczy′ski; A.Sulkowska; A.Danch; J.Borek; S.Mistarz

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The production of rubber is very high and rises every year. Among other things it is directly connected with the growth of car production. Therefore, the processing of waste rubber and its management must be treated as a global problem. Used rubber may replace conventional fuel and, owing to its low price, can improve the economic effectiveness of combustion. Energy recovery by combustion of car tyres allows for rapid management of rubber waste. However, it is well-known that all kinds of wast...

  16. Silica-filled tire tread compounds: an investigation into the viscoelastic properties of the rubber compounds and their relation to tire performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing the global concern for fossil fuel consumption, automotive industry moves toward more efficient vehicles. Tires are of great importance in this respect, as the tire compound material in contact with the road surface and under the cyclic deformation dissipates energy due to its

  17. Development of adsorbents from used tire rubber. Their use in the adsorption of organic and inorganic solutes in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troca-Torrado, Cesar; Alexandre-Franco, Maria; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Carmen; Gomez-Serrano, Vicente [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Alfaro-Dominguez, Manuel [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales

    2011-02-15

    Using used tire rubber (UTR), carbonaceous adsorbents (CAs) were prepared by chemical treatment of the material with HCl, HNO{sub 3} and NaOH aqueous solutions and by heat treatment at 900 C for 2 h in N{sub 2} atmosphere (H900). UTR and the UTR-derived products were first characterized in terms of texture by N{sub 2} adsorption at - 196 C and of oxygen surface groups by FT-IR spectroscopy and pH of the point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}). Then, the products were tested as adsorbents of phenol, p-aminophenol, p-nitrophenol, and p-chlorophenol and of chromium, cadmium, mercury and lead in aqueous solution. The development of porosity is very poor in UTR and in the chemically treated products. H900 is the only CA with a better developed porosity, mainly in the regions of meso and macropores. pH{sub pzc} is close to 7.0 for most of the CAs. As an exception to the rule, pH{sub pzc} is 8.4 for H900. For this CA, the adsorption of all the adsorptives is greater. Usually, adsorption kinetics are fast. This is so in particular for p-nitrophenol and p-chlorophenol, on the one side, and for mercury and lead, on the other side. Adsorption is much higher for mercury and lead than for the remaining adsorptives. (author)

  18. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF RUBBERIZED GYPSUM BOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Abu-Lebdeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of scrap tires is a challenging task and hence an innovative solution to meet these challenges is needed. Extensive work has been done on the utilization of waste tires in a variety of applications in asphalt pavements and concrete. However, previous investigations focus only on the mechanical properties of the rubberized materials, but few on the thermal performance. This is especially true for rubberized gypsum. Limited or no experimental data on the thermal performance of rubberized gypsum board are available. In this study, an experimental program is established to investigate the effect of amount and size of crumb rubber on the thermal properties of gypsum materials. Gypsum is replaced by four different percentage of crumb rubber: 10, 20, 30 and 40% by weight of gypsum and two sizes of crumb rubber (#30, #10_20 to make eight rubberized gypsum specimens. The prepared specimens were tested for thermal conductivity using an apparatus specially designed and constructed for this purpose. The experimental program was concluded by proposing an empirical equation to predict the thermal conductivity of rubberized gypsum board. Results indicated better thermal performance of the gypsum board due to the addition of crumb rubber. Thermal conductivity of the rubberized gypsum was 18-38% lower than the ordinary gypsum. It is concluded that thermal conductivity of rubberized gypsum decreases with the increase of crumb rubber regardless the size of the rubber and that thermal conductivity of mixtures contained 40% of rubber was about 38% lower than conventional mixture when crumb rubber #10_20 was added, while the thermal conductivity reduced by 22% when crumb rubber #30 was added. The study suggested for future work to investigate the effect of air voids size and ratio on the thermal conductivity of rubberized gypsum.

  19. Characteristics of product distribution from steam pyrolysis of waste tire shreds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, M.S.; Jung, J.S.; Lee, H.P.; Yoo, K.O. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    The pyrolysis of scrap tires was accomplished under steam condition. Inert pyrolysis leads to oil decomposition and tar coating on the recovered char. This deposition of heavy oil on the char surface was prevented by conducting the pyrolysis in a steam atmosphere. The oil was easily removed from the char presumably via the steam distillation effect, and the surface of the char was activated by the well-known water-gas reaction. Char produced in a steam atmosphere has the higher surface area than that obtained by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. Accordingly, steam pyrolysis of scrap tires increased the oil yield slightly and the surface area of the residual char significantly. TG/DSC and DTG curves of tire rubber was examined by qualitative analysis. Also, quantitative data-fitting of nonisothermal rate data was carried out, and decomposition of both extender oil and SBR followed first-order kinetics in a nitrogen atmosphere. Chemical composition analysis of produced oil by FT-IR spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis showed that (1) major components are alkyl-substituted aromatic groups, and (2) high temperature and steam flow lead to secondary vapor-phase collision reactions. FT-IR results of residual char revealed that complex interaction between water vapor and hydrocarbon matrix was occurred. (author). 23 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Laboratory Study on the Use of Tire Shreds and Rubber-Sand in Backfilled and Reinforced Soil Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Andres; Lovell, C. W.; Salgado, Rodrigo

    1996-01-01

    Millions of scrap tires are discarded annually in the United States, the bulk of which are currently landfilled or stockpiled. This consumes valuable landfill space, or, if improperly disposed, creates a fire hazard and provides a prolific breeding ground for rats and mosquitoes. The use of tire shreds as lightweight fill material can sharply reduce the tire disposal problem. The present study, based on laboratory testing and numerical modeling examines the feasibility of incorporating tire s...

  1. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  2. EFFECT of blend ratio and compatibilizer on solution casted treated waste natural rubber latex/polystyrene blends

    OpenAIRE

    Orathai Boondamnoen; A. Rashid Azura; Masahiro Ohshima; Saowaroj Chuayjuljit; Azlan Ariffin

    2013-01-01

    Natural rubber latex waste (WL) was treated with natural rubber latex (NRL) prior to blend with polystyrene. Differentblend compositions of treated waste natural rubber latex (TWL) and PS were carried out through solution blending. Tensileand tear properties were investigated. The compatibility improvement of the 70/30 TWL/PS blends was further investigatedusing styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and styrene graft natural rubber (SNR) as compatibilizer. The mechanical properties forTWL/PS blends ...

  3. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER TO IMPROVE THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Fadiel; Fouad Al Rifaie; Taher Abu-Lebdeh; Ellie Fini

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the tremendous trend toward green environment and to reduce the effect of scrap tires on the environment and human health, this research is an attempt to find a practical and environmentally sound solution of the problem of scrap tires by developing a light weight with low thermal conductivity composite construction materials using waste tires. A few literatures may be found about the effect of crumb rubber on thermal conductivity of mortar. Thus, in this research project, an exp...

  4. Devulcanization of styrenebutadiene (SBR waste tire by controlled oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rios Rachel R.V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the devulcanization of vulcanized SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber based on controlled oxidation with nitric acid. IR, ¹H and 13C-NMR, CHN elemental analyses, TG, GPC and TPD-MS (Temperature Programmed Decomposition-Mass Spectrometry experiments suggest that nitric acid promotes two processes: (i devulcanization by oxidation of the sulfide crosslinks and (ii oxidation of the carbon framework leading to the formation of -COOH and -NO2 groups. Under aggressive conditions (HNO3, reflux the polymer chain is strongly oxidized and fragmented to a highly oxygenated low molecular weight fraction, which is soluble in water.

  5. Preparation of sulfurized powdered activated carbon from waste tires using an innovative compositive impregnation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Wu, Chun-Hsin; Liu, Ming-Han; Hung, Chung-Hsuang

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an innovative compositive impregnation process for preparing sulfurized powdered activated carbon (PAC) from waste tires. An experimental apparatus, including a pyrolysis and activation system and a sulfur (S) impregnation system, was designed and applied to produce sulfurized PAC with a high specific surface area. Experimental tests involved the pyrolysis, activation, and sulfurization of waste tires. Waste-tire-derived PAC (WPAC) was initially produced in the pyrolysis and activation system. Experimental results indicated that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of WPAC increased, and the average pore radius of WPAC decreased, as water feed rate and activation time increased. In this study, a conventional direct impregnation process was used to prepare the sulfurized PAC by impregnating WPAC with sodium sulfide (Na2S) solution. Furthermore, an innovative compositive impregnation process was developed and then compared with the conventional direct impregnation process. Experimental results showed that the compositive impregnation process produced the sulfurized WPAC with high BET surface area and a high S content. A maximum BET surface area of 886 m2/g and the S content of 2.61% by mass were obtained at 900 degrees C and at the S feed ratio of 2160 mg Na2S/g C. However, the direct impregnation process led to a BET surface area of sulfurized WPAC that decreased significantly as the S content increased.

  6. Recycling of waste gasket rubber granules by bulk CuCl2 and nano CuCl2: removal of Hg(II) ions by recycled rubber granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deivasigamani, Kalpana; Nanjan, Jayakumar; Mani, Hari Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Environmental problems arise due to the millions of tons of waste rubber that are thrown away in the natural environment. Management of this waste rubber is a big environmental challenge. So, a new, simple and cost-effective recycling method for obtaining recycled waste rubber should be developed. In this study, we found that waste gasket rubber can be desulfurized by means of bulk and nano-sized transition metal halides in the presence of solvents. The recycled product of desulfurized waste gasket rubber granules that is obtained can be used as the cheapest adsorbent in the removal of mercury(II) ions from aqueous solution. Comparative batch studies have been conducted to elucidate the adsorption efficiency of desulfurized rubber using bulk copper chloride and also using nano-sized copper chloride under optimum conditions with commercial activated carbon.

  7. Biodesulfurization of rubber materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Raghavan, D. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in municipal waste treatment is the recycling of polymeric waste materials. The present study has demonstrated the applicability of biotechnological principles in the desulfurization of rubber using shake flask and Warburg respirometric techniques. In terms of oxygen uptake and specific rate of oxygen uptake, it was found that the mixed culture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans was more efficient in this process than the individual pure cultures of these bacteria. Furthermore, the mixed cultures resulted in ten times higher sulfur removals from rubber relative to those of sterile controls. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of biodesulfurization of rubber. It is expected that the development of this process may provide a solution to recycling of car tire materials. 32 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. 40 CFR 62.15020 - Can my small municipal waste combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires. Your unit is exempt from this subpart if three requirements are met: (1) Your municipal waste combustion unit combusts a single-item waste stream of tires and...) Your pyrolysis/combustion unit is an integrated part of a plastics/rubber recycling unit as...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... qualifies for the exemption. (d) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires. Units are exempt... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel oil... pyrolysis/combustion unit is an integrated part of a plastics/rubber recycling unit as defined...

  10. Application of tire chips to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes in municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoor, Azadeh; Rowe, R Kerry

    2012-05-01

    Heat generated by the biodegradation of waste and other chemical processes in a landfill can potentially affect the long-term performance of landfill liner system, in particular that of a high-density polyethylene geomembrane. In a double liner system, the difference in leachate exposure and temperature might improve the long-term performance of the secondary geomembrane compared to that of the primary geomembrane. However, in some cases, the temperature is likely to be high enough to substantially reduce the service-life of the secondary geomembrane. This study explores the possible effectiveness of using tire chips as thermal insulation between primary and secondary liners to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes as compared to traditional soil materials. Heat and contaminant migration analyses are performed for cases with no insulation and for cases in which a layer of soil or tire chips has been used as thermal insulation between the primary and secondary liners. The effect of insulation on prolonging the service-life of a secondary geomembrane and, consequently, on contaminant transport through a liner system is examined for the case of a volatile organic compound (dichloromethane) found in landfill leachate. The study suggests that the use of tire chips warrants consideration, however there are other practical issues that require consideration in the detailed design and construction of landfill liners. Issues such as finite service-life, low working temperature, excessive settlement, ability to generate internal heat, leaching of tire chips and limitations in performing electrical resistivity leak detection tests are identified.

  11. Duration of activity of the microbial larvicide VectoLex CG (Bacillus sphaericus) in Illinois catch basins and waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J P; Novak, R J

    1999-09-01

    The duration of activity of a formulation of Bacillus sphaericus, VectoLex CG, for control of Culex species was evaluated in 338 catch basins in Urbana, IL, and compared to Altosid in 346 catch basins in Champaign, IL. The activity of VectoLex in car and truck waste tires was evaluated in a tire dump located in Pembroke Township, IL. In catch basins, 1 g of VectoLex per catch basin gave the same control as one Altosid briquet. Both larvicides were effective against Culex sp. in catch basins for 1 month, and the duration of control with VectoLex lasted 44 days in one catch basin. VectoLex was considerably cheaper to apply than Altosid briquets, at 0.64 cents per catch basin compared to 90.75 cents, respectively. However, the Altosid briquets were judged to be easier to apply from a vehicle than VectoLex granules. VectoLex (22.6 kg) was used to treat approximately 6,000 car and truck tires; some of the tires were in direct sunlight whereas others were shaded. Aedes triseriatus was the dominant species in these tires. Tires treated with VectoLex contained significantly fewer mosquitoes than control tires, and even 65 days after application, control tires were 16.7 times more likely to contain larvae. We conclude that VectoLex was effective when used in Illinois catch basins and tire dumps, and emphasize that it is more appropriate to base tire treatment rates on the total number of tires present than on a kilogram per hectare basis.

  12. Thermomechanical properties of bitumen modified with crumb tire rubber and polymeric additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, V.; Martinez-Boza, F.J.; Navarro, F.J.; Gallegos, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Huelva, Campus del Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Perez-Lepe, A.; Paez, A. [Centro de Tecnologia, Repsol-YPF, Carretera de Extremadura, N-V, km 18, 28931 Mostoles-Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, the influence of some additives on the rheological and technological properties of crumb rubber modified binders has been studied. The research has been mainly focused on the degree of bitumen modification, measured as the improvement of the mechanical properties, produced by the additives used, and the storage stability of these binders at high temperature. The experimental results obtained reveal that all the polymeric additives used yield an improvement in both rheological and technological properties of the binder. The storage instability of these binders has been associated to sedimentation processes of insoluble CR particles that strongly influence the mechanical properties of the binder. The additives and processing conditions selected in this study do not completely prevent problems associated with the poor stability of CRMBs during storage at high temperature. Nevertheless, the use of polyoctenamer, FT-wax or SBS-containing additives improves CRMB stability. In this sense, similar loss tangent values were found before and after hot storage of these binders. (author)

  13. Effect of Rubber Particle Modification on Properties of Rubberized Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Haibo; GOU Mifeng; LIU Xiaoxing; GUAN Xuemao

    2014-01-01

    To improve the combination of cement matrix and waste tire rubber particles in concrete, the rubber particles were treated with acrylic acid (ACA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) for grafting hydrophilic groups on their surfaces. The X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface contact angle were used to characterize the hydrophilicity and surface functional group of rubber particles. The effect of rubber particle modification on fresh/hardened properties of rubberized concrete was studied. The experimental results show that the contact angle between rubber particle surface and water decreases when rubber particle is modified. Compared with the unmodified rubberized concrete(RC), the unit weight of modified rubberized concrete(MRC) changes slightly. However, the slump, air-entrainment, compressive strength, flexural strength, and impact performance of MRC are obviously improved. Under good condition of slump, the water-cement ratio of the MRC can be reduced from 0.4 to 0.38. And the compressive strength and flexural strength of the MRC(10%rubber particle content) can be increased by 25.9%and 26.4%, respectively.

  14. Waste Tire Particles and Gamma Radiation as Modifiers of the Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sadot Herrera-Sosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In polymer reinforced concrete, the Young’s modulus of both polymers and cement matrix is responsible for the detrimental properties of the concrete, including compressive and tensile strength, as well as stiffness. A novel methodology for solving such problems is based on use of ionizing radiation, which has proven to be a good tool for improvement on physical and chemical properties of several materials including polymers, ceramics, and composites. In this work, particles of 0.85 mm and 2.80 mm obtained from waste tire were submitted at 250 kGy of gamma radiation in order to modify their physicochemical properties and then used as reinforcement in Portland cement concrete for improving mechanical properties. The results show diminution on mechanical properties in both kinds of concrete without (or with irradiated tire particles with respect to plain concrete. Nevertheless such diminutions (from 2 to 16% are compensated with the use of high concentration of waste tire particles (30%, which ensures that the concrete will not significantly increase the cost.

  15. Production of activated carbon by waste tire thermochemical degradation with CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, Mariluz; Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón

    2009-09-15

    The thermochemical degradation of waste tires in a CO(2) atmosphere without previous treatment of devolatilization (pyrolysis) in order to obtain activated carbons with good textural properties such as surface area and porosity was studied. The operating variables studied were CO(2) flow rate (50 and 150 mL/min), temperature (800 and 900 degrees C) and reaction time (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3h). Results show a considerable effect of the temperature and the reaction time in the porosity development. Kinetic measurements showed that the reactions involved in the thermochemical degradation of waste tire with CO(2), are similar to those developed in the pyrolysis process carried out under N(2) atmosphere and temperatures below 760 degrees C, for particles sizes of 500 microm and heating rate of 5 degrees C/min. For temperatures higher than 760 degrees C the CO(2) starts to oxidize the remaining carbon black. Activated carbon with a 414-m(2)/g surface area at 900 degrees C of temperature, 150 mL/min of CO(2) volumetric flow and 180 min of reaction time was obtained. In this work it is considering the no reactivity of CO(2) for devolatilization of the tires (up to 760 degrees C), and also the partial oxidation of residual char at high temperature for activation (>760 degrees C). It is confirmed that there are two consecutive stages (devolatilization and activation) developed from the same process.

  16. Improvement of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil and Performance Test with Diesel in CI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard of living, quality of life, and development of a nation depend on its per capita energy consumption. Global energy supply that mainly depends on fossil fuel is decreasing day by day. It is estimated that the energy demand will be increased five times by the year 2021 from present scenario. Due to the fossil fuel crisis, the development of alternative fuel technologies has drawn more attraction to deliver the replacement of fossil fuel. Pyrolysis is one of the promising alternative fuel technologies which produces valuable oil, char, and gas product from organic waste. Early investigations report that tire pyrolysis oil extracted from vacuum pyrolysis method seemed to have properties similar to diesel fuel. The main concern of this paper is to produce and improve the properties of crude tire pyrolysis oil by desulfurizing, distilling, and utilizing it with diesel in CI engine to analyze the efficiency for various compositions.

  17. Production of activated carbons from pyrolysis of waste tires impregnated with potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, H; Lin, Y C; Hsu, L Y

    2000-11-01

    Activated carbons were produced from waste tires using a chemical activation method. The carbon production process consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) impregnation followed by pyrolysis in N2 at 600-900 degrees C for 0-2 hr. The activation method can produce carbons with a surface area (SA) and total pore volume as high as 470 m2/g and 0.57 cm3/g, respectively. The influence of different parameters during chemical activation, such as pyrolysis temperature, holding time, and KOH/tire ratio, on the carbon yield and the surface characteristics was explored, and the optimum preparation conditions were recommended. The pore volume of the resulting carbons generally increases with the extent of carbon gasified by KOH and its derivatives, whereas the SA increases with degree of gasification to reach a maximum value, and then decreases upon further gasification.

  18. Systematic Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Activation of Waste Tire by Factorial Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.P.M. Fung; W.H-Cheung; G. McKay

    2012-01-01

    In this study, waste tire was used as raw material for the production of activated carbons through pyrolysis. 'Fire char was first produced by carbomzation at 550℃ under nitrogen. A two tactortal design was used to optimize the production of activated carbon from tire char. The effects of several factors controlling the activation process, such as temperature (.830-930℃), time (2-6h) and percentage ot carbon dioxide (70%-100%) were investigated. The production was described mathematically as a function of these three factors. First order modeling equations were developed for surface area, yield and mesopore volume. It was concluded that the yield, BET surface area and mesopore volume of activated carbon were most sensitive to activation temperature and time while percentage of carbon dioxide in the activation gas was a less significant factor.

  19. Radiation Induced Grafting of Acrylate onto Waste Rubber: The Effect of Monomer Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirajuddin Siti Salwa M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different acrylate group monomers, namely n-butyl acrylate, methacrylic acid and tripropylene glycol diacrylate of radiation induced grafting onto waste rubber was studied. The electron beam accelerator operated at voltage of 2MeV was used to irradiate the waste rubber at 10 kGy and 100 kGy absorbed radiation dose, respectively. The formation of grafting was observed from the increase in the grafting yield and confirmed by Transformed Infra-Red Spectroscopy results. According to the result obtained, only tripropylene glycol diacrylate was selected to graft onto waste rubber. The carbonyl bond from acrylate groups was seen at 1726 cm-1 band which confirmed the presence of TPGDA in the polymer matrix. This indicates the successful preparation of the TPGDA-grafted waste rubber via radiation induced grafting techniques.

  20. 9 Waste Rubber Technologies Passed the Review on Advanced Applicable Technologies by MIIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiart Bozhang

    2012-01-01

    To promote the development of integrative utilization technologies of industrial solid wastes and to enhance the level of integrative utilization, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) held Reviewing Meeting of Advanced Applicable Technologies for the Integrative Utilization of Industrial Solid Wastes on April 27. 9 integrative utilization technologies of waste rubber passed this review.

  1. Steam thermolysis of tire shreds: modernization in afterburning of accompanying gas with waste steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitko, V. A.

    2010-03-01

    On the basis of experience in the commercial operation of tire-shred steam thermolysis in EnresTec Inc. (Taiwan) producing high-grade commercial carbon, liquid pyrolysis fuel, and accompanying fuel gas by this method, we have proposed a number of engineering solutions and calculated-analytical substantiations for modernization and intensification of the process by afterburning the accompanying gas with waste steam condensable in the scrubber of water gas cleaning of afterburning products. The condensate is completely freed of the organic pyrolysis impurities and the necessity of separating it from the liquid fuel, as is the case with the active process, is excluded.

  2. Surface analysis of carbon black waste materials from tire residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Ko, Y. K.; Reucroft, P. J.; Zondlo, J. W.

    1999-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to obtain surface chemical state information on two carbon black waste materials in terms of the surface element distribution/concentration and chemical structure. Small amounts of sulfur in the form of CS 2 were detected on the surface (less than 1.7 mass %). C-H/C-C was the major carbon functional component on the surface of carbon black samples but other functional forms of carbon were also present such as CO and C-O. The surface of the carbon black obtained from a hydropyrolysis process was highly oxidized primarily in the form of carbon based oxygen groups. On the other hand, surface oxygen atoms on the surface of the carbon black obtained from a pyrolysis process in the absence of H 2 were in the form of both metal oxides and carbon based oxygen groups.

  3. Application of solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber 2557-A in tire%溶聚丁苯橡胶2557-A在轮胎中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐燕; 孙举涛; 徐文清; 张萍; 孙学红

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the pure carbon black formula, solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber ( SSBR, grade 2557-A) and emulsion styrene-butadiene rubber(ESBR, grade 1712) were applied to crown rubbers of all-steel and semi-steel radial tires seperately, their application results were compared, and the acceptable crown rubber formula of SSBR 2557-A was achieved. The all-steel and semi-steel radial tires were trial-produced, and their performances were tested. The results showed that compared to ESBR 1712 all-ateel crown vulcanizate. The tensile strength, modulus at 100% and 300% , abrasion resistance ( Akron) , compression heat built-up as well as the balance between wet skid resistance and rolling resistance of the equivalent SSBR 2557-A crown vulcani- zate increased, but abrasion resistance ( DIN ) decreased- And compared to ESBR 1712 semi-stell crown vulcanizate, the equivalent SSBR 2557-A also improved semi-steel crown vulcanizate in skid resistance without changing any other performances. The trial tire based on SSBR 2557-A all-steel crown rubber formula passed endurance test, and the tire based on SSBR 2557-A semi-steel crown rubber formula met the national standard in outer dia, strength, unseating resistance, highspeed performance and durability, in addition, it had substantial high wet skid resistance and noise performance.%按照纯炭黑配方,将溶聚丁苯橡胶(SSBR,牌号为2557 -A)同乳聚丁苯橡胶(ESBR,牌号为1712)对比应用于全钢和半钢子午线轮胎胎冠胶配方中,确定了合适的胎冠胶配方,且进行了轮胎的试制和性能检测.结果表明,与ESBR 1712全钢胎冠胶相比,同等用量SSBR 2557 -A的胎冠胶拉伸强度、定伸应力、Akron磨耗性能和压缩生热等性能均得到提高,但DIN磨耗性能有所下降,且具有更优的抗湿滑性和更低的滚动阻力;与ESBR 1712半钢胎冠胶相比,SSBR 2557 -A胎冠胶具有优异的抗湿滑性能,而其他性能相差不大;采用SSBR 2557 -A

  4. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-12-09

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  5. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Todoroki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  6. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boota, M. [A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia PA 19104 USA; Paranthaman, M. Parans [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; The Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 USA; Naskar, Amit K. [The Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 USA; Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; Li, Yunchao [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; The Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 USA; Akato, Kokouvi [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee 37831 USA; Gogotsi, Y. [A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia PA 19104 USA

    2015-09-25

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m2 g-1) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g-1 at 1 mV s-1 with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98 % after 10 000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π–π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life—a key challenge for redox active polymers.

  7. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, M; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, Amit K; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi; Gogotsi, Y

    2015-11-01

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m(2)  g(-1)) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π-π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life-a key challenge for redox active polymers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Effect of waste rubber powder as filler for plywood application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Huei Ruey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the suitability of waste rubber powder (WRP use as filler in adhesive formulation for plywood application. Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF was employed as resin for formulating the wood adhesive. To improve chemical properties and bonding quality of adhesive, WRP was treated by different chemicals like 20% nitric acid, 30% hydrogen peroxide and acetone solution. The treated WRP were analysed by XRD and it showed that inorganic compounds were removed and carbon was remained as major component under the treatment of 20% HNO3. The treatment improved the mechanical properties like shear strength and formaldehyde emission of plywood (high shear strength and low formaldehyde emission. The physico-chemical interaction between the wood, resin and filler was investigated using fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR technique and the interactions among N-H of MUF and C=O of wood and WRP were identified. The morphology of wood-adhesive interface was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and light microscope (LM. It showed that the penetration of adhesives and fillers through the wood pores was responsible for mechanical interlocking. Therefore, chemically treated WRP proved its potential use as filler in MUF based adhesive for making plywood.

  9. The effects of porosity in friction performance of brake pad using waste tire dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Mutlu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is focused on the effect of porosity on the friction-wear properties of automotive brake pads. Waste Tire Dust (WTD was used as a new friction material in brake pads. Newly formulated brake pad materials with five different components have been produced by conventional techniques. In the experimental studies, the change of the friction coefficient, the temperature of the friction surface, the specific wear rate, and the hardness, density and porosity were measured. In addition, the micro-structural characterizations of brake pads are determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The mean coefficient of friction, porosity and specific wear are increased due to a WTD rate increases, on the other hand, hardness and density are decreased. As a result, WTD can be considered as an alternative to revalorize this kind of waste products in the brake pads and the amount of porosity of the brake pad affected the friction coefficient and wear behavior of the pad.

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo; Sha, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete. PMID:28773298

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete.

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo; Sha, Tao

    2016-03-07

    Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete.

  13. Structure–property relationships of ‘safe’ aromatic oil based passenger car tire tread rubber compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathi, A.; Hernández, M.; Dierkes, W.K.; Bergmann, C.; Trimbach, J.; Blume, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Treated Distillate Aromatic Extract (TDAE) was investigated in medium styrene/high vinyl solution styrene butadiene rubber (S-SBR) and high cis-polybutadiene rubber (BR). Three properties were evaluated: (i) molecular structure (polarity/aromaticity), (ii) molecular weig

  14. Silica-reinforced natural rubber for low rolling resistance, energy-saving tires: aspects of mixing, formulation and compatibilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaewsakul, W.

    2013-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) is a renewable material, which combines excellent mechanical and dynamic properties. It has been and still is in use in a variety of applications, mostly in the form of filled vulcanizates. Silica filler technology used for rubber is relatively new, since silica can reinforce rub

  15. Silica-reinforced natural rubber for low rolling resistance, energy-saving tires: aspects of mixing, formulation and compatibilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaewsakul, Wisut

    2013-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) is a renewable material, which combines excellent mechanical and dynamic properties. It has been and still is in use in a variety of applications, mostly in the form of filled vulcanizates. Silica filler technology used for rubber is relatively new, since silica can reinforce

  16. Structure–property relationships of ‘safe’ aromatic oil based passenger car tire tread rubber compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathi, Akansha; Hernández, M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Bergmann, C.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Trimbach, J.; Blume, Anke

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Treated Distillate Aromatic Extract (TDAE) was investigated in medium styrene/high vinyl solution styrene butadiene rubber (S-SBR) and high cis-polybutadiene rubber (BR). Three properties were evaluated: (i) molecular structure (polarity/aromaticity), (ii) molecular weig

  17. EFFECT of blend ratio and compatibilizer on solution casted treated waste natural rubber latex/polystyrene blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orathai Boondamnoen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber latex waste (WL was treated with natural rubber latex (NRL prior to blend with polystyrene. Differentblend compositions of treated waste natural rubber latex (TWL and PS were carried out through solution blending. Tensileand tear properties were investigated. The compatibility improvement of the 70/30 TWL/PS blends was further investigatedusing styrene butadiene rubber (SBR and styrene graft natural rubber (SNR as compatibilizer. The mechanical properties forTWL/PS blends were improved at 15 phr of SNR.

  18. Load Absorption Characteristics of Tyre Production Waste Rubber for Playground Floor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The floor surfaces where slides and swings are placed in parks and playrooms should be soft and thick to ensure that whenever a child falls, the surface can withstand the impact and minimize injuries to the child. Shredded tyres from waste tyres or waste rubber from tyre manufacturing could become beneficial as shock absorber material which can be used as a playground floor. In this study, rubber cubes and rubber pads with 5%, 8% and 10% SBR mixes were prepared for mechanical testing. Two types of floor design surfaces with and without plywood on the surface were assembled for the shock test. Gmax and HIC of this waste rubber flooring system were investigated using the compression test for the rubber cube and the drop test for the rubber pad. The criteria of general protection standards are 200g for optimum acceleration and 1000 for HIC. The Gmax and HIC results indicated that the material and system could ensure a safe fall from up to 1.0m height.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Simulation of the Dynamic Frictional Contact between an Aircraft Tire Rubber and a Rough Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Rosu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation of an aircraft tire in contact with a rough surface using a variable friction coefficient dependent on temperature and contact pressure. A sliding facility was used in order to evaluate this dependence of the friction coefficient. The temperature diffusion throughout the tire cross-section was measured by means of thermocouples. Both frictional heating and temperature diffusion were compared to numerical two- and three- dimensional simulations. An adequate temperature prediction could be obtained. In future simulations, wear should be taken into account in order to have a more accurate simulation especially in the case of high pressures and slipping velocities. A 3D finite element model for a rolling tire at a velocity of 37.79 knots (19.44 m/s and in a cornering phase was investigated using a variable friction coefficient dependent on temperature and pressure. The numerical simulation tended to predict the temperature of the tire tread after a few seconds of rolling in skidding position, the temperature of the contact zone increases to 140 °C. Further investigations must be carried out in order to obtain the evolution of the temperature observed experimentally. The authors would like to point out that for confidentiality reasons, certain numerical data could not be revealed.

  20. Combustion Ratio of Waste Tire Particle, PC and Mixture at Blast Temperature of BF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-liang; REN Shan; SU Bu-xin; LIN Yin-he; LONG Shi-gang

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the combustion characteristics of waste tire particle (WTP), pulverized coal (PC) and their mixture, the contents of CO, CO2 and O2 of off-gas during the combustion of WTP, PC and mixture under the condition of rich oxygen by 0--4% in blast and at 1 250℃ were measured simultaneously using synthetically infrared analyzer, and then the corresponding combustion ratio was calculated and compared. The results showed that the burning rate of WTP reached approximately 57%, which is much higher than that of PC (only about 18%) in the in- itial 650 s in fresh air, and then the increase of combustion rate of PC is faster than that of WTP; the combustion rate of PC improved remarkably with the addition of WTP. Meanwhile, the combustion rates of all these materials improved with the increase of oxygen content.

