WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste source terms

  1. Phase 1 immobilized low-activity waste operational source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an engineering analysis of the Phase 1 privatization feeds to establish an operational source term for storage and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste packages at the Hanford Site. The source term information is needed to establish a preliminary estimate of the numbers of remote-handled and contact-handled waste packages. A discussion of the uncertainties and their impact on the source term and waste package distribution is also presented. It should be noted that this study is concerned with operational impacts only. Source terms used for accident scenarios would differ due to alpha and beta radiation which were not significant in this study

  2. Flowsheets and source terms for radioactive waste projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Flowsheets and source terms used to generate radioactive waste projections in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program are given. Volumes of each waste type generated per unit product throughput have been determined for the following facilities: uranium mining, UF 6 conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, boiling-water reactors (BWRs), pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), and fuel reprocessing. Source terms for DOE/defense wastes have been developed. Expected wastes from typical decommissioning operations for each facility type have been determined. All wastes are also characterized by isotopic composition at time of generation and by general chemical composition. 70 references, 21 figures, 53 tables

  3. Radiological and chemical source terms for Solid Waste Operations Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the radiological and chemical source terms for the major projects of the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC), including Project W-112, Project W-133 and Project W-100 (WRAP 2A). For purposes of this document, the term ''source term'' means the design basis inventory. All of the SWOC source terms involve the estimation of the radiological and chemical contents of various waste packages from different waste streams, and the inventories of these packages within facilities or within a scope of operations. The composition of some of the waste is not known precisely; consequently, conservative assumptions were made to ensure that the source term represents a bounding case (i.e., it is expected that the source term would not be exceeded). As better information is obtained on the radiological and chemical contents of waste packages and more accurate facility specific models are developed, this document should be revised as appropriate. Radiological source terms are needed to perform shielding and external dose calculations, to estimate routine airborne releases, to perform release calculations and dose estimates for safety documentation, to calculate the maximum possible fire loss and specific source terms for individual fire areas, etc. Chemical source terms (i.e., inventories of combustible, flammable, explosive or hazardous chemicals) are used to determine combustible loading, fire protection requirements, personnel exposures to hazardous chemicals from routine and accident conditions, and a wide variety of other safety and environmental requirements

  4. Low-level radioactive waste performance assessments: Source term modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icenhour, A.S.; Godbee, H.W.; Miller, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by government and commercial operations need to be isolated from the environment for at least 300 to 500 yr. Most existing sites for the storage or disposal of LLW employ the shallow-land burial approach. However, the U.S. Department of Energy currently emphasizes the use of engineered systems (e.g., packaging, concrete and metal barriers, and water collection systems). Future commercial LLW disposal sites may include such systems to mitigate radionuclide transport through the biosphere. Performance assessments must be conducted for LUW disposal facilities. These studies include comprehensive evaluations of radionuclide migration from the waste package, through the vadose zone, and within the water table. Atmospheric transport mechanisms are also studied. Figure I illustrates the performance assessment process. Estimates of the release of radionuclides from the waste packages (i.e., source terms) are used for subsequent hydrogeologic calculations required by a performance assessment. Computer models are typically used to describe the complex interactions of water with LLW and to determine the transport of radionuclides. Several commonly used computer programs for evaluating source terms include GWSCREEN, BLT (Breach-Leach-Transport), DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term), BARRIER (Ref. 5), as well as SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 (which are used in this study). The SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 codes were prepared by Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SOURCE1 is designed for tumulus-type facilities, and SOURCE2 is tailored for silo, well-in-silo, and trench-type disposal facilities. This paper focuses on the source term for ORNL disposal facilities, and it describes improved computational methods for determining radionuclide transport from waste packages

  5. Hanford tank residual waste - Contaminant source terms and release models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael L.; Jeffery Serne, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Residual waste from five Hanford spent fuel process storage tanks was evaluated. → Gibbsite is a common mineral in tanks with high Al concentrations. → Non-crystalline U-Na-C-O-P ± H phases are common in the U-rich residual. → Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual waste samples. → Uranium release is highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions. - Abstract: Residual waste is expected to be left in 177 underground storage tanks after closure at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. In the long term, the residual wastes may represent a potential source of contamination to the subsurface environment. Residual materials that cannot be completely removed during the tank closure process are being studied to identify and characterize the solid phases and estimate the release of contaminants from these solids to water that might enter the closed tanks in the future. As of the end of 2009, residual waste from five tanks has been evaluated. Residual wastes from adjacent tanks C-202 and C-203 have high U concentrations of 24 and 59 wt.%, respectively, while residual wastes from nearby tanks C-103 and C-106 have low U concentrations of 0.4 and 0.03 wt.%, respectively. Aluminum concentrations are high (8.2-29.1 wt.%) in some tanks (C-103, C-106, and S-112) and relatively low ( 2 -saturated solution, or a CaCO 3 -saturated water. Uranium release concentrations are highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions with dissolved U concentrations one or two orders of magnitude higher in the tests with high U residual wastes, and also higher when leached with the CaCO 3 -saturated solution than with the Ca(OH) 2 -saturated solution. Technetium leachability is not as strongly dependent on the concentration of Tc in the waste, and it appears to be slightly more leachable by the Ca(OH) 2 -saturated solution than by the CaCO 3 -saturated solution. In general, Tc is much less leachable (<10 wt.% of the

  6. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories.

  7. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation

  8. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories

  9. Source term analysis for a RCRA mixed waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, D.L.; Blandford, T.N.; MacKinnon, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A Monte Carlo transport scheme was used to estimate the source strength resulting from potential releases from a mixed waste disposal facility. Infiltration rates were estimated using the HELP code, and transport through the facility was modeled using the DUST code, linked to a Monte Carlo driver

  10. Source terms for airborne radioactivity arising from uranium mill wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.; Downing, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    One of the problems in assessing the radiological impact of uranium milling is to determine the rates of release to the air of material from the various sources of radioactivity. Such source terms are required for modelling the transport of radioactive material in the atmosphere. Activity arises from various point and area sources in the mill itself and from the mill tailings. The state of the tailings changes in time from slurry to solid. A layer of water may be maintained over the solids during the life of the mine, and the tailings may be covered with inert material on abandonment. Releases may be both gaseous and particulate. This paper indicates ways in which radon emanation and the suspension of long-lived particulate activity might be quantified, and areas requiring further exploration are identified

  11. Source term model evaluations for the low-level waste facility performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, M.S.; Su, S.I. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The estimation of release of radionuclides from various waste forms to the bottom boundary of the waste disposal facility (source term) is one of the most important aspects of LLW facility performance assessment. In this work, several currently used source term models are comparatively evaluated for the release of carbon-14 based on a test case problem. The models compared include PRESTO-EPA-CPG, IMPACTS, DUST and NEFTRAN-II. Major differences in assumptions and approaches between the models are described and key parameters are identified through sensitivity analysis. The source term results from different models are compared and other concerns or suggestions are discussed.

  12. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  13. PLOTLIB: a computerized nuclear waste source-term library storage and retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.R.; Nowicki, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The PLOTLIB code was written to provide computer access to the Nuclear Waste Source-Term Library for those users with little previous computer programming experience. The principles of user orientation, quick accessibility, and versatility were extensively employed in the development of the PLOTLIB code to accomplish this goal. The Nuclear Waste Source-Term Library consists of 16 ORIGEN computer runs incorporating a wide variety of differing light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycles and waste streams. The typical isotopic source-term data consist of information on watts, curies, grams, etc., all of which are compiled as a function of time after reactor discharge and unitized on a per metric ton heavy metal basis. The information retrieval code, PLOTLIB, is used to process source-term information requests into computer plots and/or user-specified output tables. This report will serve both as documentation of the current data library and as an operations manual for the PLOTLIB computer code. The accompanying input description, program listing, and sample problems make this code package an easily understood tool for the various nuclear waste studies under way at the Office of Waste Isolation

  14. Low-level radioactive waste source terms for the 1992 integrated data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loghry, S.L.; Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.; Icenhour, A.S.; DePaoli, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and open-quotes otherclose quotes. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF 6 conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992

  15. Overview of waste isoltaion safety assessment program and description of source term characterization task at PNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.

    1977-01-01

    A project is being conducted to develop and illustrate the methods and obtain the data necessary to assess the safety of long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geologic formations. The methods and data will initially focus on generic geologic isolation systems but will ultimately be applied to the long-term safety assessment of specific candidate sites that are selected in the NWTS Program. The activities of waste isolation safety assessment (WISAP) are divided into six tasks: (1) Safety Assessment Concepts and Methods, (2) Disruptive Event Analysis, (3) Source Characterization, (4) Transport Modeling, (5) Transport Data and (6) Societal Acceptance

  16. Integral migration and source-term experiments on cement and bitumen waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, F.T.; Howse, R.M.; Sharpe, B.M.; Smith, A.J.; Thomason, H.P.; Williams, S.J.; Young, M.

    1986-01-01

    This is the final report of a programme of research which formed a part of the CEC joint research project into radionuclide migration in the geosphere (MIRAGE). This study addressed the aspects of integral migration and source term. The integral migration experiment simulated, in the laboratory, the intrusion of water into the repository, the leaching of radionuclides from two intermediate-level waste-forms and the subsequent migration through the geosphere. The simulation consisted of a source of natural ground water which flowed over a sample of waste-form, at a controlled redox potential, and then through backfill and geological material packed in columns. The two waste forms used here were cemented waste from the WAK plant at Karlsruhe in the Federal Republic of Germany and bitumenized intermediate concentrates from the Marcoule plant in France. The soluble fission products such as caesium were rapidly released from the cemented waste but the actinides, and technetium in the reduced state, were retained in the waste-form. The released of all nuclides from the bitumenized waste was very low

  17. Microbial characterization for the Source-Term Waste Test Program (STTP) at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, P.A.; Strietelmeier, B.A.; Pansoy-Hjelvik, M.E.; Villarreal, R.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of microbial activity on the performance of the proposed underground nuclear waste repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad, New Mexico are being studied at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of an ex situ large-scale experiment. Actual actinide-containing waste is being used to predict the effect of potential brine inundation in the repository in the distant future. The study conditions are meant to simulate what might exist should the underground repository be flooded hundreds of years after closure as a result of inadvertent drilling into brine pockets below the repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) selected LANL to conduct the Actinide Source-Term Waste Test Program (STTP) to confirm the predictive capability of computer models being developed at Sandia National Laboratory

  18. Microbial characterization for the Source-Term Waste Test Program (STTP) at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, P.A.; Strietelmeier, B.A.; Pansoy-Hjelvik, M.E.; Villarreal, R.

    1999-04-01

    The effects of microbial activity on the performance of the proposed underground nuclear waste repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad, New Mexico are being studied at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of an ex situ large-scale experiment. Actual actinide-containing waste is being used to predict the effect of potential brine inundation in the repository in the distant future. The study conditions are meant to simulate what might exist should the underground repository be flooded hundreds of years after closure as a result of inadvertent drilling into brine pockets below the repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) selected LANL to conduct the Actinide Source-Term Waste Test Program (STTP) to confirm the predictive capability of computer models being developed at Sandia National Laboratory.

  19. Source terms for analysis of accidents at a high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubayi, V.; Davis, R.E.; Youngblood, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to identifying source terms from possible accidents during the preclosure phase of a high-level nuclear waste repository. A review of the literature on repository safety analyses indicated that source term estimation is in a preliminary stage, largely based on judgement-based scoping analyses. The approach developed here was to partition the accident space into domains defined by certain threshold values of temperature and impact energy density which may arise in potential accidents and specify release fractions of various radionuclides, present in the waste form, in each domain. Along with a more quantitative understanding of accident phenomenology, this approach should help in achieving a clearer perspective on scenarios important to preclosure safety assessments of geologic repositories. 18 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Low-level radioactive waste source term model development and testing: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Kempf, C.R.; Suen, C.J.; Mughabghab, S.M.

    1988-08-01

    The Low-Level Waste Source Term Evaluation Project has the objective to develop a system model capable of predicting radionuclide release rates from a shallow land burial facility. The previous topical report for this project discussed the framework and methodology for developing a system model and divided the problem into four compartments: water flow, container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide transport. Each of these compartments is described by submodels which will be coupled into the system model. From February 1987 to March 1988, computer models have been selected to predict water flow (FEMWATER) and radionuclide transport (FEMWASTE) and separate models have been developed to predict pitting corrosion of steel containers and leaching from porous waste forms contained in corrodible containers. This report discusses each of the models in detail and presents results obtained from applying the models to shallow land burial trenches over a range of expected conditions. 68 refs., 34 figs., 14 tabs

  1. The source term and waste optimization of molten salt reactors with processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.; Dodds, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The source term of a molten salt reactor (MSR) with fuel processing is reduced by the ratio of processing time to refueling time as compared to solid fuel reactors. The reduction, which can be one to two orders of magnitude, is due to removal of the long-lived fission products. The waste from MSRs can be optimized with respect to its chemical composition, concentration, mixture, shape, and size. The actinides and long-lived isotopes can be separated out and returned to the reactor for transmutation. These features make MSRs more acceptable and simpler in operation and handling

  2. Integral migration and source term experiments on cement and bitumen waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, F.T.; Howse, R.M.; Sharpe, B.M.; Smith, A.J.; Thomason, H.P.; Williams, S.J.; Young, M.

    1986-01-01

    This is the final report of a programme of research which formed a part of the CEC joint research project into radionuclide migration in the geosphere (MIRAGE). This study addressed the aspects of integral migration and source term. The integral migration experiment simulated, in the laboratory, the intrusion of water into the repository, the leaching of radionuclides from two intermediate level wasteforms and the subsequent migration through the geosphere. The simulation consisted of a source of natural ground water which flowed over a sample of wasteform, at a controlled redox potential, and then through backfill and geological material packed in columns. The two wasteforms used here were cemented waste from the WAK plant at Karlsruhe, W. Germany and bitumenised intermediate concentrates from the Marcoule plant in France. The soluble fission products such as caesium wire rapidly released from the cemented waste but the actinides, and technetium in the reduced state, were retained in the wasteform. The release of all nuclides from the bitumenised waste was very low. (author)

  3. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  4. Source term for the bounding assessment of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavelle, P.

    1996-02-01

    This is the second in a series to derive the bounds of the post-closure hazard of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, based on the premise that it is unnecessary to predict accurately the real hazard if the bounding hazard can be shown to be acceptable. In this report a reference used (Bruce A fuel, 865 GJ/kgU average burnup) is used to derive the source term for contaminant releases from the emplacement canisters. This requires development of a container failure function which defines the age of the fuel when the canister is perforated and flooded. The source term is expressed as the time-dependent fractional release rate from the used fuel or as the time-dependent contaminant concentrations in the canister porewater. It is derived as the superposition of an instant release, comprising the upper bound of the gap and grain boundary inventory in the used fuel, and the long-term dissolution of the used fuel matrix. Several dissolution models (stoichiometric dissolution/preferential leaching) under different conditions (matrix solubility limited/ unlimited; oxidizing/ reducing solubility limits; groundwater flow/ no flow) are evaluated and the one resulting in the highest release rate/ highest porewater concentration is adopted as the bounding case. Comparisons between the models are made on the basis of the potential ingestion hazard of the canister porewater, to account for differences in the hazard of different radionuclides. (author) 20 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  5. Source terms; isolation and radiological consequences of carbon-14 waste in the Swedish SFR repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesboel, R.; Puigdomenech, I.; Evans, S.

    1990-01-01

    The source term, isolation capacity, and long-term radiological exposure of 14 C from the Swedish underground repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR) is assessed. The prospective amount of 14 C in the repository is assumed to be 5 TBq. Spent ion exchange resins will be the dominant source of 14 C. The pore water in the concrete repository is expected to maintain a pH of >10.5 for a period of at least 10 6 y. The cement matrix of the repository will retain most of the 14 CO 3 2- initially present. Bacterial production of CO 2 and CH 4 from degradation of ion-exchange resins and bitumen may contribute to 14 C release to the biosphere. However, CH 4 contributes only to a small extent to the overall carbon loss from freshwater ecosystems. The individual doses to local and regional individuals peaked with 5x10 -3 and regional individuals peaked with 5x10 -3 and 8x10 -4 μSv y -1 respectively at about 2.4x10 4 years. A total leakage of 8.4 GBq of 14 C from the repository will cause a total collective dose commitment of 1.1 manSv or 130 manSv TBq -1 . (authors)

  6. Source term evaluation model for high-level radioactive waste repository with decay chain build-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Manish; Sunny, Faby; Oza, R B

    2016-09-18

    A source term model based on two-component leach flux concept is developed for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The long-lived radionuclides associated with high-level waste may give rise to the build-up of activity because of radioactive decay chains. The ingrowths of progeny are incorporated in the model using Bateman decay chain build-up equations. The model is applied to different radionuclides present in the high-level radioactive waste, which form a part of decay chains (4n to 4n + 3 series), and the activity of the parent and daughter radionuclides leaching out of the waste matrix is estimated. Two cases are considered: one when only parent is present initially in the waste and another where daughters are also initially present in the waste matrix. The incorporation of in situ production of daughter radionuclides in the source is important to carry out realistic estimates. It is shown that the inclusion of decay chain build-up is essential to avoid underestimation of the radiological impact assessment of the repository. The model can be a useful tool for evaluating the source term of the radionuclide transport models used for the radiological impact assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  7. Nonradioactive Environmental Emissions Chemical Source Term for the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Vapor Space During Waste Retrieval Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    A nonradioactive chemical vapor space source term for tanks on the Phase 1 and the extended Phase 1 delivery, storage, and disposal mission was determined. Operations modeled included mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers. Concentrations of ammonia, specific volatile organic compounds, and quantitative volumes of aerosols were estimated

  8. Sensitivity analysis and benchmarking of the BLT low-level waste source term code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, C.J.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1993-07-01

    To evaluate the source term for low-level waste disposal, a comprehensive model had been developed and incorporated into a computer code, called BLT (Breach-Leach-Transport) Since the release of the original version, many new features and improvements had also been added to the Leach model of the code. This report consists of two different studies based on the new version of the BLT code: (1) a series of verification/sensitivity tests; and (2) benchmarking of the BLT code using field data. Based on the results of the verification/sensitivity tests, the authors concluded that the new version represents a significant improvement and it is capable of providing more realistic simulations of the leaching process. Benchmarking work was carried out to provide a reasonable level of confidence in the model predictions. In this study, the experimentally measured release curves for nitrate, technetium-99 and tritium from the saltstone lysimeters operated by Savannah River Laboratory were used. The model results are observed to be in general agreement with the experimental data, within the acceptable limits of uncertainty

  9. Bioaerosol releases from compost facilities: Evaluating passive and active source terms at a green waste facility for improved risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, G. H.; Longhurst, P. J.; Smith, R.; Pollard, S. J. T.

    The passive and active release of bioaerosols during green waste composting, measured at source is reported for a commercial composting facility in South East (SE) England as part of a research programme focused on improving risk assessments at composting facilities. Aspergillus fumigatus and actinomycetes concentrations of 9.8-36.8×10 6 and 18.9-36.0×10 6 cfu m -3, respectively, measured during the active turning of green waste compost, were typically 3-log higher than previously reported concentrations from static compost windrows. Source depletion curves constructed for A. fumigatus during compost turning and modelled using SCREEN3 suggest that bioaerosol concentrations could reduce to background concentrations of 10 3 cfu m -3 within 100 m of this site. Authentic source term data produced from this study will help to refine the risk assessment methodologies that support improved permitting of compost facilities.

  10. BLT [Breach, Leach, and Transport]: A source term computer code for low-level waste shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suen, C.J.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a source term model for low-level waste shallow land burial facilities and separates the problem into four individual compartments. These are water flow, corrosion and subsequent breaching of containers, leaching of the waste forms, and solute transport. For the first and the last compartments, we adopted the existing codes, FEMWATER and FEMWASTE, respectively. We wrote two new modules for the other two compartments in the form of two separate Fortran subroutines -- BREACH and LEACH. They were incorporated into a modified version of the transport code FEMWASTE. The resultant code, which contains all three modules of container breaching, waste form leaching, and solute transport, was renamed BLT (for Breach, Leach, and Transport). This paper summarizes the overall program structure and logistics, and presents two examples from the results of verification and sensitivity tests. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  11. Development of a tool dedicated to the evaluation of hydrogen term source for technological Wastes: assumptions, physical models, and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamouroux, C. [CEA Saclay, Nuclear Energy Division /DANS, Department of physico-chemistry, 91191 Gif sur yvette (France); Esnouf, S. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SIS2M/Radiolysis Laboratory , 91191 Gif sur yvette (France); Cochin, F. [Areva NC,recycling BU, DIRP/RDP tour Areva, 92084 Paris La Defense (France)

    2013-07-01

    In radioactive waste packages hydrogen is generated, in one hand, from the radiolysis of wastes (mainly organic materials) and, in the other hand, from the radiolysis of water content in the cement matrix. In order to assess hydrogen generation 2 tools based on operational models have been developed. One is dedicated to the determination of the hydrogen source term issues from the radiolysis of the wastes: the STORAGE tool (Simulation Tool Of Emission Radiolysis Gas), the other deals with the hydrogen source term gas, produced by radiolysis of the cement matrices (the Damar tool). The approach used by the STORAGE tool for assessing the production rate of radiolysis gases is divided into five steps: 1) Specification of the data packages, in particular, inventories and radiological materials defined for a package medium; 2) Determination of radiochemical yields for the different constituents and the laws of behavior associated, this determination of radiochemical yields is made from the PRELOG database in which radiochemical yields in different irradiation conditions have been compiled; 3) Definition of hypothesis concerning the composition and the distribution of contamination inside the package to allow assessment of the power absorbed by the constituents; 4) Sum-up of all the contributions; And finally, 5) validation calculations by comparison with a reduced sampling of packages. Comparisons with measured values confirm the conservative character of the methodology and give confidence in the safety margins for safety analysis report.

  12. Groundwater modeling of source terms and contaminant plumes for DOE low-level waste performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Wilson, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Under US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A, all sites within the DOE complex must analyze the performance of planned radioactive waste disposal facilities before disposal takes place through the radiological performance assessment process. These assessments consider both exposures to the public from radionuclides potentially released from disposal facilities and protection of groundwater resources. Compliance with requirements for groundwater protection is often the most difficult to demonstrate as these requirements are generally more restrictive than those for other pathways. Modeling of subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow and transport was conducted for two such assessments for the Savannah River site. The computer code PORFLOW was used to evaluate release and transport of radionuclides from different types of disposal unit configurations: vault disposal and trench disposal. The effectiveness of engineered barriers was evaluated in terms of compliance with groundwater protection requirements. The findings suggest that, due to the limited lifetime of engineered barriers, overdesign of facilities for long-lived radionuclides is likely to occur if compliance must be realized for thousands of years

  13. The Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) model: Analysis of spent fuel as a nuclear waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Engel, D.W.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of spent fuel as a final waste form. The release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel has been simulated for the three repository sites that were nominated for site characterization in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The simulation is based on waste package designs that were presented in the environmental assessments prepared for each site. Five distinct distributions for containment failure have been considered, and the release for nuclides from the UO 2 matrix, gap (including grain boundary), crud/surface layer, and cladding has been calculated with the Analytic Repository Source-Term (AREST) code. Separate scenarios involving incongruent and congruent release from the UO 2 matrix have also been examined using the AREST code. Congruent release is defined here as the condition in which the relative mass release rates of a given nuclide and uranium from the UO 2 matrix are equal to their mass ratios in the matrix. Incongruent release refers to release of a given nuclide from the UO 2 matrix controlled by its own solubility-limiting solid phase. Release of nuclides from other sources within the spent fuel (e.g., cladding, fuel/cladding gap) is evaluated separately from either incongruent or congruent matrix release. 51 refs., 200 figs., 9 tabs

  14. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  15. A study on source term assessment and waste disposal requirement of decontamination and decommissioning for the TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Kyung JIn; Lee, Jae Min; Choi, Gyu Seup; Shin, Byoung Sun [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    The objective and necessity of the project : TRIGA is the first nuclear facility that decide to decommission and decontamination in our nation. As we estimate the expected life of nuclear power generation at 30 or 40 years, the decommissioning business should be conducted around 2010, and the development of regulatory technique supporting it should be developed previously. From a view of decommissioning and decontamination, the research reactor is just small in scale but it include all decommissioning and decontamination conditions. So, the rules by regulatory authority with decommissioning will be a guide for nuclear power plant in the future. The basis of regulatory technique required when decommissioning the research reactor are the radiological safety security and the data for it. The source term is very important condition not only for security of worker but for evaluating how we dispose the waste is appropriate for conducting the middle store and the procedure after it when the final disposal is considered. The content and the scope in this report contain the procedure of conducting the assessment of the source term which is most important in understanding the general concept of the decommissioning procedure of the decommissioning and decontamination of TRIGA research reactor. That is, the sampling and measuring method is presented as how to measure the volume of the radioactivity of the nuclear facilities. And also, the criterion of classifying the waste occurred in other countries and the site release criteria which is the final step of decommissioning and decontamination presented through MARSSIM. Finally, the program to be applicable through comparing the methods of our nation and other countries ones is presented as plan for disposal of the waste in the decommissioning.

  16. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 3: Appendixes C-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the Appendices for the Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment and Storage Facilities for Waste Generated by the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. The main report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report

  17. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 3: Appendixes C-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J. [and others

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the Appendices for the Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment and Storage Facilities for Waste Generated by the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. The main report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  18. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 1: Sections 1-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. The methodology is in compliance with the most recent guidance from DOE. It considers the spectrum of accident sequences that could occur in activities covered by the WM PEIS and uses a graded approach emphasizing the risk-dominant scenarios to facilitate discrimination among the various WM PEIS alternatives. Although it allows reasonable estimates of the risk impacts associated with each alternative, the main goal of the accident analysis methodology is to allow reliable estimates of the relative risks among the alternatives. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report

  19. Low-level waste shallow land disposal source term model: Data input guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Suen, C.J.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides an input guide for the computational models developed to predict the rate of radionuclide release from shallow land disposal of low-level waste. Release of contaminants depends on four processes: water flow, container degradation, waste from leaching, and contaminant transport. The computer code FEMWATER has been selected to predict the movement of water in an unsaturated porous media. The computer code BLT (Breach, Leach, and Transport), a modification of FEMWASTE, has been selected to predict the processes of container degradation (Breach), contaminant release from the waste form (Leach), and contaminant migration (Transport). In conjunction, these two codes have the capability to account for the effects of disposal geometry, unsaturated/water flow, container degradation, waste form leaching, and migration of contaminants releases within a single disposal trench. In addition to the input requirements, this report presents the fundamental equations and relationships used to model the four different processes previously discussed. Further, the appendices provide a representative sample of data required by the different models. 14 figs., 27 tabs

  20. Technical requirements for the actinide source-term waste test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Molecke, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This document defines the technical requirements for a test program designed to measure time-dependent concentrations of actinide elements from contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste immersed in brines similar to those found in the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This test program wig determine the influences of TRU waste constituents on the concentrations of dissolved and suspended actinides relevant to the performance of the WIPP. These influences (which include pH, Eh, complexing agents, sorbent phases, and colloidal particles) can affect solubilities and colloidal mobilization of actinides. The test concept involves fully inundating several TRU waste types with simulated WIPP brines in sealed containers and monitoring the concentrations of actinide species in the leachate as a function of time. The results from this program will be used to test numeric models of actinide concentrations derived from laboratory studies. The model is required for WIPP performance assessment with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR Part 191B.

  1. Technical requirements for the actinide source-term waste test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Molecke, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This document defines the technical requirements for a test program designed to measure time-dependent concentrations of actinide elements from contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste immersed in brines similar to those found in the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This test program wig determine the influences of TRU waste constituents on the concentrations of dissolved and suspended actinides relevant to the performance of the WIPP. These influences (which include pH, Eh, complexing agents, sorbent phases, and colloidal particles) can affect solubilities and colloidal mobilization of actinides. The test concept involves fully inundating several TRU waste types with simulated WIPP brines in sealed containers and monitoring the concentrations of actinide species in the leachate as a function of time. The results from this program will be used to test numeric models of actinide concentrations derived from laboratory studies. The model is required for WIPP performance assessment with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's 40 CFR Part 191B

  2. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations. Volume 1: Sections 1-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report

  3. Results of interagency effort to determine carbon-14 source term in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Meyer, G.L.; Neiheisel, J.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary estimate of the risks from the shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes by EPA in 1984-1985 indicated that Carbon-14 caused virtually all of the risk and that these risks were relatively high. Therefore, an informal interagency group, which included the US Department of Energy, US Geological Survey, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and US Environmental Protection Agency, formed in 1985 to obtain up-to-date information on the activity and chemical form of Carbon-14 in the different types of LLW and how Carbon-14 behaves after disposal. The EPA acted as a focal point for collating the information collected by all of the Agencies and will publish a report in Fall 1986 on the results of the Carbon-14 data collection effort. Of particular importance, the study showed that Carbon-14 activity in LLW was overestimated approximately 2000%. This paper summarizes results of the Carbon-14 data collection effort. 40 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  4. Resolution of USQ regarding source term in the 232-Z Waste Incinerator Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, G.A.

