WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste stabilization ponds

  1. Modeling Nitrogen Decrease in Water Lettuce Ponds from Waste Stabilization Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Gitta Agnes; Sunarsih

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents about the dynamic modeling of the Water Lettuce ponds as a form of improvement from the Water Hyacinth ponds. The purpose of this paper is to predict nitrogen decrease and nitrogen transformation in Water Lettuce ponds integrated with Waste Stabilization Ponds. The model consists of 4 mass balances, namely Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON), Particulate Organic Nitrogen (PON), ammonium (NH4+), Nitrate and Nitrite (NOx). The process of nitrogen transformation which considered in a Water Lettuce ponds, namely hydrolysis, mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, plant and bacterial uptake processes. Numerical simulations are performed by giving the values of parameters and the initial values of nitrogen compounds based on a review of previous studies. Numerical results show that the rate of change in the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the integration ponds of waste stabilization and water lettuce decreases and reaches stable at different times.

  2. Performance Of The Akosombo Waste Stabilization Ponds In Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the treatment performance of the Akosombo waste stabilization ponds and the effect of seasonal changes on the final effluent quality. The waste water quality parameters ... Une étude était entreprise pour déterminer le résultat de traitement de bassins de stabilisation du déchet d' ...

  3. Performance of municipal waste stabilization ponds in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragush, Colin M.; Schmidt, Jordan J.; Krkosek, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of small remote communities in the Canadian arctic territory of Nunavut utilize waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) for municipal wastewater treatment because of their relatively low capital and operational costs, and minimal complexity. New national effluent quality regulations have be...

  4. Stabilization of mixed waste - Rocky Flats solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, T.A.; Mathew, S.A.; Henderson, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Among the wastes that require disposal as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program are large amounts of contaminated sludge and inorganic wastes. Halliburton NUS Corporation was awarded a contract by EG ampersand G Rocky Flats in March 1991 to stabilize mixed waste sludge contained in five solar evaporator ponds and to reprocess billets of solidified waste called Pondcrete and Saltcrete at DOE's Rocky Flats Plant. The scope of the project consists of waste characterization and treatability studies for process development, followed by design, construction and operation of various process trains to remediate different waste forms ranging from solid Pondcrete/Saltcrete blocks to aqueous brine solutions. One of the significant advances made was the development of a durable and certifiable stabilization formulation capable of treating concentrated nitrate solution wastes. The project uses high-volume grout mixing and pumping technologies with process control techniques that accommodate the heterogeneity of the wastes. To comply with all relevant environmental regulations and to provide a safe working atmosphere for plant personnel, Halliburton NUS designed process trains such that all emissions were eliminated during the remediation process. Personnel protection equipment requirements have been downgraded due to safeguards incorporated in the design. The technical and regulatory issues that were encountered would be typical of stabilization efforts underway at other DOE sites. Thus the lessons learned and concepts developed can be expected to have widespread application

  5. Waste Stabilization Ponds and Aerated Lagoons Performance in Removal of Wastewater Indicator Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed ali Ghasemi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of two treatment plants in the City of Mashhad, one with an aerated lagoons system and the other one with waste stabilization ponds system were evaluated in regard to their efficiency in reduction of pathogenic microorganisms. For this purpose, over a period of one year (with 15-days intervals, samples were taken from the influent and effluent (prior to disinfection unit of the above mentioned treatment plants. The samples then were analyzed for parameters such as temperature, pH, density of total coliforms (TC and fecal coliforms (FC, dissolved oxygen and total suspended solids concentration. The results indicated that the aerated lagoons system was much more efficient in removal of indicator bacteria than the waste stabilization ponds during autumn and winter periods. However during the summer months, the waste stabilization ponds showed a higher efficiency in this regard. In general, the waste stabilization ponds system reduced the density of TC and FC by 0.21-2.15 log10 and 0.20-2.33 log10, respectively. In contrast, the levels of reduction in aerated lagoons system were in the range of 0.29-2.03 log10 for TC and 0.42-2.40 log10 for FC. Results indicated that solar intensity, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were found to be the most significant parameters that reduced the microorganisms population in waste stabilization ponds, While, in the aerated lagoons system, the dissolved oxygen concentration in aerated basin and solar intensity play the most important role. In general, without receiving an adequate disinfection, the effluent from waste stabilization ponds and aerated lagoons cannot provide the microbiological standards required for irrigation of agricultural crops.

  6. CFD analysis of sludge accumulation and hydraulic performance of a waste stabilization pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Andres; Sanchez, Esteban; Durazno, Galo; Vesvikar, Mehul; Nopens, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    Sludge management in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) is essential for safeguarding the system performance. Sludge accumulation patterns in WSPs are strongly influenced by the pond hydrodynamics. CFD modeling was applied to study the relation between velocity profiles and sludge deposition during 10 years of operation of the Ucubamba WSP in Cuenca (Ecuador). One tracer experiment was performed and three sludge accumulation scenarios based on bathymetric surveys were simulated. A residence time distribution (RTD) analysis illustrated the decrease of residence times due to sludge deposition. Sludge accumulation rates were calculated. The influence of flow pattern on the sludge deposition was studied, enabling better planning of future pond operation and desludging.

  7. Importance of waste stabilization ponds and wastewater irrigation in the generation of vector mosquitoes in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Ensink, Jeroen; Van der Hoek, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and wastewater-irrigated sites for the production of mosquitoes of medical importance. Mosquito larvae were collected fortnightly from July 2001 to June 2002 in Faisalabad, Pakistan. In total, 3......,132 water samples from WSP and irrigated areas yielded 606,053 Culex larvae of five species. In addition, 107,113 anophelines, representing eight species were collected. Anopheles subpictus (Grassi) and Culex mosquitoes, especially Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles), showed...... an overwhelming preference for anaerobic ponds, which receive untreated wastewater. Facultative ponds generated lower numbers of both Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, whereas the last ponds in the series, the maturation ponds, were the least productive for both mosquito genera. An. subpictus and Anopheles...

  8. Further contributions to the understanding of nitrogen removal in waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, R K X; Rios, E N; Sánchez, I A

    2018-06-01

    A set of experiments were conducted in Brazil in a pilot-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) system (a four-maturation-pond series) treating an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent. Over a year and a half the pond series was monitored under two flow rate conditions, hence also different hydraulic retention times and surface loading rates. On-site and laboratory trials were carried out to assess: (i) ammonia losses by volatilization using acrylic capture chambers placed at the surface of the ponds; (ii) organic nitrogen sedimentation rates using metal buckets placed at the bottom of the ponds for collecting settled particulate matter; (iii) nitrogen removal by algal uptake based on the nitrogen content of the suspended particulate matter in samples from the ponds' water column. In addition, nitrification and denitrification rates were measured in laboratory-based experiments using pond water and sediment samples. The pond system achieved high nitrogen removal (69% total nitrogen and 92% ammonia removal). The average total nitrogen removal rates varied from 10,098 to 3,849 g N/ha·d in the first and the last ponds, respectively, with the following fractions associated with the various removal pathways: (i) 23.5-45.6% sedimentation of organic nitrogen; (ii) 13.1-27.8% algal uptake; (iii) 1.2-3.1% ammonia volatilization; and (iv) 0.15-0.34% nitrification-denitrification.

  9. Assessment of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) efficiency on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This stage is essential for polishing water and nutrient as well as pathogen removal. There is need of frequent awareness campaign to a community for the reuse of wastewater for agriculture and its possible impacts. Ponds should be modified and addition of maturation ponds constructed. Further studies are required for ...

  10. Operational Limitations of Arctic Waste Stabilization Ponds: Insights from Modeling Oxygen Dynamics and Carbon Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragush, Colin M.; Gentleman, Wendy C.; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup

    2018-01-01

    Presented here is a mechanistic model of the biological dynamics of the photic zone of a single-cell arctic waste stabilization pond (WSP) for the prediction of oxygen concentration and the removal of oxygen-demanding substances. The model is an exploratory model to assess the limiting environmen...

  11. A Closer Look on Spatiotemporal Variations of Dissolved Oxygen in Waste Stabilization Ponds Using Mixed Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved oxygen is an essential controlling factor in the performance of facultative and maturation ponds since both take many advantages of algal photosynthetic oxygenation. The rate of this photosynthesis strongly depends on the time during the day and the location in a pond system, whose roles have been overlooked in previous guidelines of pond operation and maintenance (O&M. To elucidate these influences, a linear mixed effect model (LMM was built on the data collected from three intensive sampling campaigns in a waste stabilization pond in Cuenca, Ecuador. Within two parallel lines of facultative and maturation ponds, nine locations were sampled at two depths in each pond. In general, the output of the mixed model indicated high spatial autocorrelations of data and wide spatiotemporal variations of the oxygen level among and within the ponds. Particularly, different ponds showed different patterns of oxygen dynamics, which were associated with many factors including flow behavior, sludge accumulation, algal distribution, influent fluctuation, and pond function. Moreover, a substantial temporal change in the oxygen level between day and night, from zero to above 20 mg O2·L−1, was observed. Algal photosynthetic activity appeared to be the main reason for these variations in the model, as it was facilitated by intensive solar radiation at high altitude. Since these diurnal and spatial patterns can supply a large amount of useful information on pond performance, insightful recommendations on dissolved oxygen (DO monitoring and regulations were delivered. More importantly, as a mixed model showed high predictive performance, i.e., high goodness-of-fit (R2 of 0.94, low values of mean absolute error, we recommended this advanced statistical technique as an effective tool for dealing with high autocorrelation of data in pond systems.

  12. Cadmium tolerance and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sova; Das, T K; Avila, C; Cabello, V; Castillo, F; Sarkar, D; Lahiri, Susmita; Jana, B B

    2012-04-01

    The incidence pattern of cadmium tolerance and antibiotics resistance by Escherichia coli was examined periodically from the samples of water, sludge and intestine of fish raised in waste stabilization ponds in a sewage treatment plant. Samples of water and sludge were collected from all the selected ponds and were monitored for total counts of fecal coliform (FC), total coliform (TC) and the population of Escherichia coli, which was also obtained from the intestine of fishes. Total counts of both FC and TC as well as counts of E. coli were markedly reduced from the facultative pond to the last maturation pond. Tolerance limit to cadmium by E. coli tended to decline as the distance of the sewage effluent from the source increased; the effective lethal concentration of cadmium ranged from 0.1 mM in split chamber to 0.05 mM in first maturation pond. E. coli isolated from water, sludge and fish gut were sensitive to seven out of ten antibiotics tested. It appears that holistic functions mediated through the mutualistic growth of micro algae and heterotrophic bacteria in the waste stabilization ponds were responsible for the promotion of water quality and significant reduction of coliform along the sewage effluent gradient.

  13. The removal of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate using a series of shallow waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, V D; Pearson, H W; de Sousa, J T; Lopes, W S; de Luna, M L D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a shallow (0.5 m deep) waste stabilization pond series to remove high concentrations of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate. The pond system was located at EXTRABES, Campina Grande, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. The pond series was fed with sanitary landfill leachate transported by road tanker to the experimental site from the sanitary landfill of the City of Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. The ammoniacal-N surface loading on the first pond of the series was equivalent to 364 kg ha(-1) d(-1) and the COD surface loading equivalent to 3,690 kg ha(-1) d(-1). The maximum mean ammonia removal efficiency was 99.5% achieved by the third pond in the series which had an effluent concentration of 5.3 mg L(-1) ammoniacal-N for an accumulative HRT of 39.5 days. The removal process was mainly attributed to ammonia volatilization (stripping) from the pond surfaces as a result of high surface pH values and water temperatures of 22-26°C. Shallow pond systems would appear to be a promising technology for stripping ammonia from landfill leachate under tropical conditions.

  14. Waste Stabilisation Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Waste Stabilisation Ponds is the third volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The major variants of pond systems are fully covered, namely: facultative ponds anaerobic ponds aerated lagoons maturation ponds The book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects, operational guidelines and sludge managment for pond systems. About the series: The series is...

  15. EVALUATING THE ECOLOGICAL RESILIENT DRIVEN PERFORMANCE OF A TROPICAL WASTE STABILIZATION POND SYSTEM USING ECOLOGICAL SIGNATURE OF BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Lahiri Ganguly; Dipanwita Sarkar Paria; B. B. Jana

    2015-01-01

    Using ecological signature of biological integrity as a measure of performance, the reclamation efficiency of waste stabilization ponds was evaluated over a period of four years in a tropical sewage treatment plant – cum fish culture consisting of two anaerobic, two facultative and four maturation ponds located serially across the sewage effluent gradient. The four maturation ponds were used for batch culture of fish. Samples of surface and bottom water as well as surface sediment were collec...

  16. Algal Growth and Waste Stabilization Ponds Performance Efficiency in a Sub-Tropical Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, A.; Khan, M. A.; Shaukat, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Both irrigation and potable water are in diminutive supply in most of the developing countries particularly those situated in tropical and subtropical regions where, often untreated wastewater is utilized for the purpose of irrigation. Treated wastewater has proved to be a potential asset serving as an alternate source for the expansion of irrigated agriculture. Waste stabilization ponds (WSP) are considered as less costly and effective substitute for the wastewater water treatment in tropics. The principle of wastewater treatment in waste stabilization pond is based on the symbiotic relationship between bacteria and various algal species. In this study, an attempt was made to relate algal growth and different extrinsic factors using multiple regression models. The predominant algal species found in WSP systems were Chlorella, Euglena, Oscillatoria and Scenedesmus. The growth of individual algal species and overall algal growth was principally governed by temperature, total sunshine hours and Total Kjeldhal Nitrogen (TKN). The study suggested that algal bacterial symbiotic relationship works well and the dissolved oxygen production through algal photosynthesis was optimum to decompose heavy organic load resulting in oxygen-rich effluent (liquid fertilizer) which could be successfully exploited for unrestricted irrigation. (author)

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS IN REMOVAL OF LINEAR ALKYL BENZENE SALFONATE (LAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed. M. Abdel-Rahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detergents contain synthetic or organic surface active agents called surfactants, which are derived from petroleum product precursors. They have the common property of lowering the surface tensions of water thus allowing dirt or grease adhered to various articles to be washed off. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS is a most commonly used anionic surfactant. Discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing this chemical substance into the environment causes major public health and enviromental problems. In this study, samples were taken from raw wastewater and effluents of treatment ponds of Elzaraby waste stabilization ponds over a period of one year. The treated effluent is either discharged into surface waters or re-used in agricultural irrigation. The samples were analyzed according to the standard methods. The results obtained from the samples taken in different seasons showed that the highest overall removal efficiency of LAS was achieved in summer season (77%, and the least efficiency was observed in Winter season (55%, while the maximum overall efficiency of BOD5 was in summer (88% and minimum efficiency was (73% in winter season. The Dissolved oxygen concentrations along the pond series (DO ranged from 0.18 to 4.8 mg/l.

  18. Application of waste stabilization pond's effluent on cultivation of roses (rosa damascena mill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Shaukat, S.; Shahzad, A.; Ahmed, W.

    2011-01-01

    The study focuses on the use of Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP) effluent for irrigation and also aims to compare the efficiency of effluent with the Hoagland solution. Results revealed that the number of flowers, size of flower and the petals per flower increased by the use of both Hoagland solution and treated effluent while the height of plant and the fresh weight of flowers were increased significantly by the Hoagland solution only. Moreover, the leaves showed high concentration of reducing and non-reducing sugars as compared to flowers whereas, only the leaves of plants which were treated by the ponds effluent had low content of reducing sugars as compared to leaves of untreated plants serving as controls. The variation in chlorophyll content was similar to that of reducing and non-reducing sugars. In addition, leaves of plants that were treated by pond's effluent showed highest concentration of total phenol content. It is concluded that treated effluent is as effective as Hoagland for the irrigation of rose. Additionally, the use of treated effluent for irrigation reduces the demand of fresh water and the use of inorganic fertilizers for the commercial production of roses. (author)

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS IN REMOVAL OF LINEAR ALKYL BENZENE SALFONATE (LAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed. M. Abdel-Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detergents contain synthetic or organic surface active agents called surfactants, which are derived from petroleum product precursors. They have the common property of lowering the surface tensions of water thus allowing dirt or grease adhered to various articles to be washed off. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS is a most commonly used anionic surfactant. Discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing this chemical substance into the environment causes major public health and enviromental problems. In this study, samples were taken from raw wastewater and effluents of treatment ponds of Elzaraby waste stabilization ponds over a period of one year. The treated effluent is either discharged into surface waters or re-used in agricultural irrigation. The samples were analyzed according to the standard methods. The results obtained from the samples taken in different seasons showed that the highest overall removal efficiency of LAS was achieved in summer season (77%, and the least efficiency was observed in Winter season (55%, while the maximum overall efficiency of BOD5 was in summer (88% and minimum efficiency was (73% in winter season. The Dissolved oxygen concentrations along the pond series (DO ranged from 0.18 to 4.8 mg/l.

  20. Two-step upflow anaerobic sludge bed system for sewage treatment under subtropical conditions with posttreatment in waste stabilization ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghezzo, L.; Trupiano, A.P.; Liberal, V.; Todd, P.G.; Figueroa, M.E.; Gutierrez, M.A.; Silva Wilches, Da A.C.; Iribarnegaray, M.; Guerra, R.G.; Arena, A.; Cuevas, C.M.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    A pilot-scale sewage treatment system consisting of two upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors followed by five waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in series was studied under subtropical conditions. The first UASB reactor started up in only 1 mo (stable operation, high chemical oxygen demand

  1. EVALUATING THE ECOLOGICAL RESILIENT DRIVEN PERFORMANCE OF A TROPICAL WASTE STABILIZATION POND SYSTEM USING ECOLOGICAL SIGNATURE OF BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Lahiri Ganguly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using ecological signature of biological integrity as a measure of performance, the reclamation efficiency of waste stabilization ponds was evaluated over a period of four years in a tropical sewage treatment plant – cum fish culture consisting of two anaerobic, two facultative and four maturation ponds located serially across the sewage effluent gradient. The four maturation ponds were used for batch culture of fish. Samples of surface and bottom water as well as surface sediment were collected twice a month from different ponds of the system and examined for some nutrient cycling bacteria, primary production, chlorophyll content of micro-algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton abundance, fish growth and water quality parameters. Computation of ecological signature using aerobic mineralization index for heterotrophic and ammonifying bacteria revealed steady increase across the sewage effluent gradient. The heterotrophic and ammonifying bacterial populations appeared to have a direct function with the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand of water. The sum of total scores for different optimal conditions for fish growth increased as a function of the distance from the source of effluent implying that ecological resilience of the waste stabilization ponds has been accomplished by the sedimentation, chelation, and biological functional attributes mediated through redundancy of different subsystems, self- purification capacity of the system as a whole.

  2. The removal of thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria by immobilized waste stabilization pond algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, H W; Marcon, A E; Melo, H N

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of laboratory- scale columns of immobilized micro-algae to disinfect effluents using thermo-tolerant coliforms (TTC) as a model system. Cells of a Chlorella species isolated from a waste stabilization pond complex in Northeast Brazil were immobilized in calcium alginate, packed into glass columns and incubated in contact with TTC suspensions for up to 24 hours. Five to six log removals of TTC were achieved in 6 hours and 11 log removals in 12 hours contact time. The results were similar under artificial light and shaded sunlight. However little or no TTC removal occurred in the light in columns of alginate beads without immobilized algae present or when the immobilized algae were incubated in the dark suggesting that the presence of both algae and light were necessary for TTC decay. There was a positive correlation between K(b) values for TTC and increasing pH in the effluent from the immobilized algal columns within the range pH 7.2 and 8.9. The potential of immobilized algal technology for wastewater disinfection may warrant further investigation.

  3. Modeling Nitrogen Dynamics in a Waste Stabilization Pond System Using Flexible Modeling Environment with MCMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Hussnain; Lin, Yu-Pin; Shipin, Oleg V; Petway, Joy R

    2017-07-12

    This study presents an approach for obtaining realization sets of parameters for nitrogen removal in a pilot-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) system. The proposed approach was designed for optimal parameterization, local sensitivity analysis, and global uncertainty analysis of a dynamic simulation model for the WSP by using the R software package Flexible Modeling Environment (R-FME) with the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Additionally, generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) was integrated into the FME to evaluate the major parameters that affect the simulation outputs in the study WSP. Comprehensive modeling analysis was used to simulate and assess nine parameters and concentrations of ON-N, NH₃-N and NO₃-N. Results indicate that the integrated FME-GLUE-based model, with good Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients (0.53-0.69) and correlation coefficients (0.76-0.83), successfully simulates the concentrations of ON-N, NH₃-N and NO₃-N. Moreover, the Arrhenius constant was the only parameter sensitive to model performances of ON-N and NH₃-N simulations. However, Nitrosomonas growth rate, the denitrification constant, and the maximum growth rate at 20 °C were sensitive to ON-N and NO₃-N simulation, which was measured using global sensitivity.

  4. Disinfection and removal of human pathogenic bacteria in arctic waste stabilization ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yannan; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Ragush, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) are commonly used to treat municipal wastewater in Arctic Canada. The biological treatment in the WSPs is strongly influenced by climatic conditions. Currently, there is limited information about the removal of fecal and pathogenic bacteria during the short...... cool summer treatment season. With relevance to public health, the objectives of this paper were to determine if treatment in arctic WSPs resulted in the disinfection (i.e., removal of fecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli) and removal of selected human bacterial pathogens from the treated...... treatment of the wastewater with a 2–3 Log removal of generic indicator E. coli. The bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp., pathogenic E. coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, but not Campylobacter spp. and Helicobacter pylori, were detected in the untreated and treated wastewater, indicating that human...

  5. Removal of Chromium and Cadmium from Wastewater in Waste Stabilization Ponds, Yazd-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Samaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals have destructive and irreversible effects on the human, plants and animals. Some industries in Yazd enter industrial wastewater to municipal wastewater collection system. This can lead to high levels of heavy metals in wastewater and in turn in the wastewater treatment plant effluent. Methods: This study was carried out during four months from December 22, 2009 to May 20, 2010. The experiment was performed on the inflow, outlet of anaerobic pond and first and second facultative ponds of wastewater treatment plant and then transferred to the laboratory and measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: The results of the experiments showed that the average cadmium concentrations in the inflow, anaerobic pond outlet, and first and second facultative pond outlet were 0.0066, 0.0087, 0.0076, and 0.0083μg/l, respectively. The average amounts of chromium in the inflow, anaerobic pond outlet, and first and second facultative pond outlet were 0.0076, 0.0065, 0.0043, and 0.0056 μg/l, respectively. Cadmium concentration in the effluent was higher than standard. Conclusion: The comparison of the obtained data with Iranian standards for wastewater treatment for reuse in irrigation shows that the cadmium concentration exceeded the standard and the chromium concentration was lower than the standard. Therefore, it is not suitable for reuse in the crop farms and aquatic life

  6. Evaluation of waste stabilization ponds effluent efficiency on the growth and nutritive characteristics of cluster beans (cyamopsis tetragonoloba l.) taub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Shaukat, S.S.; Alamgir, A.; Hasan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    South Asian countries including Pakistan are facing chronic shortage of water supply which is anticipated to be aggravated in future. These countries are agribased where the continued water supply is crucial for sustainable economy. One of the possible alternatives to overcome the problems of water scarcity is the used of treated wastewater which is gaining much importance even in the western world. The treated wastewater can be used as a liquid fertilizer which could provide dual benefits both in terms of saving of fresh water as well as inorganic fertilizers. The potential of treated effluent from waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and equivalent basal fertilizer on growth and nutritive quality of cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) Taub. was investigated under field conditions. Treated effluent significantly increased fresh weight of leaves and stems. Dry weight of stem was also significantly higher with the treatment of WSP effluent as compared to the use of basal fertilizer and fresh water. Fresh and dry fruit weights, number of seeds per fruit and fruit length were also significantly increased in WSP effluent treatment as compared to other two treatments. Treatment with WSP effluent also improved the nutritive characteristics such as crude proteins and total carbohydrates. However, total fat and ash content percentage of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba remained unaltered. The application of WSP effluent also increased NPK and organic matter content of the soil after harvesting the crop which would be helpful for succeeding crop. The study demonstrated that treated effluent can be successfully used for unrestricted irrigation in the water deficient areas of Pakistan thereby saving huge quantities of fresh water. (author)

  7. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbyla, M.E., E-mail: verbylam@mail.usf.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL (United States); Iriarte, M.M.; Mercado Guzmán, A.; Coronado, O.; Almanza, M. [Centro de Aguas y Saneamiento Ambiental, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Mihelcic, J.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10 years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1 mL g{sup −1} for coliphage, between 1 and 100 mL g{sup −1} for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000 mL g{sup −1} for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. - Highlights: • Study of health risks from reclaimed wastewater irrigation from aging pond systems • Coliphages, protozoan parasites, and helminths were measured in water/soil/crops. • Sludge accumulation in

  8. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbyla, M.E.; Iriarte, M.M.; Mercado Guzmán, A.; Coronado, O.; Almanza, M.; Mihelcic, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10 years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1 mL g"−"1 for coliphage, between 1 and 100 mL g"−"1 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000 mL g"−"1 for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. - Highlights: • Study of health risks from reclaimed wastewater irrigation from aging pond systems • Coliphages, protozoan parasites, and helminths were measured in water/soil/crops. • Sludge accumulation in ponds may limit

  9. Removal of fecal indicators and pathogens in a waste stabilization pond system treating municipal wastewater in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Kazmi, A A; Chopra, A K

    2008-11-01

    This study assess the removal of fecal indicators (i.e., total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, fecal streptococci, and pathogens [Salmonella sp. and helminth eggs]) in a full-scale facultative and maturation pond system with primary screening and manual grit removal facility. The capacity of the plant is 6 ML/d. The results showed that the system was able to remove approximately 2.0 to 3.5 log units of fecal indicators and almost 100% of helminth eggs. Meanwhile, Salmonella was not eliminated significantly, as only 1.26 log units removal was found. Removal efficiency of fecal indicator bacteria was reported maximum during summers (3.4 to 4.0 log units) and minimum (1.9 to 2.0 log units) in winters. Further efforts were made to seek the correlation between key physicochemical wastewater quality parameters (biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and suspended solids) and indicator microorganisms (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci). Among all these parameters, suspended solids showed the highest correlation coefficient (r2) with total coliforms (0.79), fecal coliforms (0.78), and fecal streptococci (0.75). These correlations manifest that the improvement of microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of suspended solids.

  10. Avifauna of waste ponds ERDA Hanford Reservation, Benton County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.

    1975-06-01

    The presence of small ponds on the Hanford 200 Area plateau provides attractive habitats for birds. During a 29-month period, 126 bird species were observed utilizing these ponds, their associated vegetation, and air space. Waterfowls are the important agents of dispersal of radionuclides from waste ponds based on food habits, abundance, migratory habits, and importance as food in the diet of people. Abundance, long residence time, and food habits identify the American coot as the single most important species to be considered in the biological dispersal of radionuclides from waste ponds. (U.S.)

  11. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero, whereas...... the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the shallow ponds....

  12. Rapid Sand Filtration for Best Practical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Stabilization Pond Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, D. T.; Lawrence, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a rapid sand filtration sewage treatment system as an adjunct to a waste water stabilization pond is investigated. The study concludes that such units are within the technical and economic constraints of a small community and comply with the EPA criteria. (BT)

  13. Mechanisms for parasites removal in a waste stabilisation pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Roberto; Blanco, Saúl; Torres-Villamizar, Linda A; Bécares, Eloy

    2011-04-01

    A waste stabilisation pond (WSP) system formed by two anaerobic ponds, a facultative pond and a maturation pond was studied from December 2003 to September 2004 in north-western Spain in order to evaluate its efficiency in the removal of faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci), coliphages, helminth eggs and protozoan (oo)cysts (Cryptosporidium and Giardia). Furthermore, sediment samples were collected from the bottom of the ponds to assess the settling rates and thus determine the main pathogen removal mechanisms in the WSPs system. The overall removal ranged from 1.4 log units for coliphages in the cold period to 5.0 log units for E. coli in the hot period. Cryptosporidium oocysts were reduced by an average of 96%, Giardia cysts by 98% and helminth eggs by 100%. The anaerobic ponds showed significantly higher surface removal rates (4.6, 5.2 and 3.7 log (oo)cysts/eggs removed m(-2) day(-1), respectively) than facultative and maturation ponds. Sunlight and water physicochemical conditions were the main factors influencing C. parvum oocysts removal both in the anaerobic and maturation ponds, whereas other factors like predation or natural mortality were more important in the facultative pond. Sedimentation, the most commonly proposed mechanism for cyst removal had, therefore, a negligible influence in the studied ponds.

  14. Wastewater stabilization ponds - an appropriate technology for sewage treatment and refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Treatment of wastewater is imperative to protect human health and environmental quality. To this effect, the chosen technology should be cost effective, simple and easy to operate and maintain. Wastewater stabilization ponds offer one such technology and their use should be promoted in countries with scarcity of water so as to reuse the treated effluents in irrigation. Long term, pilot scale investigations on the performance of wastewater stabilization ponds have been undertaken at the Institute of Environmental Engineering and Research, Lahore to develop design criteria for their local use. This paper discuss the types and operation of waste stabilization ponds and the extent of their application in Pakistan. The need for users' education for effective operation of this simple facility is also emphasized. (author)

  15. Stabilization of compactible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Seal Formation Mechanism Beneath Animal Waste Holding Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, A.; Tyner, J. S.; Wright, W. C.

    2005-12-01

    Infiltration of animal waste from holding ponds can cause contamination of groundwater. Typically, the initial flux from a pond decreases rapidly as a seal of animal waste particulates is deposited at the base of the pond. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the seal formation. Twenty-four soil columns (10-cm diameter by 43-cm long) were hand-packed with sand, silty loam or clay soils. A 2.3 m column of dairy or swine waste was applied to the top of the each column. The leakage rate from each column was measured with respect to time to analyze the effect of seal formation on different soil textures and animal waste types. We tested our hypothesis that seal growth and the subsequent decrease of leachate production adheres to a filter cake growth model. Said model predicts that the cumulative leakage rate is proportional to the square root of time and to the square root of the height of the waste.

  17. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  18. The survey of biological absorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Wastewater stabilization pond algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nourisepehr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of aquatic habitats due to toxicity and accumulation of heavy metals leading to serious damage to organisms and their advance to the food chain. Chrome is one of these heavy metals for the three and six-valence oxides used in industry. Health risks such as carcinogenic hexavalent chromium have been For this reason, removal and reduction of environment is essential. Target of this study hexavalent chromium biosorption by waste stabilization pond algae is of the aquatic environment. Methods: This study was a fundamental applied; In this batch reactor, variables Was investigated pH(3,5,7,9,11, Contact time(30,60,120,180,240,300min, The concentration of hexavalent chromium(0.5,1,5mg And the concentration of algae(0.25, 0.5, 1, 3g. Liquid mixed municipal wastewater treatment stabilization pond was used for insemination. For the investigate the effects of variables pH, contact time, the concentration of hexavalent chromium values in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask prepared and various amounts of dried algae (0.25-0.5-1- 3 g were added to it. Then became the shakers. After mixing, the filter paper was passed. The lab temperature was centrifuged for min10-5 rpm 2700 rpm. Then it was read at a wavelength absorbed by 540 nm. . Then collected was data to Excel and SPSS software. Finally was used for hexavalent chromium adsorption isotherm model equation of Langmuir and Freundlich. Results: This study shows that PH, contact time, the concentration of hexavalent chromium and chromium concentrations of algae optimal absorption by algae concentrations, respectively, in5 mg / l, min 120, 0.5 mg / l and is 1gr. Average maximum absorption of chromium Wastewater stabilization ponds by algae 97/2%, respectively. Correlation coefficients absorption curves of these models showed that Cr (VI adsorption isotherm on wastewater stabilization pond algae follows (= R.  Conclusion: The results showed that wastewater stabilization pond algae as a

  19. Facultative Stabilization Pond: Measuring Biological Oxygen Demand using Mathematical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wira S, Ihsan; Sunarsih, Sunarsih

    2018-02-01

    Pollution is a man-made phenomenon. Some pollutants which discharged directly to the environment could create serious pollution problems. Untreated wastewater will cause contamination and even pollution on the water body. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation by bacteria. The higher the BOD concentration, the greater the organic matter would be. The purpose of this study was to predict the value of BOD contained in wastewater. Mathematical modeling methods were chosen in this study to depict and predict the BOD values contained in facultative wastewater stabilization ponds. Measurements of sampling data were carried out to validate the model. The results of this study indicated that a mathematical approach can be applied to predict the BOD contained in the facultative wastewater stabilization ponds. The model was validated using Absolute Means Error with 10% tolerance limit, and AME for model was 7.38% (< 10%), so the model is valid. Furthermore, a mathematical approach can also be applied to illustrate and predict the contents of wastewater.

  20. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Riemath, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples

  1. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. James Davis

    1999-12-18

    The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

  2. The Distribution of Microalgae in a Stabilization Pond System of a Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Tropical Environment (Case Study: Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herto Dwi Ariesyady

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP serves to treat domestic wastewater originating from Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. An abundant amount of nutrients as a result of waste decomposition increases the number of microalgae populations present in the pond of the wastewater treatment plant, thereby causing a population explosion of microalgae, also called algal blooming. In a stabilization pond system, the presence of algal blooming is not desirable because it can decrease wastewater treatment performance. More knowledge about the relationship between the nutrients concentration and algae blooming conditions, such as microalgae diversity, is needed to control and maintain the performance of the wastewater treatment plant. Therefore this study was conducted, in order to reveal the diversity of microalgae in the stabilization pond system and its relationship with the water characteristics of the comprising ponds. The results showed that the water quality in the stabilization pond system of Bojongsoang WWTP supported rapid growth of microalgae, where most rapid microbial growth occurred in the anaerobic pond. The microalgae diversity in the stabilization ponds was very high, with various morphologies, probably affiliated with blue-green algae, green algae, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and diatoms. This study has successfully produced information on microalgae diversity and abundance profiles in a stabilization pond system.

  3. Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

    A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

  4. Sydney Tar Ponds: Some problems in quantifying toxic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials of concern include BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), and particulates laden with toxic metals, such as arsenic, lead, and others. The originally nontoxic materials such as soil, blast furnace slag, and vegetation, as well as surface and ground waters, which were subsequently contaminated, must also be included if they fail tests prescribed by environmental regulations. An extensive sampling program must be undertaken to obtain data for an accurate estimate of the waste to be cleaned and disposed of. Apparently, 700,000 tons of toxic waste which is believed to be present on the site, may represent only a fraction of the actual amount. The clean-up of the site is only part of the solution. Toxic waste has to be disposed of in accordance with environmental regulations.

  5. Sydney tar ponds: some problems in quantifying toxic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Edward

    2002-12-01

    Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials of concern include BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), and particulates laden with toxic metals, such as arsenic, lead, and others. The originally nontoxic materials such as soil, blast furnace slag, and vegetation, as well as surface and ground waters, which were subsequently contaminated, must also be included if they fail tests prescribed by environmental regulations. An extensive sampling program must be undertaken to obtain data for an accurate estimate of the waste to be cleaned and disposed of. Apparently, 700,000 tons of toxic waste, which is believed to be present on the site, may represent only a fraction of the actual amount. The clean-up of the site is only part of the solution. Toxic waste has to be disposed of in accordance with environmental regulations.

  6. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Remediation of the low-level radioactive waste tailing pond at Kowary, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerner, R.; Hartsch, J.; Koszela, J.; Krzyskow, A.; Machniewicz, B.; Sennewald, R.; Sowa, J.

    2002-03-01

    The last remaining uranium mining tailing pond in Poland, situated at Kowary, was the subject of the Kowary Tailing Pond Remediation Programme financed by Polish public bodies (70%) and by the European Commission (30%) within the framework of its programme of co-operation on radioactive waste issues with candidate countries. The EC-part of the project comprised investigations of the site, project management duties and large-scale civil works following the initial remediation planning performed by the Wroclaw University of Technology (WUT) in 1998-2000. The EC-part was contracted to G.E.O.S. Freiberg Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH following an Open Call for Tender launched by the European Commission in 1999. The following general tasks were performed in close co-operation with WUT, with the construction works subcontracted to local companies, as proposed in the Terms of Reference (TOR) of the EC-part: review of General Remediation Plan (GRP), technical design of the pond cover, construction work: internal drainage system, pond cover and site reclamation. From the information in the TOR, the following aims of remediation were defined: minimise the detrimental impact of the tailing pond on the environment, provide long-term stability of the slopes surrounding the pond, ensure the remediated site is in harmony with the surrounding natural scenery. Based on the experience gathered in similar projects, which had been running under PHARE-MCE or which belonged to the WISMUT-remediation programme in Germany, cost efficient remediation solutions were designed in close co-operation with all involved parties. They were delineated in the detailed planning documents approved in the overall remediation programme managed by WUT. The planned remediation works were prepared and performed successfully according to Polish law and in agreement with the competent local authorities. The aims of remediation were met. However, some additional tasks have been recommended in zones adjacent to the

  8. Remediation of the low-level radioactive waste tailing pond in Kowary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waclawek, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The town of Kowary was the centre of uranium mining activities in Poland. The headquarters of the uranium mining company ZPR-1 (Zaklady Przemyslowe R-1) were located there, as it was the only uranium processing plant in Poland. Mining in Uranium in Poland ceased in 1963, but processing of low-grade dumps was continued in Kowary until 1972. As a result of these processing activities, a significant volume of wastes was produced and the tailings pond in Kowary was constructed to accommodate these wastes. The tailings pond covers an area of 1,3 ha. It is a hydrotechnical construction closed on three sides by a dam, which has been modified a number of times over the years. It is now 300 m long (the sum of the three sides)m with a maximum height of 12 m, and is at the limits of the geotechnical stability. As a result of the uranium processing activities, the tailings pond was filled with about 2,5 x 10 5 t of disposed fine-grained gneisses and schists containing about 4,5 t of uranium and about 440 GBq of radium (from processing of uranium ores). A prompt remedial action in this case is particularly necessary because the tailings pond is located in a steep mountainous valley where the local climate involves rapid summer rains with heavy erosion. The nearest buildings in the town of Kowary are located literally at the foot of the 12 m high dam and private gardens extend onto the dam slope. The urgency has recently been demonstrated during the flood of summer 1997 when the base of the dam eroded. In the early seventies, Wroclaw University of Technology (WUT) received, by a governmental decision, ownership of both the area and the facilities of the former uranium mining company ZPR-1. Subsequently, the company Hydromet, Ltd., owned by WUT, has continued to use the existing chemical plant for the various experimental processes of rare (radioactive) metals, chemical production and galvanic processes. As a result, 30 t of mixed heavy metals and 300 t of the remnants from the

  9. Cyanobacterial and microcystins dynamics following the application of hydrogen peroxide to waste stabilisation ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, D. J.; Ghadouani, A.; Ivey, G. N.

    2013-06-01

    Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are a risk to human and ecological health, and a hindrance to biological wastewater treatment. This study investigated the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the removal of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins from within waste stabilization ponds (WSPs). The daily dynamics of cyanobacteria and microcystins (commonly occurring cyanotoxins) were examined following the addition of H2O2 to wastewater within both the laboratory and at the full scale within a maturation WSP, the final pond in a wastewater treatment plant. Hydrogen peroxide treatment at concentrations ≥ 0.1 mg H2O2 μg-1 total phytoplankton chlorophyll a led to the lysis of cyanobacteria, in turn releasing intracellular microcystins to the dissolved state. In the full-scale trial, dissolved microcystins were then degraded to negligible concentrations by H2O2 and environmental processes within five days. A shift in the phytoplankton assemblage towards beneficial Chlorophyta species was also observed within days of H2O2 addition. However, within weeks, the Chlorophyta population was significantly reduced by the re-establishment of toxic cyanobacterial species. This re-establishment was likely due to the inflow of cyanobacteria from ponds earlier in the treatment train, suggesting that whilst H2O2 may be a suitable short-term management technique, it must be coupled with control over inflows if it is to improve WSP performance in the longer term.

  10. Cyanobacterial and microcystins dynamics following the application of hydrogen peroxide to waste stabilisation ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Barrington

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are a risk to human and ecological health, and a hindrance to biological wastewater treatment. This study investigated the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 for the removal of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins from within waste stabilization ponds (WSPs. The daily dynamics of cyanobacteria and microcystins (commonly occurring cyanotoxins were examined following the addition of H2O2 to wastewater within both the laboratory and at the full scale within a maturation WSP, the final pond in a wastewater treatment plant. Hydrogen peroxide treatment at concentrations ≥ 0.1 mg H2O2 μg−1 total phytoplankton chlorophyll a led to the lysis of cyanobacteria, in turn releasing intracellular microcystins to the dissolved state. In the full-scale trial, dissolved microcystins were then degraded to negligible concentrations by H2O2 and environmental processes within five days. A shift in the phytoplankton assemblage towards beneficial Chlorophyta species was also observed within days of H2O2 addition. However, within weeks, the Chlorophyta population was significantly reduced by the re-establishment of toxic cyanobacterial species. This re-establishment was likely due to the inflow of cyanobacteria from ponds earlier in the treatment train, suggesting that whilst H2O2 may be a suitable short-term management technique, it must be coupled with control over inflows if it is to improve WSP performance in the longer term.

  11. Sulfur bacteria in wastewater stabilization ponds periodically affected by the ‘red-water’ phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belila, A.; Abbas, B.; Fazaa, I.; Saidi, N.; Snoussi, M.; Hassen, A.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Several wastewater stabilization ponds (WSP) in Tunisia suffer periodically from the ‘red-water’ phenomenon due to blooming of purple sulfur bacteria, indicating that sulfur cycle is one of the main element cycles in these ponds. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity of the El

  12. Sulfur bacteria in wastewater stabilization ponds periodically affected by the 'red-water' phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belila, A.; Abbas, B.; Fazaa, I.; Saidi, N.; Snoussi, M.; Hassen, A.; Muyzer, G.

    2013-01-01

    Several wastewater stabilization ponds (WSP) in Tunisia suffer periodically from the ‘red-water’ phenomenon due to blooming of purple sulfur bacteria, indicating that sulfur cycle is one of the main element cycles in these ponds. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity of the El

  13. Plankton biomass in secondary ponds treating piggery waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Barthel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the plankton biomass found in a piggery waste treatment system, composed of a high rate algal pond (HRAP, two maturation ponds (MP1, MP2 (System A and a water hyacinth pond (WHP (System B. The ponds were disposed in series and the study was performed for 32 weeks. The physicochemical variables monitored were: pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, soluble chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen compounds and total phosphorus. The plankton biomass was identified at genus level and the ecology index was calculated so as to describe its development in the ponds. Results showed lower specific richness, which was associated to the mono-specific Chlorella sp population. The protozoa density was conversely proportional to the green algae density. The higher species diversity occurred in the WHP and MP2. The green algae presented high relative density (>97 %. The Jaccard index reached 100% if Chlorella sp and sometimes diatoms were found in the system's inlet and outlet. The productivity of algal biomass was lower than 10 gTSS/m²/d in the maturation ponds, which was maintained in the HRAP. The green algae coefficient of variation (CV varied from 0 to 1.5 in the HRAP and WHP, but was constant at 0.9 to the 10th week in MP1 and around 0.5 during all the experimental period for MP2. For the chlorophyll a, this coefficient varied in all the ponds.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biomassa do plâncton encontrado em um sistema de tratamento de dejetos suínos, formado por uma série de lagoas. Foram monitoradas 1 lagoa de alta taxa (LAT, 2 lagoas de maturação (LM1, LM2 (sistema A e 1 lagoa de aguapés (LAG (sistema B, durante 32 semanas, por meio de variáveis físico-químicas tais como pH, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, demanda química de oxigênio, compostos nitrogenados e fósforo total. Igualmente, foram feitas identificações da biomassa planctônica, a nível de gênero, e calculados índices ecológicos que

  14. Disinfection of stabilization pond effluent by peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Rezania

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The study demonstrated that application of combined PAA and NaOCl in disinfecting the effluent of the stabilization pond will promote the efficiency of disinfection process in inactivating the coliform group bacteria and fecal streptococci.

  15. Stability considerations and a double-diffusive convection model for solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, E.I.H.; Sha, W.T.; Soo, S.L.

    1979-04-01

    A brief survey is made on the basic principles, current designs and economic advantages of salinity-gradient solar ponds as solar collectors and reservoirs. Solar ponds are well-suited for various AIPH (agricultural and industrial process heat) applications, and as annual storage devices for space heating and cooling. The benefit of an efficient pond is demonstrated via a preliminary economic analysis which suggests the idea of energy farming as a profitable alternative for land usage in the face of rising fuel cost. The economy and reliability of solar-pond operation depend crucially on the stability of the nonconvective gradient zone against disturbances such as generated by a severe weather condition. Attention is focused on the subject of stability, and pertinent existing results are summarized and discussed. Details of the derivation of three-dimensional stability criteria for thermohaline convection with linear gradients are presented. Ten key questions pertaining to stability are posed, whose answers must be sought through extensive analytical and numerical studies. Possible methods of approach toward enhancing solar-pond stability are also discussed. For the numerical studies of pond behavior and stability characteristics, a double-diffusive convection model is proposed. The model can be constructed by extending the three-dimensional thermohydrodynamic computer code COMMIX-SA, following the necessary steps outlined; computational plans are described. Similarities exist between the halothermocline and the thermocline storage systems, and an extended COMMIX-SA will be a valuable tool for the investigation of both.

  16. Environmental sampling program for a solar evaporation pond for liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, R.; Gunderson, T.C.; Talley, A.D.

    1980-04-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is evaluating solar evaporation as a method for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes. This report describes a sampling program designed to monitor possible escape of radioactivity to the environment from a solar evaporation pond prototype constructed at LASL. Background radioactivity levels at the pond site were determined from soil and vegetation analyses before construction. When the pond is operative, the sampling program will qualitatively and quantitatively detect the transport of radioactivity to the soil, air, and vegetation in the vicinity. Possible correlation of meteorological data with sampling results is being investigated and measures to control export of radioactivity by biological vectors are being assessed

  17. Performance of constructed evaporation ponds for disposal of smelter waste water: a case study at Portland Aluminum, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, S A; Allinson, G; Stagnitti, F; Coates, M; Hill, R J

    2001-06-01

    The construction of evaporative ponds and wetlands for the disposal of waste water high in ionic concentrations is a waste disposal strategy currently considered by many industries. However, the design, construction and management of these ponds and wetlands are not straightforward as complex chemical interactions result in both spatial and temporal changes in water quality. The effects of evaporation and drainage on the water quality in two constructed ponds, an adjacent man-made wetland and local groundwater at Portland Aluminium were investigated. The minimum volume of water entering the ponds during the study period was 0.96 +/- 0.16 ML per month. The predicted theoretical evaporative capacity of the two ponds was calculated to be 0.30 +/- 0.07 ML per month. More water enters the ponds than it is theoretically possible to evaporate under the ambient weather conditions at Portland, yet the ponds do not overflow, suggesting percolation through the pond lining. No spatial differences in solute concentrations (fluoride, sulphate, bicarbonate, carbonate, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium ions) were found within the waters of either pond, although temporal differences were apparent. The results support the conclusion that the ponds are not impermeable, and that much of the waste water entering the ponds is being lost through seepage. The impacts on local groundwater chemistry of this seepage are addressed. Significant correlations exist between solute presence within and between the ponds. wetland and groundwater. Fluoride and sulphate concentrations were significantly higher in pond waters throughout the duration of the experiment. Pond sediments revealed a high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the concentration of all monitored ions resulting from the chemical heterogeneity of the material making up the pond linings. Adsorption isotherms for fluoride indicate that the adsorption capacity of the pond linings remains high for this ion

  18. WASTE STABILIZATION FUNDAMENTALS FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste stabilization is the process where putrescible waste is biodegraded by microorganisms resulting in an end-product being a relatively inert substrate (e.g., like compost). When exposed to moisture, biologically stabilized waste should not produce substantial quantitie...