  1. Laboratory performance of asphalt rubber mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane; Trichês, Glicério; Pais, Jorge; Pereira, Paulo; Minhoto, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt rubber mixtures are one of the most promising techniques to extend the service life of asphalt pavement overlays. Asphalt rubber binder is composed of crumb rubber from reclaimed tires and conventional asphalt. The asphalt rubber binder can be obtained through wet process in two different systems: tire rubber modified asphalt binder (produced at industrial plants) and continuous blending (produced in asphalt plants). This study presents a laboratory evaluation of asphalt rubber mixtur...

  2. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER TO IMPROVE THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fadiel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the tremendous trend toward green environment and to reduce the effect of scrap tires on the environment and human health, this research is an attempt to find a practical and environmentally sound solution of the problem of scrap tires by developing a light weight with low thermal conductivity composite construction materials using waste tires. A few literatures may be found about the effect of crumb rubber on thermal conductivity of mortar. Thus, in this research project, an experimental program was established to investigate the effect of the amount and size of crumb rubber (rubber obtained from recycling scrap tires on the thermal properties of mortar. Four levels of crumb rubber addition: 10, 20, 30 and 40% and three sizes of crumb rubber (#30, #10_20 and a combination of both sizes were considered to make twelve different mixtures of the rubberized mortar. Specially designed and constructed heat transfer measurement device was used to measure thermal conductivity of the specimens. Results were used to determine the optimal amount of crumb rubber that gives the least thermal conductivity, which directly related to the improvement in thermal resistance of concrete mixtures. It was found that the size and the amount of crumb rubber had an effect on thermal properties of the specimens investigated. The thermal conductivity of rubberized mortar was decreased by 28% when crumb rubber #10_20 was used. It was also found that #10_20 crumb rubber had more effect on the thermal conductivity reduction than #30 crumb rubbers. An empirical equation is proposed to predict thermal conductivity of rubberized mortar.

  3. 废旧橡胶热裂解炭黑的制备及应用进展%Progress in preparation and application of pyrolysis carbon black from waste tire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李硕; 吴晓羽; 王仕峰

    2016-01-01

    Effect factors of preparation technology of pyrolysis carbon black from waste tire were re-viewed with 36 references, including temperature, pressure, particle size of waste rubber, heating rate, et al. The structural features, properties and appli-cations of pyrolysis carbon black were introduced. The pyrolysis carbon black was compared with the commercial carbon black in properties, and the re-search direction was put forward.%综述了废旧橡胶热裂解炭黑制备工艺的影响因素,包括温度、压力、废旧橡胶的粒径及加热速率等,介绍了热裂解炭黑的结构特点、性能及其应用,并对比了热裂解炭黑和商业炭黑的性能差距,指出其研究方向。

  4. Influence of pyrolytic carbon black and pyrolytic oil made from used tires on the curing and (dynamic mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Karabork

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolytic carbon black (CBp and pyrolytic oil (Op made from used tires were used in natural rubber (NR/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR blends. The effects of CBp and Op on the processing properties, the mechanical properties and the dynamic mechanical properties of the NR/SBR blends were investigated and compared with a control sample that was prepared with N550 and commercial process oil. It was found that the effect of CBp on the processing properties of the NR/SBR blends was similar to that of N550. With the increase of the CBp content, the curing properties of the NR/SBR blends changed little. The reinforcing effect of CBp was inferior to that of N550. With the increase of the CBp content, the tensile strength, tear strength and modulus at 100% elongation of the NR/SBR vulcanizates decreased significantly. Dynamic mechanical properties of the NR/SBR blends were also affected and all samples comprising CBp have a higher tan δ than control sample. It is suggested that the low surface area and high ash content of CBp strongly effects all of these property changes of the NR/SBR blends. The morphology and distribution of the carbon black particles are studied using a scanning electron microscope. It was also found that with the increase of the Op content, the properties of the NR/SBR blends were strongly affected due to the high sulfur content of Op, which produced a high crosslinking density.

  5. Promoting the use of crumb rubber concrete in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batayneh, Malek K; Marie, Iqbal; Asi, Ibrahim

    2008-11-01

    The use of accumulated waste materials in third world countries is still in its early phases. It will take courage for contractors and others in the construction industry to recycle selected types of waste materials in the concrete mixes. This paper addresses the recycling of rubber tires accumulated every year in Jordan to be used in concrete mixes. The main objectives of this research were to provide more scientific evidence to support the use of legislation or incentive-based schemes to promote the reuse of accumulated waste tires. This research focused on using crumb tires as a replacement for a percentage of the local fine aggregates used in the concrete mixes in Jordan. Different concrete specimens were prepared and tested in terms of uniaxial compression and splitting tension. The main variable in the mixture was the volumetric percentage of crumb tires used in the mix. The test results showed that even though the compressive strength is reduced when using the crumb tires, it can meet the strength requirements of light weight concrete. In addition, test results and observations indicated that the addition of crumb rubber to the mix has a limited effect toward reducing the workability of the mixtures. The mechanical test results demonstrated that the tested specimens of the crumb rubber concrete remained relatively intact after failure compared to the conventional concrete specimens. It is also concluded that modified concrete would contribute to the disposal of the non-decaying scrap tires, since the amount being accumulated in third world countries is creating a challenge for proper disposal. Thus, obliging authorities to invest in facilitating the use of waste tires in concrete, a fundamental material to the booming construction industry in theses countries, serves two purposes.

  6. Pyrolysis reaction models of waste tires: Application of Master-Plots method for energy conversion via devolatilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak Aslan, Dilan; Parthasarathy, Prakash; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Ceylan, Selim

    2017-10-01

    Land applied disposal of waste tires has far-reaching environmental, economic, and human health consequences. Pyrolysis represents a potential waste management solution, whereby the solid carbonaceous residue is heated in the absence of oxygen to produce liquid and gaseous fuels, and a solid char. The design of an efficient conversion unit requires information on the reaction kinetics of pyrolysis. This work is the first to probe the appropriate reaction model of waste tire pyrolysis. The average activation energy of pyrolysis was determined via iso-conversional methods over a mass fraction conversion range between 0.20 and 0.80 to be 162.8±23.2kJmol(-1). Using the Master Plots method, a reaction order of three was found to be the most suitable model to describe the pyrolytic decomposition. This suggests that the chemical reactions themselves (cracking, depolymerization, etc.), not diffusion or boundary layer interactions common with carbonaceous biomasses, are the rate-limiting steps in the pyrolytic decomposition of waste tires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Review of 2014 Top 50 Global Ranking of Non-tire Rubber Producers%2014年度世界非轮胎橡胶制品50强排行榜析评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维芳; 李小珍

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, 2014 top 50 global non-tire rubber product producers ranked according to 2013 annual sales of non-tire rubber products are analyzed. In 2013, the global total sales of non-tire rubber products increased by 5.3 percent from 2012, and the gross margin reached record high. The industry status is getting better and in the high degree of economy. The overall industry concentration is high with lots of mergers and acquisitions. Currently, the global market is still dominated by companies from Japan, America and Europe. However, China’s non-tire rubber products industry is showing big progress and promising prospects.%解析2014年度世界非轮胎橡胶制品50强排行榜(按企业2013年度与非轮胎橡胶制品有关的销售额排名)。2013年度世界非轮胎橡胶制品销售额同比增长5.3%,毛利率创历史新高;行业经济效益向好,集中度和景气度提高,收购重组活跃,日、美、欧仍控制全球市场。我国非轮胎橡胶制品行业展现出跨越式进步,发展前景良好。

  8. Review of 2013 Top 50 Global Ranking of Non-tire Rubber Producst Companies%2013年度世界非轮胎橡胶制品50强排行榜析评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭明; 陈维芳

    2013-01-01

    对2013年度世界非轮胎橡胶制品50强排行榜(按企业2012年度与非轮胎橡胶制品有关的销售额排名)进行分析与评述。2012年度世界非轮胎橡胶制品销售额同比仅微长1.2%,利润同比大增24.5%;行业集中度下降,并购活跃,制造重心继续东移;日、美、欧企业仍主导市场,企业综合化和专业化特点突出。我国非轮胎橡胶制品行业应尽快缩短与先进国家的差距。%The 2013 top 50 world non-tire rubber products companies’ ranking (based on 2012 annual sales of non-tire rubber products) is analyzed and reviewed. The global annual sales of non-tire rubber products in 2012 increased 1.2 percent from the previous year, and the proift posted a big increase of 24.5%. The industry concentration is declining, mergers and acquisitions are strong, while the manufacturing continues to move eastward. The companies from Japan, America and Europe still dominate the market, with highly integrated and specialized business models. It is urgent for the non-tire rubber product companies in China to close gap with the advanced countries as soon as possible.

  9. Studies on mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of irradiated recycled polyamide and waste rubber powder blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Medhat M., E-mail: medhat_smh@yahoo.co [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo 11731 (Egypt); Badway, Nagwa A.; Gamal, Azza M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Elnaggar, Mona Y.; Hegazy, El-Sayed A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo 11731 (Egypt)

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this article was to show the effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties of recycled polyamide (rPA) copolymer blended with different content of waste rubber powder (WRP). In order to study the structural modifications of prepared blends have been subjected to irradiation doses up to 200 kGy were applied to all samples. Non-irradiated blends were used as control samples. Mechanical properties, namely, tensile strength (TS), elastic modulus, elongation at break and hardness have been followed up as a function of irradiation dose and degree of loading with rubber content. Furthermore, the influence of radiation dose in the thermal parameters, melting temperature, heat of fusion, DELTAH{sub f} of the recycled PA and its blend with waste rubber powder (WRP) was also investigated.

  10. Pyrolysis of waste tires: A modeling and parameter estimation study using Aspen Plus(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hamza Y; Abbas, Ali; Azizi, Fouad; Zeaiter, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a simulation flowsheet model of a waste tire pyrolysis process with feed capacity of 150kg/h. A kinetic rate-based reaction model is formulated in a form implementable in the simulation package Aspen Plus, giving the flowsheet model the capability to predict more than 110 tire pyrolysis products as reported in experiments by Laresgoiti et al. (2004) and Williams (2013) for the oil and gas products respectively. The simulation model is successfully validated in two stages: firstly against experimental data from Olazar et al. (2008) by comparing the mass fractions for the oil products (gas, liquids (non-aromatics), aromatics, and tar) at temperatures of 425, 500, 550 and 610°C, and secondly against experimental results of main hydrocarbon products (C7 to C15) obtained by Laresgoiti et al. (2004) at temperatures of 400, 500, 600, and 700°C. The model was then used to analyze the effect of pyrolysis process temperature and showed that increased temperatures led to chain fractions from C10 and higher to decrease while smaller chains increased; this is attributed to the extensive cracking of the larger hydrocarbon chains at higher temperatures. The utility of the flowsheet model was highlighted through an energy analysis that targeted power efficiency of the process determined through production profiles of gasoline and diesel at various temperatures. This shows, through the summation of the net power gain from the plant for gasoline plus diesel that the maximum net power lies at the lower temperatures corresponding to minimum production of gasoline and maximum production of diesel. This simulation model can thus serve as a robust tool to respond to market conditions that dictate fuel demand and prices while at the same time identifying optimum process conditions (e.g. temperature) driven by process economics.

  11. Properties of Wast Rubber Powder/Low Density Polyethylene Composites%胶粉/低密度聚乙烯复合材料的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 赵艳芳; 廖小雪; 廖双泉

    2014-01-01

    采用全轮胎废胶粉(WRP)/低密度聚乙烯(LDPE)(并用比65/35)制备橡塑复合材料。研究增容剂和交联体系对WRP/LDPE复合材料物理性能的影响。结果表明:乙烯-乙酸乙烯酯对WRP/LDPE复合材料的增容效果较好;交联体系采用过氧化二异丙苯且用量为1份时WRP/LDPE复合材料物理性能较好。%The waste rubber powder (WRP)/low density polyethylene (LDPE) composites were prepared by using the rubber powder from waste tire and the ratio of WRP to LDPE was 65/35. The inlfuence of compatibilizer and crosslinking system on the properties of WRP/LDPE composites was investigated. It was found that ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer was a good compatibilizer. When 1 phr of dicumyl peroxide was used as a crosslinking agent, the physical properties of the composites were good.

  12. The use of styrene-butadiene rubber waste as a potential filler in nitrile rubber: order of addition and size of waste particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Baeta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR has large applications in the shoe industry, especially as expanded sheets used to produce insoles and inner soles. According to TG analysis, the rubber content in SBR residues (SBR-r was found to be around 26-wt%. Based on that data, a cost-effective technique for the reuse of SBR-r in Nitrile rubber (NBR was developed. Later, the effect of SBR-r on the cure behavior, mechanical performance, swelling, and crosslink density of reused rubber was investigated, with more emphasis placed on the effect of both particle size and loading of waste filler. Cure characteristics such as optimum cure time and scorch time were then reduced by the increasing amount of SBR-r filler. Owing to the reinforced nature of the largest particle size SBR-r, the best results for the mechanical properties of NBR were those in which SBR-r was added at the end of the cure process. The study has thus shown that SBR residue (SBR-r can be used as an economical alternative filler in NBR.

  13. Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to Determine Composition of the Pro ducts of Waste Tire Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gertsiuk, M.M.; Kovalchuk, T.; Kapral, K.; Lysychenko, G.V.

    2014-01-01

    The method of two-dimensional gas chromatography cou pled with mass-spectrometry detection was used for determination of pyrolysis liquid — a mixture of pyrolysis products of waste tires. 6500 organic compounds have been identified: the saturated, unsaturated, aromatic hydrocarbons, the derivatives of thiophene, cyclic aminocompounds. By its composition pyrolytic liquid is close to the diesel fuel and can be used as the alternative fuel.

  14. Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to Determine Composition of the Pro ducts of Waste Tire Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertsiuk, M.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of two-dimensional gas chromatography cou pled with mass-spectrometry detection was used for determination of pyrolysis liquid — a mixture of pyrolysis products of waste tires. 6500 organic compounds have been identified: the saturated, unsaturated, aromatic hydrocarbons, the derivatives of thiophene, cyclic aminocompounds. By its composition pyrolytic liquid is close to the diesel fuel and can be used as the alternative fuel.

  15. Comprehensive testing to measure the response of fluorocarbon rubber (FKM) to Hanford tank waste simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.; BOLTON,DENNIS L.

    2000-02-01

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 Krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Fluorocarbon (FKM) rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that FKM rubber is not a good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study. They have determined that FKM rubber has limited chemical durability after exposure to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford tank simulant mixed waste at elevated temperatures above 18 C.

  16. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption of tires of certain sizes. 48.4073-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  17. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Original equipment tires on imported articles... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires...

  19. Preparation and Performance of Asphalt Compound Modified with Waste Crumb Rubber and Waste Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of modified asphalt were prepared by adding waste crumb rubber (WCR, waste polyethylene (WPE, and WCR/WPE to base asphalt, respectively. The influence of different doses on the performance of modified asphalt, such as 25°C penetration, softening point, 5°C ductility, and 135°C, 165°C viscosity, was studied, and the modification mechanism of modified asphalt was discussed through the fluorescence microscope. As the waterproofing materials, the waterproofness of WCR/WPE compound modified asphalt was tested. The results show that the WPE modified asphalt has excellent resistance to high temperature and WCR modified asphalt has good low temperature resistance. The resistance to deformation ability of WPE modified asphalt is better than that of the WCR modified asphalt. The 135°C viscosity of compound modified asphalt is better than that of WPE and WCR modified asphalt. In addition, the waterproofness of compound modified asphalt using waterproofing materials is better than that of common waterproofing materials.

  20. Comprehensive testing to measure the response of butyl rubber to Hanford tank waste simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Butyl rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that butyl rubber has relatively good resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that butyl rubber is a relatively good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

  1. [Configuration of pyrolytic chars from waste tires in fluidized bed reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yu-qi; Yan, Jian-hua; Gu, Jie-yuan; Cen, Ke-fa

    2004-11-01

    With the fluidized bed as main reactor, the configuration of chars of waste tire was investigated. The change of specific surface area, porosity and specific pore volume of chars received at various temperature, diameter of bed materials and superficial fluidization number was mainly researched. The specific surface area and porosity of chars had the peak value at 650 degrees C or 750 degrees C, which showed there exists the best pyrolysis temperature from the angle of char quality and it will decrease with smaller diameter of bed materials, 0.135-0.304mm. The porosity of chars decreases with the fluidization number increasing. The change tendency of the specific surface area of chars with the fluidization number is correlated with the pyrolysis temperature. At 550 degrees C the specific surface area of chars decreases with the fluidization number increasing, while at 650 degrees C the other way round. The change tendency of the specific pore volume of chars with the temperature is correlated with the diameter of bed materials. With larger bed materials (0.304-0.4mm), the specific pore volume of chars rises at fisrt, then decreases with the temperature increasing, and with smaller bed materials, it decreases with the temperature increasing.

  2. Cumulative Effect of Crumb Rubber and Steel Fiber on the Flexural Toughness of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Abu Bakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concrete properties, such as toughness and ductility, are enhanced to resist different impacts or blast loads. Rubberized concrete, which could be considered a green material, is produced from recycled waste tires grinded into different crumb rubber particle sizes and mixed with concrete. In this study, the behavior of rubberized steel fiber-reinforced concrete is investigated. Flexural performance of concrete beams (400×100×100 mm manufactured from plain, steel fiber, crumb rubber and combination crumb rubber and steel fiber are also evaluated. Similarly, concrete slabs (500×500×50 mm are also tested under flexural loading. Flexural performance of the SFRRC mixtures was significantly enhanced. The toughness and maximum deflection of specimens with rubber were considerably improved. Steel fiber/crumb rubber-reinforced concrete can be used for practical application, which requires further studies.

  3. Enhanced mercuric chloride adsorption onto sulfur-modified activated carbons derived from waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Wang, Guangzhi; Xue, Sheng-Han; Ie, Iau-Ren; Jen, Yi-Hsiu; Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Chen, Wei-Jin

    2012-07-01

    A number of activated carbons derived from waste tires were further impregnated by gaseous elemental sulfur at temperatures of 400 and 650 degrees C, with a carbon and sulfur mass ratio of 1:3. The capabilities of sulfur diffusing into the micropores of the activated carbons were significantly different between 400 and 650 degrees C, resulting in obvious dissimilarities in the sulfur content of the activated carbons. The sulfur-impregnated activated carbons were examined for the adsorptive capacity of gas-phase mercuric chloride (HgC1) by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The analytical precision of TGA was up to 10(-6) g at the inlet HgCl2 concentrations of 100, 300, and 500 microg/m3, for an adsorption time of 3 hr and an adsorption temperature of 150 degrees C, simulating the flue gas emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. Experimental results showed that sulfur modification can slightly reduce the specific surface area of activated carbons. High-surface-area activated carbons after sulfur modification had abundant mesopores and micropores, whereas low-surface-area activated carbons had abundant macropores and mesopores. Sulfur molecules were evenly distributed on the surface of the inner pores after sulfur modification, and the sulfur content of the activated carbons increased from 2-2.5% to 5-11%. After sulfur modification, the adsorptive capacity of HgCl2 for high-surface-area sulfurized activated carbons reached 1.557 mg/g (22 times higher than the virgin activated carbons). The injection of activated carbons was followed by fabric filtration, which is commonly used to remove HgCl2 from MSW incinerators. The residence time of activated carbons collected in the fabric filter is commonly about 1 hr, but the time required to achieve equilibrium is less than 10 min. Consequently, it is worthwhile to compare the adsorption rates of HgCl2 in the time intervals of < 10 and 10-60 min.

  4. Short-Term Aging Effect on Properties of Sustainable Pavement Asphalts Modified by Waste Rubber and Diatomite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanbing Liu; Liuxu Fu; Yubo Jiao; Jinglin Tao; Xianqiang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Waste utilization has gained more and more interest. In this study, crumb rubber and diatomite were used to modify asphalt binder and the short-term aging effects on the properties of modified asphalts were evaluated...

  5. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  6. The leaching of inorganic species from activated carbons produced from waste tyre rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, G; Fowler, G D; Sollars, C J

    2002-04-01

    Waste tyre rubber can be used as a precursor for the production of high quality activated carbons. However, there is concern that inorganic impurities present in the rubber feed may restrict their use in liquid phase applications with high purity requirements. This paper presents an investigation of the presence and the leaching of inorganic species from activated carbons derived from waste tyre rubber. For the purpose of this work, a number of carbons were produced, characterised for their BET surface area and analysed for their inorganic composition. Subsequently, a number of tests were performed to evaluate the leaching of different inorganic species into solution at various pH values and carbon doses. Results showed that rubber-derived carbons contained elevated concentrations of sulphur and zinc, as well as traces of other metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium and molybdenum. Inorganic levels were significantly affected by production conditions, particularly degree of carbon activation and the nature of the gasification agent. However, leaching tests showed that the availability of these species in neutral pH conditions was very limited. Results demonstrated that, when using carbons doses comparable to those employed in water treatment works, only sulphur levels exceeded, in some occasions, health based quality standards proposed for drinking water.

  7. MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE STRUCTURAL BLOCKS WITH RESIDUES OF TIRE RUBBER = FABRICAÇÃO DE BLOCOS ESTRUTURAIS DE CONCRETO COM RESÍDUOS DE BORRACHA DE PNEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Akasaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluates the manufacture technique of concrete blocks with structural function used in masonry. Rubber residues from the mechanical process of tire retreading was added in the concrete composite. Five different concrete mixes had been prepared with the residues and one concrete mixes without the residues to serve as comparison. In a 28 days time frame the blocks had its compression strength measured as well as the water absorption capacity.The aim of this work was to obtain a viable alternative material for the civil construction industry, contributing for the environment protection and the conservation of natural sources of conventionally used materials. Therefore the residues proceeding from retreading of tires can be defined particularly as difficult recycling solid residues, since its decomposition can happen in up to 240 years. Even if exists chances for recycling the tires’ residues, the Brazilian market is far away from getting it because of the enormous amount of accumulated material. = O presente trabalho avalia a técnica de fabricação de blocos de concreto com função estrutural utilizáveis em alvenaria. Foram adicionados nos compósitos de concreto, resíduos de borracha provenientes do processo mecânico de recauchutagem de pneus. Prepararam-se cinco diferentes dosagens de concreto contendo resíduos de borracha e uma sem resíduos para servir como referência. Aos 28 dias de idade os blocos produzidos foram submetidos aos ensaios de resistência mecânica à compressão simples e capacidade de absorção de água. O intuito deste trabalho foi à obtenção de um possível material alternativo para a indústria da construção civil, contribuindo dessa maneira para a proteção ambiental e a conservação das fontes naturais de materiais convencionalmente utilizados, pois os resíduos da recauchutagem de pneus podem ser definidos como resíduos sólidos particularmente intratáveis, já que sua decomposi

  8. 78 FR 78384 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial... September 20, 2013, based on a complaint filed by Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd. of Japan; Toyo Tire Holdings of Americas Inc. of Cypress, California; Toyo Tire U.S.A. Corp. of Cypress, California; Nitto Tire...

  9. Processing methods, characteristics and adsorption behavior of tire derived carbons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Tawfik A; Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2014-09-01

    The remarkable increase in the number of vehicles worldwide; and the lack of both technical and economical mechanisms of disposal make waste tires to be a serious source of pollution. One potential recycling process is pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process to produce porous activated carbons. Many researchers have recently proved the capability of such carbons as adsorbents to remove various types of pollutants including organic and inorganic species. This review attempts to compile relevant knowledge about the production methods of carbon from waste rubber tires. The effects of various process parameters including temperature and heating rate, on the pyrolysis stage; activation temperature and time, activation agent and activating gas are reviewed. This review highlights the use of waste-tires derived carbon to remove various types of pollutants like heavy metals, dye, pesticides and others from aqueous media.

  10. Compósitos de cimento - borracha de pneus: efeito da escória nas propriedades Tire rubber-cement composites: effect of slag on properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Segre

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos de cimento-borracha de pneus preparados com cimentos tipo I e contendo adições de três diferentes escórias foram estudados. Resistência à flexão, absorção de água e resistência ao ataque ácido foram investigadas. Um decréscimo no módulo de ruptura (MOR foi observado para todos os corpos de prova contendo borracha, quando comparados com os corpos de prova sem borracha (controles. Para as pastas controle e com borracha e argamassas controle, preparadas com cimento com escória, o MOR aumenta com o aumento da atividade hidráulica da escória utilizada, até valores indistinguíveis dos obtidos para as argamassas e pastas preparadas com cimento tipo I. Argamassas com borracha apresentaram valores de MOR independentes do cimento utilizado. Uma redução na sorção de água é observada para corpos de prova controle e contendo borracha, preparados com todos os cimentos contendo adição de escória, quando comparados com os corpos de prova preparados com cimento tipo I. Para corpos de prova de argamassa com borracha, quanto mais baixa é a basicidade da escória, menor é a sorção de água dos compósitos. Estes resultados indicam baixa porosidade e consequentemente uma melhor adesão entre a borracha e a matriz de cimento nestes corpos de prova. Além disso, uma velocidade menor de sorção de água é observada para os corpos de prova com borracha, com destaque para os corpos de prova com cimento que contém a escória menos básica, quando comparados com os controles. Resultados de ataque ácido aos corpos e prova de argamassas, preparadas com os cimentos contendo adição de escória, mostram que a susceptibilidade dos corpos de prova frente à degradação por ácido é governada não somente por aspectos microestruturais, como porosidade e permeabilidade, mas também por aspectos químicos, como diferenças na quantidade de álcalis presentes nas escórias ou quantidade de escória não reagida nos corpos de prova.Tire

  11. Effect of carbon black on the properties of irradiated recycled polyamide/rubber waste composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Medhat M., E-mail: medhat_smh@yahoo.co [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo 11731 (Egypt); Badway, Nagwa A.; Gamal, Azza M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Elnaggar, Mona Y.; Hegazy, El-Sayed A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo 11731 (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    In the present study, the synergistic effect of carbon black (CB) content % and gamma irradiation on some mechanical, thermal, chemical stability and micro-structural properties of the moulded waste polyamide copolymer/recycled waste rubber powder (rPA/WRP) 50/50 was investigated. The ternary composites of CB concentrations, 6, 12, 18, and 24 wt.%, were irradiated with doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy. The composites mechanical properties: tensile strength, elongation at break, and hardness, and the thermal properties: melting temperature (T{sub m}) and ({Delta}H) were measured. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), swelling and chemical stability were investigated.

  12. Global Top 50 Non-tire Rubber Product Manufacturers in 2015%2015年度世界非轮胎橡胶制品50强析评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维芳; 殷福宽

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the global top 50 non-tire rubber product manufacturers in 2015 ranking are reviewed. The ranking is based on the sales of non-tire rubber products in the year of 2014. The annual ranking in 2015 shows little change compared with the previous year. Mergers and acquisitions were very active in this industry, the economic return was good, and the industry concentration continues to increase. The companies from Japan, US and Europe still control the global market. China's non-tire rubber products industry showed strong development, and the highest ranked company is Zhuzhou Times New Material Technology Co., Ltd., ranking at No. 28.%析评2015年度世界非轮胎橡胶制品50强排行榜(按企业2014年度与非轮胎橡胶制品相关的销售额排名)。2015年度世界非轮胎橡胶制品50强排名与2014年度相比变化不大,行业收购重组活跃,经济效益向好,集中度和景气度提高,日、美、欧企业仍控制全球市场。我国非轮胎橡胶制品行业发展强劲,株洲时代新材料排名跃升至第28位,创我国最好排名。

  13. Response of ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) to simulant Hanford tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-02-01

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the author performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. The author has determined that EPDM rubber has excellent resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that EPDM is an excellent seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

  14. Recycling Waste Natural Rubber Latex by Blending with Polystyrene - Characterization of Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boondamnoen, O.; Ohshima, M.; Azura, A. R.; Chuayjuljit, S.; Ariffin, A.

    Waste natural rubber latex was blended with polystyrene (WNRL/PS) for recycling. A mixture with a 50/50 ratio of rubber to PS was blended by an internal mixer (Haake) at 140 °C and 60 rpm. The PS became the matrix, and the WNRL was dispersed within the matrix. Dynamically vulcanized natural rubber/PS (NRv/PS) blends and natural rubber/PS (NR/PS) blends without vulcanization were also prepared in the same way for comparison. The tensile properties and morphologies of all blends were investigated. The crosslinking density was determined by using the Flory-Rehner equation. The experiments showed that the WNRL/PS blend exhibited a higher tensile strength, Young's modulus and crosslinking density, but a lower elongation at break, than the NRv/PS and NR/PS blends. SEM observations of the tensile fracture surface and TEM observations of the blend morphology indicated that the WNRL/PS blend needed a higher energy to break than the NRv/PS and NR/PS blends.

  15. Reinforcement of SBR/waste rubber powder vulcanizate with in situ generated zinc dimethacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. P.; Cheng, B. K.; Zhang, X.; Jia, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    Methyl acrylic acid/zinc oxide (MAA/ZnO) was introduced to modify styrene- butadiene rubber/waste rubber powder (SBR/WRP) composites by blending. The enhanced mechanical properties and processing ability were presumably originated from improved compatibility and interfacial interaction between WRP and the SBR matrix by the in situ polymerization of zinc dimethacrylate (ZDMA). A refined interface of the modified SBR/WRP composite was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The formation of ZDMA significantly increased the ionic bond content in the vulcanizate, resulting in exceptional mechanical performance. The comprehensive mechanical properties including tensile strength, tear strength and dynamic heat-building performance reached optimum values with 16 phr MAA.

  16. Characterization of carbon silica hybrid fillers obtained by pyrolysis of waste green tires by the STEM–EDX method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hartomy, Omar A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al Said, Said A. Farha [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491 (Saudi Arabia); Dishovsky, Nikolay, E-mail: dishov@uctm.edu [Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Ward, Michael B. [LEMAS, Institute for Materials Research, SPEME, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Mihaylov, Mihail; Ivanov, Milcho [Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-03-15

    Dual phase carbon–silica hybrid fillers obtained by pyrolysis-cum-water vapor of waste green tires have been characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope, silicate analysis, weight analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy and by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy. The results achieved have shown that the location and distribution of the phases in the carbon silica hybrid fillers as well as their most essential characteristics are influenced by the pyrolysis conditions. The carbon phase of the filler thus obtained is located predominantly in the space among silica aggregates which have already been existing while it has been formed by elastomer destruction in the course of pyrolysis. The presence of ZnS also has been found in the hybrid fillers investigated. - Highlights: • Dual phase fillers obtained by pyrolysis of waste green tires have been characterized. • The STEM–EDX method was used for characterization. • The phase distributions in the fillers are influenced by the pyrolysis conditions.

  17. Solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) operated with waste polymers. Case study: 2,4-dichlorophenol biodegradation with used automobile tires as the partitioning phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Annesini, M Cristina; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Used automobile tire pieces were tested for their suitability as the sequestering phase in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor to treat 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP). Abiotic sorption tests and equilibrium partitioning tests confirmed that tire "crumble" possesses very favourable properties for this application with DCP diffusivity (4.8 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) and partition coefficient (31) values comparable to those of commercially available polymers. Biodegradation tests further validated the effectiveness of using waste tires to detoxify a DCP solution, and allow for enhanced biodegradation compared to conventional single-phase operation. These results establish the potential of using a low-cost waste material to assist in the bioremediation of a toxic aqueous contaminant.

  18. Breakthroughs of Low-temperature Direct Rubber Mixing in Low-carbon Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Rubber mixing is the most energy-consuming procedure in tire production, covering about 40% energy of the whole tire producing workflow. The process of low temperature direct rubber mixing, developed by Triangle Group Co., Ltd., MESNAC Co., Ltd., Yiyang Rubber and Plastics Co., Ltd., TTA (Qingdao) Tire Technology Co., Ltd., Guangzhou SCUT Bestry Technology Co., Ltd., etc.