    1995-09-01

    The 232-Z Waste Incinerator at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was used to incinerate plutonium-bearing combustible materials generated during normal plant operations. Nondestructive (NDA) measurements performed after the incinerator ceased operations indicated high plutonium loadings in exhaust ductwork near the incinerator glovebox, while the incinerator was found to have only low quantities. Measurements, following a campaign to remove some of the ductwork, resulted in markedly higher assay value for the incinerator glovebox itself. Subsequent assays confirmed the most recent results and pointed to a potential further underestimation of the holdup, in part because of attenuation due to fire brick, which could not be seen easily and which had been reported to not be present. NaI detector based measurements were used to map the deposits. Extended count times, using high resolution Ge detectors helped estimate the isotopic composition of the plutonium and quantify the deposits. Experiments were performed using a Ge detector to obtain adequate corrections for the high attenuation of the incinerator glovebox. Several neutron detectors and detector configurations were employed to understand and quantify the neutron flux. Due to the disparity that was anticipated to occur between the gamma ray and neutron assay results, radiation modeling was used to try to reconcile the divergent results. This was a third aspect of the team's effort, utilizing computer modeling to resolve discrepancies between measurement methods

  5. Supplemental analysis of accident sequences and source terms for waste treatment and storage operations and related facilities for the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folga, S.; Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Kohout, E.; Mishima, J.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information for the document Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities for Waste Generated by US Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. Additional technical support information is supplied concerning treatment of transuranic waste by incineration and considering the Alternative Organic Treatment option for low-level mixed waste. The latest respirable airborne release fraction values published by the US Department of Energy for use in accident analysis have been used and are included as Appendix D, where respirable airborne release fraction is defined as the fraction of material exposed to accident stresses that could become airborne as a result of the accident. A set of dominant waste treatment processes and accident scenarios was selected for a screening-process analysis. A subset of results (release source terms) from this analysis is presented

  6. Pennsylvania Source Term Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Pennsylvania Source Term Tracking System tabulates surveys received from radioactive waste generators in the Commonwealth of radioactive waste is collected each quarter from generators using the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Quarterly Report Form (hereafter called the survey) and then entered into the tracking system data base. This personal computer-based tracking system can generate 12 types of tracking reports. The first four sections of this reference manual supply complete instructions for installing and setting up the tracking system on a PC. Section 5 presents instructions for entering quarterly survey data, and Section 6 discusses generating reports. The appendix includes samples of each report

  7. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 3, Source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository in Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  8. Lessons Learned from Characterization, Performance Assessment, and EPA Regulatory Review of the 1996 Actinide Source Term for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, K.W.; Moore, R.C.; Nowak, E.J.; Papenguth, H.W.; Jow, H.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility for the permanent disposal of transuranic waste from defense activities. In 1996, the DOE submitted the Title 40 CFR Part 191 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The CCA included a probabilistic performance assessment (PA) conducted by Sandia National Laboratories to establish compliance with the quantitative release limits defined in 40 CFR 191.13. An experimental program to collect data relevant to the actinide source term began around 1989, which eventually supported the 1996 CCA PA actinide source term model. The actinide source term provided an estimate of mobile dissolved and colloidal Pu, Am, U, Th, and Np concentrations in their stable oxidation states, and accounted for effects of uncertainty in the chemistry of brines in waste disposal areas. The experimental program and the actinide source term included in the CCA PA underwent EPA review lasting more than 1 year. Experiments were initially conducted to develop data relevant to the wide range of potential future conditions in waste disposal areas. Interim, preliminary performance assessments and actinide source term models provided insight allowing refinement of experiments and models. Expert peer review provided additional feedback and confidence in the evolving experimental program. By 1995, the chemical database and PA predictions of WIPP performance were considered reliable enough to support the decision to add an MgO backfill to waste rooms to control chemical conditions and reduce uncertainty in actinide concentrations, especially for Pu and Am. Important lessons learned through the characterization, PA modeling, and regulatory review of the actinide source term are (1) experimental characterization and PA should evolve together, with neither activity completely dominating the other, (2) the understanding of physical processes

  9. Subsurface Shielding Source Term Specification Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.Su

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to establish appropriate and defensible waste-package radiation source terms for use in repository subsurface shielding design. This calculation supports the shielding design for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The objective is to identify the limiting waste package and specify its associated source terms including source strengths and energy spectra. Consistent with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001, p. 15), the scope of work includes the following: (1) Review source terms generated by the Waste Package Department (WPD) for various waste forms and waste package types, and compile them for shielding-specific applications. (2) Determine acceptable waste package specific source terms for use in subsurface shielding design, using a reasonable and defensible methodology that is not unduly conservative. This calculation is associated with the engineering and design activity for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The technical work plan for this calculation is provided in CRWMS M and O 2001. Development and performance of this calculation conforms to the procedure, AP-3.12Q, Calculations

  10. A solubility-limited-source-term model for the geological disposal of cemented intermediate-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.C.; Hodgkinson, D.P.; Tasker, P.W.; Lever, D.A.; Windsor, M.E.; Grime, P.W.; Herbert, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents and illustrates the use of a source-team model for an intermediate-level radioactive-waste repository. The model deals with the behaviour of long-lived nuclides after the initial containment period. The major processes occurring in the near-field are included, namely sorption, elemental solubility limits, chain decay and transport due to groundwater flow. The model is applied to a realistic example of ILW disposal. From this it is clear that some nuclides are present in sufficient quantities to reach their solubility limit even when the assumed sorption coefficients are large. For these nuclides the precise sorption coefficient is unimportant. It is also clear that some daughter products, in particular Pb-210, become significant. The toxicity of the repository porewater is calculated and it is shown that, although this toxicity is high compared to levels acceptable in drinking water, it is much lower than the toxicity of the waste itself. However, the near-field chemical environment is only one of a number of containment barriers. In addition, it has been shown that the rate at which radionuclides enter the rock surrounding the repository is very low. (author)

  11. SOURCE TERMS FOR HLW GLASS CANISTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.S. Tang

    2000-01-01

    This calculation is prepared by the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Design Section. The objective of this calculation is to determine the source terms that include radionuclide inventory, decay heat, and radiation sources due to gamma rays and neutrons for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from the, West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford Site (HS), and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This calculation also determines the source terms of the canister containing the SRS HLW glass and immobilized plutonium. The scope of this calculation is limited to source terms for a time period out to one million years. The results of this calculation may be used to carry out performance assessment of the potential repository and to evaluate radiation environments surrounding the waste packages (WPs). This calculation was performed in accordance with the Development Plan ''Source Terms for HLW Glass Canisters'' (Ref. 7.24)

  12. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report Volume 3: Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences on the Release of Contaminants to the Subsurface Environment from Waste Source Terms at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul L. Wichlacz

    2003-09-01

    This source-term summary document is intended to describe the current understanding of contaminant source terms and the conceptual model for potential source-term release to the environment at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), as presented in published INEEL reports. The document presents a generalized conceptual model of the sources of contamination and describes the general categories of source terms, primary waste forms, and factors that affect the release of contaminants from the waste form into the vadose zone and Snake River Plain Aquifer. Where the information has previously been published and is readily available, summaries of the inventory of contaminants are also included. Uncertainties that affect the estimation of the source term release are also discussed where they have been identified by the Source Term Technical Advisory Group. Areas in which additional information are needed (i.e., research needs) are also identified.

  13. Estimates of the solubilities of waste element radionuclides in waste isolation pilot plant brines: A report by the expert panel on the source term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Glenn T. Seaborg Inst. for Transactinium Science, Livermore, CA (United States); Bruton, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Dept.; Millero, F.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Chou, I.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Trauth, K.M.; Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Evaluation of the long-term performance of the WIPP includes estimation of the cumulative releases of radionuclide elements to the accessible environment. Nonradioactive lead is added because of the large quantity expected in WIPP wastes. To estimate the solubilities of these elements in WIPP brines, the Panel used the following approach. Existing thermodynamic data were used to identify the most likely aqueous species in solution through the construction of aqueous speciation diagrams. Existing thermodynamic data and expert judgment were used to identify potential solubility-limiting solid phases. Thermodynamic data were used to calculate the activities of the radionuclide aqueous species in equilibrium with each solid. Activity coefficients of the radionuclide-bearing aqueous species were estimated using Pitzer`s equations. These activity coefficients were then used to calculate the concentration of each radionuclide at the 0.1 and 0.9 fractiles. The 0.5 fractile was chosen to represent experimental data with activity coefficient corrections as described above. Expert judgment was used to develop the 0.0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.0 fractiles by considering the sensitivity of solubility to the potential variability in the composition of brine and gas, and the extent of waste contaminants, and extending the probability distributions accordingly. The results were used in the 1991 and 1992 performance assessment calculations. 68 refs.

  14. Estimates of the solubilities of waste element radionuclides in waste isolation pilot plant brines: A report by the expert panel on the source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.; Bruton, C.J.; Trauth, K.M.; Anderson, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    Evaluation of the long-term performance of the WIPP includes estimation of the cumulative releases of radionuclide elements to the accessible environment. Nonradioactive lead is added because of the large quantity expected in WIPP wastes. To estimate the solubilities of these elements in WIPP brines, the Panel used the following approach. Existing thermodynamic data were used to identify the most likely aqueous species in solution through the construction of aqueous speciation diagrams. Existing thermodynamic data and expert judgment were used to identify potential solubility-limiting solid phases. Thermodynamic data were used to calculate the activities of the radionuclide aqueous species in equilibrium with each solid. Activity coefficients of the radionuclide-bearing aqueous species were estimated using Pitzer's equations. These activity coefficients were then used to calculate the concentration of each radionuclide at the 0.1 and 0.9 fractiles. The 0.5 fractile was chosen to represent experimental data with activity coefficient corrections as described above. Expert judgment was used to develop the 0.0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.0 fractiles by considering the sensitivity of solubility to the potential variability in the composition of brine and gas, and the extent of waste contaminants, and extending the probability distributions accordingly. The results were used in the 1991 and 1992 performance assessment calculations. 68 refs

  15. Hazardous constituent source term. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has several facilities that either generate and/or store transuranic (TRU)-waste from weapons program research and production. Much of this waste also contains hazardous waste constituents as regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Toxicity characteristic metals in the waste principally include lead, occurring in leaded rubber gloves and shielding. Other RCRA metals may occur as contaminants in pyrochemical salt, soil, debris, and sludge and solidified liquids, as well as in equipment resulting from decontamination and decommissioning activities. Volatile organic compounds (VOCS) contaminate many waste forms as a residue adsorbed on surfaces or occur in sludge and solidified liquids. Due to the presence of these hazardous constituents, applicable disposal regulations include land disposal restrictions established by Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The DOE plans to dispose of TRU-mixed waste from the weapons program in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by demonstrating no-migration of hazardous constituents. This paper documents the current technical basis for methodologies proposed to develop a post-closure RCRA hazardous constituent source term. For the purposes of demonstrating no-migration, the hazardous constituent source term is defined as the quantities of hazardous constituents that are available for transport after repository closure. Development of the source term is only one of several activities that will be involved in the no-migration demonstration. The demonstration will also include uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of contaminant transport

  16. α and long-lived βγ waste source term. A first generation model for a deep cemented waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovera, P.; Mangin, J.P.; Jorda, M.; Lewi, J.

    1987-01-01

    According to the normal scenario of radioactivity release to the biosphere, only long-lived nuclides are able to migrate significantly to the surface. A first generation model, concerning a cemented waste of hulls and ends deeply disposed of in a granitic medium is in progress at CEA. Two nuclides have been selected: 237-Neptunium (as a reference of α emitters) and 135-Cesium (as a reference of long-lived β emitters). Attributing the long term activity to these both nuclides leads to a model which is conservative beyond ca. 150000 years. Principal difficulties arise from physico-chemical behaviour of Neptunium in aqueous phase, and from non-linear Cesium adsorption on various media. Condiment code (versions 2 and 3), which is developed parallely to the present model is conceived to take account for these phenomena

  17. Chernobyl source term estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtained on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the 137 Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the 131 I and 90 Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Development of a general model to predict the rate of radionuclide release (source term) from a low-level waste shallow land burial facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Kempf, C.R.; Suen, C.J.; Mughabghab, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Federal Code of Regulations 10 CFR 61 requires that any near surface disposal site be capable of being characterized, analyzed, and modeled. The objective of this program is to assist NRC in developing the ability to model a disposal site that conforms to these regulations. In particular, a general computer model capable of predicting the quantity and rate of radionuclide release from a shallow land burial trench, i.e., the source term, is being developed. The framework for this general model has been developed and consists of four basic compartments that represent the major processes that influence release. These compartments are: water flow, container degradation, release from the waste packages, and radionuclide transport. Models for water flow and radionuclide transport rely on the use of the computer codes FEMWATER and FEMWASTE. These codes are generally regarded as being state-of-the-art and required little modification for their application to this project. Models for container degradation and release from waste packages have been specifically developed for this project. This paper provides a brief description of the models being used in the source term project and examples of their use over a range of potential conditions. 13 refs

  19. Solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The solid wastes as sources of heat and electrical energy were analysed. Typical structure of solid waste and organic products from: municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes for some developed countries are presented. Some dates of agricultural wastes for R. Macedonia are presented. The structure and percentage of organic products and energy content of solid wastes are estimated. The quantity of heat from solid wastes depending of the waste mass is presented. The heat quantity of some solid wastes component and the mixed municipal waste is presented. (Original)

  20. Radioactive wastes: sources, treatment, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    Sources, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes are analyzed in an attempt to place a consideration of the problem of permanent disposal at the level of established or easily attainable technology. In addition to citing the natural radioactivity present in the biosphere, the radioactive waste generated at each phase of the fuel cycle (mills, fabrication plants, reactors, reprocessing plants) is evaluated. The three treatment processes discussed are preliminary storage to permit decay of the short-lived radioisotopes, solidification of aqueous wastes, and partitioning the long-lived α emitters for separate and long-term storage. Dispersion of radioactive gases to the atmosphere is already being done, and storage in geologically stable structures such as salt mines is under active study. The transmutation of high-level wastes appears feasible in principle, but exceedingly difficult to develop

  1. Investigations concerning the source term for the emission of fission products and transuranic elements from the highly radioactive waste in the temperature region between 200 and 11000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, F.; Krebs, K.; Merte, B.

    1984-04-01

    Starting point of these investigations was the research report 290 of the former Institute for Reactor Safety, Cologne. The largely incorrect assumptions made in the chemical statement led to high radioactive doses not only for the closer, but also for the further surroundings of a reprocessing plant in case that the cooling system of the fuel element storage or the storage tank for the highly radioactive waste (HAW) should become inoperative for an extended period of time. However, as a result of this temperature region which we used in our experiments, the investigations concerning the source term of the HAW between 1100 and 1200 0 C became interesting again, because a glass melt of about 1100 0 C is used during the PAMELA-process for the vitrification of the HAW. The aqueous HAW-solution is thereby poured onto a hot glass melt. The solution thereby dries up, the HAW-salt is calcined and finally sinks into the glass melt. From today's point of view an investigation concerning the source term of the fission products and transuranic elements from the HAW at 1100 0 C therefore provides information regarding the fission product- and transuranic element volatilization within the melting furnace during the vitrification process. The results may now therefore also be considered a contribution for the layout of the off-gas purification system during the PAMELA-process

  2. Description of source term data on contaminated sites and buildings compiled for the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement (WMPEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.; Smith, D.E.; Hill, J.G.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have historically had responsibility for carrying out various national missions primarily related to nuclear weapons development and energy research. Recently, these missions have been expanded to include remediation of sites and facilities contaminated as a result of past activities. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy announced that DOE would prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on the DOE's environmental restoration and waste management program; the primary focus was the evaluation of (1) strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE contaminated sites and facilities and (2) potential configurations for waste management capabilities. Several different environmental restoration strategies were identified for evaluation, ranging from doing no remediation to strategies where the level of remediation was driven by such factors as final land use and health effects. A quantitative assessment of the costs and health effects of remediation activities and residual contamination levels associated with each remediation strategy was made. These analyses required that information be compiled on each individual contaminated site and structure located at each DOE installation and that the information compiled include quantitative measurements and/or estimates of contamination levels and extent of contamination. This document provides a description of the types of information and data compiled for use in the analyses. Also provided is a description of the database used to manage the data, a detailed discussion of the methodology and assumptions used in compiling the data, and a summary of the data compiled into the database as of March 1995. As of this date, over 10,000 contaminated sites and structures and over 8,000 uncontaminated structures had been identified across the DOE complex of installations

  3. Fission-product source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    This presentation consists of a review of fission-product source terms for light water reactor (LWR) fuel. A source term is the quantity of fission products released under specified conditions that can be used to calculate the consequences of the release. The source term usually defines release from breached fuel-rod cladding but could also describe release from the primary coolant system, the reactor containment shell, or the site boundary. The source term would be different for each locality, and the chemical and physical forms of the fission products could also differ

  4. Source Segregation and Collection of Source-Segregated Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    of optimal handling of the waste. But in a few cases, the waste must also be separated at source, for example removing the protective plastic cover from a commercial advertisement received by mail, prior to putting the advertisement into the waste collection bin for recyclable paper. These issues are often...... in wastes segregation addressing: - Purpose of source segregation. - Segregation criteria and guidance. - Segregation potentials and efficiencies. - Systems for collecting segregated fraction....

  5. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-04-19

    Apr 19, 2013 ... converting solid waste to energy source, ranging from very simple systems of ... defined by modern systems of waste management, notably: -. Municipal Waste; Household Waste,. Commercial Waste and Demolition Waste.

  6. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-01-01

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper

  7. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 2, Source terms: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites. 2 tabs

  8. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 2, Source terms: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan---Conceptual Design Report SCP-CDR. The previous study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites. Volume 2 contains tables of source terms

  9. Long-term management USDOE transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Gilbert, K.V.; Lowrey, R.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Activities for permanent disposal of US DOE TRU waste are presently focused on newly generated and stored waste. The buried waste and contaminated soils pose no near term problem. Decisions on any possible actions for these wastes will be deferred until the newly generated and stored wastes are being placed into disposal on a routine basis. Several elements must be in place before such disposal can become routine. These elements consist of: a disposal facility; waste acceptance criteria; waste certification mechanisms; waste processing facilities; and a waste transportation system. Each of these elements has been the subject of considerable activity in the recent past. Progress and plans for each element are summarized. As of January 1981, DOE has 60,500 m 3 of waste classified as Transuranic waste (TRU) in retrievable storage, and projects that additional TRU waste will be generated at an average rate of 4500 m 3 per year for the next 10 years. Over 99% of this waste is contact handled, with the remainder being remote handled, i.e., surface radiation dose levels exceeding 200 mrem/h. An estimated 273,000 m 3 of TRU waste were placed in shallow land burial prior to establishment of the 1970 policy. In addition, large quantities of soil at DOE sites are contaminated with TRU elements due to disposal of liquid wastes and by contact of soil with solid, buried waste whose original containers are now badly degraded. Possibly as much as 10,000,000 m 3 of soil are contaminated above 10 nCi/gm. Less than 1,000,000 m 3 are estimated to be contaminated above 100 nCi/gm

  10. Supplemental Information Source Document Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Halpern, Jonathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mond, Michael du [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shain, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Supplemental Information Source Document for Waste Management was prepared in support of future analyses including those that may be performed as part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. This document presents information about waste management practices at SNL/NM, including definitions, inventory data, and an overview of current activities.

  11. Source, transport and dumping of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    The results of an examination into the problems of radioactive waste are presented, in particular the sources, transport and dumping and the policy considerations in favour of specific methods. The theoretical background of radioactive waste is described, including the physical and chemical, ecological, medical and legal aspects. The practical aspects of radioactive waste in the Netherlands are considered, including the sources, the packaging and transport and dumping in the Atlantic Ocean. The politics and policies involved in this process are outlined. (C.F.)

  12. Source terms for airborne effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The origin and nature of fuel cycle wastes are discussed with regard to high-level wastes, cladding, noble gases, iodine, tritium, 14 C, low-level and intermediate-level transuranic wastes, non-transuranic wastes, and ore tailings. The current practice for gaseous effluent treatment is described for light water reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Other topics discussed are projections of nuclear power generation; projected accumulation of gaseous wastes; the impact of nuclear fuel cycle centers; and global buildup of airborne effluents

  13. Estimating wastes as energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baston, V.F.; Gale, L.G.; Burt, B.; Stallings, J.W.

    1980-07-01

    The use of agricultural residues as fuel in fluidized-bed burners is discussed. Laboratory tests which assess the suitability of organic residues for fluidized-bed combustion are described. Residues tested include corn wastes, olive and peach pits, tomato pomace and dried paper mill sludge. It was found that peach pits appeared to be an ideal fuel for fluidized-bed combustion and that the tests can detect and solve potential problems before construction of commercial-size burners.

  14. Severe accident source term reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazzan, M.J.; Gardner, R.; Warman, E.A.; Jacobs, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the reassessment of severe reactor accident source terms, which are defined as the quantity, type, and timing of fission product releases from such accidents. Concentration is on the major results and conclusions of analyses with modern methods for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), and the special case of containment bypass. Some distinctions are drawn between analyses for PWRs and BWRs. In general, the more the matter is examined, the consequences, or probability of serious consequences, seem to be less. (author)

  15. Inventory and sources of transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    In the past, solid radioactive waste has often been buried in the most accessible and convenient vacant place, without a great deal of thought for the long-term consequences. The transuranium (TRU) elements were very strictly conserved and, at first, solid waste containing separated fission products was not a serious land burial problem. Wartime pressures for production and lack of knowledge or understanding led to siting and operational practices that, in many situations, are unsatisfactory by present day standards. Purpose of this report is to support the development of standards and criteria which will specifically address the problem of TRU contaminated waste generated by Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear programs and commercial application of nuclear technology. This report covers: DOE facilities, commercial disposal sites, commercial nuclear industry, TRU-contaminated waste inventory, and waste projections

  16. Lysimeter data as input to performance assessment source term codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Sullivan, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigation: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-II c prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. In this paper, radionuclide releases from waste forms in the first seven years of sampling are presented and discussed. Application of lysimeter data to be used in performance assessment source term models is presented. Initial results from use of data in two models are discussed

  17. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig

  18. Source terms in relation to air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    There are two sets of source terms for consideration in air cleaning, those for routine releases and those for accident releases. With about 1000 reactor years of commercial operating experience in the US done, there is an excellent data base for routine and expected transient releases. Specifications for air cleaning can be based on this body of experience with confidence. Specifications for air cleaning in accident situations is another matter. Recent investigations of severe accident behavior are offering a new basis for source terms and air cleaning specifications. Reports by many experts in the field describe an accident environment notably different from previous models. It is an atmosphere heavy with aerosols, both radioactive and inert. Temperatures are sometimes very high; radioiodine is typically in the form of cesium iodide aerosol particles; other nuclides, such as tellurium, are also important aerosols. Some of the present air cleaning requirements may be very important in light of these new accident behavior models. Others may be wasteful or even counterproductive. The use of the new data on accident behavior models to reevaluate requirements promptly is discussed

  19. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 3, Source terms: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan /endash/ Conceptual Design Report, SCP-CDR. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites

  20. Characterization of domestic and market solid wastes at source in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    Waste management is an important element of environmental protection. Proper ... market waste generated from source and also the seasonal composition of household waste. The ..... the recent explosion in packaged water business and the.

  1. Waste transmutation with minimal fuel cycle long-term risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.; Uematsu, M. [Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, Cadarache (France)

    1995-10-01

    Hybrid systems (source-driven subcritical reactors), are investigated at CEA, mainly from a conceptual point of view, in order to assess their potential to transmute radioactive wastes (mainly long-lived fission products, LLFP) and their potential to insure a minimal long-term radiological risk related both to the fuel inventory inside the system and to the full fuel cycle (mass flows, reprocessing transport, waste disposal). The physics of these systems has been explored and work is in progress both in the field of basic data and INC code validation, in the frame of international collaborations and in the field of conceptual design studies. The most interesting feature of subcritical source-driven system is related to the possibility to obtain an {open_quotes}excess{close_quotes} of neutrons per fission, which can be used to reduce the long-term radiological risk. A specific example will be discussed here.

  2. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected...... separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign...... and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated.Food waste generation equated to 23. ±. 5. kg/employee/year, of which 20. ±. 5. kg...

  3. UTILIZATION OF PINEAPPLE WASTE AS CARBON SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Moch Busairi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The liquid pineapple waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for organic acid fermentation.  The objective of this work is to evaluate the use of pineapple waste as substrate for lactic acid fermentation under variables of aerobic, anaerobic condition and pH controlling. Initial results showed that the liquid pineapple waste can be used as carbon source for lactic acid fermentation using Lactobacillus delbrueckii. In the anaerobic condition growth of bacteria and lactic acid production better than aerobic condition. In the anaerobic condition and the controlled pH  the production of lactic acid are found to be 54.79 g/l  (78.27% yield at  40oC, pH 6, 50 rpm and 70 g/l sugar concentration.  In contrast, only 13.87g/l lactic acid produced if the fermentation pH was not controlled even though the fermentation parameters were kept at the same conditions

  4. Calculation of source terms for NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding, R.J.; Williams, D.C.; Murfin, W.B.; Amos, C.N.; Helton, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    The source terms estimated for NUREG-1150 are generally based on the Source Term Code Package (STCP), but the actual source term calculations used in computing risk are performed by much smaller codes which are specific to each plant. This was done because the method of estimating the uncertainty in risk for NUREG-1150 requires hundreds of source term calculations for each accident sequence. This is clearly impossible with a large, detailed code like the STCP. The small plant-specific codes are based on simple algorithms and utilize adjustable parameters. The values of the parameters appearing in these codes are derived from the available STCP results. To determine the uncertainty in the estimation of the source terms, these parameters were varied as specified by an expert review group. This method was used to account for the uncertainties in the STCP results and the uncertainties in phenomena not considered by the STCP

  5. Long-Term Safety Analysis of Baldone Radioactive Waste Repository and Updating of Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The main objective of the project was to provide advice to the Latvian authorities on the safety enhancements and waste acceptance criteria for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities of the Baldone repository. The project included the following main activities: Analysis of the current status of the management of radioactive waste in Latvia in general and, at the Baldone repository in particular Development of the short and long-term safety analysis of the Baldone repository, including: the planned increasing of capacity for disposal and long term storage, the radiological analysis for the post-closure period Development of the Environment Impact Statement, for the new foreseen installations, considering the non radiological components Proposal of recommendations for future updating of radioactive waste acceptance criteria Proposal of recommendations for safety upgrades to the facility. The work programme has been developed in phases and main tasks as follows. Phase 0: Project inception, Phase 1: Establishment of current status, plans and practices (Legislation, regulation and standards, Radioactive waste management, Waste acceptance criteria), Phase 2: Development of future strategies for long-term safety management and recommendations for safety enhancements. The project team found the general approach use at the installation, the basic design and the operating practices appropriate to international standards. Nevertheless, a number of items subject to potential improvements were also identified. These upgrading recommendations deal with general aspects of the management (mainly storage versus disposal of long-lived sources), site and environmental surveillance, packaging (qualification of containers, waste characterization requirements), the design of an engineered cap and strategies for capping. (author)

  6. Source separation of household waste: A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Ying; Wu Songwei; Wang Yunlong; Wu Weixiang; Chen Yingxu

    2008-01-01

    A pilot program concerning source separation of household waste was launched in Hangzhou, capital city of Zhejiang province, China. Detailed investigations on the composition and properties of household waste in the experimental communities revealed that high water content and high percentage of food waste are the main limiting factors in the recovery of recyclables, especially paper from household waste, and the main contributors to the high cost and low efficiency of waste disposal. On the basis of the investigation, a novel source separation method, according to which household waste was classified as food waste, dry waste and harmful waste, was proposed and performed in four selected communities. In addition, a corresponding household waste management system that involves all stakeholders, a recovery system and a mechanical dehydration system for food waste were constituted to promote source separation activity. Performances and the questionnaire survey results showed that the active support and investment of a real estate company and a community residential committee play important roles in enhancing public participation and awareness of the importance of waste source separation. In comparison with the conventional mixed collection and transportation system of household waste, the established source separation and management system is cost-effective. It could be extended to the entire city and used by other cities in China as a source of reference

  7. Waste incineration and waste prevention: not a contradiction in terms; Abfallverbrennung ist kein Gegner der Abfallvermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    The paper provides a detailed analysis of the current situation on waste management in Germany and identifies 10 arguments on the issue that waste incineration and waste prevention are not contradiction in terms. The following topics are discussed within this frame: waste prevention in production and consumption; resource-efficient products; offsetting of efficiency gains by growth of volume; consumer behavior, need of waste management; influence of long-term waste management contracts; product responsibility; highest recovery rates despite incineration of residual waste; precise sorting as a prerequisite for recovery. It is concluded that waste incineration with energy generation and utilization of slag is an environmentally sound option.