  19. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes

  20. Removal of 226Ra from tailings pond effluents and stabilization of uranium mine tailings. Bench and pilot scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtke, N.W.; Averill, D.; Bryant, D.N.; Wilkinson, P.; Schmidt, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Increased world demand for uranium has resulted in recent expansion of Canadian uranium mining operations. Problems have been identified with the discharge of radionuclides such as 226 Ra from tailings pond effluents and with the stabilization of mine tailings. At Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC) two projects were undertaken in cooperation with the Canadian Uranium Mining Industry and other federal government agencies to address these problems. The first project reports on the progress of bench and pilot scale process simulations for the development of a data base for the design of a full scale mechanical physical/chemical 226 Ra removal waste treatment system with an effluent target level of 10 pCi 226 Ra total per litre. The second project addresses problems of the leachability of radionuclides and the stabilization of both uranium mine tailings and BaRaSO 4 sediments from the treatment of acid seepages

  1. Reclamation of a mine tailings pond by addition of marble waste and pig slurry for the development of aided phytostabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornoza, R.; Faz, A.; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Acosta, J.A.; Gómez-López, M.D.; Muñoz, M.A.; Sánchez-Medrano, R.; Murcia, F.J.; Fernández Cortés, F.J.; López Martínez, E.; Espín de Gea, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abandoned tailings ponds produce environmental and human health hazards due to the transfer of heavy metals through wind and water erosion or leaching. To reduce these hazards, a reclamation strategy has been developed on a tailings pond based on aided phytostabilization. In 2011 marble mud and pig slurry were applied to the surface of a tailings pond and in the spring of 2012 thirteen native vegetal species were introduced. The evolution of different soil properties and the bio-available fraction of the heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn were monitored for two years (2012-2013). The results showed that the pH, aggregate stability, organic carbon, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity increased after the application of the amendments and the growth of vegetation, whilst the bio-available fraction of the heavy metals drastically decreased (90-99%). Thus, the strategy followed proved to be positive for reducing the availability of heavy metals and improving soil quality and fertility. These results are promising in areas with extractive activity of carbonated materials, since the generated waste can be used for the reclamation of soils affected by heavy metals, transforming a residual material into a useful by-product. [es

  2. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. James Davis

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. In this experimental and analytical study the authors elucidate the transport processes that control the rate of concentrated colloidal particle removal, demonstrate the process on a laboratory scale, and develop the scale-up laws needed to design commercial-scale processes. The authors are also addressing the fundamental problems associated with particle-particle interactions (electrical and hydrodynamic), the effects of particle concentration on the applied electric field, the electrochemical reactions that occur at the electrodes, and the prediction of power requirements.

  3. Nutrient recovery from swine waste and protein biomass production using duckweed ponds (Landoltia punctata): southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R A; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important countries in pork production worldwide, ranking third. This activity has an important role in the national economic scenario. However, the fast growth of this activity has caused major environmental impacts, especially in developing countries. The large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds found in pig manure has caused ecological imbalances, with eutrophication of major river basins in the producing regions. Moreover, much of the pig production in developing countries occurs on small farms, and therefore causes diffuse pollution. Therefore, duckweed pond have been successfully used in the swine waste polishing, generating further a biomass with high protein content. The present study evaluated the efficiency of two full scale duckweed ponds for the polishing of a small pig farm effluent, biomass yield and crude protein (CP) content. Duckweed pond series received the effluent from a biodigester-storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3)/day (chemical oxygen demand rate = 186 kg/ha day) produced by 300 animals. After 1 year a great improvement of effluent quality was observed, with removal of 96% of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and 89% of total phosphorus (TP), on average. Nitrogen removal rate is one of the highest ever found (4.4 g TKN/m(2) day). Also, the dissolved oxygen rose from 0.0 to 3.0 mg/L. The two ponds produced together over 13 tons of fresh biomass (90.5% moisture), with 35% of CP content, which represents a productivity of 24 tonsCP/ha year. Due to the high rate of nutrient removal, and also the high protein biomass production, duckweed ponds revealed, under the presented conditions, a great potential for the polishing and valorization of swine waste. Nevertheless, this technology should be better exploited to improve the sustainability of small pig farms in order to minimize the impacts of this activity on the environment.

  4. A model for cost estimation of system for piggery wastes treatment ponds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Medri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results from the monitoring of a system of ponds for the treatment of piggery wastes, carried out during a 20 months period, with the objective to determine design parameters for the optimization of the treatment system. A series composed of two anaerobic ponds, one facultative pond and one water hyacinth pond, gave an efficiency of 97% in the removal of BOD5, 93% for total phosphorus, 91% for total Kjeldahl nitrogen and a removal of 7 log units for fecal coliforms. A model of the optimization incurred in the treatment of these wastes was developed, within economic concepts.Este artigo apresenta resultados do monitoramento de um sistema de lagoas para tratamento de dejetos suínos, realizados durante um período de 20 meses, com o objetivo de encontrar parâmetros operacionais para otimização do sistema de tratamento. O sistema é composto por duas lagoas anaeróbias, uma facultativa e uma de aguapés, em séries, com uma eficiência de 97% na remoção da DBO5, 93% para o fósforo total, 91% para o nitrogênio total e uma redução de 7 unidades log para os coliformes fecais. Um modelo de otimização para tratamento destes resíduos foi desenvolvido usando os conceitos econômicos.

  5. Species dispersal rates alter diversity and ecosystem stability in pond metacommunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howeth, Jennifer G; Leibold, Mathew A

    2010-09-01

    Metacommunity theory suggests that relationships between diversity and ecosystem stability can be determined by the rate of species dispersal among local communities. The predicted relationships, however, may depend upon the relative strength of local environmental processes and disturbance. Here we evaluate the role of dispersal frequency and local predation perturbations in affecting patterns of diversity and stability in pond plankton metacommunities. Pond metacommunities were composed of three mesocosm communities: one of the three communities maintained constant "press" predation from a selective predator, bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus); the second community maintained "press" conditions without predation; and the third community experienced recurrent "pulsed" predation from bluegill sunfish. The triads of pond communities were connected at either no, low (0.7%/d), or high (20%/d) planktonic dispersal. Richness and composition of zooplankton and stability of plankton biomass and ecosystem productivity were measured at local and regional spatial scales. Dispersal significantly affected diversity such that local and regional biotas at the low dispersal rate maintained the greatest number of species. The unimodal local dispersal-diversity relationship was predator-dependent, however, as selective press predation excluded species regardless of dispersal. Further, there was no effect of dispersal on beta diversity because predation generated local conditions that selected for distinct community assemblages. Spatial and temporal ecosystem stability responded to dispersal frequency but not predation. Low dispersal destabilized the spatial stability of producer biomass but stabilized temporal ecosystem productivity. The results indicate that selective predation can prevent species augmentation from mass effects but has no apparent influence on stability. Dispersal rates, in contrast, can have significant effects on both species diversity and ecosystem

  6. Removal Efficiency of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (LAS in Yazd Stabilization Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are organic chemicals with wide applications as detergents. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS is an anionic surfactant most commonly used. Discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing this chemical into the environment causes major public health problems. In this study, 64 samples were taken from the effluent of Yazd Wastewater  Treatment Plant over a period of one year. The samples were analyzed according to standard methods. The results obtained from the samples taken in different seasons showed that the highest efficiency of anionic surfactant removal was achieved in the summer in the secondary facultative stabilization pond. The least efficiency was observed in the autumn in samples from the anaerobic stabilization pond. It was also found that treated wastewater discharged into surface waters, reused for agricultural irrigation, or discharged into absorbent wells had significant differences with Pvalue

  7. Sludge accumulation and distribution impact the hydraulic performance in waste stabilisation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Liah X; Ghisalberti, Marco; Ghadouani, Anas

    2017-03-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) are used worldwide for wastewater treatment, and throughout their operation require periodic sludge surveys. Sludge accumulation in WSPs can impact performance by reducing the effective volume of the pond, and altering the pond hydraulics and wastewater treatment efficiency. Traditionally, sludge heights, and thus sludge volume, have been measured using low-resolution and labour intensive methods such as 'sludge judge' and the 'white towel test'. A sonar device, a readily available technology, fitted to a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was shown to improve the spatial resolution and accuracy of sludge height measurements, as well as reduce labour and safety requirements. Coupled with a dedicated software package, the profiling of several WSPs has shown that the ROV with autonomous sonar device is capable of providing sludge bathymetry with greatly increased spatial resolution in a greatly reduced profiling time, leading to a better understanding of the role played by sludge accumulation in hydraulic performance of WSPs. The high-resolution bathymetry collected was used to support a much more detailed hydrodynamic assessment of systems with low, medium and high accumulations of sludge. The results of the modelling show that hydraulic performance is not only influenced by the sludge accumulation, but also that the spatial distribution of sludge plays a critical role in reducing the treatment capacity of these systems. In a range of ponds modelled, the reduction in residence time ranged from 33% in a pond with a uniform sludge distribution to a reduction of up to 60% in a pond with highly channelized flow. The combination of high-resolution measurement of sludge accumulation and hydrodynamic modelling will help in the development of frameworks for wastewater sludge management, including the development of more reliable computer models, and could potentially have wider application in the monitoring of other small to medium water bodies

  8. Nile tilapia culture on domestic effluent treated in stabilization ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Matheus Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance and filet quality of tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus culture in effluent stabilization lagoons was tested at the densities of 3 fish/m2 (T3, 7 fish/m2 (T2 and 7 fish/m2 in clean water + diet (T1 with 3 repetitions in tanks of 2.57m2 and 0.60m of water column with supplemental aeration. Fish culture in clean water plus diet (T1 presented the highest growth. The higher density T3 (7/m2 compared to T2 (3/m2 did not result in any difference of total production (p > 0.05 but this was compensated by the increased individual fish growth rate at lower density. The conditions that sustain fish survival culture with ETE effluent were attested by the high survival (> 90% under both treatments, but only 10% of the water samples from T2 and T3 N-total ammonium was favorable for fish growth (< 2.0mg/L. The rearing system improved the effluent quality, reducing the total organic nitrogen and the solids in suspension. The faecal coliforms, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus from the effluent and fish were verified to be within the standards laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  9. The stability of the water column in french ponds (limousin region by the calculation of the wedderburn number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOUCHART L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxygenation and biological life in lakes, reservoirs and ponds depend on the stability of the water column and on the rhythms of stratification and mixing periods. Slight thermal stratification in ponds often is regarded as the same as instability in shallow lakes. Nevertheless fetch in ponds is very short, what reduces the mixing. Wedderburn number (quotient of the buoyancy by the mixing is used to quantify the stability in shallow water bodies. We calculate it for some ponds in French region Limousin, due to original hourly water temperature measurements in all depths and wind data of Météofrance stations. First results show that very high values (above 10 are frequent in summer and spring period (during 41% of the total time of 2 336 hours from May to July in three ponds. That is why we may consider Limousin ponds as stable stratified bodies of water despite their shallowness. Continuous measurements allow to calculate the diurnal cycle and other time scales of the Wedderburn number, with periods of weakening, when air temperatures and surface water temperatures decrease, wind speed increases and when the wind blows in the same direction with the length of the pond. The most complex variable is the depth of the thermocline; a light increase of the breeze thickens the upper warm layer and strengthens the stability, but an important increase of the wind tends to destroy the stratification.

  10. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

  11. A THEORETICAL AND NUMERICAL STUDY OF THERMOSOLUTAL CONVECTION: STABILITY OF A SALINITY GRADIENT SOLAR POND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Kalache

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical and numerical study of the effect of thermodiffusion on the stability of a gradient layer is presented. It intends to clarify the mechanisms of fluid dynamics and the processes which occur in a salinity gradient solar pond. A mathematical modelling is developed to describe the thermodiffusion contribution on the solar pond where thermal, radiative, and massive fluxes are coupled in the double diffusion. More realistic boundary conditions for temperature and concentration profiles are used. Our results are compared with those obtained experimentally by authors without extracting the heat flux from the storage zone. We have considered the stability analysis of the equilibrium solution. We assumed that the perturbation of quantities such as velocity, temperature, and concentration are infinitesimal. Linearized equations satisfying appropriate prescribed boundary conditions are then obtained and expanded into polynomials form. The Galerkin method along with a symbolic algebra code (Maple are used to solve these equations. The effect of the separation coefficient y is analyzed in the positive and negative case. We have also numerically compared the critical Rayleigh numbers for the onset of convection with those obtained by the linear stability analysis for Le = 100, µa = 0.8, and f = 0.5.

  12. Ecological distribution and fate of plutonium and americium in a processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergy, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; McShane, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    U Pond, located on the Hanford Reservation, has received low-level quantities of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) longer than any other aquatic environment in the world. Its ecological complexity and content of transuranics make it an ideal resource for information concerning the movement of these actinides within and out of an aquatic ecosystem. U Pond has been intensively inventoried for Pu concentrations in the ecological compartments and characterized limnologically in terms of its physicochemial parameters, biological productivity, and community structure. This work provides a basis for evaluating the pond's performance in retaining waste transuranics. The quantitative estimation of export routes developed by this study is important in determining how effectively such ponds act as retainers for transuranic wastes

  13. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of compliance activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  14. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  15. Disposal of olive oil mill wastes in evaporation ponds: effects on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, V; Doula, M K; Komnitsas, K; Liakopoulou, N

    2010-10-15

    The most common practice followed in the Med countries for the management of olive oil mill wastes (OMW) involves disposal in evaporation ponds or direct disposal on soil. So far there is lack of reliable information regarding the long-term effects of OMW application on soils. This study assesses the effects of OMW disposal in evaporation ponds on underlying soil properties in the wider disposal site as well as the impacts of untreated OMW application on agricultural soils. In case of active disposal sites, the carbonate content in most soils was decreased, whereas soil EC, as well as Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), PO(4)(3-), NH(4)(+) and particularly K(+) concentrations were substantially increased. Soil pH was only marginally affected. Phenol, total N, available P and PO(4)(3-) concentrations were considerably higher in the upper soil layers in areas adjacent to the ponds. Available B as well as DTPA extractable Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe increased substantially. Most surface soil parameters exhibited increased values at the inactive site 6 years after mill closure and cease of OMW disposal activities but differences were diminished in deeper layers. It is therefore concluded that long-term uncontrolled disposal of raw OMW on soils may affect soil properties and subsequently enhance the risk for groundwater contamination. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fate and Transport of 17β-estradiol Beneath Animal Waste Holding Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, L. A.; Tyner, J. S.; Hawkins, S. A.; Lee, J.; Buchanan, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Steroidal hormones, such as 17β-estradiol (E2), are prevalent in animal waste and are a common subject of study due to potential stream and groundwater contamination. These particular hormones are labeled as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) because of their developmental effects in reptiles and amphibians. Dairy waste at concentrated animal feeding operations is typically stored in a pond that is regulated by law to include an underlying soil liner with a minimal hydraulic conductivity to limit leaching beneath the pond, yet some studies have traced stream and groundwater contamination to these ponds. Previous studies have shown that the soil underlying earthen ponds are always unsaturated. This increases the pore water velocity relative to a given flux, which itself is dictated almost entirely by an organic seal that forms at the bottom of a waste pond. This increased velocity results in more rapid transport and less retention time within the vadose zone where E2 could biodegrade into its daughter product, estrone (E1). And since the soil is unsaturated and therefore has a negative pressure, preferential flow should not serve as a method of transport. On the contrary, E2 and E1 may sorb to mobile colloids increasing their mobility. This study will evaluate the use of biochar, an increasingly common activated carbon source, as a soil liner amendment. Biochar has a specific surface area that can exceed 1,500 m2/g and is high in organic matter, which E2 sorbs to strongly. The biochar amendment should be most effective and enduring as a layer located at the bottom of the soil liner so that the leachate has been treated by the soil prior to contact. Another proposed amendment technique is to uniformly mix the biochar within the soil liner to increase the leachate contact time with the biochar, but realistically could prove to be too costly and energy-intensive. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to analyze hormone persistence and transport processes and

  17. Carbon mineralization in mine tailing ponds amended with pig slurries and marble wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Zornoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective application of organic residues to reclaim soils requires the optimization of the waste management to minimize CO2 emissions and optimize soil C sequestration efficiency. In this study, the short-term effects of pig slurry amendment alone and together with marble waste on organic matter mineralization in two tailing ponds from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain were investigated in a field remediation experiment. The treatments were: marble waste (MW, pig slurry (PS, marble waste + pig slurry (MW+PS, and control. Soil carbon mineralization was determined using a static chamber method with alkali absorption during 70 days. Soil respiration rates in all plots were higher the first days of the experiment owing to higher soil moisture and higher mean air temperature. MW plots followed the same pattern than control plots, with similar respiration rates. The addition of pig slurry caused a significant increase in the respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots, respiration rates were lower than in PS plots. The cumulative quantities of C-CO2 evolved from the pig slurry mineralization were fitted to a first-order kinetic model explaining 90% of the data. This model implies the presence of only one mineralisable pool (C0. The values of the index C0*constant rate/added C were similar for PS plots in both tailing ponds, but lower in the MW+PS treatment, suggesting that the application of marble reduces the degradability of the organic compounds present in the pig slurry. Thus, the application of marble wastes contributes to slow down the loss of organic matter by mineralization.

  18. variation of some waste stabilization pond parameters with shape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solids, oxygen demand and nutrient environment. ... quality guidelines both at low cost and with ... are not the best option for less developed ... Many models by Polprasert and Others, 1983; ... quality, design and dynamic, temperature profile, .... The variance determination represents and includes all points in the curve.

  19. 2016 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016.

  20. 2016 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafferty, Kara Grace

    2017-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016.

  1. Remoción de formas parasitarias intestinales en una laguna facultativa de estabilización en Lima, Perú Removal of intestinal parasitic forms in a facultative stabilization pond in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Iannacone

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a waste stabilization pond, to remove intestinal helminth eggs and protozoan cysts was studied in San Martin de Porres, Lima, Peru. From September to October 2000 four collections of samples were performed from raw domestic wastewater and from contends of primary, secondary and tertiary ponds. A comparative study of performance of the concentrations methods of Ritchie and Faust was also done. The overall average removal of parasitic forms was as follow: 69.37% from raw water and primary pond; 48.34% from primary to secondary pond; 85.45% from secondary to tertiary pond and 97.69% from raw water to tertiary pond. There was no significant difference in the quantitative performance of Ritchic and Faust methods. Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859 Alexeieff, 1914, Entamoeba coli (Gras, 1879 Casagrandi & Barbagallo, 1895 and Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758 were detected with both methods. Three other parasites were detected only by Ritchie method: Taenia sp., Rodentolepis nana (von Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954 and Trichuris trichiura (Linnaeus, 1771 Stiles, 1901 and only Faust detected Isospora belli Wenyon, 1923. Overall number of protozoa cysts was higher than the number of helminth eggs. At the end, wastewater had a concentration of 1.5 parasitic forms L¹ what is considered inappropríate for ultimate use in agriculture by current standards.

  2. A Two-Dimensional Numerical Study of Hydrodynamic, Heat and Mass Transfer and Stability in a Salt Gradient Solar Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ben Moussa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problem of hydrodynamic, heat and mass transfer and stability in a salt gradient solar pond has been numerically studied by means of computational fluid dynamics in transient regime. The body of the simulated pond is an enclosure of height H and length L wherein an artificial salinity gradient is created in order to suppress convective motions induced by solar radiation absorption and to stabilize the solar pond during the period of operation. Here we show the distribution of velocity, temperature and salt concentration fields during energy collection and storage in a solar pond filled with water and constituted by three different salinity zones. The bottom of the pond is blackened and the free-surface is subjected to heat losses by convection, evaporation and radiation while the vertical walls are adiabatic and impermeable. The governing equations of continuity, momentum, thermal energy and mass transfer are discretized by finite–volume method in transient regime. Velocity vector fields show the presence of thin convective cells in the upper convective zone (UCZ and large convective cells in the lower convective zone (LCZ. This study shows the importance of buoyancy ratio in the decrease of temperature in the UCZ and in the preservation of high temperature in the LCZ. It shows also the importance of the thickness of Non-Convective Zone (NCZ in the reduction of the upwards heat losses.

  3. Comparing the Efficiency of Stabilization Ponds and Subsurface Constructed Wetland in Domestic Sewage Treatment in City of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hadi Eslami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater is one of the most important contributors to water pollution on the one hand, while it has the potential to serve as an alternative source of water if subjected to proper treatment, on the other. The present study was designed to compare the removal efficiencies of stabilization ponds and subsurface constructed wetlands in the treatment of urban wastewater in Yazd. For this purpose, 72 samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of a constructed wetland as well as 72 from the inlet and outlet of stabilization ponds over a period of one year. The samples were subjected to identical tests and the results were compared. The removal efficiencies for BOD5, COD, TSS, NH4-N, NO3-N, and PO4 in the stabilization ponds were 79.7, 79.6, 44.4, 57, 0, and 42.5 percent, respectively. The same parameters for the constructed wetland system were 80.7, 81.5, 77.7, 9.9, 34, and 59.4, respectively. Moreover, BOD5, COD, TSS, and PO4 removal efficiencies were higher in autumn and summer. From these results, it may be concluded that constructed wetlands are more commercially viable than stabilization ponds both in terms of performance and cost-effectiveness.

  4. 2016 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2015–October 31, 2016. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019. This report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Permit required groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2016 permit year, 180.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Ponds. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest in well USGS-065, which is the closest downgradient well to the Cold Waste Ponds. Sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations decrease rapidly as the distance downgradient from the Cold Waste Ponds increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are significantly higher in well USGS-065 than in the other monitoring wells, both parameters remained below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in well USGS-065. The facility was in compliance with the Reuse Permit during the 2016 permit year.

  5. 2016 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael George

    2017-01-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2015-October 31, 2016. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019. This report contains the following information: · Facility and system description · Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates · Permit required groundwater monitoring data · Status of compliance activities · Issues · Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2016 permit year, 180.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Ponds. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest in well USGS-065, which is the closest downgradient well to the Cold Waste Ponds. Sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations decrease rapidly as the distance downgradient from the Cold Waste Ponds increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are significantly higher in well USGS-065 than in the other monitoring wells, both parameters remained below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in well USGS-065. The facility was in compliance with the Reuse Permit during the 2016 permit year.

  6. Integrated Application of the UASB Reactor and Ponds for Domestic Sewage Treatment in Tropical Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, P.F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Waste stabilization ponds are widely applied for domestic sewage treatment in Brazil. The main objective of conventional waste stabilisation ponds (WSP's) is, nomen est omen , to remove the organic material from wastewater. To achieve this objective, a quite long liquid retention time (

  7. Overview of waste stabilization with cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, B

    2006-01-01

    Cement can treat a variety of wastes by improving physical characteristics (solidification) and reducing the toxicity and mobility of contaminants (stabilization). Potentially adverse waste-binder interactions are an important consideration because they can limit solidification. Stabilization occurs when a contaminant is converted from the dissolved (mobile) phase to a solid (immobile) phase by reactions, such as precipitation, sorption, or substitution. These reactions are often strongly affected by pH, so the presence of components of the waste that control pH are critical to stabilization reactions. Evaluating environmental impacts can be accomplished in a tiered strategy in which simplest approach would be to measure the maximum amount of contaminant that could be released. Alternatively, the sequence of release can be determined, either by microcosm tests that attempt to simulate conditions in the disposal zone or by mechanistic models that attempt to predict behavior using fundamental characteristics of the treated waste.

  8. The complex challenge of repairing the gantry steelwork on the first generation magnox storage pond at Sellafield: Legacy Waste Storage, First Generation Magnox Storage Pond - 59133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Ian E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts into context the challenges that were faced when repairing the Gantry Steelwork of the First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP). The First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond (FGMSP) provided fuel storage and de-canning capability from the early 1960's until 1986. A significant programme of work has been underway since the completion of operational activities to support the programmes strategic intent of retrieving and storing all legacy wastes, and remediating the structure of the plant to support decommissioning activities. A key enabler to the retrievals programme is the Pond Skip Handler Machine (SHM), removed from service in 2002 following the discovery of significant signs of corrosion and distress, an inevitable consequence of being located in a coastal, salt laden environment. The SHM provides sole capability to access and retrieve the inventory of over 1000 fuel skips. It is also fundamental to future operations and the deployment of de-sludging equipment to recover significant bulk sludge's from the pond floor. Failure of the SHM steelwork gantry at worst case could potentially result in the Skip Handler Machine being derailed. This has some potential to damage to the pond structure and at worst case may result in local radiological and environmental consequences. This paper will examine the challenges faced by the team as they successfully defined, planned and executed remedial work to a specific aspect of the civil structure, the SHM gantry rail system, using a purpose built refurbishment platform; the Gantry Refurbishment System. The paper will examine how an 'innovative' approach was adopted to resolve the related issues of: - Refurbishing an aged structure to meet extended future operational demands. - The application of pragmatic engineering solutions against current codes and standards including seismic performance; - Provision of safe access for the workforce to undertake the refurbishment work against significant radiological

  9. Stability Analysis of a Run-of-River Diversion Hydropower Plant with Surge Tank and Spillway in the Head Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Sarasúa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Run-of-river hydropower plants usually lack significant storage capacity; therefore, the more adequate control strategy would consist of keeping a constant water level at the intake pond in order to harness the maximum amount of energy from the river flow or to reduce the surface flooded in the head pond. In this paper, a standard PI control system of a run-of-river diversion hydropower plant with surge tank and a spillway in the head pond that evacuates part of the river flow plant is studied. A stability analysis based on the Routh-Hurwitz criterion is carried out and a practical criterion for tuning the gains of the PI controller is proposed. Conclusions about the head pond and surge tank areas are drawn from the stability analysis. Finally, this criterion is applied to a real hydropower plant in design state; the importance of considering the spillway dimensions and turbine characteristic curves for adequate tuning of the controller gains is highlighted.

  10. Bathymetry mapping using a GPS-sonar equipped remote control boat: Application in waste stabilisation ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Liah; Ghadouani, Anas; Ghisalberti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, bathymetry mapping of ponds, lakes and rivers have used techniques which are low in spatial resolution, sometimes subjective in terms of precision and accuracy, labour intensive, and that require a high level of safety precautions. In waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) in particular, sludge heights, and thus sludge volume, are commonly measured using a sludge judge (a clear plastic pipe with length markings). A remote control boat fitted with a GPS-equipped sonar unit can improve the resolution of depth measurements, and reduce safety and labour requirements. Sonar devices equipped with GPS technology, also known as fish finders, are readily available and widely used by people in boating. Through the use of GPS technology in conjunction with sonar, the location and depth can be recorded electronically onto a memory card. However, despite its high applicability to the field, this technology has so far been underutilised. In the case of WSP, the sonar can measure the water depth to the top of the sludge layer, which can then be used to develop contour maps of sludge distribution and to determine sludge volume. The coupling of sonar technology with a remotely operative vehicle has several advantages of traditional measurement techniques, particularly in removing human subjectivity of readings, and the sonar being able to collect more data points in a shorter period of time, and continuously, with a much higher spatial resolution. The GPS-sonar equipped remote control boat has been tested on in excess of 50 WSP within Western Australia, and has shown a very strong correlation (R2 = 0.98) between spot readings taken with the sonar compared to a sludge judge. This has shown that the remote control boat with GPS-sonar device is capable of providing sludge bathymetry with greatly increased spatial resolution, while greatly reducing profiling time. Remotely operated vehicles, such as the one built in this study, are useful for not only determining sludge

  11. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly

  12. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly. (DLC)

  13. 2015 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2014–October 31, 2015. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019.

  14. Effectiveness of Reducing P Fertilizer and Adding Fish Pond Mud Waste on Growth and Yield of Soybean in Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riak Asie Erina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of P fertilizer reduction and the addition of fish pond sludge waste on the growth and yield of soybean crop in peatland. Research used Complete Randomized Design factorial with two factors. The first factor was the reduction of P fertilizer from the dose of 150 kg.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely P0: 100% (2.944 g/polybag, P1: 75% (2.208 g/polybag, P2: 50% (1.472 g/polybag, and P3: 25% (0.736 g/polybag. The second factor was the addition of fish pond mud waste (L from the dose of 15 ton.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely L0: 25% (73.595 g/polybag, L1: 50% (147.19 g/polybag, L2: 75% (220.78 g/polybag, and L3: 100% (294.38 g/polybag. Each treatment combination was replicated 3 times to obtain 48 experimental units. The results showed that (1 fish pond mud waste was effective to reduce the use of P fertilizer, (2 the reduction of P fertilizer up to 50% from recommendation dosage by addition of fish pond sludge waste at 75% dose of 15 ton/ha was the best combination due to providing the best plant growth and the highest P concentration of plant tissue. The highest number of pods and weight of seed obtained in the combination were 60.33 pods/plant and 7.30 g/plant, respectively.

  15. Effectiveness of Reducing P Fertilizer and Adding Fish Pond Mud Waste on Growth and Yield of Soybean in Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asie, Erina Riak; Rumbang, Nyahu; Winarti, Sih; Sinaga, Soaloon

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of P fertilizer reduction and the addition of fish pond sludge waste on the growth and yield of soybean crop in peatland. Research used Complete Randomized Design factorial with two factors. The first factor was the reduction of P fertilizer from the dose of 150 kg.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely P0: 100% (2.944 g/polybag), P1: 75% (2.208 g/polybag), P2: 50% (1.472 g/polybag), and P3: 25% (0.736 g/polybag). The second factor was the addition of fish pond mud waste (L) from the dose of 15 ton.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely L0: 25% (73.595 g/polybag), L1: 50% (147.19 g/polybag), L2: 75% (220.78 g/polybag), and L3: 100% (294.38 g/polybag). Each treatment combination was replicated 3 times to obtain 48 experimental units. The results showed that (1) fish pond mud waste was effective to reduce the use of P fertilizer, (2) the reduction of P fertilizer up to 50% from recommendation dosage by addition of fish pond sludge waste at 75% dose of 15 ton/ha was the best combination due to providing the best plant growth and the highest P concentration of plant tissue. The highest number of pods and weight of seed obtained in the combination were 60.33 pods/plant and 7.30 g/plant, respectively.

  16. 2015 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-01-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2014-October 31, 2015. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019.

  17. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  18. Stabilization of soil using plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The economy in a soil stabilization project depends on the cost of the stabilizing material. Cheaper the stabilizing material, lesser will be the project cost. Specially manufactured geotextiles are successfully being used for soil stabilization, but the cost is higher. In this study, the cuttings of the waste polyethylene shopper bags have been used to stabilize the soil. The polyethylene shopper bags are transformed to cuttings for easy mixing with the soil by conventional methods. The plastic cuttings acted similar to the non-woven geotextile fibers. Different quantities of the shopper bag cuttings were mixed with the soil. The soil was compacted in the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test molds according to the British Standards. CBR values of the soil with varying quantities of the plastic cuttings were determined both for the un-soaked and soaked conditions. The tests showed significant increase in the CBR values of the stabilized soil under un-soaked conditions. However, the improvement in the CBR values under the soaked condition was comparatively lesser than that of the un-soaked condition. This method of stabilization proved economical due to low cost of the waste shopper bags. (author)

  19. Stability of disposal rooms during waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandshaug, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the results of a numerical analysis to determine the stability of waste disposal rooms for vertical and horizontal emplacement during the period of waste retrieval. It is assumed that waste retrieval starts 50 years after the initial emplacement of the waste, and that access to and retrieval of the waste containers take place through the disposal rooms. It is further assumed that the disposal rooms are not back-filled. Convective cooling of the disposal rooms in preparation for waste retrieval is included in the analysis. Conditions and parameters used were taken from the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (MacDougall et al., 1987). Thermal results are presented which illustrate the heat transfer response of the rock adjacent to the disposal rooms. Mechanical results are presented which illustrate the predicted distribution of stress, joint slip, and room deformations for the period of time investigated. Under the assumption that the host rock can be classified as ''fair to good'' using the Geomechanics Classification System (Bieniawski, 1974), only light ground support would appear to be necessary for the disposal rooms to remain stable. 23 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Olive mill wastewater stabilization in open-air ponds: impact on clay-sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Sellami, Fatma; Kharroubi, Adel; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the natural biodegradation of the stored olive mill wastewater (OMW) in ponds and the infiltration as well as the impact on soil of the effluent in the evaporation pond used for the storage over the past eight years. For this, two approaches were considered. First, a laboratory-scale column was used for the infiltration of OMW through soil (clay and sand) to predict the effect of the clayey soil in reducing OMW pollution. Second, the ponds including the effluent annually stored and having this clayey structure were investigated. At the laboratory-scale, a modification of OMW contents was noticed, with the elimination of 95% of total suspended solids (TSS), 60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 40% of total organic carbon (TOC), 50% of total P, 50% of phenols and 40% of minerals (K+, Mg++ and Na+). The experimented soil was able to restrain the considerable effects of OMW pollution. In the ponds, the granulometric characteristics, the physico-chemical and the biological parameters of the soil profile from the contaminated pond were compared to those of a control soil, located near the contaminated pond. Property modifications of the contaminated soil were noted, especially pH, electrical conductivity, COD and microflora. These changes can be explained by the infiltration of OMW constituents, which were noticed in the soil layers, especially phenolic compounds that have a negative effect on the ground water.

  1. Decontamination and decommissioning of the BORAX-V leach pond. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the BORAX-V leach pond located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The leach pond became radioactively contaminated from the periodic discharge of low-level liquid waste during operation of the Boiling Water Reactor Experiments (BORAX) from 1954 to 1964. This report describes work performed to accomplish the D and D objectives of stabilizing the leach pond and preventing the spread of contamination. D and D of the BORAX-V leach pond consisted to backfilling the pond with clean soil, grading and seeding the area, and erecting a permanent marker to identify very low-level subsurface contamination

  2. Minimum additive waste stabilization using vitreous ceramics. Progress report, October 1994--September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Hahn, W.K.; Gong, M.; Gong, W.; Wang, L.; Ewing, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Vitreous ceramic waste forms are being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to complement glass waste forms in implementing the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program to support the US Department of Energy's environmental restoration efforts. These vitreous ceramics are composed of various metal-oxide crystalline phases embedded in a silicate-glass phase. This work extends the success of vitreous ceramic waste forms to treat wastes with both high metal and high alkali contents. Two successful approaches are discussed: developing high-durability alkali-binding crystals in a durable glassy matrix, and developing water-soluble crystals in a durable and continuous glassy matrix. Nepheline-vitreous ceramics were demonstrated for the immobilization of high-alkali wastes with alkali contents up to 21 wt%. The chemical durability of the nepheline-vitreous ceramics is better than the corresponding glasses, especially in over longer times. Vitreous ceramics with Cs 2 O loading up to 35.4 wt% have been developed. Vitreous ceramic waste forms were developed from 90 and 100% Oak Ridge National Laboratory K-25 pond sludge. Heat treatment resulted in targeted crystal formation of spinels, potassium feldspar, and Ca-P phases. The K-25 pond sludge vitreous ceramics were up to 42 times more durable than high-level environmental assessments (EA) glass. The toxicity characteristics leach procedure (TCLP) concentration of LVC-6 is at least 2,000 times lower than US Environmental Protection Agency limits. Idaho Chemical Process Plant (ICPP) calcined wastes were immobilized into vitreous ceramics with calcine loading up to 88%. These ICPP-vitreous ceramics were more durable than the EA glass by factors of 5 to 30. Vitreous ceramic waste forms are being developed to complement, not to replace, glass waste forms

  3. Sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli in waste stabilization microcosms in a sahelian region (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Ynoussa; Denyigba, Kokou; Wethe, Joseph; Ouattara, Aboubakar Sidiki

    2009-02-09

    Experiments on sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli were conducted from November 2006 to June 2007 in eight outdoors microcosms with different depths filled with maturation pond wastewater in order to determine pond depth influence on sunlight inactivation of E. coli. The long-term aim was to maximize sunlight inactivation of waterborne pathogens in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in sahelian regions where number of sunny days enable longer exposure of wastewater to sunlight. The inactivation was followed during daylight from 8.00 h to 17.00 h and during the night. Sunlight inactivation rates (K(S)), as a function of cumulative global solar radiation (insolation), were 16 and 24 times higher than the corresponding dark inactivation (K(D)) rates, respectively in cold and warm season. In warm season, E. coli was inactivated far more rapidly. Inactivation of E. coli follows the evolution of radiation during the day. In shallow depth microcosms, E. coli was inactivated far more rapidly than in high depth microcosms. The physical chemical parameters [pH, dissolved oxygen (DO)] of microcosms water were higher in shallow depth microcosms than in high depth microcosms suggesting a synergistic effect of sunlight and these parameters to damage E. coli. To increase the efficiency of the elimination of waterborne bacteria, the use of maturation ponds with intermediate depths (0.4m) would be advisable in view of the high temperatures and thus evaporation recorded in sahelian regions.

  4. Recycled water reuse permit renewal application for the materials and fuels complex industrial waste ditch and industrial waste pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Name, No

    2014-10-01

    This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  5. Using full-scale duckweed ponds as the finish stage for swine waste treatment with a focus on organic matter degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R A; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of swine has caused pronounced environmental impacts worldwide, especially on water resources. As an aggregate, smallholdings have an important role in South American pork production, contributing to the net diffusion of pollution. Thus, duckweed ponds have been successfully used for swine waste polishing, mainly for nutrient removal. Few studies have been carried out to assess organic matter degradation in duckweed ponds. Hence, the present study evaluated the efficiency of two full-scale duckweed ponds for organic matter reduction of swine waste on small pig farms. Duckweed ponds, in series, received the effluent after an anaerobic biodigester and storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3) day(-1). After 1 year of monitoring, an improvement in effluent quality was observed, with a reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), respectively, of 94.8 and 96.7%, operating at a loading rate of approximately 27 kgBOD ha(-1) day(-1) and 131 kgCOD ha(-1) day(-1). Algae inhibition due to duckweed coverage was strongly observed in the pond effluent, where chlorophyll a and turbidity remained below 25 μg L(-1) and 10 NTU. Using the study conditions described herein, duckweed ponds were shown to be a suitable technology for swine waste treatment, contributing to the environmental sustainability of rural areas.

  6. Nitrogen removal in maturation waste stabilisation ponds via biological uptake and sedimentation of dead biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Valero, M A; Mara, D D; Newton, R J

    2010-01-01

    In this work a set of experiments was undertaken in a pilot-scale WSP system to determine the importance of organic nitrogen sedimentation on ammonium and total nitrogen removals in maturation ponds and its seasonal variation under British weather conditions, from September 2004 to May 2007. The nitrogen content in collected sediment samples varied from 4.17% to 6.78% (dry weight) and calculated nitrogen sedimentation rates ranged from 273 to 2868 g N/ha d. High ammonium removals were observed together with high concentrations of chlorophyll-a in the pond effluent. Moreover, chlorophyll-a had a very good correlation with the corresponding increment of VSS (algal biomass) and suspended organic nitrogen (biological nitrogen uptake) in the maturation pond effluents. Therefore, when ammonium removal reached its maximum, total nitrogen removal was very poor as most of the ammonia taken up by algae was washed out in the pond effluent in the form of suspended solids. After sedimentation of the dead algal biomass, it was clear that algal-cell nitrogen was recycled from the sludge layer into the pond water column. Recycled nitrogen can either be taken up by algae or washed out in the pond effluent. Biological (mainly algal) uptake of inorganic nitrogen species and further sedimentation of dead biomass (together with its subsequent mineralization) is one of the major mechanisms controlling in-pond nitrogen recycling in maturation WSP, particularly when environmental and operational conditions are favourable for algal growth.

  7. Radiocesium uptake by a population of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) inhabitating the banks of a radioactive liquid waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A mean population of 20 cotton rats inhabited the banks of a small radioactive liquid waste pond (approximately 0.39 ha) in Tennessee during the summer of 1977. Radiocesium concentrations in common shoreline plants (Eleocharis, Juncus, Typha, and Polygonum) ranged from 80pCi/dry g in Juncus to 35,800 pCi/dry g in Eleocharis. The mean (+-S.E.) 137 Cs concentration in cotton rat GI tracts was 2283 (+-591) pCi/dry g (N=14). The mean (+-S.E.) whole-body burden of 137 Cs in 14 rats sampled from June to September was 44467 (+-13,142) pCi. Mean 137 Cs body burdens in cotton rats increased from 32 pCi/g live weight in May to 208 pCi/g live weight in August and declined to 3 pCi/g live weight in December. The mean (+-S.D.) percent distribution of the whole-body contents among pelt, GI tract and carcass was 12(+-3), 28(+-12), and 60(+-9), respectively. The calculated mean (+-S.E.) ingestion rate of 137 Cs, assuming rats recaptured on the pond's banks for longer than 42 days were at equilibrium, was 1792(+-504) pCi/day. The concentration of 137 Cs in shoreline plants, rat GI tracts, and rat bodies indicated that cotton rats, which are herbivores, accumulated their body burdens by foraging along the contamination zone bordering the pond shoreline. A maximum mean estimate of the amount of 137 Cs annually exported by cotton rats from the pond is 8719 nCi or approximately 10 -6 % of the total amount estimated to be present in the pond's sediments. (author)

  8. The effect of the cover and landscape design of waste rock dumps and tailings ponds on the water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehne, R.; Eckart, M.; Marski, R.; Wolf, J.

    1998-01-01

    The dimensioning of cover systems for waste rock dumps and tailings ponds requires the prognosis of the water balances. Site specific field experiments as well as additional modelling efforts are necessary. The cover system could be a simple recultivation layering or a storage systems or a complex multi-layer-system. Uncovered dumps show typical percolation rates between 30 and 60%. Storage cover systems reduce the percolation rate down to 15 to 35%. The evapotranspiration rate is influenced especially by exposition and vegetation. Specific features for the cover of tailings ponds include a very low surface slope and the of percolation rate below 10%. Therefore, multi-layer-systems are most suitable, also because it is characterized by very low drainage velocities of hypodermic runoffs. The resulting, but temporarily high moisture and almost standing water at the surface leads to extreme evapotranspiration rates and consequently to an increase of percolation. (orig.) [de

  9. Preliminary characterizations study on three soil samples from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory warm waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, R.T.; Richardson, W.S.; Hay, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three soil samples (Soil 1,2,and 3) from the Warm Waste Pond (WWP) system at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were sent to the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, for soil characterization and analysis. Each sample was vigorously washed and separated by particle size using wet sieving and vertical-column hydroclassification. The resulting fractions were analyzed for radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy. The following conclusions are based on the results of these analyses: (1) The three samples examined are dissimilar in many characteristics examined in the study. (2) The optimal parameters for vigorously washing the soil samples are a washing time of 30 min 350 rpm using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4/1 (volume of water/volume of soil). (3) The only size fraction from Soil 1 that is below the 690 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) cesium-137 Record of Division (ROD) criterion is the +25.4-mm(+1-in) fraction, which represents 17 percent of the total soil. (4) There is no size fraction from Soil 2 that is below the 690 pCi/g cesium-137 criterion. (5) At optimal conditions, at least 66 percent of Soil 3 can be recovered with a cesium-137 activity level below the 690 pCi/g criterion. (6) For Soil 3, lowering the liquid-to-solid ratio from 4/1 to 2/1 during vigorous washing produces a higher weight-percent recovery of soil below the 690 pCi/g criterion. At a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2/1, 76 percent of the soil can be recovered with a concentration below the removal criterion, indicating that attrition followed by particle-size separation represents a potential method for remediation

  10. Fate of high loads of ammonia in a pond and wetland downstream from a hazardous waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrofello, Michele; Durant, John L

    2007-07-01

    Halls Brook (eastern Massachusetts, USA) is a significant source of total dissolved ammonia (sum of NH(3) and NH(4)(+); (NH(3))(T)) to the Aberjona River, a water body listed for NH(3) impairment on the Clean Water Act section 303(d) list. We hypothesized (1) that (NH(3))(T) in Halls Brook derived from a hazardous waste site via groundwater discharging to a two-basin pond that feeds the brook; and (2) that transport of (NH(3))(T) to the Aberjona River was controlled by lacustrine and wetland processes. To test these hypotheses we measured (NH(3))(T) levels in the brook, the pond, and a wetlands directly downstream of the pond during both dry and wet weather over a ten month period. In addition, we analyzed sediment cores and nitrogen isotopes, and performed mass balance calculations. Groundwater discharge from beneath the hazardous waste site was the major source of (NH(3))(T) (20-67 kg d(-1)) and salinity to the north basin of the pond. The salty bottom waters of the north basin were anoxic on all sampling dates, and exhibited relatively stable (NH(3))(T) concentrations between 200 and 600 mg Nl(-1). These levels were >100-times higher than typical background levels, and 8-24-times above the acute effects level for (NH(3))(T) toxicity. Bottom waters from the north basin continuously spill over into the south basin contributing approximately 50% of the (NH(3))(T) load entering this basin. The remainder comes from Halls Brook, which receives (NH(3))(T) loadings from as yet unknown sources upstream. During storm events up to 50% of the mass of (NH(3))(T) was flushed from the south basin and into the wetlands. The wetlands acted as a (NH(3))(T) sink in dry weather in the growing season and a discharge-dependent (NH(3))(T) source to the Aberjona River during rainstorms.

  11. Resource-Saving Cleaning Technologies for Power Plant Waste-Water Cooling Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakonnova Lyudmila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the frequently encountered problems of power plant small cooling ponds is rapid eutrophication and related intensified development of phytoplankton (“hyperflow” and overgrowing of ponds by higher aquatic vegetation. As a result of hyper-flowering, an enormous amount of detritus settles on the condenser tubes, reducing the efficiency of the power plant operation. The development of higher aquatic vegetation contributes to the appearing of the shoals. As a result the volume, area and other characteristics of the cooling ponds are getting changed. The article describes the environmental problems of small manmade ponds of power plants and coal mines in mining regions. Two approaches to the problem of eutrophication are considered: technological and ecological. The negative effects of herbicides application to aquatic organisms are experimentally proved. An ecological approach to solving the problem by fish-land reclamation method is shown.

  12. Avaliação de métodos espectrofotométricos para determinação de proteína em amostras de lagoas de estabilização Evaluation of spectrophotometric methods for protein determination in waste stabilization ponds sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Poli Miwa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo principal comparar cinco métodos espectrofotométricos para determinação de proteínas em amostras provenientes de estações de tratamento de efluentes sanitários. O intuito foi definir uma metodologia de aplicação rápida, fácil e confiável para este tipo de amostra. As lagoas de estabilização, como sistemas de tratamento biológico, têm como principais constituintes proteínas, carboidratos e lipídeos, mas também apresentam muitos compostos interferentes, como por exemplo, uréia, detergentes e compostos fenólicos, que podem prejudicar a quantificação de tais parâmetros. Os métodos analisados foram Lowry, Biureto, Bradford e Ácido bicinconínico. O método de Lowry mostrou-se mais adequado às características da amostra, com boa reprodutibilidade, reagente específico, custo moderado e ausência de substancias interferentes.This research had as main objective to compare five spectrophotometric methods for protein determination in samples proceeding from sanitary effluent of treatment plant. Intention was to define a methodology that is of fast and easy and reliable application for this type of sample. The stabilization ponds, as systems of biological treatment, have as main constituent proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, but also they present many interfering composites, for example, phenolic urea, detergents and composites, that can harm the quantification of such parameters. The analyzed methods had been Lowry, Biuret, Bradford and Acid bicinconinic. The method of Lowry revealed more adequate to the characteristics of the sample, with good reproducibility, specific reagent, moderate cost and absence of interfering substance.

  13. Temporal stability of Escherichia coli concentration patterns in two irrigation ponds in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination of water sources is an important water quality issue for agricultural irrigation ponds. Escherichia coli is a common microbial indicator used to evaluate recreational and irrigation water quality. We hypothesized that there is a temporally stable pattern of E.coli concentrations ...

  14. Effect of operational variables on nitrogen transformations in duckweed stabilization ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caicedo Berjarano, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop and improve low cost technologies for wastewater treatment that are within the economic and technological capabilities of developing countries. Simultaneously treating wastewater and producing duckweed in a pond system is therefore an attractive option to

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-25

    The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  17. Engineering properties of cement mortar with pond ash in South Korea as construction materials: from waste to concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang Hwa; Kwon, Seung-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Among the wastes from coal combustion product, only fly ash is widely used for mineral mixture in concrete for its various advantages. However the other wastes including bottom ash, so called PA (pond ash) are limitedly reused for reclamation. In this paper, the engineering properties of domestic pond ash which has been used for reclamation are experimentally studied. For this, two reclamation sites (DH and TA) in South Korea are selected, and two domestic PAs are obtained. Cement mortar with two different w/c (water to cement) ratios and 3 different replacement ratios (0%, 30%, and 60%) of sand are prepared for the tests. For workability and physical properties of PA cement mortar, several tests like flow, setting time, and compressive strength are evaluated. Several durability tests including porosity measuring, freezing and thawing, chloride migration, and accelerated carbonation are also performed. Through the tests, PA (especially from DH area) in surface saturated condition is evaluated to have internal curing action which leads to reasonable strength development and durability performances. The results show a potential applicability of PA to concrete aggregate, which can reduce consuming natural resources and lead to active reutilization of coal product waste.