  19. Solid waste reclamation and recycling: Tires. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development, management, economic analysis, and environmental impacts of reclamation and recycling of scrap tires. The design and evaluation of recycling processes are examined. Recycled products for use in construction materials, embankment fills, fuel supplements, and material substitutions are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2014-12-01

    This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Amino acid modifiers in guayule rubber compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire producers are increasingly interested in biobased materials, including rubber but also as compounding chemicals. An alternative natural rubber for tire use is produced by guayule, a woody desert shrub native to North America. Alternative compounding chemicals include naturally-occurring amino a...

  2. Modification of Asphalt by the Use of Crumb Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Room

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Health aspects enforced to ponder a study on asphalt which incorporate rubber crumbs to increase strength and flexibility of asphalt. Disposal of waste tires is a menace and it’s a serious problem globally because it is not easily biodegradable as these tires consume large spaces, open burning cause serious problems. By the use of rubber tires, this scrap is utilized efficiently and reduces the cost of asphalt to produce economical system. The asphalt is absorbed by the rubber particles which swells at high temperature allowing greater concentration of liquid asphalt. The partial replacement of crumb rubber in asphalt is 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (D05, D10, D15, and D20. The analysis of incorporated asphalt was done in hot mix asphalt. The generated results showed that the value for resilient modulus and creep stiffness is more as compared to the conventional asphalt and in the accumulated strain the values are much lesser which is positive approach.

  3. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  4. Removal of phenol from aqueous solution and resin manufacturing industry wastewater using an agricultural waste: rubber seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengaraj, S; Moon, Seung-Hyeon; Sivabalan, R; Arabindoo, Banumathi; Murugesan, V

    2002-01-28

    Activated carbon prepared from rubber seed coat (RSCC), an agricultural waste by-product, has been used for the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution. In this work, adsorption of phenol on rubber seed coat activated carbon has been studied by using batch and column studies. The equilibrium adsorption level was determined to be a function of the solution pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of rubber seed coat activated carbon for phenol removal was obtained by using linear Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption of phenol on rubber seed coat activated carbon follows first order reversible kinetics. The suitability of RSCC for treating phenol based resin manufacturing industry wastewater was also tested. A comparative study with a commercial activated carbon (CAC) showed that RSCC is 2.25 times more efficient compared to CAC based on column adsorption study for phenolic wastewater treatment.

  5. Improvement of Cracking-resistance and Flexural Behavior of Cement-based Materials by Addition of Rubber,Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Jingfu; JIANG Yongqi

    2008-01-01

    By ring test and bend test,the improvement of waste tire rubber particles on the crack-resistance and flexural behaviors of cement-based materials were investigated.Test results show that the cracking time of the ring specimens can be retarded by the incorporation of rubber particles in the cement paste and mortar.The improvement in the crack-resistance depended on the rubber fraction.When the rubber fraction was 20%in volume,the cracking time was retarded about 15 h for the paste and 24 d for the mortar respectively.Flexural properties were evaluated based on the bend test results for both mortar and concrete containing different amount of rubber particles.Test results show that rubberized mortar and concrete specimens exhibit ductile failure and significant deformation before fracture.The ultimate deformations of both mortar and concrete specimen increase more than 2-4 times than control specimens.

  6. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of phenol and reactive dyes from aqueous solution on mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanthapanichakoon, W; Ariyadejwanich, P; Japthong, P; Nakagawa, K; Mukai, S R; Tamon, H

    2005-04-01

    Liquid-phase adsorption-desorption characteristics and ethanol regeneration efficiency of an activated carbon prepared from waste tires and a commercial activated carbon were investigated. Water vapor adsorption experiments reveal that both activated carbons showed hydrophobic surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments reveal that the prepared activated carbon possessed comparable phenol adsorption capacity as the commercial one but clearly larger adsorption capacity of two reactive dyes, Black 5 and Red 31. It was ascertained that the prepared activated carbon exhibited less irreversible adsorption of phenol and the two dyes than its commercial counterpart. Moreover, ethanol regeneration efficiency of the prepared AC saturated with either dye was higher than that of the commercial AC. Because of its superior liquid-phase adsorption-desorption characteristics as well as higher ethanol regeneration efficiency, the prepared activated carbon is more suitable for wastewater treatment, especially for adsorbing similarly bulky adsorbates.

  7. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbol Tileuberdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  8. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Yerbol Tileuberdi; S. Kozbakarova; Yerdos Ongarbayev; B. Tuleutaev; Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-01-01

    In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  9. Effect Of Operating Conditions On Scrap Tire Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Fabiana Scatolim Rombaldo; Antonio Carlos Luz Lisbôa; Manoel Orlando Alvarez Méndez; Aparecido dos Reis Coutinho

    2008-01-01

    The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The ...

  10. Accumulator Parameters Match the Characteristic Analysis of Hydraulic Brake for Trackless Rubber Tire Vehicle%全液压制动无轨胶轮车载蓄能器参数匹配与特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉芳

    2016-01-01

    根据目前无轨胶轮车全液压制动系统的使用情况,建立了蓄能器的数学模型,通过分析液压蓄能器参数匹配和能量利用对制动系统动态性能的影响,为液压制动系统蓄能器设计提供理论依据.%According to the current use of trackless rubber tire vehide hydraulic braking system, the mathematical model of the accumulator, hydraulic accumulator parameters by analyzing the matchand use of energy on the dynamic performance of the brake system, hydraulic brake system reservoir design can provide a theoretical basis.

  11. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  12. Investigation of Swelling and Dissolution Process of Natural Rubber in Aromatic Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feng; Kuang Minming; Li Guanlong; Zhou Xiaolong; Li Chenglie

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic oil has been used to promote the properties of crumb rubber modiifed asphalt which is an ideal method to deal with the resource utilization of waste rubber tires and by-product of reifnery. Furfural extract oil (FEO) was sepa-rated into the light fraction and the heavy fraction. Swelling and dissolution process of natural rubber sheet in these three oil samples was investigated to shed light on the interaction mechanism. Crumb rubber also interacted on FEO and asphalt respectively. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of processed rubber. The chemical composition of processed oils and asphalt was investigated by using the hydrocarbon group analysis (SARA) and gel permeation chroma-tography. The results revealed that the swelling rate and mass loss of rubber in oils were much higher than those in asphalt and rose with an increasing processing temperature. The heavy fraction of FEO had more diffusion and dissolving capabil-ity than the light fraction, whilst compatibility was observed between the heavy fraction and the light fraction. Selective ab-sorption was not observed in the study and detachment of dissolved rubber was disseminated from the outside to the inside. The cross-linking degree of the residue rubber was unchanged with the processing time, and sulfur predominantly remained in the undissolved rubber. Dissolution of crumbed rubber in oils was attributed to devulcanization, while that in the asphalt was mainly attributed to depolymerization.

  13. Scrap tire rubber as modifier of asphalt cement for use in road paving Borracha de pneus como modificador de cimentos asfálticos para uso em obras de pavimentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Oda

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a research on the technical feasibility of the use of asphalt-rubber binder by the asphalt paving industry. In Brazil more than 30 million tires a year are disposed of, mostly in inadequate sites, causing serious health and environmental problems. The effects of the main factors (rubber content, rubber particle size, temperature of mixture, reaction time on the behavior of asphalt-rubber binders are evaluated by traditional and Superpave Method tests, the latter based on certain fundamental properties directly related to field performance. Results of the statistical analysis of the factorial design of laboratory experiments show the most significant effect of rubber contents, or rather, that asphalt-rubber binder may increase the resistance against permanent deformation and fatigue crackingEste trabalho apresenta estudo sobre a incorporação de borracha de pneus em ligantes asfálticos utilizados em obras de pavimentação. Trata-se de uma alternativa para solucionar um grave problema ambiental, pois no Brasil, anualmente, são descartados mais de 30 milhões de pneus, dos quais a maior parte é disposta em locais inadequados, servindo para a procriação de vetores de doenças e representando risco de contaminação do meio-ambiente. Os efeitos dos principais fatores que condicionam o comportamento do ligante asfalto-borracha (teor e granulometria da borracha, temperatura de mistura, tempo de reação são avaliados através de ensaios tradicionais de caracterização de ligantes asfálticos e ensaios do Método Superpave, diretamente relacionadas ao desempenho dos pavimentos no campo. Os resultados da análise estatística evidenciam o efeito preponderante do teor de borracha e, principalmente, que o ligante asfalto-borracha pode aumentar a resistência ao acúmulo de deformação permanente e ao aparecimento de trincas por fadiga do revestimento

  14. Suitability of Natural Rubber Latex and Waste Foundry Sand in Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Idiculla Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of Natural Rubber Latex (NRL as an additive and Waste Foundry Sand (WFS as partial replacement to river sand, in cement concrete was investigated. Experimental study was performed with concrete mixtures containing 1% latex to water ratio, along with 5% and 10% replacement of river sand by WFS. Properties of concrete were studied in both fresh and hardened state. The results of laboratory tests indicate that WFS and NRL reduces the workability of concrete. Slight reduction in splitting tensile strength was observed for mixtures containing NRL and WFS, in comparison to conventional mix. No specific trend was observed for flexural strength at 7 days, but at 28 days the difference was within ±3%, when compared to conventional mix. Strength development for mixtures containing NRL and WFS was slightly lower than conventional mix. The limited results of this study show that concrete containing NRL and WFS do have potential for use as non- structural concrete.

  15. Effect of SBS Compatibilizer SBS and Particle size on Mechanical Properties of Blends of PS/Waste Rubber (SBRr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bruno Barreto Luna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to modify the properties of polymer systems is to mixture one or more polymer and/or copolymers, i.e., to obtain polymer blends. The aim of this work was to produce polymer blends from a polystyrene matrix with rubber wastes, aiming to study the effect granulometry and compatibilizer on the mechanical properties and impact strength. The blends of polystyrene/rubber wastes were prepared in a corrotacional twin screw extruder and subsequently the extruded granules were injection molded. It was shown that 5 wt% of the SBS compatibilizer optimized the results of impact strength for ternary blends. The elastic modulus of the systems decreased in relation to modulus of the pure polystyrene matrix. The granulometry influenced significantly the property of impact resistance for the compatibilized blends, with a finer rubber particle size that have the best results. These results show a good alternative for toughening of polystyrene, as well as reduce costs using rubber wastes that would otherwise be discarded.

  16. Acetylene from the co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste tires or coal in the H{sub 2}/Ar plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, W.; Cao, Q.; Lv, Y.; Chang, L. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2008-07-01

    Acetylene from carbon-containing materials via plasma pyrolysis is not only simple but also environmentally friendly. In this article, the acetylene produced from co-pyrolyzing biomass with waste tire or coal under the conditions of H{sub 2}/Ar DC arc plasma jet was investigated. The experimental results showed that the co-pyrolysis of mixture with biomass and waste tire or coal can improve largely the acetylene relative volume fraction (RVF) in gaseous products and the corresponding yield of acetylene. The change trends for the acetylene yield of plasma pyrolysis from mixture with raw sample properties were the same as relevant RVF. But the yield change trend with feeding rate is different from its RVF. The effects of the feeding rate of raw materials and the electric current of plasmatron on acetylene formation are also discussed.

  17. 废旧轮胎热裂解技术的研究进展%Progress in Thermal Pyrolysis of Waste Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓羽; 李硕; 王仕峰

    2015-01-01

    介绍了近期废旧轮胎热裂解技术的研究进展.综述了热解温度、载气气氛、挥发分停留时间、压力等工艺因素和轮胎成分、粒径等原材料因素对废旧轮胎热裂解产物的影响规律 ,并展望了废旧轮胎热裂解技术的前景.%The state of waste tire pyrolysis in literatures was discussed . The influence of the process factors (temperature ,heating rate ,carrier gas flow rate ,volatiles residence time and pres-sure) and raw materials factors on pyrolysis were reviewed ,and pyrolysis technology of waste tire were prospected .

  18. Intensification of adsorption process by using the pyrolytic char from waste tires to remove chromium(Ⅵ) from wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jie; YANG Yong-rong

    2004-01-01

    Pyrolysis has the potential of transforming waste into valuable recyclable products. Pyrolytic char(PC) is one of the most important products from the pyrolysis of used tires. One of the most significant applications for pyrolytic char recovered is used for the removal of Cr(Ⅵ) in the wastewater effluent to control waste by waste. The surface chemistry properties of surface element distribution / concentration and chemical structure were examined for the pyrolytic char and the commercial activated carbon(CAC) respectively. The results showed that surfaces of PC possesses a large amount of ester and hydrocarbon graft, whereas there are mainly carbon functional components of C-OH, C=O and COOH on the surface of CAC. Therefore the surface electronegativity of PC is lower than that of CAC in the water. The repulsive interactions between the surfaces of PC and the negatively charged Cr(Ⅵ) ion are weaker than that of CAC, which results in an intensification of the adsorption process by the utilization of PC. The adsorption isotherms of Cr(Ⅵ) ion on the two kinds of carbons were determined experimentally. The larger adsorption amount on the PC in the case of Cr(Ⅵ) may be attributed mainly to its special surface micro-chemical environment. The mechanism of the removal Cr(Ⅵ) from aqueous solution was assumed to be the integration of adsorption and redox reaction. The adsorption was the rate-controlled step for Cr(Ⅵ) removal. The adsorption of Cr(Ⅵ) has been identified as pseudo-second- order kinetics. The rate constants of adsorption have been evaluated.

  19. Intensification of adsorption process by using the pyrolytic char from waste tires to remove chromium (VI) from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Yang, Yong-Rong

    2004-01-01

    Pyrolysis has the potential of transforming waste into valuable recyclable products. Pyrolytic char (PC) is one of the most important products from the pyrolysis of used tires. One of the most significant applications for pyrolytic char recovered is used for the removal of Cr(VI) in the wastewater effluent to control waste by waste. The surface chemistry properties of surface element distribution/concentration and chemical structure were examined for the pyrolytic char and the commercial activated carbon (CAC) respectively. The results showed that surfaces of PC possesses a large amount of ester and hydrocarbon graft, whereas there are mainly carbon functional components of C-OH, C=O and COOH on the surface of CAC. Therefore the surface electronegativity of PC is lower than that of CAC in the water. The repulsive interactions between the surfaces of PC and the negatively charged Cr(VI) ion are weaker than that of CAC, which results in an intensification of the adsorption process by the utilization of PC. The adsorption isotherms of Cr(VI) ion on the two kinds of carbons were determined experimentally. The larger adsorption amount on the PC in the case of Cr(VI) may be attributed mainly to its special surface micro-chemical environment. The mechanism of the removal Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was assumed to be the integration of adsorption and redox reaction. The adsorption was the rate-controlled step for Cr(VI) removal. The adsorption of Cr(VI) was identified as pseudo-second-order kinetics. The rate constants of adsorption were evaluated.

  20. 润滑油对轮胎主要成分催化裂解行为的影响%Effects of lubricant base oil on catalytic cracking behaviors of tire rubbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    渠巍; 周茜

    2011-01-01

    Effects of lubricant base oil (LBO) on catalytic cracking behaviors of three main components in tire rubbers, including natural rubber(NR) ,polybutadiene rubber(BR) , styrene-butadiene rubber( SBR) over ZSM-S zeolite, were investigated. It is found that LBO obviously enhances the catalytic effects of ZSM-S for pyrolysis of polybutadiene rubber;the pyrolysis rate increases;liquid yields increase from 69.0% to 83.4% ,and residue yields decrease from 17. 0% to 3.2%. For SBR,LBO increases the pyrolysis rate and the contents of light hydrocarbons from 67. 5% to 92.0% ,and decreases the average carbon number of the liquid products from 10. 5 to 8. 9. For NR, LBO increases the quality of the pyrolysis oil:the content of light hydrocarbons in liquid products increases from 79. 8% to 97. 2% ,and the average carbon number of the liquid products decreases from 10.3 to 8. 3.%本文研究了润滑油对轮胎的重要组成原料:天然橡胶、聚丁二烯橡胶和丁苯橡胶催化裂解行为的影响.研究发现润滑油的加入明显增强了催化剂ZSM-5对聚丁二烯橡胶的催化裂解作用:液体收率从69.0%提高到83.4%,残渣收率从17.0%降至3.2%;润滑油的加入也提高了丁苯橡胶催化裂解的反应速率,液体产物中的轻油组分由67.5%增加至92.0%,平均碳原子数由10.5降至8.9;润滑油的加入同样提高了天然橡胶催化裂解液体产物品质:液体产物中的轻油组分由79.8%增加至97.2%,平均碳原子数由10.3降至8.3.

  1. Fundamental studies on dynamic wear behavior of SBR rubber compounds modified by SBR rubber powder

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Heinrich, Gert; Michael, Hannes; Gehde, Michael; Stocek, Radek; Kratina, Ondrej; Kipscholl, Reinhold; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the experimental investigation of dynamic wear behavior of carbon black filled rubber compounds comprising pristine styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) together with incorporated SBR ground rubber (rubber powder). We also analyzed and described quantitatively the service conditions of some dynamically loaded rubber products, which are liable to wear (e.g. conveyor belts, tires). Beside the well-known standard test method to characterize wear resistance at steady...

  2. Cementitious Spray Dryer Ash-Tire Fiber Material for Maximizing Waste Diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Riley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray dryer absorber (SDA material, also known as spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of coal combustion and flue gas scrubbing processes that has self-cementing properties similar to those of class C fly ash. SDA material does not usually meet the existing standards for use as a pozzolan in Portland cement concrete due to its characteristically high sulfur content, and thus unlike fly ash, it is rarely put to beneficial use. This paper presents the results of a study with the objective of developing beneficial uses for SDA material in building materials when combined with tire fiber reinforcement originating from a recycling process. Specifically, spray dryer ash was investigated for use as the primary or even the sole binding component in a mortar or concrete. This study differs from previous research in that it focuses on very high contents of spray dryer ash (80 to 100 percent in a hardened product. The overarching objective is to divert products that are normally sent to landfills and provide benefit to society in beneficial applications.

  3. Amphiphilic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks using pulverized rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Nima

    Scrap rubber materials provide a significant challenge to either reuse or safe disposal. Every year, millions of tires are discarded to landfills in the United States, consuming a staggering amount of land space, creating a high risk for large fires, breeding mosquitoes that spread diseases, and wasting the planet's natural resources. This situation cannot be sustained. The challenge of reusing scrap rubber materials is mainly due to the crosslinked structure of vulcanized rubber that prevent them from melting and further processing for reuse. The most feasible recycling approach is believed to be a process in which the vulcanized rubber is first pulverized into a fine powder and then incorporated into new products. The production of fine rubber particles is generally accomplished through the use of a cryogenic process that is costly. Therefore, development of a cost effective technology that utilizes a large quantity of the scrap rubber materials to produce high value added materials is an essential element in maintaining a sustainable solution to rubber recycling. In this research, a cost effective pulverization process, solid state shear extrusion (SSSE), was modified and used for continuous pulverization of the rubber into fine particles. In the modified SSSE process, pulverization takes place at high compressive shear forces and a controlled temperature. Furthermore, an innovative particle modification process was developed to enhance the chemical structure and surface properties of the rubber particles for manufacturing of high value added products. Modification of rubber particles was accomplished through the polymerization of a hydrophilic monomer mixture within the intermolecular structure of the hydrophobic rubber particles. The resulting composite particles are considered as amphiphilic particulate phase semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (PPSIPNs). The modified rubber particles are water dispersible and suitable for use in a variety of aqueous media

  4. Research progress of application of solid waste in rubber%固体废弃物应用于橡胶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑楠; 邱祖民; 刘杰; 何维娟

    2013-01-01

    Construction of rubber-based composites formed by combination of solid waste and rubber is an effective approach to resource recycling,environmental protection and expansion of rubber applications. This paper reviews the progress of application of many kinds of solid waste in rubber, such as industrial waste,agriculture waste and domestic waste. Moreover,the means of promoting interfacial adhesion between waste and rubber matrix as well as the application fields of waste-rubber composites,such as automobile,construction,noise reduction,electromagnetic wave shielding, treatment of oil field waste water,and food packaging are introduced. The problem of waste application in rubber as well as the research challenges and development trend,such as selection of waste and rubber matrix,dispersibility of waste in rubber matrix,compatibility and reactivity of waste with rubber matrix are proposed.%将固体废弃物应用于橡胶制备废弃物/橡胶复合材料是资源循环、环境保护、拓展橡胶应用领域的有效方法。本文综述了多种固体废弃物在橡胶中的应用,包括工业废弃物、农业废弃物和生活废弃物,对增强废弃物与橡胶基体两相结合力所采取的多种方法以及对废弃物/橡胶复合材料应用于汽车、建筑、降噪、电磁波屏蔽、油田废水治理、食品包装等多个领域进行了归纳,指出固体废弃物在橡胶应用中存在的问题,认为在固体废弃物及橡胶基体的选择、废弃物在橡胶基体中的分散性、废弃物与橡胶基体的相容性和反应性等研究方面具有一定的挑战和广阔的发展空间。

  5. Utilization of sludge waste from natural rubber manufacturing process as a raw material for clay-ceramic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichaphund, S; Intiya, W; Kongkaew, A; Loykulnant, S; Thavorniti, P

    2012-12-01

    The possibility of utilization of the sludge waste obtained from the natural rubber manufacturing process as a raw material for producing clay ceramics was investigated. To prepared clay-based ceramic, the mixtures of traditional clay and sludge waste (10-30 wt%) were milled, uniaxilly pressed and sintered at a temperature between 1000 and 1200 degrees C. The effect of sludge waste on the properties of clay-based ceramic products was examined. The results showed that the amount of sludge waste addition had an effect on both sinterability and properties of the clay ceramics. Up to 30 wt% of sludge waste can be added into the clay ceramics, and the sintered samples showed good properties.

  6. EVALUATION OF CONCRETE BLOCKS FOR MASONRY WITH ADDITION OF TIRE RUBBER RESIDUES = AVALIAÇÃO DE BLOCOS DE CONCRETO PARA ALVENARIA COM ADIÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS DE BORRACHA DE PNEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catiane Sebben Selung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady growth in the number of freight and passenger vehicles in circulation causes an increased amount of tires requiring retreading or become useless. In order to contribute to a better utilization of tire rubber residues generated in the retreading process, this paper was conducted with the aim of evaluating the absorption and compressive strength of concrete blocks for masonry, with residues and aggregates found in the western region of Santa Catarina State. Thus, concrete blocks were prepared with partial replacement of coarse aggregate for rubber residues in proportions of 15%, 25% and 35%, in mass, which were compared with blocks of a reference mix without residue. The test results confirmed a tendency to increase the absorption and reduction of the compressive strength of the blocks with the increase of the amount of residues tire rubber in the concrete mix. However, the mixture with 15% residue satisfies the minimum value of 3.0 MPa for the characteristic compressive strength and a 10% maximal absorption for hollow concrete blocks with structural function for use in masonry elements above the ground level. = O constante crescimento do número de veículos de cargas e passageiros em circulação acarreta aumento da quantidade de pneus com necessidade de recapagem ou que se tornam inservíveis. No intuito de contribuir com o melhor aproveitamento dos resíduos de borracha de pneus gerados no processo de recapagem, este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a absorção e resistência à compressão de blocos de concreto para alvenaria, confeccionados com resíduos e agregados encontrados na região oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina. Assim, foram confeccionados blocos de concreto com a substituição parcial de brita por resíduos de borracha nas proporções de 15%, 25% e 35%, em massa, os quais foram comparados com blocos de um traço de referência sem o resíduo. Os resultados dos ensaios confirmaram uma tendência de

  7. Natural rubber: leather composites

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ravichandran; N. Natchimuthu

    2005-01-01

    Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties of the natural rubber - scrap rubber composites containing neutralized leather have ...

  8. Bacterial Communities and Midgut Microbiota Associated with Mosquito Populations from Waste Tires in East-Central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Hyun; Lampman, Richard L; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-microbe interactions tend to influence larval nutrition, immunity, and development, as well as fitness and vectorial capacity of adults. Understanding the role of different bacterial species not only improves our knowledge of the physiological and ecological consequences of these interactions, but also provides the basis for developing novel strategies for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. We used culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques to characterize the bacterial composition and abundance in water and midgut samples of larval and adult females of Aedes japonicus (Theobald), Aedes triseriatus (Say), and Culex restuans (Theobald) collected from waste tires at two wooded study sites in Urbana, IL. The phylum-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay revealed a higher proportion of Actinobacteria and a lower proportion of gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in water samples and larval midguts compared to adult female midguts. Only 15 of the 57 bacterial species isolated in this study occurred in both study sites. The number of bacterial species was highest in water samples (28 species from Trelease Woods; 25 species from South Farms), intermediate in larval midguts (13 species from Ae. japonicus; 12 species from Ae. triseriatus; 8 species from Cx. restuans), and lowest in adult female midguts (2 species from Ae. japonicus; 3 species from Ae. triseriatus). These findings suggest that the composition and richness of bacterial communities varies both between habitats and among mosquito species and that the reduction in bacteria diversity during metamorphosis is more evident among bacteria detected using the culture-dependent method.

  9. Surface functional characteristics (C, O, S) of waste tire-derived carbon black before and after steam activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsun-Yu; Chen, Wei-Chin; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of steam activation on the surface functional characteristics of waste tire-derived carbon black were investigated. Two carbon-based materials, powdered carbon black (PCB) and PCB-derived powdered activated carbon (PCB-PAC), were selected for this study. A stainless steel tubular oven was used to activate the PCB at an activation temperature of 900 degrees C and 1 atm using steam as an activating reagent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was adopted to measure the surface composition and chemical structure of carbon surface. Various elemental spectra (C, O, and S) of each carbon sample were further deconvoluted by peak synthesis. Results showed that the surfaces of PCB and PCB-PAC consisted mainly of C-C and C-O. The PCB-PAC surface had a higher percentage of oxygenated functional groups (C=O and O-C=O) than PCB. The O1s spectra show that the oxygen detected on the PCB surface was mainly bonded to carbon (C-O), whereas the oxygen on the PCB-PAC surface could be bonded to hydrogen (O-H) and carbon (C-O). Sulfur on the surface of PCB consisted of 58.9 wt% zinc sulfide (ZnS) and 41.1 wt% S=C=S, whereas that on the surfaces of PCB-PAC consisted mainly of S=C=S. Furthermore, the increase of oxygen content from 9.6% (PCB) to 11.9% (PCB-PAC) resulted in the increase of the pH values of PCB-PAC after steam activation.

  10. Effects of tire rubber ash and zinc sulfate on crop productivity and cadmium accumulation in five rice cultivars under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Wu, Chao; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ahmad, Naeem; Gang, Deng; Ullah, Abid; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread and toxic heavy metals becoming a severe threat to humans. A field study was conducted to examine the role of various zinc (Zn) fertilization treatments and cultivars on crop productivity and Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice and rice straw. The Zn fertilization treatments included an unfertilized control, foliar applied Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) at panicle initiation stage, foliar applied ZnSO4 at milky stage, soil application of rubber ash, and soil-applied ZnSO4, while five rice cultivars were Swat-1, Shadab, Shua-92, Swat-2, and Sada Hayat. All the Zn fertilization treatments resulted in significantly higher number of panicles, number of spikelets per panicles, spikelet fertility, 1,000-grain weight, grain yield, brown rice and rice straw Zn concentrations, and significantly lower Cd concentrations. Soil application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in 73% higher grain yield and reduced Cd concentration by 51% as compared with control. Variations were also apparent among cultivars, and Shua-92 and Swat-2 performed better in terms of all studied attributes as compared with other cultivars. Conclusively, cultivar selection and Zn application are effective strategies to improve rice grain yield as well as quality. Rubber ash appeared a viable source of Zn having the ability to increase yield along with reducing Cd accumulation.

  11. ANSYS tools in modeling tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ashraf; Lovell, Michael

    1995-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the capabilities in the ANSYS program that relate to the computational modeling of tires. The power and the difficulties associated with modeling nearly incompressible rubber-like materials using hyperelastic constitutive relationships are highlighted from a developer's point of view. The topics covered include a hyperelastic material constitutive model for rubber-like materials, a general overview of contact-friction capabilities, and the acoustic fluid-structure interaction problem for noise prediction. Brief theoretical development and example problems are presented for each topic.

  12. Stress-based viscoelastic master curve construction of model tire tread compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Tolpekina, T.V.; Schultz, S.; Gögelein, C.; Wrana, C.; Asier, Alonso

    2013-01-01

    One of the important aspects in the development of new tire compounds is the correlation between the dynamic mechanical properties of the rubber, measured on laboratory scale, and the actual tire performance. In order to predict wet traction, the viscoelastic behavior of the rubber materials at high

  13. Incorporação de pó de pneu em uma formulação para banda de rodagem de pneu de motocicleta Incorporation of solid rubber tire powder into a formulation for motorcycle tire tread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela A. Gujel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A reciclagem de elastômeros vulcanizados tem sido um problema para as empresas geradoras de resíduos elastoméricos, e ao mesmo tempo um amplo campo de estudo para pesquisadores da área. Diante da possibilidade de recuperação desses resíduos, deu-se início a este trabalho, relacionado à incorporação de pó de pneu de automóvel (STR-r como uma carga, em uma formulação típica para banda de rodagem de pneu de motocicleta (formulação base - FB. O estudo teve início com a caracterização do STR-r, com base na análise granulométrica, análise termogravimétrica (TG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC. A incorporação do STR-r na FB foi realizada em misturador aberto, nas proporções de 5 a 20 phr. Foram calculados os parâmetros reométricos de vulcanização e determinadas as propriedades mecânicas como resiliência, dureza (Shore A, resistência à abrasão, à tração e ao rasgamento dos compósitos preparados. Os resultados foram comparados aos da FB de um processo produtivo de uma empresa de pneus para motocicleta. A partir da análise dos resultados dos diferentes compósitos, foi escolhida a formulação com 10 phr de STR-r para ser produzida em escala industrial, ou seja, em misturador fechado, tipo Banbury. Os cálculos do custo de produção foram realizados com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade econômica deste desenvolvimento.The recycling of vulcanized elastomers represents a problem for companies generating elastomeric residues and has become a wide field of study for researchers in this area. This study addresses the possible use of these residues and investigates an alternative for their recovery through incorporation of tread powder of cars tires (STR-r as a filler into a typical formulation for motorcycle tire tread (base formulation - BF. The study began with the characterization of the STR-r, based on granulometric, thermogravimetric (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses. The

  14. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  15. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triolo, A.; Lechner, R.E.; Desmedt, A.; Pieper, J. [CNR - Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, sez. Messina, Via La Farina 237, 98123 Messina (Italy); Lo Celso, F.; Triolo, R. [Dip. Chimica Fisica, V. le delle Scienze, Parco d' Orleans, Padiglione 17, Universita di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Negroni, F. [Pirelli Pneumatici S.p.A, V. le Sarca 222, 20126 Milano (Italy); Arrighi, V.; Qian, H. [Chemistry School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Frick, B. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2002-07-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  16. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  17. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, A.; Lo Celso, F.; Negroni, F.; Arrighi, V.; Qian, H.; Lechner, R. E.; Desmedt, A.; Pieper, J.; Frick, B.; Triolo, R.

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface.

  18. Application of Liquid Isoprene Rubber in Shoulder Compound of Tire%液体聚异戊二烯橡胶在轮胎胎肩胶中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小进; 陈宏; 康新贺; 刘辉; 王妮妮

    2013-01-01

    研究自制液体聚异戊二烯橡胶(LIR)在轮胎胎肩胶中的应用,并与芳烃油和进口LIR进行对比.结果表明:与采用芳烃油的胶料相比,采用LIR的胶料混炼和挤出工艺性能较好,门尼焦烧时间略短,硫化速度相当;硫化胶撕裂强度较低,其余物理性能较优或相当,生热较低,热稳定性较好.自制LIR在胎肩胶中的应用性能达到或超过进口LIR水平.%The application of self-made liquid isoprene rubber(LIR) in the shoulder compound of tire was investigated, and compared with aromatic oil and imported LIR. The results showed that, when compared with compound containing aromatic oil,the mixing behavior and extrudability of compound containing LIR were better,the scorch time was slightly shortened,the curing rate was similar, the tear strength was lower, other physical properties were better or similar, the heat build-up was lower,and the thermal stability was better,The performance of self-made LIR in shoulder compound met or exceeded the level of imported LIR in the shoulder compound.