  8. Source term development for tritium at the Sheffield disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Barletta, R.E.; Smalley, J.F.; Kempf, C.R.; Davis, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site, which ceased operation in 1978, has been the focus of modeling efforts by the NRC for the purpose of predicting long-term site behavior. To provide the NRC with the information required for its modeling effort, a study to define the source term for tritium in eight trenches at the Sheffield site has been undertaken. Tritium is of special interest since significant concentrations of the isotope have been found in groundwater samples taken at the site and at locations outside the site boundary. Previous estimates of tritium site inventory at Sheffield are in wide disagreement. In this study, the tritium inventory in the eight trenches was estimated by reviewing the radioactive shipping records (RSRs) for waste buried in these trenches. It has been found that the tritium shipped for burial at the site was probably higher than previously estimated. In the eight trenches surveyed, which amount to roughly one half the total volume and activity buried at Sheffield, approximately 2350 Ci of tritium from non-fuel cycle sources were identified. The review of RSRs also formed the basis for obtaining waste package descriptions and for contacting large waste generators to obtain more detailed information regarding these waste packages. As a result of this review and the selected generator contacts, the non-fuel cycle tritium waste was categorized. The tritium releases from each of these waste categories were modeled. The results of this modeling effort are presented for each of the eight trenches selected. 3 references, 2 figures

  9. Basic repository source term and data sheet report: Lavender Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is one of a series describing studies undertaken in support of the US Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. This study contains the derivation of values for environmental source terms and resources consumed for a CRWM repository. Estimates include heavy construction equipment; support equipment; shaft-sinking equipment; transportation equipment; and consumption of fuel, water, electricity, and natural gas. Data are presented for construction and operation at an assumed site in Lavender Canyon, Utah. 3 refs; 6 tabs

  10. Basic repository source term and data sheet report: Davis Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is one of series describing studies undertaken in support of the US Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. This study contains the derivation of values for environmental source terms and resources consumed for a CRWM repository. Estimates include heavy construction equipment; support equipment; shaft-sinking equipment; transportation equipment; and consumption of fuel, water electricity, and natural gas. Data are presented for construction and operation at an assumed site in Davis Canyon, Utah. 6 tabs

  11. Mechanistic facility safety and source term analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    A PC-based computer program was created for facility safety and source term analysis at Hanford The program has been successfully applied to mechanistic prediction of source terms from chemical reactions in underground storage tanks, hydrogen combustion in double contained receiver tanks, and proccss evaluation including the potential for runaway reactions in spent nuclear fuel processing. Model features include user-defined facility room, flow path geometry, and heat conductors, user-defined non-ideal vapor and aerosol species, pressure- and density-driven gas flows, aerosol transport and deposition, and structure to accommodate facility-specific source terms. Example applications are presented here

  12. Evolution of source term definition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this presentation was to provide an overview of the evolution of accident fission product release analysis methodology and the obtained results; and to provide an overview of the source term implementation analysis in regulatory decisions

  13. The EC CAST project (carbon-14 source term)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-14 is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of underground geological disposal facilities for radioactive wastes. It is possible for carbon-14 to be released from waste packages in a variety of chemical forms, both organic and inorganic, and as dissolved or gaseous species The EC CAST (CArbon-14 Source Term) project aims to develop understanding of the generation and release of carbon-14 from radioactive waste materials under conditions relevant to packaging and disposal. It focuses on the release of carbon-14 from irradiated metals (steels and zirconium alloys), from irradiated graphite and from spent ion-exchange resins. The CAST consortium brings together 33 partners. CAST commenced in October 2013 and this paper describes progress to March 2015. The main activities during this period were reviews of the current status of knowledge, the identification and acquisition of suitable samples and the design of experiments and analytical procedures. (authors)

  14. Domestic Waste: Sources, Effects, and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, A.; Hegazi, N.

    1999-01-01

    Waste is any discarded material. Domestic wastes are those produced by individual activities. In common with other living organisms, humans discharge waste substances to the environment that in turn re-energize the endless cycle of nature. Human activities are closely associated with ambient environment (soil , water, or air) through accumulation of domestic waste. Such household hazardous waste deposit arise from the discharge of domestic activities in the form of municipal solid waste (household, commercial and public street wastes), night soil (human and animal body wastes, excreta, or excrement). In rural areas, night soil is one of several components of the refuse that pollute the land. The surface water may be also directly polluted by domestic wastes or agricultural wastes. But in urbanized areas, household wastes, bathroom and laundry are conveniently flushed away by water as domestic wastewater through sewerage system, and disposed onto land or into receiving water, or in some countries it is treated and re-discharged for domestic usage. Solid waste in the form of kitchen garbage and other household refuse is collected for landfill disposal or for re-industrialization. Many domestic waste influence indoor air quality in urban and rural areas as for example the fuel used for cooking, smoke from cooking and from smoking habits, modern building materials, insulation, fabrics and furniture, cleaning materials, solvents, pesticides, personal care products, organic material or vegetable origin and dander from domestic life

  15. Some practical implications of source term reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs

  16. The long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1988-01-01

    After setting out the terms of reference of ANDRA (National agency for the management of radioactive waste), the author describes the current situation and the projects for the surface storage of waste of low and medium activity. He then discusses the work which has started on the construction of an underground laboratory for studying the storage of long life waste [fr

  17. Waste management outlook for mountain regions: Sources and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semernya, Larisa; Ramola, Aditi; Alfthan, Björn; Giacovelli, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    Following the release of the global waste management outlook in 2015, the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment), through its International Environmental Technology Centre, is elaborating a series of region-specific and thematic waste management outlooks that provide policy recommendations and solutions based on current practices in developing and developed countries. The Waste Management Outlook for Mountain Regions is the first report in this series. Mountain regions present unique challenges to waste management; while remoteness is often associated with costly and difficult transport of waste, the potential impact of waste pollutants is higher owing to the steep terrain and rivers transporting waste downstream. The Outlook shows that waste management in mountain regions is a cross-sectoral issue of global concern that deserves immediate attention. Noting that there is no 'one solution fits all', there is a need for a more landscape-type specific and regional research on waste management, the enhancement of policy and regulatory frameworks, and increased stakeholder engagement and awareness to achieve sustainable waste management in mountain areas. This short communication provides an overview of the key findings of the Outlook and highlights aspects that need further research. These are grouped per source of waste: Mountain communities, tourism, and mining. Issues such as waste crime, plastic pollution, and the linkages between exposure to natural disasters and waste are also presented.

  18. Solid waste - the long term strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    Until deep underground repository sites for low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes can be identified and prepared by Nirex Limited, these products are being encapsulated into solid concrete form by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), and stored in 500- litre drums. Low-level solid waste is dealt with at BNFL's Drigg plant where it is buried in trenches. Recent improvements in rainwater leaching are outlined. Concrete-lined vaults and compactification devices are now operational as well. High-level waste which contains 97% of the radioactivity from irradiated fuel reprocessing, is converted into a vitrified glass product at the new Windscale Vitrification Plant. Together these form BNFL's comprehensive strategy for the treatment, interim storage and disposal of nuclear waste arising from its operations. Progress in the provision of waste management and of disposal facilities has been substantial. U.K

  19. COMPASS: A source term code for investigating capillary barrier performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wei; Apted, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    A computer code COMPASS based on compartment model approach is developed to calculate the near-field source term of the High-Level-Waste repository under unsaturated conditions. COMPASS is applied to evaluate the expected performance of Richard's (capillary) barriers as backfills to divert infiltrating groundwater at Yucca Mountain. Comparing the release rates of four typical nuclides with and without the Richard's barrier, it is shown that the Richard's barrier significantly decreases the peak release rates from the Engineered-Barrier-System (EBS) into the host rock

  20. Classification of sources of municipal solid wastes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenrostro, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones sobre los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Apartado Postal 2-105, 58400, Michoacan, Morelia (Mexico); Bocco, G. [Departamento de Ecologia de los Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia, Apartado Postal 27-3 Xangari, 58089, Michoacan, Morelia (Mexico); Cram, S. [Departamento de Geografia Fisica, Instituto de Geografia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, C.P. 04510 Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2001-05-01

    The existence of different classifications of municipal solid waste (MSW) creates confusion and makes it difficult to interpret and compare the results of generation analyses. In this paper, MSW is conceptualized as the solid waste generated within the territorial limits of a municipality, independently of its source of generation. Grounded on this assumption, and based on the economic activity that generates a solid waste with determinate physical and chemical characteristics, a hierarchical source classification of MSW is suggested. Thus, a connection between the source and the type of waste is established. The classification categorizes the sources into three divisions and seven classes of sources: residential, commercial, institutional, construction/demolition, agricultural-animal husbandry, industrial, and special. When applied at different geographical scales, this classification enables the assessment of the volume of MSW generated, and provides an overview of the types of residues expected to be generated in a municipality, region or state.

  1. Source term estimation for small sized HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moormann, R.

    1992-08-01

    Accidents which have to be considered are core heat-up, reactivity transients, water of air ingress and primary circuit depressurization. The main effort of this paper belongs to water/air ingress and depressurization, which requires consideration of fission product plateout under normal operation conditions; for the latter it is clearly shown, that absorption (penetration) mechanisms are much less important than assumed sometimes in the past. Source term estimation procedures for core heat-up events are shortly reviewed; reactivity transients are apparently covered by them. Besides a general literature survey including identification of areas with insufficient knowledge this paper contains some estimations on the thermomechanical behaviour of fission products in water in air ingress accidents. Typical source term examples are also presented. In an appendix, evaluations of the AVR experiments VAMPYR-I and -II with respect to plateout and fission product filter efficiency are outlined and used for a validation step of the new plateout code SPATRA. (orig.)

  2. Reevaluation of HFIR source term: Supplement 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.E.

    1986-11-01

    The HFIR source term has been reevaluated to assess the impact of the increase in core lifetime from 15 to 24 days. Calculations were made to determine the nuclide activities of the iodines, noble gases, and other fission products. The results show that there is no significant change in off-site dose due to the increased fuel cycle for the release scenario postulated in ORNL-3573

  3. ERDA's long-term waste management goals and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perge, A.F.; Trice, V.G. Jr.; Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ERDA's major program for the long-term waste management of radioactive waste and provides a perspective for symposium participants with regard to the interrelationship of specific components of the program that are discussed in detail in other ERDA-sponsored papers. Needs, goals, and plans are reviewed for ERDA's management of the commercially generated wastes which are expected to be delivered to ERDA in accordance with Federal regulations. At present, ERDA responsibilities include long-term management of commercial-level wastes. Possible future regulations may give ERDA responsibility for the long-term management of commercial low-level solid wastes contaminated with transuranic nuclides. Primary planning goals and programs for the development of terminal storage facilities and waste processing technology to produce acceptable waste forms for long-term management are reviewed for each of the waste types identified above. The status of development programs for the long-term management of airborne radionuclides, which may be required at some time in the future, is also reviewed. (author)

  4. Spent fuel assembly source term parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, P.R.; Foadian, H.; Rashid, Y.R.; Seager, K.D.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    Containment of cask contents by a transport cask is a function of the cask body, one or more closure lids, and various bolting hardware, and seals associated with the cavity closure and other containment penetrations. In addition, characteristics of cask contents that impede the ability of radionuclides to move from an origin to the external environment also provide containment. In essence, multiple release barriers exist in series in transport casks, and the magnitude of the releasable activity in the cask is considerably lower than the total activity of its contents. A source term approach accounts for the magnitude of the releasable activity available in the cask by assessing the degree of barrier resistance to release provided by material characteristics and inherent barriers that impede the release of radioactive contents. Standardized methodologies for defining the spent-fuel transport packages with specified regulations have recently been developed. An essential part of applying the source term methodology involves characterizing the response of the spent fuel under regulatory conditions of transport. Thermal and structural models of the cask and fuel are analyzed and used to predict fuel rod failure probabilities. Input to these analyses and failure evaluations cover a wide range of geometrical and material properties. An important issue in the development of these models is the sensitivity of the radioactive source term generated during transport to individual parameters such as temperature and fluence level. This paper provides a summary of sensitivity analyses concentrating on the structural response and failure predictions of the spent fuel assemblies

  5. Real time source term and dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Kovac, A.; Mlakar, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Dose Projection Programme is a tool for decision making in case of nuclear emergency. The essential input data for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical pressurised water reactor accident are following: source term, core damage assessment, fission product radioactivity, release source term and critical exposure pathways for an early phase of the release. A reduced number of radio-nuclides and simplified calculations can be used in dose calculation algorithm. Simple expert system personal computer programme has been developed for the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant for dose projection within the radius of few kilometers from the pressurised water reactor in early phase of an accident. The input data are instantaneous data of core activity, core damage indicators, release fractions, reduction factor of the release pathways, spray operation, release timing, and dispersion coefficient. Main dose projection steps are: accurate in-core radioactivity determination using reactor power input; core damage and in-containment source term assessment based on quick indications of instrumentation or on activity analysis data; user defines release pathway for typical PWR accident scenarius; dose calculation is performed only for exposure pathway critical for decision about evacuation or sheltering in early phase of an accident.(author)

  6. Long-term high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive program to isolate all US nuclear wastes from the human environment. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy - Waste (NEW) has full responsibility for managing the high-level wastes resulting from defense activities and additional responsiblity for providing the technology to manage existing commercial high-level wastes and any that may be generated in one of several alternative fuel cycles. Responsibilities of the Three Divisions of DOE-NEW are shown. This strategy document presents the research and development plan of the Division of Waste Products for long-term immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. These high-level wastes contain more than 99% of the residual radionuclides produced in the fuels and targets during reactor operations. They include essentially all the fission products and most of the actinides that were not recovered for use

  7. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    The overall aim of the present study is to identify and evaluate the importance of sources of nonylphenoles and phthalates in waste water in a local environment. The investigations were carried out in a Danish local community, Roskilde city and surroundings. Nonylphenoles and phthalates were...... analysed in the waste water from different institutions and industries thought to be potential sources. These were: car wash centers, a hospital, a kindergarten, an adhesive industry and a industrial laundry. Furthermore, analysis of the deposition in the area were carried out. This made it possible...... to estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance...

  8. Preliminary investigation of processes that affect source term identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickliff, D.S.; Solomon, D.K.; Farrow, N.D.

    1991-09-01

    Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 is known to be a significant source of contaminants, especially tritium ( 3 H), to the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. For example, Solomon et al. (1991) estimated the total 3 H discharge in Melton Branch (most of which originates in SWSA 5) for the 1988 water year to be 1210 Ci. A critical issue for making decisions concerning remedial actions at SWSA 5 is knowing whether the annual contaminant discharge is increasing or decreasing. Because (1) the magnitude of the annual contaminant discharge is highly correlated to the amount of annual precipitation (Solomon et al., 1991) and (2) a significant lag may exist between the time of peak contaminant release from primary sources (i.e., waste trenches) and the time of peak discharge into streams, short-term stream monitoring by itself is not sufficient for predicting future contaminant discharges. In this study we use 3 H to examine the link between contaminant release from primary waste sources and contaminant discharge into streams. By understanding and quantifying subsurface transport processes, realistic predictions of future contaminant discharge, along with an evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial action alternatives, will be possible. The objectives of this study are (1) to characterize the subsurface movement of contaminants (primarily 3 H) with an emphasis on the effects of matrix diffusion; (2) to determine the relative strength of primary vs secondary sources; and (3) to establish a methodology capable of determining whether the 3 H discharge from SWSA 5 to streams is increasing or decreasing

  9. Polyolephine waste recycling as source of power energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisovski Štefan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyolephine waste (polyetilene, polypropilene is the main source of environmental pollution. Depolymerization of waste in reactor under atmospheric pressure yields hydrocarbon mixture C1-C34. In turn, combustion of C1-C7 fraction provides reactor temperature regime. The plant is automated and energetically highly efficient. Small electric power is required for operating the plant. The waste originating from depolymerazation does not pollute the environment. Fraction C7-C34 not only serves for commercial purposes but also as a power energy provider within the waste deploymerization plant.

  10. Charging for waste motivates generators to optimize waste control at the source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Homan, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need for waste management that incorporates improved waste-handling techniques and more stringent regulatory requirements to prevent future liabilities such as Superfund sites. DOE-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) has recognized that an effective waste management program focuses on control at the source and that the burden for responsible waste management can be placed on generators by charging for waste management costs. The principle of including the waste management costs in the total cost of the product, even when the product is research and development, is being implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Charging waste management costs to generators creates an incentive to optimize processes so that less waste is produced, and it provides a basis for determining the cost effectiveness of capital improvements so that the mature phase of waste management can be attained. Improving waste management practices requires a long-range commitment and consistent administration. Making this commitment and providing adequate funding for proper waste disposal are most cost-effective measures than the alternative of paying for remedial actions after improper disposal. This paper summarizes a plan to charge waste generators, the administrative structure of the plan, a comparison between the rate structure and changes in waste disposal operations, and issues that have surfaced as the plan is implemented

  11. Long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This study analyses questions of a legal, administrative and financial nature connected with the implementation of programmes for the storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It demonstrates that institutional controls do not involve technically different operations nor do they require the marshalling of large-scale industrial and administrative resources. Finally, the study analyses the different possible approaches in the light of regulations already adopted in certain OECD countries. The annex to the study gives examples of relevant provisions. (NEA) [fr

  12. Renewable energy source from pyrolysis of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Kawser Jamil; Farid Nasir Ani

    2000-01-01

    Malaysia is blessed with a significant renewable energy resource base such as solar energy and biomass. To continue with its industrial development, Malaysia must manages energy supply its c prudently in order to avoid becoming an energy importer supply. Most significantly renewable energy from biomass such as rice husks, wood wastes, oil palm wastes, rubber wastes and other agricultural wastes. Beside rice and timber. Malaysia produces a huge amount of palm oil and natural rubber. These generate a significant amount of solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rubber. These wastes are producing pollution and emission problems in Malaysia which is causing an environmental issue. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used as an alternative value-added source of energy. For this purpose a fast pyrolysis of 300 mi-n lone, and 50 mm diameter stainless-steel reactor was designed and fabricated. The grounded, sieved and dried solid feed particles underwent pyrolysis reactor at moderate temperature and were converted into pyrolytic oil, solid char and cas. Oil and char were collected while the cas was flared. The oil was characterised by GC-MS technique. Detailed analysis of the oil showed that there was no concentration of biologically active polycyclic aromatic species in the oil. The fuel properties of the derived oils were also analysed and compared to diesel fuel. (Author)

  13. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. [Univ. of Papua New Guinea (Papua New Guinea)

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Challenges in Regulating Radiation Sources and Radioactive Waste in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngwakwe, C.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying challenges that hamper the efficiency and efficacy of Regulatory Infrastructure (People and Processes) as regards ensuring safety & security of radiation sources and radioactive waste is a major step towards planning for improvement. In a world constantly motivated by technological advancements, there has been considerable increase in the use of new technologies incorporating radioactive sources in both medical and industrial applications due to its perceived benefits, hence changing the dynamics of regulation. This paper brings to the fore, contemporary challenges experienced by regulators in the course of regulating radiation sources and radioactive waste in Nigeria. These challenges encountered in the business of regulating radiation sources and radioactive waste in Nigeria amongst others include; knowledge gap in the use of novel technologies for industrial applications (e.g. radiotracers in oil & gas and wastewater management), inadequate collaboration with operators to ensure transparency in their operations, inadequate cooperation from other government agencies using ionizing radiation sources, lack of synergy between relevant government agencies, difficulty in establishing standard radioactive waste management facility for orphan & disused sources, and inadequate control of NORMS encountered in industrial activities (e.g. well logging, mining). Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA), the body saddled with the responsibility of regulating the use of ionizing radiation sources in Nigeria is empowered by the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Act to ensure the protection of life, property, and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, hence are not immune to the aforementioned challenges. (author)

  15. Influence of Chemistry on source term assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz Puebla, L.E.; Lopez Diez, I.; Rodriguez Maroto, J.J.; Martinez Lopez-Alcorocho, A.

    1991-01-01

    The major goal of a phenomenology analysis of containment during a severe accident situation can be splitedd into the following ones: to know the containment response to the different loads and to predict accurately the fission product and aerosol behavior. In this report, the main results coming from the study of a hypothetical accident scenario, based on LA-4 experiment of LACE project, are presented. In order to do it, several codes have been coupled: CONTEMPT4/MOD5 (thermalhydraulics), NAUA/MOD5 (aerosol physics) and IODE (iodine chemistry). 12 refs. It has been demonstrated the impossibility of assessing with confidence the Source Term if the chemical conduct of some radionuclides is not taken into account. In particular, the influence on the iodine retention efficiency of the sump of variables such as pH has been proven. (Author). 12 refs

  16. The Net Enabled Waste Management Database as an international source of radioactive waste management information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csullog, G.W.; Friedrich, V.; Miaw, S.T.W.; Tonkay, D.; Petoe, A.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA's Net Enabled Waste Management Database (NEWMDB) is an integral part of the IAEA's policies and strategy related to the collection and dissemination of information, both internal to the IAEA in support of its activities and external to the IAEA (publicly available). The paper highlights the NEWMDB's role in relation to the routine reporting of status and trends in radioactive waste management, in assessing the development and implementation of national systems for radioactive waste management, in support of a newly developed indicator of sustainable development for radioactive waste management, in support of reporting requirements for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, in support of IAEA activities related to the harmonization of waste management information at the national and international levels and in relation to the management of spent/disused sealed radioactive sources. (author)

  17. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Lavelle, S.

    2006-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  18. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  19. Radioactive waste management in sealed sources laboratory production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Gilberto

    2001-01-01

    The laboratory of sealed sources production, of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, was created in 1983 and since then, has produced radioactive sources for industry and engineering in general, having specialization in assembly of radiation sources for non destructive testings, by gammagraphy, with Iridium-192, that represents 98% of the production of laboratory and 2% with the Cobalt-60, used in nuclear gages. The aim of this work, is to quantify and qualify the radioactive wastes generated annually, taking into account, the average of radioactive sources produced, that are approximately 220 sources per year

  20. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewes, H A [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  1. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewes, H.A.

    1969-01-01

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  2. Challenges in Regulating Radiation Sources and Associated Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehzad, A.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation sources are widely used in the fields of medical, industry, agriculture, research, etc. Owing to the inherent risk of exposure to ionizing radiations while using the radiation sources and management of associated waste, safety measures are of utmost importance including robust regulatory control. Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) is responsible for supervising all matters pertaining to nuclear safety and radiation protection in the country. Since its inception, PNRA has made rigorous efforts to regulate the radiation facilities for which regulatory framework was further strengthened by taking into account international norms/practices and implemented afterwards. However, due to vibrant use of these facilities, there are numerous challenges being faced while implementing the regulatory framework. These challenges pertains to shielding design of some facilities, control over service provider for QC/repair maintenance of radiation equipment, assessment of patient doses, and establishment of national diagnostic reference levels for radiological procedures. Further, the regulatory framework also delineate requirements to minimize the generation of associated radioactive waste as low as practicable. The requirements also necessitates that certain sealed radioactive sources (SRS) are returned to the supplier upon completion of their useful life, while other radioactive sources are required to be transported for storage at designated radioactive waste storage facilities in the country, which requires commitment from the licensee. This paper will briefly describe the challenges in regulating the radiation sources and issues related to the waste management associated with these facilities. (author)

  3. Source Term Model for Fine Particle Resuspension from Indoor Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Yoojeong; Gidwani, Ashok; Sippola, Mark; Sohn, Chang W

    2008-01-01

    This Phase I effort developed a source term model for particle resuspension from indoor surfaces to be used as a source term boundary condition for CFD simulation of particle transport and dispersion in a building...

  4. Development of source term evaluation method for Korean Next Generation Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keon Jae; Cheong, Jae Hak; Park, Jin Baek; Kim, Guk Gee [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-15

    This project had investigate several design features of radioactive waste processing system and method to predict nuclide concentration at primary coolant basic concept of next generation reactor and safety goals at the former phase. In this project several prediction methods of source term are evaluated conglomerately and detailed contents of this project are : model evaluation of nuclide concentration at Reactor Coolant System, evaluation of primary and secondary coolant concentration of reference Nuclear Power Plant(NPP), investigation of prediction parameter of source term evaluation, basic parameter of PWR, operational parameter, respectively, radionuclide removal system and adjustment values of reference NPP, suggestion of source term prediction method of next generation NPP.

  5. Evaluating source separation of plastic waste using conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Jun; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2008-11-01

    Using conjoint analysis, we estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) of households for source separation of plastic waste and the improvement of related environmental impacts, the residents' loss of life expectancy (LLE), the landfill capacity, and the CO2 emissions. Unreliable respondents were identified and removed from the sample based on their answers to follow-up questions. It was found that the utility associated with reducing LLE and with the landfill capacity were both well expressed by logarithmic functions, but that residents were indifferent to the level of CO2 emissions even though they approved of CO2 reduction. In addition, residents derived utility from the act of separating plastic waste, irrespective of its environmental impacts; that is, they were willing to practice the separation of plastic waste at home in anticipation of its "invisible effects", such as the improvement of citizens' attitudes toward solid waste issues.

  6. Source term modelling parameters for Project-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, W.; Smith, G.; Worgan, K.; Hodgkinson, D.; Andersson, K.

    1992-04-01

    This document summarises the input parameters for the source term modelling within Project-90. In the first place, the parameters relate to the CALIBRE near-field code which was developed for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate's (SKI) Project-90 reference repository safety assessment exercise. An attempt has been made to give best estimate values and, where appropriate, a range which is related to variations around base cases. It should be noted that the data sets contain amendments to those considered by KBS-3. In particular, a completely new set of inventory data has been incorporated. The information given here does not constitute a complete set of parameter values for all parts of the CALIBRE code. Rather, it gives the key parameter values which are used in the constituent models within CALIBRE and the associated studies. For example, the inventory data acts as an input to the calculation of the oxidant production rates, which influence the generation of a redox front. The same data is also an initial value data set for the radionuclide migration component of CALIBRE. Similarly, the geometrical parameters of the near-field are common to both sub-models. The principal common parameters are gathered here for ease of reference and avoidance of unnecessary duplication and transcription errors. (au)

  7. Source term calculations - Ringhals 2 PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.L.

    1998-02-01

    This project was performed within the fifth and final phase of sub-project RAK-2.1 of the Nordic Co-operative Reactor Safety Program, NKS.RAK-2.1 has also included studies of reflooding of degraded core, recriticality and late phase melt progression. Earlier source term calculations for Swedish nuclear power plants are based on the integral code MAAP. A need was recognised to compare these calculations with calculations done with mechanistic codes. In the present work SCDAP/RELAP5 and CONTAIN were used. Only limited results could be obtained within the frame of RAK-2.1, since many problems were encountered using the SCDAP/RELAP5 code. The main obstacle was the extremely long execution times of the MOD3.1 version, but also some dubious fission product calculations. However, some interesting results were obtained for the studied sequence, a total loss of AC power. The report describes the modelling approach for SCDAP/RELAP5 and CONTAIN, and discusses results for the transient including the event of a surge line creep rupture. The study will probably be completed later, providing that an improved SCDAP/RELAP5 code version becomes available. (au) becomes available. (au)

  8. 10 CFR 50.67 - Accident source term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Conditions of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.67 Accident source term. (a) Applicability. The... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accident source term. 50.67 Section 50.67 Energy NUCLEAR... to January 10, 1997, who seek to revise the current accident source term used in their design basis...