  18. GeoMelt{sup R} ICV{sup TM} Treatment of Sellafield Pond Solids Waste - 13414

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witwer, Keith; Woosley, Steve; Campbell, Brett [Kurion, Inc., GeoMelt Division, 3015 Horn Rapids Road, Richland, Washington (United States); Wong, Martin; Hill, Joanne [AMEC Inc., Birchwood Park, 601 Faraday Street, Birchwood, Warrington, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Kurion, Inc., in partnership with AMEC Ltd., is demonstrating its GeoMelt{sup R} In-Container Vitrification (ICV){sup TM} Technology to Sellafield Ltd. (SL). SL is evaluating the proposition of directly converting a container (skip/box/drum) of raw solid ILW into an immobilized waste form using thermal treatment, such that the resulting product is suitable for interim storage at Sellafield and subsequent disposal at a future Geological Disposal Facility. Potential SL feed streams include sludges, ion-exchange media, sand, plutonium contaminated material, concrete, uranium, fuel cladding, soils, metals, and decommissioning wastes. The solid wastes have significant proportions of metallic constituents in the form of containers, plant equipment, structural material and swarf arising from the nuclear operations at Sellafield. GeoMelt's proprietary ICV process was selected for demonstration, with the focus being high and reactive metal wastes arising from solid ILW material. A composite surrogate recipe was used to demonstrate the technology towards treating waste forms of diverse types and shapes, as well as those considered difficult to process; all the while requiring few (if any) pre-treatment activities. Key strategic objectives, along with their success criterion, were established by SL for this testing, namely: 1. Passivate and stabilize the raw waste simulant, as demonstrated by the entire quantity of material being vitrified, 2. Immobilize the radiological and chemo-toxic species, as demonstrated via indicative mass balance using elemental analyses from an array of samples, 3. Production of an inert and durable product as evidenced by transformation of reactive metals to their inert oxide forms and satisfactory leachability results using PCT testing. Two tests were performed using the GeoMelt Demonstration Unit located at AMEC's Birchwood Park Facilities in the UK. Post-melt examination of the first test indicated some of the waste simulant had not

  19. Utilization of waste waters in fish production: preliminary results from fish culture studies in floating cages in a sewage pond, New Bussa, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Otubusin, S.O.; Olatunde, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The utilization of waste waters in aquaculture were briefly reviewed. At the National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR), stocking density (20 to 160 fish/m super(3)) experiments using Sarotherodon galilaeus (without supplementary feeding) in floating cages were carried out in a sewage pond (0.4ha surface area). Cage culture of S. galilaeus was observed to have potentials in waste waters aquaculture. Recommendations were made on the execution of an intergrated waste water ...

  20. Containment and stabilization technologies for mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A prevalent approach to the cleanup of waste sites contaminated with hazardous chemicals and radionuclides is to contain and/or stabilize wastes within the site. Stabilization involves treating the wastes in some fashion, either in situ or above ground after retrieval, to reduce the leachability and release rate of waste constituents to the environment. This approach is generally reserved for radionuclide contaminants, inorganic hazardous contaminants such as heavy metals, and nonvolatile organic contaminants. This paper describes the recent developments in the technical options available for containing and stabilizing wastes. A brief description of each technology is given along with a discussion of the most recent developments and examples of useful applications

  1. Performance evaluation of cement-stabilized pond ash-rice husk ash-clay mixture as a highway construction material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gupta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an investigation carried out on clay soil stabilized with pond ash (PA, rice husk ash (RHA and cement. Modified Proctor compaction tests were performed in order to investigate the compaction behavior of clay, and California bearing ratio (CBR tests were performed to determine the strength characteristics of clay. For evaluation purpose, the specimens containing different amounts of admixtures were prepared. Clay was replaced with PA and RHA at a dosage of 30%–45% and 5%–20%, respectively. The influence of stabilizer types and dosages on mechanical properties of clay was evaluated. In order to study the surface morphology and crystallization characteristics of the soil samples, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses were carried out, respectively. The results obtained indicated a decrease in the maximum dry density (MDD and a simultaneous increase in the optimum moisture content (OMC with the addition of PA and RHA. Multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA showed that the predicted values of CBR tests are in good agreement with the experimental values. Developed stabilized soil mixtures showed satisfactory strength and can be used for construction of embankments and stabilization of sub-grade soil. The use of locally available soils, PA, RHA, and cement in the production of stabilized soils for such applications can provide sustainability for the local construction industry.

  2. Effects of Environmental Factors on the Disinfection Performance of a Wastewater Stabilization Pond Operated in a Temperate Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment in a wastewater stabilization pond (WSP relies on natural purification processes, which can be sensitive to both location and climate. This study investigated the effects of three environmental factors, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO and temperature, on disinfection efficiency in a WSP system consisting of three facultative cells, and operated in a temperate climate region, in Eastern Ontario, Canada. Indicator organism (Escherichia coli (E. coli removal in WSP systems is driven by a combination of different factors. Elevated pH and DO concentrations, which are attributed to the presence of algae, are important factors for effective disinfection. Therefore, the presence of algae in natural wastewater treatment systems can contribute appreciably to disinfection. Consequently, based on algal concentrations, removal efficiencies of pathogenic microorganisms during wastewater treatment over the course of a year can be highly variable, where higher removal efficiencies would be expected in summer and fall seasons.

  3. Environmental remediation of the Wismut legacy and utilization of the reclaimed areas, waste rock piles and tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, M.; Jakubick, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1945 and reunification (1989) of Germany more than 232 000 t of U 3 O 8 has been produced in Saxony and Thuringia, East Germany. This affected an area of approximately 100 km 2 and left behind an extensive legacy of contaminated operations areas, underground and open pit mines, waste rock piles and tailings ponds. Following reunification, DM 13 billion (Euro 6.6 billion) were committed (and later revised to Euro 6.2 billion) to remediation of the liabilities and the government owned corporation, Wismut GmbH entrusted with the implementation of the Environmental Remediation (ER) of the liabilities. The prime goal of the ER Project follows from the legal requirements to abate health risks, mitigate existing and prevent future environmental damages. During the investigations and assessment of risks, development of remediation concepts, adoption of suitable technologies and work procedures as well as physical implementation of the remedial measures extensive use was made of international (mostly US and Canadian) ER experience. The extent of remedial measures was based on object-specific Environmental Assessments rather than on uniformly applied health/environmental standards. The ER workflow is more an iterative process than a linear succession of tasks, such as common for civil engineering projects. The internal (technical) parts of the problems were partly resolved by using Conceptual Site Models (CSM) for selection and prioritization of remedial measures. Reclamation of the waste rock piles is by covering in situ, relocation to a central pile or backfilling into an open pit. The backfilling of the open pit at Ronneburg with acid generating waste rock has been optimized from a geochemical point of view. For tailings ponds reclamation in form of dry landforms is being followed. To increase release (and reuse) of scrap metal from demolition, a fast and reliable method of discrimination of the non-contaminated metal has been developed. The flooding of

  4. SISTEM PENGOLAHAN AIR ASAM TAMBANG PADA WATER POND DAN APLIKASI MODEL ENCAPSULATION IN-PIT DISPOSAL PADA WASTE DUMP TAMBANG BATUBARA (Acid Mine Drainage Treatment System in Water Pond and Application of Encapsulation In-Pit Disposal Model in Waste Dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R. Erwin Wijaya

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kegiatan pertambangan batubara umumnya dapat menimbulkan dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan di lokasi penambangan. Salah satu dampak negatif yang signifikan adalah terjadinya pencemaran air asam tambang yang dapat merusak fungsi lingkungan seperti komponen air dan tanah. Umumnya lokasi tambang batubara yang berpotensi besar sebagai sumber terbentuknya air asam tambang adalah kolam penampungan air tambang (water pond dan tempat penimbunan material buangan sulfida (waste dump. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengendalikan rembesan air asam tambang yang berasal dari kolam penampungan air (water pond dan mengurangi terbentuknya air asam tambang pada tempat penimbunan material buangan sulfida (waste dunp. Sistem pengendalian pencemaran air asam tambang meliputi pengolahan air asam tambang (water pond dan pengelolaan material sulfida (waste dump. Metode pengolahan air asam tambang adalah menetralisasi air asam dengan reagen alkali. Reagen alkali yang paling efektif dan ekonomis adalah batugamping (kalsium karbonat. Jumlah batugamping yang dibutuhkan untuk menetralkan air asam lambang pada water pond (5040 m3 sebesar 104,56 kg. Pengelolaan material buangan sulfida (waste dump adalah menerapkan model encapsulation in-pit disposal. Hal ini sangat efektif untuk mencegah terbentuknya air asam tambang. Material perlapisan yang digunakan adalah lempung (clay, karena mempunyai nilai permeabilitas yang sangat kecil yaitu sebesar 2,3148 x 10-9 m/det dan ketersediaannya mencukupi.   ABSTRACT Coal mining activity generally can generate negative impact to environment on mining location. One of the negative impact is contamination of acid mine drainage which able to destroy environment and ecosystem as water and soil. High potency source of acid mine drainage formed on coal mining location are water pond and waste dump. This aim of the research are control of acid mine drainage from water pond and prevention of acid mine drainage formed on the waste dump

  5. From passive storage to daily waste retrieval; changing the working culture at Sellafield's pile fuel storage pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, Derek [Sellafield Ltd, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) was built in 1948/50 to treat materials from the Windscale Piles. Multiple operational regimes over the intervening 60 years have resulted in a complex inventory of spent nuclear fuels, solid and liquid intermediate level wastes. A coordinated programme of work, designed to retrieve and safely dispose of the pond contents, has been implemented to enable the decommissioning of the facility. The long period of passive storage operations which preceded the implementation of the programme meant that the operator was faced with a dual challenge of providing new technical capability and changing a working culture that was inappropriate for the dynamic environment required to successfully deliver the programme. It was recognised that the nature of the programme meant that implementing a standard manufacturing approach to operations would not be appropriate. In order to create a dynamic retrievals focussed working culture, the operator has vigorously embraced change programmes aimed at improving a number of working practices including encouraging innovation, managing integrated but flexible production schedules, and encouraging work-face problem solving. The combined impact of beginning to resolve the technical challenges and focussing on the delivery culture has resulted in the facility making a step change towards becoming fully retrievals operations focussed. (authors)

  6. From passive storage to daily waste retrieval; changing the working culture at Sellafield's pile fuel storage pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) was built in 1948/50 to treat materials from the Windscale Piles. Multiple operational regimes over the intervening 60 years have resulted in a complex inventory of spent nuclear fuels, solid and liquid intermediate level wastes. A coordinated programme of work, designed to retrieve and safely dispose of the pond contents, has been implemented to enable the decommissioning of the facility. The long period of passive storage operations which preceded the implementation of the programme meant that the operator was faced with a dual challenge of providing new technical capability and changing a working culture that was inappropriate for the dynamic environment required to successfully deliver the programme. It was recognised that the nature of the programme meant that implementing a standard manufacturing approach to operations would not be appropriate. In order to create a dynamic retrievals focussed working culture, the operator has vigorously embraced change programmes aimed at improving a number of working practices including encouraging innovation, managing integrated but flexible production schedules, and encouraging work-face problem solving. The combined impact of beginning to resolve the technical challenges and focussing on the delivery culture has resulted in the facility making a step change towards becoming fully retrievals operations focussed. (authors)

  7. Nitrate pollution of groundwater around a sewage stabilization pond, Kerala India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasu, K.; Shahul Hameed, A.; Velayudhan, K.T.; Jacob, S.; Mathew, M.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the influence of the sewage stabilisation pont of the Calicut Medical College on the quality of water in the open dug wells which are situated in and around the stabilisation pond. The study revealed that domestic wells are becoming increasingly polluted with nitrate in spite of heavy rainfall in the region. The level of nitrate in the observation wells was found to be vary widely during different seasons: from 1.1 to 49.8, 0.7 to 19.5 and from 2.1 to 38.3 mg/l during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods, respectively. One well had nitrate exceeding the maximum permissible limit specified for drinking water by Bureau of Indian Standards. The problem is more pronounced in summer when the level of nitrate is observed to be on the higher side. (author)

  8. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  9. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA

  10. Long term stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia waste forms. Stability for secular change of partitioned TRU waste composition by disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Ken-ichi; Banba, Tsunetaka; Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Sakai, Etsuro; Uno, Masayoshi; Kinoshita, H.; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the stability of YSZ waste forms for secular change of partitioned TRU waste composition by disintegration, one of important terms in long-term stability, is the special concern. Designed amount of waste and YSZ powder were mixed and sintered. These TRU waste forms were submitted to tests of phase stability, chemical durability, mechanical property and compactness. The results were compared with those of another YSZ waste forms, non-radioactive Ce and/or Nd doped YSZ samples, and glass and Synroc waste forms. Experimental results show following: (1) Phase stability of (Np+Am)-, (Np+U)-, and (Np+U+Bi)-doped YSZ waste forms could be maintained of that of the initial Np+Am-doped YSZ waste form permanently even when the composition of partitioned TRU waste were changed by disintegration. (2) Secular change also accelerated volume increase of YSZ waste forms as well as alpha-decay damage. (3) Hv, E and K IC of (Np+U)- and (Np+U+Bi)-doped YSZ waste forms were independent of the secular change of the partitioned TRU waste composition by disintegration. (4) Mechanical properties of YSZ waste forms were more than those of a glass and Synroc waste forms. (5) Compactness of YSZ waste forms was good as waste forms for the partitioned TRU wastes. (J.P.N.)

  11. Effect of low quality effluent from wastewater stabilization ponds to receiving bodies, case of Kilombero sugar ponds and Ruaha river, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machibya, Magayane; Mwanuzi, Fredrick

    2006-06-01

    A study was conducted in a sewage system at Kilombero Sugar Company to review its design, configuration, effectiveness and the quality of influent and effluent discharged into the Ruaha river (receiving body). The concern was that, the water in the river, after effluent has joined the river, is used as drinking water by villages located downstream of the river. Strategic sampling at the inlet of the oxidation pond, at the outlet and in the river before and after the effluent has joined the receiving body (river) was undertaken. Samples from each of these locations were taken three times, in the morning, noon and evening. The sample were then analysed in the laboratory using standard methods of water quality analysis. The results showed that the configuration and or the layout of the oxidation ponds (treatment plant) were not in accordance with the acceptable standards. Thus, the BOD5 of the effluent discharged into the receiving body (Ruaha River) was in the order of 41 mg/l and therefore not meeting several standards as set out both by Tanzanian and international water authorities. The Tanzanian water authorities, for example, requires that the BOD5 of the effluent discharged into receiving bodies be not more that 30 mg/l while the World Health Organization (WHO) requires that the effluent quality ranges between 10 - 30 mg/l. The paper concludes that proper design of treatment plants (oxidation ponds) is of outmost importance especially for factories, industries, camps etc located in rural developing countries where drinking water from receiving bodies like rivers and lakes is consumed without thorough treatment. The paper further pinpoint that both owners of treatment plants and water authorities should establish monitoring/management plan such that treatment plants (oxidation ponds) could be reviewed regarding the change on quantity of influent caused by population increase.

  12. Effect of Low Quality Effluent from Wastewater Stabilization Ponds to Receiving Bodies, Case of Kilombero Sugar Ponds and Ruaha River, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Mwanuzi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in a sewage system at Kilombero Sugar Company to review its design, configuration, effectiveness and the quality of influent and effluent discharged into the Ruaha river (receiving body. The concern was that, the water in the river, after effluent has joined the river, is used as drinking water by villages located downstream of the river. Strategic sampling at the inlet of the oxidation pond, at the outlet and in the river before and after the effluent has joined the receiving body (river was undertaken. Samples from each of these locations were taken three times, in the morning, noon and evening. The sample were then analysed in the laboratory using standard methods of water quality analysis. The results showed that the configuration and or the layout of the oxidation ponds (treatment plant were not in accordance with the acceptable standards. Thus, the BOD5 of the effluent discharged into the receiving body (Ruaha River was in the order of 41 mg/l and therefore not meeting several standards as set out both by Tanzanian and international water authorities. The Tanzanian water authorities, for example, requires that the BOD5 of the effluent discharged into receiving bodies be not more that 30 mg/l while the World Health Organization (WHO requires that the effluent quality ranges between 10 – 30 mg/l. The paper concludes that proper design of treatment plants (oxidation ponds is of outmost importance especially for factories, industries, camps etc located in rural developing countries where drinking water from receiving bodies like rivers and lakes is consumed without thorough treatment. The paper further pinpoint that both owners of treatment plants and water authorities should establish monitoring/management plan such that treatment plants (oxidation ponds could be reviewed regarding the change on quantity of influent caused by population increase.

  13. Comparative ecology of nuclear waste ponds and streams on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; McShane, M.C.

    1978-10-01

    Limnological and radiological parameters were investigated in ponds and streams on the Hanford Site to develop comprehensive radioecological profiles. While Hanford ponds and streams can be grouped into three categories of nuclide content, only one system (100-N trench) has dose rates exceeding 1 R/week. However, maximum α concentrations in Z-19 ditch water and maximum β-γ concentrations in 100-N trench water both exceeded 10 4 pCi/l. These aquatic environments support populations of commonly occurring algae, macrophytes, invertebrates, and in some cases, fish. Although the variety in algal populations is reduced in 100-N trench and Z-19 ditch, variety in other types of biota are not apparently associated with amounts of radioactivity. The productivity rates of plant life, invertebrates and fish in these systems resemble those in aquatic environments not associated with nuclear activities. Only 100-N trench contains enough radioactivity to be potentially harmful to some aquatic organisms and terrestrial communities. 7 figures, 7 tables

  14. Comparative ecology of nuclear waste ponds and streams on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.M.; McShane, M.C.

    1978-10-01

    Limnological and radiological parameters were investigated in ponds and streams on the Hanford Site to develop comprehensive radioecological profiles. While Hanford ponds and streams can be grouped into three categories of nuclide content, only one system (100-N trench) has dose rates exceeding 1 R/week. However, maximum ..cap alpha.. concentrations in Z-19 ditch water and maximum ..beta..-..gamma.. concentrations in 100-N trench water both exceeded 10/sup 4/ pCi/l. These aquatic environments support populations of commonly occurring algae, macrophytes, invertebrates, and in some cases, fish. Although the variety in algal populations is reduced in 100-N trench and Z-19 ditch, variety in other types of biota are not apparently associated with amounts of radioactivity. The productivity rates of plant life, invertebrates and fish in these systems resemble those in aquatic environments not associated with nuclear activities. Only 100-N trench contains enough radioactivity to be potentially harmful to some aquatic organisms and terrestrial communities. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  15. Radioactive wastes dispersed in stabilized ash cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Carey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most widely-used methods for the solidification/stabilization of low-level radwaste is by incorporation into Type-I/II ordinary portland cement (OPC). Treating of OPC with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO 2 ) has been shown to significantly increase the density, while simultaneously decreasing porosity. In addition, the process significantly reduces the hydrogenous content, reducing the likelihood of radiolytic decomposition reactions. This, in turn, permits increased actinide loadings with a concomitant reduction in disposable waste volume. In this article, the authors discuss the combined use of fly-ash-modified OPC and its treatment with SCCO 2 to further enhance immobilization properties. They begin with a brief summary of current cement immobilization technology in order to delineate the areas of concern. Next, supercritical fluids are described, as they relate to these areas of concern. In the subsequent section, they present an outline of results on the application of SCCO 2 to OPC, and its effectiveness in addressing these problem areas. Lastly, in the final section, they proffer their thoughts on why they believe, based on the OPC results, that the incorporation of fly ash into OPC, followed by supercritical fluid treatment, can produce highly efficient wasteforms

  16. A study of the natural biodegradation of two-phase olive mill solid waste during its storage in an evaporation pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, R; Sánchez, E; Raposo, F; Rincón, B; Jiménez, A M; Martín, A

    2006-01-01

    A study of the natural biodegradation of two-phase olive mill solid waste (OMSW) during its storage in an evaporation pond was carried out. This system is traditionally used as the final disposal of this waste or constitutes a previous stage before being processed by cogeneration or anaerobic digestion processes. A laboratory-scale pond with a total volume of 520 l was used. The experiment was carried out between December 2002 and August 2003 covering a total period of 269 days. During the experiment, the variations of temperature (outside and inside the pond), the effective volume of the OMSW in the pond, moisture content, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), total volatile acids (TVA), pH and cumulative methane production as a function of the operation time were evaluated. The experimental results obtained showed that the characteristics of the two-phase OMSW in the pond were dependent on the time of operation and temperature. During the experiment, three periods were clearly observed and differentiated: (a) An initial period with a rapid reduction of moisture content and effective volume, with an increase of TS, VS and TCOD removals, a decrease of pH and an increase of TVA and methane production until day 21. (b) A second period of slow decrease of moisture content and effective volume, due to the decrease of the ambient temperature. This period took place between day 21 and days 120-150 of assay, and it was characterised by a slight change in the OMSW properties. (c) A third period where the characteristics of the waste in the pond changed considerably due to the increase of the temperature outside the pond. The methane gas production also showed an increase due to the increase of methanogenic activity with the increase of temperature. An empirical model to describe the changes of two-phase OMSW characteristics and methane production with the operation time was developed. The proposed model, based on the use of

  17. Microbial community structures in high rate algae ponds for bioconversion of agricultural wastes from livestock industry for feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Ibekwe, A; Murinda, Shelton E; Murry, Marcia A; Schwartz, Gregory; Lundquist, Trygve

    2017-02-15

    Dynamics of seasonal microbial community compositions in algae cultivation ponds are complex. However, there is very limited knowledge on bacterial communities that may play significant roles with algae in the bioconversion of manure nutrients to animal feed. In this study, water samples were collected during winter, spring, summer, and fall from the dairy lagoon effluent (DLE), high rate algae ponds (HRAP) that were fed with diluted DLE, and municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluent which was included as a comparison system for the analysis of total bacteria, Cyanobacteria, and microalgae communities using MiSeq Illumina sequencing targeting the 16S V4 rDNA region. The main objective was to examine dynamics in microbial community composition in the HRAP used for the production of algal biomass. DNA was extracted from the different sample types using three commercially available DNA extraction kits; MoBio Power water extraction kit, Zymo fungi/bacterial extraction kit, and MP Biomedicals FastDNA SPIN Kit. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) using distance matrices on each variable showed significant differences (P=0.001) in beta-diversity based on sample source. Environmental variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT; P<0.031), total N (P<0.002), total inorganic N (P<0.002), total P (P<0.002), alkalinity (P<0.002), pH (P<0.022), total suspended solid (TSS; P<0.003), and volatile suspended solids (VSS; P<0.002) significantly affected microbial communities in DLE, HRAP, and WWTP. Of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified to phyla level, the dominant classes of bacteria identified were: Cyanobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Epsilon-, and Delta-proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes. Our data suggest that microbial communities were significantly affected in HRAP by different environmental variables, and care must be taken in extraction procedures when evaluating specific groups of microbial communities for

  18. Stabilization of mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, A.M.; Gillins, R.L.; Larsen, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    EG and G Idaho, Inc. has initiated a program to develop safe, efficient, cost-effective treatment methods for the stabilization of some of the hazardous and mixed wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Laboratory-scale testing has shown that extraction procedure toxic wastes can be successfully stabilized by solidification, using various binders to produce nontoxic, stable waste forms for safe, long-term disposal as either landfill waste or low-level radioactive waste, depending upon the radioactivity content. This paper presents the results of drum-scale solidification testing conducted on hazardous, low-level incinerator flyash generated at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The drum-scale test program was conducted to verify that laboratory-scale results could be successfully adapted into a production operation

  19. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt

  20. Permeability of Consolidated Incinerator Facility Wastes Stabilized with Portland Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    The Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) burns low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes as method of treatment and volume reduction. The CIF generates secondary waste, which consists of ash and off-gas scrubber solution. Currently the ash is stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process. The scrubber solution (blowdown) is sent to the SRS Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for treatment as waste water. In the past, the scrubber solution was also stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process as blowcrete and will continue to be treated this way for listed waste burns and scrubber solution that do not meet the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)

  1. Stability of High-Level Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Vienna, John D.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of the proposed effort is to use a new approach to develop solution models of complex waste glass systems and spent fuel that are predictive with regard to composition, phase separation, and volatility. The effort will also yield thermodynamic values for waste components that are fundamentally required for corrosion models used to predict the leaching/corrosion behavior for waste glass and spent fuel material. This basic information and understanding of chemical behavior can subsequently be used directly in computational models of leaching and transport in geologic media, in designing and engineering waste forms and barrier systems, and in prediction of chemical interactions.

  2. RICE-HUSK ASH-CARBIDE-WASTE STABILIZATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper present results of the laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of carbide waste and rice husk ash stabilized reclaimed asphalt pavement waste with a ... of 5.7 % and resistance to loss in strength of 84.1 %, hence the recommendation of the mixture for use as sub-base material in flexible pavement construction.

  3. Solid Waste Biodegradation Enhancements and the Evaluation of Analytical Methods Used to Predict Waste Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Ryan J.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional landfills are built to dispose of the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated each year. A relatively new type of landfill, called a bioreactor landfill, is designed to optimize the biodegradation of the contained waste to stabilized products. Landfills with stabilized waste pose little threat to the environment from ozone depleting gases and groundwater contamination. Limited research has been done to determine the importance of biodegradation enhancement tech...

  4. Technical area status report for waste destruction and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.D.; Harris, T.L.; DeWitt, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs/activities throughout the DOE complex. In order to successfully achieve the goal of properly managing waste and the cleanup of the DOE sites, the EM was divided into five organizations: the Office of Planning and Resource Management (EM-10); the Office of Environmental Quality Assurance and Resource Management (EM-20); the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30); the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40); and the Office of Technology and Development (EM-50). The mission of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to develop treatment technologies for DOE's operational and environmental restoration wastes where current treatment technologies are inadequate or not available. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by OTD to assist in the development of treatment technologies for the DOE mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) whose purpose is to identify, evaluate, and develop treatment technologies within five general technical areas representing waste treatment functions from initial waste handling through generation of final waste forms. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Physical/Chemical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-Stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. This report describes the functions of the Waste Destruction and Stabilization (WDS) group. Specifically, the following items are discussed: DOE waste stream identification; summary of previous efforts; summary of WDS treatment technologies; currently funded WDS activities; and recommendations for future activities

  5. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN

  6. Stability and Volumetric Properties of Asphalt Mixture Containing Waste Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Kader Siti Aminah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to determine the optimum bitumen content (OBC for every percentage added of waste plastics in asphalt mixtures and to investigate the stability properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic. Marshall stability and flow values along with density, air voids in total mix, voids in mineral aggregate, and voids filled with bitumen were determined to obtain OBC at different percentages of waste plastic, i.e., 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen as additive. Results showed that the OBC for the plastic-modified asphalt mixtures at 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% are 4.98, 5.44, 5.48, and 5.14, respectively. On the other hand, the controlled specimen’s shows better volumetric properties compared to plastic mixes. However, 4% additional of waste plastic indicated better stability than controlled specimen.

  7. Integron gene cassettes and degradation of compounds associated with industrial waste: the case of the Sydney tar ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E Koenig

    Full Text Available Integrons are genetic platforms that accelerate lateral gene transfer (LGT among bacteria. They were first detected on plasmids bearing single and multiple drug resistance determinants in human pathogens, and it is abundantly clear that integrons have played a major role in the evolution of this public health menace. Similar genetic elements can be found in nonpathogenic environmental bacteria and in metagenomic environmental DNA samples, and it is reasonable to suppose that integrons have facilitated microbial adaptation through LGT in niches outside infectious disease wards. Here we show that a heavily impacted estuary, exposed for almost a century to products of coal and steel industries, has developed a rich and unique cassette metagenome, containing genes likely to aid in the catabolism of compounds associated with industrial waste found there. In addition, we report that the most abundant cassette recovered in this study is one that encodes a putative LysR protein. This autoregulatory transcriptional regulator is known to activate transcription of linked target genes or unlinked regulons encoding diverse functions including chlorocatechol and dichlorophenol catabolism. Finally, only class 1 integrase genes were amplified in this study despite using different primer sets, and it may be that the cassettes present in the Tar Ponds will prove to be associated with class 1 integrase genes. Nevertheless, our cassette library provides a snapshot of a complex evolutionary process involving integron-meditated LGT likely to be important in natural bioremediation.

  8. Experimental and principal component analysis of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study is aimed at determining through principal component analysis the most important variables affecting bacterial degradation in ponds. Data were collected from literature. In addition, samples were also collected from the waste stabilization ponds at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and analyzed to ...

  9. Solidifications/stabilization treatability study of a mixed waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Stine, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region IV regarding mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) subject to the land disposal restriction provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This agreement required treatability studies of solidification/stabilization (S/S) on mixed wastes from the ORR. This paper reports the results of the cementitious S/S studies conducted on a waste water treatment sludge generated from biodenitrification and heavy metals precipitation. For the cementitious waste forms, the additives tested were Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, Class F fly ash, and perlite. The properties measured on the treated waste were density, free-standing liquid, unconfined compressive strength, and TCLP performance. Spiking up to 10,000, 10,000, and 4,400 mg/kg of nickel, lead, and cadmium, respectively, was conducted to test waste composition variability and the stabilization limitations of the binding agents. The results indicated that nickel, lead and cadmium were stabilized fairly well in the high pH hydroxide-carbonate- ''bug bones'' sludge, but also clearly confirmed the established stabilization potential of cementitious S/S for these RCRA metals

  10. Costs of mixed low-level waste stabilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Cooley, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Selection of final waste forms to be used for disposal of DOE's mixed low-level waste (MLLW) depends on the waste form characteristics and total life cycle cost. In this paper the various cost factors associated with production and disposal of the final waste form are discussed and combined to develop life-cycle costs associated with several waste stabilization options. Cost factors used in this paper are based on a series of treatment system studies in which cost and mass balance analyses were performed for several mixed low-level waste treatment systems and various waste stabilization methods including vitrification, grout, phosphate bonded ceramic and polymer. Major cost elements include waste form production, final waste form volume, unit disposal cost, and system availability. Production of grout costs less than the production of a vitrified waste form if each treatment process has equal operating time (availability) each year; however, because of the lower volume of a high temperature slag, certification and handling costs and disposal costs of the final waste form are less. Both the total treatment cost and life cycle costs are higher for a system producing grout than for a system producing high temperature slag, assuming equal system availability. The treatment costs decrease with increasing availability regardless of the waste form produced. If the availability of a system producing grout is sufficiently greater than a system producing slag, then the cost of treatment for the grout system will be less than the cost for the slag system, and the life cycle cost (including disposal) may be less depending on the unit disposal cost. Treatment and disposal costs will determine the return on investment in improved system availability

  11. Stabilization and disposal of Argonne-West low-level mixed wastes in ceramicrete waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D. B.; Singh, D.; Strain, R. V.; Tlustochowicz, M.; Wagh, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    The technology of room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics or Ceramicretetrademark technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)-East is being used to treat and dispose of low-level mixed wastes through the Department of Energy complex. During the past year, Ceramicretetrademark technology was implemented for field application at ANL-West. Debris wastes were treated and stabilized: (a) Hg-contaminated low-level radioactive crushed light bulbs and (b) low-level radioactive Pb-lined gloves (part of the MWIR number s ign AW-W002 waste stream). In addition to hazardous metals, these wastes are contaminated with low-level fission products. Initially, bench-scale waste forms with simulated and actual waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and an acid phosphate solution, and the wastes. Size reduction of Pb-lined plastic glove waste was accomplished by cryofractionation. The Ceramicretetrademark process produces dense, hard ceramic waste forms. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results showed excellent stabilization of both Hg and Pb in the waste forms. The principal advantage of this technology is that immobilization of contaminants is the result of both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. Based on bench-scale studies, Ceramicretetrademark technology has been implemented in the fabrication of 5-gal waste forms at ANL-West. Approximately 35 kg of real waste has been treated. The TCLP is being conducted on the samples from the 5-gal waste forms. It is expected that because the waste forms pass the limits set by the EPAs Universal Treatment Standard, they will be sent to a radioactive-waste disposal facility

  12. Effects of Organic Load, pH, and EC Variations of Raw Wastewater and Weather Condition on the Efficiency of Yazd Stabilization Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Mozaheb

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of organic load, pH, and EC variations of raw wastewater as well as the effect of weather condition on organic removal in Yazd wastewater Stabilization Ponds (2007. During the course of this study, composite samples were collected from the inlet and outlet of the anaerobic pond and the final effluent to measure such quality parameters as BOD5, COD, TSS, EC, and pH.  BOD5, COD, TSS, and Fecal coliform removal efficiencies in the final effluent were found to be 64.9%, 44.9 %, 62.6 %, and 99.96%, respectively. No intestinal nematode egg was observed. Comparison of BOD5 and COD concentrations in the filtered and non-filtered samples showed that 52% of the BOD5 and 57% of the COD in the final effluent, respectively, were due to the presence of algal mass and organic suspended solids in the non-filtered samples. The results showed that variations in organic load, pH, EC as well as seasonal weather variations had no effects on organic removal and that the removal of BOD5 was almost constant. Effluent EC was higher than influent EC. This phenomenon can be related to the evaporation rate in wastewater stabilization ponds. The survey of algae in the final effluent showed that the major species of algae were Phytoconis, Chlorella, and Anabaena.

  13. Characterisation of winery wastewater from continuous flow settling basins and waste stabilisation ponds over the course of 1 year: implications for biological wastewater treatment and land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, P J; Holtman, G; Haldenwang, R; le Roes-Hill, M

    2016-11-01

    Wineries generate 0.2 to 4 L of wastewater per litre of wine produced. Many cellars make use of irrigation as a means of disposal, either directly or after storage. In order to consider the potential downstream impacts of storage/no storage, this study critically compared the seasonal organic and inorganic composition of fresh winery effluent with effluent that had been stored in waste stabilisation ponds. Ethanol and short chain volatile fatty acids were the main contributors to chemical oxygen demand (COD), with average concentrations of 2,086 and 882 mgCOD/L, respectively. Total phenolics were typically present in concentrations winery effluent should be stored in ponds prior to treatment.

  14. The effect of Chinese pond mussel (Anodonta woodiana as a biofilter on biochemical oxygen demand level in catfish (Clarias sp. farming waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo W.B.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Catfish farming, especially intensive farming will produce waste in the form of feces and leftover feed containing organic matter. Fish feeds are the highest (80% contributor to organic matter in the farming environment. The amount of fish feeds not consumed or wasted in the bottom waters is about 20-50%. Waste from fish feeds and feces will accumulate and degrade the water quality. Chinese pond mussel (Anodonta woodiana is a filter feeder capable of removing materials such as sediments and organic matter from the water column. The purpose of this research is to identify the effect of Chinese pond mussel (Anodonta woodiana on the COD level in catfish farming waste. This study used a completely randomized factorial design with three treatment factors. The treatment factors were treatment factor of size (S i.e. S0=control, S1=6-7 cm, S2=10-11 cm, treatment factor of density (D i.e. D0=control, D1=5 mussels, D2=10 mussels, and D3=15 mussels, and treatment factor of time (at the 9th, 18th, and 36th hour. This experiment used three replications in a 10-liter container. Water quality parameters analyzed were temperature, pH, and COD. The result of this research showed that the best effect of Chinese pond mussel on the COD level was found in the treatment factor of density of 10 mussels with the size of 6-7 cm at the 9th hour. Factors having a significant effect on the COD level were size and density. The interaction between time and density factors and between size and density factors had a significant effect on COD level. The interaction between time, size, and density factors had a significant effect on COD level.

  15. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  16. Annual stability evaluation of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    A stability evaluation of the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was completed by the US Bureau of Mines' WIPP evaluation committee. This work included a critical evaluation of the processes employed at WIPP to ensure stability, an extensive review of available deformation measurements, a 3-day site visit, and interviews with the Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse staff. General ground control processes are in place at WIPP to minimize the likelihood that major stability problems will go undetected. To increase confidence in both short- and long-term stability throughout the site (underground openings and shafts), ground stability monitoring systems, mine layout design, support systems and data analyses must be continuously improved. Such processes appear to be in place at WIPP and are discussed in this paper

  17. Methodology proposal for matrices selection for hazardous wastes stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Jordao, Elizabete

    2002-01-01

    The issues of environmental pollution by solid waste arised with the onset of the industrial era. Coping with these issues has been even worsen due to the lack of consciousness and planning for a sound waste management. In addition, most of the companies have found it difficult to keep themselves competitive in a global economy due to the lack of information and by not having access to waste management new technologies. On the other hand, solidification/stabilization technologies are usual practices in the nuclear industry. The aim of this paper is to present a proposal to the development of a methodology, for selection of immobilization binders for hazardous waste, based on the available technologies in the nuclear industry. (author)

  18. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10 -5 parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables

  19. Zirconium phosphate waste forms for low-temperature stabilization of cesium-137-containing waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Tlustochowicz.

    1996-04-01

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are being developed and fabricated for low-temperature stabilization and solidification of waste streams that are not amenable to conventional high-temperature stabilization processes because volatiles are present in the wastes. A composite of zirconium-magnesium phosphate has been developed and shown to stabilize ash waste contaminated with a radioactive surrogate of 137 Cs. Excellent retainment of cesium in the phosphate matrix system was observed in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure tests. This was attributed to the capture of cesium in the layered zirconium phosphate structure by intercalation ion-exchange reaction. But because zirconium phosphate has low strength, a novel zirconium/magnesium phosphate composite waste form system was developed. The performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfy the regulatory criteria. Test results indicate that zirconium-magnesium-phosphate-based final waste forms present a viable technology for treatment and solidification of cesium-contaminated wastes

  20. Stabilization of low-level mixed waste in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Sarkar, A.V.

    1994-06-01

    Mixed waste streams, which contain both chemical and radioactive wastes, are one of the important categories of DOE waste streams needing stabilization for final disposal. Recent studies have shown that chemically bonded phosphate ceramics may have the potential for stabilizing these waste streams, particularly those containing volatiles and pyrophorics. Such waste streams cannot be stabilized by conventional thermal treatment methods such as vitrification. Phosphate ceramics may be fabricated at room temperature into durable, hard and dense materials. For this reason room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramic waste forms are being developed to stabilize these to ''problem waste streams.''

  1. Utilization of Agricultural Wastes in Stabilization of Landfill Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidzam Rahmat Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk Ash (RHA are local agricultural waste material from Palm Oil Industry and from Paddy Industry in Malaysia. Currently, the disposal of these ashes from a burning process is a problem to both industries, and hence leads to environmental pollution. The main aim of this research was to investigate the potential of utilizing POFA and RHA as sustainable stabilizer material as partial replacement of traditional one which is lime and Portland Cement (PC. Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilization of Malaysian Agricultural wastes POFA and RHA in stabilizing Teluk Kapas Landfill soil. Landfill soil on its own and combination with laterite clay soil were stabilized using POFA or RHA either on its own or in combination with Lime or Portland Cement (PC. The traditional stabilizers of lime or Portland Cement (PC were used as controls. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabilizer contents and moist cured for up to 60 days prior to testing for compressive and water absorption tests. The results obtained showed that landfill soil combined with laterite clay (50:50 stabilized with 20% RHA:PC (50:50and POFA: PC (50:50 recorded the highest values of compressive strength compared to the other compositions of stabilizers and soils. However, when the amount of POFA and RHA increased in the system the compressive strength values of the samples tends to increase. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using POFA and RHA and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  2. Modelling antibiotics transport in a waste stabilization pond system in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Cathrine Christmas; Weisser, Johan J.; Msigala, Sijaona

    2016-01-01

    season were used in development of the model. To determine the model's applicability to simulate the removal of trimethoprim, a calibration was performed using concentrations from the dry season and a validation was performed using concentrations from the rainy season. To test the model's capacity...... system (WSP) “Mafisa” in Morogoro, Tanzania, was developed using STELLA® software package. The model was based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) analysis of trimethoprim, in water collected in the WSP. Concentrations of trimethoprim measured in the dry season and the rainy...... to simulate the removal of other antibiotics than trimethoprim, a second validation was performed for three other antibiotics; metronidazole, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. A two-tailed t-test with a confidence interval of 95% showed no significant difference (P = 0.7819) between the values given...

  3. Measurements of Mercury Released from Solidified/Stabilized Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, C.H.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers work performed during FY 1999-2000 in support of treatment demonstrations conducted for the Mercury Working Group of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area. In order to comply with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as implemented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), DOE must use one of these procedures for wastes containing mercury at levels above 260 ppm: a retorting/roasting treatment or an incineration treatment (if the wastes also contain organics). The recovered radioactively contaminated mercury must then be treated by an amalgamation process prior to disposal. The DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area and Mercury Working Group are working with the EPA to determine if some alternative processes could treat these types of waste directly, thereby avoiding for DOE the costly recovery step. They sponsored a demonstration in which commercial vendors applied their technologies for the treatment of two contaminated waste soils from Brookhaven National Laboratory. Each soil was contaminated with ∼4500 ppm mercury; however, one soil had as a major radioelement americium-241, while the other contained mostly europium-152. The project described in this report addressed the need for data on the mercury vapor released by the solidified/stabilized mixed low-level mercury wastes generated during these demonstrations as well as the comparison between the untreated and treated soils. A related work began in FY 1998, with the measurement of the mercury released by amalgamated mercury, and the results were reported in ORNL/TM-13728. Four treatments were performed on these soils. The baseline was obtained by thermal treatment performed by SepraDyne Corp., and three forms of solidification/stabilization were employed: one using sulfur polymer cement (Brookhaven National Laboratory), one using portland cement [Allied Technology Group (ATG)], and a third using proprietary additives (Nuclear Fuel Services)

  4. Olive mill wastewater evaporation management using PCA method Case study of natural degradation in stabilization ponds (Sfax, Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Sellami, Fatma; Azri, Chafai; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2010-04-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) evaporation ponds management was investigated in five serial evaporation open-air multiponds of 50 ha located in Sfax (Tunisia). Physico-chemical parameters and microbial flora evolution were considered. Empirical models describing the OMW characteristic changes with the operation time were established and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) described the correlation between physico-chemical and biological parameters. COD, BOD, total solids, polyphenols and electrical conductivity exhibited first-order models. Four groups exhibited high correlations. The first included temperature, density, COD, TSS, TS, BOD, VS, TOC, TKN, polyphenols and minerals. The second group was made up of yeasts and moulds. The third group was established with phenolic compounds, total sugars, fats, total phosphorous, NH(4)(+) and pH. The fourth group was constituted by exclusively aerobic bacteria. Bacterial-growth toxic effect was exhibited by high organic load, ash content and polyphenols, whereas moulds and yeasts were more adapted to OMW. During the storage, all the third group parameter values decreased and were inversely related to the others. In the last pond, COD, BOD, TS and TSS rates were reduced by 40%, 50%, 50% and 75% respectively. The evaporation and the biological activity were the main processes acting, predicting the OMW behavior during evaporation in air-open ponds. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial community structures in algae cultivation ponds for bioconversion of agricultural wastes from livestock industry for feed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamics of seasonal microbial community compositions in algae cultivation ponds are complex. There is very limited knowledge on community compositions that may play significant roles in the bioconversion of manure nu¬trients to animal feed. Algae production is an alternative where land area for pro...

  6. In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1993-10-01

    In FY 1993 research continued on development and testing of grout materials for in-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The work on grouting materials was initiated in FY 1992 and the accomplishments for that year are documented in the previous annual report (Allan, Kukacka and Heiser, 1992). The remediation plan involves stabilization of the chromium plume, placement of impermeable vertical and horizontal barriers to isolate the landfill and installation of a surface cap. The required depth of subsurface barriers is approximately 33 m (100 ft). The work concentrated on optimization of grout formulations for use as grout and soil cement barriers and caps. The durability of such materials was investigated, in addition to shrinkage cracking resistance, compressive and flexural strength and permeability. The potential for using fibers in grouts to control cracking was studied. Small scale field trials were conducted to test the practicality of using the identified formulations and to measure the long term performance. Large scale trials were conducted at Sandia as part of the Subsurface Barrier Emplacement Technology Program. Since it was already determined in FY 1992 that cementitious grouts could effectively stabilize the chromium plume at the CWL after pre-treatment is performed, the majority of the work was devoted to the containment aspect

  7. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammy S. Edgecumble Summers

    2001-08-23

    This Analysis Model Report (AMR) was prepared in accordance with the Work Direction and Planning Document, ''Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). It takes into consideration the Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II), which has been selected as the preferred design for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) by the License Application Design Selection (LADS) program team (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The salient features of the EDA II design for this model are a waste package (WP) consisting of an outer barrier of Alloy 22 and an inner barrier of Type 316L stainless steel. This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22l, the current waste-package-outer-barrier (WPOB) material. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: (1) Long-range order reactions; (2) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in the base metal; and (3) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in welded samples.

  8. In-situ thermoelectric stabilization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.A.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1982-02-01

    A new process for stabilizing buried radioactive wastes without exhumation is being developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The process, known as in situ vitrification, converts waste and contaminated soil to a durable glass and crystalline material by passing an electric current between electrodes placed in the ground. Joule heating created by the flowing current has generated temperatures over 1700 0 C which cause the soil to melt and dissolve or encapsulate the wastes. Engineering-scale tests conducted in the laboratory have melted approximately 45 kgs (30 liters) of soil at a time by this technique. Encouraging results from these engineering-scale tests led to the design and construction of a pilot-scale field test unit which has solidified approximately 9000 kg of simulated contaminated soil per test. Test results and evaluations to date have been very promising. No detectable migration of hazardous species into uncontaminated soil has been found, and volatilization during melting has been very low. Leach studies have found the vitrified soil to be a highly durable waste form similar to pyrex glass. Electrical power costs to solidify a disposal site have been calculated at less than $70 per cubic meter ($2/ft 3 ) of waste. Future activities include both radioactive and nonradioactive pilot and large-scale tests

  9. Method of waste stabilization with dewatered chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D.

    2010-06-29

    A method of stabilizing a waste in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC). The method consists of preparing a slurry including the waste, water, an oxide binder, and a phosphate binder. The slurry is then allowed to cure to a solid, hydrated CBPC matrix. Next, bound water within the solid, hydrated CBPC matrix is removed. Typically, the bound water is removed by applying heat to the cured CBPC matrix. Preferably, the quantity of heat applied to the cured CBPC matrix is sufficient to drive off water bound within the hydrated CBPC matrix, but not to volatalize other non-water components of the matrix, such as metals and radioactive components. Typically, a temperature range of between 100.degree. C.-200.degree. C. will be sufficient. In another embodiment of the invention wherein the waste and water have been mixed prior to the preparation of the slurry, a select amount of water may be evaporated from the waste and water mixture prior to preparation of the slurry. Another aspect of the invention is a direct anyhydrous CBPC fabrication method wherein water is removed from the slurry by heating and mixing the slurry while allowing the slurry to cure. Additional aspects of the invention are ceramic matrix waste forms prepared by the methods disclosed above.

  10. Frozen ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, M; Westermann, S.; Anthony, K. Walter

    2015-01-01

    to a warming climate are complex and only poorly understood. Small waterbodies have been attracting an increasing amount of attention since recent studies demonstrated that ponds can make a significant contribution to the CO2 and CH4emissions of tundra ecosystems. Waterbodies also have a marked effect...... on the thermal state of the surrounding permafrost; during the freezing period they prolong the period of time during which thawed soil material is available for microbial decomposition.  This study presents net CH4 production rates during the freezing period from ponds within a typical lowland tundra landscape...

  11. Forecast level in the groundwater regime in the territory adjacent to the pond - storage devices waste mine water "SVIDOVOK"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhrashkina H.P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic scheme layer-bond is proposed for long – term level regime forecast. Which takes into account the rising ground waters under the influence by hydrodynamic schemes: of the pond and of the river Samara. The process is described with Fourier’s equation. The method of double superposition is used in the calculations, which the most accurately accounts for the effect of boundary condition

  12. Zinc Regime in the Sewage Sludge-Soil-Plant System of a City Waste Water Treatment Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatusu Radu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of Iasi, a city with 300,000 inhabitants, for domestic and industrial origin, was stored in a mud pond arranged on an area of 18,920 m2. Chemical analyzes of the sludge showed that, of all the chemical elements determined, only Zn is found at pollutant level (5739 mg∙kg-1, i.e. almost 30 times more than the maximum allowable limit for Zn in soil and 45 times more than the Zn content of the soil on which the mud pond has been set. Over time, the content of Zn in the mud pond, but also from soil to which it has been placed, has become upper the normal content of the surrounding soil up to a depth of 260 cm. On the other hand, the vegetation installed on sewage sludge in the process of mineralization, composed predominantly of Phragmites, Rumex, Chenopodium, and Aster species had accumulated in roots, stems and leaves Zn quantities equivalent to 1463 mg Kg-1, 3988 mg Kg-1, 1463 mg Kg-1, respectively, 1120 mg∙Kg-1. The plants in question represents the natural means of phytoremediation, and sewage sludge as such may constitute a fertilizer material for soils in the area, on which Zn deficiency in maize has been recorded. In addition, the ash resulted from the incineration of plants loaded with zinc may constitute, in its turn, a good material for fertilizing of the soils that are deficient in zinc.