  19. Effect of Inflation Pressure Loss Rates on Tire Rolling Resistance,Vehicle Fuel Economy, and CO2 Emissions of Asia-Pacific and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr.Walter H. Waddell

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Based on the low permeability to small-molecule diffusants as a result of efficient intermolecular packing, butyl rubber has contributed significantly to the improvement in the performance and safety of tires. Halogenated butyl rubbers provide higher vulcanization rates and improve the compatibility with unsatu-rated rubbers, enabling the production of tubeless tires.

  20. The adsorptive capacity of vapor-phase mercury chloride onto powdered activated carbon derived from waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsun-Yu; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Wu, Chun-Hsin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang

    2006-11-01

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) upstream of particulate removal devices (such as electrostatic precipitator and baghouses) has been used effectively to remove hazardous air pollutants, particularly mercury-containing pollutants, emitted from combustors and incinerators. Compared with commercial PACs (CPACs), an alternative PAC derived from waste tires (WPAC) was prepared for this study. The equilibrium adsorptive capacity of mercury chloride (HgCl2) vapor onto the WPAC was further evaluated with a self-designed bench-scale adsorption column system. The adsorption temperatures investigated in the adsorption column were controlled at 25 and 150 degrees C. The superficial velocity and residence time of the flow were 0.01 m/sec and 4 sec, respectively. The adsorption column tests were run under nitrogen gas flow. Experimental results showed that WPAC with higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area could adsorb more HgCl2 at room temperature. The equilibrium adsorptive capacity of HgCl2 for WPAC measured in this study was 1.49 x 10(-1) mg HgCl2/g PAC at 25 degrees C with an initial HgCI2 concentration of 25 microg/m3. With the increase of adsorption temperature PAC. Furthermore, WPAC with higher sulfur contents could adsorb even more HgCl2 because of the reactions between sulfur and Hg2+ at 150 degrees C. It was demonstrated that the mechanisms for adsorbing HgCl2 onto WPAC were physical adsorption and chemisorption at 25 and 150 degrees C, respectively. Experimental results also indicated that the apparent overall driving force model appeared to have the good correlation with correlation coefficients (r) > 0.998 for HgCl2 adsorption at 25 and 150 degrees C. Moreover, the equilibrium adsorptive capacity of HgCl2 for virgin WPAC was similar to that for CPAC at 25 degrees C, whereas it was slightly higher for sulfurized WPAC than for CPAC at 150 degrees C.

  1. Monte carlo simulation of innovative neutron and photon shielding material composing of high density concrete, waste rubber, lead and boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim-O, P.; Wongsawaeng, D.; Phruksarojanakun, P.; Tancharakorn, S.

    2017-06-01

    High-density concrete exhibits high strength and can perform an important role of gamma ray attenuation. In order to upgrade this material’s radiation-shielding performance, hydrogen-rich material can be incorporated. Waste rubber from vehicles has high hydrogen content which is the prominent characteristic to attenuate neutron. The objective of this work was to evaluate the radiation-shielding properties of this composite material against neutron and photon radiations. Monte Carlo transport simulation was conducted to simulate radiation through the composite material. Am-241/Be was utilized for neutron source and Co-60 for photon source. Parameters of the study included volume percentages of waste rubber, lead and boron carbide and thickness of the shielding material. These designs were also fabricated and the radiation shielding properties were experimentally evaluated. The best neutron and gamma ray shielding material was determined to be high-density concrete mixed with 5 vol% crumb rubber and 5 vol% lead powder. This shielding material increased the neutron attenuation by 64% and photon attenuation by 68% compared to ordinary concrete. Also, increasing the waste rubber content to greater than 5% resulted in a decrease in the radiation attenuation. This innovative composite radiation shielding material not only benefits nuclear science and engineering applications, but also helps solve the environmental issue of waste rubber.

  2. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  3. Modification of PP with waste rubber powder%废胶粉填充改性PP复合材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹; 李军伟; 刘志锋; 刘志华; 赵巍

    2011-01-01

    采用熔融挤出共混的方法,选用三种废胶粉填充聚丙烯(PP),制备了PP/废胶粉复合材料,研究了废胶粉质量分数对复合材料力学性能的影响.结果表明:废旧三元乙丙橡胶粉可明显提高复合材料冲击强度和拉伸断裂应变,当其质量分数为60%时,简支梁缺口冲击强度可提高33%,拉伸断裂应变增大了26%,有显著的增韧效果:废旧杂胶粉的加入使复合材料表现出较好的拉伸强度和弯曲应力,且少量废旧杂胶粉也可起到增韧的作用;废旧丁腈橡胶粉的加入不能改善复合材料的力学性能,不适合用来填充改性PP.%The authors selected and used three kinds of waste rubber powders(WRP) to prepare polypropylene(PP) composites via melt extrusion, and studied the effect of mass contents of WRP on mechanical properties of the PP/WRP composites. The results show that waste ethylene - propylene - diene monomer(EPDM) powder can enhance the impact strength and tensile strain at break of the composites significantly. When the mass fraction of waste EPDM powder is 60%, the notched Charpy impact strength and tensile strain at break increase by 33% and 126%, respectively, indicating the remarkable toughening effect The added mixture of the waste rubber powders endows the composites with high tensile strength and flexural stress, and can play a toughening function even if it is a small amount. Waste nitrile-butadiene rubber(NBR) powder is unable to improve mechanical properties of the composites and therefore, is not suitable for filling PP.

  4. Study on Factors of Devulcanization of Ground Tire Rubber through Stress-induced Reaction%废旧轮胎胶粉应力诱导脱硫反应影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫标; 孟亚男; 司虎; 张云灿

    2011-01-01

    在废旧轮胎胶粉/EPDM的熔融挤出过程中,以仲丁醇为脱硫反应促进剂,研究螺杆转速和挤出反应温度对脱硫共混物凝胶质量分数(w)、凝胶分子链结构以及SBR/脱硫共混物再硫化材料物理性能的影响.结果表明:在废旧轮胎胶粉/EPDM的熔融挤出过程中,随着螺杆转速和挤出反应温度的升高,废旧轮胎胶粉颗粒所受的机械剪切应力作用增强,引起废旧轮胎胶粉中交联网络的断裂、降解或解交联反应,导致脱硫共混物w显著减小以及SBR/脱硫共混物再硫化材料中凝胶粒子尺寸明显减小;添加仲丁醇有利于脱硫反应的进行,并具有抑制交联副反应和保护脱硫产物中双键的作用,使脱硫共混物的w进一步减小;在螺杆转速为1 000r· min-1、挤出反应温度为240℃的条件下,SBR/脱硫共混物(添加仲丁醇)再硫化材料的拉伸强度和拉断伸长率分别为19.3 MPa和567%.%During melt extrusion of the mixture of ground tire rubber and EPDM,2-butyl alcohol was added as devulcanization accelerator,and the effect of screw rotating speed and reaction temperature on the gel content of devulcanized blends, molecular structure of gel and physical properties of SBR/devulcanized blends was investigated. The results showed that,as the screw rotating speed and reaction temperature increased during extrusion,the mechanical shear stress on ground tire rubber enhanced, which made cross-linking network break up, degrade or retro-crosslink, resulting in low gel content of devulcanized blends and small size of gel particles in SBR/devulcanized blends. By adding 2-butyl alcohol, the process of devulcanization was accelerated, side-reactions were restrained, double bonds were protected,and the gel content of devulcanized blends was further decreased. With the 2-bu-tyl alcohol accelerated devulcanization condition of screw rotating speed at 1 000 r · min-1 and reaction temperature at 240 ℃ ,the tensile strength

  5. Effect of operating conditions on scrap tire pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fabiana Scatolim Rombaldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The study reported here investigated the production of fuel oil and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The initial mass of rubber yielded approximately 46% of oil, 40% of activated carbon and 14% of gases. The resulting activated carbon displayed a specific surface area of 200 m².g-1.

  6. Chemistry of rubber processing and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebb, R L

    1976-10-01

    The major chemical changes during the processing of rubber occur with the breakdown in mastication and during vulcanization of the molded tire. There is little chemical change during the compounding, calendering, extrusion, and molding steps. Reclaiming is the process of converting scrap rubber into an unsaturated, processible product that can be vulcanized with sulfur. Pyrolysis of scrap rubber yields a complex mixture of liquids, gas, and residue in varying ratios dependent on the nature of the scrap and the conditions of pyrolysis.

  7. Manufacture of Partially Biodegradable Composite Materials Based on PLA-Tires Powder: Process and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rolando Rios-Soberanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work focuses on the processability and mechanical characterization of blends of polylactic acid (PLA and tire (elastomeric part. Wasted tires used as filler in the PLA matrix were reduced by two different processes (thermal shock and pyrolysis in order to acquire the solid residuals in powder to be characterized and compared. Elastomeric solids obtained from scraped tires were used as filler in the PLA matrix and mixed in a Brabender 60 cc mixer at different concentrations ranging from 0% to 60% of filler volume fraction. The blend was laminated, and then samples were obtained in order to undertake mechanical properties at tension and Izod impact tests. A fully detailed analysis on the solid powders by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, infrared analysis (IR, and scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM identified them as a rich source of carbon. Blends were characterized thermally and mechanically showing a direct effect due to the tire nature (thermoset rubber and concentration. Fracture mechanisms were also identified.

  8. Preparation and application of nanocrystalline cellulose derived from sugarcane waste as filler modified alkanolamide on crosslink of natural rubber latex film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, Hamidah; Hayat, Nuim; Lubis, Marfuah

    2017-07-01

    Sugarcane waste is abundant sources of cellulose and it has potential to reutilize. Cellulose from sugarcane waste can be derived into nanocystalline cellulose (NCC) from crystalline region. The NCC as a filler has capability to reinforce natural rubber latex product. The crosslink in vulcanized natural rubber latex film influences several properties of product. In this work, we extracted NCC from sugarcane waste then added into natural rubber latex as filler modified alkanolamide (ALK) and also studied the crosslink of natural rubber latex films. NCC were produced from sugarcane waste by hydrolysis process with sulfuric acid 45%. The obtained NCC was characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fourier transform infra red (FTIR). NCC was modified by alkanolamide and dispersed in water with filler concentration of 10%. Then the dispersion were added into latex system followed by pre-vulcanization at 70 °C. The films were prepared by coagulant dipping method and dried at 100 °C and 120 °C for 20 minutes. Characterization of NCC from sugarcane waste by using FTIR was done, it clearly showed the functional groups of cellulose. TEM showed the obtained NCC were rod-shaped with about 40-160 nm in diameter and several hundred nm in length, and XRD showed that the degree of crystalinity of NCC from sugarcane waste is 92.33%. The crosslink of natural rubber films were studied by measure the crosslink density for different filler loading by using swelling measurement with toluene solution. The result show that the crosslink density increased in line with amount of filler which added into the system, and also the crosslink density that obtained from vulcanization at 120 °C were higher than 100 °C.

  9. Science and technology of rubber reclamation with special attention to NR based waste latex products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, V.V.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Joseph, R.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of reclamation of cured rubber with special emphasis on latex reclamation is depicted in this paper. The latex industry has expanded over the years to meet the world demands for gloves, condoms, latex thread, etc. Due to the strict specifications for the products and the

  10. Novel polymer composites from waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer rubber by supercritical CO2 foaming technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Keuk Min; Hong, Yeo Joo; Saha, Prosenjit; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a composite has been prepared by mixing waste rubber, such as ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer and low-density poly ethylene foaming, with supercritical carbon dioxide. In order to optimise the foaming process of the waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer-low-density poly ethylene composite, the variations of pressure and temperature on the foamed Microcell formation were studied. As indicated in scanning electron microscope photographs, the most uniform microcellular pattern was found at 200 bar and 100 °C using 30% by weight of waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer. Carbon dioxide could not be dissolved uniformly during foaming owing to extensive cross-linking of the waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer used for the composite. As a result the presence of un-uniform microcells after foaming were observed in the composite matrix to impart inferior mechanical properties of the composite. This problem was solved with uniform foaming by increasing the cross-link density of low-density poly ethylene using 1.5 parts per hundred dicumyl peroxide that enhances composite tensile and compressive strength up to 57% and 15%, respectively. The composite has the potential to be used as a foaming mat for artificial turf.

  11. The Effects of Silica/Carbon Black Ratio on the Dynamic Properties of the Tread compounds in Truck Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Zafarmehrabian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available NR is the major constituent in the rubber compound used for the tread on the truck tires. A general compound formulation of the tire tread includes NR and BR as polymer base and carbon black as the reinforcing filler, and curative components. In this paper the effects of dual filler system (carbon black and precipitated silica on the dynamic properties of tire treat has been studied. The results show by increasing of precipitated silica, significant improvement was observed in fatigue resistance, rolling resistance and heat buildup of the tire. Tensile strength and modulus and wet grip of tire tread decrease with increasing of silica in rubber compound formulation.

  12. Review of Recovery of Waste Tires by Pyrolysis Technology%废轮胎热解技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴; 唐兰

    2013-01-01

    总结了废旧轮胎热解反应中反应温度、反应时间和催化剂三大主要影响因素对热解反应的影响规律;探讨了废旧轮胎热解产物的组成、产率及其用途;并指出热解是废旧轮胎回收处置的一种高效途径.%The effect law of temperature,time and catalyst in pyrolysis experiments is summarized.The components,productivity and application of pyrolysis products are discussed.Then it is indicated that pyrolysis would be a high benefit process for recovery of waste tires.

  13. Burnt Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Driving away Chinese tires has not benefited the U.S. tire industry, but has harmed their trade ties Two years after imposing punitive tariffs on Chinese-manufactured passenger vehicle and truck tires, the United States may launch a new round against truck and bus tires imported from China, reported 21st Century Business Herald based in Guangzhou, capital of Guangdong Province.

  14. All-Metal Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.; Sword, Lee F.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    1994-01-01

    Tires used where elastomeric and pneumatic tires would not function. Metal tires withstand extreme temperatures. Used on Earth for vehicles and robots that fight fires or clean up dangerous chemicals.

  15. Influence of crumb rubber and digestion time on the asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Silvrano Adonias Dantas; De Farias, Márcio Muniz; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Sousa, Jorge B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a study about the mechanical behavior of dense graded asphalt-rubber hot mixes prepared with two different types of asphalt-rubber binders. These asphalt-rubber binders were obtained with penetration grade asphalt (AC 50/70) mixed with 21% and 25% of crumb rubber in weight. The rubber was recycled from unserviceable tires using the ambient grinding process. Hot mixes made with the conventional binder AC 50/70 were also studied for comparison. The...

  16. 工程轮胎裂解炭黑的表征与应用%Characterization and Application of Pyrolytic Carbon Black made from Waste Truck Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔慧君; 杜爱华

    2015-01-01

    研究了工程轮胎裂解炭黑(CBp)的基本性质、微观结构及表面性质,考察了2种不同形态的 CBp 对丁苯橡胶混炼胶门尼粘度、硫化特性以及物理机械性能的影响,并与传统炭黑 N330和硅灰石粉(HQ)进行了比较。结果表明,粉料和粒料的 CBp 化学组成主要有 C、O、S、Si、Zn 和 Ca 等元素。与炭黑 N330相比,两种CBp 的吸碘值、DBP 吸油值和加热减量均较低,而灰分含量高很多。SEM 显示,2种 CBp 的粒子聚集体尺寸基本相同,比炭黑 N330大,粒料 CBp 的排列较紧密。红外光谱分析表明,CBp 与炭黑 N330的表面基团基本相同。分别填充粉料 CBp 和粒料 CBp 的 SBR 混炼胶门尼粘度明显增大,且后者大于前者。含 CBp 的混炼胶t 1 0和 t 90均缩短,且后者小于前者,两者均小于炭黑 N330和硅灰石填充的混炼胶。随着 2种 CBp 用量的增大,SBR 硫化胶的耐磨性、拉伸强度、撕裂强度和300%定伸应力均明显提高;粒料 CBp 填充的硫化胶性能优于粉料 CBp 硫化胶,两者性能均介于炭黑 N330和硅灰石填充的硫化胶之间。%The fundamental quality,micro-structure and surface groups of pyrolysis carbon black (CBp)made from waste truck tires were studied,and the effects of 2 kinds of CBp having different forms on Mooney viscosity,curing characteristics and mechanical properties of styrene-butadiene rub-ber were investigated,and they were compared with other fillers(carbon black N330 and HQ).The results showed that the chemical compositions of 2 kinds of CBp were C,O,S,Si,Zn and Ca.The i-odine adsorption value,DBP adsorption value,and heating loss of 2 kinds of CBp were lower than those of carbon black N330,and the ash content was higher than the later.SEM showed the aggre-gate size of 2 kinds of CBp particle were the same,but both larger than that of carbon black N330,and the arrangement of granules CBp was close together.FTIR showed that both CBp and carbon black N330 had

  17. Propriedades mecânicas de blendas de PS/resíduo de borracha: influência da concentração, granulometria e método de moldagem Mechanical properties of PS/rubber waste blends: effects of concentration, particle size and moulding procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcleide M. Araújo

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Resíduos de borracha, provenientes de indústrias de calçados e de pneus, foram adicionados ao poliestireno visando tenacificá-lo. As misturas foram realizadas em extrusora dupla-rosca e a moldagem feita por compressão e por injeção. Os efeitos da concentração ( 5-25% em peso e granulometria (1200 a 180mm dos resíduos nas propriedades mecânicas destas blendas, foram avaliados e as suas superfícies de fratura examinadas. Ficou evidenciado que a resistência à tração tende a diminuir e a resistência ao impacto aumentar conforme o teor de borracha aumenta e a granulometria diminui. A análise morfológica das superfícies de fratura confirma estes resultados. As amostras obtidas pelo processo de injeção apresentaram maior uniformidade e, consequentemente, melhores propriedades mecânicas.Polystyrene was toughened by blending with rubber waste obtained from shoe and tire industries. The blends were twin-screw extruded and test specimens were compression and injection moulded. The effects of concentration (0-15% w/w and particle size (1200 to 180 µm of the waste rubbers on the blend's mechanical properties were evaluated and their fracture surfaces examined. It was shown that tensile strength tends to lower and impact resistance to increase with increasing rubber content of decreasing particle sizes. Morphological analysis confirms these results. Injection moulded specimens showed greater sample uniformity and consequently, better mechanical properties than compression moulded samples.

  18. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  19. Engineered Plastics Containing Recycled Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yang Wu

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction In Australia 10.5 million rubber tyres are discarded annually, representing 120,000 tonnes of wasted rubber resource. Growing local and global concern about the impact of this waste on the environment requires action for the management and recycling of this highly valuable resource through the development of recycling technologies and innovative recycled/recyclable products.

  20. Rate of Dissipation of the Energy of Low-Frequency Mechanical Disturbances in a Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinchuk, P. S.; Fisenko, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    An expression for the rate of dissipation of the energy of low-frequency mechanical disturbances in a tire, accounting for the tired wheel radius, velocity of motion, and loading, has been derived. After processing experimental data on heating the tread rubber of an oversize tire by the proposed method, it has been revealed that about 30% of the energy of deformations appearing in motion of a loaded tire is converted into heat, and the coefficient of heat transfer between the tire and air has been derived.

  1. Revolutionizing tire life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ednie, H.

    2006-09-15

    Many oil sands operations are optimizing processes to prevent the current tire shortage from affecting profits. Typically, there are 3 options available to operators when dealing with a tire shortage: (1) increase the life of tires; (2) buy more tires from unconventional sources; and (3) park trucks. However, operators in the Elk Valley have seen a 28 per cent increase in the lifespan of their tires through using a variety of different options. Lifespan increases have been attributed to greater awareness of the tire shortage, and improved maintenance practices. Suncor's plant in Fort McMurray has made tires a focus of their operational excellence program. Over the last year a cross-functional task team of operations, maintenance, internal supply and technical personnel has met once a week to review tire strategies. Through a combination of supplier technology improvements and onsite initiatives, tire life has increased from the usual 2000 to 3000 hours to over 10,000 hours. Syncrude Canada has seen a 25 per cent increase in tire life through focusing on payloads, improvements in repair technologies and avoiding spillage from trucks to keep roads clean. Developed to aid operators in prolonging the lives of their tires, the Rimex Tyresense System is currently being tested on the tires of six 930E trucks. The system offers wireless reporting on 6 wheel positions in real time, and monitors heat and pressure on the front and rear axle tires. Operators in the Elk Valley are also optimizing forecasting methods to predict lifetimes of tires in order to adjust tire rotation strategies. Suncor and Syncrude are also working with tire suppliers to develop a tire design for oil sands operations, and are currently testing tires from a variety of international suppliers. Tire-swapping between operations that have varying impacts on tires has also been considered. It was concluded that increasing tire life requires a variety of approaches and solutions. 2 figs.

  2. The challenges of silica-silane reinforcement of natural rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierkes, W.K.; Sarkawi, S.S.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, highly-dispersible silica has become the preferred alternative to carbon-black as reinforcing filler for low rolling-resistance tires. However, the application of this filler system is so far limited to passenger car tires, as their treads contain styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). In

  3. Retreaded Tire of Hangzhou Zhongce Company Regarded as Resources Comprehensive Utilization Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Wen

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Hangzhou Economic and Information Commission issued an announcement that the retreaded tire produced by Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Cycle Technology Co., Ltd. was certified to be the resources comprehensive utilization product.

  4. Olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymer based additives: a novel approach for compatibilizing blends of waste polyethylene and crumb rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Balázs; Varga, Csilla; Bartha, László

    2015-04-01

    In our work processing conditions and mechanical properties of waste polyethylene (PE)/crumb rubber (CR) blends have been improved by new types of compatibilizing additives synthesized from experimental olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymers at our laboratory. Compatibilizing additives have been introduced into the PE/CR blends in 0.2 wt% while CR concentration has been varied between 10 and 50 wt%. For comparison of the effects commercially available MA-g-PO type compatibilizing additives have also been applied. Tensile and Charpy impact tests of the compression moulded samples have been carried out. Several experimental additives have enhanced properties of the PE/CR blends either from the point of view of tensile or Charpy impact strength while commercial additives have had improving effects only on one of the abovementioned mechanical properties but not for both of them simultaneously. Since good mechanical properties could be achieved by our experimental compatibilizers good adhesion in the waste PE/CR samples have been considered and was proven by SEM graphs either.

  5. Cancer mortality and morbidity among rubber workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, R R; Fine, L J

    1978-10-01

    Mortality and morbidity from cancer among a cohort of 13,570 white male rubber workers were examined. Each man worked for at least 5 years at the Akron, Ohio, plant of the B. F. Goodrich Company. The potential period of follow-up was from January 1, 1940 to June 30, 1976. Departmental work histories were based primarily on records maintained by Local no. 5, United Rubber Workers. The occurrence of cancer was measured by death certificates and by a survey of Akron-area hospital tumor registries from 1964 to 1974. Two types of analyses were made: 1) an external comparison of mortality rates of rubber workers versus rates of U.S. white males, and 2) an internal comparison of cancer morbidity rates among persons who were employed in various work areas of the plant. Excess cases of specific cancers (observed/expected numbers) among workers in specific work areas included: stomach and intestine: rubber making (30/14.4); lung: tire curing (31/14.1), fuel cells and/or deicers (46/29.1); bladder: chemical plant (6/2.4), and tire building (16/10.7); skin cancer: tire assembly (12/1.9); brain cancer: tire assembly (8/2.0); lymphatic cancer: tire building (8/3.2); and leukemia: calendering (8/2.2), tire curing (8/2.6), tire building (12/7.5), elevators (4/1.4), tubes (4/1.6), and rubber fabrics (4/1.1). Agents that may be responsible for these excesses were considered.

  6. Mechanistic understanding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the thermal degradation of tires under various oxygen concentration atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Castaldi, Marco J

    2012-12-04

    The thermal degradation of tires under various oxygen concentrations (7-30%/Bal. N(2)) was investigated thermo-gravimetrically at 10 °C min(-1) heating rate over a temperature range from ambient to 1000 °C. Significant mass loss (~55%) was observed at the temperature of 300-500 °C, where the thermal degradation rate was almost identical and independent of oxygen concentrations due to simultaneous volatilization and oxidation. A series of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) measurements taken from the effluent of a thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) unit at temperature of 300-5000 °C leads to the overall thermal degradation mechanisms of waste tires and some insights for understanding evolution steps of air pollutants including volatile organic carbons (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to describe the fundamental mechanistic behavior on tire combustion, the main constituents of tires, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyisoprene (IR), has been investigated in the same experimental conditions. The thermal degradation of SBR and IR suggests the reaction mechanisms including bond scissions followed by hydrogenation, gas phase addition reaction, and/or partial oxidation.

  7. Influence of physical and chemical polymer-filler bonds on wet skid resistance and related properties of passenger car tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cichomski, E.M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Tolpekina, T.V.; Schultz, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the influence of rubber – filler interactions on the wet skid behavior of tire treads is insufficient, in order to quickly develop new compounds with improved wet skid performance. The rubber compound used for a tire tread is in fact a composite material of which the dynamic

  8. Technology of Rubber Cryogenic Grinding%橡胶低温粉碎技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜琳琳

    2012-01-01

    随着我国经济的发展和汽车工业的兴起,橡胶消耗量及废旧轮胎产量正逐年上升。我国每年70%以上的天然橡胶和40%以上的合成橡胶需依赖进口,回收废旧橡胶生产胶粉,既可以作为橡胶原料的补充,又可以缓解"黑色污染"引发的环境问题。介绍了废旧橡胶回收利用方式,提出低温粉碎法是生产精细胶粉的发展方向。通过对液氮冷冻粉碎法、空气冷冻粉碎法和LNG冷能低温粉碎法的比较,提出直接或间接利用LNG冷能低温粉碎生产胶粉,可以降低胶粉生产成本,带动废旧橡胶循环利用产业发展。%With the development of economic and the automobile industry in China,rubber consumption and waste tire production are increasing every year.In China,more than 70 % natural rubber and more than 40 % synthetic rubber need to rely on importing every year.Recycling of waste rubber and producing rubber powder can not only as a complement of rubber raw materials,but also alleviate the environmental problems caused by the "black pollution".It was introduced the way to recycle waste rubber,and indicated that freeze grinding was the developing direction in fine rubber powder production.By comparing freeze grinding in liquid nitrogen,air freeze grinding and LNG cold cryogenic,it was pointed that by direct or indirect using of LNG cold energy to produce rubber powder by cryogenic grinding,the powder production costs can be lower,and it can also drive waste rubber recycling industry development.

  9. Environmental impact of highway construction and repair materials on surface and ground waters. Case study: crumb rubber asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mohammad F; Nelson, Peter O; Thayumanavan, Pugazhendhi; Williamson, Kenneth J

    2003-01-01

    The practice of incorporating certain waste products into highway construction and repair materials (CRMs) has become more popular. These practices have prompted the National Academy of Science, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) to research the possible impacts of these CRMs on the quality of surface and ground waters. State department of transportations (DOTs) are currently experimenting with use of ground tire rubber ( crumb rubber) in bituminous construction and as a crack sealer. Crumb rubber asphalt concrete (CR-AC) leachates contain a mixture of organic and metallic contaminants. Benzothiazole and 2(3H)-benzothiazolone (organic compounds used in tire rubber manufacturing) and the metals mercury and aluminum were leached in potentially harmful concentrations (exceeding toxic concentrations for aquatic toxicity tests). CR-AC leachate exhibited moderate to high toxicity for algae ( Selenastrum capriconutum) and moderate toxicity for water fleas ( Daphnia magna). Benzothiazole was readily removed from CR-AC leachate by the environmental processes of soil sorption, volatilization, and biodegradation. Metals, which do not volatilize or photochemically or biologically degrade, were removed from the leachate by soil sorption. Contaminants from CR-AC leachates are thus degraded or retarded in their transport through nearby soils and ground waters.

  10. Application of waste clay in natural rubber%废白土在天然橡胶中的应用性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云慧; 李培培; 张兆红; 赵静静; 黎丽; 王仕峰

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of waste clay as filler and softener,and its application in natural rubber.With the same number of parts of pottery clay(and 3 parts of aromatic hydrocarbon)for performance comparison.the results showed that waste clay could be used as befillers and softener in natural rubber.And the performance of the rubber with waste clay as filler was good,such as liquidity,scorch resistance,tearing permanent deformation,abrasion resistance,impact flexibility,elongation,anti-aging.%研究了废白土做填充剂及软化剂在天然橡胶中的应用,并与同份数的陶土(同时添加3份芳烃油)进行性能对比。结果表明:废白土可以作为填充剂和软化剂应用于天然橡胶中,且以废白土为填料的胶料流动性、焦烧性、扯断永久变形性能好、耐磨耗性能、冲击弹性、伸长率、耐老化性能均好。

  11. Portland clinker production with carbonatite waste and tire-derived fuel: crystallochemistry of minor and trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. D. Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the composition of Portland clinkers produced with non-conventional raw-materials and fuels, focusing on the distribution of selected trace elements. Clinkers produced with three different fuel compositions were sampled in an industrial plant, where all other parameters were kept unchanged. The fuels have chemical fingerprints, which are sulfur for petroleum coke and zinc for TDF (tire-derived fuel. Presence of carbonatite in the raw materials is indicated by high amounts of strontium and phosphorous. Electron microprobe data was used to determine occupation of structural site of both C3S and C2S, and the distribution of trace elements among clinker phases. Phosphorous occurs in similar proportions in C3S and C2S; while considering its modal abundance, C3S is its main reservoir in the clinker. Sulfur is preferentially partitioned toward C2S compared to C3S. Strontium substitutes for Ca2+ mainly in C2S and in non-silicatic phases, compared to C3S.

  12. Alliances as a way to expand the collection of waste tires; Aliancas como forma de ampliar a coleta de pneus inserviveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Lauro Oliveira [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This job search to answer to the question: the alliances contribute with the process of reverse logistics of Tires? For development of the theme it is necessary discourse about tires, reverse logistics and strategic alliances. The hypothesis that orientates the job is that the alliances enlarge the potential of collect of useless tires. The job aims at to identify like the partnerships influence in the process of reverse logistics of useless tires, and specifically: to indicate the potential generated by the alliances for the process of reverse logistics of useless tires. In this exploratory work, the bibliography turns on tires and reverse logistics, while the collection of information through on interviews structured with entrepreneurs of the branch of tires and the public service of collection of residues seeks to perfect the understanding of the business alliances on the logistics process. The results indicate that the hypothesis is confirmed amid the great number of useless tires collected by the public service, less among resellers and transporters that establish partnerships. (author)

  13. Research on the application of waste natural rubber powder%废旧天然胶胶粉应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 吴兵; 章于川

    2011-01-01

    This paper researched on waste NR powder whose particle size is 80 mesh. The waste NR powder wasadded to NR refined mixed rubber R7626 with 20% and 30% respectively for preparing rubber powder/NR blend. Meantime, the waste NR powder was modified by phthalic anhydride (PA) and high aromatic oil for preparing all rubber powder elastomer. The results showed that the tensile strength of mixed vulcanizates could respectively reach to 18.03 MPa and 17.23 MPa, while the tensile strength of the blank specimen was 19.21 Mpa. The tensile strength of the vulcanization rubber which was completely made by waste NR powder was 8.12 MPa, which was over the GB standard (reclaimed 6 MPa tensile strength). The surface conformation and topography of waste rubber powder were detected through BET and SEM, and the microstructure of transverse cross-section was analyzed and compared by SEM detection.%以80目的废天然胶胶粉为研究对象,处理后将其分别以20%,30%的比例添加到天然混炼胶(NR)中,制备废胶粉/NR共混硫化胶;同时,通过邻苯二甲酸酐(PA)和高芳烃油对胶粉进行处理改性,制备了全胶粉弹性体。拉伸强度测试表明,对于共混胶弹性体,NR混炼胶空白样的拉伸强度为19.21MPa,添加20%,30%比例的胶粉/NR共混硫化胶的拉伸强度可以分别达到18.03MPa,17.23MPa;改性后制备的全胶粉混炼胶硫化样品拉伸强度达到8.12MPa,超过了再生胶的国标标准。同时应用扫描电子显微镜SEM分析、比较了各试样断裂面的微观结构,应用比表面仪BET和SEM表征了胶粉的表面形貌与结构,发现胶粉表面呈现“绒球”状,具有较好的表面性能。

  14. Influence of gamma irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties of waste polyethylene/nitrile butadiene rubber blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf O. Aly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation radical–radical interaction crosslinking of elastomers and thermoplastic is a special type of crosslinking technique that has gained importance over conventional chemical crosslinking method as process is fast, pollution free, and simple. In this work a blend polymer, based on waste polyethylene and nitrile butadiene rubber, has been irradiated with gamma-rays, mechanically and thermally investigated at varying NBR content. FTIR and SEM techniques were used in addition to the swelling behavior to emphasize the blend formation. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus at different elongations were studied and compared with those of unirradiated ones. A relatively low-radiation dose was found effective in improving the level of mechanical properties. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis were used to study the thermal characteristics of the irradiated polymer. Enhancement in thermal stability has been observed for higher NBR containing blends and via radiation-induced crosslinking up to ≈50 kGy.