  9. Actinide recovery from waste and low-grade sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Schulz, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Actinide and nuclear fuel cycle operations generate a variety of process waste streams. New methods are needed to remove and recover actinides. More interest is also being expressed in recovering uranium from oceans, phosphoric acid, and other low grade sources. To meet the need for an up-to-date status report in the area of actinide recovery from waste and low grade sources, these papers were brought together. The papers provide an authoritative, in-depth coverage of an important area of nuclear and industrial and engineering chemistry which cover the following topics: uranium recovery from oceans and phosphoric acid; recovery of actinides from solids and liquid wastes; plutonium scrap recovery technology; and other new developments in actinide recovery processes

  10. Use of source term uncoupled in radionuclide migration equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Claudia Siqueira da; Lima, Zelmo Rodrigues de; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques

    2008-01-01

    Final repositories of high-level radioactive waste have been considered in deep, low permeability and stable geological formations. A common problem found is the migration modeling of radionuclides in a fractured rock. In this work, the physical system adopted consists of the rock matrix containing a single planar fracture situated in water saturated porous rock. The partial differential equations that describe the radionuclide transport were discretized using finite differences techniques, of which the following methods were adopted: Explicit Euler, Implicit Euler and Crank-Nicholson. For each one of these methods, the advective term was discretized with the following numerical schemes: backward differences, centered differences and forward differences. We make a comparison to determine which temporal and space discretization has the best result in relation to a reference solution. The obtained results show that the Explicit Euler Method with forward discretization in the advective term has a good accuracy. Next, with the objective of improving the answer of the Implicit Euler and Crank-Nicholson Methods it was accomplished a source term uncouplement, the diffusive flux. The obtained results were considered satisfactory by comparison with previous studies. (author)

  11. Public education on sources and effects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; Rengan, K.

    1993-01-01

    A six-day workshop, developed for providing information on sources and effects of radioactive waste disposal to the general public, is described. The materials were used successfully with a group representing the general public. An extension of the workshop for high school and junior high school science teachers is discussed. (author) 1 tab

  12. Industrial long-term waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marque, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term industrial management of radioactive waste in France is carried out by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA). ANDRA is in charge of design, siting, construction and operation of disposal centers. The French national program of waste management is running on with the construction of a second near-surface disposal which is expected to be in operation in 1991 and a selection of a site for the construction of an underground laboratory for the qualification of this site for deep disposal

  13. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  14. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  15. Sources, production rates and characteristics of ERDA low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoner, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    In recent critical reviews of the long-standing practice of disposing of solid non-high-level radioactive waste by shallow earth burial, one recurring identified need was for better source-term information. As the major employer of this particular radioactive waste management technique for the past 30 years, ERDA recognizes the value of this type of information and has systematically collected it. The system used by the AEC and ERDA in the past was admittedly cumbersome, so in FY 1976 an improved, automated information management system was developed. This new system, called SWIMS (Solid Waste Information Management System), was designed to replace the older system and accept more detailed information from all ERDA solid, non-high-level radioactive waste generation, retrievable storage and shallow land burial activities. In FY 1977, SWIMS is in a trial phase in which modifications and clarifications are being made. In FY 1978, it will be fully operational. This paper presents data concerning the sources and characteristics of waste generated by ERDA facilities. Information on the cumulative status of ERDA's waste is presented, along with a comparison of the types of data collected under the old system and the new system

  16. The impact of municipal waste combustion in small heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantúch, Martin; Kaduchová, Katarína; Lenhard, Richard

    2016-06-01

    At present there is a tendency to make greater use for heating houses for burning solid fuel, such as pieces of wood, coal, coke, local sources of heat to burn natural gas. This tendency is given both the high price of natural gas as well as the availability of cheaper solid fuel. In many cases, in the context saving heating costs, respectively in the context of the disposal of waste is co-incinerated with municipal solid fuels and wastes of different composition. This co entails increased production emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide), NOx (nitrogen oxides), particulate matter (particulate matter), PM10, HCl (hydrogen chloride), PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and others. The experiment was focused on the emission factors from the combustion of fossil fuels in combination with municipal waste in conventional boilers designed to burn solid fuel.

  17. Sources, classification, and disposal of radioactive wastes: History and legal and regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: (1) early definitions of different types (classes) of radioactive waste developed prior to definitions in laws and regulations; (2) sources of different classes of radioactive waste; (3) current laws and regulations addressing classification of radioactive wastes; and requirements for disposal of different waste classes. Relationship between waste classification and requirements for permanent disposal is emphasized; (4) federal and state responsibilities for radioactive wastes; and (5) distinctions between radioactive wastes produced in civilian and defense sectors

  18. Cement Waste Matrix Evaluation and Modelling of the Long Term Stability of Cementitious Waste Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martensson, P.; Cronstrand, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cement based materials are often used as a solidification matrix for wet radioactive waste from nuclear power plants such as ion exchange resins, sludge and evaporator concentrates. The mechanical and chemical properties of the cement-waste matrix are affected by the type and the concentration of the waste. For this reason the recipe used in the solidification process has to be carefully adjusted to respond to the variations of the waste. At the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant (RNPP) an evaporator was to be taken into operation during the mid 2005. As a result of this process an evaporator concentrate containing boric acid was expected. The aims of the present study were to develop a recipe for the solidification of artificial evaporator concentrates, (AEC), containing H 3 BO 3 and measure the compressive strength of the waste/cement matrix over a period of 4 years. The confirmation of the previously reported retarding properties of H 3 BO 3 and the studies of AEC without H 3 BO 3 were also included as a part of this work. Finally, thermodynamic calculations were used as a tool in order to predict the evolution of the mineralogy and integrity for the different cement-waste specimens over very long periods of time, i.e. up to about 100 000 years. The most important finding was that when an optimized waste/cement matrix recipe was used the compressive strength increased during the entire 4 year period and no signs of degradation were noticed. It was also found that the long-term performance of the waste matrices is to a large extent site-specific. In general, the composition of the infiltrating water is more influential than the waste matrices, both on the degradation of the waste matrices itself as well as on the engineered barriers. (author)

  19. Optimization of waste management by actions taken at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, N.R.; Wakerley, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to collate and review information on those measures and practices adopted within nuclear facilities to optimize the management of radioactive waste at the point at which it arises. The information on which it has been based has been obtained by a review of the literature and by visits to a number of different types of facilities within the European Community. The search revealed mainly references to waste-management optimization at US LWRs, whereas the visits have tried to cover as wide a range of European facilities as practicable. There are a number of different respects in which radioactive waste can be minimized: - minimizing the amount of activity appearing in the wastes. This is best achieved by the design of process equipment; - minimizing the volume of waste with which radioactivity is associated. This is best achieved by a combination of administrative controls and equipment design; - minimizing the amount of material which for administrative or measurement reasons is considered to be radioactive. Many examples of minimization at source by means of developments in equipment and administrative controls that were encountered during our visits, or identified in the literature search, are described

  20. Optimization of waste management by actions taken at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, N.R.; Wakerley, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to collate and review information on those measures and practices adopted within nuclear facilities to optimize the management of radioactive waste at the point of arising. The information on which it has been based has been obtained by literature review and by visits to a number of different types of facilities within the European Community. The search revealed mainly references to waste management optimization at US LWRs, whereas the visits have tried to cover as wide a range of European facilities as practicable. There are a number of different respects in which radioactive waste can be minimized: minimizing the amount of activity appearing in the wastes. This is best achieved by the design of process equipment; minimizing the volume of waste with which radioactivity is associated. This is best achieved by a combination of administrative controls and equipment design; minimizing the amount of material which for administrative or measurement reasons is considered to be radioactive. Many examples of minimization at source by means of equipment developments and administrative controls that were encountered during our visits or identified in the literature search are described. (author)

  1. Tracing waste to the source along the product life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maina, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is currently evident that the environment is ailing. We are exposed to many human activities that are devastating to the environment and societies. Since the time the report, Our Common Future, from the UN World Commission on environment and Development (WCED) identified the problem in 1987, its effects are currently a reality. The report sought to recapture the spirit of the United Nations Conference on the Human environment. It placed environmental issues firmly on the political agenda. It also aimed to discuss the environment and development as a single issue. In it is advanced the view that, many countries with poor environmental governance systems are likely to have have conflicts and poor laws protecting the environment. This paper looks at this problem from an ethical perspective. Effects of lack of eco-ethics are numerous. Burning refuse affecting air quality, lack of space for dumping solid waste, the increasing cost of waste disposal and hazards to ground water. In Kenya, the situation of solid waste is a source of concern. In this paper a view is advanced that the problem starts with the product designer. In Kenya designers use flawed design process ignoring the ethical responsibility towards environment, leading to waste accumulation around Nairobi. The uncollected or illegally dumped wastes constitute a disaster for human health and causes environmental degradation (author)

  2. Sources of radioactive waste from light-water reactors and their physical and chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.J.; Collins, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    The general physical and chemical properties of waste streams in light-water reactors (LWRs) are described. The principal mechanisms for release and the release pathways to the environment are discussed. The calculation of liquid and gaseous source terms using one of the available models is presented. These calculated releases are compared with observed releases from operating LWRs. The computerized mathematical model used is the GALE Code which is the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's model for calculating source terms for effluents from LWRs (USNRC76a, USNRC76b). Programs currently being conducted at operating reactors by the NRC, Electric Power Research Institute, and various utilities to better define the characteristics of waste streams and the performance of radwaste process equipment are described

  3. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  4. Release modes and processes relevant to source-term calculations at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of permanent disposal of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in repositories located in deep geologic formations is being studied world-wide. The most credible release pathway is interaction between groundwater and nuclear waste forms, followed by migration of radionuclide-bearing groundwater to the accessible environment. Under hydrologically unsaturated conditions, vapor transport of volatile radionuclides is also possible. The near-field encompasses the waste packages composed of engineered barriers (e.g. man-made materials, such as vitrified waste forms, corrosion-resistant containers), while the far-field includes the natural barriers (e.g. host rock, hydrologic setting). Taken together, these two subsystems define a series of multiple, redundant barriers that act to assure the safe isolation of nuclear waste. In the U.S., the Department of energy (DOE) is investigating the feasibility of safe, long-term disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The proposed repository horizon is located in non-welded tuffs within the unsaturated zone (i.e. above the water table) at Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this paper is to describe the source-term models for radionuclide release from waste packages at Yucca Mountain site. The first section describes the conceptual release modes that are relevant for this site and waste package design, based on a consideration of the performance of currently proposed engineered barriers under expected and unexpected conditions. No attempt is made to asses the reasonableness nor probability of occurrence for any specific release mode. The following section reviews the waste-form characteristics that are required to model and constrain the release of radionuclides from the waste package. The next section present mathematical models for the conceptual release modes, selected from those that have been implemented into a probabilistic total system assessment code developed for the Electric Power

  5. Long-term elevated temperature leaching of solid waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Murphy, K.D.; Levine, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term soxhlet leaching of simulated waste glass and ceramic materials was initiated to elucidate leaching behavior of complex wasteforms. A cyclic leaching pattern was found in all systems over a 20 month period. Maxima and minima were observed in the leaching rates of all components studied with the minima coinciding. The data suggested several mechanistic features which are described, but they did not conform with reported simple leaching mechanisms

  6. Incineration of urban solid waste containing radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchin, G.P., E-mail: giulio.ronchin@mail.polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Porta, A.A. [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Incineration of urban solid waste accidentally contaminated by orphan sources or radioactive material is a potential risk for environment and public health. Moreover, production and emission of radioactive fumes can cause a heavy contamination of the plant, leading to important economic detriment. In order to prevent such a hazard, in February 2004 a radiometric portal for detection of radioactive material in incoming waste has been installed at AMSA (Azienda Milanese per i Servizi Ambientali) 'Silla 2' urban solid waste incineration plant of Milan. Radioactive detections performed from installation time up to December 2006 consist entirely of low-activity material contaminated from radiopharmaceuticals (mainly {sup 131}I). In this work an estimate of the dose that would have been committed to population, due to incineration of the radioactive material detected by the radiometric portal, has been evaluated. Furthermore, public health and environmental effects due to incineration of a high-activity source have been estimated. Incineration of the contaminated material detected appears to have negligible effects at all; the evaluated annual collective dose, almost entirely conferred by {sup 131}I, is indeed 0.1 man mSv. Otherwise, incineration of a 3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq (1 Ci) source of {sup 137}Cs, assumed as reference accident, could result in a light environmental contamination involving a large area. Although the maximum total dose, owing to inhalation and submersion, committed to a single individual appears to be negligible (less than 10{sup -8} Sv), the environmental contamination leads to a potential important exposure due to ingestion of contaminated foods. With respect to 'Silla 2' plant and to the worst meteorological conditions, the evaluated collective dose results in 0.34 man Sv. Performed analyses have confirmed that radiometric portals, which are today mainly used in foundries, represent a valid public health and environmental

  7. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  8. Plastic waste depolymerization as a source of energetic heating oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołosiewicz-Głąb Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past years there has been an increase in production and consumption of plastics, which are widely used in many areas of life. Waste generated from this material are a challenge for the whole of society, regardless of awareness of sustainable development and its technological progress. Still the method of disposal of plastic waste are focused mainly on their storage and incineration, not using energy contained there. In this paper technology for plastic waste depolymerization with characteristics of fuel oil resulting in the process, as an alternative to traditional energy carriers such as: coal, fine coal or coke used in households will be presented. Oil has a high calorific value and no doubt could replace traditional solutions which use conventional energy sources. Furthermore, the fuel resulting from this process is sulfur-free and chemically pure. The paper presents the installation for plastics waste depolymerization used in selected Polish Institute of Plastics Processing, along with the ability to use the main thermocatalytic transformation product.

  9. High-level Waste Long-term management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long-term management system(A-KRS) which deals with spent fuels from domestic nuclear power stations, HLW from advanced fuel cycle and other wastes that are not admitted to LILW disposal site. Also, this project demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the key technologies applied in the A-KRS by evaluating them under in-situ condition such as underground research laboratory and provide important information to establish the safety assessment and long-term management plan. To develop the technologies for the high level radioactive wastes disposal, demonstrate their reliability under in-situ condition and establish safety assessment of disposal system, The major objects of this project are the following: Ο An advanced disposal system including waste containers for HLW from advanced fuel cycle and pyroprocess has been developed. Ο Quantitative assessment tools for long-term safety and performance assessment of a radwaste disposal system has been developed. Ο Hydrological and geochemical investigation and interpretation methods has been developed to evaluate deep geological environments. Ο The THMC characteristics of the engineered barrier system and near-field has been evaluated by in-situ experiments. Ο The migration and retardation of radionuclides and colloid materials in a deep geological environment has been investigated. The results from this project will provide important information to show HLW disposal plan safe and reliable. The knowledge from this project can also contribute to environmental conservation by applying them to the field of oil and gas industries to store their wastes safe

  10. Environmental radiation safety source term evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, O.R.; Filipy, R.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Craig, D.K.

    1977-04-01

    Plutonium-238 is currently used in the form of a pure refractory oxide as a power source on a number of space vehicles that have already been or will be launched during the next few years. Although the sources are designed and built to withstand re-entry into the earth's atmosphere and impact with the earth's surface without releasing any plutonium, the possibility of such an event can never be absolutely excluded. Three separate tasks were undertaken in this study. The interactions between soils and 238 PuO 2 aerosols which might be created in a space launch about environment were examined. Aging of the plutonium-soil mixture under a humid atmosphere showed a trend toward the slow coagulation of two dilute aerosols. Studies on marine animals were conducted to assess the response of 238 PuO 2 pellets to conditions found 60 feet below the ocean surface. Ultrafilterability studies measured the solubility of 238 PuO 2 as a function of time, temperature, suspension concentration and molality of solvent

  11. Evaluating the feasibility of biological waste processing for long term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Alazraki, M. P.; Atkinson, C. F.; Finger, B. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Recycling waste products during orbital (e.g., International Space Station) and planetary missions (e.g., lunar base, Mars transit mission, Martian base) will reduce storage and resupply costs. Wastes streams on the space station will include human hygiene water, urine, faeces, and trash. Longer term missions will contain human waste and inedible plant material from plant growth systems used for atmospheric regeneration, food production, and water recycling. The feasibility of biological and physical-chemical waste recycling is being investigated as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. In-vessel composting has lower manpower requirements, lower water and volume requirements, and greater potential for sanitization of human waste compared to alternative bioreactor designs such as continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Residual solids from the process (i.e. compost) could be used a biological air filter, a plant nutrient source, and a carbon sink. Potential in-vessel composting designs for both near- and long-term space missions are presented and discussed with respect to the unique aspects of space-based systems.

  12. Long term safety assessment of geological waste disposal systems: issues on release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geological insolation of high level nuclear waste is an attractive waste disposal concept. However, long term safety demonstration of this concept is a major challenge to the operators, regulators and the scientific community. Identification of the factors responsible for the release of radionuclides from geosphere to biosphere,is first step in this regard. Current understanding of the release scenarios indicates that faulting, ground after percolation, seismicity, volcanism and human intrusion are the dominating release factors for most of the candidate rock formations. The major source of uncertainties is the probability values of various release events due to random nature of catastrophic geological events and past poor historical records of the frequencies of such events. There is consensus among the experts that the waste release via human intrusion is the most unpredictable scenario at present state of the knowledge. (author)

  13. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 1, Design parameters: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository in Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites

  14. Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, R.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The results two parts. The first part was performed during the first 2 months following the accident and dealt with the evaluation of the source term and an estimate of individual doses in the European countries outside the Soviet Union. The second part was performed after August 25-29, 1986 when the Soviets presented in a IAEA Conference in Vienna detailed information about the accident, including source term and radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. The second part of the study reconfirms the source term evaluated in the first part and in addition deals with the radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. Source term and individual doses are calculated from measured post-accident data, reported by the Soviet Union and European countries, microcomputer program PEAR (Public Exposure from Accident Releases). 22 refs

  15. The Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) model: Description and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.; Engel, D.W.; Altenhofen, M.K.; Strachan, D.M.; Reid, C.R.; Windisch, C.F.; Erikson, R.L.; Johnson, K.I.

    1987-10-01

    The geologic repository system consists of several components, one of which is the engineered barrier system. The engineered barrier system interfaces with natural barriers that constitute the setting of the repository. A model that simulates the releases from the engineered barrier system into the natural barriers of the geosphere, called a source-term model, is an important component of any model for assessing the overall performance of the geologic repository system. The Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) model being developed is one such model. This report describes the current state of development of the AREST model and the code in which the model is implemented. The AREST model consists of three component models and five process models that describe the post-emplacement environment of a waste package. All of these components are combined within a probabilistic framework. The component models are a waste package containment (WPC) model that simulates the corrosion and degradation processes which eventually result in waste package containment failure; a waste package release (WPR) model that calculates the rates of radionuclide release from the failed waste package; and an engineered system release (ESR) model that controls the flow of information among all AREST components and process models and combines release output from the WPR model with failure times from the WPC model to produce estimates of total release. 167 refs., 40 figs., 12 tabs

  16. Aerosol behavior and light water reactor source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, F.; Schikarski, W.O.

    1988-01-01

    The major developments in nuclear aerosol modeling following the accident to pressurized water reactor Unit 2 at Three Mile Island are briefly reviewed and the state of the art summarized. The importance and implications of these developments for severe accident source terms for light water reactors are then discussed in general terms. The treatment is not aimed at identifying specific source term values but is intended rather to illustrate trends, to assess the adequacy of the understanding of major aspects of aerosol behavior for source term prediction, and demonstrate in qualitative terms the effect of various aspects of reactor design. Areas where improved understanding of aerosol behavior might lead to further reductions in current source terms predictions are also considered

  17. Synthesis of knowledge on the long-term behaviour of concretes. Applications to cemented waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richet, C.; Galle, C.; Le Bescop, P.; Peycelon, H.; Bejaoui, S.; Tovena, I.; Pointeau, I.; L'Hostis, V.; Levera, P.

    2004-03-01

    As stipulated in the former law of December 91 relating to 'concrete waste package', a progress report (phenomenological reference document) was first provided in 1999. The objective was to make an assessment of the knowledge acquired on the long-term behaviour of cement-based waste packages in the context of deep disposal and/or interim storage. The present document is an updated summary report. It takes into account a new knowledge assessment, considers coupled mechanisms and should contribute to the first performance studies (operational calculations). Handling and radio-nuclides (RN) confinement are the two major functional properties requested from the concrete used for the waste packages. In unsaturated environment (interim storage/disposal prior to closing), the main problem is the generation of cracks in the material. This aspect is a key parameter from the mechanical point of view (retrievability). It can have a major impact on the disposal phase (confinement). In saturated environment (disposal post-closing phase), the main concern is the chemical degradation of the waste package concrete submitted to underground waters leaching. In this context, the major thema are: the durability of the concretes under water (chemical degradation) and in unsaturated medium (corrosion of reinforcement), matter transport, RN retention, chemistry / transport / mechanical couplings. On the other hand, laboratory data on the behaviour of concretes are used to evaluate the RN source term of waste packages in function of time (concrete waste package OPerational Model, i.e. 'Concrete MOP'). The 'MOP' provides the physico-chemical description of the RN release in relationship with the waste package degradation itself. This description is based on simplified phenomenology for which only dimensioning mechanisms are taken into account. The use of Diffu-Ca code (basic module for the MOP) on the CASTEM numerical plate-form, already allows operational predictions. (authors)

  18. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment - A Swedish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstad, Anna; Cour Jansen, Jes la; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  19. Waste Disposal: Long-term Performance Studies for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Hydrogeological Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marivoet, J

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on long-term performance studies are: (1) to develop a methodology and associated tools for assessing the long-term safety of geological disposal of all types of radioactive waste in clay formations and of the shallow-land burial of low-level waste; (2) to assess the performance and to identify the most influential elements of integrated repository systems for the disposal of radioactive waste; (3) to collect geological, piezometric and hydraulic data required for studying the hydrogeological system in north-eastern Belgium; (4) to develop a regional aquifer model for north-easter Belgium and to apply it in the performance assessments for the Mol site; (5) to test, verify and improve computer codes used in the performance assessment calculations of waste disposal concepts and contaminated sites (the computer codes simulate water flow and transport of radionuclides in engineered barriers, aquifers and contaminated sites). The scientific programme and achievements in 1999 are described.

  20. ITER Safety Task NID-5A, Subtask 1-1: Source terms and energies - initial tritium source terms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Tanaka, M.R.; Sood, S.; Natalizio, A.; Delisle, M.

    1995-02-01

    The overall objective of the Early Safety and Environmental Characterization Study (ESECS) is to assess the environmental impact of tritium using appropriate assumptions on a hypothetical site for ITER, having the r eference s ite characteristics as proposed by the JCT. The objective of this work under the above subtask 1-1, NID-5a, is to determine environmental source terms (i.e., process source term x containment release fraction) for the fuel cycle and cooling systems. The work is based on inventories and process source terms (i.e., inventory x mobilization fraction), provided by others (under Task NID 3b). The results of this work form the basis for the determination, by others, of the off-site dose (i.e., environmental source term x dose/release ratio). For the determination of the environmental source terms, the TMAP4 code has been utilized (ref 1). This code is approved by ITER for safety assessment. 6 refs

  1. Two methodologies for computing neutron sources from (α,n) and spontaneous fission reactions in vitrified waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, H.J.; Morford, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    The disposal of high-level defense waste in a geologic repository necessitates conversion of the waste to a stable form. For this purpose, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will be constructed. In this facility the waste will be converted into 6.3 x 10 5 cm 3 glassified cylinders, 59 cm in diameter and 230 cm in height, which will be placed in steel containers and buried. The waste packages must be adequately shielded to ensure the safety of personnel handling them. To calculate the shielding necessary, the radiation source term must be determined. Although the γ-ray source term does not present a problem, the neutron source term is a concern. Because the glass matrix is composed of light elements, the presence of any α-particle emitting radionuclides in the waste will contribute to the neutron flux. This paper attempts to ascertain the neutron flux and spectrum from (α,n) reactions and add it to the flux resulting from spontaneous fission

  2. Spallation neutron source target design for radioactive waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive waste has long been one of the most serious problems facing the nuclear industry. Transmutation of this waste through particle bombardment has been suggested numerous times as a possible method of enhancing the waste management process. Due to advances in accelerator technology, the feasibility of an accelerator based transmutation system has increased enough to allow serious investigation of this process. Therefore, in pursuit of this goal, an accelerator target was designed for use in an accelerator based transmutation system. The target design consists of an array of tantalum rods, cooled by liquid sodium, which are arranged in a cylindrical configuration 40 cm in diameter and 125 cm in height. Tantalum was chosen as the target material over tungsten, lead, bismuth, and a lead-bismuth alloy (55 w/o bismuth) due to a large neutron yield, low activation, low chemical toxicity, and the fact that it does not produce significant amounts of long-lived isotopes through spallation or activation. The target yields a neutron source of 29.7 neutrons/proton when exposed to a 1600 MeV proton beam, and is suitable for use with both thermal or fast spectrum transmutation systems

  3. Inventory of Used, Disused, Waste and Disposed Sources in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiti, S; Keter, J [Radiation Protection Board (RPBI), Kisumu (Kenya); Kinyua, R [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Thika (Kenya)

    2010-09-15

    Kenya is committed to the peaceful applications of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and training and research in order to achieve socioeconomic development. There are 4 nuclear medicine centers, 3 industrial radiotherapy facilities, 2 gamma irradiator facilities, one linear accelerator, 2 high dose radiation (HDR) Brachytherapy units, 5 industrial radiography units and many training and research facilities in the country that posses radioactive sources. The Kenya Radiation Protection Board is a Regulatory body established under Cap 243 of the Laws of Kenya cited as the Radiation Protection Act which provides for the protection of the public and radiation workers from dangers arising from materials capable of producing ionizing radiation. The mission of the Board is to accelerate, regulate and expand the contribution of nuclear and irradiation technology to the Kenyan economy through promotion of nuclear and radiation safety culture. The use of radioactive material requires an adequate established inventory. The objective of this project is to establish and maintain a national inventory of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources in Kenya. A national inventory was done by sending a questionnaire and personal communication as well thorough countrywide inspection surveys by Radiation Protection Officers from the regulatory body where lead pot containers were carried in case of disposal of a disused source or spent source. Advanced survey meters and automes radiation meters were used for radiation safety work, alarm meters were used to detect the threshold and source identifiers were used to identify unknown sources and their activities. A total of 130 radioactive sources (34 used, 20 disused, 39 waste and 37 disposed) including their JPEG images were identified and a national inventory established. Co-60 recorded the highest activity of 11,000 Ci followed by Cs-137 with 400 Ci and Ir-192 with 40 Ci. An updated inventory for the

  4. Long-term behavior of domestic waste slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombel, Pascale

    1996-01-01

    Vitrification is one of the envisaged solutions to face French legal requirements related to the solidification/stabilisation of some wastes. It results in glassy or crystallized aluminosilicate and calcium-rich materials which trap heavy metals notably contained by the ashes of purification residues from incineration smokes of domestic wastes. This research thesis addresses the study of the long term behaviour of such materials in order to check that toxic compounds they contain will not be released in the environment so that these materials can become common and even valorised. Four vitrified products have been studied. It appeared that their alteration mechanisms in aqueous phase are close to that of already known natural and artificial silicate materials. Alteration rates depend on material composition and structure on the one hand, and on solution temperature, pH, composition and renewal rate on the other hand. The influence of surrounding materials is also taken into account within the frame of a scenario of use in road construction. Modelling studies are also performed and it appears that the containment of toxic elements contained in vitrified products obtained from domestic waste is sustainable [fr

  5. Scoping Analysis of Source Term and Functional Containment Attenuation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete Lowry

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet future regulatory requirements, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project must fully establish and validate the mechanistic modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) source term. This is not possible at this stage in the project, as significant uncertainties in the final design remain unresolved. In the interim, however, there is a need to establish an approximate characterization of the source term. The NGNP team developed a simplified parametric model to establish mechanistic source term estimates for a set of proposed HTGR configurations.

  6. Scoping Analysis of Source Term and Functional Containment Attenuation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete Lowry

    2012-02-01

    In order to meet future regulatory requirements, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project must fully establish and validate the mechanistic modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) source term. This is not possible at this stage in the project, as significant uncertainties in the final design remain unresolved. In the interim, however, there is a need to establish an approximate characterization of the source term. The NGNP team developed a simplified parametric model to establish mechanistic source term estimates for a set of proposed HTGR configurations.

  7. Scoping Analysis of Source Term and Functional Containment Attenuation Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete Lowry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet future regulatory requirements, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project must fully establish and validate the mechanistic modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) source term. This is not possible at this stage in the project, as significant uncertainties in the final design remain unresolved. In the interim, however, there is a need to establish an approximate characterization of the source term. The NGNP team developed a simplified parametric model to establish mechanistic source term estimates for a set of proposed HTGR configurations.

  8. Effect of source term composition on offsite doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahalios, P.; Gardner, R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of new realistic accident source terms has identified the need to establish a basis for comparing the impact of such source terms. This paper attempts to develop a generalized basis of comparison by investigating contributions to offsite acute whole body doses from each group of radionuclides being released to the atmosphere, using CRAC2. The paper also investigates the effect of important parameters such as regional meteorology, sheltering, and duration of release. Finally, the paper focuses on significant changes in the relative importance of individual radionuclide groups in PWR2, SST1, and a revision of the Stone and Webster proposed interim source term

  9. Source term analyses under severe accidents for KNGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yong Mann; Park, Soo Yong

    2001-03-01

    In this study, in-containment source term for LOFW (Loss of Feed Water), which has appeared the most frequent core melt accident, is calculated and compared with NUREG-1465 source term. This study provides not only new source term data using MELCOR1.8.4 and its state-of-the-art models but also evaluating basis of KNGR design and its mitigation capability under severe accidents. As the selected accident is identical with LOFW-S17, which has been analyzed using MAAP by KEPCO with only difference of 2 SITs, mutual comparison of the results is especially expected.

  10. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  11. Source-term model for the SYVAC3-NSURE performance assessment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowat, J.H.; Rattan, D.S.; Dolinar, G.M.

    1996-11-01

    Radionuclide contaminants in wastes emplaced in disposal facilities will not remain in those facilities indefinitely. Engineered barriers will eventually degrade, allowing radioactivity to escape from the vault. The radionuclide release rate from a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility, the source term, is a key component in the performance assessment of the disposal system. This report describes the source-term model that has been implemented in Ver. 1.03 of the SYVAC3-NSURE (Systems Variability Analysis Code generation 3-Near Surface Repository) code. NSURE is a performance assessment code that evaluates the impact of near-surface disposal of LLRW through the groundwater pathway. The source-term model described here was developed for the Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure (IRUS) disposal facility, which is a vault that is to be located in the unsaturated overburden at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. The processes included in the vault model are roof and waste package performance, and diffusion, advection and sorption of radionuclides in the vault backfill. The model presented here was developed for the IRUS vault; however, it is applicable to other near-surface disposal facilities. (author). 40 refs., 6 figs

  12. Development of source term PIRT of Fukushima Daiichi NPPs accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, S.; Okamoto, K.