  13. Stability of tailings ponds in the mining district of Mazarron (SE Spain): potential risks for the Moreras Rambla; Estudio de estabilidad en depositos de lodos del Distrito Minero de Mazarron (SE Espana): Riesgos potenciales sobre la Rambla de Las Moreras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J. A.; Martinez-Martinez, S.; Martinez-Pagan, P.; Zornoza, R.; Carmona, D. M.; Faz, A.

    2011-07-01

    We have used geochemical, geophysical and geotechnical techniques to identify and quantify the environmental risks of the San Cristobal and Las Moreras tailing ponds, which have been left since the closing down of Pb-Zn mining activities in a semi-arid Mediterranean area. The results show that the tailings ponds present a potential risk to nearby ecosystems because of their high acidity, high salinity and high concentrations of metals, especially Pb and Zn contain. If the pond dams were to fail or if erosion carried dry sludge to the surrounding areas, the result would be pollution, acidification, salinization, compaction and nutrient depletion of the soil, thus reducing the biodiversity of the area. Geoelectrical tomography has shown the depth of the deposits, their volume and the geomorphology of the basement. The profiles reveal that in none of the pseudo-sections are there any regions betraying cracks that might affect the stability of the structures. In fact, geotechnical studies indicate that on a large scale both ponds are stable. Nevertheless, if we contemplate circular rupture and seismic action in the San Cristobal pond, the safety factor values become critical. It is recommended, therefore, that periodic inspections should be carried out to assess moisture, upsurges and settlements in the dam. To reduce erosion of the surface sludge in the tailing ponds we suggest the application of alkaline and organic remediation so as to improve their geochemical characteristics and encourage the establishment of natural vegetation. (Author) 48 refs.

  14. Oxidative stability of biodiesel blends derived from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feroldi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of biodiesel production is mainly linked to the price of raw material.This factor has favored the use of alternative fats and oils such as those used in frying. Since biodiesel can be obtained from several vegetable and animal raw materials, the physicochemical characteristics of the fuel may vary considerably. One of these characteristics is the fatty acid composition. It directly affects the oxidative stability of biodiesel, which can be impaired when the fuel undergoes exposure to sunlight, metals, oxygen and high temperatures. In order to improve the oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from waste frying oil some studies involving blends of different raw materials have been carried out. In this sense, this work aimed to assess the characteristics resulting from the blending of soybean waste frying oil with other waste biodiesels in what concerns to oxidation. The blends of fatty materials were obtained by means of a 2² factorial design. The induction periods of biodiesel blends were enough to meet the ASTM D6751 standard. Swine fat was responsible for the increase in the induction period values.

  15. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure

  16. The effect of light:dark cycles of medium frequency on photosynthesis by Chlorella vulgaris and the implications for waste stabilisation pond design and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchford, I A J; Fallowfield, H J

    2003-01-01

    The effect of light/dark (L:D) cycle times on the recovery from photoinhibition of green micro-alga Chlorella vulgaris (CCAP211/11c) and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus (CCAP1479/5) was investigated using an irradiated, temperature controlled oxygen electrode. The onset of photoinhibition in both organisms occurred at irradiances > 300 micromol m(-2)s(-1) at temperatures >15 degrees C. Light/dark cycle times were controlled independently using a relay timer and shutter placed between the quartz iodide light source and the oxygen electrode chamber. Oxygen evolution decreased rapidly when cells were continuously irradiated at 300, 500 and 750 micromol m(-2)s(-1). However, Chlorella cells irradiated at 300, 500 and 750 micromol m(-2)s(-1)on a L:D cycle of 60s:20s, 30s:60s and 60s: 120s respectively, maintained a constant rate of oxygen evolution over a 24 h incubation period. Exposure time to a given incident irradiance rather than the total light dose received appeared to determine the effect of light/dark cycle times on photosynthesis. A relationship was established between L:D ratio required to maintain constant oxygen production and incident photon flux density. The results suggest that the adverse effects of high irradiances on algae near the surface of a stratified waste stabilisation pond might be ameliorated by controlled mixing of algal cells through the depth of the pond.

  17. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in vegetables and fish raised in wastewater irrigated fields and stabilization ponds during a non-cholera outbreak period in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounmanou, Yaovi M G; Mdegela, Robinson H; Dougnon, Tamègnon V

    2016-01-01

    gene (tcpA) and the haemolysin gene (hlyA). RESULTS: The prevalence of V. cholerae in wastewater, vegetables and fish was 36.7, 21.7 and 23.3 %, respectively. Two isolates from fish gills were V. cholerae O1 and tested positive for ctx and tcpA. One of these contained in addition the hlyA gene while......BACKGROUND: Cholera, one of the world's deadliest infectious diseases, remains rampant and frequent in Tanzania and thus hinders existing control measures. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in wastewater, fish and vegetables during a non......-outbreak period in Morogoro, Tanzania. METHODS: From October 2014 to February 2015, 60 wastewater samples, 60 fish samples from sewage stabilization ponds and 60 wastewater irrigated vegetable samples were collected. Samples were cultured for identification of V. cholerae using conventional bacteriological...

  18. Long-term stability of high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.; Loida, A.; Malow, G.; Marples, J.A.C.; Matzke, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The long-term stability of HLW forms is reviewed with regard to temperature, irradiation and aqueous corrosion in a geological environment. The paper focuses on borosilicate glasses, but the radiation stability results are compared with some HLW ceramics. Thermal stability: most nuclear waste glass compositions have been adjusted to ensure a low final crystallized fraction. The crystallization of highly active Pamela glass samples was similar to that of nonradioactive glass. Radiation stability: No adverse effect of irradiation damage was found in glasses doped with short-lived actinides: volume changes were small, no significant change in the leach rate was observed, and the fracture toughness increased. For most ceramics investigated, volume changes of up to 9%, amorphization and higher leach rates were observed as a consequence of high α decay doses. For the KAB 78 ceramic, however, none of these effects were detected since the matrix was not subject to α recoil damage. Chemical stability: It has been demonstrated that alteration by water depends largely on the repository conditions. Most clay act as silica sinks, and increase the glass corrosion rate. It is possible, however, to specify realistic temperature, pressure and environmental conditions to ensure glass integrity for more than 10 000 years

  19. Stability of a radioactive waste repository in the Canadian shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahtab, M.A.; Ratigan, J.L.; McCreath, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    A nonlinear finite element analysis is presented for a radioactive waste repository room assumed to be located at a depth of 1,000 meters in the Canadian Shield. The loading of the finite element model is both due to in situ stresses which exist prior to excavation and thermomechanical stresses arising from the radiogenic heat dissipation of the waste assumed to have a half life of 30 years and a gross thermal loading of 32 watts/m 2 . The influence of in situ stress, joint cohesion and joint friction angle on the isolation room stability and support requirements is examined for a simulated period of 30 years. For the range of in situ stress conditions, properties of the jointed rock mass, and the thermal loading considered, the extent of the rock failure is within the capability of conventional rock support measures

  20. Slope stability of rectify coal waste embankments on mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klossek, C.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is of a theoretical and experimental character, focusing on the results of field tests on the load-bearing capacity and stability of high (> 20m.) transportation embankments rectified with coal waste. The embankments are located in industrial areas subjected to the intense impact of underground mining. Such phenomena are also accompanied by essential changes in the water conditions of the subsoil. The results of model tests by SIR geo-radar used to non-damaging estimation of the suffusion occurring in the embankment constructed on non-waste materials are discussed. The numerical assessment of the filtration process has been based on the MFE and MBE programs, which are extended calculation procedures enabling the overall estimation of the redistribution of all the stress-strain components in the structure, in consideration of any hypothesis of the boundary state

  1. Slope Stability Analysis of Waste Dump in Sandstone Open Pit Osielec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Justyna; Cała, Marek; Flisiak, Jerzy; Kolano, Malwina; Kowalski, Michał

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the slope stability analysis for the current as well as projected (final) geometry of waste dump Sandstone Open Pit "Osielec". For the stability analysis six sections were selected. Then, the final geometry of the waste dump was designed and the stability analysis was conducted. On the basis of the analysis results the opportunities to improve the stability of the object were identified. The next issue addressed in the paper was to determine the proportion of the mixture containing mining and processing wastes, for which the waste dump remains stable. Stability calculations were carried out using Janbu method, which belongs to the limit equilibrium methods.

  2. 2101-M pond closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment

  3. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific ''problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  4. Pyrochlore as nuclear waste form. Actinide uptake and chemical stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkeldei, Sarah Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste is generated by many different technical and scientific applications. For the past decades, different waste disposal strategies have been considered. Several questions on the waste disposal strategy remain unanswered, particularly regarding the long-term radiotoxicity of minor actinides (Am, Cm, Np), plutonium and uranium. These radionuclides mainly arise from high level nuclear waste (HLW), specific waste streams or dismantled nuclear weapons. Although many countries have opted for the direct disposal of spent fuel, from a scientific and technical point of view it is imperative to pursue alternative waste management strategies. Apart from the vitrification, especially for trivalent actinides and Pu, crystalline ceramic waste forms are considered. In contrast to glasses, crystalline waste forms, which are chemically and physically highly stable, allow the retention of radionuclides on well-defined lattice positions within the crystal structure. Besides polyphase ceramics such as SYNROC, single phase ceramics are considered as tailor made host phases to embed a specific radionuclide or a specific group. Among oxidic single phase ceramics pyrochlores are known to have a high potential for this application. This work examines ZrO{sub 2} based pyrochlores as potential nuclear waste forms, which are known to show a high aqueous stability and a high tolerance towards radiation damage. This work contributes to (1) understand the phase stability field of pyrochlore and consequences of non-stoichiometry which leads to pyrochlores with mixed cationic sites. Mixed cationic occupancies are likely to occur in actinide-bearing pyrochlores. (2) The structural uptake of radionuclides themselves was studied. (3) The chemical stability and the effect of phase transition from pyrochlore to defect fluorite were probed. This phase transition is important, as it is the result of radiation damage in ZrO{sub 2} based pyrochlores. ZrO{sub 2} - Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets

  5. Pyrochlore as nuclear waste form. Actinide uptake and chemical stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkeldei, Sarah Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated by many different technical and scientific applications. For the past decades, different waste disposal strategies have been considered. Several questions on the waste disposal strategy remain unanswered, particularly regarding the long-term radiotoxicity of minor actinides (Am, Cm, Np), plutonium and uranium. These radionuclides mainly arise from high level nuclear waste (HLW), specific waste streams or dismantled nuclear weapons. Although many countries have opted for the direct disposal of spent fuel, from a scientific and technical point of view it is imperative to pursue alternative waste management strategies. Apart from the vitrification, especially for trivalent actinides and Pu, crystalline ceramic waste forms are considered. In contrast to glasses, crystalline waste forms, which are chemically and physically highly stable, allow the retention of radionuclides on well-defined lattice positions within the crystal structure. Besides polyphase ceramics such as SYNROC, single phase ceramics are considered as tailor made host phases to embed a specific radionuclide or a specific group. Among oxidic single phase ceramics pyrochlores are known to have a high potential for this application. This work examines ZrO 2 based pyrochlores as potential nuclear waste forms, which are known to show a high aqueous stability and a high tolerance towards radiation damage. This work contributes to (1) understand the phase stability field of pyrochlore and consequences of non-stoichiometry which leads to pyrochlores with mixed cationic sites. Mixed cationic occupancies are likely to occur in actinide-bearing pyrochlores. (2) The structural uptake of radionuclides themselves was studied. (3) The chemical stability and the effect of phase transition from pyrochlore to defect fluorite were probed. This phase transition is important, as it is the result of radiation damage in ZrO 2 based pyrochlores. ZrO 2 - Nd 2 O 3 pellets with pyrochlore and defect

  6. Sulfur polymer cement stabilization of elemental mercury mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamed, D.; Fuhrmann, M.; Kalb, P.; Patel, B.

    1998-04-01

    Elemental mercury, contaminated with radionuclides, is a problem throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report describes the development and testing of a process to immobilize elemental mercury, contaminated with radionuclides, in a form that is non-dispersible, will meet EPA leaching criteria, and has low mercury vapor pressure. In this stabilization and solidification process (patent pending) elemental mercury is mixed with an excess of powdered sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and additives in a vessel and heated to ∼35 C, for several hours, until all of the mercury is converted into mercuric sulfide (HgS). Additional SPC is then added and the mixture raised to 135 C, resulting in a homogeneous molten liquid which is poured into a suitable mold where is cools and solidifies. The final stabilized and solidified waste forms were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, as well as tested for leaching behavior and mercury vapor pressure. During this study the authors have processed the entire inventory of mixed mercury waste stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

  7. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO2, TiO2, SiO2) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 - 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm.

  8. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO 2 , TiO 2 , SiO 2 ) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO 2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 – 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm. (paper)

  9. Use of Waste Marble Dust for Stabilization of Clayey Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altug SAYGILI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of utilizing waste marble dust in stabilizing problematic soils (especially swelling clays. The research work was divided into two sections. The first section deals with the shear strength parameters and swelling characteristics, the second section deals with the microstructural investigation of the improved problematic soils. The marble dust addition ratios which have been studied were 0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % by weight. Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of soil and marble dust samples were investigated. In addition, SEM analyses were performed on the specimens. Test results indicate that marble dust addition improved the shear strength parameters and reduced the swell potential of the tested clay samples. Marble dust had a noticeable role in the hydration process because of high calcium content. Obtained results showed that marble dust addition to the clay samples will reduce the cost of constructing structures on problematic soils, and finding new utilization areas for waste marble dust will decrease environmental pollution. Utilizing waste marble dust materials in problematic soils will have great contribution to the economy and conservation of resources.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.11966

  10. Stabilization and Solidification of Nitric Acid Effluent Waste at Y-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dileep [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-16

    Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC (CNS) at the Y-12 plant is investigating approaches for the treatment (stabilization and solidification) of a nitric acid waste effluent that contains uranium. Because the pH of the waste stream is 1-2, it is a difficult waste stream to treat and stabilize by a standard cement-based process. Alternative waste forms are being considered. In this regard, Ceramicrete technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, is being explored as an option to solidify and stabilize the nitric acid effluent wastes.

  11. Evaluating the cement stabilization of arsenic-bearing iron wastes from drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Tara M; Snyder, Kathryn V; Reddy, Raghav; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Amrose, Susan E; Raskin, Lutgarde; Hayes, Kim F

    2015-12-30

    Cement stabilization of arsenic-bearing wastes is recommended to limit arsenic release from wastes following disposal. Such stabilization has been demonstrated to reduce the arsenic concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), which regulates landfill disposal of arsenic waste. However, few studies have evaluated leaching from actual wastes under conditions similar to ultimate disposal environments. In this study, land disposal in areas where flooding is likely was simulated to test arsenic release from cement stabilized arsenic-bearing iron oxide wastes. After 406 days submersed in chemically simulated rainwater, wastes. Presenting the first characterization of cement stabilized waste using μXRF, these results revealed the majority of arsenic in cement stabilized waste remained associated with iron. This distribution of arsenic differed from previous observations of calcium-arsenic solid phases when arsenic salts were stabilized with cement, illustrating that the initial waste form influences the stabilized form. Overall, cement stabilization is effective for arsenic-bearing wastes when acidic conditions can be avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Disposal and reclamation of southwestern coal and uranium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wewerka, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    The types of solid wastes and effluents produced by the southwestern coal and uranium mining and milling industries are considered, and the current methods for the disposal and reclamation of these materials discussed. The major means of disposing of the solid wastes from both industries is by land fill or in some instances ponding. Sludges or aqueous wastes are normally discharged into settling and evaporative ponds. Basic reclamation measures for nearly all coal and uranium waste disposal sites include solids stabilization, compacting, grading, soil preparation, and revegetation. Impermeable liners and caps are beginning to be applied to disposal sites for some of the more harmful coal and uranium waste materials

  13. Quality assurance project plan for the Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization Project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization (CRFAPS) Project will stabilize a 19-m-high (62-ft-high) earthen embankment across Upper McCoy Branch situated along the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge. This task will be accomplished by raising the crest of the embankment, reinforcing the face of the embankment, removing trees from the face and top of the embankment, and repairing the emergency spillway. The primary responsibilities of the team members are: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) will be responsible for project integration, technical support, Title 3 field support, environmental oversight, and quality assurance (QA) oversight of the project; Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) will be responsible for design and home office Title 3 support; MK-Ferguson of Oak Ridge Company (MK-F) will be responsible for health and safety, construction, and procurement of construction materials. Each of the team members has a QA program approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations. This project-specific QA project plan (QAPP), which is applicable to all project activities, identifies and integrates the specific QA requirements from the participant's QA programs that are necessary for this project

  14. Vermicomposting of Food Waste: Assessing the Stability and Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Majlessi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vermicompost using earthworms (Eisenia Fetida was produced from food waste and chemical parameters (EC, pH, carbon to nitrogen contents(C/N and germination bioassaywas examined in order to assess the stability and maturity indicators during the vermicomposting process. The seed used in the germination bioassay was cress.The ranges of EC,pH, C/N and germination index were 7.5-4.9 mS/cm, 5.6-7.53, 30.13-14.32% and 12.8- 58.4%, espectively. The germination index (GI value revealed that vermicompost rendered as moderate phytotoxic to cress seed.Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between the parameters. High statistically significant correlation coefficient was calculated between the GI value and EC in the vermicompost at the 99% confidence level.The C/N value showed that the vermicompost was stable. As a result of these observations, stability test alone, was not able to ensure high vermicompost quality. Therefore, it appears that determining vermicompost quality requires a simultaneous use of maturity and stability tests.

  15. Liner used in tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinchak, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    A composite liner has been developed for use in hazardous waste impoundments and in tailings ponds where uranium is involved. The liner offers a high degree of reliability against seepage, is durable, and provides a firm working surface. The advantages of the liner are discussed

  16. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-01-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10 -14 to 10 -4 curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095)

  17. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Wong

    2004-09-28

    This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP

  18. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Wong

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP phases (P, μ, and σ) are present in

  19. Hydrothermal alkaline stability of bentonite barrier by concrete interstitial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguey Jimenez, S.; Cuevas Rodriguez, J.; Ramirez Martin, S.; Vigil de la villa Mencia, R.; Martin Barca, M.

    2002-01-01

    At present, the main source of High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) is the electrical energy production during all the steps of developing. In almost all the countries with nuclear programs, the option for the final management of HLW is the Deep Geological Repository (DGR) based on the concept of multi barrier. According to this concept, the waste is isolated from biosphere by the interposition of confinement barriers. Two of the engineering barriers in the Spanish design of DGR in granitic rock are compacted bentonite and concrete. The bentonite barrier is the backfilling and sealing material for the repository gallery, because of its mechanical and physico-chemical properties. The main qualities of concrete as a component of a multi barrier system are its low permeability, mechanical resistance and chemical properties. With regard to chemical composition of concrete, the alkaline nature of cement pore water lowers the solubility of many radioactive elements. However, structural transformation in smectite, dissolution or precipitation of minerals and, consequently, changes in the bentonite properties could occurs in the alkaline conditions generated by the cement degradation. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the effect of concrete in the stability of Spanish reference bentonite (La Serrata of Nijar, Almeria, Spain) in conditions similar to those estimated in a DGR in granitic rock. Because of the main role of bentonite barrier in the global performance of the repository, the present study is essential to guarantee its security. (Author)

  20. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting

  1. Radiation displacement damage estimates for a radionuclide waste stabilization material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, K.W.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the number of atomic displacements produced in pollucite by the radioactive decay of Cs-134 are made. Pollucite is a candidate material for radionuclide waste stabilization, while Cs-134 is one of the radionuclide products which would be chemically bound in the pollucite lattice. At the maximum concentration of Cs-134 in pollucite, assuming a threshold displacement energy of 15.0 eV, the displacement rate is estimated to be 4.3 x 10 12 atoms/cm 3 /second which includes all atomic species in the pollucite lattice. It was found that most of the displacements, 85 percent, were caused by elastic scattering of photoelectrons and Compton electrons which are products of γ-ray interactions in the material. Most of the remaining displacements are caused by elastic scattering of β-particles. Recoil energies of the Ba daughter product are insufficient to cause displacement. Atomic displacements of nearest neighbors, atoms within one lattice spacing of the decay site, are estimated to be 2.7 x 10 6 atoms/cm 3 /second. These estimates provide a starting point for assessing the long term stability of pollucite to radiation damage

  2. Toxic and hazardous waste disposal. Volume 1. Processes for stabilization/solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pojasek, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Processes for the stabilization and/or solidification of toxic, hazardous, and radioactive wastes are reviewed. The types of wastes classified as hazardous are defined. The following processes for the solidification of hazardous wastes are described: lime-based techniques; thermoplastic techniques; organic polymer techniques; and encapsulation. The following processes for the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes are described: calcination; glassification; and ceramics. The solidification of low-level radioactive wastes with asphalt, cement, and polymeric materials is also discussed. Other topics covered include: the use of an extruder/evaporator to stabilize and solidify hazardous wastes; effect disposal of fine coal refuse and flue gas desulfurization slurries using Calcilox additive stabilization; the Terra-Tite Process; the Petrifix Process; the SFT Terra-Crete Process; Sealosafe Process; Chemfix Process; and options for disposal of sulfur oxide wastes

  3. Sulfur polymer cement, a solidification and stabilization agent for hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Hydraulic cements have been the primary radioactive waste stabilization agents in the United States for 50 years. Twelve years ago, Brookhaven National Laboratory was funded by the Department of Energy's Defense Low-Level Waste Management Program to test and develop sulfur polymer cement (SPC). It has stabilized routine wastes as well as some troublesome wastes with high waste-to-agent ratios. The Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program joined the effort by providing funding for testing and developing sulfur polymer cement as a hazardous-waste stabilization agent. Sulfur polymer cement has passed all the laboratory scale tests required by the US Environmental Protection Agency and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two decades of tests by the US Bureau of Mines and private concrete contractors indicate this agent is likely to exceed other agents in longevity. This bulletin provides technical data from pertinent tests conducted by these various entities

  4. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Singh, Dileep

    1997-01-01

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH).sub.4 to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set.

  5. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM; PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED MINE WASTE YARD SOILS, JOPLIN, MISSOURI NPL SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  6. Geomembrane selection criteria for uranium tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.; Cuello, R.

    1986-09-01

    The selection criteria, particularly those involving chemical compatibility, of geomembranes to be used in ponds at uranium mill operations are discussed. The principal functional criteria which a geomembrane must meet for this application are: (1) a specified service life and (2) low permeability. Chemical compatibility with the waste is essential in meeting these functional criteria. In two different types of aging tests using simulated acidic uranium mill waste, degradation of chemical and physical properties were examined in geomembranes of high-density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and chlorosulfonated polyethylene. Compatibility tests according to the National Sanitation Foundation procedures are recommended to ascertain the stability of certain physical properties of the proposed geomembrane. Actual experience with a specific geomembrane in an identical application is probably the best method to assure compatibility; however, this experience is frequently not available. Experience with a geomembrane in similar applications is valuable in the selection process, however, small differences in either the geomembrane formulation or the waste composition may result in large differences in performance of the geomembrane. It is likely that many geomembranes have acceptable chemical stability for typical uranium mill applications, therefore, additional factors in the selection processes will include seaming characteristics, mechanical properties, site characteristics, and costs

  7. Industrial Wastes as Auxiliary Additives to Cement/Lime Stabilization of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijo James

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stabilization involves the use of chemical agents for initiating reactions within the soil for modification of its geotechnical properties. Cement and lime stabilization have been the most common stabilization methods adopted for soil treatment. Cement stabilization results in good compressive strengths and is preferred for cohesionless to moderately cohesive soil but loses effectiveness when the soil is highly plastic. Lime stabilization is the most preferred method for plastic clays; however, it proves to be ineffective in sulphate rich clays and performs poorly under extreme conditions. With such drawbacks, lots of researches have been undertaken to address the issues faced with each stabilization method, in particular, the use of solid wastes for soil stabilization. Solid waste reuse has gained high momentum for achieving sustainable waste management in recent times. Research has shown that the use of solid wastes as additives with and replacement for conventional stabilizers has resulted in better results than the performance of either individually. This review provides insight into some of the works done by earlier researchers on lime/cement stabilization with industrial wastes as additives and helps to form a sound platform for further research on industrial wastes as additives to conventional stabilizers.

  8. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  9. Vitrification of F006 plating waste sludge by Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Solidification into glass of nickel-on-uranium plating wastewater treatment plant sludge (F006 Mixed Waste) has been demonstrated at the Savannah River She (SRS). Vitrification using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), greatly enhanced the solubility and retention of heavy metals In glass. The bench-scale tests using RASP achieved 76 wt% waste loading In both soda-lime-silica and borosilicate glasses. The RASP has been Independently verified by a commercial waste management company, and a contract awarded to vitrify the approximately 500,000 gallons of stored waste sludge. The waste volume reduction of 89% will greatly reduce the disposal costs, and delisting of the glass waste is anticipated. This will be the world's first commercial-scale vitrification system used for environmental cleanup of Mixed Waste. Its stabilization and volume reduction abilities are expected to set standards for the future of the waste management Industry

  10. Long-term cover design for low-level radioactive and hazardous waste sites as applied to the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site solar evaporation ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenseng, S.E.; Nixon, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) operated five lined solar evaporation ponds (SEPs) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Jefferson County, Colorado from 1953 until 1986. The SEPs were used primarily to store and evaporate low-level radioactive and hazardous process wastes. Operation of the SEPs has resulted in contamination of the surrounding soils, and may also provide a source of groundwater contamination. The DOE proposes to close the SEPs by consolidating the contaminated material beneath an engineered cover. The primary objective of the closure of such hazardous and radioactive sites is to limit the exposure of the general public to the contaminants for time periods ranging from 100 to 10,000 years. The goal of the SEPs engineered cover is to isolate hazardous and low-level radioactive soils for a minimum of 1,000 years. Since there is currently no existing regulatory design guidance for a 1,000-year engineered cover, the proposed design of the SEPs engineered cover is based on research and testing that has been conducted for many years at various DOE facilities in the US. This paper discusses the main design theories of the proposed engineered cover for the closure of the SEPs, and how the research and test results of these other programs have been used to arrive at the final cover configuration, the material selections, the component layering, layer thicknesses, and the balance and interaction between components to establish an overall effective cover system

  11. Laboratory-performance criteria for in situ waste-stabilization materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Weidner, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is investigating a variety of in situ placement methods, grout materials, and characterization techniques for the stabilization of buried low-level transuranic-contaminated waste at Department of Energy sites. In situ stabilization involves underground injection or placement of substances to isolate, treat, or contain buried contaminants. Performance criteria were developed to evaluate various candidate stabilization materials for both long-term stabilization and interim stabilization or retrieval. The criteria are go/no-go, ready, and preliminary. The criterion go/no-go eliminates technologies that are not applicable for in situ treatment of buried waste. The criterion ready indicates that the technology is sufficiently developed and proven to be field demonstrated full-scale. The criterion preliminary indicates the prospective technologies to be potentially applicable to in situ buried waste stabilization, but further development is needed before the technology is ready for field-scale demonstration

  12. Effect of Cement Replacement with Carbide Waste on the Strength of Stabilized Clay Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntohar A.S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cement is commonly used for soil stabilization and many other ground improvement techniques. Cement is believed to be very good to improve the compressive and split-tensile strength of clay subgrades. In some application cement could be partly or fully replaced with carbide waste. This research is to study the effectiveness of the cement replacement and to find the maximum carbide waste content to be allowed for a clay subgrade. The quantities of cement replaced with the carbide waste were 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% by its mass. The results show that replacing the cement with carbide waste decreased both the compressive and split tensile strength. Replacing cement content with carbide waste reduced its ability for stabilization. The carbide waste content should be less than 70% of the cement to provide a sufficient stabilizing effect on a clay subgrade.

  13. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  14. In-situ thermeolectric stabilization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.A.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Current analysis indicates that in situ vitrification is applicable to many wastes and soil types at a cost an order of magnitude less than exhumation, processing, and transportation to a deep geological disposal site. Once the waste materials have been solidified, future ground subsidence, wind erosion and plant or animal intrusion are virtually eliminated. Furthermore, the waste form is extremely durable

  15. Actinide speciation bound to hydrous ferric oxide colloids in the near-field conditions of the waste pond at 'Mayak' facility (Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, St.; Khasanova, A.; Kriventsov, V.; Teterin, Y.; Novikov, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: 'Mayak' facility is a nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant located in Ural Mountains, Russia. The opened pond, Karachay Lake, was used for several decades for the discharge of low- and intermediate level waste solutions containing fission products and traces of actinides. Due to high salt concentration and high density of waste solutions, they are penetrating into the groundwater system that is represented by oxic Eh conditions. The speciation of actinides in groundwater samples collected close to Karachay Lake was studied by successive micro- and ultra-filtrations with subsequent SEM, TEM, nano-SIMS, membrane extraction and other techniques. It was established that U and Np were found in soluble fraction (pass through 10 kD ultra-filter) in the form of their bi- and tri-carbonate complexes that was supported by chemical thermodynamic calculations. In contrast, Pu and Am were bound to nano-colloids 10 kD - 50 nm in size. The SEM and TEM data indicate the presence of variety of different colloidal particles which relative concentration decrease in the row: hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) >> clays ≅ calcite > rutile ≅ hematite ≅ barite ≅ MnO 2 > monazite > other phases. The SIMS with submicron resolution (Cameca nanoSIMS-50) was used to study local concentration of actinides. According to the obtained data among different colloids detected in the sample actinides were preferentially bound to HFO and MnO 2 while other phases did not sorb actinides. In order to determine actinide speciation bound to HFO colloids XPS and An L 3 edge XAFS measurements were done at Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Centre. The storage ring VEPP-3 with electron beam energy of 2 GeV and an average stored current of 80 mA was used as the source of radiation. Since the concentration of actinides in actual samples was too low for XAFS, the samples for measurements were prepared by contacting about 10 -5 M solutions of Np(V) and Pu(V) with

  16. A technical basis for meeting waste form stability requirements of 10 CFR 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.Y.; Skoski, L.; Eng, R.; Tuite, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    To assure that solidified low level waste forms meet the stability requirements of 10 CFR 61 regulations, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published Branch Technical Positions (BTPs) and draft Regulatory Guide on waste form stability. These guidance documents describe the test procedures and acceptance criteria for six stability parameters: leachability, compressive strength, immersion effect, radiation effect, thermal stability and biodegradability. The most recent set of recommended tests and acceptance criteria are presented in the November 1986 Preliminary Draft Regulatory Guide Low Level Waste Form Stability. The objective of this study was to: (1) investigate the regulatory and technical bases for the required stability tests, (2) evaluate the relevance of these tests and acceptance criteria based on actual test results, and (3) recommended alternatives to the testing and acceptance criteria. The latter two objectives are discussed in this paper

  17. Validation of enhanced stabilization of municipal solid waste under controlled leachate recirculation using FTIR and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sapna; Kothiyal, N C; Nema, Arvind K

    2012-07-01

    Leachate recirculation at neutral PH accompanied with buffer/nutrients addition has been used successfully in earlier stabilization of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills. In the present study, efforts were made to enhance the stabilization rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) and organic solid waste (OSW) in simulated landfill bioreactors by controlling the pH of recirculated leachate towards slightly alkaline side in absence of additional buffer and nutrients addition. Enhanced stabilization in waste samples was monitored with the help of analytical tools like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Predominance of bands assigned to inorganic compounds and comparatively lower intensities of bands for organic compounds in the FTIR spectra of waste samples degraded with leachate recirculation under controlled pH confirmed higher rate of biodegradation and mineralization of waste than the samples degraded without controlled leachate recirculation. XRD spectra also confirmed to a greater extent of mineralization in the waste samples degraded under leachate recirculation with controlled pH. Comparison of XRD spectra of two types of wastes pointed out higher degree of mineralization in organic solid waste as compared to municipal solid waste.

  18. Fault Frictional Stability in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Felipe; Violay, Marie; Scuderi, Marco; Collettini, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    Exploitation of underground resources induces hydro-mechanical and chemical perturbations in the rock mass. In response to such disturbances, seismic events might occur, affecting the safety of the whole engineering system. The Mont Terri Rock Laboratory is an underground infrastructure devoted to the study of geological disposal of nuclear waste in Switzerland. At the site, it is intersected by large fault zones of about 0.8 - 3 m in thickness and the host rock formation is a shale rock named Opalinus Clay (OPA). The mineralogy of OPA includes a high content of phyllosilicates (50%), quartz (25%), calcite (15%), and smaller proportions of siderite and pyrite. OPA is a stiff, low permeable rock (2×10-18 m2), and its mechanical behaviour is strongly affected by the anisotropy induced by bedding planes. The evaluation of fault stability and associated fault slip behaviour (i.e. seismic vs. aseismic) is a major issue in order to ensure the long-term safety and operation of the repository. Consequently, experiments devoted to understand the frictional behaviour of OPA have been performed in the biaxial apparatus "BRAVA", recently developed at INGV. Simulated fault gouge obtained from intact OPA samples, were deformed at different normal stresses (from 4 to 30 MPa), under dry and fluid-saturated conditions. To estimate the frictional stability, the velocity-dependence of friction was evaluated during velocity steps tests (1-300 μm/s). Slide-hold-slide tests were performed (1-3000 s) to measure the amount of frictional healing. The collected data were subsequently modelled with the Ruina's slip dependent formulation of the rate and state friction constitutive equations. To understand the deformation mechanism, the microstructures of the sheared gouge were analysed. At 7 MPa normal stress and under dry conditions, the friction coefficient decreased from a peak value of μpeak,dry = 0.57 to μss,dry = 0.50. Under fluid-saturated conditions and same normal stress, the

  19. Thermal phase stability of some simulated Defense waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.P.

    1981-04-01

    Three simulated defense waste glass compositions developed by Savannah River Laboratories were studied to determine viscosity and compositional effects on the comparative thermal phase stabilities of these glasses. The glass compositions are similar except that the 411 glasses are high in lithium and low in sodium compared to the 211 glass, and the T glasses are high in iron and low in aluminum compared to the C glass. Specimens of these glasses were heat treated using isothermal anneals as short as 10 min and up to 15 days over the temperature range of 450 0 C to 1100 0 C. Additionally, a specimen of each glass was cooled at a constant cooling rate of 7 0 C/hour from an 1100 0 C melt down to 500 0 C where it was removed from the furnace. The following were observed. The slow cooling rate of 7 0 C/hour is possible as a canister centerline cooling rate for large canisters. Accordingly, it is important to note that a short range diffusion mechanism like cooperative growth phenomena can result in extensive devitrification at lower temperatures and higher yields than a long-range diffusion mechanism can; and can do it without the growth of large crystals that can fracture the glass. Refractory oxides like CeO 2 and (Ni, Mn, Fe) 2 O 4 form very rapidly at higher temperatures than silicates and significant yields can be obtained at sufficiently high temperatures that settling of these dense phases becomes a major microstructural feature during slow cooling of some glasses. These annealing studies further show that below 500 0 C there is but little devitrification occurring implying that glass canisters stored at 300 0 C may be kinetically stable despite not being thermodynamically so

  20. Thermal phase stability of some simulated Defense waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, R.P.

    1981-04-01

    Three simulated defense waste glass compositions developed by Savannah River Laboratories were studied to determine viscosity and compositional effects on the comparative thermal phase stabilities of these glasses. The glass compositions are similar except that the 411 glasses are high in lithium and low in sodium compared to the 211 glass, and the T glasses are high in iron and low in aluminum compared to the C glass. Specimens of these glasses were heat treated using isothermal anneals as short as 10 min and up to 15 days over the temperature range of 450/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C. Additionally, a specimen of each glass was cooled at a constant cooling rate of 7/sup 0/C/hour from an 1100/sup 0/C melt down to 500/sup 0/C where it was removed from the furnace. The following were observed. The slow cooling rate of 7/sup 0/C/hour is possible as a canister centerline cooling rate for large canisters. Accordingly, it is important to note that a short range diffusion mechanism like cooperative growth phenomena can result in extensive devitrification at lower temperatures and higher yields than a long-range diffusion mechanism can; and can do it without the growth of large crystals that can fracture the glass. Refractory oxides like CeO/sub 2/ and (Ni, Mn, Fe)/sub 2/O/sub 4/ form very rapidly at higher temperatures than silicates and significant yields can be obtained at sufficiently high temperatures that settling of these dense phases becomes a major microstructural feature during slow cooling of some glasses. These annealing studies further show that below 500/sup 0/C there is but little devitrification occurring implying that glass canisters stored at 300/sup 0/C may be kinetically stable despite not being thermodynamically so.

  1. Slag-based materials for toxic metal and radioactive waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a salt solution that is a hazardous waste and has both corrosive and metal toxicity characteristics. Objectives of a wasteform designed to stabilize this solution are presented. Disposal site characterization studies are examined

  2. The design on high slope stabilization in waste rock sites of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Taoan; Zhou Xinghuo; Liu Jia

    2005-01-01

    Design methods, reinforcement measures, and flood control measures concerning high slope stabilization in harnessing waste rock site are described in brief according to some examples of two uranium mines in Hunan province. (authors)

  3. Dynamic respiration index as a descriptor of the biological stability of organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Fabrizio; Confalonieri, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia

    2004-01-01

    Analytical methods applicable to different organic wastes are needed to establish the extent to which readily biodegradable organic matter has decomposed (i.e., biological stability). The objective of this study was to test a new respirometric method for biological stability determination of organic wastes. Dynamic respiration index (DRI) measurements were performed on 16 organic wastes of different origin, composition, and biological stability degree to validate the test method and result expression, and to propose biological stability limits. In addition, theoretical DRI trends were obtained by using a mathematical model. Each test lasted 96 h in a 148-L-capacity respirometer apparatus, and DRI was monitored every hour. The biological stability was expressed as both single and cumulative DRI values. Results obtained indicated that DRI described biological stability in relation to waste typology and age well, revealing lower-stability waste characterized by a well-pronounced DRI profile (a marked peak was evident) that became practically flat for samples with higher biological stability. Fitting indices showed good model prediction compared with the experimental data, indicating that the method was able to reproduce the aerobic process, providing a reliable indication of the biological stability. The DRI can therefore be proposed as a useful method to measure the biological stability of organic wastes, and DRI values, calculated as a mean of 24 h of the highest microbial activity, of 1000 and 500 mg O(2) kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) h(-1) are proposed to indicate medium (e.g., fresh compost) and high (e.g., mature compost) biological stabilities, respectively.

  4. Finding of no significant impact shipment of stabilized mixed waste from the K-25 Site to an off-site commercial disposal facility, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the shipment of stabilized mixed waste, removed from K-1407-B and -C ponds, to an off-site commercial disposal facility (Envirocare) for permanent land disposal. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  5. 216-T-4 interim stabilization final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a general description of the activities performed for the interim stabilization of the 216-T-4-1 ditch, 216-T-4-2 ditch, and 216-T-4-2 pond. Interim stabilization was required to reduce the amount of surface-contaminated acres and to minimize the migration of radioactive contamination. Work associated with the 216-T4-1 ditch and 216-T-4-2 pond was performed by the Radiation Area Remedial Action (RARA) Project. Work associated with the 216-T-4-2 ditch was done concurrently but was funded by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS)

  6. Effects of hydrated lime on radionuclides stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J; Snyder, Michelle M V; Bowden, Mark E; Triplett, Mark B; Buck, Edgar C

    2017-10-01

    Chemical stabilization of tank residual waste is part of a Hanford Site tank closure strategy to reduce overall risk levels to human health and the environment. In this study, a set of column leaching experiments using tank C-104 residual waste were conducted to evaluate the leachability of uranium (U) and technetium (Tc) where grout and hydrated lime were applied as chemical stabilizing agents. The experiments were designed to simulate future scenarios where meteoric water infiltrates through the vadose zones into the interior of the tank filled with layers of grout or hydrated lime, and then contacts the residual waste. Effluent concentrations of U and Tc were monitored and compared among three different packing columns (waste only, waste + grout, and waste + grout + hydrated lime). Geochemical modeling of the effluent compositions was conducted to determine saturation indices of uranium solid phases that could control the solubility of uranium. The results indicate that addition of hydrated lime strongly stabilized the uranium through transforming uranium to a highly insoluble calcium uranate (CaUO 4 ) or similar phase, whereas no significant stabilization effect of grout or hydrated lime was observed on Tc leachability. The result implies that hydrated lime could be a great candidate for stabilizing Hanford tank residual wastes where uranium is one of the main concerns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Stabilization of high-level waste from a chloride volatility nuclear fuel reprocessing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Thornton, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for stabilizing high-level waste from a chloride volatility thorium-based fuel coprocessing system have been studied. The waste, which is present as chloride salts, is combined with SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 and pyrohydrolyzed to remove the chloride ions. The resulting solid is then combined with a flux and glassified. 3 figures, 4 tables

  8. Lake or Pond WBID

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT DEC (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation) manages an inventory of lake and pond information. The "Lakes and Ponds Inventory" stores the Water...

  9. Microbial activities and communities in oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, Lisa; Ramos, Esther; Clothier, Lindsay; Bordenave, Sylvain; Lin, Shiping; Voordouw, Gerrit; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses how the microbial communities and their activity play a vital role in tailings ponds. The ponds contain microorganisms along with metals, hydrocarbon diluent, naphthenic acid and others. The ponds play an important role in mining operations because they store bitumen extraction waste and also allow water to be re-used in the bitumen extraction process. Pond management presents a few challenges that include, among others, gas emissions and the presence of toxic and corrosive acids. Microbial activities and communities help in managing these ponds. Microbial activity measurement in active and inactive ponds is described and analyzed and the results are presented. The conditions for reducing sulfate, nitrate and iron are also presented. From the results it can be concluded that naphthenic acids can potentially serve as substrates for anaerobic populations in tailings ponds.

  10. In-situ stabilization of TRU/mixed waste project at the INEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milian, L.W.; Heiser, J.H.; Adams, J.W.; Rutenkroeger, S.P.

    1997-08-01

    Throughout the DOE complex, buried waste poses a threat to the environment by means of contaminant transport. Many of the sites contain buried waste that is untreated, prior to disposal, or insufficiently treated, by today's standards. One option to remedy these disposal problems is to stabilize the waste in situ. This project was in support of the Transuranic/Mixed Buried Waste - Arid Soils product line of the Landfill Focus Area, which is managed currently by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (BNL) provided the analytical laboratory and technical support for the various stabilization activities that will be performed as part of the In Situ Stabilization of TRU/Mixed Waste project at the INEL. More specifically, BNL was involved in laboratory testing that included the evaluation of several grouting materials and their compatibility, interaction, and long-term durability/performance, following the encapsulation of various waste materials. The four grouting materials chosen by INEL were: TECT 1, a two component, high density cementious grout, WAXFIX, a two component, molten wax product, Carbray 100, a two component elastomeric epoxy, and phosphate cement, a two component ceramic. A simulated waste stream comprised of sodium nitrate, Canola oil, and INEL soil was used in this study. Seven performance and durability tests were conducted on grout/waste specimens: compressive strength, wet-dry cycling, thermal analysis, base immersion, solvent immersion, hydraulic conductivity, and accelerated leach testing

  11. A simplified approach for slope stability analysis of uncontrolled waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turer, Dilek; Turer, Ahmet

    2011-02-01

    Slope stability analysis of municipal solid waste has always been problematic because of the heterogeneous nature of the waste materials. The requirement for large testing equipment in order to obtain representative samples has identified the need for simplified approaches to obtain the unit weight and shear strength parameters of the waste. In the present study, two of the most recently published approaches for determining the unit weight and shear strength parameters of the waste have been incorporated into a slope stability analysis using the Bishop method to prepare slope stability charts. The slope stability charts were prepared for uncontrolled waste dumps having no liner and leachate collection systems with pore pressure ratios of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5, considering the most critical slip surface passing through the toe of the slope. As the proposed slope stability charts were prepared by considering the change in unit weight as a function of height, they reflect field conditions better than accepting a constant unit weight approach in the stability analysis. They also streamline the selection of slope or height as a function of the desired factor of safety.

  12. Analysis of the geological stability of a hypothetical radioactive waste repository in a bedded salt formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, M.S.; Lusso, F.; Shaw, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    This document reports on the development of mathematical models used in preliminary studies of the long-term safety of radioactive wastes deeply buried in bedded salt formations. Two analytical approaches to estimating the geological stability of a waste repository in bedded salt are described: (a) use of probabilistic models to estimate the a priori likelihoods of release of radionuclides from the repository through certain idealized natural and anthropogenic causes, and (b) a numerical simulation of certain feedback effects of emplacement of waste materials upon ground-water access to the repository's host rocks. These models are applied to an idealized waste repository for the sake of illustration

  13. Sol-Gel Stabilization of Heavy Metal Waste

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cropek, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... The types of media are varied and include soils, ashes, and sludges. Waste having a leachable metal concentration above the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure limit established by the U.S...

  14. Effectiveness of the Vertical Gas Ventilation Pipes for Promoting Waste Stabilization in Post-Closure Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumasa Tojo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To make inside of the municipal solid waste (MSW landfill aerobic as much as possible is thought to be preferable for promoting waste stabilization, reducing pollutant's load in leachate, minimizing greenhouse gas emission and shortening post-closure-care period. In Japan, installation of semi-aerobic landfill structure has widely spread in order to promote waste stabilization in MSW landfill from 1980s. In semi-aerobic landfill structure, outlet of main leachate collection pipe is opened to atmosphere. Heat generated by aerobic degradation of waste causes natural convection and natural aeration arises from the outlet of leachate collection pipe to the gas vents. It is so-called stack effect. This air flow is thought to be effective for purifying leachate flowing through drainage layer and leachate collection pipes. And it is also thought to be contributing to expanding aerobic region in waste layer in landfill. Recently, measures attempting the promotion of waste stabilization are taken at several landfills at where stabilization of waste delays, in which many vertical gas vents are newly installed and close structure to semi-aerobic landfill is created. However, in many cases, these gas vents are not connected to leachate collection pipes. Many vertical gas vents are just installed without scientific proof regarding whether they can contribute for waste stabilization. In this study, how such installation of gas vents is effective for waste stabilization and aerobization of waste layer was discussed by numerical analysis. In numerical analysis, heat transfer, gas movement by pressure, gas diffusion, biological degradation of organic matter, and heat generation by biodegradation were taken into account. Simulations were carried out by using the general purpose simulator of finite element method. Three types of landfill structure were assumed. As the results, the following information were obtained. In dig-down type landfill, installation of gas

  15. Performance, compliance and reliability of Waste stabilization pond: Effluent discharge quality and environmental protection agency standards in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    function to establish the relationship between the statistical coefficient of variation and the coefficient of reliability based on rth moment about the origin in the moment of generation function to generate the functions of the mean and standard deviation, properties of the standard Z normal distribution...... were used to establish the coefficient of reliability relationship depending on the coefficient of variation influenced by the standard of deviation. Discharge values of Physico-chemical Parameters measured from the WSP were found be performing acceptably based on the EPA standards, whereas only four......Measuring performance has been arguerably, one of the metric with many facets with different school of thoughts, as there exist different approaches of measuring it. Several of the existing approaches measure such metric by comparison with standards esherined in policy documents and as a result...

  16. Leaching behaviour and mechanical properties of copper flotation waste in stabilized/solidified products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesci, Başak; Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-02-01

    This research describes the investigation of a cement-based solidification/stabilization process for the safe disposal of copper flotation waste and the effect on cement properties of the addition of copper flotation waste (CW) and clinoptilolite (C). In addition to the reference mixture, 17 different mixtures were prepared using different proportions of CW and C. Physical properties such as setting time, specific surface area and compressive strength were determined and compared to a reference mixture and Turkish standards (TS). Different mixtures with the copper flotation waste portion ranging from 2.5 to 12.5% by weight of the mixture were tested for copper leachability. The results show that as cement replacement materials especially clinoptilolite had clear effects on the mechanical properties. Substitution of 5% copper flotation waste for Portland cement gave a similar strength performance to the reference mixture. Higher copper flotation waste addition such as 12.5% replacement yielded lower strength values. As a result, copper flotation waste and clinoptilolite can be used as cementitious materials, and copper flotation waste also can be safely stabilized/solidified in a cement-based solidification/stabilization system.

  17. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 30% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3,570 pounds per square inch

  18. Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

  19. Heat recovery from ground below the solar pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    The method of heat recovery from the ground below solar ponds is investigated in the present brief note. Solar ponds lose considerable amount of heat from its bottom to the ground due to temperature gradient between them. This waste heat from ground, which is at different temperature at different

  20. STABILIZATION AND TESTING OF MERCURY CONTAINING WASTES: BORDEN SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details the stability assessment of a mercury containing sulfide treatment sludge. Information contained in this report will consist of background data submitted by the geneerator, landfill data supplied by EPA and characterization and leaching studies conducted by UC...