  15. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  16. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... waste minimization, utilization of waste, resource recovery and recycling of ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  17. The improvement of pavement performance using asphalt rubber hot mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The need of a better pavement performance has led researchers to develop new road materials, mainly for the asphalt layers, where the modification of the asphalt is the main example. This modification usually forces the use of polymers and fibers and, more recently, the use of crumb rubber from ground tires, where the modified asphalt is known as asphalt rubber. This asphalt rubber used in asphalt mixtures produces a superior performance if compared to the asphalt mixtures with...

  18. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    measures the three dimensional deformation of the inside of a tire as it rolls over the terrain. The system is designed to work in conjunction with...off-road conditions. The combination of these two systems provide the three dimensional geometry, describing the tire-terrain interface from inside...that can be mounted inside a rolling tire, known as T2-CAM for Tire-Terrain CAMera. The T2-CAM system measures the three dimensional deformation of

  19. Rolling resistance of tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junio, M.; Roesgen, A.; Corvasce, F. [Goodyear Technical Center Luxembourg, Colmar-Berg (Luxembourg)

    1999-07-01

    After a review of the contribution of tire rolling resistance to fuel economy, the tire rolling resistance is defined and measurement methods discussed. The significant effects of the 'external' factors such as load, inflation, temperature, speed, etc. that are not controlled by the tire developers, are reviewed. Tire construction changes that reduce deformations and compound changes reducing hysteresis are discussed and information is provided on what has been achieved so far and what might be done in the future. (orig.)

  20. The use of Waste Materials in Utility Poles, Crossarms, Paver, and Reef Balls Concrete Structures: Advantages and Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Franke Portella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial residues such as sludge from water treatment plants (Swtp from centrifuged method; electrical porcelain residues (Pw; silica fume (Sf1 and Sf2; tire-rubber waste were evaluated in order to be used in concrete structures of electrical energy and environmental sectors, such as utility poles, crossarms, and reef balls technology. The results showed the necessity for evaluating different recycling concentrations in concrete, concomitantly to physicochemical tests allowing to diagnose natural and accelerated aging.

  1. Tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories.

  2. Forklift Truck, 4000-Pound-Capacity, Gasoline-Engine-Driven, Solid-Rubber-Tired, Allis-Chalmers Model ACC 45 NSN 3930-01-075-4937 -- Army User Survey,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    91 octane irisearch method ) or better recommended LPG Standard tank is ICC 33 5 lb ICC 43 5 Ib and ASME 50 It ranks optiorally available Rriquirrrs...19.31 Published by Equipment Guide-Book Division, Nielsen/DATAQUEST 15 AACC 45 Cushion Tire Truck 094 2310 RI, HT ANGL I ST A’KIN. AMV t PI O𔃻,I

  3. Test of Narrow Tires on M198 Towed Howitzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    following road opera- tions. 3. The proposed tires shall not experience any abnormal wear, tread splitting, stone cutting, bead chaffing, or rubber...c],t (’r iorlt ion , falt i(tle I i fe shortened, strenqth properties lcx rcdi, 42 tread w.er increased, a reduction in tonsil strcnqIth of body

  4. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  5. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemistry of rubber processing and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebb, R L

    1976-01-01

    The major chemical changes during the processing of rubber occur with the breakdown in mastication and during vulcanization of the molded tire. There is little chemical change during the compounding, calendering, extrusion, and molding steps. Reclaiming is the process of converting scrap rubber into an unsaturated, processible product that can be vulcanized with sulfur. Pyrolysis of scrap rubber yields a complex mixture of liquids, gas, and residue in varying ratios dependent on the nature of the scrap and the conditions of pyrolysis. PMID:799964

  7. Recommendations to prevention, recovery and disposal of used tires; Recomendacion para la prevencion, recuperacion y disposicion de los neumaticos usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Every year the European Union produces 2.000.000 tm of used tires. Most of them are disposed in sanitary landfills. the tires are not hazardous wastes and can be used as raw material for different uses. (Author)

  8. 循环流化床内废轮胎的热解油化%PYROLYSIS OF WASTE TIRES IN CFB REACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴先文; 赵增立

    2000-01-01

    介绍了以循环流化床反应器为主体的废轮胎热解油化装置,实验过程,实验结果及分析。通过评价热解条件对气体成分及油、碳和气产物产率的影响,以及热解油品的成分分析,得出如下结论: (1) 较高的温度和较长的停留时间会生成过多的不凝气(主要成分为CH4,H2,C2H4和CO等),降低油的产率;过低的温度和加热速率导致严重的碳化,同样会降低油产率。(2) 热解油品的组成成分非常复杂,芳烃占了很大比例,其次是烷烃和非烃,沥青质的含量较少。%With the CFB as main reactor, an integrated facility was developed for the pyrolysis of waste tires, in which the main chemical processes can be modelled and the bed is divided into two zones corresponding to the pyrolysis and second reactions. Based on the effects of pyrolysis conditions on the gas composition and the yields of char, gas and oil, analysis of the experimental data shows the important effects of temperature, heating rate and residence time. The main trend is that (1) the higher temperature and longer residence time contribute to the secondary reaction; and (2) the lower heating rate favors the carbonization, both of which reduce the oil production. The component analysis of pyrolysis oil indicates that most compounds in oil are aromatics, then non-hydrocarbons and alkanes, while bitumen is relatively low.

  9. Kinetic behaviour of waste tyre rubber as microorganism support in an anaerobic digester treating cane molasses distillery slops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja, R. [Instituto de la Grasa (C.S.I.C.), Sevilla (Spain); Sanchez, E. [Departamento de Estudios sobre Contaminacion Ambiental (DECA-CNIC), La Habana (Cuba); Martin, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Cordoba (Portugal); Jimenez, A.M. [Instituto de la Grasa (C.S.I.C.), Sevilla (Spain)

    1996-12-01

    The kinetics of anaerobic digestion of cane molasses distillery slops was investigated using a continuous-flow bioreactor which contained waste tyre rubber as support, to which the microorganisms became immobilized. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) ranging from 1 to 10 days were investigated at an average influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 47.7 g/l. The maximum substrate utilization rate, k, and half saturation coefficient, K{sub L}, were determined to be 1.82 kg COD{sub removed}/kg VSS day and 0.33 kg COD/kg VSS day. The yield coefficient, Y, and sludge decay rate coefficient, K{sub d}, were also determined to be 0.06 kg VSS/kg COD{sub removed} and 0.05 day{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production was maximum (6.75 l/l day) at a 2 day HRT corresponding to a biomass loading rate of 2.578 kg COD/kg VSS day. Biogas yield ranged between 0.51 l/g COD (HRT=2 days) and 0.25 l/g COD (HRT=1 day). In addition, the methane percentage in the biogas varied between 70.5% (HRT=10 days) and 47.5% (HRT=1 day). The close relationship between biomass loading rate and specific substrate utilization rate supported the use of Monod equations. Finally, the experimental values of effluent substrate concentration were reproduced with deviations equal to or less than 10% in every case. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Study of heat production and transfer in shredded tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellassie, Kassahun G.

    The purpose of this study is to determine the cause(s) of initial exothermic reactions in shredded tire. The primary hypothesis was that the oxidation of exposed steel wires, the oxidation of rubber, or sulfur causes the exothermic reactions in shredded tire. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the heat transfer properties of the shredded tires by using a hot-plate apparatus. The experiments were conducted by varying the physical and environmental conditions as follows: (1) Tire size, (2) Wire content, (3) Water content, (4) Effective stress, (5) Air supply, (6) pH, (7) Humic Acid. First, laboratory testing was conducted to determine the effects of tire size on the heat transfer properties of shredded tires. The heat coefficient and diffusivity ranged from 3.0 to 3.5 W/m-K and 0.0002 to 0.00084 m 2/hour, respectively. Next, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wire content on the exothermic reaction rate of tire shreds. When various amounts of wire (i.e., 5% to 15%) were exposed, the reaction rate increased, 2800 Btu for every lb of iron that is oxidized. In comparison, tire shreds with no wire were also tested under the same experimental conditions as above, however, no exothermic reaction occurred. These tests (i.e., with no wire) illustrate that carbon black in rubber molecule considers not oxidize. It was postulated that the reaction between iron in the wire and sulfur in the tire may be a potential cause of the exothermic reaction under low oxygen conditions. Experiments without air supply yielded no exothermic reaction. Thus, sulfur did not cause exotherm, because it is at low energy level and immobilized in the vulcanization process. In addition, experiments were conducted as the air supply was varied from 0 to 4 psi. With air pressure of less than 4-psi, no reaction occurred until 4-psi air was provided for the experiment. In conclusion, the design of an embankment with tire shreds should include shredded tires of bigger size

  11. Contributions crumb rubber in hot mix asphalt to the resilient modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyapijati, Raden Hendra; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Sumabrata, R. Jachrizal

    2017-06-01

    Pavement on the structure of the surface layer receives direct load from the vehicles. Road surfaces are designed to withstand the wear from vehicle loads. Therefore, we need a way to improve the durability of the pavement. Road damage may reduce the life of roads and increase the maintenance costs. The retention rate of road surface material is affected by the environmental conditions, one of them is temperature. To overcome the issues related to temperature, material additives are added to the asphalt mixture. These additive materials would change the binding properties of bitumen and the characteristics of strain and stress before the damage due to repeated traffic loading. Crumb rubber (CR) is a type of polymer additives and thermoplastic elastomers are obtained from scrap tires and rubber waste that is utilized in order to preserve the environment. This study investigated the contribution of the crumb rubber in terms of the value of resilient modulus and resistance to deformation. Hot mix asphalt used was asphalt Pen 60/70, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and filler. Crumb rubber was made from scrap tire rubber, in the form of fine powder with sieve no. 30 (0.6 mm). CR additive was added to the base asphalt at several rates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% at a temperature of 177° C. The test data used the indirect tensile test with a tool UMATTA at temperatures of 25°, 35°, and 45° C. The test results showed that the levels of crumb rubber on the asphalt decreased the penetration rate, increased the bitumen softening point, and improved the resistance to permanent deformation. The addition of additive materials was evidenced to improve the penetration index, reduce the temperature sensitivity, and increase the viscosity. Subsequently, it can extend the temperature range of viscoelasticity. The contributions of crumb rubber in hot mix asphalt included the increase of the recoverable deformation and the decrease of the value of resilient modulus. This study

  12. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  13. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  14. Development of a Lightweight Low-Carbon Footprint Concrete Containing Recycled Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the use of waste materials such as crushed glass, ground tire rubber, and recycled aggregate in concrete. Compressive strength and elastic modulus were the primary parameters of interest. Results demonstrated that ground tire rubber introduced significant amounts of air into the mix and adversely affected the strength. The introduction of a defoamer was able to successfully remove part of the excess air from the mix, but the proportional strength improvements were not noted implying that air left in the defoamed mixture had undesirable characteristics. Freeze-thaw tests were next performed to understand the nature of air in the defoamed mixtures, and results demonstrated that this air is not helpful in resisting freeze-thaw resistance either. Overall, while lightweight, low-carbon footprint concrete materials seem possible from recycled materials, significant further optimization remains possible.

  15. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinçliler, Ayşe; Baykal, Gökhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  16. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  17. Effects of leachate from crumb rubber and zinc in green roofs on the survival, growth, and resistance characteristics of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Mollee; Ryan, Allayna; Eckert, Cori; Baker, Katherine H; Herson, Diane S

    2014-05-01

    The use of green roofs is a growing practice worldwide, particularly in densely populated areas. In an attempt to find new methods for recycling crumb rubber, incorporation of crumb rubber into artificial medium for plant growth in green roofs and similar engineered environments has become an attractive option for the recycling of waste tires. Though this approach decreases waste in landfills, there are concerns about the leaching of zinc and other heavy metals, as well as nutrient and organic compounds, into the environment. The present study analyzed the impact of leachate from crumb rubber and zinc on the growth and viability of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Zinc was chosen for further studies since it has been previously implicated with other biological functions, including biofilm formation, motility, and possible cross-resistance to antimicrobial agents. The study showed that Salmonella can colonize crumb rubber and that crumb rubber extract may provide nutrients that are usable by this bacterium. Salmonella strains with reduced susceptibility (SRS) to zinc were obtained after subculturing in increasing concentrations of zinc. The SRS exhibited differences in gene expression of flux pump genes zntA and znuA compared to that of the parent when exposed to 20 mM added zinc. In biofilm formation studies, the SRS formed less biofilm but was more motile than the parental strain.

  18. Research of the Regeneration of Waste Cross-linked Brominated Butyl-Rubber%交联溴化丁基橡胶的再生研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭

    2012-01-01

    采用天然再生剂大蒜汁并结合开炼、密炼等再生方法对废溴化丁基橡胶的再生情况进行探讨。结果表明:开炼温度、开炼时间、密炼温度、密炼时间及再生剂用量对再生效果均有影响,且在这些因素中,再生剂为主导因素。在开炼温度为55℃、开炼时间为10min、加入再生剂用量为6%时再生效果最佳;密炼温度为125℃、密炼时间10min、再生剂用为6%时取得最佳再生效果。%The waste cross-linked brominated butyl-rubber was regenerated with the garlic juice by mixing and banburying in this paper.The result showed that:The factors influence the regenerated rubber properties were discussed,such as the temperature and time of mixing and banburying,the dosage of the garlic juice and so on.Among these factors the dosage of garlic juice was the main factor.When the cross-linked brominated butyl-rubber was regenerated with garlic juice by mixing,the optimal temperature was 55℃,the time was 10 minutes,and the dosage of garlic juice was 6%.When the cross-linked brominated butyl-rubber was regenerated with garlic juice by banburying,the optimal temperature was 125℃,the time was 10 minutes,and the dosage of garlic juice was 6%.

  19. Bearing Capacity of Composite Columns of Waste Tires Filled with Granular Material%内填散体材料废弃轮胎叠合体承载能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤池; 高寰; 张倍川; 徐云龙

    2016-01-01

    为提高废弃轮胎在土木工程上的利用率 ,提出利用废弃轮胎环箍约束散体材料 ,形成具有良好载荷能力的叠合体.通过竖向载荷试验 ,测得不同因素对叠合体承载能力和变形特点的影响情况.分析出叠合体的承载力主要与填充材料的性质和轮胎的直径有关 ,实验表明叠合体的承载力与内摩擦角或轮胎的直径呈正相关关系 ,当后者增大时 ,前者也随之增大 ;当叠合体内填充不同的材料时 ,它的横向变形量沿高度分布情况也不同 ,即变形特点与填充材料有关 ;旧轮胎能够提供相当大的环向约束力 ,给出了横向约束力和横向位移的计算公式 ,具有较好的计算精度 ;该叠合体能够承受很大的上部载荷 ,其颗粒材料的抗剪强度和轮胎的环向约束能力被充分发挥.%The treatment of waste tires is gaining more and more attention .In order to improve the utilization of waste tires in civil engineering ,composite column of waste tires was proposed which was used to constrain the granular material thus had good bearing capacity .By vertical loading tests ,effects of various factors on the bearing capacity and deforma-tion properties of composite columns were studied .The bearing capacity was related with diameter of tires and natures of filling material closely .With the increase of the internal friction angle and the tire diameter ,the bearing capacity of com-posite columns increase as well .Deformation features of composite columns relate to the filling material .Different filling materials lead to different distribution of lateral deformation along the height .Waste tires can provide considerable circu-lar confining force ,calculation formula for lateral binding and transverse displacement was given which has higher calcu-lation accuracy .The results showed that the composite columns filling with granular material could play the roles of shear strength of granular material and the confining

  20. Tribology of tire and safety in rainy weather; Tire no tribology to utenjino soko anzensei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, S. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    The paper described a method to estimate friction coefficients between tire and road surface according to the road situation and a system to alarm hydroplaning generated in traveling. In the dynamic calculation on tire having been made so far, all should have been known including the length and width of tire ground, characteristics of tread rubber, and characteristics of side wall. Moreover, various characteristics of these change due to ware of tire, and there was a problem in real-time theoretical calculation of friction coefficients. Noticing that braking stiffness includes various characteristics of tire, the author and others found out that various characteristics needed for the calculation are sought from the force before/after the micro-braking/disturbance state and the slip ratio, and the problem was solved. The hydroplaning generated in driving the car can be noticed by measuring braking stiffness at the time of micro-accelerating/decelerating in traveling. It is expected to possibly express 'the degree of risk' and tell driver about it by the size of the braking stiffness. (NEDO)

  1. STATICAL EXPERIMENTS OF TIRE AS COMPLEX LONG-FIBRE COMPOSITE FOR OBTAINING MATERIAL PARAMETERS AND DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krmela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the statical experiments of tires for obtaining material parameters and deformation characteristics by tensile testing machine and also special statical testing tire machine. The tires consist of polymer matrix – rubber and long-filament reinforcement – cords, hence the tires are fall within as very complex long-fibre composite with specific deformation characteristics. These tire deformation characteristics have given geometry shape of tire and material parameters of component parts of tire-casing. Nowadays the computational modeling is used for tire solutions and experiments are subsidiary only. But the combination of computational modeling with experimental approach is necessary to use for prediction real states of tires. For computational modeling of tires the material parameters of each component part of tire-casing are necessary as material input data for computational models. These material parameters can be obtained by tensile test by statical testing machine. The geometry parameters of multi-layer test specimens of steel-cord belt with conditions of tensile tests are designed. The data from statical deformation characteristics are necessary for comparison of computational outputs with experimental data. The special testing tire machine called statical adhesor is used to obtain deformation characteristics and information about contact patches with pressure distribution in contact patches. The experimental results of chosen radial tire 245/40 R18 for passenger car are presented in this article. In this paper a new formula for calculating of value of radial stiffness is designed too.

  2. Statical Experiments of Tire as Complex Long-Fibre Composite for Obtaining Material Parameters and Deformation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krmela

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the statical experiments of tires for obtaining material parameters and deformation characteristics by tensile testing machine and also special statical testing tire machine. The tires consist of polymer matrix – rubber and long-filament reinforcement – cords, hence the tires are fall within as very complex long-fibre composite with specific deformation characteristics. These tire deformation characteristics have given geometry shape of tire and material parameters of component parts of tire-casing. Nowadays the computational modeling is used for tire solutions and experiments are subsidiary only. But the combination of computational modeling with experimental approach is necessary to use for prediction real states of tires. For computational modeling of tires the material parameters of each component part of tire-casing are necessary as material input data for computational models. These material parameters can be obtained by tensile test by statical testing machine. The geometry parameters of multi-layer test specimens of steel-cord belt with conditions of tensile tests are designed. The data from statical deformation characteristics are necessary for comparison of computational outputs with experimental data. The special testing tire machine called statical adhesor is used to obtain deformation characteristics and information about contact patches with pressure distribution in contact patches. The experimental results of chosen radial tire 245/40 R18 for passenger car are presented in this article. In this paper a new formula for calculating of value of radial stiffness is designed too.

  3. Research Progress in Recycling of Waste Tyre%废轮胎资源化利用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏瑞景; 关杰; 梁波

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of waste rubber at home and abroad are reviewed, waste tire as example. The recycling status of waste tires in China, status quo and development of conventional recycling technology and pyrolysis disposal were reviewed. Pyrolysis technology is one kind of highly effective and the recycling of the emerging technology. It is in focused on the processing of waste tires. Several kinds of scrap tire pyrolysis technology application situation, existing problems and development trend is described. It is pointed out that the innovation, the quality of the pyrolysis products of pyrolysis technology improvement and utilization of the future development trend of recycling the waste tire has high economic and environmental value, which is helpful to solve the problem of rubber resources shortage in our country.%以废旧轮胎为例,综述了国内外废橡胶的回收利用、我国废轮胎的回收利用、常规资源化技术以及热解等处理方式的现状和发展趋势。热解技术是一种高效的、新兴的资源化处理技术,在废旧轮胎处理中受到了重点关注,详述了几种废旧轮胎热解技术应用现状、存在的突出问题及发展动向。指出热解技术的革新、热解产品的质量改善和资源化利用是未来的发展趋势,废轮胎的回收再利用具有较高的经济和环保价值,有利于解决我国橡胶资源短缺的问题。

  4. CONCRETE-RUBBER TYRES USED IN BIKE PATH = CONCRETO COM BORRACHA DE PNEUS APLICADO EM CICLOVIA

    OpenAIRE

    José Franklin Moreira; Vanessa Rosa Pereira Fidelis; João Fernando Dias

    2014-01-01

    Automotive tires have indefinite decomposition in nature and represent great concern about the environmental impacts. The tires disposed of improperly can cause many problems to accumulate water and enhance the proliferation of disease vectors. When directed to landfills can cause instability due to massive voids generated between them. In the case of incineration generate particulate matter and toxic gases becoming a health risk. The constituents of tires as, rubber, nylon and steel may cons...

  5. 硫黄/DCP/TAIC并用体系在NR/IR/BR/SBR胎面胶中的应用%Application of Sulfur/DCP/TAIC to Tire Tread Rubber of NR/IR/BR/SBR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑华; 郭娜; 孙长阳; 肖箐; 赵静波; 张茂启

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR)/isoprene rubber (IR)/cis-1 ,4-polybutadience(BR)/styrene-butadienerubber (SBR) blends were prepared by mechanical blending ,using sulfur ,peroxide (DCP) andTAIC (triallyl isocyanurate) as curing system .The influence of the dosage of sulfur ,DCP and TAICon the properties and morphology of NR/IR/BR/SBR tread rubber were investigated . The resultsshowed that the combination properties were better ,especially the heat aging resistance and abrasionresistance were the best when the dosage of sulfur was 0 .5 ,DCP was 2 .5 phr and TAIC was 2 phr .%采用机械共混法制备了NR/IR/BR/SBR胎面胶 ,使用硫黄/过氧化物(DCP)/TAIC(三烯丙基异氰脲酸酯)作为硫化体系 ,研究了不同用量的硫黄、DCP和TAIC对胶料各项性能及微观形态的影响.结果表明 ,当硫黄用量为0 .5份 ,DCP用量为2 .5份 ,TAIC用量为2份时 ,耐热老化性能和压缩永久变形性能最好 ,胶料的各项性能指标适中.

  6. Continental Tire to Build New Tire Plant in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Ye

    2012-01-01

    According to Tire Comments of USA, Continental Tire earlier announced that in order to meet the increasing market demand on replacement tires of USA, German Tire Company had negotiated and reached an agreement on production capacity expansion with the South Carolina Government.

  7. Scrap tire ashes in portland cement production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Adriana Trezza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires are not considered harmful waste, but their stocking and disposal are a potential health and environmental risk. Properly controlled calcinations at high temperatures make tire combustion an interesting alternative due to its high calorific power, comparable to that of fuel-oil. Consequently, using them as an alternative combustible material in cement kilns makes it possible to give it a valuable use. However, it remains to be assured whether the impurities added to the clinker through these fuels do not affect its structure or properties.This paper shows the studies carried out on different clinkers under laboratory conditions with different levels of addition of scrap tire ashes, added by partially replacing traditional fuel in cement kilns.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of Sulfonated Carbon-Based Catalysts Derived From Rubber Tree Leaves and Pulp and Paper Mill Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Sinin, E.; Hiew, S. F.; Kong, A. M. T.; Lahin, F. A.

    2016-06-01

    Sulfonated carbon-based catalysts derived from rubber tree leaves, and pulp and paper mill waste were synthesized and characterized. Three types of catalyst synthesized were sulfonated rubber tree leaves (S-RTL), pyrolysed sludge char (P-SC) and sulfonated sludge char (S-SC). Sulfonated rubber tree leaves (S-RTL) and sulfonated sludge char (S-SC) were prepared through pyrolysis followed by functionalization via sulfonation process whereas, P- SC was only pyrolyzed without sulfonation. The characterization results indicated sulfonic acids, hydroxyl, and carboxyl moieties were detected in S-RTL and S-SC, but no sulfonic acid was detected in P-SC. Total acidity test showed S-RTL had the highest value followed by S-SC and P-SC. The thermal stability of S-RTL and S-SC were up to 230oC as the loss was associated with the decomposition of sulfonic acid group, whereas, P-SC showed higher stability than the S-RTL and S-SC. Morphology analysis showed that S-RTL consisted of an amorphous carbon structure, and a crystalline structure for P-SC and S-SC. Furthermore, traces of metal components were also detected on all of the catalysts. The catalyst catalytic activity was tested through esterification of oleic acid with methanol. The results showed that the reaction using S-RTL catalyst produced the highest conversion (99.9%) followed by P-SC (88.4%) and lastly S-SC (82.7%). The synthesized catalysts showed high potential to be used in biodiesel production.

  9. Nonisothermal crystallization behavior of waste nitrile rubber powder/polypropylene composites%废旧丁腈橡胶粉/聚丙烯复合材料的非等温结晶行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军伟; 刘志华

    2012-01-01

    The composites of waste nitrile rubber powder/polypropylene and waste nitrile rubber powder/polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride/polypropylene were prepared by melt extrusion. The noniso-thermal crystallization behavior of polypropylene, waste nitrile rubber powder/polypropylene and waste nitrile rubber powder/polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride/polypropylene composites were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the samples were analyzed by Jeziorny equation. The results showed that the crystallization peak temperature, initial crystallization temperature and crystallinity of the samples decreased, but the crystallization rate increased with increasing the cooling rate. The waste nitrile rubber powder could increase the crystallization rate of polypropylene and led to the changes in the mechanisms of crystal nucleation and growth due to its heterogeneous nucleation.%采用熔融共混法制备了废旧丁腈橡胶粉/聚丙烯(WNBR/PP)和废旧丁腈橡胶粉/聚丙烯接枝马来酸酐/聚丙烯( WNBR/PP-g-MAH/PP)复合材料,采用差示扫描量热仪研究了PP、WNBR/PP及WNBR/PP-g-MAH/PP复合材料的非等温结晶过程,并通过Jeziorny方程研究了复合材料的非等温结晶动力学.结果表明,随降温速率的增大,所有试样的结晶峰温和结晶起始温度均向低温偏移,结晶度减小,结晶速率增大.WNBR能起到异相成核的作用,提高了PP的结晶速率,并且导致PP结晶成核和生长机理发生改变.

  10. Heat Exchange with Air and Temperature Profile of a Moving Oversize Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinchuk, P. S.; Fisenko, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model of heat transfer in a tire with account for the deformation energy dissipation and heat exchange of a moving tire with air has been developed. The mean temperature profiles are calculated and transition to a stationary thermal regime is considered. The influence of the rate of energy dissipation and of effective thermal conductivity of rubber on the temperature field is investigated quantitatively.

  11. Recovering/recycling of butyl and halogenated butyl rubber via ionizing radiation; Recuperacao/reciclagem de compostos de borrachas butilica e halobutilica por meio de radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Sandra Regina Scagliusi

    2013-07-01

    Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) attain a continuous and raising proportion of urban and industrial scraps discarded in landfills; their impact on environment are more and more concerning. The implementation of new technologies in order to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment, at an effective cost, proved to be a great problem, due to inherent complexity for polymers re-using. Ionizing radiation is capable to modify structure and properties of polymeric material. Butyl and halobutyl rubbers have been used within a comprehensive scale, applications such as tires spare parts and diverse artifacts. The major high energy photon effect, as gamma-rays in butyl and halo butyl rubbers consists in free-radicals generation along changes in mechanical properties.This work aims to the development of controlled degradation processes (devulcanization) of butyl and halo butyl (chlorine and bromine) rubbers, in order to characterize their availability for transformation and modification of properties. Experimental results obtained showed that butyl and halobutyl rubbers,irradiated at 25 kGy and further sheared, are able to be used as an initial point for mixtures with pristine. (author)

  12. 2013-2014 Production of guayule natural rubber in Arizona, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber is a unique biopolymer whose physical properties cannot be replicated in synthetic alternatives; therefore, it is required for production of tires (passenger, truck, and aircraft) and thousands of consumer and medical products. While demand for natural rubber is expected to increase ...

  13. Criteria for asphalt-rubber concrete in civil airport pavements: Mixture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, F. L.; Lytton, R. L.; Hoyt, D.

    1986-07-01

    A mixture design procedure is developed to allow the use of asphalt-rubber binders in concrete for flexible airport pavement. The asphalt-rubber is produced by reacting asphalt with ground, scrap tire rubber to produce the binder for the asphalt-rubber concrete. Procedures for laboratory preparation of alsphalt-rubber binders using an equipment setup that was found by researchers to produce laboratory binders with similar properties to field processes are included. The rubber-asphalt concrete mixture design procedure includes adjustments to the aggregate gradation to permit space for the rubber particles in the asphalt-rubber binder as well as suggested mixing and compaction temperatures, and compaction efforts. While the procedure was used in the laboratory to successfully produce asphalt-rubber concrete mixtures, it should be evaluated in the field to ensure that consistent results can be achieved in a production environment.

  14. Tire/runway friction interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  15. 废旧轮胎回收利用行业循环经济评价指标体系%Evaluation Index System of Circular Economy in Scrap Tire Recycling Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金国平; 朱坦; 宋晖

    2009-01-01

    废旧轮胎是具有高再生价值的产品类废弃物,具备环境污染潜在性和资源性的双重性质.充分回收利用废旧轮胎既能缓解橡胶资源紧缺,又能解决废旧轮胎的环境污染问题.在调研的基础上,分析了我国废旧轮胎回收利用体系;初步构建了废旧轮胎回收利用行业循环经济评价指标体系,阐明了评价指标的含义,确定了评价的方法,并针对行业统计工作提出建议.%Scrap tire is a kind of wastes with high regenerative value which have dual natures of potential environmental pollution and resource. Over years, the disposal of scrap tire has become one of serious problems in environment. Recycling of scrap tire sufficiently can not only relieve the shortage of rubber resource, but also solve the problem of environmental pollution caused by scrap tire. On the basis of investigation, the scrap tire recycling system in China was analyzed in this paper. Preliminary evaluation index system was constructed, the meaning of indexes was clarified and evaluating method was ascertained. Finally, some suggestions for statistical work in scrap tire recycling industry were put forward.