    2017-01-01

    The severe accident evaluation committee of AESJ (Atomic Energy Society of Japan) developed the thermal hydraulic PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) and the source term PIRT based on findings during the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs accident. These PIRTs aimed to explore the debris distribution and the current condition in the NPPs with high accuracy and to extract higher priority from the aspect of the sophistication of the analytical technology to predict the severe accident phenomena by the code. The source term PIRT was divided into 3 phases for the time domain and 9 categories for the spatial domain. The 68 phenomena were extracted and the importance from viewpoint of the source term was ranked through brainstorming and discussion. This paper describes the developed source term PIRT list and summarized the high ranked phenomena in each phase. (author)

  13. Revised accident source terms and control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, G.P.; Hubner, R.S.; Johnson, W.J.; Schwartz, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    In April 1992, the NRC staff presented to the Commissioners the draft NUREG open-quotes Revised Accident Source Terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants.close quotes This document is the culmination of more than ten years of NRC-sponsored research and represents the first change in the NRC's position on source terms since TID-14844 was issued in 1962. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the revised source terms on the current approach to analyzing control room habitability as required by 10 CFR 50. Sample calculations are presented that identify aspects of the model requiring clarification before the implementation of the revised source terms. 6 refs., 4 tabs

  14. The latest results from source term research. Overview and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, Luis E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Haste, Tim [Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, Paul-Lez-Durance (France). Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN); Kaerkelae, Teemu [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    Source term research has continued internationally for more than 30 years, increasing confidence in calculations of the potential radioactive release to the environment after a severe reactor accident. Important experimental data have been obtained, mainly under international frameworks such as OECD/NEA and EURATOM. Specifically, Phebus FP provides major insights into fission product release and transport. Results are included in severe accident analysis codes. Data from international projects are being interpreted with a view to further improvements in these codes. This paper synthesizes the recent main outcomes from source term research on these topics, and on source term mitigation. It highlights knowledge gaps remaining and discusses ways to proceed. Aside from this further knowledge-driven research, there is consensus on the need to assess the source term predictive ability of current system codes, taking account of scale-up from experiment to reactor conditions.

  15. Some problems in the categorization of source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, F.; Dunbar, I.H.; Hayns, M.R.; Nixon, W.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years techniques for calculating source terms have been considerably improved. It would be unfortunate if the new information were to be blurred by the use of old schemes for the categorization of source terms. In the past categorization schemes have been devised without the question of the general principles of categorization and the available options being addressed explicitly. In this paper these principles are set out, providing a framework within which categorization schemes used in past probabilistic risk assessments and possible future improvements are discussed. In particular the use of input from scoping consequence calculations in deciding how to group source terms, and the question of how modelling uncertainties may be expressed as uncertainties in a final category source terms are considered

  16. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffer, L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  17. Bayesian source term determination with unknown covariance of measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Alkomiet; Tichý, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav

    2017-04-01

    Determination of a source term of release of a hazardous material into the atmosphere is a very important task for emergency response. We are concerned with the problem of estimation of the source term in the conventional linear inverse problem, y = Mx, where the relationship between the vector of observations y is described using the source-receptor-sensitivity (SRS) matrix M and the unknown source term x. Since the system is typically ill-conditioned, the problem is recast as an optimization problem minR,B(y - Mx)TR-1(y - Mx) + xTB-1x. The first term minimizes the error of the measurements with covariance matrix R, and the second term is a regularization of the source term. There are different types of regularization arising for different choices of matrices R and B, for example, Tikhonov regularization assumes covariance matrix B as the identity matrix multiplied by scalar parameter. In this contribution, we adopt a Bayesian approach to make inference on the unknown source term x as well as unknown R and B. We assume prior on x to be a Gaussian with zero mean and unknown diagonal covariance matrix B. The covariance matrix of the likelihood R is also unknown. We consider two potential choices of the structure of the matrix R. First is the diagonal matrix and the second is a locally correlated structure using information on topology of the measuring network. Since the inference of the model is intractable, iterative variational Bayes algorithm is used for simultaneous estimation of all model parameters. The practical usefulness of our contribution is demonstrated on an application of the resulting algorithm to real data from the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). This research is supported by EEA/Norwegian Financial Mechanism under project MSMT-28477/2014 Source-Term Determination of Radionuclide Releases by Inverse Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling (STRADI).

  18. DOE low-level waste long term technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barainca, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program is to provide a low-level waste management system by 1986. Areas of concentration are defined as: (1) Waste Generation Reduction Technology, (2) Process and Handling Technology, (3) Environmental Technology, (4) Low-Level Waste Disposal Technology. A program overview is provided with specific examples of technical development. 2 figures

  19. Utilization of tomato waste as a source of polyphenolic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savatović Slađana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the effects of two extraction procedures (using ultrasonic bath and high performance homogenizer on the extraction efficiency of polyphenolics present in the tomato waste. The isolation of flavonoid fraction of obtained extracts was performed by solid-phase extraction. The antioxidant activity of flavonoid fractions was determined using different spectrophotometric tests, including reducing power and 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assays. The content of total polyphenolics and flavonoids in extract obtained employing homogenizer (E2 was higher than in the extract obtained employing ultrasonic bath (E1, and it was 14.33 mg/g and 7.70 mg/g, respectively. The flavonoid fraction (EF2 of extract E2 showed higher antioxidant activity than flavonoid fraction (EF1 of extract E1. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of fractions EF1 and EF2, expressed as EC50 value, were 0.78 mg/ml and 0.45 mg/ml, respectively. The obtained results show that tomato wastes can be used as an easily accessible source of antioxidant polyphenolics.

  20. Long-term management plan INEL transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, J.D.

    1978-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory stores large quantities of transuranic-contaminated waste at its Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This report presents a 10-year plan for management of this transuranic waste and includes descriptions of projects involving nuclear waste storage, retrieval, processing, systems analysis, and environmental science. Detailed project schedules and work breakdown charts are provided to give the reader a clear view of transuranic waste management objectives

  1. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-01

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  2. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-15

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  3. Utility view of the source term and air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The utility view of the source term and air cleaning is discussed. The source term is made up of: (1) noble gases, which there has been a tendency to ignore in the past because it was thought there was nothing that could be done with them anyway, (2) the halogens, which have been dealt with in Air Cleaning Conferences in the past in terms of charcoal and other systems for removing them, and (3) the solid components of the source term which particulate filters are designed to handle. Air cleaning systems consist of filters, adsorbers, containment sprays, suppression pools in boiling water reactors and ice beds in ice condenser-equipped plants. The feasibility and cost of air cleaning systems are discussed

  4. Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators will be shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented

  5. Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators are shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented

  6. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  7. Prediction of long-term behaviour for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.; Ikeda, B.M.; King, F.; Sunder, S.

    1996-09-01

    The modelling procedures developed for the long-term prediction of the corrosion of used fuel and of titanium and copper nuclear waste containers are described. The corrosion behaviour of these materials changes with time as the conditions within the conceptual disposal vault evolve from an early warm, oxidizing phase to an indefinite period of cool, anoxic conditions. For the two candidate container materials, this evolution of conditions means that the containers will be initially susceptible to localized corrosion but that in the long-term, corrosion should be more general in nature. The propagation of the pitting of Cu and of the crevice corrosion of Ti alloys is modelled using statistical models. General corrosion processes are modelled deterministically. For the fuel, deterministic electrochemical models have been developed to predict the long-term dissolution rate of U0 2 . The corrosion behaviour of materials in the disposal vault can be influenced by reengineering the vault environment. For instance, increasing the areal loading of containers will produce higher vault temperatures resulting in more extensive drying of the porous backfill materials. The initiation of crevice corrosion on Ti may then be delayed, leading to longer container lifetimes. For copper containers, minimizing the amount Of O 2 initially trapped in the pores of the backfill, or adding reducing agents to consume this O 2 faster, will limit the extent of corrosion, permitting a reduction of the container wall thickness necessary for containment. (author). 55 refs., 19 figs

  8. Suitable areas for a long-term radioactive waste storage facility in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, P.; Paiva, I.; Trindade, R. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Dept. de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Mateus, A. [Lisboa Univ., Dept. de Geologia and Creminer, Faculdade de Ciencias (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive wastes in Portugal result mainly from the application of radioactive materials in medicine, research, industry and from U-ores mining and milling activities. Sealed and unsealed sources (including liquid effluents and N.O.R.M.) classified as radioactive wastes have been collected, segregated, conditioned and stored in the Portuguese Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility (P.R.W.I.S.F.) since the sixties. The Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (D.P.R.S.N.) of the Nuclear and Technological Institute (I.T.N.) is responsible for the R.W.I.S.F. management, located nearby Lisbon (S.a.c.a.v. ). Despite recent improvements performed at R.W.I.S.F., the 300 m3 storage capacity will be soon used up if current average store-rate remains unaltered. Being aware of the tendency for radioactive waste production increase in Portugal and of the international rules and recommendations on disposal sites for this kind of wastes, it becomes clear that the P.R.W.I.S.F. must be updated. In this work, a first evaluation of suitable areas to host a long-term radioactive waste storage facility was carried out using a Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) base. Preference and exclusionary criteria were applied, keeping constant the map scale (1:1000000). After processing exclusionary criteria, remaining areas were scored by overlaying three preference criteria. A composite score was determined for each polygon (problem solution) by summing the three preference criteria scores. The highest scores resulted from the combination of these criteria correspond to 4% of the territory, spatially distributed in seven of the eighteen Portuguese mainland administrative districts. Work in progress will use this area as reference for site selection, criss-crossing appropriate criteria for scales ranging from 1:50000 to 1:25000. (authors)

  9. Suitable areas for a long-term radioactive waste storage facility in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, P.; Paiva, I.; Trindade, R.; Mateus, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive wastes in Portugal result mainly from the application of radioactive materials in medicine, research, industry and from U-ores mining and milling activities. Sealed and unsealed sources (including liquid effluents and N.O.R.M.) classified as radioactive wastes have been collected, segregated, conditioned and stored in the Portuguese Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility (P.R.W.I.S.F.) since the sixties. The Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (D.P.R.S.N.) of the Nuclear and Technological Institute (I.T.N.) is responsible for the R.W.I.S.F. management, located nearby Lisbon (S.a.c.a.v. ). Despite recent improvements performed at R.W.I.S.F., the 300 m3 storage capacity will be soon used up if current average store-rate remains unaltered. Being aware of the tendency for radioactive waste production increase in Portugal and of the international rules and recommendations on disposal sites for this kind of wastes, it becomes clear that the P.R.W.I.S.F. must be updated. In this work, a first evaluation of suitable areas to host a long-term radioactive waste storage facility was carried out using a Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) base. Preference and exclusionary criteria were applied, keeping constant the map scale (1:1000000). After processing exclusionary criteria, remaining areas were scored by overlaying three preference criteria. A composite score was determined for each polygon (problem solution) by summing the three preference criteria scores. The highest scores resulted from the combination of these criteria correspond to 4% of the territory, spatially distributed in seven of the eighteen Portuguese mainland administrative districts. Work in progress will use this area as reference for site selection, criss-crossing appropriate criteria for scales ranging from 1:50000 to 1:25000. (authors)

  10. Selection of models to calculate the LLW source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.

    1991-10-01

    Performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the source term). The focus of this work is to develop a methodology for calculating the source term. In general, the source term is influenced by the radionuclide inventory, the wasteforms and containers used to dispose of the inventory, and the physical processes that lead to release from the facility (fluid flow, container degradation, wasteform leaching, and radionuclide transport). In turn, many of these physical processes are influenced by the design of the disposal facility (e.g., infiltration of water). The complexity of the problem and the absence of appropriate data prevent development of an entirely mechanistic representation of radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Typically, a number of assumptions, based on knowledge of the disposal system, are used to simplify the problem. This document provides a brief overview of disposal practices and reviews existing source term models as background for selecting appropriate models for estimating the source term. The selection rationale and the mathematical details of the models are presented. Finally, guidance is presented for combining the inventory data with appropriate mechanisms describing release from the disposal facility. 44 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. Review of SFR In-Vessel Radiological Source Term Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Lee, Yong Bum

    2008-10-01

    An effort has been made in this study to search for and review the literatures in public domain on the studies of the phenomena related to the release of radionuclides and aerosols to the reactor containment of the sodium fast reactor (SFR) plants (i.e., in-vessel source term), made in Japan and Europe including France, Germany and UK over the last few decades. Review work is focused on the experimental programs to investigate the phenomena related to determining the source terms, with a brief review on supporting analytical models and computer programs. In this report, the research programs conducted to investigate the CDA (core disruptive accident) bubble behavior in the sodium pool for determining 'primary' or 'instantaneous' source term are first introduced. The studies performed to determine 'delayed source term' are then described, including the various stages of phenomena and processes: fission product (FP) release from fuel , evaporation release from the surface of the pool, iodine mass transfer from fission gas bubble, FP deposition , and aerosol release from core-concrete interaction. The research programs to investigate the release and transport of FPs and aerosols in the reactor containment (i.e., in-containment source term) are not described in this report

  12. Actinide Source Term Program, position paper. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, C.F.; Papenguth, H.W.; Crafts, C.C.; Dhooge, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Actinide Source Term represents the quantity of actinides that could be mobilized within WIPP brines and could migrate with the brines away from the disposal room vicinity. This document presents the various proposed methods for estimating this source term, with a particular focus on defining these methods and evaluating the defensibility of the models for mobile actinide concentrations. The conclusions reached in this document are: the 92 PA open-quotes expert panelclose quotes model for mobile actinide concentrations is not defensible; and, although it is extremely conservative, the open-quotes inventory limitsclose quotes model is the only existing defensible model for the actinide source term. The model effort in progress, open-quotes chemical modeling of mobile actinide concentrationsclose quotes, supported by a laboratory effort that is also in progress, is designed to provide a reasonable description of the system and be scientifically realistic and supplant the open-quotes Inventory limitsclose quotes model

  13. A Study on Improvement of Algorithm for Source Term Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Do Hyung; Lee, Jae Hee

    2010-03-01

    The program developed by KAERI for source term assessment of radwastes from the advanced nuclear fuel cycle consists of spent fuel database analysis module, spent fuel arising projection module, and automatic characterization module for radwastes from pyroprocess. To improve the algorithm adopted the developed program, following items were carried out: - development of an algorithm to decrease analysis time for spent fuel database - development of setup routine for a analysis procedure - improvement of interface for spent fuel arising projection module - optimization of data management algorithm needed for massive calculation to estimate source terms of radwastes from advanced fuel cycle The program developed through this study has a capability to perform source term estimation although several spent fuel assemblies with different fuel design, initial enrichment, irradiation history, discharge burnup, and cooling time are processed at the same time in the pyroprocess. It is expected that this program will be very useful for the design of unit process of pyroprocess and disposal system

  14. Determination of source term for Krsko NPP extended fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Persic, A.; Zagar, T.; Zefran, B.

    2004-01-01

    The activity and composition of the potential radioactive releases (source term) is important in the decision making about off-site emergency measures in case of a release into environment. Power uprate of Krsko NPP during modernization in 2000 as well as changing of the fuel type and the core design have influenced the source term value. In 2003 a project of 'Jozef Stefan' Institute and Slovenian nuclear safety administration determined a plantspecific source term for new conditions of fuel type and burnup for extended fuel cycle. Calculations of activity and isotopic composition of the core have been performed with ORIGEN-ARP program. Results showed that the core activity for extended 15 months fuel cycle is slightly lower than for the 12 months cycles, mainly due to larger share of fresh fuel. (author)

  15. Directional Unfolded Source Term (DUST) for Compton Cameras.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Mitchell, Dean J.; Horne, Steven M.; O' Brien, Sean; Thoreson, Gregory G

    2018-03-01

    A Directional Unfolded Source Term (DUST) algorithm was developed to enable improved spectral analysis capabilities using data collected by Compton cameras. Achieving this objective required modification of the detector response function in the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS). Experimental data that were collected in support of this work include measurements of calibration sources at a range of separation distances and cylindrical depleted uranium castings.

  16. Participation of people in waste source separation program ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the basic problems of current cities is solid waste and its correct management. Solid waste material is the unavoidable product of routine life of human being. These wastes affect the quality and quantity of life in the present era. Increased population, development, human activities and shortage of resources have ...

  17. Spallation Neutron Source Accident Terms for Environmental Impact Statement Input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devore, J.R.; Harrington, R.M.

    1998-08-01

    This report is about accidents with the potential to release radioactive materials into the environment surrounding the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As shown in Chap. 2, the inventories of radioactivity at the SNS are dominated by the target facility. Source terms for a wide range of target facility accidents, from anticipated events to worst-case beyond-design-basis events, are provided in Chaps. 3 and 4. The most important criterion applied to these accident source terms is that they should not underestimate potential release. Therefore, conservative methodology was employed for the release estimates. Although the source terms are very conservative, excessive conservatism has been avoided by basing the releases on physical principles. Since it is envisioned that the SNS facility may eventually (after about 10 years) be expanded and modified to support a 4-MW proton beam operational capability, the source terms estimated in this report are applicable to a 4-MW operating proton beam power unless otherwise specified. This is bounding with regard to the 1-MW facility that will be built and operated initially. See further discussion below in Sect. 1.2.

  18. Neutron and gamma-ray sources in LWR high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.

    1977-06-01

    Predictions of the composition of high-level waste from U-fueled LWRs have been used to calculate the neutron and gamma-ray sources in such waste at cooling times of 3 and 10 years. The results are intended for interim application to studies of waste shipping and storage pending the availability of more exact knowledge of fuel recycling and of waste concentration and solidification

  19. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D.; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  20. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  1. ITER Safety Task NID-5A, Subtask 1-1: Source terms and energies - initial tritium source terms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Tanaka, M.R.; Sood, S.; Natalizio, A.; Delisle, M.

    1995-02-01

    The overall objective of the Early Safety and Environmental Characterization Study (ESECS) is to assess the environmental impact of tritium using appropriate assumptions on a hypothetical site for ITER, having the r eference s ite characteristics as proposed by the JCT. The objective of this work under the above subtask 1-1, NID-5a, is to determine environmental source terms (i.e., process source term x containment release fraction) for the fuel cycle and cooling systems. The work is based on inventories and process source terms (i.e., inventory x mobilization fraction), provided by others (under Task NID 3b). The results of this work form the basis for the determination, by others, of the off-site dose (i.e., environmental source term x dose/release ratio). For the determination of the environmental source terms, the TMAP4 code has been utilized (ref 1). This code is approved by ITER for safety assessment. Volume 3 is a compilation of appendices giving detailed results of the study

  2. ITER Safety Task NID-5A, Subtask 1-1: Source terms and energies - initial tritium source terms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Tanaka, M.R.; Sood, S.; Natalizio, A.; Delisle, M.

    1995-02-01

    The overall objective of the Early Safety and Environmental Characterization Study (ESECS) is to assess the environmental impact of tritium using appropriate assumptions on a hypothetical site for ITER, having the r eference s ite characteristics as proposed by the JCT. The objective of this work under the above subtask 1-1, NID-5a, is to determine environmental source terms (i.e., process source term x containment release fraction) for the fuel cycle and cooling systems. The work is based on inventories and process source terms (i.e., inventory x mobilization fraction), provided by others (under Task NID 3b). The results of this work form the basis for the determination, by others, of the off-site dose (i.e., environmental source term x dose/release ratio). For the determination of the environmental source terms, the TMAP4 code has been utilized (ref 1). This code is approved by ITER for safety assessment. Volume 2 is a compilation of appendices giving detailed results of the study. 5 figs

  3. Technical basis for selecting radionuclide concentrations for use in Hanford tank basis for interim operation source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a radiological source term for waste tanks at the Hanford Site Nuclear Reservation. It describes the methodology used to identify the most important radionuclides, determine appropriate concentrations, and define unit liter doses. An example of how unit liter doses are used is given

  4. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that date are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed

  5. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that data are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed

  6. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that date are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed.

  7. Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units (CISWI): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) for Existing Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for commercial and industrial solid waste incineration (CISWI) units including emission guidelines and compliance times for the rule. Read the rule history and summary, and find supporting documents

  8. 76 FR 53897 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source Reduction Measurement in the U.S. AGENCY... Subjects Environmental protection, municipal solid waste (MSW) characterization, MSW management, recycling, measurement, data, data collection, construction and demolition (C&D) recycling, source reduction, life cycle...

  9. Solid waste as an alternative energy source and a means of solving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents practical ways of generating energy from solid waste as a means of solving the problem of solid waste disposal which is confronting the major cities in Nigeria and also providing alternative energy source to supplement the high cost and fast depleting conventional sources of energy. It also discussed the ...

  10. Conditioning of disused sealed sources in countries without disposal facility: Short term gain - long term pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez-Navarro, J.C.; Salgado-Mojena, M.

    2002-01-01

    Owing to the considerable development in managing disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS), the limited availability of disposal practices for them, and the new recommendations for the use of borehole disposal concept, it was felt that a paper reviewing the existing recommendations could be a starting point of discussion on the retrievability of the sources. Even when no international consensus exists as to an acceptable solution for the challenge of disposal of disused sealed sources, the 'Best Available Technology' for managing most of them, recommended for developing countries, included the cementation of the sources. The waste packages prepared in such a way do not allow any flexibility to accommodate possible future disposal requirements. Therefore, the 'Wait and See' approach could be also recommended for managing not only the sources with long-live radionuclides and high activity, but probably for all kind of existing disused sealed sources. The general aim of the current paper is to identify and review the current recommendations for managing disused sealed sources and to meditate on the most convenient management schemes for disused sealed radioactive sources in Member States without disposal capacities (Latin America, Africa). The risk that cemented DSRS could be incompatible with future disposal requirements was taken into account. (author)

  11. Perspectives on source terms based on early research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressesky, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the key documentation of the research and development programs relevant to the source term issue which were undertaken by the Atomic Energy Commission between 1950 and 1970. The source term is taken to be the amount, composition (physical and chemical), and timing of the projected release of radioactivity to the environment in the hypothetical event of a severe reactor accident in a light water reactor of the type currently being licensed, built and operated. The objective is to illuminate and provide perspectives on (a) the maturity of the technical data base and the analytical methodology, (b) the extent to which remaining conservatisms can be applied to compensate for uncertainties, (c) the purpose for which the technology and methodology will be used, and (d) the need to keep problems and uncertainties in proper perspective. Comments that can provide some context for the difficult programmatic choices to be made are included, and technical considerations that may be inadequately applied or neglected in some current source term calculations were studied. This review has not uncovered any significant technical considerations that have been omitted or are being inadequately treated in current source term analyses, except perhaps the contribution made to in-containment aerosols by coolant comminution upon escape at pressure from the reactor coolant system. 11 refs

  12. STACE: Source Term Analyses for Containment Evaluations of transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seager, K.D.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Barrett, P.R.; Rashid, Y.R.; Reardon, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    Following the guidance of ANSI N14.5, the STACE methodology provides a technically defensible means for estimating maximum permissible leakage rates. These containment criteria attempt to reflect the true radiological hazard by performing a detailed examination of the spent fuel, CRUD, and residual contamination contributions to the releasable source term. The evaluation of the spent fuel contribution to the source term has been modeled fairly accurately using the STACE methodology. The structural model predicts the cask drop load history, the mechanical response of the fuel assembly, and the probability of cladding breach. These data are then used to predict the amount of fission gas, volatile species, and fuel fines that are releasable from the cask. There are some areas where data are sparse or lacking (e.g., the quantity and size distribution of fuel rod breaches) in which experimental validation is planned. The CRUD spallation fraction is the major area where no quantitative data has been found; therefore, this also requires experimental validation. In the interim, STACE conservatively assumes a 100% spallation fraction for computing the releasable activity. The source term methodology also conservatively assumes that there is 1 Ci of residual contamination available for release in the transport cask. However, residual contamination is still by far the smallest contributor to the source term activity

  13. Literature study of source term research for PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponton, L.L.; NiIsson, Lars

    2001-04-01

    A literature survey has been carried out in support of ongoing source term calculations with the MELCOR code of some severe accident scenarios for the Swedish Ringhals 2 pressurised water reactor (PWR). The research in the field of severe accidents in power reactors and the source term for subsequent release of radioisotopes was intensified after the Harrisburg accident and has produced a large amount of reports and papers. This survey was therefore limited to research concerning PWR type of reactors and with emphasis on papers related to MELCOR code development. A background is given, relating to some historic documents, and then more recent research after 1990 is reviewed. Of special interest is the ongoing PMbus-programme which is creating new and important results of benefit to the code development and validation of, among others, the MELCOR code. It is concluded that source term calculations involve simulation of many interacting complex physical phenomena, which result in large uncertainties The research has, however, over the years led to considerable improvements Thus has the uncertainty in source term predictions been reduced one to two orders of magnitude from the simpler codes in the early 1980-s to the more realistic codes of today, like MELCOR.

  14. Fission product source term research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe some of the research being performed at ORNL in support of the effort to describe, as realistically as possible, fission product source terms for nuclear reactor accidents. In order to make this presentation manageable, only those studies directly concerned with fission product behavior, as opposed to thermal hydraulics, accident sequence progression, etc., will be discussed

  15. Literature study of source term research for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponton, L.L.; NiIsson, Lars

    2001-04-01

    A literature survey has been carried out in support of ongoing source term calculations with the MELCOR code of some severe accident scenarios for the Swedish Ringhals 2 pressurised water reactor (PWR). The research in the field of severe accidents in power reactors and the source term for subsequent release of radioisotopes was intensified after the Harrisburg accident and has produced a large amount of reports and papers. This survey was therefore limited to research concerning PWR type of reactors and with emphasis on papers related to MELCOR code development. A background is given, relating to some historic documents, and then more recent research after 1990 is reviewed. Of special interest is the ongoing PMbus-programme which is creating new and important results of benefit to the code development and validation of, among others, the MELCOR code. It is concluded that source term calculations involve simulation of many interacting complex physical phenomena, which result in large uncertainties The research has, however, over the years led to considerable improvements Thus has the uncertainty in source term predictions been reduced one to two orders of magnitude from the simpler codes in the early 1980-s to the more realistic codes of today, like MELCOR

  16. Storage of low-level radioactive waste and regulatory control of sealed sources in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Markkanen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on the non nuclear low-level radioactive waste. The cornerstone for maintaining radioactive sources under control in Finland is that all practices involving sources are subject to authorization and all licensing information, including information on each individual source, are entered into a register which is continuously updated based on applications and notifications received from the licenses. Experiences during the past twenty years have shown that source-specific records of sources combined with regular inspections at the places of use have prevented efficiency losing control over sealed radioactive sources. The current capacity in the interim storage for State owned waste is not adequate for all used sealed sources and other small user waste which are currently kept in the possession of the licensees. Thus, expansion of the storage capacity and other options for taking care of the small user waste is under consideration. (N.C.)

  17. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  18. EDF source term reduction project main outcomes and further developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranchoux, Gilles; Bonnefon, Julien; Benfarah, Moez; Wintergerst Matthieu; Gressier, Frederic; Leclercq, Stephanie

    2012-09-01

    The dose reduction is a strategic purpose for EDF in link with the stakes of, nuclear acceptability, respect of regulation and productivity gains. This consists not only in improving the reactor shutdown organization (time spent in control area, biological shielding,...) but also in improving the radiological state of the unit and the efficiency of the source term reduction operations. Since 2003, EDF has been running an innovative project called 'Source Term Reduction' federating the different EDF research and engineering centers in order to: - participate to the long term view about Radiological Protection issues (international feedback analyses), - develop contamination prediction tools (OSCAR software) suitable for the industrial needs (operating units and EPR design), - develop scientific models useful for the understanding of contamination mechanisms to support the strategic decision processes, - carry on with updating and analyzing of contamination measurements feedback in corrosion products (EMECC and CZT campaigns), - carry on with the operational support at short or middle term by optimizing startup and shutdown processes, pre-oxidation or and by improving purification efficiency or material characteristics. This paper will show in a first part the main 2011 results in occupational exposure (collective and individual dose, RCS index...). In a second part, an overview of the main EDF outcomes of the last 3 years in the field of source term reduction will be presented. Future developments extended to contamination issues in EDF NPPs will be also pointed out in this paper. (authors)

  19. Composition of source-sorted municipal organic waste collected in Danish cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, Jes La Cour; Spliid, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Source-sorted municipal organic waste from different dwelling types in five Danish cities was sampled during one year. The samples were from permanent, full-scale systems or temporary, experimental systems for collection of source-sorted municipal organic waste. Pre-treatment of the organic waste...... prior to biological treatment was used in all cities to remove foreign objects and provide size reduction. All sampling was performed after pre-treatment in order to obtain more homogeneous and representative samples. The sampling included both the pre-treated waste and the reject from the pre......-treatment allowing for estimation of the composition of the original waste. A total of 40 waste samples were chemically characterised with respect to 15 parameters. The waste generally consisted of around 88% VS of which an average of 80% was easily degradable. The average content of N, P and K in the dry matter...