  1. Stabilization of vitrified wastes: Task 4. Topical report, October 1994--September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowok, J.W.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Hassett, D.J.; Hurley, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this task was to work with private industry to refine existing vitrification processes to produce a more stable vitrified product. The initial objectives were to (1) demonstrate a waste vitrification procedure for enhanced stabilization of waste materials and (2) develop a testing protocol to understand the long-term leaching behavior of the stabilized waste form. The testing protocol was expected to be based on a leaching procedure called the synthetic groundwater leaching procedure (SGLP). This task will contribute to the US DOE's identified technical needs in waste characterization, low-level mixed-waste processing, disposition technology, and improved waste forms. The proposed work was to proceed over 4 years in the following steps: literature surveys to aid in the selection and characterization of test mixtures for vitrification, characterization of optimized vitrified test wastes using advanced leaching protocols, and refinement and demonstration of vitrification methods leading to commercialization. For this year, literature surveys were completed, and computer modeling was performed to determine the feasibility of removing heavy metals from a waste during vitrification, thereby reducing the hazardous nature of the vitrified material and possibly producing a commercial metal concentrate. This report describes the following four subtasks: survey of vitrification technologies; survey of cleanup sites; selection and characterization of test mixtures for vitrification and crystallization; and selection of crystallization methods based on thermochemistry modeling

  2. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations (±10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample

  3. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m 3 of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m 3 of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste

  4. Treatment of waste using a hybrid gas- water stabilized torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van Oost, G.; Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír; Konrád, Miloš; Hlína, Michal; Kavka, Tetyana; Beeckman, E.; Verstraeten, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2005), s. 7-12. ISBN 4-9900642-4-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * pyrolysis * waste treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  5. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) WASTE STREAM STABILIZATION TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOKE; LOCKREM; AVILA; KOCI

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, the location of plutonium production for the US nuclear weapons program, is the focal point of a broad range of waste remediation efforts. This presentation will describe the development of cementitious waste forms for evaporated Hanford waste waters from several sources. Basin 42 waste water and simulants of proposed Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant secondary wastes and Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System secondary wastes were solidified in cementitious matrices termed ''dry cementitious formulation.'' Solidification of these brines was difficult to deal with because of high sulfate contents. Two approaches were explored. The first was based on compositions similar to sulphoaluminate-belite cements. The main component of these cements is 4CaO · 2Al 2 O 3 · SO 4 . When hydrating in the presence of sulfate, these cements rapidly form ettringite. The goal was to consume the sulfate by rapidly forming ettringite. Forming ettringite before the mixture has filly set minimizes the potential for deleterious expansion at a later date. These formulations were developed based on mixtures of calcium-aluminate cement, a glassy blast-furnace slag, class F fly ash, and Portland cement. A second approach was based on using high alumina cement like ciment fondu. In this case the grout was a mixture of ciment fondu, a glassy blast-furnace slag, class f fly ash, and Portland cement. The literature shows that for concretes based on equal amounts of ciment fondu and blast furnace slag, cured at either 20 C or 38 C, the compressive strength increased continuously over a period of 1 year. In this second approach, enough reactive calcium aluminate was added to fully consume the sulfate at an early age. The results of this study will be presented. Included will be results for expansion and bleed water testing, adiabatic temperature rise, microstructure development, and the phase chemistry of the hydrated materials. The results of

  6. Stabilization and isolation of low-level liquid waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Gilbert, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations is developing and testing equipment for stabilization and isolation of low-level radioactive liquid waste disposal sites. Stabilization and isolation are accomplished by a dynamic consolidation and particulate grout injection system. System equipment components include: a mobile grout plant for transport, mixing, and pumping of particulate grout; a vibratory hammer/extractor for consolidation of waste, backfill, and for emplacement of the injector; dynamic consolidation/injector probe for introducing grout into fill material; and an open-void surface injector that uses surface or subsurface mechanical or pneumatic packers and displacement gas filtration for introducing grout into disposal structure access piping. Treatment of a liquid-waste disposal site yields a physically stable, cementitious monolith. Additional testing and modification of this equipment for other applications to liquid waste disposal sites is in progress

  7. A comparison of solidification media for the stabilization of low- level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, M.G.

    1991-10-01

    When requirements exist to stabilize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) prior to disposal, efforts to achieve this stability often center on the mixing of the waste with a solidification medium. Although historically the medium of choice has been based on the use of portland cement as the binder material, several other options have been developed and subsequently implemented. These include thermoplastic polymers, thermosetting polymers and gypsum. No one medium has thus far been successful in providing stability to all forms of LLW. The characteristics and attributes of these different binder materials are reviewed and compared. The aspects examined include availability of information, limitations to use, sensitivity to process or waste chemistry changes, radionuclide retention ability, modeling of radionuclide release processes, ease and safety of use, and relative costs

  8. Demonstration Results on the Effects of Mercury Speciation on the Stabilization of Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Hulet, G.A.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury-contaminated wastes are currently being stored at approximately 19 Department of Energy sites, the volume of which is estimated to be about 16m(sup)3. These wastes exist in various forms including soil, sludges, and debris, which present a particular challenge regarding possible mercury stabilization methods. This reports provides the test results of three vendors, Allied Technology Group, IT Corporation, and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., that demonstrate the effects of mercury speciation on the stabilization of the mercury wastes. Mercury present in concentrations that exceed 260 parts per million must be removed by extraction methods and requires stabilization to ensure that the final wasteforms leach less than 0.2mg/L of mercury by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure or 0.025 mg/L using the Universal Treatment Standard

  9. STUDI PENENTUAN JENIS OUTLET LIMBAH CAIR KARET REMAH UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN MIKROALGA DENGAN SISTEM OPEN PONDS [Study of determination the type of crumb rubber waste water outlet for the growth of microalgae with open ponds system

    OpenAIRE

    Tanto Pratondo Utomo; Otik Nawansih; Anggun KOmalasari

    2015-01-01

    Waste water of crumb rubber industry is originated from coagulation, milling and leaching stage contains organic material that is derived from serum and rubber particles which haven’t been coagulated yet. The materials are potential to pollute the water therefore the crumb rubber industry must be treated through the wastewater plant. However, the characteristics of waste water are predicted suitable for the cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. media a biofuel feedstock, especially biodiesel tha...

  10. Stabilities of nuclear waste forms and their geochemical interactions in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    The stabilities of high-level nuclear waste forms in a repository environment are briefly discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such waste forms as borosilicate glass, supercalcine ceramics, and synthetic minerals are presented in context with the different rock types which have been proposed as possible host rocks for repositories. It is concluded that the growing geochemical evidence favors the use of a silicate rock repository because of the effectiveness of aluminosilicate rocks as chemical barriers for most radionuclides

  11. The efficacy of an oxidation pond in mineralizing some industrial waste products with special reference to fluorene degradation: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.T.; Dewedar, A.; Mekki, L.; Diab, A.

    1999-07-01

    The efficacy of the oxidation pond on the outskirts of the 10th of Ramadan, the main industrial city in Egypt, was examined. Samples of wastewater collected from the inlet and the outlet were screened for some priority pollutants. Acenaphethene and fluorene were the most frequently detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, while dimethyl phthalate was the most frequently detected phthalate ester. The spectrum of pollutants, their concentrations and frequencies were similar in the inlet and the outlet, indicating an inferior mineralization capability of the pond. Several degradative bacterial strains were isolated from the pond and grown on M56 minimal media supplemented with different pollutants as the carbon source. The efficacy of pure and mixed cultures to break down fluorene, the most frequently detected pollutant was examined. Fluorene degradation was fast in the first 10 days, the followed by a slow phase. Mixed culture had a higher rate of fluorene degradation in comparison to pure cultures. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of fluorene degradation showed three degradative metabolites. But GC/MS analysis detected one compound, identified as acetamide. The present work has indicated the poor efficacy of the pond. Lack of primary treatment of industrial effluent at factory level, coupled with shock loads of toxicants that may damage the microorganisms and their degradative capabilities are presumably main factors behind such inferior performance. Moreover, the type of pollutants discharged into the pond tend to fluctuate and change depending on the rate from the factories discharge and work shifts. Such irregular feeding of persistent pollutants may have led to a wash out of specialized strains of bacteria capable to degrade such persistent pollutants.

  12. Effects of stabilizers on the heat transfer characteristics of a nuclear waste canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafai, K.; Ettefagh, J.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes the feasibility and the effectiveness of using stabilizers (internal metal structural components) to augment the heat transfer characteristics of a nuclear waste canister. The problem was modeled as a transient two-dimensional heat transfer in two physical domains - the stabilizer and the wedge (a 30-degree-angle canister segment), which includes the heat-producing spent-fuel rods. This problem is solved by a simultaneous and interrelated numerical investigation of the two domains in cartesian and polar coordinate systems. The numerical investigations were performed for three cases. In the first case, conduction was assumed to be the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The second case assumed that radiation was the dominant mechanism, and in the third case both radiation and conduction were considered as mechanisms of heat transfer. The results show that for typical conditions in a waste package design, the stabilizers are quite effective in reducing the overall temperature in a waste canister. Furthermore, the results show that increasing the stabilizer thickness over the thickness specified in the present design has a negligible effect on the temperature distribution in the canister. Finally, the presence of the stabilizers was found to shift the location of the peak temperature areas in the waste canister

  13. Electrochemical extraction of gold from wastes as nanoparticles stabilized by phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kotaro; Usami, Hisanao

    2017-02-01

    A simple one-step method for the extraction of gold from wastes as nanoparticles stabilized by phospholipids is demonstrated. This is achieved by applying an AC voltage for 5s to the gold-containing wastes, which act as the electrodes in a buffer solution containing a dispersed phospholipid (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DOPC). This is an environmentally friendly and rapid method for recovering gold from wastes. The extracted gold nanoparticles have significant potential as a catalyst or biomedical material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Overview of advanced technologies for stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Foltyn, E.M.; Heslop, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of 238 Pu-contaminated waste. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has processed 238 PuO 2 fuel into heat sources for space and terrestrial uses for the past several decades. The 88-year half-life of 238 Pu and thermal power of approximately 0.6 watts/gram make this isotope ideal for missions requiring many years of dependable service in inaccessible locations. However, the same characteristic which makes 238 Pu attractive for heat source applications, the high Curie content (17 Ci/gram versus 0.06 Ci/gram for 239 Pu ), makes disposal of 238 Pu-contaminated waste difficult. Specifically, the thermal load limit on drums destined for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 0.23 gram per drum for combustible waste, is impossible to meet for nearly all 238 Pu-contaminated glovebox waste. Use of advanced waste treatment technologies including Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and aqueous chemical separation will eliminate the combustible matrix from 238 Pu-contaminated waste and recover kilogram quantities of 238 PuO 2 from the waste stream. A conceptual design of these advanced waste treatment technologies will be presented

  15. Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for (1) nickel plating line (F006) sludges and (2) incinerator wastes. Vitrification of these wastes using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), has been determined to greatly enhance the dissolution and retention of hazardous, mixed, and heavy metal species in glass. RASP lowers melt temperatures (typically 1050-- 1150 degrees C), thereby minimizing volatility concerns during vitrification. RASP maximizes waste loading (typically 50--75 wt% on a dry oxide basis) by taking advantage of the glass forming potential of the waste. RASP vitrification thereby minimizes waste disposal volume (typically 86--97 vol. %), and maximizes cost savings. Solidification of the F006 plating line sludges containing depleted uranium has been achieved in both soda-lime-silica (SLS) and borosilicate glasses at 1150 degrees C up to waste loadings of 75 wt%. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and bottom kiln ash have been achieved in SLS glass at 1150 degrees C up to waste loadings of 50% using RASP. These waste loadings correspond to volume reductions of 86 and 94 volume %, respectively, with large associated savings in storage costs

  16. Expansive soil stabilization with coir waste and lime for flexible pavement subgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra Goud, G.; Hyma, A.; Shiva Chandra, V.; Sandhya Rani, R.

    2018-03-01

    Expansive soil properties can be improved by various methods to make it suitable for construction of flexible pavement. The coir pith is the by-product (bio-waste) generated from coir industry during extraction of coir fiber from coconut husk. Openly disposed coir pith can make the surrounding areas unhygienic. This bio-waste can be one of the potential materials to stabilize the expansive soils. In the present study coir pith and lime are used as stabilizers. Different combinations of coir pith contents (1%, 2% and 3%) and lime contents (2%, 3% and 4%)are used to study the behavior of expansive soil. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of unstabilized and stabilized soils was determined. Optimum content of coir pith and lime are determined based on UCS of the soil. California bearing ratio of soil determined at optimum contents of coir pith and lime. Flexible pavement layer compositions for two levels of traffic using stabilized soil subgrade.

  17. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMA, J.W.; BOWERMAN, B.S.; KALB, P.D.

    2002-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

  18. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S.; Kalb, P. D.

    2002-02-25

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently evaluating alternative treatment standards for radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes, which do not require the removal of mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needed additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 46 wt% (30 wt% dry) sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide the EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

  19. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMA, J.W.; BOWERMAN, B.S.; KALB, P.D.

    2002-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes

  20. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S.; Kalb, P. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently evaluating alternative treatment standards for radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes, which do not require the removal of mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needed additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 46 wt% (30 wt% dry) sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide the EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes

  1. Cement Waste Matrix Evaluation and Modelling of the Long Term Stability of Cementitious Waste Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martensson, P.; Cronstrand, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cement based materials are often used as a solidification matrix for wet radioactive waste from nuclear power plants such as ion exchange resins, sludge and evaporator concentrates. The mechanical and chemical properties of the cement-waste matrix are affected by the type and the concentration of the waste. For this reason the recipe used in the solidification process has to be carefully adjusted to respond to the variations of the waste. At the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant (RNPP) an evaporator was to be taken into operation during the mid 2005. As a result of this process an evaporator concentrate containing boric acid was expected. The aims of the present study were to develop a recipe for the solidification of artificial evaporator concentrates, (AEC), containing H 3 BO 3 and measure the compressive strength of the waste/cement matrix over a period of 4 years. The confirmation of the previously reported retarding properties of H 3 BO 3 and the studies of AEC without H 3 BO 3 were also included as a part of this work. Finally, thermodynamic calculations were used as a tool in order to predict the evolution of the mineralogy and integrity for the different cement-waste specimens over very long periods of time, i.e. up to about 100 000 years. The most important finding was that when an optimized waste/cement matrix recipe was used the compressive strength increased during the entire 4 year period and no signs of degradation were noticed. It was also found that the long-term performance of the waste matrices is to a large extent site-specific. In general, the composition of the infiltrating water is more influential than the waste matrices, both on the degradation of the waste matrices itself as well as on the engineered barriers. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Stability Parameters in In-Vessel Compositing of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a reliable technology for production of stabilized organic matter that is suitable for agriculture, but this process should be carefully monitored with appropriate indices. Quality of compost is important from maturity and stability viewpoint, but in most compost factories proper attention is not paid to it. This study was designed to evaluate the stability indices in municipal solid waste composting, for selecting the best index in quality monitoring of the wastes. Processed and shredded municipal solid waste from Isfahan compost plant was used as raw material in an in-vessel composting process. A cylindrical reactor with 1 m height and 50 cm diameter made of Pyrex glass was designed. Air was supplied at a specifically flow rate 0.2 L/min.kg to maintain aerobic condition. NH4+/ NO3 ratio, dehydrogenase enzyme activity (DA, pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP or Eh and specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR were used as stability indices. These parameters were measured during 40 days of composting process. Changes in these parameters during this period were surveyed and analyzed. Statistical analysis was carried out to choose best of them. Results showed that among the indices, SOUR can show the different stages of microbial decomposition and a numerical value for compost stability also SOUR value less than 2 mg O2/gVS.h can show the full stability of compost.

  3. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY MERCURY WASTE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.

    2001-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process was used to treat approximately 90kg of elemental mercury mixed waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Treatment was carried out in a series of eight batches using a 1 ft{sup 3} pilot-scale mixer, where mercury loading in each batch was 33.3 weight percent. Although leach performance is currently not regulated for amalgamated elemental mercury (Hg) mixed waste, Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) testing of SPSS treated elemental mercury waste indicates that leachability is readily reduced to below the TCLP limit of 200 ppb (regulatory requirement following treatment by retort for wastes containing > 260 ppb Hg), and with process optimization, to levels less than the stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 25 ppb that is applied to waste containing < 260 ppm Hg. In addition, mercury-contaminated debris, consisting of primary glass and plastic containers, as well as assorted mercury thermometers, switches, and labware, was first reacted with SPSS components to stabilize the mercury contamination, then macroencapsulated in the molten SPSS product. This treatment was done by vigorous agitation of the sulfur polymer powder and the comminuted debris. Larger plastic and metal containers were reacted to stabilize internal mercury contamination, and then filled with molten sulfur polymer to encapsulate the treated product.

  4. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY MERCURY WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, J.W.; KALB, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process was used to treat approximately 90kg of elemental mercury mixed waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Treatment was carried out in a series of eight batches using a 1 ft(sup 3) pilot-scale mixer, where mercury loading in each batch was 33.3 weight percent. Although leach performance is currently not regulated for amalgamated elemental mercury (Hg) mixed waste, Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) testing of SPSS treated elemental mercury waste indicates that leachability is readily reduced to below the TCLP limit of 200 ppb (regulatory requirement following treatment by retort for wastes containingandgt; 260 ppb Hg), and with process optimization, to levels less than the stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 25 ppb that is applied to waste containingandlt; 260 ppm Hg. In addition, mercury-contaminated debris, consisting of primary glass and plastic containers, as well as assorted mercury thermometers, switches, and labware, was first reacted with SPSS components to stabilize the mercury contamination, then macroencapsulated in the molten SPSS product. This treatment was done by vigorous agitation of the sulfur polymer powder and the comminuted debris. Larger plastic and metal containers were reacted to stabilize internal mercury contamination, and then filled with molten sulfur polymer to encapsulate the treated product

  5. The effect of leachate recirculation with enzyme cellulase addition on waste stability in landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffira, N.; Kristanto, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Landfill bioreactor with leachate recirculation is known to enhance waste stabilization. However, the composition of waste in Indonesia is comprised by organic waste which is lignocellulosic materials that considered take a long time to degrade under anaerobic condition. To accelerate the degradation process, enzyme addition is ought to do. Cellulase is an enzyme that can catalyse cellulose and other polysaccharide decomposition processes. Therefore, operation of waste degradation using leachate recirculation with a cellulase addition to enhance waste stabilization was investigated using anaerobic bioreactor landfill. The experiment was performed on 2 conditions; leachate recirculation with cellulase addition and recirculation only as a control. The addition of cellulase is reported to be significant in decreasing organic content, represented by volatile solid parameter. The volatile solid reduction in the cellulase augmented reactor and control reactor was 17.86% and 7.90%, respectively. Cellulase addition also resulted in the highest cellulose reduction. Settlement of the landfill in a bioreactor with enzyme addition (32.67%) was reported to be higher than the control (19.33%). Stabilization of landfill review by the decreasing rate constant of the cellulose and lignin ratio parameter was more rapidly achieved by the enzyme addition (0.014 day-1) compared to control (0.002 day-1).

  6. STABILIZATION OF A MIXED WASTE SLUDGE SURROGATE CONTAINING MORE THAN 260 PPM MERCURY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W. J.; Feizollahi, F.; Brimley, R.

    2002-01-01

    In an earlier demonstration of an innovative mercury stabilization technology for the Department of Energy, ATG's full-scale process stabilized mercury in soils that initially contained more than 260 ppm of mercury of unknown speciation. The treated waste satisfied the leaching standards for mercury that qualify wastes containing less than 260 ppm for land disposal. This paper describes the extension of that work to demonstrate a full-scale process for the stabilization of a representative sludge that contained more than 260 ppm of Hg of several mercury species. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) regulations now require the recovery of mercury from any waste containing more than 260 ppm of mercury, usually with thermal retorts. The results of this work with a surrogate sludge, and of the previous work with an actual soil, support a proposal now before the U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) to allow such wastes to be stabilized without retorting. The full-scale demonstration with a sulfide reagent reduced the mercury concentrations in extracts of treated sludge below the relevant leaching standard, a Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 0.025 mg mercury per liter of leachate generated by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The sulfide formulation reduced the concentration to about onehalf the UTS limit

  7. OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY, PRESENT STATUS, AND FUTURE DIRECTION OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology processes are currently being utilized in the United States to treat inorganic and organic hazardous waste and radioactive waste. These wastes are generated from operating industry or have resulted from the uncontrolled management of ...

  8. Ceramic stabilization of hazardous wastes: a high performance room temperature process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    ANL has developed a room-temperature process for converting hazardous materials to a ceramic structure. It is similar to vitrification but is achieved at low cost, similar to conventional cement stabilization. The waste constituents are both chemically stabilized and physically encapsulated, producing very low leaching levels and the potential for delisting. The process, which is pH-insensitive, is ideal for inorganic sludges and liquids, as well as mixed chemical-radioactive wastes, but can also handle significant percentages of salts and even halogenated organics. High waste loadings are possible and densification occurs,so that volumes are only slightly increased and in some cases (eg, incinerator ash) are reduced. The ceramic product has strength and weathering properties far superior to cement products

  9. Radioactive nuclear waste stabilization - Aspects of solid-state molecular engineering and applied geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1983-01-01

    Stabilization techniques for the storage of radioactive wastes are surveyed, with emphasis on immobilization in a primary barrier of synthetic rock. The composition, half-life, and thermal-emission characteristics of the wastes are shown to require thermally stable immobilization enduring at least 100,000 years. Glass materials are determined to be incapable of withstanding the expected conditions, average temperatures of 100-500 C for the first 100 years. The geological-time stability of crystalline materials, ceramics or synthetic rocks, is examined in detail by comparing their components with similar naturally occurring minerals, especially those containing the same radioactive elements. The high-temperature environment over the first 100 years is seen as stabilizing, since it can recrystallize radiation-induced metamicts. The synthetic-rock stabilization technique is found to be essentially feasible, and improvements are suggested, including the substitution of nepheline with freudenbergite and priderite for alkaline-waste stabilization, the maintenance of low oxygen fugacity, and the dilution of the synthetic-rock pellets into an inert medium.

  10. Effect of natural ageing on volume stability of MSW and wood waste incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Manuela; Bergfeldt, Britta; Reichelt, Jürgen; Sirini, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Natural weathering on BA from MSW and wood waste incineration was evaluated. ► Type of mineral phases, pH and volume stability were considered. ► Weathering reactions effect in improved stability of the materials. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of natural weathering on volume stability of bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incineration. BA samples were taken at different steps of treatment (fresh, 4 weeks and 12 weeks aged) and then characterised for their chemical and mineralogical composition and for volume stability by means of the mineralogical test method (M HMVA-StB), which is part of the German quality control system for using aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB 04). Changes of mineralogical composition with the proceeding of the weathering treatment were also monitored by leaching tests. At the end of the 12 weeks of treatment, almost all the considered samples resulted to be usable without restrictions in road construction with reference to the test parameter volume stability

  11. Permeability test and slope stability analysis of municipal solid waste in Jiangcungou Landfill, Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Xu, Zengguang; Chai, Junrui; Qin, Yuan; Li, Yanlong

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid increase of city waste, landfills have become a major method to deals with municipal solid waste. Thus, the safety of landfills has become a valuable research topic. In this paper, Jiangcungou Landfill, located in Shaanxi, China, was investigated and its slope stability was analyzed. Laboratory tests were used to obtain permeability coefficients of municipal solid waste. Based on the results, the distribution of leachate and stability in the landfill was computed and analyzed. These results showed: the range of permeability coefficient was from 1.0 × 10(-7) cm sec(-1) to 6.0 × 10(-3) cm sec(-1) on basis of laboratory test and some parameters of similar landfills. Owing to the existence of intermediate cover layers in the landfill, the perched water level appeared in the landfill with heavy rain. Moreover, the waste was filled with leachate in the top layer, and the range of leachate level was from 2 m to 5 m in depth under the waste surface in other layers. The closer it gets to the surface of landfill, the higher the perched water level of leachate. It is indicated that the minimum safety factors were 1.516 and 0.958 for winter and summer, respectively. Additionally, the slope failure may occur in summer. The research of seepage and stability in landfills may provide a less costly way to reduce accidents. Landslides often occur in the Jiangcungou Landfill because of the high leachate level. Some measures should be implemented to reduce the leachate level. This paper investigated seepage and slope stability of landfills by numerical methods. These results may provide the basis for increasing stability of landfills.

  12. Rainfall Reliability Evaluation for Stability of Municipal Solid Waste Landfills on Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kuo Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to assess the reliability for the stability of municipal solid waste (MSW landfills on slope due to rainfall infiltration is proposed. Parameter studies are first done to explore the influence of factors on the stability of MSW. These factors include rainfall intensity, duration, pattern, and the engineering properties of MSW. Then 100 different combinations of parameters are generated and associated stability analyses of MSW on slope are performed assuming that each parameter is uniform distributed around its reason ranges. In the following, the performance of the stability of MSW is interpreted by the artificial neural network (ANN trained and verified based on the aforementioned 100 analysis results. The reliability for the stability of MSW landfills on slope is then evaluated and explored for different rainfall parameters by the ANN model with first-order reliability method (FORM and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS.

  13. Sulfur polymer cement, a new stabilization agent for mixed and low- level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Solidification and stabilization agents for radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes are failing to pass governmental tests at alarming rates. The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program funded testing of Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the 1980s. Those tests and tests by the US Bureau of Mines (the original developer of SPC), universities, states, and the concrete industry have shown SPC to be superior to hydraulic cements in most cases. Superior in what wastes can be successfully combined and in the quantity of waste that can be combined and still pass the tests established by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  14. Stability and buffering capacity of the geosphere for long-term isolation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Most experts worldwide agree that radioactive waste disposal in engineered facilities, or repositories, located in appropriate formations deep underground, provide a suitable waste management option for protecting humans and the environment now and. in the future. An NEA workshop was organised on 9-11 December 2003 in Braunschweig, Germany, devoted specifically to argillaceous settings for deep geological repositories. The workshop brought together scientists from academic institutions, engineers from various research institutions or companies, consultants, regulatory authorities and national waste management organisations to establish the scientific basis for stability and buffering capacity of deep geological waste management systems. The present report synthesizes the main outcomes of that workshop and presents a compilation of the related abstracts. (author)

  15. Development and radiation stability of glasses for highly radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A.R.; Dalton, J.T.; Hudson, B.; Marples, J.A.C.

    1976-01-01

    The variation of formation temperature, crystallizing behaviour and leach resistance with composition changes for sodium-lithium borosilicate glasses suitable for vitrifying Magnox waste are discussed. Viscosities have been measured between 400 and 1050 0 C. The principal crystal phases which occur have been identified as magnesium silicate, magnesium borate and ceria. The leach rate of polished discs in pure water at 100 0 C does not decrease with time if account is taken of the fragile siliceous layer that is observed to occur. The effect of 100 years' equivalent α- and β-irradiation on glass properties is discussed. Stored energy release experiments demonstrated that energy is released over a wide temperature range so that it cannot be triggered catastrophically. Temperatures required to release energy are dependent upon the original storage temperature. Helium release is by Fick's diffusion law up to at least 30% of the total inventory, with diffusion coefficients similar to those for comparable borosilicate glasses. Leach rates were not measurably affected by α-radiation. β-radiation in a Van de Graaff accelerator did not change physical properties, but irradiation in an electron microscope caused minute bubbles in lithium-containing glasses above 200 0 C. (author)

  16. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. ► Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. ► Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. ► Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19–6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20–30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352–450 mL CH 4 /g VS added ) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  17. Measurements of Mercury Released From Solidified/Stabilized Waste Forms-FY2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, C.H.

    2003-01-01

    This report covers work performed during FY 2002 in support of treatment demonstrations conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Mercury Working Group. To comply with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as implemented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), DOE must use one of the following procedures for mixed low-level radioactive wastes containing mercury at levels above 260 ppm: a retorting/roasting treatment or (if the wastes also contain organics) an incineration treatment. The recovered radioactively contaminated mercury must then be treated by an amalgamation process prior to disposal. The DOE MWFA Mercury Working Group is working with EPA to determine whether some alternative processes could be used to treat these types of waste directly, thereby avoiding a costly recovery step for DOE. In previous years, demonstrations were performed in which commercial vendors applied their technologies for the treatment of radiologically contaminated elemental mercury as well as radiologically contaminated and mercury-contaminated waste soils from Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test results for mercury release in the headspace were reported in two reports, ''Measurements of Mercury Released from Amalgams and Sulfide Compounds'' (ORNL/TM-13728) and ''Measurements of Mercury Released from Solidified/Stabilized Waste Forms'' (ORNL/TM-2001/17). The current work did not use a real waste; a surrogate sludge had been prepared and used in the testing in an effort to understand the consequences of mercury speciation on mercury release

  18. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  19. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rodella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu. This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  20. Chemical stability of seven years aged cement-PET composite waste form containing radioactive borate waste simulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki (Egypt); Tawfik, M.E. [Department of Polymers and Pigments, National Research Center, Dokki (Egypt); Bayoumi, T.A. [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki (Egypt)

    2011-04-15

    Different samples of radioactive borate waste simulate [originating from pressurized water reactors (PWR)] have been prepared and solidified after mixing with cement-water extended polyester composite (CPC). The polymer-cement composite samples were prepared from recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste and cement paste (water/cement ratio of 40%). The prepared samples were left to set at room temperature (25 deg. C {+-} 5) under humid conditions. After 28 days curing time the obtained specimens were kept in their molds to age for 7 years under ambient conditions. Cement-polymer composite waste form specimens (CPCW) have been subjected to leach tests for both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides according to the method proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Leaching tests were justified under various factors that may exist within the disposal site (e.g. type of leachant, surrounding temperature, leachant behavior, the leachant volume to CPCW surface area...). The obtained data after 260 days of leaching revealed that after 7 years of aging the candidate cement-polymer composite (CPC) containing radioactive borate waste samples are characterized by adequate chemical stability required for the long-term disposal process.

  1. Effect of waste plastic as modifier on thermal stability and degradation kinetics of bitumen/waste plastics blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, M. [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Chaki, T.K., E-mail: tapan@rtc.iitkgp.ernet.in [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Reddy, K.S. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2010-09-20

    Different modified bituminous binders are used in pavement construction for improved durability and for enhanced performance in resisting cracking and permanent deformation of bituminous layers. Waste plastics, whose disposal is a matter of concern, have been used successfully for modifying bitumen. This paper reports the thermogravimetric studies conducted on waste plastic modified bituminous binders. Modified bituminous binders prepared using different plastic contents (0-7 wt% by weight of bitumen) were investigated. The activation energies were determined from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data using Kissinger and the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, which do not require knowledge of the reaction mechanism. Modified bitumen (WPMB5) with 5 wt% plastic was found to have the highest thermal stability compared to other binders investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were carried out to find crystalline melting temperature and fusion enthalpy. Rheological parameters of modified binders prepared with different plastic contents also suggest that the 5 wt% plastic content is expected to yield optimal performance.

  2. Effect of waste plastic as modifier on thermal stability and degradation kinetics of bitumen/waste plastics blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naskar, M.; Chaki, T.K.; Reddy, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Different modified bituminous binders are used in pavement construction for improved durability and for enhanced performance in resisting cracking and permanent deformation of bituminous layers. Waste plastics, whose disposal is a matter of concern, have been used successfully for modifying bitumen. This paper reports the thermogravimetric studies conducted on waste plastic modified bituminous binders. Modified bituminous binders prepared using different plastic contents (0-7 wt% by weight of bitumen) were investigated. The activation energies were determined from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data using Kissinger and the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, which do not require knowledge of the reaction mechanism. Modified bitumen (WPMB5) with 5 wt% plastic was found to have the highest thermal stability compared to other binders investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were carried out to find crystalline melting temperature and fusion enthalpy. Rheological parameters of modified binders prepared with different plastic contents also suggest that the 5 wt% plastic content is expected to yield optimal performance.

  3. In-situ stabilization of mixed waste contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Cline, S.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Conner, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    A full-scale field demonstration was conducted to evaluate in for stabilizing an inactive RCRA land treatment site at a DOE facility in Ohio. Subsurface silt and clay deposits were contaminated principally with up to 500 mg/kg of trichloroethylene and other halocarbons, but also trace to low levels of Pb, Cr, 235 U, and 99 Tc. In situ solidification was studied in three, 3.1 m diameter by 4.6 m deep columns. During mixing, a cement-based grout was injected and any missions from the mixed region were captured in a shroud and treated by filtration and carbon adsorption. During in situ processing, operation and performance parameters were measured, and soil cores were obtained from a solidified column 15 months later. Despite previous site-specific treatability experience, there were difficulties in selecting a grout with the requisite treatment agents amenable to subsurface injection and at a volume adequate for distribution throughout the mixed region while minimizing volume expansion. observations during the demonstration revealed that in situ solidification was rapidly accomplished (e.g., >90 m 3 /d) with limited emissions of volatile organics (i.e., -6 cm/s vs. 10 -8 cm/s). Leaching tests performed on the treated samples revealed non-detectable to acceptably low concentrations of all target contaminants

  4. Design criteria development for the structural stability of nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, C H [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, T S [Daewoo Engineering Company, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Ko, H M [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-11-15

    The objective of the present project is to develop design criteria for the structural stability of rock cavity for the underground repository are defined, according to which detailed descriptions for design methodologies, design stages and stability analysis of the cavity are made. The proposed criteria can be used as a guide for the preparation of design codes which are to be established as the site condition and technical emplacement procedure are fixed. The present report first reviews basic safety requirements and criteria of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes for the establishment of design concepts and stability analysis of the rock cavity. Important factors for the design are also described by considering characteristics of the wastes and underground facilities. The present project has investigated technical aspects on the design of underground structures based on the currently established underground construction technologies, and presented a proposal for design criteria for the structural stability of the nuclear waste repository. The proposed criteria consist of general provisions, geological exploration, rock classification, design process and methods, supporting system, analyses and instrumentation.

  5. Validation Hydrodynamic Models of Three Topological Models of Secondary Facultative Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Aponte-Reyes Alxander

    2014-01-01

    A methodology was developed to analyze boundary conditions, the size of the mesh and the turbulence of a mathematical model of CFD, which could explain hydrodynamic behavior on facultative stabilization ponds, FSP, built to pilot scale: conventional pond, CP, baffled pond, BP, and baffled-mesh pond, BMP. Models dispersion studies were performed in field for validation, taking samples into and out of the FSP, the information was used to carry out CFD model simulations of the three topologies. ...

  6. Leachability characteristics of beryllium in redmud waste and its stabilization in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saradhi, I.V.; Mahadevan, T.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    More than 70% of the beryl ore processed by the Beryllium Metal Plant at the BARC Vashi Complex ends up as redmud waste. The presence of significant quantities (0.4 to 0.8%) of beryllium in the redmud qualifies it as hazardous requiring safe handling, storage and disposal. The waste also contains 0.09% of water soluble fluoride. The various standard protocol of procedures were employed to estimate the leachability of beryllium from redmud for both short term and long term periods. Nearly 50% of beryllium present in redmud is leachable in water. We have tried the stabilization of redmud using portland cement. The proportion of redmud to cement was in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4. The blocks were cast, cured and used in the leachability experiments using standard protocols as above. The results of the TCLP test gave the levels of beryllium well below the standard limits in the TCLP extract of cement stabilized waste indicating the suitability of stabilization of redmud with cement whereas that of raw waste (redmud) are much higher than the prescribed limits. The total leach percent of beryllium in 1:2 block is 0.05% over period of 164 days whereas 1:1 and 1:4 gave a leach percent of 0.26 and 0.15% respectively. The DLT results indicate, diffusion controlled release of beryllium from the cement stabilized redmud blocks. The effective diffusion coefficient of beryllium obtained from the modelling study is 10 orders of magnitude less than the molecular diffusion coefficient of beryllium indicating the effectiveness of cement stabilization. From the detailed experiments performed, it is felt that 1:2 proportion of redmud and cement will be the best suited option for stabilization of redmud waste. The 1:1 proportion of redmud to cement mixture which could not be cast into compact cement blocks also exhibited very low leachability characteristics similar to 1:2 and 1:4 and can be be favourably considered for stabilization in case of space constraints at storage sites. The

  7. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond

  8. Low-temperature setting phosphate ceramics for stabilization of DOE problem low level mixed-waste: I. Material and waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.; Knox, L.; Mayberry, J.

    1994-03-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of some of the open-quotes problemclose quotes DOE low-level mixed wastes at low-temperatures. Development of these materials is crucial for stabilization of waste streams which have volatile species and any use of high-temperature technology leads to generation of off-gas secondary waste streams. Several phosphates of Mg, Al, and Zr have been investigated as candidate materials. Monoliths of these phosphates were synthesized using chemical routes at room or slightly elevated temperatures. Detailed physical and chemical characterizations have been conducted on some of these phosphates to establish their durability. Magnesium ammonium phosphate has shown to possess excellent mechanical and as well chemical properties. These phosphates were also used to stabilize a surrogate ash waste with a loading ranging from 25-35 wt.%. Characterization of the final waste forms show that waste immobilization is due to both chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation of the surrogate waste which is desirable for waste immobilization

  9. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  10. Utilization of stabilized municipal waste combustion ash residues as construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Stabilized municipal waste combustion (MWC) ash residues were investigated for their potential as construction material that can be beneficially used in terrestrial and marine environments. End-use products, such as patio stones, brick pavers, solid blocks, and reef units, were fabricated and tested for their engineering and chemical characteristics. engineering feasibility and environmental acceptability of using stabilized ash residues as construction material are discussed in this paper. Ash samples were collected from two mass-burn facilities and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) facility in Florida

  11. Stabilization of APC residues from waste incineration with ferrous sulfate on a semi-industrial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2002-01-01

    A stabilization method for air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) involving mixing of the residue with water and FeSO4 has been demonstrated on a semi-industrial scale on three types of APC residues: a semidy (SD) APC residue, a fly ash (FA), and an FA...... mixed with sludge (FAS) from a wet flue gas cleaning system. The process was performed in batches of 165-175 kg residue. It generates a wastewater that is highly saline but has a low content of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, and Pb. The stabilized and raw residues have been subject to a range of leaching...

  12. Analysis of Geological, Mechanical and Characteristics of Aggregates Used in Tailings Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing social demand, economic developments, consumption fluctuations, urbanization, industrialization, modernization, population growth and technical needs have resulted due toincrease in the production of natural resources throughout the world. However, there is a less importance focused on the environmental regulations. Waste water is one of the environmental problemsthatmining activities may cause. It contains a lot of solid and liquid contaminants.Aggregatesare found among the most abundant ones in natural resources. They are obtained from river basins, sea and lake edges, quarries and industries as by products and waste. During mining activities or terminated mining activities, these materials are used in the creation of stability, impermeability and settlement of tailings dam. In this paper, construction of tailings pond by using aggregates are given in detail together with their classification, particle stability, particle shape, particle size, particle texture, covered in minerals of particle, particle porosity and trending to chemical reactivity of aggregates.

  13. Technology demonstration assessment report for X-701B Holding Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This Technology Demonstration Assessment Report (TDAR) was developed to evaluate and recommend the most feasible approach for cleanup of contaminated Minford soils below the X-701B Holding Pond and to summarize closure activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)X-701B Holding Pond(X-701B)site. In this TDAR, the recommended alternative and the activities for closure of the X-701B site are discussed. Four treatment technologies chosen for the TD, along with a contingent design, were evaluated to determine which approach would be appropriate for final closure of X-701B. These technologies address removal of soil contamination from the vadose zone and the saturated zone. The four technologies plus the Contingent Design evaluated were: In situ Soil Mixing with Solidification/Stabilization; In situ Soil Mixing with Isothermal Vapor Extraction; In situ Soil Mixing with Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction; In situ Soil Mixing with Peroxidation Destruction; and Contingent Closure. These technologies were evaluated according to their performance, reliability, implementability, safety, waste minimization, cost, and implementation time. Based on these criteria, a preferred treatment approach was recommended. The goal of the treatment approach is to apply the most appropriate technology demonstrated at X-231 B in order to reduce Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the saturated Minford soils directly beneath the X-701B Holding Pond. The closure schedule will include bid and award of two construction contracts, mobilization and demobilization, soil treatment, cap design, and cap construction. The total time required for soil treatment will be established based on actual performance of the soil treatment approach in the field

  14. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT EXPOSURE CONDITIONS ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MINERAL MATRICES STABILIZING HAZARDOUS WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Król

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mineral binders are more and more often used in the difficult process of disposal of inorganic hazardous waste containing heavy metals. Composites solidifying hazardous waste are deposited in the environment, which exposes them to the interaction of many variable factors. The paper presents the effect of different exposure conditions on physical and mechanical properties of concrete stabilizing galvanic sewage sludge (GO. The effect of the cyclic freezing and thawing, carbon dioxide (carbonation and high temperatures (200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C on the properties of stabilizing matrices has been described. The results, in most cases, show a loss of durability of composites solidifying sewage sludge (GO by the influence of external conditions.

  15. Role of water balance in the long-term stability of hazardous waste site cover treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1986-01-01

    After the 30-year post-closure maintenance period at hazardous waste landfills, long-term stability must be assured without continued intervention. Understanding water balance in the established vegetative cover system is central to predicting such stability. A Los Alamos National Laboratory research project has established a series of experimental cover treatment plots on a closed waste disposal site which will permit the determination of the effects of such critical parameters as soil cover design, leaf area index, and rooting characteristics on water balance under varied conditions. Data from these experiments are being analyzed by water balance modeling and other means. The results show consistent differences in soil moisture storage between soil profiles and between vegetation cover treatments

  16. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summaries of Hanford Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies in FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-07-08

    This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  17. Theoretical approach in optimization of stability of the multicomponent solid waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Plecas, I.; Mandic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical precipitation of radionuclides and their immobilization into the solid matrix represents an important approach in the radioactive wastewater treatment. Unfortunately, because of the complexity of the system, optimization of this process in terms of its efficacy and safety represents a serious practical problem, even in treatment of the monocomponent nuclear waste. This situation is additionally complicated in the case of the polycomponent nuclear waste because of the synergic effects of interactions between the radioactive components and the solid matrix. Recently, we have proposed a general theoretical approach for optimization of the process of precipitation and immobilization of metal impurities by the solid matrix. One of the main advantages of this approach represents the possibility of treatment of the multicomponent liquid waste, immobilized by the solid matrix. This approach was used here for investigation of the stability of the system hydroxyapatite (HAP) - Pb/Cd, which was selected as a model multicomponent waste system. In this analysis, we have used a structurally dependent term of the cohesive energy as a stability criterion. (author)

  18. Oxidative Stability of Tc(I) Tricarbonyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-17

    Technetium (Tc), which exists predominately in the liquid supernatant and salt cake fractions of the nuclear tank waste stored at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site, is one of the most difficult contaminants to dispose of and/or remediate. In the strongly alkaline environments prevalent in the tank waste, its dominant chemical form is pertechnetate (TcO4-, oxidation state +7). However, based on experimentation to-date, a significant fraction of the soluble Tc cannot be effectively separated from the wastes and may be present as a non-pertechnetate species. The presence of a non pertechnetate species significantly complicates disposition of low-activity waste (LAW), and the development of methods to either convert them to pertechnetate or to separate the non-pertechnetate species directly is needed. The challenge is the uncertainty regarding the nature and stability of the alkaline-soluble, low-valence, non pertechnetate species in the liquid tank waste. One objective of the Tc management project is to address this knowledge gap. This fiscal year (FY) 2015 report summarizes experimental work exploring the oxidative stability of model low-valence Tc(I) tricarbonyl species, derived from the [Tc(CO)3]+ moiety. These compounds are of interest due to their implied presence in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Work in part was initiated in FY 2014, and a series of samples containing non-pertechnetate Tc generated ex situ or in situ in pseudo-Hanford tank supernatant simulant solutions was prepared and monitored for oxidation to Tc(VII) (Levitskaia et al. 2014). This experimentation continued in FY 2015, and new series of samples containing Tc(I) as [Tc(CO)3]+•Ligand was tested. The monitoring method used for these studies was a combination of 99Tc NMR and EPR spectroscopies.

  19. Novel room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics for stabilizing combustion products and low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, with support from the Office of Technology in the US Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a new process employing novel, chemically bonded ceramic materials to stabilize secondary waste streams. Such waste streams result from the thermal processes used to stabilize low-level, mixed wastes. The process will help the electric power industry treat its combustion and low-level mixed wastes. The ceramic materials are strong, dense, leach-resistant, and inexpensive to fabricate. The room-temperature-setting process allows stabilization of volatile components containing lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and nickel. The process also provides effective stabilization of fossil fuel combustion products. It is most suitable for treating fly and bottom ashes

  20. Synergistic and alkaline stability studies of mixtures of simulated high level waste sludge with selected energetic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the stability of mercury oxalate and mercury fulminate in alkaline sludge simulating Savannah River Site waste. These compounds represent two classes of energetic compounds previously speculated as potential components in sludge stored without a supernatant liquid

  1. Green remediation and recycling of contaminated sediment by waste-incorporated stabilization/solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-03-01

    Navigational/environmental dredging of contaminated sediment conventionally requires contained marine disposal and continuous monitoring. This study proposed a green remediation approach to treat and recycle the contaminated sediment by means of stabilization/solidification enhanced by the addition of selected solid wastes. With an increasing amount of contaminated sediment (20-70%), the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks decreased from greater than 10MPa to slightly above 1MPa. For augmenting the cement hydration, coal fly ash was more effective than lime and ground seashells, especially at low sediment content. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed varying amounts of hydration products (primarily calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate) in the presence of coal fly ash, signifying the influence of pozzolanic reaction. To facilitate the waste utilization, cullet from beverage glass bottles and bottom ashes from coal combustion and waste incineration were found suitable to substitute coarse aggregate at 33% replacement ratio, beyond which the compressive strength decreased accordingly. The mercury intrusion porosimetry analysis indicated that the increase in the total pore area and average pore diameter were linearly correlated with the decrease of compressive strength due to waste replacement. All the sediment blocks complied with the acceptance criteria for reuse in terms of metal leachability. These results suggest that, with an appropriate mixture design, contaminated sediment and waste materials are useful resources for producing non-load-bearing masonry units or fill materials for construction uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shujun; Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Xikui

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of some alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion (AD) from food waste (FW). Four alkalinity sources, namely lime mud from papermaking (LMP), waste eggshell (WES), CaCO3 and NaHCO3, were applied as buffer materials and their stability effects were evaluated in batch AD. The results showed that LMP and CaCO3 had more remarkable effects than NaHCO3 and WES on FW stabilization. The methane yields were 120.2, 197.0, 156.2, 251.0 and 194.8 ml g(-1) VS for the control and synergistic digestions of CaCO3, NaHCO3, LMP and WES added into FW, respectively. The corresponding final alkalinity reached 5906, 7307, 9504, 7820 and 6782 mg l(-1), while the final acidities were determined to be 501, 200, 50, 350 and 250 mg l(-1), respectively. This indicated that the synergism between alkalinity and inorganic micronutrients from different alkalinity sources played an important role in the process stability of AD from FW. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS), Phase I: Soil washing final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy's environmental restoration and technology development activities, GTS Duratek, Inc., and its subcontractors have demonstrated an integrated thermal waste treatment system at Fernald, OH, as part the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program. Specifically, MAWS integrates soil washing, vitrification of mixed waste streams, and ion exchange to recycle and remediate process water to achieve, through a synergistic effect, a reduction in waste volume, increased waste loading, and production of a durable, leach-resistant, stable waste form suitable for disposal. This report summarizes the results of the demonstration/testing of the soil washing component of the MAWS system installed at Fernald (Plant 9). The soil washing system was designed to (1) process contaminated soil at a rate of 0.25 cubic yards per hour; (2) reduce overall waste volume and provide consistent-quality silica sand and contaminant concentrates as raw material for vitrification; and (3) release clean soil with uranium levels below 35 pCi/g. Volume reductions expected ranged from 50-80 percent; the actual volume reduction achieved during the demonstration reached 66.5 percent. The activity level of clean soil was reduced to as low as 6 pCi/g from an initial average soil activity level of 17.6 pCi/g (the highest initial level of soil provided for testing was 41 pCi/g). Although the throughput of the soil washing system was inconsistent throughout the testing period, the system was online for sufficient periods to conclude that a rate equivalent to 0.25 cubic yards per hour was achieved

  4. Sulfur polymer cement, a solidification and stabilization agent for radioactive and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is made by reacting 95% sulfur with 2.5 % dicyclopentadiene and 2.5% cyclopentadiene oligomers, to produce a product that is much better than unmodified sulfur. SPC is being tested as a solidifying and stabilizing agent for low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes. Heavy loadings (5 wt%) of eight toxic metals were combined individually with SPC and 7 wt% sodium sulfide nonahydrate. The leach rates for mercury, lead, chromium and silver oxides were reduced by six orders of magnitude, while those of arsenic and barium were reduced by four. SPC is good for stabilizing incinerator ash. Ion-exchange resins can be stabilized with SPC after heat treatment with asbestos or diatomite at 220-250 deg C. 19 refs

  5. Revegetation of flue gas desulfurization sludge pond disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artiola, J.F.