  16. History and development of the technology and automobiles; Tire no shinpo to kuruma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, H. [Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Junior College of Automobile Industry

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes automotive tires. Radial-ply tire production in Japan in 1990 has accounted for 83% of the entire tire production for new passenger cars, indicating rapid conversion from bias-ply tires to radial-ply tires. The latter tire has such features as worse riding comfort, better fuel consumption, less friction and better steering performance than in the former tire. The inferior riding comfort is caused from poor envelope characteristics and from generation of resonant vibration with the belt, but great improvement has been made by using rubber bushing in the suspension. To prevent standing wave that occurs in bias-ply tires at high speed driving, raising the internal pressure is recommended. The phenomenon that tires become to slide more easily due to dynamic pressure of water on a road is referred to as hydroplaning. To prevent accidents, speed of 80 km/h is recommended on a highway during rain. A unified theory was announced in 1969 that braking, driving and lateral forces are regarded as a function of slip ratio and slip angle. This is an indispensable theory for the automatic control theory. (NEDO)

  17. Seizing Opportunities and Speeding up the Pace of Becoming World Rubber Industry Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Rende

    2011-01-01

    @@ The past 2010 is a memorable year for China rubber industry.In this year,China tire industry suffered most from the"tire tariff issue"with the passenger car fires exported to America reduced by over 20%.Since the second half year,the price of raw materials such as NR continued to be volatile at a high level,and the price of per ton rubber once broke RMB 38,000 yuan reaching a new record.With interior and exterior difficulties and continuous tribulations,2010 was the most difficult year for the development of China rubber industry since the new century.

  18. Evaluation of Ash Toxicity Generated From the Thermal Plasma Pyrolysis of Used Automobile Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. S.; Novog, D. R.; Jamal, S.

    1996-10-01

    The disposal of used tires represents a severe environmental problem. As the heat content of the rubber tires is even higher than that of coal it should be considered as a future source of alternate fuel for power generation. There have been attempts to burn old tires directly in cofired boilers for production of electricity. However, there are several environmental concerns since the combustion flue gas may contain a significant concentration heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, As, etc.). One technique currently being developed is the pyrolyzation of rubber tires by a thermal plasma to produce combustible gases. In this work, ashes generated during the plasma pyrolysis of used automobile tires using a DC Argon thermal plasma were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and produced syngas composition was analyzed by FT-IR.. The gas analysis indicates a significant quantity of combustible gases (CH4, C2H2, C2H4, CO, H2 etc..) was produced from the thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires. The results also indicate that a majority of the heavy metals present in used tires were concentrated in the ashes deposited in reaction chamber wall and in the two-stage filtering system. Furthermore the heavy metal concentration decreases significantly with increasing distance from the plasma torch. Toxic components such as Zn, As and Cl were also collected in the filtering process.

  19. Tire traces - discrimination and classification of pyrolysis-GC/MS profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueissaz, Line; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2013-07-10

    Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward's method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mitigation in the pyrolysis process of waste tires using CO₂ as a reaction medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Our work reported the CO2-assisted mitigation of PAHs and VOCs in the thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis). To investigate the pyrolysis of used tires to recover energy and chemical products, the experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale batch-type reactor. In particular, to examine the influence of the CO2 in pyrolysis of a tire, the pyrolytic products including C1-5-hydrocarbons (HCs), volatile organic carbons (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated qualitatively by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectroscopy (MS) as well as with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The mass balance of the pyrolytic products under various pyrolytic conditions was established on the basis of their weight fractions of the pyrolytic products. Our experimental work experimentally validated that the amount of gaseous pyrolytic products increased when using CO2 as a pyrolysis medium, while substantially altering the production of pyrolytic oil in absolute content (7.3-17.2%) and in relative composition (including PAHs and VOCs). Thus, the co-feeding of CO2 in the pyrolysis process can be considered an environmentally benign and energy efficient process.

  1. Modified graphite filled natural rubber composites with good thermal conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junping Song; Lianxiang Ma; Yan He; Haiquan Yan; Zan Wu; Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    The rubber composites with good thermal conductivity contribute to heat dissipation of tires. Graphite filled natural rubber composites were developed in this study to provide good thermal conductivity. Graphite was coated with polyacrylate polymerized by monomers including methyl methacrylate, n-butyl acrylate and acrylic acid. The ratios between a filler and acrylate polymerization emulsion and those between monomers were varied. Eight types of surface modification formulas were experimentally investigated. Modification formula can affect coating results and composite properties greatly. The best coating type was achieved by a ratio of 1:1 between methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate. The coating of graphite was thermal y stable in a running tire. Filled with modified graphite, the tire thermal conductivity reached up to 0.517–0.569 W·m-1·K-1. In addition, the mechanical performance was improved with increased crosslink density, extended scorch time and short vulcanization time.

  2. Desempenho físico-químico e mecânico de concreto de cimento Portland com borracha de estireno-butadieno reciclada de pneus Physicochemical and mechanical performance of portland cement concrete with recycled styrene-butadiene tyre-rubber waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and mechanical techniques were carried out to characterize three concrete tyre-rubber waste dosages such as 5, 10 and 15%, w/w. The elastomeric material was identified as styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR. It was observed that the growing SBR content in the mixture decreased the concrete performance. The best results were presented by 5% w/w tyre-rubber waste concrete sample. This composition was tested at Mourão hydroelectric powerplant spillway as repairing material.

  3. New application of crystalline cellulose in rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen

    Rubber without reinforcement has limited applications. The strength of reinforced rubber composites can be ten times stronger than that of unreinforced rubbers. Therefore, rubber composites are widely used in various applications ranging from automobile tires to seals, valves, and gaskets because of their excellent mechanical elastic properties. Silica and carbon black are the two most commonly used reinforcing materials in rubber tires. They are derived from non-renewable materials and are expensive. Silica also contributes to a large amount of ash when used tires are disposed of by incineration. There is a need for a new reinforcing filler that is inexpensive, renewable and easily disposable. Cellulose is the most abundant natural polymer. Native cellulose includes crystalline regions and amorphous regions. Crystalline cellulose can be obtained by removing the amorphous regions with the acid hydrolysis of cellulose because the amorphous cellulose can be hydrolyzed faster than crystalline cellulose. We recently discovered that the partial replacement of silica with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) provided numerous benefits: (1) low energy consumption for compounding, (2) good processability, (3) strong tensile properties, (4) good heat resistance, and (5) potential for good fuel efficiency in the application of rubber tires. Strong bonding between fillers and a rubber matrix is essential for imparting rubber composites with the desired properties for many specific applications. The bonding between hydrophilic MCC and the hydrophobic rubber matrix is weak and can be improved by addition of a coupling agent or surface modifications of MCC. In this study, MCC was surface-modified with acryloyl chloride or alkenyl ketene dimer (AnKD) to form acrylated MCC (A-MCC) and AnKD-modified MCC (AnKD-MCC). The surface modifications of MCC did not change the integrity and mechanical properties of MCC, but provided functional groups that were able to form covalent linkages with

  4. The Abrasion-resistance Investigation of Rubberized Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Jingfu; ZHANG Bo; LI Guangyu

    2012-01-01

    The abrasion resistance properties of rubberized concrete were comparatively studied by taking silica fume and crumb tire rubber as the additives.The abrasion tests were conducted in accordance with the Chinese standard test method DL/T 5150-2001,two recommended test methods:under water method and ring method,were used.The crumb tire rubbers with the sieve size of 8-mesh and 16-mesh were incorporated into the concrete by replacing same volume of sand and as an additive.The abrasion resistance of concrete was evaluated according to the abrasion resistance strength and the mass loss.Test results show that the addition of silica fume enhanced both compressive strength and abrasion resistance of concrete,and the addition of crumb rubber reduced the compressive strength but increased notably the abrasion resistance of the concrete.Silica fume concrete performed a better abrasion resistance than control concrete,and the rubberized concrete performed a much better abrasion resistance than silica fume concrete.The abrasion resistance of rubberized concrete increased with the increase of rubber content.

  5. Tire Maker’s Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Integrity and quality are vital for Kumho Tires to regain the Chinese market Kumho Tires Co.—one of China’s largest tire suppliers—used to enjoy a high profile in marketing, but it turned publicity-shy on the 14th Shanghai International Automobile

  6. China's Tire Industry Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With strenuous efforts over many years,the tire industry in China has developed rapidly. Both the output and the exported quantity of tires already hold the leading position in the world. China has quickly become a major player in the international tire industry and is making significant impacts.

  7. TIRE WEAR MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen IVANOV

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a known relationship, an enhanced model for specific tire wear per kilometer has been developed. It is appropriate for practical use - for evaluation of the influence of different factors. Two types of experiments have been carried out with a testing device - one without sideslip, but with a known longitudinal slip, and the other one with the same longitudinal slip but also with a known sideslip. As a result, the coefficients of the proportion of the developed model have been evaluated. After the model validation, an analytical investigation concerning the influence of tire pressure, sideslip and longitudinal slip on the tire wear has been carried out. The results are presented graphically.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF PLAIN AND RUBBERIZED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Ovidiu TOMA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of rubber from discarded car tires as an alternative to natural aggregates in concrete may help preventing the complete depletion of natural resources and work towards a sustainable future. Moreover it can significantly reduce the environmental footprint of the construction industry. The assessment of the dynamic properties of a material are very important from the point of view of the energy dissipation capability of the investigated material. This can be determined from the dynamic modulus of elasticity, damping and the loss coefficients of the material. The paper presents the results obtained during an experimental program aimed at assessing the dynamic characteristics of plain and rubberized concrete containing rubber crumbs from discarded car tires. The theoretical background and the investigation methodology are presented with particular application to cylindrical concrete specimens.

  9. COMPRESSIVE AND SHEAR ANALYSIS OF RUBBER BLOCK UNDER LARGE STRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sridharan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Elastomeric materials have found use in a wide range of applications, including hoses, tires, gaskets, seals, vibration isolators, bearings and dock fenders. The analysis of rubber blocks for its compression and shear behavior has been carried out using the imaging techniques. The dynamic stressing and its associated change in shape of the rubber blocks during large compression are very limited as their measurements were difficult. A newly developed Machine Vision based image processing test has been effectively used to study the deformation characteristics of the rubber blocks under large strains. An extended analysis on the rubber blocks has been carried out to understand the compression and deformation behavior in static and dynamic condition and the nonlinear behavior were also characterized. The rubber blocks of distinguished geometries have shown diverse change in shape and nonlinear deformation behavior under compression/shear loading.

  10. Tire gasification, fuels produced and their use to generate steam and/or electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefchovich, E.; Goodman, J.; Miliaras, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper focuses on gasification, a technology which addresses the environmental and health problems which the storage and disposal of spent tires represents. Gasification can help bring under control the growing concern over the 1/4 billion tires this country alone discards each year, and the 3 billion tires already contained, in existing piles in an environmentally benign and economically desirable manner. Gasification reverses, in essence, the process by which rubber is obtained from petroleum. Gasification converts the rubber into gaseous and liquid fuels, leaving behind a relatively small amount of solid residue. Such fuels can be used to generate steam and/or electricity, or used as a raw material to manufacture other products.

  11. Desenvolvimento de elastômeros termoplásticos vulcanizados (TPV a base de polipropileno com resíduo de pneu: I - Planejamento fatorial de experimentos Development of thermoplastic elastomers vulcanized (TPV with polypropylene waste tire: I - Factorial design experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Cossa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso do pó de pneu em misturas com termoplásticos possibilita a formação de novos materiais. Nesse trabalho o uso do pó de pneu foi caracterizado pelo planejamento fatorial completo 2³, com ponto central, em misturas com polipropileno (PP, para desenvolvimento de novos elastômeros termoplásticos vulcanizados dinamicamente (TPVs, contendo material reciclado. Os fatores utilizados neste estudo foram, pó de pneu, peróxido de dicumila e bismaleimida (em três n��veis, sendo um deles, o ponto central. O planejamento foi construído para avaliar os efeitos dos fatores (principais e suas interações nas respostas de tração, alongamento e inchamento em óleo. Os resultados mostraram que o teor de pó de pneu é predominante para melhorar o desempenho das misturas. A resistência ao inchamento é aproximadamente 150% superior em algumas formulações.The use of waste tire in blends with thermoplastics enables the formation of new materials. In this paper the use of waste tire was characterized with a complete 2³ factorial design with central point, in blends with polypropylene (PP, in the development of new thermoplastic elastomers vulcanized dynamically (TPVs and containing recycled material. The factors used in this study were: waste tire, dicumylperoxide and bismaleimides in three levels, one being the central point. The factorial design was built to evaluate the effects of the factors (and their interaction in the responses of tensile, elongation and oil swelling. The results showed that the level of waste tire is predominant to improve the performance of TPV. The swelling resistance is approximately 150% higher in some formulations.

  12. Building with Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eugenio, Terrance

    Text, drawings, and photographs show how tires, no longer usable for transportation, were assembled in a variety of ways to make swings, climbers, tunnels, and walls for a homemade playground. With the support of community representatives and a local high school class, a playground in Brockton, Massachusetts, was built in four days from tires…

  13. Testing impact attenuation on California playground surfaces made of recycled tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidair, Charles; Haas, Robert; Schlag, Robert

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether rubberized playground surfaces made of recycled tires comply with state-mandated standards for impact attenuation (measured with an accelerometer), and whether their properties change in response to temperature or time. The Head Impact Criterion (HIC) standard of 1000 was found to be a more sensitive indicator of compliance than the G(max) standard of 200(g). Of 32 playgrounds tested, 22 (69 percent) failed the HIC standard. As the heights of playground structures increased, so did the likelihood that the rubberized surface below would fail the HIC standard. Rubberized surfaces gave stable readings for the first three months following installation, and higher values in response to increasing surface temperature. An excessively high percentage of playground surfaces made of recycled tires failed the state-mandated standards designed to prevent serious head injury from falls. Future failures might be prevented by requiring installers to perform post-installation testing to verify compliance.

  14. CONCRETE-RUBBER TYRES USED IN BIKE PATH = CONCRETO COM BORRACHA DE PNEUS APLICADO EM CICLOVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Franklin Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Automotive tires have indefinite decomposition in nature and represent great concern about the environmental impacts. The tires disposed of improperly can cause many problems to accumulate water and enhance the proliferation of disease vectors. When directed to landfills can cause instability due to massive voids generated between them. In the case of incineration generate particulate matter and toxic gases becoming a health risk. The constituents of tires as, rubber, nylon and steel may constitute raw material for other uses. Thus, the final destination and environmentally correct, appropriate and safe reuse are challenges to be met in all segments. The construction impacts the environment, but you can use waste with the appropriate technical evidence. For the use of waste in construction are barriers, both technological and political, making this burgeoning practice. This work is an account of a joint experience between city government, construction company and educational institution, for the application of rubber originated automotive tires on a bike path. We used a concrete with addition of tire rubber, replacing the aggregate, for running a bike path and found to their possible application in replacement to conventional concrete. The bike path option offers mobility, fosters habits healthier life and leisure for the population served, and can contribute to sustainability. = Os pneus automotivos apresentam tempo indeterminado de decomposição na natureza representando grande preocupação quanto aos impactos ambientais. Os pneus descartados de forma inadequada podem causar muitos problemas ao acumular água e potencializar a proliferação de vetores de doenças. Quando direcionados aos aterros podem causar instabilidade no maciço devido aos vazios gerados entre eles. No caso da incineração geram material particulado e gases tóxicos tornando-se um risco à saúde. Como parte da constituição dos pneus, a borracha, o nylon e o a

  15. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  16. Fabrication and Assessment of Crumb-Rubber-Modified Coatings with Anticorrosive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Aqeeli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires continue to be a major source of waste due to the lack of valuable and effective disposal routes. A viable solution to this problem is to recycle crumb rubber (CR—a granulated material derived from scrap tires—and use it to develop other valuable products. Herein we report the fabrication and characterization of CR-modified coatings with anticorrosive properties on metal substrates. By varying the particle size and concentration of CR, we have determined the coating composition that offers the highest level of erosion protection. Images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM reveal that CR is homogenously dispersed in the coating, especially when fine particles are used. As the concentration of CR increases, the hardness of the coating decreases as a result of the elastic properties of CR. More importantly, the erosion rate of the coating decreases due to increased ductility. Following Potentiodynamic tests, the utilization of these coatings proved to be beneficial as they showed good protection against aqueous corrosion when tested in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Our newly developed coatings offer an incentive to recycling CR and open up a safe and sustainable route to the disposal of scrap tires.

  17. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires. 23.733 Section 23.733 Aeronautics... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static...

  18. Caracterização de artefatos elastoméricos obtidos por revulcanização de resíduo industrial de SBR (copolímero de butadieno e estireno Characterization of elastomeric artifacts obtained by revulcanization of SBR industrial waste (Styrene-butadiene Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Weber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A reciclagem de resíduos de borracha é de extrema importância nos dias de hoje, tanto em relação aos impactos ambientais quanto à conservação de energia. Considerando que a maioria dos trabalhos publicados atualmente se refere à reciclagem de pneus, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e caracterizar formulações contendo um tipo de resíduo industrial, proveniente da fabricação de perfis automotivos, à base de copolímero de butadieno e estireno (SBR para possível aplicação na própria empresa. As composições foram preparadas e caracterizadas pela determinação das propriedades térmicas (calorimetria diferencial de varredura, reológicas (analisador de processamento de borracha, reométricas (reômetria de disco oscilatório, mecânicas (resistência à tração e ao rasgamento, químicas (densidade de ligações cruzadas e morfológicas (microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados obtidos para as composições foram comparados aos de uma amostra controle, de mesma composição, que foi fornecida pela empresa geradora do resíduo de SBR. Os resultados mecânicos indicaram que o processo de revulcanização proposto foi efetivo. Os valores dos parâmetros de tensão na ruptura e resistência ao rasgamento foram de 70 e 50%, respectivamente, em relação aos valores encontrados para a amostra controle, indicando a possibilidade do uso desse resíduo em artefatos de menor exigência técnica.The recycling of waste rubber has very important significances, such as protection of the environment and conservation of energy. Considering that most of published works concerning this subject are about tire recycling, the objective of this work was to develop and characterize formulations containing a type of industrial waste, from the manufacture of automotive profiles, based on styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR for possible application in the industry. The compositions were formulated and characterized by thermal (differential

  19. 胶粉稳定苯乙烯-丁二烯-苯乙烯三嵌段共聚物改性沥青的结构与性能%Structure and properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer modified asphalt stabilized by ground tire rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鸿儒; 周帅; 王仕峰; 张勇; 张隐西

    2015-01-01

    将苯乙烯-丁二烯-苯乙烯三嵌段共聚物(SBS)、废旧轮胎胶粉(GTR)和相容剂环氧天然橡胶(ENR)熔融共混,然后再分散到沥青中制备了 SBS/ GTR 复合改性沥青,考察了 ENR 含量、SBS/ GTR (质量比)对复合改性沥青热储存稳定性和基本性能的影响。结果表明,随着 ENR 含量的增加或 SBS含量的减少,SBS/ GTR 复合改性沥青的热储存稳定性提高,当 ENR 质量分数为1.0%、SBS/ GTR 为50/50时,复合改性沥青的热储存稳定性最佳;随着 ENR 含量的增加,SBS/ GTR 复合改性沥青的软化点、针入度、延度和黏度变化不大,但当 ENR 质量分数为10.0%时,改性沥青的软化点明显升高,针入度下降,属于一种比较硬质的改性沥青,具有较好的施工和易性;随着 SBS 含量的减少,SBS/ GTR 复合改性沥青的软化点、黏度和延度均降低。%Storage-stable styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) / ground tire rubber (GTR) hybrid modified asphalts were prepared by dispersing the melt blend of SBS, GTR and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) into base asphalt. Effects of ENR content, SBS/ GTR(mass ratio) on storage sta-bility, phase structure and properties were studied. The results showed that the storage stability of the modified asphalt was improved with the increase of ENR content or decrease of SBS content, and the modified asphalt achieved the best storage stability when mass fraction of ENR was 1. 0% and SBS/ GTR was 50/ 50. ENR content had a slight influence on the soften-ing points, penetration, ductility and viscosity of hybrid bind-ers, however, when the mass fraction of ENR reached 10. 0% , softening points increased and penetration decreased obviously, and the modified asphalt was hard and easy to oper-ate. The softening points, viscosity and ductility of the modi-fied asphalt all decreased with the decrease of SBS content.

  20. An efficient design tool based on FEM for evaluating effects of components properties and operating conditions on interaction of tire with rigid road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moslem Namjoo; Hossein Golbakhshi

    2015-01-01

    It is noted that any variation in operating conditions has a considerable effect on the tire/road interaction. Furthermore, choosing a range of proper values for carcass stiffness is very essential for both tire safety and effective driving action. In this work, an elaborated 3D model fully compliant with the geometrical size of radial tire 185/60 R15 is worked up, for evaluating the effects of components properties and working conditions on deformation and stress/strain fields created inside the tire. For the simulation, the tire structure is assumed to be composed of tread, carcass ply, and bead. The mechanical behavior of rubber as main component of tire is described by Mooney−Rivlin material model. The comparison of the obtained results and laboratory tests demonstrates the validity and high accuracy of analysis.

  1. Ring Model for Pneumatic Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危银涛; 范成建; 管迪华

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of the ring modeling method for tires, emphasizing the differences among the various tire ring models. A general tire ring model was then developed including all the nonlinear terms in the ring strain and the initial stresses induced by the internal pressure and rotation. The general equations of motion were derived from the Hamilton principle whth the geometric parameters for the model directly obtained from the tire design. The physical parameters were calculated from experimental mode parameters. A numerical example is given for a 195/70 R14-type tire. The analysis shows that the predicted natural frequencies and the tire mode shape agree well with experimental results.

  2. APLIKASI GEOLISTRIK 3-DIMENSI UNTUK MENGETAHUI SEBARAN LIMBAH RCO (RUBBER COMPOUND OILS DI KABUPATEN KENDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FV Daraninggar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi pengolahan limbah ban karet bekas hingga menghasilkan minyak bakar RCO (Rubber Compound Oils merupakan solusi menumpuknya ban bekas tidak terpakai. Namun limbah pembuatan minyak bakar RCO yang dibuang langsung berakibat pada pencemaran lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui nilai resistivitas dan pola sebaran 3-dimensi limbah industri RCO di daerah pabrik pengolahan ban bekas Kecamatan Boja, Kabupaten Kendal. Pengambilan data menggunakan metode geolistrik tahanan jenis konfigurasi Wenner dengan spasi antar elektroda lima meter. Data nilai resistivitas limbah industri minyak bakar RCO diolah menggunakan software IPI2Win, kemudian distribusi resistivitas digambarkan dalam bentuk 3-dimensi menggunakan software Res2dinv, Res3dinv, Slicer Dicer. Hasil interpretasi 3-dimensi menyimpulkan bahwa limbah industri minyak bakar RCO telah menyebar lebih dari 43,75 meter ke arah timur pabrik, lebih dari 20 meter ke arah utara dan kedalaman lebih dari 12 meter dengan nilai resistivitas 11-20 ohm.m. Limbah diduga tersebar pada lapisan tanah dengan struktur batuan lempung dan pasir. {0>Teknologi pengolahan limbah ban karet bekas hingga menghasilkan minyak bakar RCO (Rubber Compound Oils merupakan solusi menumpuknya ban bekas tidak terpakai.<}0{>Waste treatment technology of used rubber tires to produce RCO (Rubber Compound Oils fuel oil is a solution of the accumulatoin of abandoned used tires.<0} {0>Namun limbah pembuatan minyak bakar RCO yang dibuang langsung berakibat pada pencemaran lingkungan.<}0{>However, the oil conversion of dumped RCO wastes might cause environmental pollution.<0} {0>Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui nilai resistivitas dan pola sebaran 3-dimensi limbah industri RCO di daerah pabrik pengolahan ban bekas Kecamatan Boja, Kabupaten Kendal.<}0{>The purpose of this study was to determine the resistivity value and the pattern of 3D distribution of industrial RCO wastes in a treatment plant, subdistrict

  3. Stress investigation on the rolling tires across the speed bump using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Royan; Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between road surface and tire on a vehicle may strongly determine the vehicle's stability. This study was conducted to find out the stress distribution as a result of pressure on the tires rolling across the speed bumps. This study used Abaqus software to simulate the movement of the tire, which rolls across the speed bump to determine the stress distribution that may occur. The tire component material used was a full path rubber on a speed bump. For the boundary conditions of the study, it was assumed that the tires had load variations as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN, as well as pressure variations as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi. The tires were then rolled 8 km/h crossing the speed bump. Modeling speed bumps also varied i.e. the first variation of speed bumps that have a height of 50 mm with a width of 250 mm, the second variation of height 75 mm with a width of 300 mm, and a third variation of height 100 mm with a width of 400 mm. The simulation was done by giving the tire pressures as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi and loads as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN. Further, the tires were rolled three times. It was rolled crossing the first speed bump, the second, and the third, respectively. Results showed stress distribution's fig and graphs. From the analysis results and simulation, it was shown that the greater the load received by the tires, the higher stress they produced.

  4. "Tired" Professors Can Be Rejuvenated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    At a recent national conference, colleagues from different academic disciplines but all worked in college or university teaching-improvement programs found that the subject most frequently discussed was how to improve the teaching of "tired" faculty members. Tired faculty members are most often senior professors who have worked at their…

  5. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name...

  6. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 325.93 Section 325.93 Transportation Other... Systems and Tires § 325.93 Tires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a motor vehicle does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate...

  7. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 397.17 Section 397.17 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.17 Tires. (a) A driver must examine each tire on a motor vehicle at the... to paragraph (a) of this section, or otherwise, a tire if found to be flat, leaking, or...

  8. Revolutionary new drive design for Rubber Tired Gantry's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilboer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Reductions in emissions, noise and operating costs are becoming more and more important in the ports and shipping industry. The nature of the business calls for high power demands, so potential savings are high as well. Rising oil prices and environmental concerns have triggered a huge demand for mo

  9. Tire Footprint Affects Hydroplaning On Wet Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent investigations of tire hydroplaning at highway speeds reveal, in addition to inflation pressure, tire-footprint aspect ratio (FAR), defined as width divided by length of tire surface in contact with pavement, significantly influences speed at which dynamic hydroplaning begins. Tire speeds and forces developed during tests of up to 65 mi/h (105 km/h) were monitored on flooded test surface to identify development of hydroplaning. Study focused on automotive tires because FAR's of automotive tires vary more than those of aircraft tires.

  10. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  11. A contribution of EHLtheory to the estimation of tire-road friction in wet conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    When a tyre slips on a wet road, a hydrodynamic pressure grows in the lubricant with the velocity and tends to separate these two solids and so can cause aquaplaning. Recently, Persson proposed a tire/road friction model in wet condition based only on the rubber's systeresis theory. He explained the fall of the friction force by the reduction of the road asperities' amplitudes caused by the sealing effect exerted by rubber on substrate "pools" filled with water, thus, making the road smoother...

  12. A contribution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication for estimation of tire-road friction in wet conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    When a tyre slips on a wet road, a hydrodynamic pressure grows in the lubricant with the velocity and tends to separate these two solids and so can cause aquaplaning. Recently, Persson proposed a tire/road friction model in wet condition based only on the rubber's systeresis theory. He explained the fall of the friction force by the reduction of the road asperities' amplitudes caused by the sealing effect exerted by rubber on substrate "pools" filled with water, thus making the road smoother ...

  13. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  14. Frictionless contact of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyun O.; Tanner, John A.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure for the solution of frictionless contact problems of spacecraft tires was developed using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory incorporating the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities to model the nose-gear tire of a space shuttle. Numerical results are presented for the case when the nose-gear tire is subjected to inflation pressure and pressed against a rigid pavement. The results are compared with experimental results obtained at NASA Langley, demonstrating a high accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the computational procedure.

  15. Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM). Part 1: Tire Material and Structure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    HYBRID SOFT SOIL TIRE MODEL (HSSTM). PART I: TIRE MATERIAL AND STRUCTURE MODELING Taheri, Sh.a,1, Sandu, C.a...model the dynamic behavior of the tire on soft soil , a lumped mass discretized tire model using Kelvin-Voigt elements is developed. To optimize the...terrains (such as sandy loam) and tire force and moments, soil sinkage, and tire deformation data were collected for various case studies based on a

  16. On asphalt rubber (wet) construction technology%现行甲浅谈橡胶沥青(湿法)施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏辉

    2013-01-01

    This is a new type of rubber asphalt pavement material for asphalt pavement can improve function and prolong life, reduce pressure on the environment caused by waste tires, in line with the policy of the cur-rent construction of a conservation~oriented society and the development of circular economy.%橡胶沥青是一种新型的路面材料,用于沥青路面可改善路面使用功能,延长使用寿命,减轻废轮胎带来的环境压力,符合我国当前建设节约型社会和发展循环经济的政策。

  17. Intelligent tires for improved tire safety using wireless strain measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-03-01

    From a traffic safety point-of-view, there is an urgent need for intelligent tires as a warning system for road conditions, for optimized braking control on poor road surfaces and as a tire fault detection system. Intelligent tires, equipped with sensors for monitoring applied strain, are effective in improving reliability and control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABSs). In previous studies, we developed a direct tire deformation or strain measurement system with sufficiently low stiffness and high elongation for practical use, and a wireless communication system between tires and vehicle that operates without a battery. The present study investigates the application of strain data for an optimized braking control and road condition warning system. The relationships between strain sensor outputs and tire mechanical parameters, including braking torque, effective radius and contact patch length, are calculated using finite element analysis. Finally, we suggested the possibility of optimized braking control and road condition warning systems. Optimized braking control can be achieved by keeping the slip ratio constant. The road condition warning would be actuated if the recorded friction coefficient at a certain slip ratio is lower than a 'safe' reference value.

  18. Intelligent Tires Based on Measurement of Tire Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    From a traffic safety point-of-view, there is an urgent need for intelligent tires as a warning system for road conditions, for optimized braking control on poor road surfaces and as a tire fault detection system. Intelligent tires, equipped with sensors for monitoring applied strain, are effective in improving reliability and control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABSs). In previous studies, we developed a direct tire deformation or strain measurement system with sufficiently low stiffness and high elongation for practical use, and a wireless communication system between tires and vehicle that operates without a battery. The present study investigates the application of strain data for an optimized braking control and road condition warning system. The relationships between strain sensor outputs and tire mechanical parameters, including braking torque, effective radius and contact patch length, are calculated using finite element analysis. Finally, we suggested the possibility of optimized braking control and road condition warning systems. Optimized braking control can be achieved by keeping the slip ratio constant. The road condition warning would be actuated if the recorded friction coefficient at a certain slip ratio is lower than a ‘safe’ reference value.

  19. Feasibility study of a soil-based rubberized CLSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason Y; Tsai, Mufan

    2009-02-01

    The development of beneficial uses of recycled scrap tires is always in great demand around the world. The disposal of on-site surplus excavated soil and the production of standard engineering aggregates have also been facing increasing environmental and ecological challenges in congested islands, such as Taiwan. This paper presents an experimental study using recycled crumb rubber and native silty sand to produce a lightweight, soil-based, rubberized controlled low strength material (CLSM) for a bridge approach repair. To assess the technical feasibility of this material, the effects of weight ratios of cement-to-water (C/W) and water-to-solid (W/S), and of rubber content on the engineering properties for different mixtures were investigated. The presented test results include flowability, unit weight, strength, settlement potential, and bearing capacity. Based on the findings, we conclude that a soil-based rubberized CLSM with 40% sand by weight and an optimal design ratio of 0.7 for C/W and 0.35 for W/S can be used for the proposed bridge approach repair. Such a mixture has demonstrated acceptable flowability, strength, and bearing capacity. Its lower unit weight, negligible compressibility, and hydrocollapse potential also help ensure that detrimental settlement is unlikely to occur. The results illustrate a novel scheme of CLSM production, and suggest a beneficial alternative for the reduction of scrap tires as well as conservation of resources and environment.

  20. 掺加废旧轮胎热解油的聚合物改性沥青性能研究%Performance of Polymer Modified Asphalt Mixed with Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃峰

    2014-01-01

    Through vacuum pyrolysis of waste tire, two kinds of residual oil H09 and H18 can be got. Through related experiments on performance of SHRP and conventional asphalt, it can be got that adding polymer and H18 pyrolysis residue into asphalt under normal and high temperature can improve the per-formance of asphalt. Trough observing and analyzing microstructure of modified asphalt by using optical microscope, it can be got that the microphase separation effect of Ostwald ripening mechanism on discrete polymer is very small. Study finds that, the changes of polyethylene structure in the mixture are unrelated to the type of the asphalt;there are 20℃difference of the high temperature standard between SHRP sys-tem and universal law the system;the high and low temperature performance of asphalt mixture containing 10%H18 and 1%polymer is the best.%对废旧轮胎进行真空裂解,可以得到两种残留热解油H09和H18。通过SHRP以及常规沥青性能的相关试验可知,在常温和高温条件下,向沥青中加入聚合物和H18热解残留物可以改善沥青的性能。通过采用光学显微镜对改性沥青的微观结构进行观察分析,可知奥氏熟化机制对离散的聚合物产生微相分离的作用非常小。研究发现,聚乙烯结构在混合物中的变化与沥青的类型无关;SHRP体系中高温标准与环球法高温标准在系统上有20℃的差异;含10%H18和1%聚合物的沥青混合物高低温性能最好。

  1. Feasibility of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete in Cold Regions for High Volume Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Eid, Mahear A.