  20. Long term management of wastes contaminated by plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marque, Y.

    1983-01-01

    For the different categories of wastes, the evolution of the cumulated production until the year 2000 is described by curves and the general situation of production points is presented, all that in France. The storage conditions are specified according to the type of wastes, category A, B, or C; the threshold under which the waste is classified in A category being fixed by the safety authorities at 2.10 4 CMA (maximum permissible concentration), that is to say for plutonium 1Ci/m 3 . The knowledge of waste activity is another basic element of the management of such wastes, the fixing of the threshold, above which wastes contaminated by plutonium have to be stored underground, still keeping to be specified [fr

  1. Long term industrial management of radioactive wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.

    1981-01-01

    All human activities including energy generation entail the wastes. This definitely applies also to nuclear power generation. Currently the nuclear power program is very extensive, and the plans of fuel reprocessing proceed along this line. In consequence, the Government has decided on tackling the problem of industrial radioactive waste management in earnest. For the purpose, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was created in November, 1979, within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Its main functions are the design, siting and construction of waste disposal centers and their management, the establishment of waste treatment and disposal standards, and the research and development. The following matters are described: the need for comprehensive industrial approach, the concept of industrial management, ANDRA business program, the industrial policy on waste disposal, and ANDRA financing. (J.P.N.)

  2. Hanford long-term high-level waste management program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reep, I.E.

    1978-05-01

    The objective is the long-term disposition of the defense high-level radioactive waste which will remain upon completion of the interim waste management program in the mid-1980s, plus any additional high-level defense waste resulting from the future operation of N Reactor and the Purex Plant. The high-level radioactive waste which will exist in the mid-1980s and is addressed by this plan consists of approximately 3,300,000 ft 3 of damp salt cake stored in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks, 1,500,000 ft 3 of damp sludge stored in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks, 11,000,000 gallons of residual liquor stored in double-shell waste tanks, 3,000,000 gallons of liquid wastes stored in double-shell waste tanks awaiting solidification, and 2,900 capsules of 90 SR and 137 Cs compounds stored in water basins. Final quantities of waste may be 5 to 10% greater, depending on the future operation of N Reactor and the Purex Plant and the application of waste treatment techniques currently under study to reduce the inventory of residual liquor. In this report, the high-level radioactive waste addressed by this plan is briefly described, the major alternatives and strategies for long-term waste management are discussed, and a description of the long-term high-level waste management program is presented. Separate plans are being prepared for the long-term management of radioactive wastes which exist in other forms. 14 figures

  3. The SSI TOOLBOX Source Term Model SOSIM - Screening for important radionuclides and parameter sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila Moreno, R.; Barrdahl, R.; Haegg, C.

    1995-05-01

    The main objective of the present study was to carry out a screening and a sensitivity analysis of the SSI TOOLBOX source term model SOSIM. This model is a part of the SSI TOOLBOX for radiological impact assessment of the Swedish disposal concept for high-level waste KBS-3. The outputs of interest for this purpose were: the total released fraction, the time of total release, the time and value of maximum release rate, the dose rates after direct releases of the biosphere. The source term equations were derived and simple equations and methods were proposed for calculation of these. A literature survey has been performed in order to determine a characteristic variation range and a nominal value for each model parameter. In order to reduce the model uncertainties the authors recommend a change in the initial boundary condition for solution of the diffusion equation for highly soluble nuclides. 13 refs.

  4. Source Term Characterization for Structural Components in 17 x 17 KOFA Spent Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dong Keun; Kook, Dong Hak; Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Source terms of metal waste comprising a spent fuel assembly are relatively important when the spent fuel is pyroprocessed, because cesium, strontium, and transuranics are not a concern any more in the aspect of source term of permanent disposal. In this study, characteristics of radiation source terms for each structural component in spent fuel assembly was analyzed by using ORIGEN-S with a assumption that 10 metric tons of uranium is pyroprocessed. At first, mass and volume for each structural component of the fuel assembly were calculated in detail. Activation cross section library was generated by using KENO-VI/ORIGEN-S module for top-end piece and bottom-end piece, because those are located at outer core with different neutron spectrum compared to that of inner core. As a result, values of radioactivity, decay heat, and hazard index were reveled to be 1.40 x 10{sup 15} Bequerels, 236 Watts, 4.34 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}-water, respectively, at 10 years after discharge. Those values correspond to 0.7 %, 1.1 %, 0.1 %, respectively, compared to that of spent fuel. Inconel 718 grid plate was shown to be the most important component in the all aspects of radioactivity, decay heat, and hazard index although the mass occupies only 1 % of the total. It was also shown that if the Inconel 718 grid plate is managed separately, the radioactivity and hazard index of metal waste could be decreased to 20 {approx} 45 % and 30 {approx} 45 %, respectively. As a whole, decay heat of metal waste was shown to be negligible in the aspect of disposal system design, while the radioactivity and hazard index are important.

  5. Source Term Characteristics Analysis for Structural Components in PWR spent fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Dong Hak; Choi, Heui Joo; Cho, Dong Keun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Source terms of metal waste comprising a spent fuel assembly are relatively important when the spent fuel is pyroprocessed, because cesium, strontium, and transuranics are not a concern any more in the aspect of source term of permanent disposal. In this study, characteristics of radiation source terms for each structural component in spent fuel assembly was analyzed by using ORIGEN-S with a assumption that 10 metric tons of uranium is pyroprocessed. At first, mass and volume for each structural component of the fuel assembly were calculated in detail. Activation cross section library was generated by using KENO-VI/ORIGEN-S module for top-end piece and bottom-end piece, because those are located at outer core under different neutron spectrum compared to that of inner core. As a result, values of radioactivity, decay heat, and hazard index were reveled to be 1.32x1015 Bequerels, 238 Watts, 4.32x109 m3 water, respectively, at 10 years after discharge. Those values correspond to 0.6 %, 1.1 %, 0.1 %, respectively, compared to that of spent fuel. Inconel 718 grid plate was shown to be the most important component in the all aspects of radioactivity, decay heat, and hazard index although the mass occupies only 1 % of the total. It was also shown that if the Inconel 718 grid plate is managed separately, the radioactivity and hazard index of metal waste could be decreased to 25{approx}50 % and 35{approx}40 %, respectively. As a whole, decay heat of metal waste was shown to be negligible in the aspect of disposal system design, while the radioactivity and hazard index are important

  6. Long-term stability of high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.; Loida, A.; Malow, G.; Marples, J.A.C.; Matzke, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The long-term stability of HLW forms is reviewed with regard to temperature, irradiation and aqueous corrosion in a geological environment. The paper focuses on borosilicate glasses, but the radiation stability results are compared with some HLW ceramics. Thermal stability: most nuclear waste glass compositions have been adjusted to ensure a low final crystallized fraction. The crystallization of highly active Pamela glass samples was similar to that of nonradioactive glass. Radiation stability: No adverse effect of irradiation damage was found in glasses doped with short-lived actinides: volume changes were small, no significant change in the leach rate was observed, and the fracture toughness increased. For most ceramics investigated, volume changes of up to 9%, amorphization and higher leach rates were observed as a consequence of high α decay doses. For the KAB 78 ceramic, however, none of these effects were detected since the matrix was not subject to α recoil damage. Chemical stability: It has been demonstrated that alteration by water depends largely on the repository conditions. Most clay act as silica sinks, and increase the glass corrosion rate. It is possible, however, to specify realistic temperature, pressure and environmental conditions to ensure glass integrity for more than 10 000 years

  7. Effects of aqueous environment on long-term durability of phosphate-bonded ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically-bonded phosphate ceramics for solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. This technology is crucial for stabilizing waste streams that contain volatile species and off-gas secondary waste streams generated by high-temperature treatment of such wastes. Magnesium phosphate ceramic has been developed to treat mixed wastes such as ash, salts, and cement sludges. Waste forms of surrogate waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between the mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and the wastes, and phosphoric acid or acid phosphate solutions. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms are produced in this process. The principal advantage of this technology is that the contaminants are immobilized by both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. This paper reports the results of durability studies conducted on waste forms made with ash waste streams spiked with hazardous and radioactive surrogates. Standard leaching tests such as ANS 16.1 and TCLP were conducted on the final waste forms. Fates of the contaminants in the final waste forms were established by electron microscopy. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated with long-term water-immersion tests

  8. Source term reduction at DAEC (including stellite ball recycling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Schebler, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Duane Arnold Energy Center was seeking methods to reduce dose rates from the drywell due to Co-60. Duane Arnold is known in the industry to have one of the highest drywell dose rates from the industry standardized 'BRAC' point survey. A prime method to reduce dose rates due to Co-60 is the accelerated replacement of stellite pins and rollers in control rod blades due to their high stellite (cobalt) content. Usually the cobalt content in alloys of stellite is greater than 60% cobalt by weight. During the RFO-12 refueling outage at Duane Arnold, all of the remaining cobalt bearing control rod blades were replaced and new stellite free control rod blades were installed in the core. This left Duane Arnold with the disposal of highly radioactive stellite pins and rollers. The processing of control rod blades for disposal is a very difficult evolution. First, the velocity limiter (a bottom portion of the component) and the highly radioactive upper stellite control rod blade ins and rollers are separated from the control rod blade. Next, the remainder of the control rod blade is processed (chopped and/or crushed) to aid packaging the waste for disposal. The stellite bearings are then often carefully placed in with the rest of the waste in a burial liner to provide shielding for disposal or more often are left as 'orphans' in the spent fuel pool because their high specific activity create shipping and packaging problems. Further investigation by the utility showed that the stellite balls and pins could be recycled to a source manufacturer rather than disposed of in a low-level burial site. The cost savings to the utility was on the order of $200,000 with a gross savings of $400,000 in savings in burial site charges. A second advantage of the recycling of the stellite pins and rollers was a reduction in control in radioactive waste shipments

  9. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendix A -- Waste sites, source terms, and waste inventory report; Appendix B -- Description of the field activities and report database; Appendix C -- Characterization of hydrogeologic setting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix A includes descriptions of waste areas and estimates of the current compositions of the wastes. Appendix B contains an extensive database of environmental data for the Bear Creek Valley Characterization Area. Information is also presented about the number and location of samples collected, the analytes examined, and the extent of data validation. Appendix C describes the hydrogeologic conceptual model for Bear Creek Valley. This model is one of the principal components of the conceptual site models for contaminant transport in BCV.

  10. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendix A - Waste sites, source terms, and waste inventory report; Appendix B - Description of the field activities and report database; Appendix C - Characterization of hydrogeologic setting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix A includes descriptions of waste areas and estimates of the current compositions of the wastes. Appendix B contains an extensive database of environmental data for the Bear Creek Valley Characterization Area. Information is also presented about the number and location of samples collected, the analytes examined, and the extent of data validation. Appendix C describes the hydrogeologic conceptual model for Bear Creek Valley. This model is one of the principal components of the conceptual site models for contaminant transport in BCV

  11. Improved thermal source term generation capability for use in performance assessment and system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.; Rhodes, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes work performed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating (M ampersand O) Contractor to improve spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste stream characterization for system studies. It discusses how these new capabilities may be exploited for thermal source term generation for use in repository performance assessment modeling. SNF historical discharges have been exhaustively tracked, and significant effort has gone into capturing, verifying, and electronically managing spent fuel inventory data. Future discharge projections are produced annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) using sophisticated computer models. The output of these models is coupled with annually updated SNF historical discharges to produce what is referred to as the open-quotes reactor database.close quotes This database and related data are published in a variety of ways including on magnetic media for consistent use by analysts or other interested parties

  12. Basic repository source term and data sheet report: Deaf Smith County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is one of a series describing studies undertaken in support of the US Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. This study contains the derivation of values for environmental source terms and resources consumed for a CRWM repository. Estimates include heavy construction equipment; support equipment; shaft-sinking equipment; transportation equipment; and consumption of fuel, water, electricity, and natural gas. Data are presented for construction and operation at an assumed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. 2 refs., 6 tabs

  13. EXPERIENCES FROM THE SOURCE-TERM ANALYSIS OF A LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL RADWASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak; Park, Joo-Wan; Lee, Eun-Young; Kim, Chang-Lak

    2003-01-01

    Enhancement of a computer code SAGE for evaluation of the Korean concept for a LILW waste disposal facility is discussed. Several features of source term analysis are embedded into SAGE to analyze: (1) effects of degradation mode of an engineered barrier, (2) effects of dispersion phenomena in the unsaturated zone and (3) effects of time dependent sorption coefficient in the unsaturated zone. IAEA's Vault Safety Case (VSC) approach is used to demonstrate the ability of this assessment code. Results of MASCOT are used for comparison purposes. These enhancements of the safety assessment code, SAGE, can contribute to realistic evaluation of the Korean concept of the LILW disposal project in the near future

  14. Basic repository source term and data sheet report, Cypress Creek Dome: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report is one of a series describing studies undertaken in support of the US Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. This study contains the derivation of values for environmental source terms and resources consumed for a CRWM repository. Estimates include heavy construction equipment; support equipment; shaft-sinking equipment; transportation equipment; and consumption of fuel, water, electricity, and natural gas. Data are presented for construction and operation at an assumed site in Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. 2 refs., 6 tabs

  15. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 1, Design parameters: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report, SCP-CDR. The previous unpublished SCC Study identified the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites

  16. Application of the source term code package to obtain a specific source term for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, F.J.

    1991-06-01

    The main objective of the project was to use the Source Term Code Package (STCP) to obtain a specific source term for those accident sequences deemed dominant as a result of probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (CNLV). The following programme has been carried out to meet this objective: (a) implementation of the STCP, (b) acquisition of specific data for CNLV to execute the STCP, and (c) calculations of specific source terms for accident sequences at CNLV. The STCP has been implemented and validated on CDC 170/815 and CDC 180/860 main frames as well as on a Micro VAX 3800 system. In order to get a plant-specific source term, data on the CNLV including initial core inventory, burn-up, primary containment structures, and materials used for the calculations have been obtained. Because STCP does not explicitly model containment failure, dry well failure in the form of a catastrophic rupture has been assumed. One of the most significant sequences from the point of view of possible off-site risk is the loss of off-site power with failure of the diesel generators and simultaneous loss of high pressure core spray and reactor core isolation cooling systems. The probability for that event is approximately 4.5 x 10 -6 . This sequence has been analysed in detail and the release fractions of radioisotope groups are given in the full report. 18 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Solid waste as renewable source of energy. Current and future possibility in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taqiy Eddine, Boukelia; Salah, Mecibah Med [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Mechanical Dept.

    2012-11-01

    Algeria has created a green momentum by launching an ambitious program to develop renewable energies and promote energy efficiency. Solid waste is one of most important sources of biomass potential in Algeria, which can be used as renewable energy sources. With economic development and the evolution of population, the quantity of solid waste is increasing rapidly in Algeria; according to the National Cadastre for Solid Waste Generation, the overall generation of municipal solid waste was more than 10.3 million tons per year, and the amount of industrial solid waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste was 2,547,000 tons per year, with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons per year; the quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons per year. The management of solid waste and its valorization is based on the understanding of solid waste composition by its categories and physicochemical characteristics. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in the following ways: open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%). On the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting. Waste to energy is very attractive option for elimination solid waste with energy recovery. In this paper, we give an overview for this technology, including its conversion options and its useful products (such as electricity, heat and transportation fuel), and waste to energy-related environmental issues and its challenges. (orig.)

  18. Start-up of anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroun, Rania

    2004-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal is a major environmental concern worldwide. Among the environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of MSW, composting in the form of anaerobic digestion (AD) appears as a suitable alternative that offers the advantage of rapid stabilization of organic matter, reduction in waste volume, production of methane, and minimal environmental impacts in comparison to land filling and incineration. Yet, although outstanding advances in anaerobic digestion of solid substrate have been made in the last 10 years, some development areas are lagging, including the fast and reliable process start-up in terms of type of inocula and overall start-up strategies. The present study investigates the start-up and operation of bench-scale anaerobic digesters treating the source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The experimental program consisted of starting up two digesters in parallel. Three consecutive interventions in the start-up program were implemented to achieve steady state. Start-up was relatively slow indicating the seed obtained from an operating anaerobic wastewater treatment plant was not suitable. The use of cattle manure together with effluent dilution reduced the acclimation period (Author.)

  19. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To meet the rising demand for energy and to address environmental concerns, a conversion from conventional energy systems to renewable resources is essential. For the sustainability of human civilization, an environmentally techno – economically feasible waste treatment method is very important to treat waste. Several ...

  20. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, T

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed ...

  1. Using Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate the Source Term at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Chen

    2001-12-19

    The conventional approach of source-term evaluation for performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories uses speciation-solubility modeling tools and assumes pure phases of radioelements control their solubility. This assumption may not reflect reality, as most radioelements (except for U) may not form their own pure phases. As a result, solubility limits predicted using the conventional approach are several orders of magnitude higher then the concentrations of radioelements measured in spent fuel dissolution experiments. This paper presents the author's attempt of using a non-conventional approach to evaluate source term of radionuclide release for Yucca Mountain. Based on the general reactive-transport code AREST-CT, a model for spent fuel dissolution and secondary phase precipitation has been constructed. The model accounts for both equilibrium and kinetic reactions. Its predictions have been compared against laboratory experiments and natural analogues. It is found that without calibrations, the simulated results match laboratory and field observations very well in many aspects. More important is the fact that no contradictions between them have been found. This provides confidence in the predictive power of the model. Based on the concept of Np incorporated into uranyl minerals, the model not only predicts a lower Np source-term than that given by conventional Np solubility models, but also produces results which are consistent with laboratory measurements and observations. Moreover, two hypotheses, whether Np enters tertiary uranyl minerals or not, have been tested by comparing model predictions against laboratory observations, the results favor the former. It is concluded that this non-conventional approach of source term evaluation not only eliminates over-conservatism in conventional solubility approach to some extent, but also gives a realistic representation of the system of interest, which is a prerequisite for truly understanding the long-term

  2. Using Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate the Source Term at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Chen

    2001-01-01

    The conventional approach of source-term evaluation for performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories uses speciation-solubility modeling tools and assumes pure phases of radioelements control their solubility. This assumption may not reflect reality, as most radioelements (except for U) may not form their own pure phases. As a result, solubility limits predicted using the conventional approach are several orders of magnitude higher then the concentrations of radioelements measured in spent fuel dissolution experiments. This paper presents the author's attempt of using a non-conventional approach to evaluate source term of radionuclide release for Yucca Mountain. Based on the general reactive-transport code AREST-CT, a model for spent fuel dissolution and secondary phase precipitation has been constructed. The model accounts for both equilibrium and kinetic reactions. Its predictions have been compared against laboratory experiments and natural analogues. It is found that without calibrations, the simulated results match laboratory and field observations very well in many aspects. More important is the fact that no contradictions between them have been found. This provides confidence in the predictive power of the model. Based on the concept of Np incorporated into uranyl minerals, the model not only predicts a lower Np source-term than that given by conventional Np solubility models, but also produces results which are consistent with laboratory measurements and observations. Moreover, two hypotheses, whether Np enters tertiary uranyl minerals or not, have been tested by comparing model predictions against laboratory observations, the results favor the former. It is concluded that this non-conventional approach of source term evaluation not only eliminates over-conservatism in conventional solubility approach to some extent, but also gives a realistic representation of the system of interest, which is a prerequisite for truly understanding the long-term

  3. Probabilistic source term predictions for use with decision support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindon, E.; Kinniburgh, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Decision Support Systems for use in off-site emergency management, following an incident at a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) within Europe, are becoming accepted as a useful and appropriate tool to aid decision makers. An area which is not so well developed is the 'upstream' prediction of the source term released into the environment. Rapid prediction of this source term is crucial to the appropriate early management of a nuclear emergency. The initial source term prediction would today be typically based on simple tabulations taking little, or no, account of plant status. It is the interface between the inward looking plant control room team and the outward looking off-site emergency management team that needs to be addressed. This is not an easy proposition as these two distinct disciplines have little common basis from which to communicate their immediate findings and concerns. Within the Euratom Fifth Framework Programme (FP5), complementary approaches are being developed to the pre-release stage; each based on software tools to help bridge this gap. Traditionally source terms (or releases into the environment) provided for use with Decision Support Systems are estimated on a deterministic basis. These approaches use a single, deterministic assumption about plant status. The associated source term represents the 'best estimate' based an available information. No information is provided an the potential for uncertainty in the source term estimate. Using probabilistic methods the outcome is typically a number of possible plant states each with an associated source term and probability. These represent both the best estimate and the spread of the likely source term. However, this is a novel approach and the usefulness of such source term prediction tools is yet to be tested on a wide scale. The benefits of probabilistic source term estimation are presented here; using, as an example, the SPRINT tool developed within the FP5 STERPS project. System for the

  4. Scientific basis for long-term prediction of waste-form performance under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1982-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the fundamental principles involved in predicting long-term performance of waste forms by the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable approach. Repository conditions which make up the waste-form environment, the aging of the waste form, the important radionuclides in the waste form, the chemistry of repository fluids, and multicomponent interactions testing were considered in order to describe these principles. The need for confidence limits on the prediction of waste-form performance and ways of achieving a definition of the confidence limits are discussed

  5. Prospects of renewable energy sources in India: Prioritization of alternative sources in terms of Energy Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shibani K.; Puppala, Harish

    2017-01-01

    The growing energy demand in progressing civilization governs the exploitation of various renewable sources over the conventional sources. Wind, Solar, Hydro, Biomass, and waste & Bagasse are the various available renewable sources in India. A reliable nonconventional geothermal source is also available in India but it is restricted to direct heat applications. This study archives the status of renewable alternatives in India. The techno economic factors and environmental aspects associated with each of these alternatives are discussed. This study focusses on prioritizing the renewable sources based on a parameter introduced as Energy Index. This index is evaluated using cumulative scores obtained for each of the alternatives. The cumulative score is obtained by evaluating each alternative over a range of eleven environmental and techno economic criteria following Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process. The eleven criteria's considered in the study are Carbon dioxide emissions (CO 2 ), Sulphur dioxide emissions (SO 2 ), Nitrogen oxide emissions (NO x ), Land requirement, Current energy cost, Potential future energy cost, Turnkey investment, Capacity factor, Energy efficiency, Design period and Water consumption. It is concluded from the study that the geothermal source is the most preferable alternative with highest Energy Index. Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar sources are subsequently preferred alternatives. - Highlights: • FAH process is used to obtain cumulative score for each renewable alternative. • Cumulative score is normalized by highest score of ideal source. • Energy Index shows how best a renewable alternative is. • Priority order is obtained for alternatives based on Energy Index. • Geothermal is most preferable source followed by Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar.

  6. A nuclear source term analysis for spacecraft power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    All US space missions involving on board nuclear material must be approved by the Office of the President. To be approved the mission and the hardware systems must undergo evaluations of the associated nuclear health and safety risk. One part of these evaluations is the characterization of the source terms, i.e., the estimate of the amount, physical form, and location of nuclear material, which might be released into the environment in the event of credible accidents. This paper presents a brief overview of the source term analysis by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel for the NASA Cassini Space Mission launched in October 1997. Included is a description of the Energy Interaction Model, an innovative approach to the analysis of potential releases from high velocity impacts resulting from launch aborts and reentries

  7. Estimation of Source terms for Emergency Planning and Preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Chul Un; Chung, Bag Soon; Ahn, Jae Hyun; Yoon, Duk Ho; Jeong, Chul Young; Lim, Jong Dae [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sun Gu; Suk, Ho; Park, Sung Kyu; Lim, Hac Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In this study the severe accident sequences for each plant of concern, which represent accident sequences with a high core damage frequency and significant accident consequences, were selected based on the results of probabilistic safety assessments and source term and time-histories of various safety parameters under severe accidents. Accidents progression analysis for each selected accident sequence was performed by MAAP code. It was determined that the measured values, dose rate and radioisotope concentration, could provide information to the operators on occurrence and timing of core damage, reactor vessel failure, and containment failure during severe accidents. Radioactive concentration in the containment atmosphere, which may be measured by PASS, was estimated. Radioisotope concentration in emergency planning, evaluation of source term behavior in the containment, estimation of core damage degree, analysis of severe accident phenomena, core damage timing, and the amount of radioisotope released to the environment. (author). 50 refs., 60 figs.

  8. Realistic minimum accident source terms - Evaluation, application, and risk acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, P. L.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation, application, and risk acceptance for realistic minimum accident source terms can represent a complex and arduous undertaking. This effort poses a very high impact to design, construction cost, operations and maintenance, and integrated safety over the expected facility lifetime. At the 2005 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD) Meeting in Knoxville Tenn., two papers were presented mat summarized the Y-12 effort that reduced the number of criticality accident alarm system (CAAS) detectors originally designed for the new Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF) from 258 to an eventual as-built number of 60. Part of that effort relied on determining a realistic minimum accident source term specific to the facility. Since that time, the rationale for an alternate minimum accident has been strengthened by an evaluation process that incorporates realism. A recent update to the HEUMF CAAS technical basis highlights the concepts presented here. (authors)

  9. Considerations about source term now used aiming to emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austregesilo Filho, H.

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of source terms, in parametric studies for improving external emergengy plan for Angra-I reactor is presented. The source term is defined as, the quantity and radioactive material disposable for releasing to the environment in case of austere accident in a nuclear power plant. The following hypothesis: occuring accident, 100% of the noble gases, 50% of halogens and 1% of solid fission products contained into the reactor core, are released immediately toward the containment building; the radioactivity releasing to the environment is done at a constant rate of 0.1% in mass per day; the actuation of mitigated systems of radioactivity releasing, such as, spray of container or system of air recirculation by filters, is not considered; and the releasing is done at soil level. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Development of in-vessel source term analysis code, tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagi, K.; Miyahara, S.

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of radionuclide transport in fuel failure accidents (generally referred to source terms) are considered to be important especially in the severe accident evaluation. The TRACER code has been developed to realistically predict the time dependent behavior of FPs and aerosols within the primary cooling system for wide range of fuel failure events. This paper presents the model description, results of validation study, the recent model advancement status of the code, and results of check out calculations under reactor conditions. (author)

  11. PFLOTRAN-RepoTREND Source Term Comparison Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Jennifer M

    2018-03-01

    Code inter-comparison studies are useful exercises to verify and benchmark independently developed software to ensure proper function, especially when the software is used to model high-consequence systems which cannot be physically tested in a fully representative environment. This summary describes the results of the first portion of the code inter-comparison between PFLOTRAN and RepoTREND, which compares the radionuclide source term used in a typical performance assessment.

  12. Fission product source terms and engineered safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author states that new, technically defensible, methodologies to establish realistic source term values for nuclear reactor accidents will soon be available. Although these methodologies will undoubtedly find widespread use in the development of accident response procedures, the author states that it is less clear that the industry is preparing to employ the newer results to develop a more rational approach to strategies for the mitigation of fission product releases. Questions concerning the performance of existing engineered safety systems are reviewed

  13. Analysis on Physical Characteristics of Rural Solid Waste in Dongjiang River Source Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dongjiang river is the source of drinking water of Guangdong Province and Hongkong, and the source area includes three counties in Ganzhou city of Jiangxi Province: Xunwu, Anyuan and Dingnan. Three typical villages were chosen in Dongjiang river source area to investigate the producing quantity and physical characteristics of rural solid waste. Results of investigation showed that the dominant ingredient in rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was kitchen waste, taking over 60%, followed by dust, reaching 12%, while other components took less than 10%. The per-capita producing quantity of solid waste of county-level village was 0.2~0.47 kg·d -1 and averaged by 0.36 kg·d -1, while that of town-level village was 0.18~0.35 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.29 kg· d -1 and that of hamlet was 0.07~0.33 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.17 kg· d -1. Water content in rural mixed solid waste of investigated area was significantly linear with percentage of kitchen waste in the mixed waste(R 2 =0.626, P=0.019. The average calorie wasaround 2 329 kJ·kg -1, which indicated that the rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was not suitable for incineration disposal directly.

  14. Towards zero solid waste: utilising tannery waste as a protein source for poultry feed

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Hiralal; Antunes, A Paula M; Covington, Anthony D; Evans, Paul; Phillips, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Zero waste is now a strongly emerging issue for sustainable industrial development where minimisation and utilisation of waste are a priority in the leather industry. In a tannery hides and skins converted in to leather through various processes. Approximately 20% (w/w) of the chrome containing tannery solid waste (TSW) is generated from one tonne of raw hides and skins. However, tannery solid waste may also be a resource if it is managed expertly as we move towards zero waste.\\ud This resear...

  15. Waste partitioning and transmutation as a means towards long-term risk reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1993-09-01

    It has been an idea for some time to reduce the long-term potential hazard of the waste by chemical removal of the actinides as well as some long-lived fission products and their subsequent transmutation in an intense neutron flux. Transmutation would thus shorten the required containment period of radioactive material in a repository. It is estimated, that development of such technology would take at least 40 years because facilities would be required to perform a clean actinide and fission product isolation and to fabricate the fuel elements that contained the separated nuclides. This latter requirements would involve a major expansion of new chemical process steps which are not available as yet. Development of new equipment to maintain occupational exposures as low as reasonably achievable and to minimize releases of radioactivity to the environment would also be necessary. Partitioning and transmutation should be introduced, if at all, as a long-term decision about new nuclear power technology as a future energy source. With regard to this, R and D work dealing with basic questions seems to be worthwhile, However, the introduction of partitioning and transmutation will not eliminate the need for radioactive waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Long-term durability experiments with concrete-based waste packages in simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatti, A.