    1994-12-01

    A comprehensive search of published literature was conducted to summarize research undertaken to date on revegetation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal ponds. A review of the physical and chemical properties of FGD sludges and wastes with similar characteristics is also included in order to determine the advantages and limitations of FGD sludge for plant growth. No specific guidelines have been developed for the revegetation of FGD sludge disposal sites. Survey studies showed that the wide-ranging composition of FGD wastes was determined primarily by the sulfur dioxide and other flue gas scrubbing processes used at powerplants. Sulfate rich (>90%CaSO 4 ) FGD sludges are physically and chemically more stable, and thus more amenable to revegetation. Because of lack of macronutrients and extremely limited microbial activity, FBD sludge ponds presented a poor plant growth environment without amendment. Studies showed the natural process of inoculation of the FGD sludge with soil microbes that promote plant growth be can after disposal but proceeded slowly. Revegetation studies reviewed showed that FGD sludges amended with soils supported a wider variety of plant species better and longer than abandoned FGD ponds. Two major types of plants have been successful in revegetation of FGD waste ponds and similar wastes: salt-tolerant plants and aquatic plants. A comprehensive list of plant species with potential for regetation of FGD sludge disposal pond sites is presented along with successful revegetation techniques

  6. Transportation risk assessment of radioactive wastes generated by the N-Reactor stabilization program at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, T.

    1994-12-01

    The potential radiological and nonradiological risks associated with specific radioactive waste shipping campaigns at the Hanford Site are estimated. The shipping campaigns analyzed are associated with the transportation of wastes from the N-Reactor site at the 200-W Area, both within the Hanford Reservation, for disposal. The analysis is based on waste that would be generated from the N-Reactor stabilization program

  7. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Environmental Checklist Form 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds Closure Plan (Revision 1) consists of a Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. The 216-B-3 Pond System consists of a series of four earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. These four ponds, collectively. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the 216-B-3-3 Ditch. Water discharged to the 216-8-3-3 Ditch flows directly into the 216-B-3 Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to B Pond and the 216-B-3-3 Ditch contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the nonradioactive dangerous portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste also may be considered a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) when considering remediation of waste sites

  8. In situ stabilization of mixed radioactive waste storage tanks and contaminated soil areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthern, G.E.; Meservey, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Within the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex, there are a number of small (<50,000 gallons) underground Storage tanks containing mixed waste materials. The radioactive content of wastes eliminates the feasibility for hazardous waste treatment in accordance with previously prescribed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) technologies. As a result, DOE is funding in situ stabilization technology development for these tanks, Some of this development work has been done at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the initial efforts there were concentrated on the stabilization of the contents of the Test Area North (TAN) V-9 Tank. This is a 400 gallon underground tank filled with about 320 gallons of liquids and silty sediments. Sampling data indicates that approximately 50 wt% of the tank contents is aqueous-phase liquids. The vertically oriented cylindrical tank has a conical bottom and a chordal baffle that separates the tank inlet from its outlet. Access to the tank is through a six inch diameter access pipe on top of the tank. Because of the high volume, and the high concentration of aqueous-phase materials, Tank V-9 stabilization efforts have focussed on applying in situ agitation with dry feed addition to stabilize its contents. Materials selected for dry feed addition to this tank include a mixture of Aquaset IIH, and Type I/II Portland cement. This paper describes the results of proof-of-concept tests performed on full scale mockups of the Tank V-9. This proof-of-concept test were used to set operating parameters for in situ mixing, as well as evaluate how variations in Aquaset IIH/Portland cement ratio and sediment to liquid volume affected mixing of the tank

  9. A literature review of mixed waste components: Sensitivities and effects upon solidification/stabilization in cement-based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, C.H.; Gilliam, T.M.

    1994-03-01

    The US DOE Oak Ridge Field Office has signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) regarding Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) mixed wastes subject to the land disposal restriction (LDR) provisions of the Resource conservation and Recovery Act. The LDR FFCA establishes an aggressive schedule for conducting treatability studies and developing treatment methods for those ORR mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes listed in Appendix B to the Agreement. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program has been initiated to provide those efforts necessary to identify treatment methods for all of the wastes that meet Appendix B criteria. The program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs in a variety of areas, including that of final waste forms (i.e., stabilization/solidification processes). A literature research has been performed, with the objective of determining waste characterization needs to support cement-based waste-form development. The goal was to determine which waste species are problematic in terms of consistent production of an acceptable cement-based waste form and at what concentrations these species become intolerable. The report discusses the following: hydration mechanisms of Portland cement; mechanisms of retardation and acceleration of cement set-factors affecting the durability of waste forms; regulatory limits as they apply to mixed wastes; review of inorganic species that interfere with the development of cement-based waste forms; review of radioactive species that can be immobilized in cement-based waste forms; and review of organic species that may interfere with various waste-form properties

  10. Cooling pond fog studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Fog Excess Water Index (FEWI) method of fog prediction has been verified by the use of data obtained at the Dresden cooling pond during 1976 and 1977 and by a reanalysis of observations made in conjunction with a study of cooling pond simulators during 1974. For applications in which the method is applied to measurements or estimates of bulk water temperature, a critical value of about 0.7 mb appears to be most appropriate. The present analyses confirm the earlier finding that wind speed plays little part in determining the susceptibility for fog generation

  11. In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste: Annual report FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1994-10-01

    The two landfills of specific interest are the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), both located at Sandia National Laboratory. The work is comprised of two subtasks: (1) In-Situ Barriers and (2) In-Situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. The main environmental concern at the CWL is a chromium plume resulting from disposal of chromic acid and chromic sulfuric acid into unlined pits. This program has investigated means of in-situ stabilization of chromium contaminated soils and placement of containment barriers around the CWL. The MWL contains a plume of tritiated water. In-situ immobilization of tritiated water with cementitious grouts was not considered to be a method with a high probability of success and was not pursued. This is discussed further in Section 5.0. Containment barriers for the tritium plume were investigated. FY 94 work focused on stabilization of chromium contaminated soil with blast furnace slag modified grouts to bypass the stage of pre-reduction of Cr(6), barriers for tritiated water containment at the MWL, continued study of barriers for the CWL, and jet grouting field trials for CWL barriers at an uncontaminated site at SNL. Cores from the FY 93 permeation grouting field trails were also tested in FY 94

  12. Wet Chemical Oxidation and Stabilization of Mixed and Low Level Organic Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Livingston, R.R.; Burge, D.A.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1998-03-01

    Mixed acid oxidation is a non-incineration process capable of destroying organic compounds, including papers, plastics, resins, and oils, at moderate temperatures and pressures. The technology, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a holding medium which allows appreciable amounts of the oxidant to be retained in solution at atmospheric pressure and at the temperatures needed for oxidation. The phosphoric acid also provides the raw materials for making a final waste which contains the metal contaminants from the waste stream. Savannah River has designed, built, and started up a 40-liter pilot reaction vessel to demonstrate the process and its sub-systems on a larger scale than earlier testing. The unit has been demonstrated and has provided important data on the operation of the oxidation and acid recovery systems. Specific results will be presented on oxidation conditions, acid recovery efficiency, chloride removal, metal retention, and process monitoring. Additional studies have been conducted with a smaller vessel in a radioactive hood. Testing with plutonium-bearing waste simulants was performed to make preliminary predictions about the behavior of plutonium in the process. Samples of the remaining phosphoric acid from these tests has been converted to two separate final forms for analysis. Results will be presented on plutonium fractionation during the oxidation process and waste form stability

  13. In situ vitrification demonstration for the stabilization of buried wastes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.K.; Spalding, B.P.; Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology for the stabilization of radioactively contaminated soil sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed during July 1987. This demonstration is the first application of the ISV process not performed at the Hanford Site, where the technology was developed and patented by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The joint ORNL-PNL pilot-scale demonstration was performed on a 3/8-scale trench (2 m deep x 1 m wide x 10 m long) that was constructed to simulate a typical seepage trench used for liquid low-level radioactive waste disposal at ORNL from 1951 to 1966. In the ISV process, electrodes are inserted around a volume of contaminated soil, power is applied to the electrodes, and the entire mass is melted from the surface of the soil down through the contaminated zone, thus making a glassy-to-microcrystalline waste form that incorporates the contaminants. Gases produced during the melting are collected, treated, monitored, and released through an off-gas process trailer. In the ORNL demonstration, a 25-t mass of melted rock approximately 1.2 m thick x 2.1 m wide x 4.9 m long was formed during 110 h of operation that consumed approximately 29 MWh of power. Data obtained on the operational performance of the test and waste-form durability will be used to assess the feasibility of applying the ISV technology to an actual waste trench

  14. Solidification/stabilization of ash from medical waste incineration into geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakos, Konstantinos; Mimilidou, Aliki; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Stratakis, Antonis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, bottom and fly ash, generated from incinerated medical waste, was used as a raw material for the production of geopolymers. The stabilization (S/S) process studied in this paper has been evaluated by means of the leaching and mechanical properties of the S/S solids obtained. Hospital waste ash, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate solution and metakaolin were mixed. Geopolymers were cured at 50°C for 24h. After a certain aging time of 7 and 28 days, the strength of the geopolymer specimens, the leachability of heavy metals and the mineralogical phase of the produced geopolymers were studied. The effects of the additions of fly ash and calcium compounds were also investigated. The results showed that hospital waste ash can be utilized as source material for the production of geopolymers. The addition of fly ash and calcium compounds considerably improves the strength of the geopolymer specimens (2-8 MPa). Finally, the solidified matrices indicated that geopolymerization process is able to reduce the amount of the heavy metals found in the leachate of the hospital waste ash. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Possible interactions between recirculated landfill leachate and the stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    The stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SOFMSW) is a product of the mechanical/biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal solid waste (MMSW). SOFMSW is considered a 'grey' compost and the presence of pollutants (particularly heavy metals) and residual glass and plastic normally prevents agricultural use, making landfills the typical final destination for SOFMSW. Recirculation of leachate in landfills can be a cost-effective management option, but the long-term sustainability of such a practice must be verified. Column tests were carried out to examine the effect of SOFMSW on leachate recirculation. The results indicate that organic matter may be biologically degraded and metals (copper and zinc) are effectively entrapped through a combination of physical (adsorption), biological (bacterial sulfate reduction), and chemical (precipitation of metal sulfides) processes, while other chemicals (i.e. ammonia nitrogen and chloride) are essentially unaffected by filtration through SOFMSW.

  16. The stability of candidate buffer materials for a low-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, J.; Buckley, L.P.; Burton, G.R.; Tosello, N.B.; Maves, S.R.; Blimkie, M.E.; Donaldson, J.R.

    1989-11-01

    Inorganic ion-exchangers, clinoptilolite and clay, will be placed on the floor of a low-level radioactive waste repository to be built at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The stability of these ion-exchange materials for a range of potential chemical environments in the repository was investigated. The leaching of waste forms and concrete and biological activity may create acidic or basic environment. The dissolution mechanisms of the ion exchangers for both acid and alkali conditions were established. Changes in distribution coefficients occurred shortly after the commencement of the treatment and were due to changes in the counter-ion content of the ion exchangers. No evidence was found to suggest gradual selective destruction of exchange sites responsible for the high distribution coefficients observed

  17. Composting technology in waste stabilization: On the methods, challenges and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwosi, Chukwudi O; Igbokwe, Victor C; Odimba, Joyce N; Eke, Ifeanyichukwu E; Nwankwoala, Mary O; Iroh, Ikemdinachi N; Ezeogu, Lewis I

    2017-04-01

    Composting technology has become invaluable in stabilization of municipal waste due to its environmental compatibility. In this review, different types of composting methods reportedly applied in waste management were explored. Further to that, the major factors such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, moisture, particle size that have been considered relevant in the monitoring of the composting process were elucidated. Relevant strategies to improve and optimize process effectiveness were also addressed. However, during composting, some challenges such as leachate generation, gas emission and lack of uniformity in assessing maturity indices are imminent. Here in, these challenges were properly addressed and some strategies towards ameliorating them were proffered. Finally, we highlighted some recent technologies that could improve composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 216-B-3 pond RCRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1998-06-01

    The 216-B-3 pond system was a series of ponds for disposal of liquid effluent from past Hanford production facilities. In operation since 1945, the B Pond system has been a RCRA facility since 1986, with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim-status groundwater monitoring in place since 1988. In 1994, discharges were diverted from the main pond, where the greatest potential for contamination was thought to reside, to the 3C expansion pond. In 1997, all discharges to the pond system were discontinued. In 1990, the B Pond system was elevated from detection groundwater monitoring to an assessment-level status because total organic halogens and total organic carbon were found to exceed critical means in two wells. Subsequent groundwater quality assessment failed to find any specific hazardous waste contaminant that could have accounted for the exceedances, which were largely isolated in occurrence. Thus, it was recommended that the facility be returned to detection-level monitoring

  19. Iron-phosphate-based chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Singh, D.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization, a collaborative project to develop iron-phosphate based ceramics has been initiated between Argonne National Laboratory and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The starter powders are oxides of iron that are generated as inexpensive byproduct materials in the iron and steel industry. They contain iron oxides as a mixture of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and haematite (Fe 2 O 3 ). In this initial phase of this project, both of these compounds were investigated independently. Each was reacted with phosphoric acid solution to form iron phosphate ceramics. In the case of magnetite, the reaction was rapid. Adding ash as the waste component containing hazardous contaminants resulted in a dense and hard ceramic rich in glassy phase. On the other hand, the reaction of phosphoric acid solution with a mixture of haematite and ash waste contaminated with cesium and americium was too slow. Samples had to be molded under pressure. They were cured for 2-3 weeks and then hardened by heating at 350 degrees C for 3 h. The resulting ceramics in both cases were subjected to physical tests for measurement of density, open porosity, compression strength, phase analyses using X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis, and leaching tests using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ANS 16.1 with 7 days of leaching. Using the preliminary information obtained from these tests, we evaluated these materials for stabilization of Department of Energy's mixed waste streams

  20. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  1. 120-D-1 (100-D) Ponds supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.; Zoric, J.P.

    1997-06-01

    This document is a supplement to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan and provides the unit-specific information needed to fully comply with the Washington Administrative Code 173-303 for contingency plans. The 100-D ponds are unlined surface impoundments that were mainly used to dispose of nondangerous wastewater, The ponds are designated as a single treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit because of potential corrosive characteristics of the wastewater. No waste is currently present at the 100-D Ponds

  2. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Gilliam, T.M.; Harrington, E.S.; Youngblood, E.L.; Baer, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now know as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) prepared two mixed-waste surface impoundments for closure by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage of the stabilized waste was planned until final disposition. The strategy for disposal included delisting the stabilized pond sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 drums of unprocessed sludge are presently being stored. In addition, the abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such conditions do not comply with the requirements set forth by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for the storage of listed waste. Various steps are being taken to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. This paper (1) reviews the current situation, (2) discusses the plan for remediation of regulatory noncompliances, including decanting liquid from stabilized waste and dewatering untreated waste, and (3) provides an assessment of alternative raw-waste treatment processes. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Demonstration of GTS Duratek Process for Stabilizing Mercury Contaminated (<260 ppm) Mixed Wastes. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 2409

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Mercury-contaminated wastes in many forms are present at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. At least 26 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities, totaling approximately 6,000 m 3 . Mercury contamination in the wastes at DOE sites presents a challenge because it exists in various forms, such as soil, sludges, and debris, as well as in different chemical species of mercury. Stabilization is of interest for radioactively contaminated mercury waste (<260 ppm Hg) because of its success with particular wastes, such as soils, and its promise of applicability to a broad range of wastes. However, stabilization methods must be proven to be adequate to meet treatment standards. They must also be proven feasible in terms of economics, operability, and safety. This report summarizes the findings from a stabilization technology demonstration conducted by GTS Duratek, Inc. Phase I of the study involved receipt and repackaging of the material, followed by preparations for waste tracking. Phase II examined the bench-scale performance of grouting at two different loadings of waste to grouted mass. Phase III demonstrated in-drum mixing and solidification using repackaged drums of sludge. Phase IV initially intended to ship final residues to Envirocare for disposal. The key results of the demonstration are as follows: (1) Solidification tests were performed at low and high waste loading, resulting in stabilization of mercury to meet the Universal Treatment Standard of 0.025 mg/L at the low loading and for two of the three runs at the high loading. The third high-loading run had a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of 0.0314 mg/L. (2) Full-drum stabilization using the low loading formula was demonstrated. (3) Organic compound levels were discovered to be higher than originally reported, including the presence of some pesticides. Levels of some radionuclides were much higher than initially reported. (4

  4. Distribution of transuranic elements in a freshwater pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1975-05-01

    Preliminary results are reported from a study initiated on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am in a freshwater environment. This study involves a waste pond which has been receiving Pu processing wastes for about 30 years. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization. In addition, the ecological distribution of Pu and Am was investigated. The pond is also highly enriched with nutrients, thus supporting a high level of algal and macrophyte production. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrators of Pu transuranics in the pond system. The major sink for Pu and Am in this system is the sediments. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments, is also a major concentrator of transuranics in this system []Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Dragonfly, larvae, watercress, and snails show concentrations which approximate those of the sediments but nearly all other food web components have levels of Pu and Am which are lower than those of the sediments, thus, Pu and Am seem to be relatively immobile in the aquatic ecosystem. (CH)

  5. 2101-M pond closure plan. Volume 1, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izatt, R. D.; Lerch, R. E.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment.

  6. Walden Pond, Massachusetts: Environmental Setting and Current Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    1998-01-01

    as plant nutrients, organic matter, and soil are leached and eroded from the surrounding watershed. This process is known as eutrophication. The term 'cultural eutrophication' refers to an accelerated form of the natural process in which extra soil and nutrients are derived from people's use of fertilizer, rerouting of surface drainage, and disposal of domestic and industrial waste. Cultural eutrophication can lead to excessive growth of aquatic plants, pond filling by decayed plants and eroded soils, reduced water clarity, and depletion of dissolved oxygen in deep water with subsequent loss of cold-water fish habitat. In order to document the longterm ecological health of Walden Pond, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), working in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management (MDEM), is investigating factors that could contribute to cultural eutrophication of Walden. Through measurements of mass balance of nutrients and oxygen in the pond's deep water, the investigation will establish a baseline data set on Walden's trophic state, which is a measure of the pond's ability to support plant growth. The baseline data will be used to detect trends and give early warning of trophic changes or trophic response to pond remediation projects. This Fact Sheet provides background information on the environmental setting, limnological features, and cultural eutrophication of Walden Pond, and describes the joint USGS/MDEM study.

  7. Stability assessment of lycopene microemulsion prepared using tomato industrial waste against various processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh; Abbasi, Soleiman

    2017-11-01

    Green separation techniques are growing at a greater rate than solvent extraction as a result of the constant consumer drive to 'go natural'. Considering the increasing evidence of the health benefits of lycopene and massive tomato industrial waste, in the present study, lycopene was extracted from tomato industrial waste using microemulsion technique and its mean droplet size and size distribution was determined. Moreover, the effects of pasteurization, sterilization, freeze-thaw cycles and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the thermodynamic stability, turbidity and lycopene concentration of the lycopene microemulsion were monitored. Freeze-thaw cycles, pasteurization and short exposure to UV irradiation showed no or negligible influence on lycopene content and turbidity of the microemulsion. However, long exposure to UV (260 min) reduced the lycopene content and turbidity by 34% and 10%, respectively. HHST (higher-heat shorter-time) and sterilization also reduced lycopene content (25%) and increased turbidity (32%). The lycopene microemulsion showed satisfactory stability over a process where its monodispersity and nanosize could be of potential advantage to the food and related industries. Regarding the carcinogenicity of synthetic colourants, potential applications of the lycopene microemulsion include in soft drinks and minced meat, which would result in a better colour and well-documented health-promoting qualities. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The effect of cure conditions on the stability of cement waste forms after immersion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Adams, J.W.; Clinton, J.H.; Piciulo, P.L.; McDaniel, K.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effects of curing conditions on the stability of cement-solidified ion-exchange resins after immersion in water. The test specimens consisted of partially depleted mixed-bed bead resins solidified in one of three vendor-supplied Portland I cement formulations, in a reference cement formulation, or in a gypsum-based binder formulation. We cured samples prepared using each formulation in sealed containers for periods of 7, 14, or 28 days as well as in air or with an accelerated heat cure prior to 90-day immersion in water. Two cement formulations exhibited apparent Portland-cement-like behavior, i.e., compressive strength increased or stabilized with increasing cure time. Two cement formulations exhibited behavior apparently unlike that of Portland cement, i.e., compressive strength decreased with increasing cure time. Such non-Portland-cement-like behavior is correlated with higher waste loadings. The gypsum-based formulation exhibited approximately constant compressive strength with cure time. Accelerated heat cures may not give compressive strengths representative of real-time cures. Some physical deterioration (cracking, spalling) of the waste form occurs during immersion

  9. The effect of cure conditions on the stability of cement waste forms after immersion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Adams, J.W.; Clinton, J.H.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of curing conditions on the stability of cement-solidified ion-exchange resins after immersion in water. The test specimens consisted of partially depleted mixed-bed bead resins solidified in one of three vendor-supplied Portland I cement formulations, in a reference cement formulation, or in a gypsum-based binder formulation. They cured samples prepared using each formulation in sealed containers for periods of 7, 14, or 28 days as well as in air or with an accelerated heat cure prior to 90-day immersion in water. Two cement formulations exhibited apparent Portland-cement-like behavior, i.e., compressive strength increased or stabilized with increasing cure time. Two cement formulations exhibited behavior apparently unlike that of Portland cement, i.e. compressive strength decreased with increasing cure time. Such non-Portland-cement-like behavior is correlated with higher waste loadings. The gypsum-based formulation exhibited approximately constant compressive strength with cure time. Accelerated heat cures may not give compressive strengths representative of real-time cures. Some physical deterioration (cracking, spalling) of the waste form occurs during immersion

  10. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-29

    Over 1,140 yd{sup 3} of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations ({approximately} 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system.

  11. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-01

    Over 1,140 yd 3 of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations (approximately 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system

  12. Arsenic stability and mobilization in soil at an amenity grassland overlying chemical waste (St. Helens, UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.hartley@ljmu.ac.uk; Dickinson, Nicholas M. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Department of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Apartado 4195, 30080 Murcia (Spain); French, Christopher [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Piearce, Trevor G. [Biological Sciences Division, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Sparke, Shaun; Lepp, Nicholas W. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    A 6.6 ha grassland, established on a former chemical waste site adjacent to a residential area, contains arsenic (As) in surface soil at concentrations 200 times higher than UK Soil Guideline Values. The site is not recognized as statutory contaminated land, partly on the assumption that mobility of the metalloid presents a negligible threat to human health, groundwater and ecological receptors. Evidence for this is evaluated, based on studies of the effect of organic (green waste compost) and inorganic (iron oxides, lime and phosphate) amendments on As fractionation, mobility, plant uptake and earthworm communities. Arsenic mobility in soil was low but significantly related to dissolved organic matter and phosphate, with immobilization associated with iron oxides. Plant uptake was low and there was little apparent impact on earthworms. The existing vegetation cover reduces re-entrainment of dust-blown particulates and pathways of As exposure via this route. Minimizing risks to receptors requires avoidance of soil exposure, and no compost or phosphate application. - Stabilization of alkali industry waste requires careful management to minimise soil arsenic mobilization and dispersal to the wider environment.

  13. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance evaluation of pumping systems used in commercial-scale, split-pond aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Split-pond aquaculture systems have been adopted widely by United States catfish farmers as a way to improve production performance. The split-pond consists of a fish-culture basin that is connected to a waste-treatment lagoon by two water conveyance structures. Water is circulated between the two b...

  15. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A plutonium (Pu) processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior of transuranics in this ecosystem. This ultra-eutrophic pond has a water inflow rate of 10 m 3 /min, of which 95% leaves the pond by percolation. Macrophytes (mainly Potamogeton), algae (mainly Cladophora), benthic invertebrates (mainly dipteran and odonate larvae, hemipterans, amphipods and gastropods) and goldfish are the major biotic components of the system. Sediments appear to be the principal repository of Pu and Am, having mean concentrations for 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu and 241 Am of 112, 121 and 71 pCi/g (dry), respectively. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Algal floc (decomposing algal material) is the major concentrator of Pu and Am in the pond having mean concentrations of 238 Pu of 986 pCi/g, for 239 240 Pu of 615 pCi/g, and for 241 Am of 256 pCi/g. Watercress (Rorippa) had Pu levels about equal to those of the sediments, while dragonfly larvae (Libellula) and snails (Lymnaea) along with watercress had Am levels approximating those of the sediments. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments.Preliminary in situ experiments indicate that goldfish reach an equilibrium level for Pu of about 15 pCi/g within a few days of exposure to the pond, after which they may remain active in the pond for many months without further accumulation. Experimental goldfish established ratios of 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu and 241 Am to 239 240 Pu that were similar to all other pond biota within 2 weeks of pond residence, suggesting a common source of biologically available Pu and Am

  16. Reclamation of a mine tailings pond by addition of marble waste and pig slurry for the development of aided phytostabilization; Rehabilitación de una presa de residuos mineros mediante la aplicación de lodo de mármol y purín de cerdo para el desarrollo de una fitoestabilización asistida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zornoza, R.; Faz, A.; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Acosta, J.A.; Gómez-López, M.D.; Muñoz, M.A.; Sánchez-Medrano, R.; Murcia, F.J.; Fernández Cortés, F.J.; López Martínez, E.; Espín de Gea, A.

    2017-09-01

    Abandoned tailings ponds produce environmental and human health hazards due to the transfer of heavy metals through wind and water erosion or leaching. To reduce these hazards, a reclamation strategy has been developed on a tailings pond based on aided phytostabilization. In 2011 marble mud and pig slurry were applied to the surface of a tailings pond and in the spring of 2012 thirteen native vegetal species were introduced. The evolution of different soil properties and the bio-available fraction of the heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn were monitored for two years (2012-2013). The results showed that the pH, aggregate stability, organic carbon, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity increased after the application of the amendments and the growth of vegetation, whilst the bio-available fraction of the heavy metals drastically decreased (90-99%). Thus, the strategy followed proved to be positive for reducing the availability of heavy metals and improving soil quality and fertility. These results are promising in areas with extractive activity of carbonated materials, since the generated waste can be used for the reclamation of soils affected by heavy metals, transforming a residual material into a useful by-product. [Spanish] Las acumulaciones de residuos mineros abandonados presentan riesgos ambientales y de salud pública por la potencial transferencia de metales pesados tóxicos a través de la erosión hídrica y eólica o lixiviación. Para reducir estos riesgos, se ha desarrollado una estrategia de rehabilitación en una presa de residuos mineros basada en la fitoestabilización asistida. A lo largo de 2011 se aplicó sobre la superficie de la presa lodo de mármol (6.7 kg m-2), purín de cerdo (1.7 ,7 L m-2 en julio y 2.6 L m-2 en septiembre), y la fase sólida de purín de cerdo (7 kg m-2). En primavera de 2012 se introdujeron trece especies vegetales autóctonas. Durante dos años (2012- 2013) se ha monitorizado con carácter semestral la evolución de

  17. Stabilization of Pb and Cd contaminated soils and soil quality improvements using waste oyster shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Yong Sik; Lim, Jung Eun; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2011-02-01

    Large amounts of oyster shells are produced as a by-product of shellfish farming in coastal regions without beneficial use options. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential for the use of waste oyster shells (WOS) containing a high amount of CaCO₃ to improve soil quality and to stabilize heavy metals in soil. To accomplish this, an incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the addition of 1-5 wt% WOS to stabilize the Pb (total 1,246 mg/kg) and Cd (total 17 mg/kg) in a contaminated soil. The effectiveness of the WOS treatments was evaluated using various single extraction techniques. Soil amended with WOS was cured for 30 days complied with the Korean Standard Test method (0.1 M·HCl extraction). The Pb and Cd concentrations were less than the Korean warning and countermeasure standards following treatment with 5 wt% WOS. Moreover, the concentrations of Cd were greatly reduced in response to WOS treatment following extraction using 0.01 M·CaCl₂, which is strongly associated with phytoavailability. Furthermore, the soil pH and exchangeable Ca increased significantly in response to WOS treatment. Taken together, the results of this study indicated that WOS amendments improved soil quality and stabilized Pb and Cd in contaminated soil. However, extraction with 0.43 M·CH₃ COOH revealed that remobilization of heavy metals can occur when the soil reaches an acidic condition.

  18. Oxygen demand for the stabilization of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in passively aerated bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinski, Slawomir; Wojnowska-Baryla, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of an passively aerated reactor enables effective stabilization of OFMSW. • Convective air flow does not inhibit the aerobic stabilization of waste. • The use of an passively aerated reactor reduces the heat loss due to convection. • The volume of supplied air exceeds 1.7–2.88 times the microorganisms demand. - Abstract: Conventional aerobic waste treatment technologies require the use of aeration devices that actively transport air through the stabilized waste mass, which greatly increases operating costs. In addition, improperly operated active aeration systems, may have the adverse effect of cooling the stabilized biomass. Because active aeration can be a limiting factor for the stabilization process, passive aeration can be equally effective and less expensive. Unfortunately, there are few reports documenting the use of passive aeration systems in municipal waste stabilization. There have been doubts raised as to whether a passive aeration system provides enough oxygen to the organic matter mineralization processes. In this paper, the effectiveness of aeration during aerobic stabilization of four different organic fractions of municipal waste in a reactor with an integrated passive ventilation system and leachate recirculation was analyzed. For the study, four fractions separated by a rotary screen were chosen. Despite the high temperatures in the reactor, the air flow rate was below 0.016 m 3 /h. Using Darcy’s equation, theoretical values of the air flow rate were estimated, depending on the intensity of microbial metabolism and the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic compounds. Calculations showed that the volume of supplied air exceeded the microorganisms demand for oxidation and endogenous activity by 1.7–2.88-fold

  19. Evaluating the freeze-thaw durability of portland cement-stabilized-solidified heavy metal waste using acoustic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Korchi, T.; Gress, D.; Baldwin, K.; Bishop, P.

    1989-01-01

    The use of stress wave propagation to assess freeze-thaw resistance of portland cement solidified/stabilized waste is presented. The stress wave technique is sensitive to the internal structure of the specimens and would detect structural deterioration independent of weight loss or visual observations. The freeze-thaw resistance of a cement-solidified cadmium waste and a control was evaluated. The control and cadmium wastes both showed poor freeze-thaw resistance. However, the addition of cadmium and seawater curing increased the resistance to more cycles of freezing and thawing. This is attributed to microstructural changes

  20. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  1. Mechanical stability of bentonite buffer system for high level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempinen, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics

    1998-05-01

    According to present plans, high level nuclear waste in Finland is going to be disposed of in bedrock at a depth of several hundred metres. The spent fuel containers will be placed in boreholes drilled in the floors of deposition tunnels with engineered clay buffer, which is made of bentonite blocks. The tunnels will be filled with a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. For stability calculations a thermomechanical model for compressed bentonite is needed. In the study a thermomechanically consistent model for reversible processes for swelling clays is presented. Preliminary calculations were performed and they show that uncertainty in material parameter values causes significantly different results. Therefore, measurements that are consistent with the model are needed 12 refs.

  2. Mechanical stability of bentonite buffer system for high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempinen, A.

    1998-05-01

    According to present plans, high level nuclear waste in Finland is going to be disposed of in bedrock at a depth of several hundred metres. The spent fuel containers will be placed in boreholes drilled in the floors of deposition tunnels with engineered clay buffer, which is made of bentonite blocks. The tunnels will be filled with a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. For stability calculations a thermomechanical model for compressed bentonite is needed. In the study a thermomechanically consistent model for reversible processes for swelling clays is presented. Preliminary calculations were performed and they show that uncertainty in material parameter values causes significantly different results. Therefore, measurements that are consistent with the model are needed

  3. Geo-environmental application of municipal solid waste incinerator ash stabilized with cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinder Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of soluble salts contained in the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI ash significantly affects the strength development and hardening reaction when stabilized with cement. The present study focuses on the compaction and strength behavior of mixed specimens of cement and MSWI ash. A series of indices such as unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, California bearing ratio (CBR and pH value was examined. Prior to this, the specimens were cured for 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d. The test results depict that the maximum dry density (MDD decreases and the optimum moisture content (OMC increases with the addition of cement. The test results also reveal that the cement increases the strength of the mixed specimens. Thus, the combination of MSWI ash and cement can be used as a lightweight filling material in different structures like embankment and road construction.

  4. High temperature co-treatment of bottom ash and stabilized fly ashes from waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Mogensen, E.P.B.; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2001-01-01

    Bottom ashes from two Danish municipal solid waste incineration plants were heated at 900 degreesC with iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues at actual mass flow ratios (9:1), simulating a treating method for the residues. The two residues were cotreated, producing one combined...... ashes. The process, thus, fixates the metals in the solid residues without altering the leaching properties of the bottom ash too significantly. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... stream that may be utilized as a secondary road construction material. Scanning electron microscope analysis and grain size distribution analysis indicated that sintering of the particles did not occur. Batch leaching tests at liquid/solid 10 I/kg at a range of pH-values (6-10) quantified with respect...

  5. The comparative uptake and interaction of several radionuclides in the trophic levels surrounding the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) waste water ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, G.H. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the uptake, distribution, and interaction of five activation products (Co-57, Be-7, Cs-134, Rb-83, and Mn-54) within the biotic and abiotic components surrounding the waste treatment lagoons of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The study attempted to ascertain where, and what specific interactions were taking place among the isotopes and the biotic/abiotic components. A statistical approach, utilizing Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), was conducted testing the radioisotopic concentrations by (1) the trophic levels (TROPLVL) in each position sampled on the grid, (2) where sampled on the grid (TRAN), (3) where sampled with-in each grid line (PLOT), and (4) the side with which sampled (SIDE). This provided both the dependent and independent variables that would be tested. The Null Hypothesis (Ho) tested the difference in the mean values of the isotopes within/between each of the four independent variables. The Rb-83 statistic indicated an accumulation within the TRAN and PLOT variables within the sampled area. The Co-57 test statistic provided a value which indicated that accumulation of this isotope within TROPLVL was taking place. Mn-54 test values indicated that accumulation was also taking place at the higher trophic levels within the PLOT, TRAN, and SIDE positions. Cs-134 was found to accumulate to third level in this trophic level structure (TROPLVL-(vegetation)), and then decrease from there. The Be-7 component provided no variance from known compartmental transfers. 210 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. The comparative uptake and interaction of several radionuclides in the trophic levels surrounding the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) waste water ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.H. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the uptake, distribution, and interaction of five activation products (Co-57, Be-7, Cs-134, Rb-83, and Mn-54) within the biotic and abiotic components surrounding the waste treatment lagoons of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The study attempted to ascertain where, and what specific interactions were taking place among the isotopes and the biotic/abiotic components. A statistical approach, utilizing Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), was conducted testing the radioisotopic concentrations by (1) the trophic levels (TROPLVL) in each position sampled on the grid, (2) where sampled on the grid (TRAN), (3) where sampled with-in each grid line (PLOT), and (4) the side with which sampled (SIDE). This provided both the dependent and independent variables that would be tested. The Null Hypothesis (Ho) tested the difference in the mean values of the isotopes within/between each of the four independent variables. The Rb-83 statistic indicated an accumulation within the TRAN and PLOT variables within the sampled area. The Co-57 test statistic provided a value which indicated that accumulation of this isotope within TROPLVL was taking place. Mn-54 test values indicated that accumulation was also taking place at the higher trophic levels within the PLOT, TRAN, and SIDE positions. Cs-134 was found to accumulate to third level in this trophic level structure [TROPLVL-(vegetation)], and then decrease from there. The Be-7 component provided no variance from known compartmental transfers. 210 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Microencapsulation and storage stability of polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Navarro, Patricia; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2016-01-01

    Wine production wastes are an interesting source of natural polyphenols. In this work, wine wastes extracts were encapsulated through vibration nozzle microencapsulation using sodium alginate as polymer and calcium chloride as hardening reagent. An experimental design approach was used to obtain calcium-alginate microbeads with high polyphenol content and good morphological features. In this way, the effect of pressure, frequency, voltage and the distance to the gelling bath were optimized for two nozzles of 150 and 300 μm. Long-term stability of the microbeads was studied for 6 months taking into account different storage conditions: temperatures (4 °C and room temperature), in darkness and in presence of light, and the addition of chitosan to the gelling bath. Encapsulated polyphenols were found to be much more stable compared to free polyphenols regardless the encapsulation procedure and storage conditions. Moreover, slightly lower degradation rates were obtained when chitosan was added to the gelling bath. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN number-sign 85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper

  9. Impact of phase stability on the corrosion behavior of the austenitic candidate materials for NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1987-10-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is responsible for the development of the waste package design to meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing requirements for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The metallic container component of the waste package is required to assist in providing substantially complete containment of the waste for a period of up to 1000 years. Long term phase stability of the austenitic candidate materials (304L and 316L stainless steels and alloy 825) over this time period at moderate temperatures (100-250 0 C) can impact the mechanical and corrosion behavior of the metal barrier. A review of the technical literature with respect to phase stability of 304L, 316L and 825 is presented. The impact of martensitic transformations, carbide precipitation and intermediate (σ, chi, and eta) phase formation on the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of these alloys at repository relevant conditions is discussed. The effect of sensitization on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of each alloy is also addressed. A summary of the impact of phase stability on the degradation of each alloy in the proposed repository environment is included. 32 refs., 6 figs

  10. Distribution of transuranic elements in a freshwater pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    During the past two years a unique study has been initiated on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater environment. This study involves a waste pond which has been receiving occasional low-level plutonium processing wastes for about 30 years. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization. In addition, the ecological distribution of plutonium and americium is being investigated. The purpose of this work is to explain plutonium and americium concentrations at specific ecological sites, important export routes out of the pond, and potential pathways to man. The pond is also highly enriched with nutrients, thus supporting a high level of algal and macrophyte production. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrator of transuranics in the pond system. The major sink for plutonium and americium in this system is the sediments. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments, is also a major concentrator of transuranics in this system. Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Dragonfly larvae, watercress, and snails show concentrations which approximate those of the sediments but nearly all other food web components have levels of plutonium and americium which are lower than those of the sediments. Thus, plutonium and americium seem to be relatively immobile in the aquatic ecosystem. However, the role of algae as a potential mechanism for the long-range ecological transport of plutonium and americium will receive additional attention

  11. Long-term performance of aged waste forms treated by stabilization/solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antemir, Aurora; Hills, Colin D; Carey, Paula J; Gardner, Kevin H; Bates, Edward R; Crumbie, Alison K

    2010-09-15

    Current regulatory testing of stabilized/solidified (S/S) soils is based on short-term performance tests and is insufficient to determine their long-term stability or expected service life. In view of this, and the significant lack of data on long-term field performance in the literature, S/S material has been extracted from full-scale remedial operations and examined using a variety of analytical techniques to evaluate field performance. The results, including those from X-ray analytical techniques, optical and electron microscopy and leaching tests are presented and discussed. The microstructure of retrieved samples was found to be analogous to other cement-based materials, but varied according to the soil type, the contaminants present, the treatment applied and the field exposure conditions. Summary of the key microstructural features in the USA and UK is presented in this work. The work has shown that during 16 years of service the S/S wastes investigated performed satisfactorily. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Solidification/stabilization of fly and bottom ash from medical waste incineration facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Christopoulos, Konstantinos; Mousios, Epameinontas; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2012-03-15

    In the present work, the stabilization/solidification of fly and bottom ash generated from incinerated hospital waste was studied. The objectives of the solidification/stabilization treatment were therefore to reduce the leachability of the heavy metals present in these materials so as to permit their disposal in a sanitary landfill requiring only a lower degree of environmental protection. Another objective of the applied treatment was to increase the mechanical characteristics of the bottom ash using different amounts of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a binder. The solidified matrix showed that the cement is able to immobilize the heavy metals found in fly and bottom ash. The TCLP leachates of the untreated fly ash contain high concentrations of Zn (13.2 mg/l) and Pb (5.21 mg/l), and lesser amounts of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd and Ba. Cement-based solidification exhibited a compressive strength of 0.55-16.12 MPa. The strength decreased as the percentage of cement loading was reduced; the compressive strength was 2.52-12.7 MPa for 60% cement mixed with 40% fly ash and 6.62-16.12 MPa for a mixture of 60% cement and 40% bottom ash. The compressive strength reduced to 0.55-1.30 MPa when 30% cement was mixed with 70% fly ash, and to 0.90-7.95 MPa when 30% cement was mixed with 70% bottom ash, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term performance of aged waste forms treated by stabilization/solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antemir, Aurora; Hills, Colin D.; Carey, Paula J.; Gardner, Kevin H.; Bates, Edward R.; Crumbie, Alison K.

    2010-01-01

    Current regulatory testing of stabilized/solidified (S/S) soils is based on short-term performance tests and is insufficient to determine their long-term stability or expected service life. In view of this, and the significant lack of data on long-term field performance in the literature, S/S material has been extracted from full-scale remedial operations and examined using a variety of analytical techniques to evaluate field performance. The results, including those from X-ray analytical techniques, optical and electron microscopy and leaching tests are presented and discussed. The microstructure of retrieved samples was found to be analogous to other cement-based materials, but varied according to the soil type, the contaminants present, the treatment applied and the field exposure conditions. Summary of the key microstructural features in the USA and UK is presented in this work. The work has shown that during 16 years of service the S/S wastes investigated performed satisfactorily.

  14. Evaluation of methane oxidation activity in waste biocover soil during landfill stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Wang, Jing; Xia, Fang-Fang; Mao, Li-Juan; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Biocover soil has been demonstrated to have high CH(4) oxidation capacity and is considered as a good alternative cover material to mitigate CH(4) emission from landfills, yet the response of CH(4) oxidation activity of biocover soils to the variation of CH(4) loading during landfill stabilization is poorly understood. Compared with a landfill cover soil (LCS) collected from Hangzhou Tianziling landfill cell, the development of CH(4) oxidation activity of waste biocover soil (WBS) was investigated using simulated landfill systems in this study. Although a fluctuation of influent CH(4) flux occurred during landfill stabilization, the WBS covers showed a high CH(4) removal efficiency of 94-96% during the entire experiment. In the LCS covers, the CH(4) removal efficiencies varied with the fluctuation of CH(4) influent flux, even negative ones occurred due to the storage of CH(4) in the soil porosities after the high CH(4) influent flux of ~137 gm(-2) d(-1). The lower concentrations of O(2) and CH(4) as well as the higher concentration of CO(2) were observed in the WBS covers than those in the LCS covers. The highest CH(4) oxidation rates of the two types of soil covers both occurred in the bottom layer (20-30 cm). Compared to the LCS, the WBS showed higher CH(4) oxidation activity and methane monooxygenase activity over the course of the experiment. Overall, this study indicated the WBS worked well for the fluctuation of CH(4) influent flux during landfill stabilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Pond Is Our Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Barbara Turco

    1978-01-01

    This science teacher's laboratory is a pond within walking distance of his school that provides a stimulating environment for exploring the natural world. With simple materials students practice making careful observations, taking measurements and compiling and graphing information for their science studies. They also extend their pond experiences…

  16. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT. This technology traps toxic contaminants in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. The concentration in the leachate is approximately ten times higher for the STLC procedure than the TCLP. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  17. Description of work for 216-U-Pond cone penetrometer demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    This description of work details the Proposed field activities associated with Cone Penetrometer (CPT) work at the 216-U-10 Pond (U-10 Pond) in the 200 West Area and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. The U-10 Pond was constructed in 1944 to receive low-level liquid effluent from the various chemical reprocessing facilities within the 200 West Area. The U-10 Pond covered 30 acres and received approximately 4.3 x 10 10 gal of contaminated liquid. Sampling conducted in 1980 indicated that the most significant radionuclides were 90 Sr, 137 Cs, plutonium, and uranium (DOE-RL 1993). The pond was deactivated and stabilized in 1985 with clean fill dirt. The thickness of the stabilization cover is variable across the former pond and ranges between 2 ft near the pond margins and delta area to 8 feet in the deepest section of the pond. The purpose of this work is to establish the extent of contamination beneath the U-10 pond

  18. Geohydrology and limnology of Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Friesz, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    nitrogen inputs (858 kilograms per year) were dominated (30 percent) by plume water from the septic leach field and, possibly, by swimmers (34 percent). Phosphorus inputs (32 kilograms per year) were dominated by atmospheric dry deposition, background ground water, and estimated swimmer inputs. Swimmer inputs may represent more than 50 percent of the phosphorus load during the summer. The septic-system plume did not contribute phosphorus, but increased the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio for inputs from 41 to 59, on an atom-to-atom basis. The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in input loads and within the lake indicated algal growth would be strongly phosphorus limited. Nitrogen supply in excess of plant requirements may mitigate against nitrogen fixing organisms including undesirable blooms of cyanobacteria. Based on areal nutrient loading, Walden Pond is a mesotrophic lake. Hypolimnetic oxygen demand of Walden Pond has increased since a profile was measured in 1939. Currently (1999), the entire hypolimnion of Walden Pond becomes devoid of dissolved oxygen before fall turnover in late November; whereas historical data indicated dissolved oxygen likely remained in the hypolimnion during 1939. The complete depletion of dissolved oxygen likely causes release of phosphorus from the sediments. Walden Pond contains a large population of the deep-growing benthic macro alga Nitella, which has been hypothesized to promote water clarity in other clear-water lakes by sequestering nutrients and keeping large areas of the sediment surface oxygenated. Loss of Nitella populations in other lakes has correlated with a decline in water quality. Although the Nitella standing crop is large in Walden Pond, Nitella still appears to be controlled by nutrient availability. Decreasing phosphorus inputs to Walden Pond, by amounts under anthropogenic control would likely contribute to the stability of the Nitella population in the metalimnion, may reverse oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion, and decreas

  19. Investigation of possibility for stabilization and valorization of electric ARC furnace dust and glass from electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranitović M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents investigation of possibility for electric arc furnace dust (EAFD and electronic waste (e-waste valorization trough stabilization process, in order to achieve concurrent management of these two serious ecological problems. EAFD is an ineviTab. waste material coming from the electric arc furnace steel production process, classified as a hazardous waste. Furthermore, it is well known that residual materials generated in the ewaste recycling process, like LCD (Liquid crystal displays waste glass, are not suiTab. for landfill or incineration. In this study, these two materials were used for investigation of possibility for their valorization in ceramic industry. Thus, an innovative synergy of waste streams from metallurgical and e-waste recycling industry is presented. Investigation included a complex characterization of raw materials and their mixtures, using chemical methods, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, as well as methods for determining the physical and mechanical properties. Based on these results, it was found that material suiTab. for use in ceramics industry as a partial substituent of quartzite and fluxing components can be produced. Besides solving the environmental problem related to EAFD and LCD disposal, by replacement of raw materials certain economic effects can be achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34033

  20. Stabilization of organic matter and nitrogen immobilization during mechanical-biological treatment and landfilling of residual municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss-Ziegler, C.

    2000-04-01

    Synthesis of humic substances and nitrogen immobilization during mechanical-biological treatment of waste and the behavior of biologically stabilized waste under anaerobic landfill conditions were investigated. Samples were taken from a large-scale treatment plant. Anaerobic conditions were simulated in lab scale test cells. Humic substances were analyzed photometrically and gravimetrically. The nitrogen immobilization was investigated by sequential leaching tests and by analyzing the non acid hydrolyzable nitrogen. Humic acids were mainly synthesized during the beginning of the intensive rotting phase. Later on in the process no significant changes occurred. The humic acid content rose up to 6,8 % DS org. It correlated well with the stability parameters respiration activity and accumulated gas production. In the coarse of the treatment the nitrogen load emitted during the consecutive leaching tests dropped from 50 % down to less than 20 % total nitrogen. The non acid hydrolyzable nitrogen rose from 17 up to 42 % Kjeldahl nitrogen content. Nevertheless the mechanical-biological treatment is not significantly shortening the aftercare period of a landfill concerning liquid nitrogen emissions. The reduced nitrogen emission potential is released more slowly. When reactive waste material was exposed to anaerobic conditions, humic and fulvic acids were synthesized up to the point when intensive gas production started and then were remineralized. Stabilized waste materials after treatment of various intensity behaved differently under anaerobic conditions. Steady and decreasing humic acid contents were observed. (author)

  1. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M.; Maitino, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    Stabilization traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. Typical contaminants are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP-the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC-the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California's and EPA's, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens). The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements

  2. Invertebrate communities of Arctic tundra ponds as related to proximity to drill site reserve pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, E.; Williams, N.; Hoffman, R.; Elder, B.