    There are many challenges faced with the use of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) in cold regions, but with the inclusion of new technologies such as steel fibers and recycled tire crumb rubber efficient construction may be possible. Research was conducted on a modified concrete material that included both steel fibers and crumb rubber. The composite material was called Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete (SFRRC). The objective of this investigation was to provide evidence showing that SFRRC can reduce tire rutting compared to asphaltic pavement. In addition, the research showed that the SFRRC could withstand freeze-thaw cycles and increase service life of roadways. Several tests were performed to determine the characteristics of the material. Freeze-thaw testing was performed to determine compressive strength loss and visual deterioration of the material. Wheel tracker rut testing was performed both with the standard steel wheel and with a modified studded rubber tire to determine plastic deformation and rut resistance. An experimental test slab was cast in place on a public approach to observe the construction procedures, the effects of studded tire wear and the frost actions in cold region conditions. Based on freeze-thaw and wheel tracker test results and observations of the experimental test slab, the SFRRC material shows viability in cold regions for resisting freeze-thaw actions. The freeze-thaw testing resulted in increased compressive strength after 300 freeze-thaw cycles and very low deterioration of material compared to standard PCC. The wheel tracker testing resulted in very low plastic deformation and minor material rutting with use of the studded rubber tire. The test slab showed very minor surface wear, no freeze-thaw cracking and no rutting after one winter of use. It is recommended that further testing of the material be conducted by means of a large-scale trial section. This would provide information with respect to cost analysis and

  2. Traction of Pneumatic Tires on Wet Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Walter B.; Joyner, Upshur T.

    1965-01-01

    Recent work on the traction of pneumatic tires on wet runways is discussed, and it is shown that a loss of tire traction adversely affects cross-wind landings. The effect of runway surface texture is discussed,, and a simple method for measuring surface texture is described. A preliminary correlation of tire traction with surface texture is shown. Results of work at Langley Research Center on the use of air jets to improve tire traction on wet or flooded runways indicate that this is a promising approach for alleviating the large losses in tire braking and sideways traction that occur when tire hydroplaning occurs on a flooded runway.

  3. Effect of Chipped Rubber Aggregates on Performance of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil N. Shah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid growth in automobile industry, use of tyre increases day to day and there is no reuse of the same to decrease the environmental pollution. The decomposition and disposing of waste tyre rubber is harmful to environment. This research reflects the reuse of waste tyre rubber into concrete after observing their properties. In that experimental work chipped rubber aggregates replaced to the natural coarse aggregates by varying percentage of 3, 6, 9 and 12 with comparison of 0% replacement. Silica fume is replaced in 10% with cement for improving the bond properties between cement paste and rubber. In evaluation, test has been carried out to determine the properties of concrete such as workability, unit weight, flexural strength and split tensile strength. The workability of fresh concrete is observed with the help of compaction factor test. From the test of compaction factor, workability is decrease with increasing percentage of chipped rubber. The specific gravity of chipped rubber aggregates is lower as compared to natural aggregates therefore decrease the unit weight of rubber mix concrete. Increasing chipped rubber aggregates as partial replacement into concrete reduces compressive strength. So these can use in non-primary structural applications of medium to low strength requirements. The overall results of study show that it is possible to use recycled rubber tyre aggregates in concrete construction as partial replacement to natural coarse aggregates.

  4. Study on heat under dynamic loading of rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Igumenova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies on heat buildup in tire rubber surface scan method samples using a thermal imaging camera. Investigated the exothermic chemical reaction mechanical destruction rubber when loading designs permanent cyclic stretching with deformation of the working zone 50%. Percentage of deformation of the working zone was chosen on the basis of the actual data on the stretch-compression zone "Rusk" tires, which is the maximum level difference of deformation during run-in. Experiment plan provided for periodic relaxation samples of at least 72 hours for more accurate simulation of operation process of structural products. Created and processed data on temperature changes in samples for bar and line profile for rubber compounds with the introduction of nanomodificator (fullerene-containing technical carbon in comparison with the control sample without him. The data obtained reflect the nature of heat depending on the composition of the compound. Identified common patterns of thermal nature of physicochemical process mechanical destruction rubbers. For rubber with nanomodifikatorom there has been an increase in the temperature interval reaction from a minimum to a maximum 2 degrees that is also linked to the rise in the average temperature of the reaction on the histogram also at 2-3 degrees of deformation under the same conditions and the level of cyclic loading. However, the temperature in the control sample that is associated with the beginning of the formation of hardened rubber structures, economies of Mallinza-Petrikeeva, occurs with delay twice compared with modified Fullerenes. Measurement of physic-mechanical indicators selected in the course of testing of samples showed the beginning of formation of structure with increased strength of samples in the sample temperature zone that corresponds to the thermal effect of èndotermičeskomu recombination reactions of macromolecules.

  5. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste.......In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...

  6. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  7. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions.

  8. X-ray characterization of tire derived particles resulting from different solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, R.C.; Smithhart, C.B.; Quin, J.; Wertz, D.L. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Currently, 200 million scrap tires are being annually stockpiled, landfilled, or illegally dumped, with ca. 50 million scrap tires being recycled in a variety of ways. The current disposal methods are causing numerous short-term environmental problems. Whole tires occupy large amounts of space and may {open_quotes}float{close_quotes} or rise to the top of landfills, causing puncturing of the landfill cover. In an attempt to prevent floating, many landfills require that the scrap tires be shredded, a process which is energy intensive and wasteful. Scrap tire stock piles produce large health risks by providing a place for rodents and mosquitos to breed -- aiding in the spread of diseases. Large stockpile fires have also broken out in major cities in Florida, Texas, Virginia, and Washington. These fires are long lasting and produce unwanted smoke into the environment. For many reasons, the recycling of scrap tires is desirable. This paper describes the processing of scrap tires by several liquids and acids.

  9. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  10. Power Transmission of UHF Passive Embedded RFID in Tires

    OpenAIRE

    Shengbo Hu; Bing Si; Heng Shu; Jinrong Mo

    2014-01-01

    UHF passive RFID tags embedded in tires have a deep impact on tire life cycle management and tire monitoring. In this work, we present the power transmission of UHF passive embedded RFID in tires. In UHF passive embedded RFID systems in tires, the bidirectional radio link between reader and tags goes through air and tires. The total path loss contains reflection loss at tire-air boundaries and attenuation loss in the tires. The power transmission is based on the permittivity of tires and tire...

  11. Numerical prediction of car tire wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Cheli, F.; Braghin, F.; Gelosa, E.; Keckman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their many economic and ecological implications, the possibility to predict tire wear is of major importance to tire manufacturers, fleet owners and governments. Based on these observations, in 2000, a three-year project named TROWS (Tire and Road Wear and Slip assessment was started. One of

  12. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires. 25.733 Section 25.733 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a landing gear axle is fitted with a single wheel and tire assembly, the wheel must be fitted with...

  13. Developments in rubber technology 2 synthetic rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K

    1981-01-01

    This book is intended for those people who have a knowledge or understanding of rubber materials and processes but who wish to update their knowledge. It should be read in conjunction with Developments in Rubber Technology-l as that volume discussed developments in natural rubber and selected special purpose synthetic rubbers as well as additives. The authors have been selected for their expertise in each particular field and we, as editors, would like to express our appreciation to the individual authors and also to their companies. Such a book would be impossible to produce without such active cooperation as we have received. Volumes 1 and 2 of Developments in Rubber Technology cover rubbers which are processed and vulcanised in the traditional manner. It is appreciated that the omission of non-vulcanised rubber materials (the so­ called thermoplastic elastomers) will be unwelcome to many readers but it is intended, because of the size of the subject, to cover these materials in a subsequent volume. A.W. K...

  14. Rubber recovery from centrifuged natural rubber latex residue using sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Taweepreda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste latex sludge from centrifuged residue, which is a null by-product of concentrated latex manufacturing, wasdigested to retrieve the rubber by using sulfuric acid. It was found that the acid concentration and digestion time have aneffect on the amount and purity of the retrieved rubber. Sulfuric acid at concentrations of more than 10% by weight with adigestion time of 48 hours completely digested waste latex sludge and gave rubber 10% by weight. The quality of the retrievedrubber was examined for Mooney viscosity (MV, plasticity retention index, nitrogen content, and ash content. The averagemolecular weight of the retrieved rubber, using gel permeation chromatography, was lower than that of normal natural rubber(NR which corresponds with the MV and initial plasticity (Po. The molecular structure from Fourier transform infraredspectroscopy (FT-IR indicated that the retrieved rubber surface is wet composed with hydroxyl functional ended group.The residue solution was evaporated and crystallized. The structure of crystals was determined using power X-ray diffractometer.

  15. The usage of plastic waste as a secondary raw material for the modification of sandcrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Daukšys, M.; Venčkauskas, L.

    2015-03-01

    Recently the usage of various industry wastes as a secondary raw material tends to increase its relevancy. One of possible options to decrease the amount of waste is to use them to produce new products or materials. The operation of various secondary raw materials (tire rubber, tire cord, ground glass shards, ground ceramic waste products) during the concrete mixture preparation allows to change its as well as cured concrete properties. Recently polymer and steel fibers are used for concrete reinforcement. This study analyses the usage possibility of plastic shavings for the reinforcement of concrete. The technological properties of cement slurry (sand, fraction of 0/4 and 10 kg/m3, 15 kg/m3 and 20 kg/m3 of plastic shavings) as well as mechanical, physical and porosity properties of cured sandcrete were established during the experimental research. The geometric characteristics of mill-shredded plastic shavings were established. Experimental results revealed that the usage of plastic shavings decreased slurry slump and density. The minor decrease of cured sandcrete density (~2200 kg/m3) was noticed with the addition of plastic shavings within the limits of 10 - 20 kg/m3. The flexural strength of cured sandcrete increased from 36 % to 57 % compared with reference specimen (without plastic shavings). The dependence of flexural force and deflection was obtained. Study revealed that the residual strength after crack opening is bigger with the usage of plastic shavings as a secondary raw material compared with reference specimen.

  16. On application of rubber modified asphalt in heavy-loaded roadbed%橡胶改性沥青在重交通荷载路面上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光明

    2012-01-01

    结合已建工程实例,运用相关数据对橡胶改性沥青的优良性能进行了综合分析评价,阐述了橡胶沥青的应用工艺和施工注意事项,通过在北方低温寒冷地区重交通荷载路面上推广应用,可较好地提高路面性能与使用寿命,为国家处理"废旧轮胎污染环境"问题提供了持续性的解决方案,为发展"节约型经济"作出贡献。%Combining with the established engineering cases, the paper adopts relative data to have the comprehensive analysis evaluation of the excellent performance of the rubber modified asphalt, illustrates the application craft of the rubber asphalt and precautions in the construction, improves the road performance and lifespan by enhancing the application of the rubber modified asphalt in the heavy-loaded roadbeds in cold areas in north of China, and provides some solution to the problems of the "wasted tire pollution in environment" by national government, so as to make some contribution to the development of the "conservation-minded economy".

  17. The reclaiming of butyl rubber and in-situ compatibilization of thermoplastic elastomer by power ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenlai

    This is a study of the continuous ultrasound aided extrusion process for the in-situ compatibilization of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM) thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) using a newly developed ultrasonic treatment reactor. The rheological, mechanical properties and morphology of the TPE with and without ultrasonic treatment were studied. In-situ compatibilization in the ultrasonically treated blends was observed as evident by their more stable morphology after annealing, improved mechanical properties and IR spectra. The obtained results indicated that ultrasonic treatment induced the thermo-mechanical degradations and led to the possibility of enhanced molecular transport and chemical reactions at the interfaces. Processing conditions were established for enhanced in situ compatibilization of the PP/EPDM TPE. The ultrasonic treatments of butyl rubber gum and ultrasonic devulcanization of butyl rubber, tire-curing bladder during extrusion using a grooved barrel ultrasonic reactor were carried out. The ultrasonic treatment of gum caused degradation of the polymer main chain leading to lower molecular weight, broader molecular weight distribution, less unsaturation and changes in physical properties. The devulcanization of butyl rubber was successfully accomplished only at severe conditions of ultrasonic treatment. The mechanical properties of vulcanizates prepared from devulcanized butyl rubber are comparable to that of the virgin vulcanizate. The molecular characterization of sol fraction of devulcanized butyl rubber showed the devulcanization and degradation of butyl rubber occurred simultaneously. 1H NMR transverse relaxation was also used to study butyl rubber gum before and after ultrasonic treatment, and ultrasonically devulcanized unfilled butyl rubber. The T2 relaxation decays were successfully described using a two-component model. The recyclability of tire-curing bladder was also investigated. Gel fraction, crosslink

  18. Mechanochemical modification of natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, I. A.; Sukhareva, K. V.; Andriasyan, Yu. O.; Popov, A. A.; Vorontsov, N. V.

    2016-11-01

    Thermomechanochemical changes of SVR 3L natural rubber after the treatment in the internal rubber mixer in the self-heating mode were studied. The effect of the molecular mass and content of the gel fraction of natural rubber is shown. Properties of rubber compounds and vulcanized rubber are presented. Taking into account modern requirements, a new alternative technology of obtaining halogenated elastomers based on the solid-phase (mechanochemical) halide modification is created. New halogen-containing natural rubber produced by this technology proves themselves in the conditions of rubber production. New fluorinated natural rubber produced by this technology proves themselves in the conditions of rubber production.

  19. China Rubber Chemicals Production and Market Situation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Because the stimulus driven impact of the rapid growth of tire and other rubber products' output,in recent years,the production and marketing of domestic rubber chemicals appear to increase,and the specific production and marketing conditions are as follows: 1.Rapid Growth of Chemicals Output From 2009 to 2010,in China an upsurge of expanding or building new rubber chemicals equipment was raised.These equipment were planned to be put into production in 2010 with newly increased production capacity of about 120,000 tons,among which there were 40,000 tons antioxidant 4020,50,000tons accelerator M,and about 40,000 tons other Chemicals.In 2010,the total output was 701,000 tons,with year-on-year growth of 17.8% or so.In 2010,the total sales volume of domestic rubber chemicals were 13 billion yuan,and the export volume was about 180,000 tons,basically the same with that in 2009.See the statistics of domestic rubber chemicals output from 2009 to 2010 in Table 1.

  20. Effect of quaternary ammonium salts in the process of extracting oil filled rubber from latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nikulina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, much attention is paid to the improvement of production technology of synthetic rubber. Much attention is given to rubber is produced by emulsion polymerization. This is due to the fact that rubbers produced by emulsion polymerization have a number of positive characteristics, and are widely used in the tire and rubber industry, in composite formulations for various purposes. In recent years, the technology of production of synthetic rubbers are widely used quaternary ammonium salts which are produced on an industrial scale. Application low and high molecular weight quaternary ammonium salts to reduce pollution of environ-mental protection, exclude the use of mineral salts without significant changes in the process flowsheet. It is found that quaternary ammonium salts react with the components of the emulsion system to form insoluble complexes, which are captured produced rubber crumb. However, Applications, quaternary salts in the manufacture of oil-filled rubber in the literature sources have not been given due attention. The study presents the results of research on the effect of the concentration of a coagulating agent, tempera tours and concentration of the dispersed phase in the process of coagulation of latex in the preparation of oil-filled rubber stamps SCS-30 ARKM-15. The concentration of the coagulating agent does not significantly affect the process of separation of the rubber from the latex. The process of isolation rubber latex is advantageously carried out at a reduced temperature. The concentration of the dispersed phase also provides material effect on the coagulation process. The lead researches mouthestablished that produced rubber, rubber compounds and vulcanizates based on these indicators correspond to their requirements.

  1. 废轮胎热解炭黑的表面修饰及其在平版印刷油墨中的应用%Surface Modification of Pyrolytic Carbon Black from Waste Tires and Its Use as Pigment for Offset Printing Ink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 王靖岱; 任晓红; 阳永荣; 蒋斌波

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis has the potential of transforming waste into valuable products. Pyrolytic carbon black (PCB) is one of the most important products resulting from the pyrolysis of used tires. One of the most significant applications of modified pyrolytic carbon black is its use as pigment for offset printing ink to obtain high added values.Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results show that a large quantity of inorganic matters and carbonaceous deposit are removed by treating the pyrolytic carbon black with nitric acid solution. Plenty of active sites originally occupied by inorganic ash and coke are recovered. The surface energy of pyrolytic carbon black (TWPC) modified by titanate-coupling agent-especially the specific interaction γsPs determined by the specific probe molecule, toluene-shows the strong interaction between the TWPC and the synthetic resins. The offset printing ink performance confirms the IGC prediction. And TWPC has the great potential of applications in printing ink industry as pigment.

  2. Thermodynamics of Rubber Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, J.; Manzanares, J. A.; Zúñiga, J.; Utrillas, P.; Fernández, J.

    2001-02-01

    A thermodynamic study of an isotropic rubber band under uniaxial stress is presented on the basis of its equation of state. The behavior of the rubber band is compared with both that of an ideal elastomer and that of an ideal gas, considering the generalized Joule's law as the ideality criterion. First, the thermal expansion of rubber at constant stress and the change in the stress with temperature at constant length are described. Thermoelastic inversion is then considered, and the experimental observations are easily rationalized. Finally, the temperature changes observed in the adiabatic stretching of a rubber band are evaluated from the decrease of entropy with length.

  3. 49 CFR 569.9 - Labeling of regroovable tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labeling of regroovable tires. 569.9 Section 569.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGROOVED TIRES § 569.9 Labeling of regroovable tires. (a) Regroovable tires. After August 30, 1969, each tire designed and constructed for regrooving shall be...

  4. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... purchasers, or non-pneumatic tires or non-pneumatic tire assemblies, by permanently molding into or onto the... manufacturer of a non-pneumatic tire or a non-pneumatic tire assembly shall permanently mold, stamp...

  5. Gamma-radiation effect on thermal ageing of butyl rubber compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Butyl rubber has a comprehensive use in sealing systems, especially in tires inner tubes, due to their low permeability to gases. So, it is required that butyl rubber compounds show a better performance, more and more. Butyl rubber is provided with excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Besides showing these properties, radiation exposures impart modifications in physical-chemical and morphological properties on butyl rubber materials. When exposed to gamma-radiation, rubbers suffer changes in their mechanical and physical properties, caused by material degradation. The major radiation effect in butyl rubbers is chain scission; besides, ageing promotes too the same effect with further build-up of free radicals. This work aims to the study of gamma-radiation in physical-chemical properties of butyl rubber subjected to thermal ageing. Doses used herein were: 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 KGy. Samples were evaluated before and after ageing according to traditional essays, such as: hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break. From accomplished assessments it is possible to affirm that at doses higher than 50 kGy it was observed a sharp decreasing in butyl rubber physical-chemical properties, before and after exposure to ageing. (author)

  6. Influence of Rubber Size on Properties of Crumb Rubber Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the properties and applications of rubber cement-based materials are well documented. The sizes of rubbers used in these materials varied. However, information about the effects of rubber size on the properties of rubber cement-based materials, especially pore structure, mechanical strengths, and drying shrinkage properties, remains limited. Three groups of rubber with major particle sizes of 2–4 mm, 1–3 mm, and 0–2 mm were selected in this study. This paper presents experimental studies on the effects of rubber size on the consistency, fresh density, pore structure, mechanical properties, and drying shrinkage properties of crumb rubber mortars (CRMs. Results demonstrated that the consistency and fresh density of CRMs decreased with the rubber size. As to the pore structure, the total pore volume increased with the decrease of the rubber size. By contrast, the influence of the rubber size on the mesopore (<50 nm volume is not as significant as that of the rubber content. The mechanical properties of CRMs decreased with the rubber size. Low rubber stiffness and large pore volumes, especially those of small sized rubbers, contribute to the reduction of CRMs strength. The drying shrinkage of CRM increases as the rubber size decreases. The influences of rubber size on capillary tension are not significant. Thus, the shrinkage increases with the decrease of rubber size mainly because of its function in the deformation modulus reduction of CRMs.

  7. Interfacial interaction between the epoxidized natural rubber and silica in natural rubber/silica composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tiwen [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jia, Zhixin, E-mail: zxjia@scut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Peng, Zheng [Agricultural Product Processing Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences, Zhanjiang 524001 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Substantiate the ring open reaction between Si-OH of silica and epoxy groups of ENR. • ENR can act as a bridge between NR and silica to enhance the interfacial interaction. • As a modifier, ENR gets the potential to be used in the tread of green tire for improving the wet skid resistance apparently. - Abstract: The epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as an interfacial modifier was used to improve the mechanical and dynamical mechanical properties of NR/silica composites. In order to reveal the interaction mechanism between ENR and silica, the ENR/Silica model compound was prepared by using an open mill and the interfacial interaction of ENR with silica was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and stress–strain testing. The results indicated that the ring-opening reaction occurs between the epoxy groups of ENR chains and Si-OH groups on the silica surfaces and the covalent bonds are formed between two phases, which can improve the dispersion of silica in the rubber matrix and enhance the interfacial combination between rubber and silica. The ring-opening reaction occurs not only in vulcanization process but also in mixing process, meanwhile, the latter seems to be more important due to the simultaneous effects of mechanical force and temperature.

  8. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  9. Blue rubber bleb naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35 year old female had multiple progressive painful, tender, soft, bluish compressible nodules with the feel of rubber nipples. There was no evidence of gastrointestinal haemangiomas or other systemic abnormalities. Histopathologically, cavernous haemangioma with prominent smooth muscle outline proved the clinical diagnosis of blue rubber bleb naevus. Only cutaneous lesions were seen in the patient.

  10. Biodiversity in rubber agroforests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, Hendrien

    2013-01-01

    Jungle rubber tuinen zijn extensieve rubber agroforests die qua structuur op secundaire bossen lijken, en waarin wilde soorten door de boer worden getolereerd. Met het verdwijnen van het laaglandregenwoud rijst de vraag of de begroeiing die ervoor in de plaats komt een aantal kenmerken en functies v

  11. Assessing Risk Posed By Land Application Of Ash From The Combustion Of Wood And Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total and leachable metal concentrations in ash from the combustion of waste wood and vehicle tires (WT ash) were characterized. These data were then used to examine a variety of issues associated with determining whether the WT ash could be beneficially used outside of a la...

  12. Natural rubber biosynthesis in plants: rubber transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Katrina; Xie, Wenshuang

    2012-01-01

    Rubber biosynthesis in plants is a fascinating biochemical system, which evolved at the dawn of the dicotyledoneae and is present in at least four of the dictolydonous superorders. Rubber biosynthesis is catalyzed by a membrane complex in a monolayer membrane envelope, requires two distinct substrates and a divalent cation cofactor, and produces a high-molecular-weight isoprenoid polymer. A solid understanding of this system underpins valuable papers in the literature. However, the published literature is rife with unreliable reports in which the investigators have fallen into traps created by the current incomplete understanding of the biochemistry of rubber synthesis. In this chapter, we attempt to guide both new and more established researchers around these pitfalls.

  13. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 570.62 Section 570.62 Transportation Other... § 570.62 Tires. (a) Tread depth. The tread shall be not less than four thirty-seconds of an inch deep on each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch...

  14. PROSPECTS OF RUBBER CRUMB APPLICATION AS A PART OF DEEP OPEN-CAST MINES ROAD COVERINGS Перспективы применения резиновой крошки в составе дорожных покрытий глубоких карьеров

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khristoforova A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of worn out tires recycling at the mining enterprises is considered. The most important results of influence research of mechanical activation to properties of a rubber crumb and to modified bitumunous concrete properties are discussed

  15. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adsorptive removal of hydrophobic organic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: a comparative study of waste-polymer-based, coal-based activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fei; Chang, Chun; Du, Yang; Zhu, Lingyan; Xing, Baoshan; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,3-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) on five different carbonaceous materials was compared. The adsorbents included three polymer-based activated carbons, one coal-based activated carbon (F400) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). The polymer-based activated carbons were prepared using KOH activation from waste polymers: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and tire rubber (TR). Compared with F400 and MWNT, activated carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity toward the HOCs, attributed to their extremely large hydrophobic surface area (2700 m2/g) and highly mesoporous structures. Adsorption of small-sized TCE was stronger on the tire-rubber-based carbon and F400 resulting from the pore-filling effect. In contrast, due to the molecular sieving effect, their adsorption on HCH was lower. MWNT exhibited the lowest adsorption capacity toward HOCs because of its low surface area and characteristic of aggregating in aqueous solution.

  17. Adsorptive removal of hydrophobic organic compounds by carbonaceous adsorbents: A comparative study of waste-polymer-based,coal-based activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Lian; Chun Chang; Yang Du; Lingyan Zhu; Baoshan Xing; Chang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of the hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) trichloroethylene (TCE),1,3-dichlorobenzene (DCB),1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) on five different carbonaceous materials was compared.The adsorbents included three polymer-based activated carbons,one coal-based activated carbon (F400) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT).The polymerbased activated carbons were prepared using KOH activation from waste polymers:polyvinyl chloride (PVC),polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and tire rubber (TR).Compared with F400 and MWNT,activated carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity toward the HOCs,attributed to their extremely large hydrophobic surface area (2700 m2/g) and highly mesoporous structures.Adsorption of small-sized TCE was stronger on the tire-rubber-based carbon and F400 resulting from the pore-filling effect.In contrast,due to the molecular sieving effect,their adsorption on HCH was lower.MWNT exhibited the lowest adsorption capacity toward HOCs because of its low surface area and characteristic of aggregating in aqueous solution.

  18. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  20. Multilayer graphene rubber nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Bernhard; Frasca, Daniele; Schulze, Dietmar; Wachtendorf, Volker; Krafft, Bernd; Morys, Michael; Böhning, Martin; Rybak, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer Graphene (MLG), a nanoparticle with a specific surface of BET = 250 m2/g and thus made of only approximately 10 graphene sheets, is proposed as a nanofiller for rubbers. When homogenously dispersed, it works at low loadings enabling the replacement of carbon black (CB), increase in efficiency, or reduction in filler concentration. Actually the appropriate preparation yielded nanocomposites in which just 3 phr are sufficient to significantly improve the rheological, curing and mechanical properties of different rubbers, as shown for Chlorine-Isobutylene-Isoprene Rubber (CIIR), Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Natural Rubber (NR), and Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR). A mere 3 phr of MLG tripled the Young's modulus of CIIR, an effect equivalent to 20 phr of carbon black. Similar equivalents are observed for MLG/CB mixtures. MLG reduces gas permeability, increases thermal and electrical conductivities, and retards fire behavior. The later shown by the reduction in heat release rate in the cone calorimeter. The higher the nanofiller concentration is (3 phr, 5 phr, and 10 phr was investigated), the greater the improvement in the properties of the nanocomposites. Moreover, the MLG nanocomposites improve stability of mechanical properties against weathering. An increase in UV-absorption as well as a pronounced radical scavenging are proposed and were proved experimentally. To sum up, MLG is interesting as a multifunctional nanofiller and seems to be quite ready for rubber development.

  1. Radiation vulcanization of rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-02-01

    An abstract of the radiation process of polymer materials and the polymer reaction by radiation is explained. Main radiation is 250 keV to 10 MeV of electron rays in the industry. Radiation cross-linked rubber has less the tensile strength than that by sulfur and organic peroxide crosslinking. The main origins of low tensile strength are caused by cut of backbone chain and ozone depend on radiation. Acceleration of crosslinking and short time of radiation are necessary to improve these defects. To accelerate crosslinking, we used crosslinking accelerators, for example, three poly-functional monomers (PFM). The maximum tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) not added crosslinking accelerators showed 3 MPa at 110 kGy, but SBR added A-TMMT (tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate) showed 5.5 MPa at 110 kGy. Radiation crosslinking of many kinds of rubber: isoprene (IR), SBR, CR, nitrile rubber (NBR), hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), butyl rubber (IIR), chlorinated butyl rubber (CIIR), EPM and TPE are explained. (S.Y.)

  2. Analysis of Secondary Pyrolysis Fraction of Acidic Pyrolysis Residue from Waste Silicon Rubber%废旧硅橡胶酸性热解残渣热解馏出物组分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明贤; 吕春丽; 张奉尧

    2011-01-01

    在不同温度下对废旧硅橡胶酸性热解残渣进行热解,通过气相色谱-质谱联用技术对馏出油的组分进行分离与鉴定.实验结果表明:当热解温度为180℃时,馏出油组分相对较单一,主要是低沸点硅油类物质,可再次回收利用,实现清洁生产;当热解温度为340℃时,馏出油组分多且复杂,主要为高沸点硅油类物质,还有硅油类物质氧化和高温热解后的产物,再利用困难.%Acidic pyrolysis residue from waste silicon rubber was pyrolyzed at different temperature, and the distillates were separated and identified by GC-MS. The experimental results show that: When the pyrolysis temperature is 180 ℃, the distillates are simple, mainly silicone oils with low boiling point, which can be recycled; When the pyrolysis temperature is 340℃, the distillates are various and complex, mainly silicone oils with high boiling point and pyrolysis products of silicone-oil-oxide, which are difficult to be reused.

  3. Microstructural analysis of carbon nanomaterials produced from pyrolysis/combustion of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR)

    OpenAIRE

    Joner Oliveira Alves; Chuanwei Zhuo; Yiannis Angelo Levendis; Jorge Alberto Soares Tenório

    2011-01-01

    Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) is a synthetic rubber copolymer used to fabricate several products. This study aims to demonstrate the use of SBR as feedstock for carbon nanomaterials (nanofibers and nanotubes) growth, and therefore to establish a novel process for destination of waste products containing SBR. A three stage electrically heated flow reactor was used. Small pellets of rubber were pyrolyzed at a temperature of 1000 ºC. The pyrolyzates were mixed with oxygen-containing gases and w...

  4. Innovative Application of Biopolymer Keratin as a Filler of Synthetic Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber NBR

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosława Prochoń; Anita Przepiórkowska

    2013-01-01

    The current investigations show the influence of keratin, recovered from the tanning industry, on the thermal and mechanical properties of vulcanizates with synthetic rubber acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber NBR. The addition of waste protein to NBR vulcanizates influences the improvement of resistance at high temperatures and mechanical properties like tensile strength and hardness. The introduction of keratin to the mixes of rubber previously blended with zinc oxide (ZnO) before vulcanization ...

  5. Global Synethetic Rubber Industrial Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr.Leon Loh

    2011-01-01

    @@ This paper is to compile and analyze the statistical data of synthetic rubber capacity and consumption to understand its impact of supply/demand on the global synthetic rubber market.Some forecasted consumption data were generated and published by the joint efforts of both IISRP(International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers)and IRSG(International Rubber Study group).The report also covers the observed industrial trends as well as some emerging issues in the synthetic rubber industry.

  6. Ericameria Nauseosa (rubber rabbitbrush): a complementary rubber feedstock to augment the guayule rubber production stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericameria nauseosa (rubber rabbitbrush) is a highly prolific desert shrub that produces high quality natural rubber. Over the past several years we have investigated rabbitbrush’s potential as a commercial rubber feedstock. Like guayule, rabbitbrush produces natural rubber within its bark tissues a...