    1993-03-01

    Two extensive experiments on long-term durability of waste packages in simulated repository conditions are described. The first one is a 'half-scale experiment' comprising radioactive waste product and half-scale concrete containers in site specific groundwater conditions. The second one is 'full-scale experiment' including simulated inactive waste product and full-scale concrete container stored in slowly flowing fresh water. The scope of the experiments is to demonstrate long-term behaviour of the designed waste packages in contact with moderately concrete aggressive groundwater, and to evaluate the possible interactions between the waste product, concrete container and ground water. As the waste packages are made of high-quality concrete, provisions have been made to continue the experiments for several years

  17. Refurbishment implications on long-term waste management strategies at Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Point Lepreau Generating Station's waste management experiences during the Refurbishment outage. In short, Point Lepreau GS has been challenged during the outage due to the amount of low and intermediate level waste that has been generated compared to that which was expected, which has driven the need to develop a new waste management strategy in the middle of the outage. The paper presents an overview of pre-outage waste handling, what process changes and schedule changes occurred during the outage, and provides a discussion of the operational and financial consequences of those changes. Key issues highlighted by the paper include the need for adequate provision of waste management facilities during large outages, the importance of ensuring that contractors have a stake in waste minimization activities, and long term waste management implications that need to be considered for large outages.

  18. Proceedings of the international conference on hazardous waste sources, effects and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for training course dealing with hazardous waste sources, effects and management. Vol.1: (1)national policy; (2)waste management; (3)environment; (4)health hazards; vol.2: (1)monitoring and characterization; (2) migration; (3)storage and disposal; (4)treatment radioactive; vol.3: (1) Treatment; (2) recycling

  19. Proceedings of the international conference on hazardous waste sources, effects and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for training course dealing with hazardous waste sources, effects and management. Vol.1: (1)national policy; (2)waste management; (3)environment; (4)health hazards; vol.2: (1)monitoring and characterization; (2) migration; (3)storage and disposal; (4)treatment radioactive; vol.3: (1) Treatment; (2) recycling.

  20. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, Gregory J.; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-01-01

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is the only facility meeting these requirements. The National Research Council, however, has found that exhumation of buried TRU waste for disposal in a deep geologic repository may not be warranted when the effort, exposures, and expense of retrieval are not commensurate with the risk reduction achieved. The long-term risks of leaving the TRU waste in-place are evaluated in two probabilistic performance assessments. A composite analysis, assessing the dose from all disposed waste and interacting sources of residual contamination, estimates an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 0.01 mSv, or 3 percent of the dose constraint. A 40 CFR 191 performance assessment also indicates there is reasonable assurance of meeting all requirements. The 40 CFR 191.15 annual mean TEDE for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.055 mSv at 10,000 years, or approximately 37 percent of the 0.15 mSv individual protection requirement. In both assessments greater than 99 percent of the dose is from co-disposed low-level waste. The simulated probability of the 40 CFR 191.13 cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the release limit is estimated to be 0.0093 and less than 0.0001, respectively. Site characterization data and hydrologic process modeling support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is reasonable assurance of meeting all regulatory requirements. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results

  1. Impact of microbial activity on the radioactive waste disposal: long term prediction of biocorrosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Marie; Schütz, Marta Kerber; Esnault, Loïc; Féron, Damien; Bildstein, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    This study emphasizes different experimental approaches and provides perspectives to apprehend biocorrosion phenomena in the specific disposal environment by investigating microbial activity with regard to the modification of corrosion rate, which in turn can have an impact on the safety of radioactive waste geological disposal. It is found that iron-reducing bacteria are able to use corrosion products such as iron oxides and "dihydrogen" as new energy sources, especially in the disposal environment which contains low amounts of organic matter. Moreover, in the case of sulphate-reducing bacteria, the results show that mixed aerobic and anaerobic conditions are the most hazardous for stainless steel materials, a situation which is likely to occur in the early stage of a geological disposal. Finally, an integrated methodological approach is applied to validate the understanding of the complex processes and to design experiments aiming at the acquisition of kinetic data used in long term predictive modelling of biocorrosion processes. © 2013.

  2. Long term stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia waste forms. Stability for secular change of partitioned TRU waste composition by disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Ken-ichi; Banba, Tsunetaka; Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Sakai, Etsuro; Uno, Masayoshi; Kinoshita, H.; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the stability of YSZ waste forms for secular change of partitioned TRU waste composition by disintegration, one of important terms in long-term stability, is the special concern. Designed amount of waste and YSZ powder were mixed and sintered. These TRU waste forms were submitted to tests of phase stability, chemical durability, mechanical property and compactness. The results were compared with those of another YSZ waste forms, non-radioactive Ce and/or Nd doped YSZ samples, and glass and Synroc waste forms. Experimental results show following: (1) Phase stability of (Np+Am)-, (Np+U)-, and (Np+U+Bi)-doped YSZ waste forms could be maintained of that of the initial Np+Am-doped YSZ waste form permanently even when the composition of partitioned TRU waste were changed by disintegration. (2) Secular change also accelerated volume increase of YSZ waste forms as well as alpha-decay damage. (3) Hv, E and K IC of (Np+U)- and (Np+U+Bi)-doped YSZ waste forms were independent of the secular change of the partitioned TRU waste composition by disintegration. (4) Mechanical properties of YSZ waste forms were more than those of a glass and Synroc waste forms. (5) Compactness of YSZ waste forms was good as waste forms for the partitioned TRU wastes. (J.P.N.)

  3. Sources/treatment of uncertainties in the performance assessment of geologic radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Uncertainties in the performance assessment of geologic radioactive waste repositories have several sources. The more important ones include: 1) uncertainty in the conditions of a disposal system over the temporal scales set forth in regulations, 2) uncertainty in the conceptualization of the geohydrologic system, 3) uncertainty in the theoretical description of a given conceptual model of the system, 4) uncertainty in the development of computer codes to implement the solution of a mathematical model, and 5) uncertainty in the parameters and data required in the models and codes used to assess the long-term performance of the disposal system. This paper discusses each of these uncertainties and outlines methods for addressing these uncertainties

  4. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  5. Higher Regional Court Celle, judgment of December 9, 1986 (legal term of radioactive waste)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In its decision of December 9, 1986, the Higher Regional Court in Celle deals with the legal term of radioactive waste. The definition does not result from sec. 1 para. 1 of the Waste Disposal Act but from sec. 9 a para. 1 Atomic Energy Act. (WG) [de

  6. Long-term management of radioactive waste. Ethics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    1999-01-01

    The protection of the environment and the ethical issues that it raises are important topics in the debate on the long-term management of radioactive waste. An overview of the general ethical principles developed in the wider context of the debate on the environment is presented and the specific case of the management of long-lived radioactive waste is addressed. (author)

  7. To study the municipal solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.; Khan, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The solid waste management is a very complicated specially when it must be environmental friendly. In the present life, power energy is being more expensive than ever before and human off spring is struggling td acquire cheap ways of getting energy. At the same time, he is facing another problem of waste disposal pollution in the environment, which is a by-product of his industries and population, and when it would be hazardous to life, it will be a more serious problem. In this study, an idea is made to use garbage as an alternate fuel and the analysis of ingredients is done to compare it with the usual fuel i.e. coal. On the other hand, municipal waste (garbage) disposal will be automatically solved. (author)

  8. An incentive-based source separation model for sustainable municipal solid waste management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanying; Zhou, Chuanbin; Lan, Yajun; Jin, Jiasheng; Cao, Aixin

    2015-05-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management (MSWM) is most important and challenging in large urban communities. Sound community-based waste management systems normally include waste reduction and material recycling elements, often entailing the separation of recyclable materials by the residents. To increase the efficiency of source separation and recycling, an incentive-based source separation model was designed and this model was tested in 76 households in Guiyang, a city of almost three million people in southwest China. This model embraced the concepts of rewarding households for sorting organic waste, government funds for waste reduction, and introducing small recycling enterprises for promoting source separation. Results show that after one year of operation, the waste reduction rate was 87.3%, and the comprehensive net benefit under the incentive-based source separation model increased by 18.3 CNY tonne(-1) (2.4 Euros tonne(-1)), compared to that under the normal model. The stakeholder analysis (SA) shows that the centralized MSW disposal enterprises had minimum interest and may oppose the start-up of a new recycling system, while small recycling enterprises had a primary interest in promoting the incentive-based source separation model, but they had the least ability to make any change to the current recycling system. The strategies for promoting this incentive-based source separation model are also discussed in this study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The environmental performance of two pretreatment technologies for source-separated organic waste was compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). An innovative pulping process where source-separated organic waste is pulped with cold water forming a volatile solid rich biopulp was compared to a more...... including a number of non-toxic and toxic impact categories were assessed. No big difference in the overall performance of the two technologies was observed. The difference for the separate life cycle steps was, however, more pronounced. More efficient material transfer in the scenario with waste pulping...

  10. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marpaung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS, due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle

  11. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marpaung, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle (author)

  12. Long-term emissions from mechanically biologically treated waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste treatment in passively aerated open windrows, using the Dome Aeration Technology (DAT), was identified as an appropriate technology due to low construction and operational resource requirements. Three self-aerated windrows were set up at the Bisasar Road Landfill in order to study the efficiency of the process ...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... municipal waste combustion unit? If this subpart AAAA applies to your municipal waste combustion unit, then...

  14. Development of Reference Source Terms for EU-APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, ByungIl; Lee, Chonghui; Lee, Dongsu; Ko, Heejin; Kang, Sangho [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    These source terms are developed for the typical U. S. NPP and do not reflect the design characteristics of EU-APR1400 (1,400 MWe PWR) which will be applied for the EUR certification in European countries. The process of developing the RST for EU-APR1400 is to undergo a similar process that NUREG-1465 had gone through when it came out with its proposed source terms. The purpose of this study is to develop the EU-APR1400 design-specific RST complied with the EUR. The Large LOCA is the reference equence used in the NUREG-1465 evaluation, whereas the EUAPR1400 risk-significant sequences are dominated by small LOCA and non-LOCA sequences. Moreover, when considering the EU-APR1400 has many design features to mitigate the consequences of severe accident phenomena, it is not surprising that the aspects of both release fractions and durations are distinctly different from NUREG-1465. This RST will be continuously updated to reflect to the design features of EU-APR1400, and then, be used as the reference for design purposes such as criteria satisfaction of radioactivity releases, equipment survivability, control room habitability for severe accident, and so on.

  15. Centrifugal Filtration System for Severe Accident Source Term Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shu Chang; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to present the conceptual design of a filtration system that can be used to process airborne severe accident source term. Reactor containment may lose its structural integrity due to over-pressurization during a severe accident. This can lead to uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment. For preventing the dispersion of these uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment, several ways to capture or mitigate these radioactive source term releases are under investigation at KAIST. Such technologies are based on concepts like a vortex-like air curtain, a chemical spray, and a suction arm. Treatment of the radioactive material captured by these systems would be required, before releasing to environment. For current filtration systems in the nuclear industry, IAEA lists sand, multi-venturi scrubber, high efficiency particulate arresting (HEPA), charcoal and combinations of the above in NS-G-1-10, 4.143. Most if not all of the requirements of the scenario for applying this technology near the containment of an NPP site and the environmental constraints were analyzed for use in the design of the centrifuge filtration system.

  16. Atucha-I source terms for sequences initiated by transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.; Bastianelli, B.

    1997-01-01

    The present work is part of an expected source terms study in the Atucha I nuclear power plant during severe accidents. From the accident sequences with a significant probability to produce core damage, those initiated by operational transients have been identified as the most relevant. These sequences have some common characteristics, in the sense that all of them resume in the opening of the primary system safety valves, and leave this path open for the coolant loss. In the case these sequences continue as severe accidents, the same path will be used for the release of the radionuclides, from the core, through the primary system and to the containment. Later in the severe accident sequence, the failure of the pressure vessel will occur, and the corium will fall inside the reactor cavity, interacting with the concrete. During these processes, more radioactive products will be released inside the containment. In the present work the severe accident simulation initiated by a blackout is performed, from the point of view of the phenomenology of the behavior of the radioactive products, as they are transported in the piping, during the core-concrete interactions, and inside the containment buildings until it failure. The final result is the source term into the atmosphere. (author) [es

  17. NRC source term assessment for incident response dose projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easley, P.; Pasedag, W.

    1984-01-01

    The NRC provides advice and assistance to licensees and State and local authorities in responding to accidents. The TACT code supports this function by providing source term projections for two situations during early (15 to 60 minutes) accident response: (1) Core/containment damage is indicated, but there are no measured releases. Quantification of a predicted release permits emergency response before people are exposed. With TACT, response personnel can estimate releases based on fuel and cladding conditions, coolant boundary and containment integrity, and mitigative systems operability. For this type of estimate, TACT is intermediate between default assumptions and time-consuming mechanistic codes. (2) A combination of plant status and limited release data are available. For this situation, iterations between predictions based on known conditions which are compared to measured releases gives reasonable confidence in supplemental source term information otherwise unavailable: nuclide mix, releases not monitored, and trending or abrupt changes. The assumptions and models used in TACT, and examples of its use, are given in this paper

  18. Chernobyl source term, atmospheric dispersion, and dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

    1988-02-01

    The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling, and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 80% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium, and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of the radioactive cloud over the Northern Hemisphere revealed that the cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the uppper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. The inhalation doses due to direct cloud exposure were estimated to exceed 10 mGy near the Chernobyl area, to range between 0.1 and 0.001 mGy within most of Europe, and to be generally less than 0.00001 mGy within the US. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents, while the 137 Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Lopez Montero, J.V.; Pinedo Garrido, P.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

  20. Nuclear Waste Disposal and Strategies for Predicting Long-Term Performance of Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    2001-01-01

    Ceramics have been an important part of the nuclear community for many years. On December 2, 1942, an historic event occurred under the West Stands of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago. Man initiated his first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. The impact of this event on civilization is considered by many as monumental and compared by some to other significant events in history, such as the invention of the steam engine and the manufacturing of the first automobile. Making this event possible and the successful operation of this first man-made nuclear reactor, was the use of forty tons of UO2. The use of natural or enriched UO2 is still used today as a nuclear fuel in many nuclear power plants operating world-wide. Other ceramic materials, such as 238Pu, are used for other important purposes, such as ceramic fuels for space exploration to provide electrical power to operate instruments on board spacecrafts. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are used to supply electrical power and consist of a nuclear heat source and converter to transform heat energy from radioactive decay into electrical power, thus providing reliable and relatively uniform power over the very long lifetime of a mission. These sources have been used in the Galileo spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and for scientific investigations of Saturn with the Cassini spacecraft. Still another very important series of applications using the unique properties of ceramics in the nuclear field, are as immobilization matrices for management of some of the most hazardous wastes known to man. For example, in long-term management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, glass matrices are currently in production immobilizing high-level radioactive materials, and cementious forms have also been produced to incorporate low level wastes. Also, as part of nuclear disarmament activities, assemblages of crystalline phases are being developed for immobilizing weapons grade plutonium, to

  1. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  2. NAGRA - Long-term safety - The main task of deep repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the necessity for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland and discusses the requirements placed on such long-term waste depositories The effects of ionizing radiation on people and the protection provided by the deep repositories are examined. The construction of such deep repositories is looked at, as are the developments expected in the depositories over thousands of years. A comparison with natural occurrences is made and lessons to be learned from nature are discussed. Ideas for the marking of the depository sites are presented. A glossary of relevant terms completes the report

  3. Performance assessment studies for the long-term safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Olteanu, M.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2008-01-01

    Especially during the last ten years, a part of Romanian research program 'Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel' was focused mainly on applicative research for the design of near-surface disposal facility, which intends to accommodate the low and intermediate radioactive waste generated from Cernavoda NPP. In this frame, our contribution was at the acquisition of technical data for the characterization of the future disposal facility. In the present, the project of the disposal facility, located on the Saligny site, near Cernavoda NPP, must be licensed. As regards to the safe disposal, the location of final disposal, the Saligny site, has been characterized through the five geological formations which contain potential routes for transport of radionuclide released from disposal facility, in the receiving zones(potential receiving zones), into liquid and gaseous phases. The technical characteristics of the disposal facility were adapted at the Romanian disposal concept using the reference data from IAEA technical report (IAEA,1999). Input parameters which characterized from physical and chemical point of view the disposal system, were partially taken from literature. The performance assessment studies, which follows the preliminary design development phases and the selection, describes how the source term is affected by the infiltration of water through the disposal facility, degradation process of engineering barriers (reflected in the distribution coefficient values) and solubility limit. The studies regard the evaluation of the source term, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provide the information on 'how' and 'why' were evaluated, following: (i) radiological safety assessment of near-surface disposal facility on Saligny site; (ii) complexity standard assessment of the Engineering Barriers Systems (EBS); (iii) identification of the elements which must be elaborated for the increase of the disposal safety and the necessity for new technical data for

  4. Technical status report on environmental aspects of long-term management of high-level defense waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    Since 1944, radioactive wastes have accumulated at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) 1500-km 2 Hanford Site in southeastern Washington, where nine nuclear reactors have produced nuclear materials for National defense. Today, only one production reactor is still operating, but a large inventory of radioactive high-level waste (HLW), the residue from processing the spent fuel to recover plutonium and uranium, remains stored in underground tanks and in metal capsules in water basins. So that this waste will pose no significant threat to the public health and safety, it must be isolated from the biosphere for thousands of years. This document contains an evaluation of environmental impacts of four alternative methods for long-term management of these HLW. The alternatives range from continuing the present action of storing the waste near the surface of the ground to retrieving the waste and disposing of it deep underground in a mined geologic repository. The alternatives are: near-term geologic disposal of stored waste; deferred geologic disposal of in-tank waste; in situ disposal of in-tank waste; and continued present action for stored waste. The environmental impacts of the four alternatives are small relative to that radiation received from natural sources or the available natural resources in the earth

  5. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak, E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr; Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  6. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH 4 /g VS added was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH 4 ) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH 4 /g VS added , respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH 4 /g VS added was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly

  7. Long-term leach rates of glasses containing actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.R.; LeRoy, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Leach rates of borosilicate glasses that contained actual Savannah River Plant waste were measured. Leaching was done by water and by buffer solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9. Leach rates were then determined from the amount of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and Pu released into the leach solutions. The cumulative fractions leached were fit to a mathematical model that included leaching by diffusion and glass dissolution

  8. Long-term leach rates of glasses containing actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.R.; LeRoy, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Leach rates of borosilicate glasses that contained actual Savannah River Plant waste were measured. Leaching was done by water and by buffer solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9. Leach rates were then determined from the amount of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and plutonium released into the leach solutions. The cumulative fractions leached were fit to a mathematical model that included leaching by diffusion and glass dissolution. 5 figures, 3 tables

  9. Long-term behaviour of waste-forms in the near-field environment of a deep underground storage site, overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Lassabatere, Th.; Galle, Ch.; Cranga, M.; Trotignon, L.; Maillard, S.; Iracane, D.

    1997-01-01

    CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) is responsible for the achievement of high activity and/or long life waste conditioning processes. Various waste-forms are used (glass, bitumen, etc...). ANDRA (French National Agency for Nuclear Waste Management) has to integrate the long-term durability of such waste-forms in the conception of a deep disposal and the assessment of its long-term confinement performances. The influence of near-field and of the boundary conditions imposed by the far-field on the long-term evolution is being more and more documented. Transport properties and reactivity of silica in the near field is one of the best examples of such effects. A coherent framework with relevant successive events (site re-saturation, chemical evolution of the engineered barrier, overpack corrosion) and a thorough analysis of hierarchized couplings are necessary to evaluate the long term durability of waste-form, and finally, to deliver a near-field-integrated source-term of radionuclides versus lime. We present hereafter some preliminary results obtained in the framework of the CEA 'C3P' project - long-term behaviour of waste-forms in their near-field environment. (authors)

  10. Pineapple peel wastes as a potential source of antioxidant compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswaty, V.; Risdian, C.; Primadona, I.; Andriyani, R.; Andayani, D. G. S.; Mozef, T.

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a large pineapple (Ananas comosus) producing country. Food industries in Indonesia processed this fruit for new products and further resulted wastes of which cause an environmental problems. Approximately, one pineapple fruit total weight is 400 gr of which 60 g is of peel wastes. In order to reduce such pineapple peel wastes (PPW), processing to a valuable product using an environmentally friendly technique is indispensable. PPW contained phenolic compound, ferulic acid, and vitamin A and C as antioxidant. This study aimed to PPW using ethanol and water as well as to analyze its chemical properties. Both dried and fresh PPW were extracted using mixtures of ethanol and water with various concentrations ranging from 15 to 95% (v/v) at room temperature for 24 h. The chemical properties, such as antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (Gallic acid equivalent/GAE), and total sugar content were determined. The results showed that the range of Inhibition Concentration (IC)50 value as antioxidant activity of extracts from dried and fresh PPW were in the range of 0.8±0.05 to 1.3±0.09 mg.mL-1 and 0.25±0.01 to 0.59±0.01 mg.mL-1, respectively, with the highest antioxidant activity was in water extract. The highest of total phenolic content of 0.9 mg.g-1 GAE, was also found in water extract.

  11. Source term identification in atmospheric modelling via sparse optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Lukas; Branda, Martin; Hamburger, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Inverse modelling plays an important role in identifying the amount of harmful substances released into atmosphere during major incidents such as power plant accidents or volcano eruptions. Another possible application of inverse modelling lies in the monitoring the CO2 emission limits where only observations at certain places are available and the task is to estimate the total releases at given locations. This gives rise to minimizing the discrepancy between the observations and the model predictions. There are two standard ways of solving such problems. In the first one, this discrepancy is regularized by adding additional terms. Such terms may include Tikhonov regularization, distance from a priori information or a smoothing term. The resulting, usually quadratic, problem is then solved via standard optimization solvers. The second approach assumes that the error term has a (normal) distribution and makes use of Bayesian modelling to identify the source term. Instead of following the above-mentioned approaches, we utilize techniques from the field of compressive sensing. Such techniques look for a sparsest solution (solution with the smallest number of nonzeros) of a linear system, where a maximal allowed error term may be added to this system. Even though this field is a developed one with many possible solution techniques, most of them do not consider even the simplest constraints which are naturally present in atmospheric modelling. One of such examples is the nonnegativity of release amounts. We believe that the concept of a sparse solution is natural in both problems of identification of the source location and of the time process of the source release. In the first case, it is usually assumed that there are only few release points and the task is to find them. In the second case, the time window is usually much longer than the duration of the actual release. In both cases, the optimal solution should contain a large amount of zeros, giving rise to the

  12. Tracing source and migration of Pb during waste incineration using stable Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of P.R. China, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • The migration of Pb during waste incineration was investigated using Pb isotopes. • Source tracing of Pb during incineration by isotopic technology was feasible. • Contributions of MSW components were measured to trace Pb sources quantitatively. • Isotopic technology helps understand the migration of Pb during thermal treatment. - Abstract: Emission of Pb is a significant environmental concern during solid waste incineration. To target Pb emission control strategies effectively, the major sources of Pb in the waste incineration byproducts must be traced and quantified. However, identifying the migration of Pb in each waste component is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the waste. This study used a laboratory-scale incinerator to simulate the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). The Pb isotope ratios of the major waste components ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8550–0.8627 and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 2.0957–2.1131) and their incineration byproducts were measured to trace sources and quantify the Pb contribution of each component to incineration byproducts. As the proportions of food waste (FW), newspaper (NP), and polyethylene bag (PE) in the artificial MSW changed, the contribution ratios of FW and PE to Pb in fly ash changed accordingly, ranging from 31.2% to 50.6% and from 35.0% to 41.8%, respectively. The replacement of PE by PVC significantly increased the partitioning and migration ratio of Pb. The use of Pb isotope ratios as a quantitative tool for tracing Pb from raw waste to incineration byproducts is a feasible means for improving Pb pollution control.

  13. Taking into account the long term dimension associated with radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Lavelle, S.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste introduces a new time dimension in the field of risk management. This is why, for more than 10 years, there have been reflections on the societal and organisational mechanisms allowing a responsible management over the long term of the risk associated with radioactive waste. These reflections lead one to ask questions regarding interactions between what is at stake for societal and radiation protection criteria, demanding a multidisciplinary approach to the problem. Within the framework of the European project C.O.W.A.M. 2, dedicated to the improvement of governance of radioactive waste management in Europe, a working group involving experts, authorities, waste managers, locally elected representatives and N.G.O.s, discussed the stakes associated with the long term dimension. This article presents the main results of this working group, organised around four themes: meaning of the long term and what is at stake, the ethical dimension regarding long term issues, continuity and sustainability of the surveillance and control of radioactive waste facilities, effectiveness of financing schemes for the long term management of radioactive waste. (authors)

  14. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-10-02

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies.

  15. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies

  16. Use of remote sensing to identify waste sources at ORNL's SWSA 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, D.D.; Doll, W.E.; Nyquist, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Solid waste storage area (SWSA) 4, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), contributes 25% of the 90 Sr release from the ORNL complex. Disposal records were destroyed in a fire, thus limiting the ability to locate waste sources contributing to the releases. The use of remote sensing products, including photos and thermal spectra images, provided the needed information to allow field work to progress in an efficient and cost-effective manner. As a result, four major sources were identified. Preliminary estimates suggest that cost avoidance in excess of $5 million will be possible because of the detailed source location knowledge

  17. A comparison of world-wide uses of severe reactor accident source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, M.L.; Frid, W.; Kersting, E.J.; Friederichs, H.G.; Lee, R.Y.; Meyer-Heine, A.; Powers, D.A.; Soda, K.; Sweet, D.

    1994-09-01

    The definitions of source terms to reactor containments and source terms to the environment are discussed. A comparison is made between the TID-14844 example source term and the alternative source term described in NUREG-1465. Comparisons of these source terms to the containments and those used in France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom are made. Source terms to the environment calculated in NUREG-1500 and WASH-1400 are discussed. Again, these source terms are compared to those now being used in France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. It is concluded that source terms to the containment suggested in NUREG-1465 are not greatly more conservative than those used in other countries. Technical bases for the source terms are similar. The regulatory use of the current understanding of radionuclide behavior varies among countries

  18. Empirical Study on Factors Influencing Residents' Behavior of Separating Household Wastes at Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Ying; Zhu Qinghua; Murray Haight

    2007-01-01

    Source separation is the basic premise for making effective use of household wastes. In eight cities of China, however, several pilot projects of source separation finally failed because of the poor participation rate of residents. In order to solve this problem, identifying those factors that influence residents' behavior of source separation becomes crucial. By means of questionnaire survey, we conducted descriptive analysis and exploratory factor analysis. The results show that trouble-feeling, moral notion, environment protection, public education, environment value and knowledge deficiency are the main factors that play an important role for residents in deciding to separate their household wastes. Also, according to the contribution percentage of the six main factors to the total behavior of source separation, their influencing power is analyzed, which will provide suggestions on household waste management for policy makers and decision makers in China.

  19. Influence of iodine chemistry on source term assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz Puebla, L. E.; Lopez Diez, I.; Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Martinez Lopez-Alcorocho, A.

    1991-01-01

    The major goal of a phenomenology analysis of containment during a severe accident situation can be spitted into the following ones: to know the containment response to the different loads and to predict accurately the fission product and aerosol behavior. In this report, the main results coming from the study of a hypothetical accident scenario, based on LA-4 experiment of LACE project, are presented. In order to do it, several codes have been coupled: CONTEMPT4/MOD5 (thermohydraulics), NAUA/MOD5 (aerosol physics) and IODE (iodine chemistry). It has been demonstrated the impossibility of assessing with confidence the Source Term if the chemical conduct of some radionuclides is not taken into account. In particular, the influence on the iodine retention efficiency of the sump of variables such as pH has been proven. (Author)12 refs

  20. Running the source term code package in Elebra MX-850

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.C.F.; Goes, A.G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The source term package (STCP) is one of the main tools applied in calculations of behavior of fission products from nuclear power plants. It is a set of computer codes to assist the calculations of the radioactive materials leaving from the metallic containment of power reactors to the environment during a severe reactor accident. The original version of STCP runs in SDC computer systems, but as it has been written in FORTRAN 77, is possible run it in others systems such as IBM, Burroughs, Elebra, etc. The Elebra MX-8500 version of STCP contains 5 codes:March 3, Trapmelt, Tcca, Vanessa and Nava. The example presented in this report has taken into consideration a small LOCA accident into a PWR type reactor. (M.I.)