    1994-01-01

    Aquatic invertebrate communities were assessed for diversity and abundance in North Slope tundra ponds of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska during the summer of 1992 as part of an evaluation of potential effects of exposure to petroleum drill site reserve pits (previously used for storing drill site wastes). The invertebrate communities of these shallow, tundra ponds provide abundant food for migratory, aquatic birds that use this area during the summer breeding season. The study was designed to compare abundance and diversity estimates of invertebrates in ponds surrounding the drill sites that differed in distance (and presumed exposure) to drill site reserve pits. The pits, themselves, were not sampled as part of this study. Invertebrate abundance and diversity estimates, assessed as standard biological criteria, were evaluated relative to water chemistry of the ponds, distance to the gravel pads or reserve pits, and pond morphometry. The results indicated the importance of pond morphometry in determining the structure of the invertebrate community. Shallow, exposed ponds tended to be dominated by different invertebrate communities than deeper, narrow ponds at the margins of frost polygons. In contrast, pond chemistry and relative exposure to drill sites were not predictive of invertebrate abundance or diversity

  3. Anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by lime mud from papermaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Qinqing; Zheng, Pengwei; Wang, Yusong

    2014-10-01

    The effects of lime mud from papermaking process (LMP) addition as buffer agent and inorganic nutrient on the anaerobic digestion stability of food waste (FW) were investigated under mesophilic conditions with the aim of avoiding volatile fatty acids accumulation, and inorganic elements deficiency. When LMP concentration ranged from 6.0 to 10g/L, the FW anaerobic digestion could maintain efficient and stable state. These advantages are attributed to the existence of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Fe, and alkaline substances that favor the methanogenic process. The highest CH4 yield of 272.8mL/g-VS was obtained at LMP and VS concentrations of 10.0 and 19.8g/L, respectively, with the corresponding lag-phase time of 3.84d and final pH of 8.4. The methanogens from residue digestates mainly consisted of Methanobrevibacter, coccus-type and sarcina-type methanogens with LMP addition compared to Methanobacteria in control. However, higher concentration of LMP inhibited methanogenic activities and methane production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stability of Some Waste Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Uluata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds (TPC and oxidative stability of cherry seed (SCO, sweet cherry seed (SCSO, mulberry seed (MSO and plum seed oil (PSO were determined. Oleic acid was determined as primary fatty acid (42.9-67.3%, and followed by linoleic acid (23.4-41.8% for SCO, SCSO and PSO. Linoleic acid was determined as primary fatty acid in MSO. γ-tocopherol was determined the main and highest tocopherol isomers varied from 579.9 to 605 mg/kg oil in SCO, SCSO and PSO, whereas δ-tocopherol was determined main tocopherol isomer with 1354mg/kg oil value in MSO. Plum seed oil (PSO was the highest antioxidant activity values in both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assays. There was no significant differences in lipid hydroperoxide and TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation among SCO, SCSO and MSO. PSO had the highest induction period (15.1 h, followed by MSO (1.4 h, SCSO (1.5 h, SCO(1.3 h. PSO was oxidatively more stable than the other oil samples. This research shows that these waste seed oils have high antioxidant capacity and tocopherol content, so they could be used in food industry.

  5. Effects of season on ecological processes in extensive earthen tilapia ponds in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E G P; Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Milstein, A

    2015-11-01

    In Southeastern Brazil tilapia culture is conducted in extensive and semi-intensive flow-through earthen ponds, being water availability and flow management different in the rainy and dry seasons. In this region lettuce wastes are a potential cheap input for tilapia culture. This study examined the ecological processes developing during the rainy and dry seasons in three extensive flow-through earthen tilapia ponds fertilized with lettuce wastes. Water quality, plankton and sediment parameters were sampled monthly during a year. Factor analysis was used to identify the ecological processes occurring within the ponds and to construct a conceptual graphic model of the pond ecosystem functioning during the rainy and dry seasons. Processes related to nitrogen cycling presented differences between both seasons while processes related to phosphorus cycling did not. Ecological differences among ponds were due to effects of wind protection by surrounding vegetation, organic loading entering, tilapia density and its grazing pressure on zooplankton. Differences in tilapia growth among ponds were related to stocking density and ecological process affecting tilapia food availability and intraspecific competition. Lettuce wastes addition into the ponds did not produce negative effects, thus this practice may be considered a disposal option and a low-cost input source for tilapia, at least at the amounts applied in this study.

  6. Alkaline hydrothermal stabilization of Cr(VI) in soil using glass and aluminum from recycled municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattullo, Concetta Eliana; D'Alessandro, Caterina; Allegretta, Ignazio; Porfido, Carlo; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Terzano, Roberto

    2018-02-15

    Hexavalent chromium was stabilized in soil by using a mixture of glass and aluminum recovered from municipal solid wastes under alkaline hydrothermal conditions. Cr(VI) concentration was reduced by 94-98% already after 7days of treatment. After the same period, more than 90% of total Cr was stabilized in highly recalcitrant and scarcely mobile chemical forms, with 50% in the residual fraction (when the samples were treated at 1/10w/w mixture/soil ratio). Longer treatments increased Cr stabilization. X-ray microanalyses revealed that Cr was stabilized in geopolymeric structures within large aluminosilicate mineral aggregates (containing both amorphous and crystalline phases). 3D microstructural analyses showed a limited compaction of the soil with still a 20% internal porosity in the neoformed aggregates. Increased pH and salinity after the treatment can be restored by simple soil amendments and washing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Behavior of strontium-90 and cesium-137 released into the pond of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milintawisamai, Mesak; Panyathipsakul, Yureeporn

    1989-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in liquid waste released from the waste disposal plant of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace(OAEP) have been followed since 1984. The concentration of both nuclides in surface water outside OAEP boundary is 2 to 30 times less than in the OAEP pond, the reservoir of liquid waste. This indicates that most of the nuclides are effectively absorbed by clay in the bottom of the pond. The nuclide concentration in fresh-water organisms in the pond such as fish, prawn and snail is also investigated to elucidate the behavior of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a static fresh-water ecological system

  8. Long-term reactive transport modelling of stabilized/solidified waste: from dynamic leaching tests to disposal scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windt, Laurent de [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CG-Hydrodynamics and Reaction Group, 35 R. St-Honore, 77300 Fontainebleau (France)]. E-mail: laurent.dewindt@ensmp.fr; Badreddine, Rabia [INERIS, Direction des Risques Chroniques, Unite Dechets et Sites Pollues, Parc Technologique Alata BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Lagneau, Vincent [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CG-Hydrodynamics and Reaction Group, 35 R. St-Honore, 77300 Fontainebleau (France)

    2007-01-31

    Environmental impact assessment of hazardous waste disposal relies, among others, on standardized leaching tests characterized by a strong coupling between diffusion and chemical processes. In that respect, this study shows that reactive transport modelling is a useful tool to extrapolate laboratory results to site conditions characterized by lower solution/solid (L/S) ratios, site specific geometry, infiltration, etc. A cement solidified/stabilized (S/S) waste containing lead is investigated as a typical example. The reactive transport model developed in a previous study to simulate the initial state of the waste as well as laboratory batch and dynamic tests is first summarized. Using the same numerical code (HYTEC), this model is then integrated to a simplified waste disposal scenario assuming a defective cover and rain water infiltration. The coupled evolution of the S/S waste chemistry and the pollutant plume migration are modelled assessing the importance of the cracking state of the monolithic waste. The studied configurations correspond to an undamaged and fully sealed system, a few main fractures between undamaged monoliths and, finally, a dense crack-network in the monoliths. The model considers the potential effects of cracking, first the increase of rain water and carbon dioxide infiltration and, secondly, the increase of L/S ratio and reactive surfaces, using either explicit fracture representation or dual porosity approaches.

  9. Use of cement-fly ash-based stabilization techniques for the treatment of waste containing aromatic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszkiewicz, Kamil; Marcinkowski, Tadeusz

    2017-11-01

    Research on evaluation of evaporation rate of volatile organic compounds from soil beds during processing is presented. For the experiment, soil samples were prepared with the same amounts of benzene and stabilized using a mixture of CEMI 42.5R cement and fly ash from pit-coal combustion. Solidification of soils contaminated with BTEX hydrocarbons using hydraulic binders involves a risk of releasing vapours of these compounds during homogenization of waste with stabilizing mixture introduced and its dilution with water. The primary purposes of the research were: analysis of benzene volume emitted from soil during stabilization/solidification process and characterization of factors that may negatively affect the quality of measurements/the course of stabilization process. Analysis of benzene emission intensity during the process was based on concentration (C6H6) values, recorded with flame-ionization detector above the surface of reacting mixture. At the same time, gaseous contaminants emitted during waste stabilization were passed through pipes filled with activated carbon (SCK, Anasorb CSC). Benzene vapours adsorbed on activated carbon were subjected to analysis using gas chromatograph Varian 450-GC. Evaporation characteristics of benzene during processing contaminated soils revealed the stages creating the highest danger to workers' health, as well as a need for actions connected with modification of technological line.

  10. Slope stability of bioreactor landfills during leachate injection: effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic municipal solid waste conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Rajiv K; Reddy, Krishna R

    2014-03-01

    In bioreactor landfills, leachate recirculation can significantly affect the stability of landfill slope due to generation and distribution of excessive pore fluid pressures near side slope. The current design and operation of leachate recirculation systems do not consider the effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the increased pore gas pressures in landfilled waste caused due to leachate recirculation on the physical stability of landfill slope. In this study, a numerical two-phase flow model (landfill leachate and gas as immiscible phases) was used to investigate the effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of MSW on moisture distribution and pore-water and capillary pressures and their resulting impacts on the stability of a simplified bioreactor landfill during leachate recirculation using horizontal trench system. The unsaturated hydraulic properties of MSW were considered based on the van Genuchten model. The strength reduction technique was used for slope stability analyses as it takes into account of the transient and spatially varying pore-water and gas pressures. It was concluded that heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW with varied unit weight and saturated hydraulic conductivity significantly influenced the moisture distribution and generation and distribution of pore fluid pressures in landfill and considerably reduced the stability of bioreactor landfill slope. It is recommended that heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW must be considered as it provides a more reliable approach for the design and leachate operations in bioreactor landfills.

  11. Modern methods for evaluating the workability of cement used as a binder for the stabilization and solidification of toxic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, Giorgio [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-10-01

    The workability of cement pastes has a great influence on the final properties of the solidified products, like mechanical strength, stability density and durability. This is quite relevant in the field of stabilization / solidification of toxic and hazardous wastes. Hence considerable importance attaches to having reliable control over the fresh concrete properties, especially its early stiffening behaviour. This paper discussers measuring methods of the stiffening of two different types of cement pastes, prepared with different water / cement ratios, and examines the possible consequences of the early stiffening of cement pastes on their set times and bleeding.

  12. High Solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) Wastes Stabilization with Ceramicrete and Super Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    High Solids ash and scrubber solution waste streams were generated at the incinerator facility at SRS by burning radioactive diatomaceous filter rolls which contained small amounts of uranium, and listed solvents (F and U). This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) technologies with the High Solids waste streams

  13. Arctic melt ponds and energy balance in the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Elements of Earth's cryosphere, such as the summer Arctic sea ice pack, are melting at precipitous rates that have far outpaced the projections of large scale climate models. Understanding key processes, such as the evolution of melt ponds that form atop Arctic sea ice and control its optical properties, is crucial to improving climate projections. These types of critical phenomena in the cryosphere are of increasing interest as the climate system warms, and are crucial for predicting its stability. In this paper, we consider how geometrical properties of melt ponds can influence ice-albedo feedback and how it can influence the equilibria in the energy balance of the planet.

  14. Diffusion of single oxidation pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ruo-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic characteristic of an oxidation pond was studied by the tracer experiment, and an empirical formula of Peclet number was obtained, which can be well applied to the model of plug flow reactor with longitudinal diffusion.

  15. Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisburd, R.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put? Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic? How do rates of organic production vary temporally? Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates? Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of 14 C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two

  16. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  17. Stabilization of high and low solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) waste with super cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.

    2000-01-01

    This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies with the High and Low Solid waste streams. Ceramicrete and Super Cement technologies were chosen as the best possible replacement solidification candidates for the waste streams generated by the SRS incinerator from a list of several suggested Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies. These technologies were tested, evaluated, and compared to the current Portland cement technology being employed. Recommendation of a technology for replacement depends on waste form performance, process flexibility, process complexity, and cost of equipment and/or raw materials

  18. Technical justifications for the tests and criteria in the waste form technical position appendix on cement stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    As part of its technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a background document for the cement stabilization appendix, Appendix A, to Rev. 1 of the Technical Position on Waste Form (TP). Here we present an overview of this background document, which provides technical justification for the stability tests to be performed on cement-stabilized waste forms and for the criteria posed in each test, especially for those tests which have been changed from their counterparts in the May 1983 Rev. 0 TP. We address guidelines for procedures from Appendix A which are considered in less detail or not at all in the Rev. 0 of the TP, namely, qualification specimen preparation (mixing, curing, storage), statistical sampling and analysis, process control program specimen preparation and examination, and surveillance specimens. For each waste form qualification test, criterion or procedural guidelines, we consider the reason for its inclusion in Appendix A, the changes from Rev. 0 of the TP (if applicable), and a discussion of the justification or rationale for these changes

  19. Technical justifications for the tests and criteria in the waste form Technical position appendix on cement stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    As part of its technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a background document for the cement stabilization appendix. Appendix A, to Rev. 1 of the Technical Position on Waste Form (TP). Here we present an overview of this background document, which provides technical justification for the stability tests to be performed on cement-stabilized waste forms and for the criteria posed in each test) especially for those tests which have been changed from their counterparts in the May 1983 Rev. 0 TP. We address guidelines for procedures from Appendix A which are considered in less detail or not at all in the Rev. 0 of the TP, namely, qualification specimen preparation (mixing, curing, storage), statistical sampling and analysis, process control program specimen preparation and examination, and surveillance specimens. For each waste form qualification test, criterion or procedural guideline, we consider the reason for its inclusion in Appendix A, the changes from Rev. 0 of the TP (if applicable), and a discussion of the justification or rationale for these changes. (author)

  20. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  1. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed

  2. A highly sensitive underwater video system for use in turbid aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Tsao, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Kuo-Hao; Jang, Jia-Pu; Chang, Hsu-Kuang; Dobbs, Fred C

    2016-08-24

    The turbid, low-light waters characteristic of aquaculture ponds have made it difficult or impossible for previous video cameras to provide clear imagery of the ponds' benthic habitat. We developed a highly sensitive, underwater video system (UVS) for this particular application and tested it in shrimp ponds having turbidities typical of those in southern Taiwan. The system's high-quality video stream and images, together with its camera capacity (up to nine cameras), permit in situ observations of shrimp feeding behavior, shrimp size and internal anatomy, and organic matter residues on pond sediments. The UVS can operate continuously and be focused remotely, a convenience to shrimp farmers. The observations possible with the UVS provide aquaculturists with information critical to provision of feed with minimal waste; determining whether the accumulation of organic-matter residues dictates exchange of pond water; and management decisions concerning shrimp health.

  3. Remediation of an oily leachate pond in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2005-12-01

    Until recent years, waste oil and oil-contaminated waters commonly ended up in landfills. At some dump sites, ponds of oily liquids and leachate were formed. To remediate such ponds, an interdisciplinary approach is now required, keeping costs at an affordable level, particularly in countries with changing economies. From 1974 to 1993, liquid oily wastes taken to the Laguja landfill, in Estonia, were disposed of in a pond with a surface area of 9800 m2. It was estimated that the pond contained 4500-6000 m3 of oily water and 3500 m3 of oil-containing bottom sediments. This study aimed at developing an environmentally sound and cost-effective method for remediation of the oily liquids, leachate and contaminated underlying sediment material, to meet the existing legal demands. It was concluded that treatment of contaminated water is well established and the procedures carried out to meet the regulatory demands achieved satisfactory results. However, regarding treatment of sediments it was concluded that legal and technological aspects, as well as monitoring procedures are not fully established and are usually underestimated. Laboratory investigations can provide valuable information in decision-making, and contribute to effective full-scale remediation planning.

  4. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1975-03-01

    A Pu processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior in this ecosystem. About 8.1 kg of Pu was reported to have been discharged into waste trenches leading to the pond. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, 0.61 for 241 Am to 238 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Levels of Pu and Am in the interstitial water range from 0.5 to 13 pCi/g (dry wt. of sediment). For 238 Pu in pond water the mean concentration is 0.007 pCi/l, for 239 240 Pu it is 0.002 pCi/l, and for 241 Am it is 1.08 pCi/l. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments. (U.S.)

  5. Inactivation of Escherichia coli in a baffled pond with attached growth: treating anaerobic effluent under the Sahelian climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, D A; Andrianisa, H A; Konaté, Y; Ndiaye, A; Maïga, A H

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and understand the zero-level detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) at the outlet of an improved waste stabilization pond. Wastewaters were collected from the International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE) campus and were subjected to biological treatment. The system included two-stage Anaerobic Reactors followed by a Baffled Pond (AR-BP) with recycled plastic media as a medium for attached growth and a control pond (CP). Three vertical baffles were installed, giving four compartments in the baffled pond (BP). The research was conducted on the pilot scale from March to July 2014, by monitoring E. coli, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll-a in each compartment and at different depths. The results show that E. coli concentrations were lower in top layers of all compartments with an undetectable level in the last compartment up to 0.60 m deep. E. coli mean removal efficiencies and decay rates were achieved by significant difference in BP (4.5 log-units, 9.1 day(-1)) and CP (1.1 log-units, 1.1 day(-1)). Higher values of pH (≥9), temperature (≥32°C), DO (≥ 8 mg/L) and chlorophyll-a (≥ 1000 µg/L) were observed at the surface of BP, whereas lower values were shown at the bottom. Sedimentation combined with the synergetic effects of the physicochemical parameters and environmental factors would be responsible for the inactivation of E. coli in BP. It was concluded that the AR-BP could be applied as an alternative low-cost wastewater treatment technology for developing countries and recommended for reuse of their effluent for restricted peri-urban irrigation.

  6. Industrial Wastes as Auxiliary Additives to Cement/Lime Stabilization of Soils

    OpenAIRE

    James, Jijo; Pandian, P. Kasinatha

    2016-01-01

    Chemical stabilization involves the use of chemical agents for initiating reactions within the soil for modification of its geotechnical properties. Cement and lime stabilization have been the most common stabilization methods adopted for soil treatment. Cement stabilization results in good compressive strengths and is preferred for cohesionless to moderately cohesive soil but loses effectiveness when the soil is highly plastic. Lime stabilization is the most preferred method for plastic clay...

  7. Thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass - long term behavior modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlhac, X.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass was investigated experimentally and by modeling to predict its long-term evolution at low temperature. The crystallization mechanisms were analyzed by studying devitrification in the supercooled liquid. Three main crystalline phases were characterized (CaMoO 4 , CeCO 2 , ZnCr 2 O 4 ). Their crystallisation was TO 4.24 wt%, due to the low concentration of the constituent elements. The nucleation and growth curves showed that platinoid elements catalysed nucleation but did not affect growth, which was governed by volume diffusion. The criteria of classic nucleation theory were applied to determine the thermodynamic and diffusional activation energies. Viscosity measurements illustrate the analogy between the activation energy of viscous flow and diffusion, indicating control of crystallization by viscous flow phenomena. The combined action of nucleation and growth was assessed by TTT plots, revealing a crystallization equilibrium line that enables the crystallized fractions to be predicted over the long term. The authors show that hetero-genetics catalyze the transformation without modifying the maximum crystallized fraction. A kinetic model was developed to describe devitrification in the glass based on the nucleation and growth curves alone. The authors show that the low-temperature growth exhibits scale behavior (between time and temperature) similar to thermo-rheological simplicity. The analogy between the resulting activation energy and that of the viscosity was used to model growth on the basis of viscosity. After validation with a simplified (BaO 2 SiO 2 ) glass, the model was applied to the containment glass. The result indicated that the glass remained completely vitreous after a cooling scenario with the one measured at the glass core. Under isothermal conditions, several million years would be required to reach the maximum theoretical crystallization fraction. (author)

  8. Stabilization of ZnCl2-Containing Waste Using Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Berger, S.; Le Bescop, P.; Damidot, D.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement was investigated to solidify and stabilize radwastes containing large amounts of soluble zinc chloride (a strong inhibitor of Portland cement hydration). Hydration of pastes and mortars prepared with a 0.5 mol/L ZnCl 2 mixing solution was characterized over one year as a function of the gypsum content of the binder and the thermal history of the material. Blending the CSA clinker with 20% gypsum enabled rapid hydration, with only very small delay compared with a reference prepared with pure water. It also improved the compressive strength of the hardened material and significantly reduced its expansion under wet curing. Moreover, the hydrate assemblage was less affected by a thermal treatment at early age simulating the temperature rise and fall occurring in a large-volume drum of cemented waste. Fully hydrated materials contained ettringite, amorphous aluminum hydroxide, straetlingite, together with AFm phases (Kuzel's salt associated with monosulfoaluminate or Friedel's salt depending on the gypsum content of the binder), and possibly C-(A)-S-H. Zinc was readily insolubilized and could not be detected in the pore solution extracted from cement pastes, or in their leachates after 3 months of leaching by pure water at pH 7. The good retention of zinc by the cement matrix was mainly attributed to the precipitation of a hydrated and well crystallized phase with platelet morphology (which may belong to the layered double hydroxides family) at early age ≤ 1 day), and to chemisorption onto aluminum hydroxide at later age. (author)

  9. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  10. Separating and stabilizing phosphate from high-level radioactive waste: process development and spectroscopic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Braley, Jenifer C; Peterson, James M; Bryan, Samuel A; Levitskaia, Tatiana G

    2012-06-05

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams.

  11. 216-S-10 Pond and Ditch supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    The 216-S-10 Pond and Ditch were used as disposal sites for the Chemical Engineering Laboratory between 1980 and 1983. The 216-S-10 Ditch last received a discharge October 1991. Both the pond and the ditch have been physically isolated, and the pond has been backfilled and decommissioned; both will be closed under final facility standards. Waste management activities are no longer required at the unit. The unit does not present and significant hazard to adjacent units, personnel, or the environment. It is unlikely that any incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the 215-S-10 Pond and Ditch

  12. Analysis of the stability of underground high-level nuclear waste repository in discontinuous rock mass using 3DEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-03-01

    For the safe design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in deep location, it is necessary to confirm the stability of the underground excavations under the high overburden pressure and also to investigate the influence of discontinuities such as fault, fracture zone, and joints. In this study, computer simulations using 3DEC, which is a Distince Element (DEM) code, were carried out for determining important parameters on the stability of the disposal tunnel and deposition holes excavated in 500 m deep granite body. The development of plastic zone and stress and strain distributions were analyzed with various modelling conditions with variation on the parameters including joint numbers, tunnel size, joint properties, rock properties, and stress ratio. Furthermore, the influence of fracture zone, which is located around the underground excavations, on the stability of the excavation was investigated. In this study, the variation of stress and strain distribution due to the variation of fracture zone location, dip, and width was analyzed

  13. Blogging from North Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea going research expeditions provide an ideal opportunity for outreach through blogs: the finite duration limits the author's commitment; scientists are usually in a remote location with fewer distractions; and fieldwork is visual and interesting to describe. Over four weeks this winter, Katrina Edwards of USC authored a blog about her deep-sea drilling expedition to North Pond, a depression in the ocean crust in the mid-Atlantic. She emailed daily dispatches and photos to USC Media Relations, which maintained a (still accessible) blog. Written for the general public, the blog quickly attracted interest from lay readers as well as from media organizations. Scientific American carried the blog on its web site, and the National Science Foundation linked to it in its "Science 360" electronic news digest. The blog also led to a Q&A with Edwards in the widely-read "Behind the Scenes" feature of LiveScience. Interest from science bloggers and National Geographic towards the end suggests that the blog could have expanded its reach given more time: expeditions lasting between six weeks and three months, such as occur during ocean drilling expeditions, would appear to be ideal candidates for a blog. Most importantly, the blog educated readers about the importance to planetary life of what Edwards calls the "intraterrestrials": the countless microbes that inhabit the oceanic crust and influence major chemical and biological cycles. Considering that the subjects of the expedition were invisible critters in a pitch-dark place, the blog shows what can be accomplished by scientists and institutions committed to public outreach.

  14. Effect of the raw materials and mixing ratio of composted wastes on the dynamic of organic matter stabilization and nitrogen availability in composts of Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Théodore Wind-Tinbnoma; Houot, Sabine; Hien, Edmond; Zombré, Prosper; Hien, Victor; Masse, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The effect of raw materials and their proportions in initial mixtures on organic matter (OM) stabilization and nitrogen (N) availability during pit composting in Sub-Saharan Africa was assessed using biochemical fractionation and laboratory incubations to characterize composts sampled throughout the composting process. Stabilization of OM occurred more rapidly in mixtures with slaughter-house wastes, it was progressive in mixture with household refuses while tree leaves compost remained unstable. Carbon mineralization from compost samples was positively correlated to water soluble and hemicellulose-like organic fractions. Mixtures containing large proportions of household refuses reached the highest stability and total N but available N remained weak. Slaughter-house wastes in the initial mixtures made possible to reach good OM stabilization and the largest N availability. The nature of initial mixing influenced composting parameters, OM stabilization and N availability. It is suggested mixing household refuses and slaughter-house wastes with tree leaves to reach better amending and fertilizer qualities of composts.

  15. Small hazardous waste generators in developing countries: use of stabilization/solidification process as an economic tool for metal wastewater treatment and appropriate sludge disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Mater, Luciana; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Sperb, Rafael; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2007-08-25

    The aim of this study was to propose a profitable destination for an industrial sludge that can cover the wastewater treatment costs of small waste generators. Optimized stabilization/solidification technology was used to treat hazardous waste from an electroplating industry that is currently released untreated to the environment. The stabilized/solidified (S/S) waste product was used as a raw material to build concrete blocks, to be sold as pavement blocks or used in roadbeds and/or parking lots. The quality of the blocks containing a mixture of cement, lime, clay and waste was evaluated by means of leaching and solubility tests according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed very low metal leachability and solubility of the block constituents, indicating a low environmental impact. Concerning economic benefits from the S/S process and reuse of the resultant product, the cost of untreated heavy metal-containing sludge disposal to landfill is usually on the order of US$ 150-200 per tonne of waste, while 1tonne of concrete roadbed blocks (with 25% of S/S waste constitution) has a value of around US$ 100. The results of this work showed that the cement, clay and lime-based process of stabilization/solidification of hazardous waste sludge is sufficiently effective and economically viable to stimulate the treatment of wastewater from small industrial waste generators.

  16. Dewatering and RCRA partial closure action on solar evaporation ponds, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-0487) on its proposal to partially close five solar evaporation ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) pursuant to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This proposal would be known as a RCRA partial closure and would be accomplished by dewatering the ponds, where necessary, and converting any remaining sludge or evaporator concentrate to a solid wasteform (pondcrete and saltcrete). The pond sites would be stabilized to prevent erosion or other disturbance to the soil and to prevent infiltration of rain or snowmelt. The solid wasteform would be transported offsite for disposal. The five solar ponds (designated 207-A, 207-B (north, center, and south), and 207-C), are the only solar evaporation ponds that exist at the RFP. A finding of no significant impact is included

  17. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m 3 ) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time

  18. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summary of Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies for FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-06-07

    Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  19. Modelling the Long Term Leaching Behaviour of 137CS from Different Stabilized Waste Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kamash, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Leaching characteristics of ''1''3''7Cs from immobilized waste matrices in different cement-based grouts have been assessed to investigate the influence of the additives on the leaching behavior of the solid waste matrices. The International Atomic Energy's Agency (IAEA) standard leach method has been employed to study the leach pattern of 137 Cs radionuclide from the immobilized waste form. The examination of the leaching data revealed that clay additives reduces the leach rate for the studied radionuclide. The controlling leaching mechanism has been studied and the transport parameters were calculated for all studied waste matrices. Simplified analytical models have been derived to predict the Cumulative Leach Fraction (CLF) of radionuclides over the studied experimental period. These simplified research models could be used as a screening tool to assess the performance of the waste matrix under repository conditions. (author)

  20. Flocculation of retention pond water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; McGregor, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    An integral part of the water management strategy proposed by Ranger Uranium Mining Pty. Ltd. involves the collection of runoff water in a series of retention ponds. This water will subsequently be used in the uranium milling plant or released to Magela Creek. Runoff water collected during the wet season caused a section of Magela Creek to become turbid when it was released. The eroded material causing the turbidity was very highly dispersed and showed little tendency to sediment out in the retention ponds. Results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of clarifying retention pond water by flocculation with alum are presented. A concentration of 30 Mg/L alum reduced turbidity from an initial 340 NTU to less than 30 NTU in four hours

  1. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis in a municipal solid waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.; Batlle, F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis method was proposed. → The proposed method is a good engineering tool for 3D slope stability analysis. → Factor of safety from 3D analysis is higher than from 2D analysis. → 3D analysis results are more sensitive to cohesion than 2D analysis. - Abstract: Limited space for accommodating the ever increasing mounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) demands the capacity of MSW landfill be maximized by building landfills to greater heights with steeper slopes. This situation has raised concerns regarding the stability of high MSW landfills. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis based on the finite element stress analysis was applied in a case study at a MSW landfill in north-east Spain. Potential slides can be assumed to be located within the waste mass due to the lack of weak foundation soils and geosynthetic membranes at the landfill base. The only triggering factor of deep-seated slope failure is the higher leachate level and the relatively high and steep slope in the front. The valley-shaped geometry and layered construction procedure at the site make three-dimensional slope stability analyses necessary for this landfill. In the finite element stress analysis, variations of leachate level during construction and continuous settlement of the landfill were taken into account. The 'equivalent' three-dimensional factor of safety (FoS) was computed from the individual result of the two-dimensional analysis for a series of evenly spaced cross sections within the potential sliding body. Results indicate that the hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis adopted in this paper is capable of locating roughly the spatial position of the potential sliding mass. This easy to manipulate method can serve as an engineering tool in the preliminary estimate of the FoS as well as the approximate position and extent of the potential sliding mass. The result that

  2. HRE-Pond Cryogenic Barrier Technology Demonstration: Pre- and Post-Barrier Hydrologic Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moline, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond is the site of a former impoundment for radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in east Tennessee. The pond received radioactive wastes from 1957 to 1962, and was subsequently drained, filled with soil, and covered with an asphalt cap. The site is bordered to the east and south by an unnamed stream that contains significant concentrations of radioactive contaminants, primarily 90 Sr. Because of the proximity of the stream to the HRE disposal site and the probable flow of groundwater from the site to the stream, it was hypothesized that the HRE Pond has been a source of contamination to the creek. The HRE-Pond was chosen as the site of a cryogenic barrier demonstration to evaluate this technology as a means for rapid, temporary isolation of contaminants in the type of subsurface environment that exists on the ORR. The cryogenic barrier is created by the circulation of liquid CO 2 through a system of thermoprobes installed in boreholes which are backfilled with sand. The probes cool the subsurface, creating a vertical ice wall by freezing adjacent groundwater, effectively surrounding the pond on four sides. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the hydrologic conditions within and around the pond prior to, during, and after the cryogenic barrier emplacement. The objectives were (1) to provide a hydrologic baseline for post-banner performance assessment, (2) to confirm that the pond is hydraulically connected to the surrounding sediments, (3) to determine the likely contaminant exit pathways from the pond, and (4) to measure changes in hydrologic conditions after barrier emplacement in order to assess the barrier performance. Because relatively little information about the subsurface hydrology and the actual configuration of the pond existed, data from multiple sources was required to reconstruct this complex system

  3. Waste water integrated reclamation system in the University of the Balearic Islands; Sistema integral de depuracion de aguas residuales en la Universitat de les Illes Balears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amengual Morro, C.; Moya Niell, G.; Forss Sanchez, A.

    2007-07-01

    In 2001, the University of the Balearic Island carried out a project on the reclamation and reuse of wastewater in an extensive system. the system is composed of three phases: waste stabilization ponds, wetland and planted tree filters. the first phase is now complete. We show the preliminary data which characterised the ponds including those where floating macrophyte Eichhornia carssipes) were used, paying specific attention to the operation and maintenance. finally this study is centred on the thermal stratification and temperature inversion in relation with the generation of odours. (Author) 22 refs.

  4. Heat transfer enhanced microwave process for stabilization of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    The objectve of this CRADA is to combine a polymer process for encapsulation of liquid radioactive waste slurry developed by Monolith Technology, Inc. (MTI), with an in-drum microwave process for drying radioactive wastes developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), for the purpose of achieving a fast, cost-effectve commercial process for solidification of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Tests performed so far show a four-fold increase in process throughput due to the direct microwave heating of the polymer/slurry mixture, compared to conventional edge-heating of the mixer. We measured a steady-state throughput of 33 ml/min for 1.4 kW of absorbed microwave power. The final waste form is a solid monolith with no free liquids and no free particulates

  5. Environmental aspects of stabilization and solidification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, P.; Gilliam, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International Hazardous Waste Symposium. It is organized under the following headings: processes, regulatory aspects and testing methods, laboratory evaluation and large-scale evaluation or demonstrations

  6. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project ''Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)'' for the eighteen month period of January 1, 1987 to June 10, 1988. This final report was preceded by the final report for the initial six month period, July 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986 (submitted on January 25, 1987, and revised in June 1987.) Quaternary Tectonics, Geochemical, Mineral Deposits, Vulcanic Geology, Seismology, Tectonics, Neotectonics, Remote Sensing, Geotechnical Assessments, Geotechnical Rock Mass Assessments, Basinal Studies, and Strong Ground Motion

  7. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain Area Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project open-quotes Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).close quotes A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1993 to 30 September 1994. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing Tasks which are listed below. Task 1: Quaternary Tectonics Task 3: Mineral Deposits, Volcanic Geology Task 4: Seismology Task 5: Tectonics Task 8: Basinal Studies

  8. Assessment of water quality around Jaduguda uranium tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, A.K.; Gurunadha Rao, V.V.S.; Ramesh, G.; Surinaidu, L.; Thama Rao, G.; Dhakate, R.; Sarangi, A.K.; Nair, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impacts of uranium mining and milling activities are of great concern in many countries for the last three decades. These impacts range from the creation of massive stockpiles of radioactive and toxic waste rock and sand-like tailings to serious contamination of surface and groundwater with radioactive and toxic pollutants, and releases of conventional, toxic and radioactive air pollutants. Uranium mining is also associated with high concentrations of highly toxic heavy metals, which are a major source of surface and groundwater contamination. Depending upon the hydraulic properties of the fractures involved, contaminated ground water may be transported many miles from its point of origin before feeding into an aquifer. Tailings pond may contaminate the groundwater regime by continuous seepage and leaching of radionuclides and other toxic metals due to interaction of rain water through the tailings ponds. The uranium milling and tailings pond operations were started at Jaduguda since 1968. A comprehensive geological and geophysical investigation has been carried out in the Jaduguda watershed covering the tailings ponds to understand the geohydrological characteristics of the region. High resolution electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys have been carried out to delineate the aquifer geometry. Water quality analyses were carried out in three seasons covering from premonsoon to postmonsoon period during 2008-2009. Uranium concentrations have been observed in the dug wells, surface water and monitoring wells

  9. Determining waste lipids stability and possible effects in bio diesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azocar, L.; Ciudad, G.; Navia, R.

    2009-01-01

    Waste lipids are a sustainable raw material alternative for bio diesel production, avoiding excessive use of agricultural soil. However, this raw material can be degraded in a short time of storage, affecting bio diesel production process and quality. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible degradation of waste frying oil (WFO) and animal fat (AF), monitoring parameters that could affect the bio diesel quality. (Author)

  10. Stabilization of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Aqueous Waste by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C

    2004-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in Aiken, South Carolina. Research and development programs have been conducted at SRNL for ∼50 years generating non-radioactive (hazardous and non-hazardous) and radioactive aqueous wastes. Typically the aqueous effluents from the R and D activities are disposed of from each laboratory module via the High Activity Drains (HAD) or the Low Activity Drains (LAD) depending on whether they are radioactive or not. The aqueous effluents are collected in holding tanks, analyzed and shipped to either H-Area (HAD waste) or the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) (LAD waste) for volume reduction. Because collection, analysis, and transport of LAD and HAD waste is cumbersome and since future treatment of this waste may be curtailed as the F/H-Area evaporators and waste tanks are decommissioned, SRNL laboratory operations requested several proof of principle demonstrations of alternate technologies that would define an alternative disposal path for the aqueous wastes. Proof of principle for the disposal of SRNL HAD waste using a technology known as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is the focus of the current study. The FBSR technology can be performed either as a batch process, e.g. in each laboratory module in small furnaces with an 8'' by 8'' footprint, or in a semi-continuous Bench Scale Reformer (BSR). The proof of principle experiments described in this study cover the use of the FBSR technology at any scale (pilot or full scale). The proof of principle experiments described in this study used a non-radioactive HAD simulant

  11. Risk assessment and restoration possibilities of some abandoned mining ponds in Murcia Region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faz, Angel; Acosta, Jose A.; Martinez-Martinez, Silvia; Carmona, Dora M.; Zornoza, Raul; Kabas, Sebla; Bech, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    In Murcia Region, SE Spain, there are 85 tailing ponds due to intensive mining activities that occurred during last century, especially in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Union. Although mining activity was abandoned several decades ago, those tailing ponds with high amounts of heavy metals still remain in the area. The ponds, due to their composition and location, may create environmental risks of geochemical pollution, negatively affecting soil, water, and plant, animal, and human populations, as well as infrastructures. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the restoration possibilities of two representative mining ponds in order to minimize the risk for human and ecosystems. To achieve this objective, two tailing ponds generated by mining activities were selected, El Lirio and El Gorguel. These ponds are representative of the rest of existent ponds in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión, with similar problems and characteristics. Several techniques and studies were applied to the tailing ponds for their characterization, including: geophysics, geotechnics, geochemical, geological, hydrological, and vegetation studies. In addition, effects of particulate size in the distribution of heavy metals will be used to assess the risk of dispersion of these metals in finest particles. Once the ponds were characterized, they were divided in several sectors in order to apply different amendments (pig slurry and marble waste) to reduce the risk of metal mobility and improve soil quality for a future phytostabilization. It is known that organic amendments promote soil development processes, microbial diversity, and finally, soil ecosystem restoration to a state of self-sustainability. By comparing the results before and after applications we will be able to evaluate the effect of the different amendments on soil quality and their effectively on risk reduction. Finally, plant metal-tolerant species are used to restore vegetation in the ponds, thereby decreasing

  12. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  13. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond

  14. Sensitivity analysis on mechanical stability of the underground excavations for an high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Hwa; Kwon, Sang Ki; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-01-01

    For the safe design of an underground nuclear waste repository, it is necessary to investigate the influence of the major parameters on the tunnel stability. In this study, sensitivity analysis was carried out to find the major parameters on the mechanical stability point of view. Fourteen parameters consisted of 10 site parameters and 4 design parameters were included in the FLAC3D. From the numerical analyses employing single parameter variation, it was possible to determine important parameters. In order to investigate the interaction between the parameters, fractional factorial design for the parameters, such as in situ stress ratio, depth, tunnel dimensions, joint spacing, joint stiffness, friction angle, and rock strength, was carried out. And in order to investigate the interaction between design parameters, fractional factorial design for parameters, such as in situ stress, depth, tunnel size, tunnel spacing and borehole spacing, was carried out

  15. Annual report for research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste in fiscal years 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Ken-ichi; Asamori, Koichi; Niwa, Masakazu; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Sueoka, Shigeru; Makuuchi, Ayumu; Ikuta, Masafumi; Matsubara, Akihiro; Tamura, Hajimu; Kobori, Kazuo; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Umeda, Koji

    2014-03-01

    This annual report documents the progress of R and D in the 3rd fiscal year during the JAEA 2nd Midterm Plan (FY 2010 - 2014) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. The planned framework is structured into the following categories: 1) development and systematization of investigation techniques for selecting suitable sites in geosphere stability, 2) development, application and verification of prediction models for evaluating the changes of geological environment in thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and geochemical conditions for a long period of time, and 3) development of new dating techniques for providing information about geologic history and the timing of geologic events. In this report, the current status of R and D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized. (author)

  16. Master plan for remediation of the Sillamaee tailings pond and technical design project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, T.

    2000-01-01

    Remediation of the Sillamaee radioactive tailings pond is a priority in the Estonian National Environmental Plan. The Sillamaee plant has processed metal ores by hydrometallurgical methods since 1946. Processing continued until 1990, but in the 1970s, production of rare earths and rare metals was introduced and continues today at a smaller scale. The tailings pond contains residues from these operations. The environmental problems associated with the tailings pond are the stability of the dam and the release of contaminants. In order to deal with these two issues effectively, a master plan was drawn up. The master plan covers the period from 1997 to 2008 and was compiled with the cooperation of the Silmet Group and the Sillamaee International Expert Reference Group (SIERG). The master plan sets up a systematic approach for the overall tailings pond remediation, including drying its interior, reshaping and covering the surface, minimizing water flow through the tailings, and ensuring long-term dam stability

  17. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  18. A study on the development of regulatory guide to stability conformation and classification criteria of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Paek, Min Hoon; Park, Jong Gil; Han, Byeong Seop; Cheong, Jae Hak; Lee, Hae Chan; Yang, Jin Yeong; Hong, Hei Kwan; Park, Jin Baek [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    The objectives of this study are to examine basic principles and terms and to suggest and recommend definite methods and criteria necessary for the classification and stability conformation of radioactive wastes. In this study, following studies were performed : investigate the domestic regulations related with the stability conformation and classification of radioactive wastes in order to keep mutual relationship and consistency between the regulations, investigate the sources, types and characteristics of domestic radioactive wastes as a basis for this study, investigate the classification criteria and methods of others countries in a general point of view and in the view point of disposal method, select the classification criteria factors for the domestic case and general case in the both general and domestic points of view, investigate the general test items for the stability conformation of radioactive waste forms and analysis on the test items and criteria of others countries for the mined cavity disposal and shallow land disposal in the view point of disposal method, experimental leaching and immersion tests for the borate and spent resin wastes as a study on the stability conformation of waste forms, selection of acceptance criteria for the both of disposal methods in the domestic and general cases.

  19. [Effect of sodium carbonate assisted hydrothermal process on heavy metals stabilization in medical waste incinerator fly ash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Li, Xiao-dong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2010-04-01

    A sodium carbonate assisted hydrothermal process was induced to stabilize the fly ash from medical waste incinerator. The results showed that sodium carbonate assisted hydrothermal process reduced the heavy metals leachability of fly ash, and the heavy metal waste water from the process would not be a secondary pollution. The leachability of heavy metals studied in this paper were Cd 1.97 mg/L, Cr 1.56 mg/L, Cu 2.56 mg/L, Mn 17.30 mg/L, Ni 1.65 mg/L, Pb 1.56 mg/L and Zn 189.00 mg/L, and after hydrothermal process with the optimal experimental condition (Na2CO3/fly ash dosage = 5/20, reaction time = 8 h, L/S ratio = 10/1) the leachability reduced to < 0.02 mg/L for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and 0.05 mg/L for Zn, according to GB 5085.3-2007. Meanwhile, the concentrations of heavy metals in effluent after hydrothermal process were less than 0.8 mg/L. The heavy metals leachability and concentration in effluent reduced with prolonged reaction time. Prolonged aging can affect the leachability of metals as solids become more crystalline, and heavy metals transferred inside of crystalline. The mechanism of heavy metal stabilization can be concluded to the co precipitation and adsorption effect of aluminosilicates formation, crystallization and aging process.

  20. Analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Zn) concentration in sediment of Blanakan fish ponds, Subang, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiriawan, A.; Takarina, N. D.; Pin, T. G.

    2017-07-01

    Blanakan fish ponds receive water resource from Kali Malang and Blanakan rivers. Industrial and domestic activities along the river can cause pollution, especially heavy metals. Zinc (Zn) is an essential element that needed by an organism, while Lead (Pb) is a nonessential element that is not needed. Discharge of waste water from industries and anthropogenic activities continuously not only pollute the water but also the sediment and biota live on it. This research was aimed to know the heavy metals content in the sediment of Blanakan fish ponds. Sediment samples were taken on July and August 2016 at three locations. Heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) Shimadzu 6300. The result of Lead (Pb) measurement showed that Fish Pond 1 had higher average concentration compared Fish Pond 2 and Fish Pond 3 which was 0.55 ppm. Standard for Lead (Pb) in sediment according to Ontario Sediment Standards (2008) is 31 ppm. Based on Zinc (Zn) measurement, it was known that average of Zinc (Zn) concentration also higher on Fish Pond 1 compared to Fish Pond 2 and 3 which was 1.93 ppm. According to Ontario Sediment Standards (2008), a standard for Zinc (Zn) in sediment is 120 ppm. This indicated that heavy metals in the sediment of fish ponds were below standards. Statistical analysis using t-test showed that there was no significant difference of heavy metals content among fish ponds.

  1. Thermal evolutions of two kinds of melt pond with different salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Hong; Wilkinson, Jeremy; Moon, Woosok; Hwang, Byongjun; Granskog, Mats

    2016-04-01

    Melt ponds are water pools on sea ice. Their formation reduces ice surface albedo and alter surface energy balance, by which the ice melting and freezing processes are regulated. Thus, better understanding of their radiative characteristics has been vital to improve the simulation of melting/freezing of sea ice in numerical models. A melt pond would preserve nearly fresh water if it formed on multi-year ice and no flooding of sea water occurred, whereas a melt pond would contain more salty water if it formed on thinner and porous first-year ice, if there were an inflow of sea water by streams or cracks. One would expect that the fluid dynamic/thermodynamic properties (e.g., turbulence, stability, etc.) of pond water are influenced by the salinity, so that the response of pond water to any heat input (e.g., shortwave radiation) would be different. Therefore, better understanding of the salinity-dependent thermal evolution also has significant potential to improve the numerical simulation of the sea ice melting/freezing response to radiative thermal forcing. To observe and understand the salinity-dependent thermal evolution, two ice mass balance buoys (IMBs) were deployed in two kinds (fresh and salty) of melt pond on a same ice floe on 13 August 2015 during Araon Arctic cruise. The thermistor chain, extending from the air through the pond and ice into the sea water, was deployed through a drilled borehole inside the pond. Besides, the IMBs were also accompanied with three broadband solar radiation sensors (two (up and down) in the air over melt pond and one upward-looking under sea ice) to measure the net shortwave radiation at the pond surface and the penetrating solar radiation through ice. Also, the web camera was installed to observe any updates in the conditions of equipment and surrounding environment (e.g., weather, surface state, etc.). On the date of deployment, the fresh pond had salinity of 2.3 psu, light blue color, lots of slush ice particles which

  2. Design surface covers: an approach to long-term waste site stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; McShane, M.C.

    1983-02-01

    The wide range of existing environmental conditions, potential contaminants and available cover materials at waste disposal sites necessitates site-specific designing of surface covers for effective long-term erosion resistance. This paper presents a systematic approach to designing surface covers for hazardous waste repositories that can be tailored to conditions at any site. The approach consists of three phases: (1) an assessment, during which the degree of required surface protection (erosion potential) is determined; (2) a preliminary design that integrates surface cover design with the need to minimize transport of contaminants; and (3) a final design, where the cost and effectiveness of the surface cover are determined. 1 figure

  3. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Batlle, F

    2011-12-01

    Limited space for accommodating the ever increasing mounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) demands the capacity of MSW landfill be maximized by building landfills to greater heights with steeper slopes. This situation has raised concerns regarding the stability of high MSW landfills. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis based on the finite element stress analysis was applied in a case study at a MSW landfill in north-east Spain. Potential slides can be assumed to be located within the waste mass due to the lack of weak foundation soils and geosynthetic membranes at the landfill base. The only triggering factor of deep-seated slope failure is the higher leachate level and the relatively high and steep slope in the front. The valley-shaped geometry and layered construction procedure at the site make three-dimensional slope stability analyses necessary for this landfill. In the finite element stress analysis, variations of leachate level during construction and continuous settlement of the landfill were taken into account. The "equivalent" three-dimensional factor of safety (FoS) was computed from the individual result of the two-dimensional analysis for a series of evenly spaced cross sections within the potential sliding body. Results indicate that the hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis adopted in this paper is capable of locating roughly the spatial position of the potential sliding mass. This easy to manipulate method can serve as an engineering tool in the preliminary estimate of the FoS as well as the approximate position and extent of the potential sliding mass. The result that FoS obtained from three-dimensional analysis increases as much as 50% compared to that from two-dimensional analysis implies the significance of the three-dimensional effect for this study-case. Influences of shear parameters, time elapse after landfill closure, leachate level as well as unit weight of waste on FoS were also

  4. Effect of curing time on selected properties of soil stabilized with fly ash, marble dust and waste sand for road sub-base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Seyhan; Khatib, Jamal M; Yilmaz, Gulgun; Comert, A T

    2017-07-01

    The properties of sub-base filling materials in highway construction are essential, as they can determine the performance of the road in service. Normally, the existing materials are removed and replaced with new materials that have adequate load-bearing capacity. Rising environmental concern and new environmental legislations have made construction professionals consider other methods. These methods include stabilizing the existing materials with other additives to improve their performance. Additives can be waste materials generated by different industries. In this work, the existing excavated soil is stabilized with waste materials. The wastes consisted of fly ash, marble dust and waste sand. The percentage addition of waste materials was 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (by mass) of the existing soil. The soil/waste specimens were cured for 1, 7, 28, 56, 90 and 112 days before testing. Testing included the dry unit weight and unconfined compressive strength ( q u ) as well as X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy observation. Also, the California Bearing Ratio values were obtained and are reported in this investigation. The results showed that the q u values increased with the increase in waste materials content. Also, there is tendency for the dry unit weight to increase with the increase in waste materials.