  7. Post-consumer tires back into new tires: de-vulcanization and re-utilization of passenger car tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The

  8. A review on using crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  9. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  10. 2011 Top 10 Chinese Tire Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Company Limit- ed, its forerunner was Hangzhou Rubber General Factory, founded at 1958 and has more than 40 years history. On July 1992, the factory was joined with Hong Kong Zhongce Investment Company to found Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Company Limit- ed. The company possesses Hangzhou Chao Yang Rubber Company Limited, Hangzhou FuchunJiang Chemistry Company Limited and other subsidiary companies and factories to produce various specifi- cations of radial tyre, truck tyre, passenger car tyre,

  11. Research on the Mechanic Performance of Honeycomb Plastic Tire%蜂巢式塑料轮胎力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王若云; 贺建芸; 丁玉梅; 刘肖英; 杨卫民; 焦志伟

    2014-01-01

    基于聚氨酯弹性体优异的性能,建立了3种不同密度的蜂巢式塑料轮胎模型,并以ABAQUS软件为工具,以同型号的传统橡胶轮胎为参照,对比分析了稳态滚动工况下轮胎的接地性能和应力分布。分析结果表明,与传统橡胶轮胎相比,蜂巢式塑料轮胎的等效应力分布更加均匀。因此,蜂巢式塑料轮胎局部发生过度磨损的可能性降低。此外,蜂巢式塑料轮胎支撑板的受力情况与蜂巢密度密切相关。%Based on superior performance of polyurethane elastomer,three different density of honeycomb plastic tires models were established,the same model of the traditional rubber tires were taken as reference,and ABAQUS software was used as analysis tool to compare and analyze the grounding performance and stress distribution of the plastic tires under the steady rolling conditions. The results show that the equivalent stresses of honeycomb plastic tires distribute more uniformly than that of the traditional rubber tires. Therefore, the possibility of excessive wear of honeycomb plastic tires gets smaller. In addition, the stress conditions of support plates of the tires are closely related to honeycomb density.

  12. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.733 Tires. Each landing... is not exceeded under— (1) The design maximum weight; (2) A load on each main wheel tire equal to the... obtained at the nose wheel, assuming that the mass of the rotorcraft acts as the most critical center...

  13. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... buildup factor shown in Table 1 from the measured inflation pressure. Table 1—Inflation...

  14. Improving Asphalt Mixture Performance by Partially Replacing Bitumen with Waste Motor Oil and Elastomer Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concern about waste generation and the gradual decrease of oil reserves has led the way to finding new waste materials that may partially replace the bitumens used in the road paving industry. Used motor oil from vehicles is a waste product that could answer that demand, but it can also drastically reduce the viscosity, increasing the asphalt mixture’s rutting potential. Therefore, polymer modification should be used in order to avoid compromising the required performance of asphalt mixtures when higher amounts of waste motor oil are used. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the performance of an asphalt binder/mixture obtained by replacing part of a paving grade bitumen (35/50 with 10% waste motor oil and 5% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS as an elastomer modifier. A comparison was also made with the results of a previous study using a blend of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis and ground tire rubber modifier as a partial substitute for usual PG64-22 bitumen. The asphalt binders were tested by means of Fourier infrared spectra and dynamic shear rheology, namely by assessing their continuous high-performance grade. Later, the water sensitivity, fatigue cracking resistance, dynamic modulus and rut resistance performance of the resulting asphalt mixtures was evaluated. It was concluded that the new binder studied in this work improves the asphalt mixture’s performance, making it an excellent solution for paving works.

  15. Runaway Rubber Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    High hysteresis Good tract;on characteristic Poor affinity for blending Polyisoprene PI Strong wear resistance Very similar to natural rubber Low...with a "base of cresylic acid and a blend of benzene, with a synthetic detergent for a wetting agent" are recommended [8]. For AC runways, alkaline...you expect the runway to change after rubber is removed? Response Maintenance Operations Pilots Improved Skid Resistance! Brak inq Act ion/Fr ictior 7

  16. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  17. Comparative study on composition, structure, and adsorption behavior of activated carbons derived from different synthetic waste polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fei; Xing, Baoshan; Zhu, Lingyan

    2011-08-15

    The composition, structure, and adsorption behavior of activated carbons (ACs) derived from three different types of waste polymers, i.e., tire rubber (TR), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), by KOH activation were compared. The AC derived from PET exhibited the largest surface area (2831 m(2)/g) and pore volume (1.68 cm(3)/g) due to the homogenous aromatic composition of PET. The AC derived from PVC exhibited relatively lower surface area (2666 m(2)/g) but more narrowed pore size distribution (2-3 nm). The complex composition and high ash content of tire particles resulted in AC product with significantly lower surface area (398.5 m(2)/g) and heterogeneous pore width. Adsorption data of methylene blue (MB) were fitted well by Langmuir equation, indicating monolayer coverage on the ACs. The high oxygen content of PET-derived AC heavily affected its adsorption to MB and iodine. Due to the remarkable surface area and highly mesoporous structures, ACs based on both PET and PVC exhibited much higher adsorption capacities than that of TR and commercial coal-based AC (F400). This study demonstrates that the properties of ACs are highly dependent on their starting polymers and the potential of converting synthetic polymer waste into effective adsorbents for environmental remediation and cleanup.

  18. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sol-Sánchez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats to be used in railway tracks.

  19. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol-Sánchez, Miguel; Moreno-Navarro, Fernando; Rubio-Gámez, Mª Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats) to be used in railway tracks. PMID:28788168

  20. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may...

  1. Sand - rubber mixtures submitted to isotropic loading: a minimal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Auriane; Rouhanifar, Salman; Richard, Patrick; Cazacliu, Bogdan; Ibraim, Erdin

    2017-06-01

    The volume of scrap tyres, an undesired urban waste, is increasing rapidly in every country. Mixing sand and rubber particles as a lightweight backfill is one of the possible alternatives to avoid stockpiling them in the environment. This paper presents a minimal model aiming to capture the evolution of the void ratio of sand-rubber mixtures undergoing an isotropic compression loading. It is based on the idea that, submitted to a pressure, the rubber chips deform and partially fill the porous space of the system, leading to a decrease of the void ratio with increasing pressure. Our simple approach is capable of reproducing experimental data for two types of sand (a rounded one and a sub-angular one) and up to mixtures composed of 50% of rubber.

  2. Recent rubber crumb asphalt pavement projects in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleyman, H.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Pulles, B.C.M.; Treleaven, L.B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Several countries around the world have been using rubber crumb (RC) for pavement applications for more than 20 years. The performance of asphalt pavements is enhanced by the use of recycled tires, which has the added advantage of solving the problem of tire disposal. In 2002, the Tire Recycling Management Association of Alberta (TRMA) and Alberta Transportation (AT) evaluated the feasibility and performance of an overlay using asphalt rubber (AR) pavement in Alberta. A partnership in the project was formed by AT, the City of Calgary, the City of Edmonton, and Strathcona County, where each one paved one section of a road with AR in conjunction with a section using conventional or other asphalt mixture types. The roads selected were: (1) 112 Avenue North West in Calgary, (2) 17 Street and Baseline Road in Strathcona County, (3) 137 Avenue in Edmonton, and (4) highway 630 in the vicinity of North Cooking Lake (Alberta Transportation). Two different AR pavement thicknesses were used to study the effects of overlay thicknesses on the performance of the overlay. The structural and functional factors were monitored before, during and after the construction of all sections. The preliminary evaluation of the application of AR in Alberta was presented, along with a summary of test results and performances of AR pavement sections. A full freeze-thaw cycle is required (Spring 2003) before the results of the analysis of the testing are known. The reduced thickness AR sections performed in a similar manner to those with full thickness AC sections. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  3. Historical and recent achievements in the field of microbial degradation of natural and synthetic rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yikmis, Meral; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    This review intends to provide an overview of historical and recent achievements in studies of microbial degradation of natural and synthetic rubber. The main scientific focus is on the key enzymes latex-clearing protein (Lcp) from the Gram-positive Streptomyces sp. strain K30 and rubber oxygenase A (RoxA) from the Gram-negative Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y, which has been hitherto the only known rubber-degrading bacterium that does not belong to the actinomycetes. We also emphasize the importance of knowledge of biodegradation in industrial and environmental biotechnology for waste natural rubber disposal.

  4. Road asphalt modifiers based on oil-resistant rubbers and products of thermal transformations of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Kiselev, V.P.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Bugaenko, M.B.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15

    The properties of asphalt binder modifiers prepared by dissolving butadiene-acrylonitrile rubbers and their production waste in liquid products of heat treatment of various brands of coal were studied.

  5. Integrated forward and reverse supply chain: A tire case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Ali; Yusoff, Nukman Bin; Udoncy, Olugu Ezutah; Mahat, Abu Bakar; Pedram, Payam; Babalola, Ayo

    2016-07-09

    This paper attempts to integrate both a forward and reverse supply chain to design a closed-loop supply chain network (CLSC). The problem in the design of a CLSC network is uncertainty in demand, return products and the quality of return products. Scenario analyses are generated to overcome this uncertainty. In contrast to the existing supply chain network design models, a new application of a CLSC network was studied in this paper to reduce waste. A multi-product, multi-tier mixed integer linear model is developed for a CLSC network design. The main objective is to maximize profit and provide waste management decision support in order to minimize pollution. The result shows applicability of the model in the tire industry. The model determines the number and the locations of facilities and the material flows between these facilities.

  6. Research on porous sound-absorbing materials by the secondary cracking fraction of cracked residue of waste silicone rubbers%废硅橡胶二次裂解渣制多孔吸声材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕春丽; 范磊; 王明贤

    2011-01-01

    采用吸声材料是吸声、降噪、改善声环境的有效手段.本文研究用废旧硅橡胶二次裂解渣和粘结剂为主要原料,采用压制成型的工艺,在常温下制成一种多孔吸声材料.主要考虑残渣里的硅烷类油份和所用发泡剂对试件吸声性能的影响.试验结果表明:所制吸声材料能达到一定的吸声性能,具有对环境无污染,施工方便等优点;且分离出硅烷类油份的灰渣所制试件比原废旧硅橡胶裂解残渣的吸声效果好很多,尤其在共振频率1250Hz下达到吸声峰值0.87.FP - 186植物性水泥发泡剂相比FP- 180动物性水泥发泡剂对试件吸声性能有所改善,使吸声特性曲线向低频方向移动.%With the development of the economic and society in our country, people's living standards are increasing. People demand higher quality of life environment in city, and draw attention on the noise reduction and the improvement of the acoustic environment, increasingly. Sound-absorbing material is an effective means of sound absorption and improving the acoustic environment. In this paper, the porous absorbing material were made by press forming technique at room temperature incorporatly with binder and the secondary cracked residue of waste silicone rubbers. The influences of oil portion of silanes and foaming agent on sound absorption of the porous absorbing material were investigated. The material showed the characteristics of low cost of preparation and non-pollution to the environment. The results showed that the sound absorbing effect of the specimens made by ash and slag, separated from oil portion of silanes was better than the specimens made by cracked residue of waste silicone rubbers, especially when the resonant frequency was 1250Hz,product sound absorption coefficient could be 0. 87. The specimens adding FP - 186 botanical cement foaming agent showed a good improvement of the sound absorbing effect than FP -180 animalic cement foaming agent

  7. Characterization of Hexsyn, a polyolefin rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, C R

    1987-07-01

    Hexsyn is the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company tradename for a polyolefin rubber synthesized from 1-hexene with 3-5% methylhexadiene as the source of residual double bonds for vulcanization. Under license from Goodyear, this same polymer has been manufactured by Lord Corporation for the hinge portion of finger joint prostheses using the tradename Bion. This rubber is currently licensed to the University of Akron and to the Cleveland Clinic Foundation for use in biomedical applications, and is being used primarily for biocompatible and highly fatigue resistant rubber components in ventricular assist and artificial heart systems. Results are presented from the physical, mechanical, and biological characterization of Hexsyn. Procedures are described for the synthesis, compounding, and post-molding extraction for Hexsyn. The physical testing of Hexsyn reported includes determinations of its density at 23 and 37 degrees C, initial hardness and hardness after aging in oxygen, blood, pseudoextracellular fluid and polyethylene glycol 600, typical molecular weights determined by gel permeation chromatography/low angle laser light scattering and intrinsic viscosity, thermal analyses by differential scanning calorimetry of Hexsyn gum, and vulcanized Hexsyn after exposure to blood and blood/fatigue conditions. Also reported are results of differential thermal analyses, thermomechanical analyses of virgin and annealed samples, and thermogravimetric analyses conducted in helium and in air. Dynamic mechanical analyses of Hexsyn include Clash-Berg and Rheovibron tests. Swelling was conducted to determine lot-to-lot and sheet-to-sheet variation for quality control and also a number of solvents were used so that the polymer-solvent interaction parameters could be determined. The permeability of Hexsyn to water, water vapor, and a variety of gases is reported. The permeability by contact angle measurements, refractive index, residual solvent analyses, migration of blood components

  8. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.

  9. Study on the behaviour of rubber aggregates concrete beams using analytical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Asutkar, Priyanka; Shinde, S.B.; Patel, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Concrete is one the most extensively used construction material all over the world. Many scientists and researchers are in quest for developing alternate construction material that are environment friendly and contribute towards sustainable development. Huge amount of rubber tyres waste is being generated day by day which creates the disposal problem and has many environmental issues. As this scrap rubber waste is an elastic material having less specific gravity, energy absorbent material can...

  10. Tire-derived carbon composite anodes for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunchao; Paranthaman, M. Parans; Akato, Kokouvi; Naskar, Amit K.; Levine, Alan M.; Lee, Richard J.; Kim, Sang-Ok; Zhang, Jinshui; Dai, Sheng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-06-01

    Hard-carbon materials are considered as one of the most promising anodes for the emerging sodium-ion batteries. Here, we report a low-cost, scalable waste tire-derived carbon as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Tire-derived carbons obtained by pyrolyzing acid-treated tire at 1100 °C, 1400 °C and 1600 °C show capacities of 179, 185 and 203 mAh g-1, respectively, after 100 cycles at a current density of 20 mA g-1 in sodium-ion batteries with good electrochemical stability. The portion of the low-voltage plateau region in the charge-discharge curves increases as the heat-treatment temperature increases. The low-voltage plateau is beneficial to enhance the energy density of the full cell. This study provides a new pathway for inexpensive, environmentally benign and value-added waste tire-derived products towards large-scale energy storage applications.

  11. Tire/road dynamic contact : study of different approaches to modelling of a tire

    OpenAIRE

    PAHLEVANI, Ladan; Duhamel, Denis; Hai-Ping, Yin; Cumunel, Gwendal

    2014-01-01

    In terms of safety and environment, reduction of the noise generated by tire vibrations on a road is very significant. In order to study the vibration properties of vehicle tires, various methods have been presented in literature. In most of these methods, the global structure of tires has been modelled as circular ring, orthotropic plate, periodic or full 3-dimensional models. A brief review of the characteristics of these models and comparison of their dynamic behaviour are the main purpose...

  12. Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene rubbers for high-dose dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lucas N. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias-IFG,Campus Goiania, Goiania -GO (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Vieira, Silvio L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias-UFG, Campus Samambaia, Goiania-GO (Brazil); Schimidt, Fernando [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias-IFG,Campus Inhumas, Inhumas-GO (Brazil); Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene are synthetical rubbers used widely for pneumatic tires manufacturing. In this research, the dosimeter characteristics of those rubbers were studied for application in high-dose dosimetry. The rubber samples were irradiated with doses of 10 Gy up to 10 kGy, using a {sup 60}Co Gamma Cell-220 system (dose rate of 1.089 kGy/h) and their readings were taken on a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-FTIR system (model Frontier/Perkin Elmer). The ratios of two absorbance peaks were taken for each kind of rubber spectrum, Polybutadiene (1306/1130 cm{sup -1}) and Styrene-Butadiene (1449/1306 cm{sup -1}). The ratio calculated was used as the response to the irradiation, and is not uniform across the sample. From the results, it can be concluded for both rubbers: a) the dose-response curves may be useful for high-dose dosimetry (greater than 250 Gy); b) their response for reproducibility presented standard deviations lower than 2.5%; c) the relative sensitivity was higher for Styrene-Butadiene (1.86 kGy{sup -1}) than for Polybutadiene (1.81 kGy{sup -1}), d) for doses of 10 kGy to 200 kGy, there was no variation in the dosimetric response. Both types of rubber samples showed usefulness as high-dose dosimeters. (authors)

  13. Thermodynamic parameters of elasticity and electrical conductivity of reinforced natural rubber (nr vulca nizates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.F. Adeosun

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic parameters (change in free energy of elasticity, ΔGe; change in enthalpy of elasticity, ΔHe; and change in entropy of elasticity, ΔSe and the electrical conductivity of natural rubber composites reinforced separately with some agricultural wastes have been determined. Results show that the reinforced composites are relatively more ordered and more spontaneous to elasticity than the unreinforced composite. These more ordered composites were observed to conduct electricity better than the unreinforced. The inclusion of the agricultural wastes examined in the formulation of natural rubber composite enhances the elasticity and the electrical conductivity of natural rubber.

  14. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.733 Tires. (a) Each landing... obtained at its wheel, assuming— (1) The design maximum weight; and (2) The most unfavorable center...

  15. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Shahzad; Ahmad Muhammad Imran; Naeem Khawar; Humayun Muhammad; Sebt-E-Zaeem; Faheem Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure a...

  16. Power Transmission of UHF Passive Embedded RFID in Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available UHF passive RFID tags embedded in tires have a deep impact on tire life cycle management and tire monitoring. In this work, we present the power transmission of UHF passive embedded RFID in tires. In UHF passive embedded RFID systems in tires, the bidirectional radio link between reader and tags goes through air and tires. The total path loss contains reflection loss at tire-air boundaries and attenuation loss in the tires. The power transmission is based on the permittivity of tires and tire-air boundary conditions. We give an OCP method for measuring the permittivity of tires. By analyzing the radio link for UHF passive RFID, we establish a model of wave propagation of UHF embedded RFID in tires and make numerical analyses. Numerical analyses show that the error of the OCP methods for measuring the permittivity of tires is small, the parallel polarization and normal incidence of wave are chosen for improving the performance of the UHF embedded RFID in tires, and distance is chosen to keep power transmission function from locating valley.

  17. A numerical approach towards understanding the mechanism of fatigue wear in tread vulcanizates during rolling of tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi-Kashani, Mehdi

    2000-10-01

    Analysis of surface fracture and progress of fatigue wear on the surface of tire tread under road asperity loading is the main objective of this study. Starting with an idealized smooth surface of having precursor flaws, a simple mechanism for formation of wear debris and development of surface patterns is proposed. In this mechanism, step-wise propagation of these micro-flaws under periodic loading by asperities of the road is simulated using Moving Template Finite Element Analysis (MTFEA) in linear geometry and further analyzed using ABAQUS software in non-linear geometry. It is attempted to extend this analysis to heterogeneous rubber compounds where dispersed particles may affect propagation of surface cracks. Mechanical characterization of all existing phases i.e. rubber matrix, filler reinforcing units, and dispersed rubber particles (minor phase in blends) under similar conditions as asperity loading is performed by experimental/numerical methods prior to any stress analysis of such systems. Also, some features of carbon black reinforcement such as stress/strain amplifications in the rubber phase and distribution of stress/strain in constituents of the compound are predicted by combining FEA with experimental observations. Applying mechanical properties of all phases in local FEA models, interactions between ongoing crack tips and dispersed particles are analyzed. Some mechanical mechanisms by which filler reinforcing units and dispersed rubber particles retard propagation of cracks and possibly improving wear resistance are hypothesized.

  18. Tire-wear particles as a source of zinc to the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Councell, T.B.; Duckenfield, K.U.; Landa, E.R.; Callender, E.

    2004-01-01

    Tire-tread material has a zinc (Zn) content of about 1 wt %. The quantity of tread material lost to road surfaces by abrasion has not been well characterized. Two approaches were used to assess the magnitude of this nonpoint source of Zn in the U.S. for the period 1936-1999. In the first approach, tread-wear rates from the automotive engineering literature were used in conjunction with vehicle distance-driven data from the U.S. Department of Transportation to determine Zn releases. A second approach calculated this source term from the volume of tread lost during lifetime tire wear. These analyses showed that the quantity of Zn released by tire wear in the mid-1990s was of the same magnitude as that released from waste incineration. For 1999, the quantity of Zn released by tire wear in the U.S. is estimated to be 10 000-11 000 metric tons. A specific case study focused on Zn sources and sinks in an urban-suburban watershed (Lake Anne) in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area for a time period of the late 1990s. The atmospheric flux of total Zn (wet deposition) to the watershed was 2 ??g/cm2/yr. The flux of Zn to the watershed estimated from tire wear was 42 ??g/cm2/yr. The measured accumulation rate of total Zn in age-dated sediment cores from Lake Anne was 27 ??g/cm2/yr. These data suggest that tire-wear Zn inputs to urban-suburban watersheds can be significantly greater than atmospheric inputs, although the watershed appears to retain appreciable quantities of vehicular Zn inputs.

  19. Mechanistic investigation of rubber-brass adhesion: Effect of formulation ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pankaj Y.

    It is very customary to use adhesion-promoting resins in the belt compounds' formulation to enhance the adhesion between rubber and brass-coated steel cords. Conventionally, two-component adhesion-promoting resins, i.e., HexaMethoxy-MethylMelamine (HMMM) + Resorcinol Formaldehyde (RF) precondensed resin, are commonly used in the tire industry to enhance the initial and aged adhesion between rubber and brass-plated steel cord. However, one-component adhesion-promoting resins were developed in an attempt to eliminate resorcinol from the formulation of belt compound. This study was undertaken to unravel the role of these newly developed one-component resins in enhancing the initial as well as aged adhesion performance. Initial experiments were conducted using a squalene liquid rubber modeling approach in the laboratory to study the effect of resins on the chemistry of the vulcanization reaction and their effect on the adhesion interface. Based on the GPC, SEM/EDX and TOF-SIMS data, a mechanism was proposed to explain the possible role played by resins in the improvement of initial and aged adhesion performance between rubber and brass-coated steel tire cords. Actual natural rubber compounds were later cured to confirm the proposed mechanism derived from the initial squalene-based studies. The proposed mechanism based on squalene studies, which theorized the possible migration of resins towards the rubber-brass interface, was found to be unfeasible in the actual natural rubber compounds, primarily because of the substantial increase in the molecular weight of the rubber matrix. Thus, a new approach was undertaken and the effect of resins on the mechanical properties of the cured natural rubber compounds was studied. Similarly, the initial, heat and humidity aged adhesion studies were performed using these natural rubber compounds. The effect of resin incorporation on the crosslink density distribution was studied using C-13 NMR analyses of the cured rubber compounds

  20. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks

  1. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand; Weegerink, Thijs; Boer, de Andre

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire ma

  2. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  3. Occupational injuries and illnesses in rubber factory: Profile, Potential Hazards and possible prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hari Irfani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is one of the important commodities in the world. Globally, workers are facing so many problems of hazards that produce by rubber process. In Indonesia, there are several data of occupational problems such as respiratory diseases, muscle and skeletal diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, diseases of the teeth and oral cavity, skin diseases and skin tissue. In Iranian rubber factory, Iran, workers had suffered from some kind of musculoskeletal symptoms. Stomach and liver cancers in workers are having in Shanghai tire factory. In addition, Germany has cancer problem of their workers who work in rubber factory. Most of the rubber process in the factory can cause some hazards of the workers. In unloading area and area that operator is taking the dirt manually, workers are facing ergonomic problems. The possible control is reduce weight of load, team lift the object with two or more workers and Use mechanical assist. Machine safeguarding is essential for protecting from Cutting process that can make workers amputation organs such as hands, and fingers. In bale process, the workers need to cut raw rubber into bale in bale cutting. Furthermore, workers are facing with amputation problem. To manage that, It must be designed as a standard which has interlocking guards to prevent access to the cutting area. When wrapped using plastic, workers use a heated iron and sticked in plastic so that it blends neatly. The risks are fingers can cut accidently and then the workers also get contamination from polyvinyl chloride (PVC. The possible preventions are use an automatic plastic wrapping machine with palletized product sitting on a turntable and respirator. Another problem is contact dermatitis that has been reported frequently among rubber workers. The prevention for that problem is using Gloves. The aim of researcher is to provide the profile of occupational injuries and illnesses, potential hazards in rubber factory to prevent the workers.

  4. Feasibility of operating a solid-liquid bioreactor with used automobile tires as the sequestering phase for the biodegradation of inhibitory compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2013-08-15

    Finding new uses for waste or discarded material is an important environmental goal; being able to use a waste material to treat another waste is an even more attractive objective, and this was the purpose of the present work. We previously showed that used automobile tires have an affinity for a toxic contaminant, dichlorophenol (DCP), absorbing and releasing it based on concentration driving forces. Here we have exploited this phenomenon by using used tires as the sequestering phase in a Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactor (TPPB) to treat otherwise-toxic levels of DCP, far out-performing single phase operation in a sequencing batch bioreactor. A comprehensive examination of substrate loading, reactor exchange ratio, and tire fraction used, demonstrated that the tire-TPPB system could handle a 40% higher influent substrate loading and an increase of the exchange ratio value from 0.5 (prohibitive for single phase operation) to 0.7. Such improvement was obtained with a tire fraction ≤9%, comparable to that for commercial polymers previously employed in TPPBs. This study has opened the door to the identification of other waste plastics suitable for use in TPPBs for the treatment of recalcitrant organic contaminants.

  5. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung

    This work investigated the PAHs generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the PAHs removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The PAHs in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring PAHs. Nap was the most predominant water-phase PAH in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-PAHs in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic PAHs. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other PAHs in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual PAHs, total-PAHs, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-PAHs were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total PAH emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.

  6. Technical assessment of discarded tires gasification as alternative technology for electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Einara Blanco; Pedroso, Daniel Travieso; de Carvalho, João Andrade

    2017-10-01

    Concern about contamination associated with the disposal of tires has led to the search for technologies to reuse discarded tires, which include the use of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) as fuel in advanced thermal-conversion processes, this allows the energy use of these wastes at affordable costs and reduces the environmental impact on scrap tires disposal. A theoretical assessment of the technical viability of TDF gasification for electric and thermal power generation, from the producer gas combustion in an internal combustion engine and in a gas turbine, was performed. The combustion of producer gas derived from the gasification of TDF in an internal combustion engine driving a generator (ICE-G) appears as the more efficient route for electricity generation when compared with the efficiency obtained with the use of gas turbine (GT-G). A higher global efficiency, considering the electric and thermal generation efficiency can be expected with the use of TDF producer gas in GT-G, where is expected an overall efficiency of 77.49%. The assessment shows that is possible produces up to 7.67MJ and 10.62MJ of electric and thermal energy per kilogram of TDF gasified using an ICE-G and up to 6.06MJ and 13.03MJ of electric and thermal energy respectively per kilogram of gasified TDF using a GT-G. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduction technique for tire contact problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1995-04-01

    A reduction technique and a computational procedure are presented for predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of the reduction technique, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface.

  8. Application of Recycled Sealing Oil of Mixer in Tire Flap%废密炼机转子密封油在轮胎垫带胶中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴克鹏; 杨兴云

    2014-01-01

    对混有炭黑、小料和混炼胶的废密炼机转子密封油(废机油)进行回收再利用,研究其在轮胎垫带胶中的应用。结果表明:废机油静置后分离出的上层澄清液体,以不大于4%的比例(质量含量)掺入芳烃油中,不影响芳烃油的正常使用;添加2份废机油中间层和下层分离产物,并调整加料顺序,试验配方胶料的加工性能和物理性能与生产配方相当,试验配方成品垫带的物理性能满足企业标准要求,停放后成品垫带表面无油污渗出,不变色,外观未出现异常现象。将废机油回收并用于芳烃油和垫带胶中,具有良好的经济效益和环保效应。%The waste sealing oil of mixer was recycled and applied in the tire lfap. The recycled oil contained carbon black, additives and some rubber compound. After allowed standing, the recycle oil was separated into clear oil in the upper layer and residue mixture in the middle and bottom layers. The upper layer clear oil was then added into aromatic oil and showed no negative effect on the normal use of the aromatic oil if the percentage of recycled oil did not exceed 4%. The residue mixture in the middle and bottom layers was applied in the tire lfap at the addition level of 2 phr. By adjusting the mixing process, the processing properties and physical properties of the rubber compound showed no change, and the performance of the ifnished lfap met the requirements of enterprise standard. The experimental results also showed that, there was no stain or oil bleed, no color change or appearance change after storage of the finished products. The application of recycled oil in the aromatic oil and the flap compound would deliver good economic and environmental beneifts.

  9. Effects of Crumb Rubber Size and Concentration on Performance of Porous Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altan Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of size distribution and concentration of crumb rubber on the performance characteristics of porous asphalt mixture. The recycling of scrap tires in asphalt pavements appears as an important alternative providing a large-scale market. The characteristics of bitumen are very important with regard to service life of porous asphalt pavement. The experimental study consists of two main steps. Firstly, the mixture design was performed to determine the optimum bitumen content. In the latter step, the mixtures were modified by dry process using crumb rubber in three different grain size distributions of #4~#20, #20~#200, and #4~#200 and rubber content of 10%, 15%, and 20% as weight of optimum bitumen. The permeability, Cantabro abrasion loss, indirect tensile strength, moisture susceptibility, and resilient modulus tests were carried out on the specimens. Test results show that #20~#200 sized rubber particles reduced air voids and coefficient of permeability, while they increased the Cantabro abrasion loss. In general, increasing the crumb rubber size and content decreased the performance characteristics of the porous asphalt mixtures.

  10. Residual stresses in rubber formed thermoplastic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, Remko; Brucato, V.

    2003-01-01

    The rubber pressing process is applied for the rapid production of thermoplastic composite products. However, rubber pressed products show geometrical distortions, such as warpage, due to processinduced residual stresses. An experimental study is performed to measure the curvature after rubber

  11. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.475 Tires and shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must...

  12. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed...

  13. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for tires. 1512.10 Section 1512... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.10 Requirements for tires. The manufacturer's recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less...

  14. Application of granulating of tires; Aplicaciones de granulado de NFUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    2001-07-01

    At present, used tires are mainly used as fuel, retreading and granulating of tires. In this article. I will focus on the last option, talking about some of the multiple applications and going into detail of the making process of the granulation of used tires in a recycling plant. (Author)

  15. Argentina Imp Anti-dumping Duties on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 22, Argentina made the final anti-dumping adjudication once tires from China; on July 6, the Argentina authorities released the No. 221 resolution in 2011 issued by the Ministry of Industry: Impose 23% anti-dumping duties off estate car tires, 10% on the tires of machinery or vehicles used for agriculture and forestation,

  16. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system. The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.

  17. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; ZhiCai

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system.  The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.  ……

  18. CRIA Sians A areement with Rubber Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The signing ceremony of establishing strategic partnership between China Rubber Industry Association and Rubber Valley Co., Ltd. was held in Rubber Valley on September 13. Leaders such as Xu Wenying, Deputy Secretary-General of CRIA, repre-senting CRIA, and Zhang Yan, Deputy Director of Rubber Valley Management Committee and General Manager of Rubber Valley Co., Ltd., representing Rubber Valley, signed on the cooperation agreement. Fan Rende, President of CRIA, Cai Quanji,

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE PROPERTIES OF ASPHALT MODIFIED WITH USED TIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufikayo Aderinlewo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the properties of asphalt mix modified with ground tire. The ground tire was introduced into the asphalt in a melted form at varying percentages of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by weight of the asphalt. The properties of the asphalt mixed with the ground tire were then obtained through penetration, softening point, flash and fire point and ductility tests. These properties were then compared with those of the control asphalt to determine the effectiveness of the ground tire in improving the asphalt properties. The results showed that the ground tire additive improved the asphalt properties considerably.

  20. Measuring service life and evaluating the quality of solid tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoenyut Dechwayukul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose procedures for measuring service life and evaluating the quality of locallymade and used solid tires in Thailand. The solid tires were stressed and rotated until blowout on a drum-like test apparatuswhich is designed, constructed by the authors and equipped with laboratory instrumentation. Solid tires from five differentmanufacturers were selected for testing. We measured service life, length of time to tire failure, at three different loadingamplitudes and three different speeds on the testing drum. The service life of all specimens was studied and compared todetermine the possibility of using service life to evaluate the quality of a solid tire.