  5. Preliminary result of a three dimensional numerical simulation of cloud formation over a cooling pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.

    1978-01-01

    Cooling ponds receive large amounts of waste heat from industrial sources and release the heat to the atmosphere. These large area sources of warm and moist air may have significant inadvertent effects. This paper is a preliminary step in the development of a method for estimating the perturbations in the atmosphere produced by a cooling pond. A three-dimensional numerical model based on turbulence second-moment closure equations and Gaussian cloud relations has been developed. A simplified version of the model, in which only turbulent energy and length-scale equations are solved prognostically, is used. Numerical simulations are conducted using as boundary conditions the data from a cooling pond study conducted in northern Illinois during the winter of 1976-1977. Preliminary analyses of these simulations indicate that formation of clouds over a cooling pond is sensitive to the moisture content in the ambient atmosphere

  6. MANAGING ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WITH SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated from...

  7. Application of electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process for waste-activated sludge stabilization and system optimization using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholikandi, Gagik Badalians; Kazemirad, Khashayar

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the performance of the electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process for removing the volatile suspended solids (VSS) content of waste-activated sludge was evaluated. The Fe 2+ ions required by the process were obtained directly from iron electrodes in the system. The performance of the ECP process was investigated in various operational conditions employing a laboratory-scale pilot setup and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). According to the results, the ECP process showed its best performance when the pH value, current density, H 2 O 2 concentration and the retention time were 3, 3.2 mA/cm 2 , 1,535 mg/L and 240 min, respectively. In these conditions, the introduced Fe 2+ concentration was approximately 500 (mg/L) and the VSS removal efficiency about 74%. Moreover, the results of the microbial characteristics of the raw and the stabilized sludge demonstrated that the ECP process is able to remove close to 99.9% of the coliforms in the raw sludge during the stabilization process. The energy consumption evaluation showed that the required energy of the ECP reactor (about 1.8-2.5 kWh (kg VSS removed) -1 ) is considerably lower than for aerobic digestion, the conventional waste-activated sludge stabilization method (about 2-3 kWh (kg VSS removed) -1 ). The RSM optimization process showed that the best operational conditions of the ECP process comply with the experimental results, and the actual and the predicted results are in good conformity with each other. This feature makes it possible to predict the introduced Fe 2+ concentrations into the system and the VSS removal efficiency of the process precisely.

  8. Properties of geopolymer binders prepared from milled pond ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Temuujin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated materials were prepared from pond ash from the Darkhan city (Mongolia thermal power station. This ash contains about 60 wt % X-ray amorphous material in addition to quartz, mullite, hematite and magnesioferrite, and presents significant storage problems since it is accumulating in large amounts and is a hazardous waste, containing 90–100 ppm of the heavy metals As, Pb and Cr, and about 800 ppm Sr. Alkali-activated materials synthesized from the as-received pond ash achieved compressive strengths of only 3.25 MPa. Reduction of the particle size by mechanical milling for up to 30 min progressively increases the compressive strength of the resulting alkali-activated geopolymer up to 15.4 MPa. Leaching tests indicate that the combination of milling and alkali treatment does not cause the release of the hazardous heavy metals from the product, making it suitable for construction applications.

  9. An Assessment of the Stability and the Potential for In-Situ Synthesis of Regulated Organic Compounds in High Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Hanford, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Babad, H.; Hallen, R.T.; Jackson, L.P.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1999-01-04

    The stability assessment examined 269 non-detected regulated compounds, first seeking literature references of the stability of the compounds, then evaluating each compound based upon the presence of functional groups using professional judgment. Compounds that could potentially survive for significant periods in the tanks (>1 year) were designated as stable. Most of the functional groups associated with the regulated organic compounds were considered unstable under tank waste conditions. The general exceptions with respect to functional group stability are some simple substituted aromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds that resist oxidation and the multiple substituted aliphatic and aromatic halides that hydrolyze or dehydrohalogenate slowly under tank waste conditions. One-hundred and eighty-one (181) regulated, organic compounds were determined as likely unstable in the tank waste environment.

  10. An Assessment of the Stability and the Potential for In-Situ Synthesis of Regulated Organic Compounds in High Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Hanford, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Babad, H.; Hallen, R.T.; Jackson, L.P.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    The stability assessment examined 269 non-detected regulated compounds, first seeking literature references of the stability of the compounds, then evaluating each compound based upon the presence of functional groups using professional judgment. Compounds that could potentially survive for significant periods in the tanks (>1 year) were designated as stable. Most of the functional groups associated with the regulated organic compounds were considered unstable under tank waste conditions. The general exceptions with respect to functional group stability are some simple substituted aromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds that resist oxidation and the multiple substituted aliphatic and aromatic halides that hydrolyze or dehydrohalogenate slowly under tank waste conditions. One-hundred and eighty-one (181) regulated, organic compounds were determined as likely unstable in the tank waste environment

  11. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Department of Public Works of Yolo County, California, USA has been testing an advanced approach to landfill bioreactors, controlled (or "enhanced") landfilling, at its Yolo County Central Landfill site near Davis, CA, since 1994. Overall objectives have been the management of waste landfilling for: (1) rapid completion of total gas generation; (2) maximum, high-efficiency gas capture; (3) waste volume reduction; and (4) maximum greenhouse gas and carbon sequestration benefits. Methane generation is controlled and enhanced through carefully managed moisture additions, and by taking advantage of landfill temperature elevation. The generated landfill methane, an important greenhouse gas, is recovered with high efficiency through extraction from a porous recovery layer beneath a surface geomembrane cover. Instrumentation included a total of 56 moisture and 15 temperature sensors in the two cells, gas flow monitoring by positive displacement gas meters, and accurate quantification of liquid inputs and outputs. Gas composition, waste volume reduction, base hydrostatic head, and a range of environmental compliance parameters has been monitored since 1995. Partitioning gas tracer tests using the injection of two gases at dilute concentrations in the landfill have also been initiated to compute the fraction of pore space occupied by water between the points of tracer injection and tracer measurement. There has been rapid waste volume reduction in the enhanced cell that corresponds to the solids' reduction to gas. Monitoring is planned for the next several years, until stabilization parameters are determined complete. Encouraging performance is indicated by: (1) sensor data; (2) gas generation results; (3) data from landfill cores; and (4) decomposition-related indicators including rapid volume reduction. When data are synthesized, project results have attractive implications for new approaches to landfill management. Over seven-years, methane recoveries have averaged

  12. Determining the Chemical and Biological Availability of Zinc in Urban Stormwater Retention Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, K.; Casey, R.; Lev, S. M.; Landa, E. R.; Snodgrass, J.

    2005-12-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems due to transport of contaminants that accumulate on road surfaces. Metals such as copper and zinc are major components of automobile brake pads and tires, respectively. As these automobile parts are degraded, these metal containing particulates are deposited on the roadway and are washed into storm water retention ponds and surface water bodies during precipitation events. It has been estimated that 15 to 60% of the Zn in urban stormwater runoff comes from tire wear and that tire wear is a significant source of Zn to the environment with release inventories comparable to waste incineration sources. In urban and sub-urban systems, this large source of Zn can accumulate in stormwater retention ponds which serve as habitat for a variety of species. Understanding the chemical and biological availability of Zn to biota is integral to assessing the habitat quality of retention ponds. This study is a first effort to relate the amount and speciation of Zn in a retention pond to Zn inputs through highway-derived runoff events. In addition, results suggest that the chemical speciation and availability of particulate Zn can be related to the bioavailability and toxicity of Zn to pond organisms (i.e. larval amphibians). The study site in Owings Mills, MD is located next to a four-lane highway from which it receives runoff through a single culvert. Five species of anurans are known to utilize the pond as a breeding site and Zn in amphibian tissues and retention pond sediments were highly elevated at this site in 2001 and 2002. A recent analysis of pond sediments, soils, roadway dust and storm water collected at this site suggests that roadway particulate matter transported during runoff events is the dominant source of Zn in this system. Overall, Zn and other trace metals were found to be most abundant in the clay sized faction of pond sediments and soils. The pond cores were found to have higher Zn and Cu

  13. Development and demonstration of a stabilization system for buried mixed waste tanks: Initital results of the tank V-9 hot demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthern, G.E.; Kuhns, D.J.; Meservey, R.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic approach for the stabilization of buried mixed waste tanks and presents the status of an application of this approach to a specific hot waste tank demonstration to be performed in FY-96. The approach uses the cradle-to-grave concept and includes technical, health and safety, and regulatory considerations and requirements. It starts with the identification of the tank and continues to the final disposition and monitoring of the tank

  14. Bio-lubricants derived from waste cooking oil with improved oxidation stability and low-temperature properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Wang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) was chemically modified via epoxidation using H2O2 followed by transesterification with methanol and branched alcohols (isooctanol, isotridecanol and isooctadecanol) to produce bio-lubricants with improved oxidative stability and low temperature properties. Physicochemical properties of synthesized bio-lubricants such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), viscosity, viscosity index (VI), oxidative stability, and corrosion resistant property were determined according to standard methods. The synthesized bio-lubricants showed improved low temperature flow performances compared with WCO, which can be attributing to the introduction of branched chains in their molecular structures. What's more, the oxidation stability of the WCO showed more than 10 folds improvement due to the elimination of -C=C-bonds in the WCO molecule. Tribological performances of these bio-lubricants were also investigated using four-ball friction and wear tester. Experimental results showed that derivatives of WCO exhibited favorable physicochemical properties and tribological performances which making them good candidates in formulating eco-friendly lubricants.

  15. Stabilization of lead in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash-Pyrophyllite-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Nakamura, Takafumi; Takaoka, Masaki; Aminuddin, Siti Fatimah; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujimori, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the stabilization and speciation of lead (Pb) in a composite solid produced from an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA)-pyophyllite-based system. The solid product was synthesized after mixtures of raw materials (dehydrated pyrophyllite, MSWIFA, 14 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide, and sodium silicate solution) were cured at 105 °C for 24 h. The product could reduce the leaching of Pb and the Pb concentration in the leachate was 7.0 × 10 -3 using the Japanese leaching test and 9.7 × 10 -4  mg/L using toxicity characteristics leaching procedure method, which satisfied the respective test criteria and successfully stabilized Pb in this system. The solid product had a compressive strength of 2 MPa and consisted mainly of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy with X-ray analysis and X-ray absorption fine structure suggested that Pb was present along with Al, Si, and O, and that the atomic environment around the Pb was similar to that of PbSiO 3 . These results suggest that the alkali-activated MSWIFA-pyrophyllite-based system could be used to stabilize Pb in MSWIFA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal and mechanical stabilization process of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giudicianni, Paola, E-mail: giudicianni@irc.cnr.it [DIC-MAPI – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Bozza, Pio, E-mail: pi.bozza@studenti.unina.it [DIC-MAPI – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Sorrentino, Giancarlo, E-mail: g.sorrentino@unina.it [DIC-MAPI – Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy); Ragucci, Raffaele, E-mail: ragucci@irc.cnr.it [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione – C.N.R. Napoli (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A domestic scale prototype for the pre-treatment of OFMSW has been tested. • Two grinding techniques are compared and thermopress is used for the drying stage. • Increasing temperature up to 170 °C reduces energy consumption of the drying stage. • In the range 5–10 bar a reduction of 97% of the initial volume is obtained. • In most cases energy recovery from the dried waste matches energy consumption. - Abstract: In the present study a thermo-mechanical treatment for the disposal of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) at apartment or condominium scale is proposed. The process presents several advantages allowing to perform a significant volume and moisture reduction of the produced waste at domestic scale thus producing a material with an increased storability and improved characteristics (e.g. calorific value) that make it available for further alternative uses. The assessment of the applicability of the proposed waste pretreatment in a new scheme of waste management system requires several research steps involving different competences and application scales. In this context, a preliminary study is needed targeting to the evaluation and minimization of the energy consumption associated to the process. To this aim, in the present paper, two configurations of a domestic appliance prototype have been presented and the effect of some operating variables has been investigated in order to select the proper configuration and the best set of operating conditions capable to minimize the duration and the energy consumption of the process. The performances of the prototype have been also tested on three model mixtures representing a possible daily domestic waste and compared with an existing commercially available appliance. The results obtained show that a daily application of the process is feasible given the short treatment time required and the energy consumption comparable to the one of

  17. The Ruminant and the Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Lajarin-Encina, Aitor

    2015-01-01

    The Ruminant and the Pond presents a group of paintings and a film that explore contemporary psycho-social conditions through fictional narratives. Paintings and film explore territories of thinking and emotion engaging the audience in subjective digressions related to ideas of artificiality, relativeness, absurdity, futility or alienation in relation to intersubjective reality perception, production and representation. At the same time the project delves in the specific relationship existin...

  18. The structures and stability of media intended for the immobilization of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempest, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    High level radioactive waste contains about 40 different elements and, in time, many of these elements are transformed by radioactive decay into different-sized atoms with new chemical properties. The suitability of ordered crystal structures and unordered glass structures as media for immobilising the waste elements is compared. The structural properties of a mixture of synthetic minerals (SYNROC) are described and the various minerals' ability to accommodate ions of different radii and charge assessed. Similary the unordered structure of glass is examined and the probability of the glass remaining non-crystalline during manufacture and storage taken into account. Alternative glassification technologies in the form of the French AVM continuous process and the UK HARVEST batch processes are described and compared, and their likely effect on the structural properties of the final solid glass block considered. (author)

  19. Management of metal-bearing industrial solid waste by stabilization/solidification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunitha, C.; Palanivelu, K. [Anna University, Chennai (India). Centre for Environmental Studies

    2005-07-01

    Metal-bearing sludge from an electroplating industry was immobilised by the solidification stabilisation treatment method. Reduction of the leachability of metals from the waste was studied in different combinations of waste and additives - cement, lime and fly ash. The study revealed that the optimum proportion for cement: metal hydroxide sludge: fly ash as 1:2:2 is the best. The encapsulation efficiency calculated for the metals such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn was above 92%. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) for the developed block was found to be 11.5 kg/cm{sup 2} after curing. The toxicity characteristic leach test (TCLP) test reveals that the heavy metal content in the leachate was well below the maximum permissible limit of WHO drinking water standard. 10 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Radiophase development in hot-pressed alkoxide-derived titanate ceramics for nuclear waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, F.J.; Mitamura, H.; White, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports phase development as a function of hot-pressing temperature studied in alkoxide-derived titanate-based ceramics doped with a 10 wt% loading of a sodium-rich (NAR) and a sodium-poor (NAP) simulated high-level waste. Pyrochlore was found to be the most abundant phase in both calcine powders. A pseudobrookite phase existed metastably at hot-pressing temperatures between 890 degrees and 920 degrees C. After hot-pressing at 1100 degrees C, the final phase assemblage for the NAP material consisted of zirconolite, hollandite-type, perovskite, alloy, and reduced rutile (Magneli phases). In addition, NAR samples contained hibonite, freudenbergite, and loveringite. Phase development was driven to completion over a very narrow temperature range (≤50 degrees C), beginning at 870 degrees and 850 degrees C for NAP and NAR, respectively, although full densification was not achieved below 1100 degrees C. Both waste forms exhibited comparable microstructure and aqueous durability

  1. Mercury leaching from hazardous industrial wastes stabilized by sulfur polymer encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Alguacil, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Olga; Sierra, María José; Millán, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    European Directive 2013/39/EU records mercury as a priority hazardous substance. Regulation n° 2008/1102/EC banned the exportation of mercury and required the safe storage of any remaining mercury compounds. The present work describes the encapsulation of three wastes containing combinations of HgS, HgSe, HgCl2, HgO2, Hg3Se2Cl2, HgO and Hg(0), according to patent of Spanish National Research Council WO2011/029970A2. The materials obtained were subjected to leaching tests according to standards UNE-EN-12457 and CEN/TS 14405:2004. The results are compared with the criteria established in the Council Decision 2003/33/EC for the acceptance of waste at landfills. The Hg concentrations of all leachates were <0.01mgHg/kg for a liquid/solid ratio of 10l/kg. All three encapsulated materials therefore meet the requirements for storage in inert waste landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gretchen Matthern; Duane Hanson; Neal Yancey; Darrell Knudson

    2005-01-01

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the ''hottest'' (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates for WAXFIX/paraffin do not indicate any immediate problems with the use of WAXFIX for grouting beryllium or other wastes in the SDA

  3. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Stability of model recycled mixed plastic waste compatibilised with a cooperative compatibilisation system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luzuriaga, S. E.; Kovářová, Jana; Fortelný, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 5 (2011), s. 751-755 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer recycling * reactive compatibilisation system * stabilization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.769, year: 2011

  5. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  6. Research plan on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Scientific programme for fiscal year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Yasue, Kenichi; Kokubu, Yoko; Niwa, Masakazu; Asamori, Koichi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Fujita, Natsuko; Shimizu, Mayuko; Hama, Yuki

    2016-08-01

    This report is a plan of research and development (R and D) on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in fiscal year 2016. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2016 are described in detail based on the outline of 7 years plan (fiscal years 2015-2021). Background of this research is clarified with the necessity and the significance for site investigation and safety assessment, and the past progress in this report. In addition, the plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. (author)

  7. Microbial population responses in three stratified Antarctic meltwater ponds during the autumn freeze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Karl; Hawes, Ian; Sorrell, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    The planktonic microbial communities of three meltwater ponds, located on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, were investigated from the end of January 2008 to early April, during which almost the entire pond volumes froze. The ponds were comprised of an upper mixed layer overlying a salt-stabilized density g...... for increasing heterotrophy within the remaining microbial communities, although all components of the food web eventually decline as the final freeze approaches....... role of autotrophic and heterotrophic microplankton within the ponds. The results showed that microbial groups responded to the onset of winter by declining in abundance, though an exception was the appearance of filamentous cyanobacteria in the water column in March. As freezing progressed, autotrophs...... declined more rapidly than heterotrophs and grazing rates and abundances of mixotrophic and heterotrophic organisms increased. Grazing pressure on bacteria and picophytoplankton also increased, in part explaining their decline over time. The results indicate that stressors imposed during freezing select...

  8. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these open-quotes geomorphic hazardsclose quotes include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC

  9. Solar pond conception - experimental and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Huseyin [Zonguldak Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey); Halici, Fethi [Sakarya Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Adapazari (Turkey); Binark, A. Korhan [Marmara Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    A one dimensional transient mathematical model for predicting the thermal performance of the salt gradient solar pond is developed and presented. In this paper, the natural solar ponds and different artificial solar pond systems found in the literature are introduced. Necessary modifications are made on the experimental stand located in Istanbul Technical University, the experimental stand is introduced and natural phenomena produced in the pond by the different solar pond variations under natural conditions are observed. In the theoretical work based on a one dimensional unsteady state heat conduction model with internal heat generation, the energy and mass balance equations for the upper convective zone, the non-convective zone and the lower convective zone, all of which form the solar pond, are written in terms of differential equations. These equations are solved analytically and numerically. The results obtained from the analysis are compared with the experimental results. The temperature and the concentration profiles are separately presented in the figures. (Author)

  10. uG-LilyPond - Floating Plant Pond for Microgravity, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed μG-LilyPond is an autonomous environmentally controlled floating plant cultivation system for use in microgravity. The μG-LilyPond concept expands the...

  11. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  12. Effects of trace element addition on process stability during anaerobic co-digestion of OFMSW and slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moestedt, J; Nordell, E; Shakeri Yekta, S; Lundgren, J; Martí, M; Sundberg, C; Ejlertsson, J; Svensson, B H; Björn, A

    2016-01-01

    This study used semi-continuous laboratory scale biogas reactors to simulate the effects of trace-element addition in different combinations, while degrading the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and slaughterhouse waste. The results show that the combined addition of Fe, Co and Ni was superior to the addition of only Fe, Fe and Co or Fe and Ni. However, the addition of only Fe resulted in a more stable process than the combined addition of Fe and Co, perhaps indicating a too efficient acidogenesis and/or homoacetogenesis in relation to a Ni-deprived methanogenic population. The results were observed in terms of higher biogas production (+9%), biogas production rates (+35%) and reduced VFA concentration for combined addition compared to only Fe and Ni. The higher stability was supported by observations of differences in viscosity, intraday VFA- and biogas kinetics as well as by the 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA of the methanogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Revegetation in abandoned quarries with landfill stabilized waste and gravels: water dynamics and plant growth – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-L. Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of quarry wastes are produced during quarrying. Though quarry wastes are commonly used in pavement construction and concrete production, in situ utilization during ecological restoration of abandoned quarries has the advantage of simplicity. In this paper, rock fragments 2–3 cm in size were mixed with landfill stabilized waste (LSW in different proportions (LSW : gravel, RL, which was called LGM. The water content, runoff and plant growth under natural precipitation were monitored for 2 years using a runoff plot experiment. LGM with a low fraction of LSW was compacted to different degrees to achieve an appropriate porosity; water dynamics and plant growth of compacted LGM were studied in a field experiment. The results showed the following: (1 LGM can be used during restoration in abandoned quarries as growing material for plants. (2 RL had a significant effect on the infiltration and water-holding capacity of LGM and thus influenced the retention of precipitation, water condition and plant growth. LGM with RL ranging from 8:1 to 3:7 was suitable for plant growth, and the target species grew best when RL was 5:5. (3 Compaction significantly enhanced water content of LGM with a low RL of 2:8, but leaf water content of plants was lower or unchanged in the more compacted plots. Moderate compaction was beneficial to the survival and growth of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco and Medicago sativa L. were not significantly affected by compaction, and they grew better under a high degree of compaction, which was disadvantageous for the uppermost layer of vegetation.

  14. Revegetation in abandoned quarries with landfill stabilized waste and gravels: water dynamics and plant growth - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-liang; Feng, Jing-jing; Rong, Li-ming; Zhao, Ting-ning

    2017-11-01

    Large amounts of quarry wastes are produced during quarrying. Though quarry wastes are commonly used in pavement construction and concrete production, in situ utilization during ecological restoration of abandoned quarries has the advantage of simplicity. In this paper, rock fragments 2-3 cm in size were mixed with landfill stabilized waste (LSW) in different proportions (LSW : gravel, RL), which was called LGM. The water content, runoff and plant growth under natural precipitation were monitored for 2 years using a runoff plot experiment. LGM with a low fraction of LSW was compacted to different degrees to achieve an appropriate porosity; water dynamics and plant growth of compacted LGM were studied in a field experiment. The results showed the following: (1) LGM can be used during restoration in abandoned quarries as growing material for plants. (2) RL had a significant effect on the infiltration and water-holding capacity of LGM and thus influenced the retention of precipitation, water condition and plant growth. LGM with RL ranging from 8:1 to 3:7 was suitable for plant growth, and the target species grew best when RL was 5:5. (3) Compaction significantly enhanced water content of LGM with a low RL of 2:8, but leaf water content of plants was lower or unchanged in the more compacted plots. Moderate compaction was beneficial to the survival and growth of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco and Medicago sativa L. were not significantly affected by compaction, and they grew better under a high degree of compaction, which was disadvantageous for the uppermost layer of vegetation.

  15. Forecasting the space-time stability of radioactive waste isolation in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.B.; Karelin, A.I.; Krivokhatsiy, A.S.; Savonenkov, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The possibilities to use salt formations for radioactive waste isolation are realized by creating shaft-type underground repositories in these rocks in Germany and the USA. The burial safety of low- and intermediate-level wastes for several hundred years have been substantiated for the sites chosen. Specialists of different countries presented positive properties of rock salt as a medium for isolation of radionuclides. A rich experience in building subsurface structures for different purposes in salts is accumulated in our country. Detailed investigations of salt formation have shown that far from all the saliferous areas and structures may be used for constructing burial sites. One of the reasons for this limitation is a sharp difference of individual deposits by their compositions, structures, the character of deposition and the conditions of formation. The geological criteria of safety acquire special significance in connection with the necessity to isolate radionuclides having the half-loves more than 1000 years. The time intervals required for stable isolation make up millions of years and cover great cycles of the evolution of the Earth surface and biosphere

  16. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretchen Matthern; Duane Hanson; Neal Yancey; Darrell Knudson

    2005-12-01

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the "hottest" (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates

  17. Influence of phosphate glass recrystallization on the stability of a waste matrix to leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudintsev, S. V.; Pervukhina, A. M.; Mokhov, A. V.; Malkovsky, V. I.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    In Russia, highly radioactive liquid wastes from recycling of spent fuel of nuclear reactors are solidified into Na-Al-P glass for underground storage. The properties of the matrix including the radionuclide fixation will change with time due to crystallization. This is supported by the results of study of the interaction between glassy matrices, products of their crystallization, and water. The concentration of Cs in a solution at the contact of a recrystallized sample increased by three orders of magnitude in comparison with an experiment with glass. This difference is nearly one order of magnitude for Sr, Ce, and Nd (simulators of actinides) and U due to their incorporation into phases with low solubility in water. Based on data on the compositional change of solutions after passing through filters of various diameters, it is concluded that Cs occurs in the dissolved state in runs with a glass and recrystallized matrix. At the same time, Sr, lanthanides, and U occur in the dissolved state and in the composition of colloids in runs with glass, and mostly in colloid particles after contact with the recrystallized sample. These results should be regarded for substantiation of safety for geological waste storage.

  18. Prediction of long term stability for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Seiji; Koide, Hitoshi; Kono, Itoshi

    1998-01-01

    On geological disposal of radioactive wastes, study on prediction of diastrophism has been paid many attentions, and then long term future prediction ranging from some thousands to some tends thousands years may be necessary for some target nuclides. As there are various methods in the future prediction, it is essential to use a computational dynamic procedure to conduct a quantitative prediction. However, it causes an obstacle to advancement of the prediction method that informations on deep underground have a lot of uncertain elements because of their few and indirect data. In this paper, a long term prediction procedure of diastrophism relating to geological disposal of radioactive wastes with low level but isolation terms required to some thousands years was investigated and each one example was shown on flow of the investigation and its modeling method by using the finite element method. It seems to be a key to upgrade accuracy of future diastrophism prediction how an earth fault can be analyzed. And, as the diastrophism is a long term and complex phenomenon and its prediction has many uncertain elements, it is important to judge comprehensively results of its numerical analysis geologically and on rock engineering. (G.K.)

  19. Comparative study of different techniques of composting and their stability evaluation in municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.K.; Khan, R.A.; Nadeem, A.; Hussnain, A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial differences in the physical and chemical characteristics related to maturity of composted organic matter are strongly influenced by composting methods. For evaluation of compost maturity three locally fabricated composters (aerobic, mixed type, anaerobic) processes were examined at seven days interval up to 91 days by loading MSW along with bulking agent. Gradual changes in physico chemical characteristics (temperature, pH, moisture, CEC, humification) related to stability and maturity of compost were studied and compared. Increase in ammonia nitrogen level due to rise in temperature was maximum in aerobic process. Substantial increase in CEC in aerobic process was earlier which leads to establish the optimal degree of maturity as compared to other processes. FA and HI decrease rapidly as composting progressed. Optimal level in stability and maturity parameters like C:N, HA, DH and HR were attained earlier in aerobic process as compared to mixed type and anaerobic processes due to continuous aeration. The parameters (HR, DH, FA, HA), which indicate the compost stability were correlated among themselves. The parameters defining maturity such as CEC, ammonia nitrate and C:N ratio were also related to above mention parameters. The compost from the aerobic process provided good humus and micro nutrients. Result from this study will assist in method optimization and quality of the compost product. (author)

  20. Cost-benefit analysis for re-cultivation of the tailing ponds of the uranium mine Mecsek, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varkonyi, Z.; Kanyar, B.; Csoevari, M.; Koleszar, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The area of the lagoons is nearly 1 million m 2 . The optimum procedure for re-cultivation consists in a combination of 30 cm flying ashes, 20 cm clay, 20 cm drainage, and 30 cm soil with grass seed cover for pond I, containing 20 million tons of waste, after the carrying-over process. For pond II after carrying over, it is not necessary to create a clay and drainage layer, and a 10 cm soil layer is sufficient for the grass. On this pond it is possible to combine grass with some islets of alder and willow trees in depressions

  1. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste: study of biological stabilization by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry combined with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, María José; Gómez, Xiomar; Otero, Marta; Morán, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) along with thermogravimetric analysis together with mass spectrometry (TG-MS analysis) were employed to study the organic matter transformation attained under anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse waste and to establish the stability of the digestates obtained when compared with fresh wastes. Digestate samples studied were obtained from successful digestion and failed systems treating slaughterhouse waste and the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. The FTIR spectra and TG profiles from well stabilized products (from successful digestion systems) showed an increase in the aromaticity degree and the reduction of volatile content and aliphatic structures as stabilization proceeded. On the other hand, the FTIR spectra of non-stable reactors showed a high aliphaticity degree and fat content. When comparing differential thermogravimetry (DTG) profiles of the feed and digestate samples obtained from all successful anaerobic systems, a reduction in the intensity of the low-temperature range (approximately 300 degrees C) peak was observed, while the weight loss experienced at high-temperature (450-550 degrees C) was variable for the different systems. Compared to the original waste, the intensity of the weight loss peak in the high-temperature range decreased in the reactors with higher hydraulic retention time (HRT) whereas its intensity increased and the peak was displaced to higher temperatures for the digesters with lower HRT.

  2. Earthy and musty off-flavor episodes in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) by the southeastern U.S. catfish farming industry continues to grow. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to improve management of dissolved oxygen levels and fish waste products (e.g., ammonia) compared to conv...

  3. Research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Scientific programme for fiscal years 2010-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Koji; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Asamori, Koichi; Yamada, Kunimi; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Tanikawa, Shin-ichi; Kusano, Tomohiro

    2010-09-01

    The concept of geological disposal of HLW in Japan is based on a multibarrier system which combines a stable geological environment with an engineered barrier system. Potential geological host formations and their surroundings are chosen, in particular, for their long-term stability, taking into account the fact that Japan is located in a tectonically active zone. This report is to outline 5 years plan (fiscal years 2010-2014) of research and development (R and D) for geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste in JAEA. Background of this research are clarified with the necessity and the significance, and the past progresses in this report. The objectives, outline, contents and schedule during the next 5 years are described in detail. In addition, the plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. (author)

  4. Research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Scientific programme for fiscal years 2015-2021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Koji; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Niwa, Masakazu; Asamori, Koichi; Fujita, Natsuko; Shimizu, Mayuko; Shimada, Akiomi; Matsubara, Akihiro; Tamura, Hajimu; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Watanabe, Takahiro; Tokuyasu, Kayoko; Hama, Yuki

    2015-08-01

    The study on long-term geological stability has three objectives, namely, (1) development of technologies for determining the past and present conditions of the geological environment, (2) development of technologies for long-term prediction and evaluation of impacts and (3) development of dating techniques using advanced equipment on isotope geology and geochronology, in order to make contribution to site investigation and safety assessment for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This report is to outline 7 years plan (fiscal years 2015-2021) of research and development (R and D) for geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the HLW in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Background of this research is clarified with the necessity and the significance for site investigation and safety assessment, and the past progress in this report. The objectives, outline, contents and schedule during the next 7 years are described in detail. In addition, the plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and Systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. (author)

  5. Integrated oil sands tailings pond water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed research currently being conducted to treat oil sands tailings pond water (TPW). The treatment of TPW is challenged by the high level of naphthenic acids (NAs), the slow settling rate of fine particulate materials, and the complex chemistry of the water. The treatment process consisted of bioflocculation, sludge blanket assisted clarification, ozonation, and oil sands coke assisted hybrid biodegradation. The aggregation and adsorption process bound small particles and cells together while also ensuring the passive uptake of pollutants using microbial masses. The mixed liquor then passed through a sludge blanket to ensure enhanced particle capture. An ozonation process was used to increase the biodegradability of the TPW as well as to increase the biodegradability of the residual NAs after ozonation. The process used a hybrid bioreactor that consisted of both suspended and fixed microbial communities. The coke served as a biofilm carrier for the waste. Further studies are being conducted to investigate the efficiency and capability of the process. tabs., figs.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of food waste: A review focusing on process stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Peng, Xuya; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Di

    2018-01-01

    Food waste (FW) is rich in biomass energy, and increasing numbers of national programs are being established to recover energy from FW using anaerobic digestion (AD). However process instability is a common operational issue for AD of FW. Process monitoring and control as well as microbial management can be used to control instability and increase the energy conversion efficiency of anaerobic digesters. Here, we review research progress related to these methods and identify existing limitations to efficient AD; recommendations for future research are also discussed. Process monitoring and control are suitable for evaluating the current operational status of digesters, whereas microbial management can facilitate early diagnosis and process optimization. Optimizing and combining these two methods are necessary to improve AD efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of chemical stability of vitrification media for radioactive waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkatt, A.; Simmons, J.H.; Macedo, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    Test methods and test results concerning the measurement of chemical durability of glass media proposed for nuclear waste fixation are described. In order to develop predictive models and risk calculations, the release rates of individual components are measured. The results are used to determine matrix dissolution rates, possible transport of components through the matrix, and chemical and physical corrosion mechanisms. Measurements on model borosilicate and high silica glass fixation media are reported and discussed in terms of layer formation, approach to steady state, interaction of polyvalent ions with the dealkalised layer, structural disintegration of the layer, and the effects of glass composition and of environmental conditions (temperature, leachant composition and pH, γ dose). The extrapolation of short term laboratory tests to long time storage conditions and the use of such extrapolation in predicting safe upper limits for the release rates of components of the glass are described. (author)

  8. Selection of a mineral binder for the stabilization - solidification of waste containing aluminum metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahalle, H.; Cau Dit Counes, C.; Lambertin, D.; Antonucci, P.; Delpech, S.

    2015-01-01

    The dismantling of nuclear facilities produces radioactive waste materials, some of which may contain aluminum metal. In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal becomes corroded, with a continued production of dihydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution

  9. Study of the solubility and stability of polystyrene wastes in a dissolution recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Maria Teresa; Gracia, Ignacio; Duque, Gema; Lucas, Antonio de; Rodriguez, Juan Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Dissolution with suitable solvents is one of the cheapest and more efficient processes for polystyrene waste management. In this work the solubility of polystyrene foams in several solvents benzene, toluene, xylene, tetrahydrofuran, chloroform, 1,3-butanediol, 2-butanol, linalool, geraniol, d-limonene, p-cymene, terpinene, phellandrene, terpineol, menthol, eucalyptol, cinnamaldheyde, nitrobenzene, N,N-dimethylformamide and water has been determined. Experimental results have shown that to develop a 'green process' the constituents of essential oils, d-limonene, p-cymene, terpinene, phellandrene, are the most appropriate solvents. The action of these solvent does not produce any degradation of polymer chains. The solubility of the polymer in the mentioned solvents at different temperatures has been investigated. The solvent can be easily recycled by distillation.

  10. Remediation and upgrading of old, inadequate waste management facilities. Integrated waste management system for rare earth and rare metal industry at Sillamaee, Estonia, former uranium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, Tonis; Siinmaa, Anti

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Sillamaee Metallurgical Plant was built in 1946-1948 at Sillamaee, in North-East Estonia, ca 190 km from Tallinn. Target product was uranium, mostly in form of yellow cake (U 3 O 8 ) for Soviet nuclear program. Uranium ore processing continued from 1948 to 1977, totally 4,013,000 tons of uranium ore were processed at Sillamaee plant. In early 1970s the plant introduced a new production line - rare earth elements. Rare earths were until 1991 produced from loparite (later from semi-processed loparite) - rare earths, niobium, tantalum and NORM-containing ore for Kola peninsula, Russia; later. All wastes were, as typical to hydrometallurgical processing all over the world, discharged to a large, 40 ha liquid waste depository - tailings pond, what in Sillamaee case was designed to discharge all liquid constituents slowly to the Baltic Sea. All uranium related activities were stopped in 1990, when only rare earth and rare metal production lines remained operational. The plant was 100 % privatized in 1997 and is today operated by Silmet Ltd., processing annually up to 8 000 tons of rare earth and 2000 tons of niobium and tantalum ores. Like all industries, inherited from Soviet times, Silmet plant is today facing a serious challenge to upgrading technologies towards waste minimizations process efficiency. The historical tailings pond, containing ca 1800 tons of natural uranium and ca 800 tons of thorium, was found geotechnically unstable and leaking to the Baltic Sea, in mid 90s. Being a problem of common Baltic concern, an international remediation project was initiated by Estonian Government and plant operator in 1998. In cooperation with Estonian, Finnish, Swedish, Danish and Norwegian Governments and with assistance by the European Union, the tailings pond will be environmentally remediated - dams stabilized and surface covered, by end of 2006. Close-down and environmental remediation of the tailings pond provides plant an ultimate challenge of

  11. Demonstration of In-Situ Stabilization of Buried Waste at Pit G-11 at the Brookhaven National laboratory Glass Pits Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Gilbert, J.; Heiser, J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989 BNL was added to the EPAs National Priorities List. The site is divided into seven operable units (OU). OU-I includes the former landfill area. The field task site is noted as the AOC 2C Glass Holes location. Beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s, BNL disposed of laboratory waste (glassware, chemicals and animal carcasses) in numerous shallow pits. The drivers for remediating the pits are; historical records that indicate hazardous materials may have been disposed of in the pits; ground water contamination down gradient of the pits; a test excavation of one of the glass holes that unearthed laboratory glass bottles with unidentified liquids still contained; and the fact that BNL rests atop an EPA designated sole-source aquifer. The specific site chosen for this demonstration was pit G-11. The requirements that lead to choosing this pit were; a well characterized pit and a relatively isolated pit where our construction operations would not impact on adjacent pits. The glass holes area, including pit G-11, was comprehensively surveyed using a suite of geophysical techniques (e.g., EM-31, EM-61, GPR). Prior to stabilizing the waste form a subsurface barrier was constructed to contain the entire waste pit. The pit contents were then stabilized using a cement grout applied via jet grouting. The stabilization was performed to make removal of the waste from the pit easier and safer in terms of worker exposure. The grouting process would mix and masticate the waste and grout and form a single monolithic waste form. This large monolith would then be subdivided into smaller 4 foot by 4 foot by 10-12 foot block using a demolition grout. The smaller blocks would then be easily removed from the site and disposed of in a CERCLA waste site

  12. Study of deep cavern stability design method in radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewa, Katsuyuki; Kumasaka, Hiroo; Utsugida, Yoshizo

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes a stability design method regarding the strain of rock and the strength of support, and discusses the result of stability analysis of the shafts and disposal tunnels. In the case of upper class crystalline rock, it is possible to excavate an arched tunnel without support at the depth of 1,000 m. However, support is necessary in the case of middle and lower class rocks. Moreover, if the concrete support of over 100 cm is impossible, it is necessary to change the depth of 1,000 m to 600 m for the lower class rock. In the case of sedimentary rock, a circular profile is necessary for drilling at the depth of 500 m, it is very difficult to drill without support in all classes of sedimentary rocks. Stress release ratios are small except for the upper class or 25 % in the middle class and 20 % in the lower class. This means that drilling by machine is necessary to prevent the loosening of rock as much as possible. (J.P.N.)

  13. Methodology of environmental evaluation of wastes stabilized/solidified by hydraulic binders; Methodologie d'evaluation environnementale des dechets stabilises / solidifies par liants hydrauliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imyim, A.

    2000-12-15

    The aim of this work is the formalization of a methodology of evaluation of the leaching behaviour of massive porous materials obtained by stabilization/solidification of wastes. In a first part, a set of simple leaching tests is proposed which allow the physico-chemical characterization of materials. In order to better understand the phenomena involved in the release process, the methodology has been applied to hydraulic binder-based and lead-bearing synthesized materials. In a second step, a mathematical model has been proposed for the description of the leaching behaviour. The development of the model is based on the observations and experimental results obtained with the synthesized materials. Finally, the methodology of evaluation of the leaching behaviour has been applied to two cases of real wastes: the fly ashes of a Danish municipal waste incineration facility, and the galvanic sludges from an industrial waste water processing facility from Netherlands. (J.S.)

  14. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA, an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project. The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste.

  15. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Laura; Franchi, Federica; Catina, Daniele; Cioffi, Flavio; Rodella, Nicola; Borgese, Laura; Pasquali, Michela; Depero, Laura E.; Bontempi, Elza

    2015-01-01

    A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA), an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project). The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC) was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste. PMID:28793605

  16. Aquatic studies of Gable Mountain Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.

    1974-12-01

    Studies of the biotic and abiotic components of the Gable Mountain Pond (HAPO cooling water disposal pond) ecosystem were undertaken to determine if there was a potential problem for off-site transfer of radioactivity to man originating with the aquatic food web. Most of the 137 Cs in the pond is associated with the sediments which are probably the main source of 137 Cs for uptake by the biota. Generally, highest concentrations of 137 Cs and other radioisotopes were found in the upper two inches of sediments in the northwest end of the pond and in the deeper areas along the long-axis of the pond. Native goldfish had maximum and average 137 Cs concentrations of about 340 and 170 pCi/g dry wt, respectively. Algae, macrophytes, and detritus comprised the main food items of the goldfish, and the 137 Cs levels in the plants were usually higher than the 137 Cs concentration in the fish. The 137 Cs concentrations of wild experimental ducks restricted to Gable Mountain Pond were approximately the same as resident coots, but significantly higher than transient wild ducks. Neither the goldfish nor the waterfowl inhabiting the pond attained concentrations of 137 Cs exceeding acceptable limits. Sediment, however, could be a source of high concentrations of radioactivity or radioactive contamination concern if the concentration of radiocontaminants increased and/or the pond dries up, and the contaminated sediments become windborne. (U.S.)

  17. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  18. Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Beristain, B.

    2005-01-01

    Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, fertilizers) are added to aquaculture ponds to increase fish production. However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the

  19. In situ formation of magnetite reactive barriers in soil for waste stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Reactive barriers containing magnetite and methods for making magnetite reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil contaminants including actinides and heavy metals, organic materials, iodine and technetium are disclosed. According to one embodiment, a two-step reagent introduction into soil takes place. In the first step, free oxygen is removed from the soil by separately injecting into the soil aqueous solutions of iron (II) salt, for example FeCl.sub.2, and base, for example NaOH or NH.sub.3 in about a 1:1 volume ratio. Then, in the second step, similar reagents are injected a second time (however, according to about a 1:2 volume ratio, iron to salt) to form magnetite. The magnetite formation is facilitated, in part, due to slow intrusion of oxygen into the soil from the surface. The invention techniques are suited to injection of reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source allowing in situ formation of the reactive barrier at the location of waste or hazardous material. Mixing of reagents to form. precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

  20. Smectite dehydration and stability: Applications to radioactive waste isolation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.

    1988-03-01

    Montmorillonite-beidellite smectites are present in amounts up to 50% in the rocks directly underlying the potential high-level radioactive waste repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The thermal reactions of concern include reversible collapse/expansion of the smectite layers due to loss/gain of interlayer water;irreversible collapse due to loss of interlayer water and migration of interlayer cations into the 2:1 silicate layers;irreversible reduction of the osmotic swelling ability through reaction in a steam atmosphere;and inhomogeneous transformation of the smectite into an interstratified illite/smectite. Reversible collapse should be of minor importance because any thermally driven collapse will be reversed when water is introduced and temperatures go down. The amounts of smectite in the potential repository horizon itself are probably insufficient to give rise to rock strength problems due to reversible collapse. The irreversible reduction of somotic selling capacity in a steam environment may be significant in the rocks near the repository horizon. This effect on naturally occurring Na-rich smectites would probably increase permeabilitie shut would also provide for increased cation exchange by the smectite. 60 refs., 9 figs

  1. Contribution to the study of wastes stabilization by sulfo-aluminate cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, S.

    2005-02-01

    Calcium sulfo-aluminate cement is mainly composed of yeelimite known to be a precursor of ettringite formation. Ettringite is able to incorporate several heavy metals by isomorphous substitutions without altering its crystalline structure. The design of a binder required for immobilizing heavy metals was undertaken. The hydration study of clinker, and cement containing 4 amounts of gypsum has been carried out by means of XRD, DTA and IR spectrometry. It was pointed out that the addition of gypsum enhances hydration. Two binders were selected: 80/20 and 70/30. The immobilisation of 7 pollutants was very successful. Nevertheless, damages appeared with the binder 70/30 containing sodium chromate and dichromate: sodium caused activation of yeelimite reactivity and important dissolution of gypsum leading to important ettringite production. With a great amount of gypsum (30 %), dissolution led to secondary ettringite formation which damaged the hardened paste. Adding polyol enhances the retention of sodium chromate. On the other hand, the immobilisation of two types of weakly radioactive wastes supplied by CEA has been made. Results obtained in terms of setting time, compressive strength and leaching were excellent. (author)

  2. Pond of Illusion: Interacting through Mixed Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2013-01-01

    Pond of Illusion is a mixed reality installation where a virtual space (the pond) is injected between two real spaces. The users are in either of the real spaces, and they can see each other through windows in the virtual space as illustrated in Figure 1(left). The installation attracts people...... to a large display in either of the real spaces by allowing them to feed virtual fish swimming in the pond. Figure 1(middle) shows how a Microsoft Kinect mounted on top of the display is used for detecting throw motions, which triggers virtual breadcrumbs to be thrown into the pond for feeding the nearby...... fish. Of course, the fish may not be available because they are busy eating what people have thrown into the pond from the other side....

  3. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond D Semlitsch

    Full Text Available We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes.

  4. Biological compost stability influences odor molecules production measured by electronic nose during food-waste high-rate composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Crivelli, Fernando; Adani, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Composting is a technique that is used to convert organic waste into agriculturally useful products. Composting is an aerobic, solid-state biological process, which typically can be divided into two phases, a high-rate composting phase and a curing phase. High-rate composting plays an important role during the composting process, owing to the high microbial activity occurring during this phase. It requires an accurate plant design to prevent the formation of anaerobic conditions and odors. The formation of anaerobic conditions mainly depends on the rate of O 2 consumption needed to degrade the substrate, i.e., the biological stability of the substrate. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the biological activity, measured by the dynamic respiration index (DRI) and the odor molecules production, measured by an electronic nose (EN) during two food-waste high-rate composting processes. Although the O 2 concentration in the biomass free air space (FAS) was kept optimal (O 2 > 140 ml l -1 , v/v) during composting, strong anaerobic conditions developed. This was indicated by the high levels of sulfur compounds, methane, and hydrogen in the outlet air stream. Both the high level of O 2 consumption, needed to degrade the high-degradable water-soluble organic matter and the low water O 2 solubility, caused by high temperature reached in this stage (up to 60 deg. C), led to the anaerobic conditions observed in the biofilm-particle level. The application of the partial least square (PLS) analysis demonstrated a good regression between the DRI and the odor molecules produced that was detected by the EN (R 2 = 0.991; R 2 CV = 0.990), signifying the usefulness of the DRI as a parameter to estimate the potential production of odor molecules of the biomass

  5. Microencapsulate Aspergillus niger peptidases from agroindustrial waste wheat bran: spray process evaluation and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, T P F; Bellini, N C; Assis, K R; Teixeira, C C C; Lanchote, A D; Cabral, H; Freitas, L A P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain microencapsulated stable Aspergillus niger peptidases by post fermentation spray drying. The enzymatic extract was evaluated before and after spray drying microencapsulation to verify the effects of five different process parameters on the extract enzymatic activity, i.e. air flow, extract feed rate, drying temperature, homogenising time and weight ratio of ex