  1. The Phebus Fission Product and Source Term International Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, B.; Zeyen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The international Phebus FP programme, initiated in 1988 is one of the major research programmes on light water reactors severe accidents. After a short description of the facility and of the test matrix, the main outcomes and results of the first four integral tests are provided and analysed. Several results were unexpected and some are of importance for safety analyses, particularly concerning fuel degradation, cladding oxidation, chemical form of some fission products, especially iodine, effect of control rod materials on degradation and chemistry, iodine behaviour in the containment. Prediction capabilities of calculation tools have largely been improved as a result of this research effort. However, significant uncertainties remain for a number of phenomena, requiring detailed physical analysis and implementation of improved models in codes, sustained by a number of separate-effect experiments. This is the subject of the new Source Term programme for a better understanding of the phenomenology on important safety issues, in accordance with priorities defined in the EURSAFE project of the 5 th European framework programme aiming at reducing the uncertainties on Source Term analyses. It covers iodine chemistry, impact of boron carbide control rods degradation and oxidation, air ingress situations and fission product release from fuel. Regarding the interpretation of Phebus, an international co-operation has been established since over ten years, particularly helpful for the improvement and common understanding of severe accident phenomena. Few months ago, the Phebus community was happy to welcome representatives of a large number of organisations from the following new European countries: the Czech republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia and also from Bulgaria and Romania. (author)

  2. Waste collection in developing countries - Tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleck, Daniela, E-mail: bleck.daniela@baua.bund.de [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany (BAuA), Friedrich Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund (Germany); Wettberg, Wieland, E-mail: wettberg.wieland@baua.bund.de [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany (BAuA), Friedrich Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  3. Waste collection in developing countries – Tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleck, Daniela; Wettberg, Wieland

    2012-01-01

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  4. Long-term management of wastes resulting from dismantling operations. Storing the very low-level activity wastes at Morvilliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, F.; Dutzer, M.; Beranger, V.; Lecoq, P.

    2003-01-01

    Extension of dismantling operations in France in the years to come poses the question of availability of long-term waste facility. Large amount of such wastes will be produced after progressive shutdown of the 58 pressurized water reactors now in operation, not before 2010. However, France is already confronted with dismantling of 9 power reactors (6 of which of gas cooled graphite type), the first reprocessing plant at Marcoule, as well as, dismantling of other installations, for instance the CEA reactors or laboratories. The systems of processing the dismantling waste are not different from those used for wastes resulting from nuclear operations. For the high-level or long-term intermediate level activity disposal the debates must start by 2006, as based on the results of the research conducted according to different provisions of the December 30, 1991 law. These wastes represent however small amounts from the dismantling (around 2000 t for the 9 reactors at shutdown) and they will be stored until a decision will be made. A specific storing system should be implemented by 2008-2010 for the graphite wastes (around 23,000 t) which contain significant amount of long-lived radioelements, although their gross activity is low. But the most significant amount will come from low-level or intermediate-level of short lifetime or from wastes of very low activity. The first category is stored at Storage Center at Aube (CSA), its capacity being of 1,000,000 m 3 of drums. The total volume stored by the end of 2002 amounted 136,500 m 3 with an annual delivering of 12-15,000 m 3 at design rate of 30,000 m 3 /y. This center will be able to absorb the flux increase resulting from dismantling of the decommissioned nuclear installations (around 50,000 t from the dismantling of the 9 power reactor). The Center at Aube can be also adapted for storing wastes of large sizes as for instance the lid of the reactor vessel. According to the French regulation, the wastes produced within a

  5. Agricultural waste as a source for the production of silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaibhav, Vineet; Vijayalakshmi, U; Roopan, S Mohana

    2015-03-15

    The major interest of the paper deals with the extraction of silica from four natural sources such as rice husk, bamboo leaves, sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shell. These waste materials in large quantities can create a serious environmental problem. Hence, there is a need to adopt proper strategy to reduce the waste. In the present investigation, all the waste materials are subjected to moisture removal in a hot plate and sintered at 900°C for 7 h. The sintered powder was treated with 1 M NaOH to form sodium silicate and then with 6M H2SO4 to precipitate silica. The prepared silica powders were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM-EDAX analysis. The silica recovered from different sources was found to vary between 52% and 78%. Magnesium substituted silica was formed from the groundnut waste and further treatment is required to precipitate silica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Life cycle assessment of a household solid waste source separation programme: a Swedish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-10-01

    The environmental impact of an extended property close source-separation system for solid household waste (i.e., a systems for collection of recyclables from domestic properties) is investigated in a residential area in southern Sweden. Since 2001, households have been able to source-separate waste into six fractions of dry recyclables and food waste sorting. The current system was evaluated using the EASEWASTE life cycle assessment tool. Current status is compared with an ideal scenario in which households display perfect source-separation behaviour and a scenario without any material recycling. Results show that current recycling provides substantial environmental benefits compared to a non-recycling alternative. The environmental benefit varies greatly between recyclable fractions, and the recyclables currently most frequently source-separated by households are often not the most beneficial from an environmental perspective. With optimal source-separation of all recyclables, the current net contribution to global warming could be changed to a net-avoidance while current avoidance of nutrient enrichment, acidification and photochemical ozone formation could be doubled. Sensitivity analyses show that the type of energy substituted by incineration of non-recycled waste, as well as energy used in recycling processes and in the production of materials substituted by waste recycling, is of high relevance for the attained results.

  7. Long-term management of radioactive waste - will the Price-Anderson system work for third party liability issues arising from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznick, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Two pieces of legislation have been enacted in the United States to provide a framework for the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel: the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (1980) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Neither of these statutes provide a means for resolving third party liability issues arising out of radioactive waste management. However, the Price Anderson Act (originally enacted in 1957) provides a system of financial protection that can be applied to waste management activities and that can resolve most issues pertaining to liability for nuclear damage that may result from long-term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. (NEA) [fr

  8. Fruit and vegetable waste (FV) from the market places: A potential source for animal feeding?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo, J.; Yepes, S. A.; Yepes, A. M.; Bustamante, G.; Mahecha, L.

    2009-01-01

    The generation of organic solid waste and its inappropriate management is considered one of the main environmental problems in the world associated with emissions of methane from landfill sites, with emission of dusts, odors and hazardous gases, and with contamination of water. There are different sources for the generation of solid wastes; the market places are considered one of then on a global scale. (Author)

  9. WADOSE, Radiation Source in Vitrification Waste Storage Apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Jun-ichi; Tashiro, Shingo; Kikkawa, Shizuo; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: This is a radiation shielding program which analyzes unknown dose rates using known radiation sources. It can also evaluate radiation sources from measured dose rates. For instance, dose rates measured at several points in the hot cell of WASTEF are introduced into WADOS, and as a result, Ci of radiation sources and their positions are estimated with structural arrangement data of the WASTEF cells. The later functional addition is very useful for actual operation of a hot cell and others. NEA-1142/02: The code was originally written in non standard Fortran dialect and has been fully translated into Fortran 90, Fortran 77 compatible. 2 - Method of solution: Point kernel ray tracing method (the same method as QAD code). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Modeling of source form for input is available for cylinder, plate, point and others which are simplified geometrically

  10. Optical and spectroscopic studies on tannery wastes as a possible source of organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, El-Shahat H. A.; Al-Ashkar, Emad; Abdel Moez, A.

    2012-02-01

    Tanning industry produces a large quantity of solid wastes which contain hide proteins in the form of protein shavings containing chromium salts. The chromium wastes are the main concern from an environmental stand point of view, because chrome wastes posses a significant disposal problem. The present work is devoted to investigate the possibility of utilizing these wastes as a source of organic semi-conductors as an alternative method instead of the conventional ones. The chemical characterization of these wastes was determined. In addition, the Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR spectroscopic analysis and optical parameters were also carried out for chromated samples. The study showed that the chromated samples had suitable absorbance and transmittance in the wavelength range (500-850 nm). Presence of chromium salt in the collagen samples increases the absorbance which improves the optical properties of the studied samples and leads to decrease the optical energy gap. The obtained optical energy gap gives an impression that the environmentally hazardous chrome shavings wastes can be utilized as a possible source of natural organic semiconductors with direct and indirect energy gap. This work opens the door to use some hazardous wastes in the manufacture of electronic devices such as IR-detectors, solar cells and also as solar cell windows.

  11. Potential of Electronic Plastic Waste as a Source of Raw Material and Energy Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazli Othman; Nor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Lariyah Mohd Sidek

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the production of electronic equipment is one of the fastest growing industrial activities in this world. The increase use of plastic in this sector resulted in an increase of electronic plastic waste. Basically, electronic plastic material contains various chemical elements which act as a flame retardant when electronic equipment is operated. In general, the concept of recycling electronic plastic waste should be considered in order to protect the environment. For this purpose, research has been conducted to different resins of electronic plastic waste to identify the potential of electronic plastic waste as a source of raw material and energy recovery. This study was divided into two part for example determination of physical and chemical characteristics of plastic resins and calculation of heating value for plastic resins based on Dulong formula. Results of this research show that the average calorific value of electronic waste is 30,872.42 kJ/ kg (7,375 kcal/ kg). The emission factor analysis showed that the concentration of emission value that might occur during waste management activities is below the standard set by the Environment Quality Act 1974. Basically, this research shows that electronic plastic waste has the potential to become the source of raw material and energy recovery. (author)

  12. Optical and spectroscopic studies on tannery wastes as a possible source of organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, El-Shahat H A; Al-Ashkar, Emad; Moez, A Abdel

    2012-02-01

    Tanning industry produces a large quantity of solid wastes which contain hide proteins in the form of protein shavings containing chromium salts. The chromium wastes are the main concern from an environmental stand point of view, because chrome wastes posses a significant disposal problem. The present work is devoted to investigate the possibility of utilizing these wastes as a source of organic semi-conductors as an alternative method instead of the conventional ones. The chemical characterization of these wastes was determined. In addition, the Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR spectroscopic analysis and optical parameters were also carried out for chromated samples. The study showed that the chromated samples had suitable absorbance and transmittance in the wavelength range (500-850 nm). Presence of chromium salt in the collagen samples increases the absorbance which improves the optical properties of the studied samples and leads to decrease the optical energy gap. The obtained optical energy gap gives an impression that the environmentally hazardous chrome shavings wastes can be utilized as a possible source of natural organic semiconductors with direct and indirect energy gap. This work opens the door to use some hazardous wastes in the manufacture of electronic devices such as IR-detectors, solar cells and also as solar cell windows. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of scenarios of long term management of low-activity long-life wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This document reports the study of scenarios for the management of different low-activity long-life radioactive wastes with reference to different French legal texts. After a presentation of the legal and technical context, the report presents different existing and projected storages (description and safety principles for the Cires and Aube centres and for the Cigeo project of deep geological storage centre). It addresses the various aspects of radiferous and graphite waste management on a long term: inventory, parcel, waste peculiarities, management scenarios, assessment of storage in SCR. It also addresses the case of other wastes such as bituminous coated wastes, those presenting a reinforced natural radioactivity or residues of uranium conversion processing. The last part presents the main orientations for the project

  14. Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. The meaning of a demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The ''demonstration'' of the safe management of high level radioactive waste is a prerequisite for the further development of nuclear energy. It is therefore essential to be clear about both the meaning of the term ''demonstration'' and the practical means to satisfy this request. In the complex sequence of operations necessary to the safe management of high level waste, short term activities can be directly demonstrated. For longer term activities, such as the long term isolation of radioactive waste in deep undergroung structures, demonstration must be indirect. The ''demonstration'' of deep underground disposal for high level radioactive waste involves two steps: one direct, to prove that the system could be built, operated and closed safely and at acceptable costs, and one indirect, to make a convincing evaluation of the system's performance and long term safety on the basis of predictive analyses confirmed by a body of varied technical and scienfic data, much of it deriving from experimental work. The assessment of the evidence collected from current operations, existing experience in related fields and specific research and development activities, calls for specialized scientific expertise. Uncertainties in far future situations and probabilistic events can be taken into account in a scientific assessment. Competent national authorithies will have to satisfy themselves that the proposed waste management solutions can meet long term safety objectives. An element of judgement will always be needed in determining the acceptability of a waste disposal concept. However, the level of confidence in our ability to predict the performance of waste management systems will increase as supporting evidence is collected from current research and development activities and as our predictive techniques improve

  15. Long-term storage of radioactive waste: IAEA perspectives on safety and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowat, J.H.; Louvat, D.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    As the amounts of radioactive waste in surface storage have increased, concern has grown over the safety and sustainability of storage in the long term. In response to increasing concerns, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has included an action to address the safety implications of the long-term storage (LTS) of radioactive waste in its action plan for waste safety; the action plan was endorsed by the IAEA's Member States in 2001. In 2003, the IAEA published a position paper on the safety and sustainability of LTS as part fulfilment of the action in question. A key theme of the position paper is the contrast of safety and sustainability implications of LTS with those of disposal. The present paper provides a summary of the position paper, describes current IAEA activities that deal with the subject of LTS, and discusses findings from the 2004 Cordoba symposium on disposal of low activity radioactive waste that pertain to LTS. (author)

  16. Biopolymers production with carbon source from the wastes of a beer brewery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Phoeby Ai Ling

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential and feasibility of malt wastes, and other food wastes, such as soy wastes, ice-cream wastes, confectionery wastes, vinegar wastes, milk waste and sesame oil, in the induction of biosynthesis of PHA, in the cellular assembly of novel PHA with improved physical and chemical properties, and in the reduction of the cost of PHA production. In the first part of the experiments, a specific culture of Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 was selected to ferment several types of food wastes as carbon sources into biopolymers. In addition, the biopolymer production, by way of using malt waste, of microorganisms from municipal activated sludge was also investigated. In the second part, the experiments focused on the synthesis of biopolymer with a higher molecular mass via the bacterial strain, which was selected and isolated from sesame oil, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis . Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of PHB were studied by GPC. Molecular weight of PHB produced from various types of food wastes by Alcaligenes latus was higher than using synthetic sucrose medium as nutrient, however, it resulted in the reverse by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thermal properties of biopolymers were studied by DSC and TG. Using malt wastes as nutrients by Alcaligenes latus gave a higher melting temperature. Using sucrose, confectionery and sesame oil as nutrients by Staphylococcus epidermidis gave higher melting temperature. Optimization was carried out for the recovery of microbial PHB from Alcaligenes latus. Results showed that molecular weight can be controlled by changing the hypochlorite concentration, the ratio of chloroform to hypochlorite solution and the extraction time. In addition, the determination of PHB content by thermogravimetric analysis method with wet cell was the first report in our study. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  17. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

    2014-01-01

    Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production... concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production facilities. For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste as the primary energy source pursuant...

  19. Stepwise Decision Making for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, Claudio; Vari, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Consideration is increasingly being given, in radioactive waste management (RWM), to concepts such as 'stepwise decision making' and 'adaptive staging' in which the public, and especially the local communities, are also meaningfully involved in the review and planning of developments. The key feature of these concepts is development by steps or stages that are reversible, within the limits of practicability and provided they meet the requirements of an acceptable safety case. Stepwise decisions are designed to provide reassurance that actions can be reversed if experience shows them to have adverse or unwanted effects. Stepwise decision making has thus come to the fore as being especially important for making progress for radioactive waste management in a manner which is acceptable to large sectors of society. Despite its early identification within the RWM community as an important means for reaching decision in which there is broad-based confidence, stepwise decision making has not been widely debated. Accepted guiding principles of any such process have not yet been formulated, its roots in empirical social science research have not been fully reviewed, nor the difficulties of its implementation analysed. This paper reviews the current developments regarding stepwise decision making in RWM with the aim to pinpoint where it stands, to highlight its societal dimension, to analyse its roots in social sciences, and to identify guiding principles and issues in implementation. It is observed that there is convergence between the approach taken by the practitioners of RWM and the indications received from field studies in social research, and that general guiding principles can be proposed at least as a basis for further discussion. A strong basis for dialogue across disciplines thus exists. General methodological issues are also identified. This paper was developed in the framework of the activities of the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence, which is presented in a

  20. Properties and long-term behaviour of bitumen and radioactive waste-bitumen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschrich, H.

    1980-10-01

    Part I represents a survey of the properties and the long-term behaviour of pure bitumens and mixtures of bitumens with radioactive reactor and reprocessing wastes. This survey includes information on the origin, amounts, and composition of the various wastes considered for bituminization and the different waste bituminization techniques used. The influence of various factors on the quality of waste-bitumen products and on the radiological safety during transport, short- and long-term storage of the final products is described. Special consideration is given to the most important safety relevant factors associated to the use of bitumen as matrix material for radioactive wastes, such as leach-resistance, radiolysis, chemical and mechanical stability, combustibility, and microbial attack. Part II consists of a comprehensive bibliography on the bituminization of radioactive wastes, giving about 300 references to literature published from the beginning of the use of bitumen in radioactive waste management in 1960 until the beginning of 1979. Methods for the quality control of bituminous materials and some useful data are given in an annex. (author)

  1. Long-term risk assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.; D'Alessandro, M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for long-term safety analysis of waste from nuclear power production in the European Community are under study at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) at Ispra, Italy. Aim of the work is to develop a suitable methodology for long-term risk assessment. The methodology under study is based on the assessment of the quantitative value of a system of barriers which may be interposed between waste and man. The barriers considered are: a) quality of the segregation afforded by the geological formation, b) chemical and physical stability of conditioned waste, c) interaction with geological environments (subsoil retention), d) distribution in the biosphere. The methodology is presently being applied to idealized test cases based on the following assumptions: waste are generated during 30 years of operations in a nuclear park (reprocessing + refabrication plant) capable of treating 1000 ton/yr of LWR fuel. High activity waste is conditioned as borosilicate glass (HAW) while low- and medium-level wastes are bituminized (BIP). All waste is disposed off into a salt formation. Transport to the biosphere, following the containment failure occurs by groundwater, with no delay due to retention on adsorbing media. Distribution into the biosphere occurs according to the terrestrial model indicated. Under these assumptions, information was drawn concerning environmental contamination, its levels, contributing elements and pathways to man

  2. Long-term safety of the maintenance and decommissioning waste of the encapsulation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nummi, O.; Kylloenen, J.; Eurajoki, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report, Long-term safety of the maintenance and decommissioning waste of the encapsulation plant, presents the disposal concept for the low and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) that is generated during the operation and decommissioning of the encapsulation plant, and assesses the long-term safety of the disposal of the waste. Radioactive waste originates from the spent nuclear fuel transferred and dried in the encapsulation plant. Radioactive waste accumulates also in the maintenance of the components and systems of the encapsulation plant. The waste is collected, exempted from control if possible and treated for final disposal if necessary. The waste is disposed of in the L/ILW hall which is currently planned to be located at a depth of -180 meters along the access tunnel to the repository for spent fuel. The main engineered barrier in the L/ILW hall is a concrete basin that encases the dried liquid waste. The safety concept of L/ILW disposal is based on the slow release of radioactivity from the L/ILW hall and its limited transport through the bedrock into biosphere. The release and transport of the radioactivity is described by the assessment scenarios, which include expected evolution and unlikely events affecting the long-term safety. The scenarios act as guidelines according to which the conceptual and mathematical models are formed. The long-term safety of the L/ILW hall is assessed using deterministic and probabilistic modeling. Special issues such as human intrusion and radiation effects on other biota are also assessed. The most significant contributor to the dose rates is the short-lived radionuclide 90 Sr followed by long-lived nuclides 129 I and 108 mAg. The annual doses to the public, and release rates of radioactive substances stay below the regulatory constraints in all analyzed scenarios. (orig.)

  3. Factors influencing source separation intention and willingness to pay for improving waste management in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujitra Vassanadumrongdee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Source separation for recycling has been recognized as a way to achieve sustainable municipal solid waste (MSW management. However, most developing countries including Thailand have been facing with lack of recycling facilities and low level of source separation practice. By employing questionnaire surveys, this study investigated Bangkok residents' source separation intention and willingness to pay (WTP for improving MSW service and recycling facilities (n = 1076. This research extended the theory of planned behavior to explore the effects of both internal and external factors. The survey highlighted perceived inconvenience and mistrust on MSW collection being major barriers to carrying out source separation in Bangkok. Promoting source separation at workplace may possibly create spill-over effect to people's intention to recycle their waste at home. Both subjective norms and knowledge on MSW situation were found to be a positive correlation with Bangkok residents' source separation intention and WTP (p < 0.001. Besides, the average WTP values are higher than the existing rate of waste collection service, which shows that Bangkok residents have preference for recycling programs. However, the WTP figures are still much lower than the average MSW management cost. These findings suggest that Bangkok Metropolitan Administration targets improving people knowledge on waste problems that could have adverse impact on the economy and well-being of Bangkok residents and improve its MSW collection service as these factors have positive influence on residents' WTP.

  4. Predicted environmental impacts of long-term waste management at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, S.V.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the different alternative approaches to long-term waste management at SRP, along with their probable relative costs, risks, and uncertainties; the issue of methodology for decision-making in nuclear waste management is also raised. This paper contains a preliminary listing of the SRP alternaties including a simple cost-risk analysis. The alternatives are: glass shipped offsite to Federal repository; air-cooled vault with glass at SRP; liquid waste slurry stored in SRP bedrock cavern; and continued tank farm operation with salt and sludge

  5. Long-term α-hazard of high activity waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.

    1974-01-01

    The concentration and decay of α-emitters in high activity waste arising from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing was calculated under specified reference conditions. An attempt to evaluate the long-term hazard of such waste is being made by applying the ''barrier'' approach derived from reactor safety studies. Four barriers were identified, which could be evaluated in a probabilistic way by taking into account the great uncertainties present in each of them. The barriers are: 1) quality of the segregation afforded by deep geological formations, 2) stability of conditioned waste (chemical and physical), 3) retention by immediate surrounding, 4) distribution pattern of actinides in the environment. The analysis of a fictional accident showed that the uncertainties connected with the evaluation of the barriers' value are rather large. Additional studies particularly on the stability of conditioned waste and ecological properties of the environment towards actinides, would considerably improve our knowledge of the value of the barrier system. Chemical separation of actinides from high activity waste would be an additional option of undoubted value for the disposal of high activity waste. Its value for the overall safety of the entire waste inventory depends on many factors which need better evaluation, such as safety of the disposal of the separated actinides and the amount and quality of the additional waste generated by the separation process. An analysis of various levels of possible separations suggests that a reasonable target might be: Pu, Am and Cm, decontamination factor 10 3 ; Np, coextraction with U and Pu with a 90% yield

  6. Safeguards issues of long-term waste management at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1992-06-01

    Waste management at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is not often regarded as a safeguard-sensitive step in the nuclear fuel cycle because the material concerned is relatively unattractive for diversion or theft. However, the accumulation of large amounts of fissile materials in wastes over a period of time can be a safeguards concern. One estimate shows that high-level and transuranic wastes and some miscellaneous radioactive materials at DOE sites may contain as much as 15 Mt of fissile materials. In the context of present US strategies for the disposal of these radioactive wastes, this study identifies safeguards issues relevant to proposed scenarios for the long-term management and permanent disposal of the above-mentioned waste forms in geologic repositories. This study points out areas of concern and the need to examine the issues before the wastes are processed for geologic disposal. Good waste management practices may offer unique opportunities to address the safeguards issues identified here. A judicious approach to examining the safeguards requirements of waste disposal programs may also contribute to DOE's new effort to establish and maintain public confidence in its environmental restoration programs

  7. A simplified approach to evaluating severe accident source term for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Gaofeng; Tong, Lili; Cao, Xuewu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Traditional source term evaluation approaches have been studied. • A simplified approach of source term evaluation for 600 MW PWR is studied. • Five release categories are established. - Abstract: For early design of NPPs, no specific severe accident source term evaluation was considered. Some general source terms have been used for some NPPs. In order to implement a best estimate, a special source term evaluation should be implemented for an NPP. Traditional source term evaluation approaches (mechanism approach and parametric approach) have some difficulties associated with their implementation. The traditional approaches are not consistent with cost-benefit assessment. A simplified approach for evaluating severe accident source term for PWR is studied. For the simplified approach, a simplified containment event tree is established. According to representative cases selection, weighted coefficient evaluation, computation of representative source term cases and weighted computation, five containment release categories are established, including containment bypass, containment isolation failure, containment early failure, containment late failure and intact containment

  8. Evaluation Plan on In-vessel Source Term in PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Won; Ha, Kwi-Seok; Ahn, Sang June; Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Taekyeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This strategy requires nuclear plants to have features that prevent radionuclide release and multiple barriers to the escape from the plants of any radionuclides that are released despite preventive measures. Considerations of the ability to prevent and mitigate release of radionuclides arise at numerous places in the safety regulations of nuclear plants. The effectiveness of mitigative capabilities in nuclear plants is subject to quantitative analysis. The radionuclide input to these quantitative analyses of effectiveness is the Source Term (ST). All features of the composition, magnitude, timing, chemical form and physical form of accidental radionuclide release constitute the ST. Also, ST is defined as the release of radionuclides from the fuel and coolant into the containment, and subsequently to the environment. The in-vessel STs of PGSFR will be estimated using the methodology of ANL-ART-38 report in additional to 4S methodology. The in-vessel STs are calculated through several phases: The inventory of each radionuclide is calculated by ORIGEN-2 code using the realistic burnup conditions. ST in the release from the core to primary sodium is calculated by using the assumption of ANL methodology. Lastly, ST in the release from the primary sodium to cover gas space is calculated by using equation and experimental materials.

  9. Source term calculations - Ringhals 2 PWR. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Lise-Lotte

    1998-03-01

    This project was performed within the fifth and final phase of sub-project RAK-2.1 of the Nordic Co-operative Reactor Safety Program, NKS. RAK-2.1 has also included studies of reflooding of degraded core, recriticality and late phase melt progression. Earlier source term calculations for Swedish nuclear power plants are based on the integral code MAAP. A need was recognised to compare these calculations with calculations done with mechanistic codes. In the present work SCDAP/RELAP5 and CONTAIN were used. Only limited results could be obtained within the frame of RAK-2.1, since many problems were encountered using the SCDAP/RELAP5 code. The main obstacle was the extremely long execution times of the MOD3.1 version, but also some dubious fission product calculations. However, some interesting results were obtained for the studied sequence, a total loss of AC power. The report describes the modelling approach for SCDAP/RELAP5 and CONTAIN, and discusses results for the transient including the event of a surge line creep rupture. The study will probably be completed later, providing that an improved SCDAP/RELAP5 code version becomes available 8 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Source term experiments project (STEP): aerosol characterization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenger, B.J.; Dunn, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    A series of four experiments has been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory's TREAT Reactor. These experiments, which are sponsored by an international consortium organized by the Electric Power Research Institute, are designed to investigate the source term, i.e., the type, quantity and timing of release of radioactive fission products from a light water reactor to the environment in the event of a severe accident in which the core is insufficiently cooled. The STEP tests have been designed to provide some of the necessary data regarding the magnitude and release rates of volatile fission products from degraded fuel pins, their physical and chemical characteristics, and aerosol formation and transport phenomena of those fission products that condense to form particles in the cooler regions of the reactor beyond the core. These are inpile experiments, whereby the test fuels are heated in a nuclear test reactor by neutron induced fission and subsequent cladding oxidation in steam environments that simulate as closely as practical predicted severe reactor accident conditions. The test sequences cover a range of pressure and fuel heatup rate, and include the effect of Ag/In/Cd control rod material. 1 ref., 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. Verification test calculations for the Source Term Code Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.; Wooton, R.O.; Alexander, C.A.; Curtis, L.A.; Cybulskis, P.; Gieseke, J.A.; Jordan, H.; Lee, K.W.; Nicolosi, S.L.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the reasonableness of the Source Term Code Package (STCP) results. Hand calculations have been performed spanning a wide variety of phenomena within the context of a single accident sequence, a loss of all ac power with late containment failure, in the Peach Bottom (BWR) plant, and compared with STCP results. The report identifies some of the limitations of the hand calculation effort. The processes involved in a core meltdown accident are complex and coupled. Hand calculations by their nature must deal with gross simplifications of these processes. Their greatest strength is as an indicator that a computer code contains an error, for example that it doesn't satisfy basic conservation laws, rather than in showing the analysis accurately represents reality. Hand calculations are an important element of verification but they do not satisfy the need for code validation. The code validation program for the STCP is a separate effort. In general the hand calculation results show that models used in the STCP codes (e.g., MARCH, TRAP-MELT, VANESA) obey basic conservation laws and produce reasonable results. The degree of agreement and significance of the comparisons differ among the models evaluated. 20 figs., 26 tabs

  12. Evaluation Plan on In-vessel Source Term in PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Won; Ha, Kwi-Seok; Ahn, Sang June; Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Taekyeong

    2016-01-01

    This strategy requires nuclear plants to have features that prevent radionuclide release and multiple barriers to the escape from the plants of any radionuclides that are released despite preventive measures. Considerations of the ability to prevent and mitigate release of radionuclides arise at numerous places in the safety regulations of nuclear plants. The effectiveness of mitigative capabilities in nuclear plants is subject to quantitative analysis. The radionuclide input to these quantitative analyses of effectiveness is the Source Term (ST). All features of the composition, magnitude, timing, chemical form and physical form of accidental radionuclide release constitute the ST. Also, ST is defined as the release of radionuclides from the fuel and coolant into the containment, and subsequently to the environment. The in-vessel STs of PGSFR will be estimated using the methodology of ANL-ART-38 report in additional to 4S methodology. The in-vessel STs are calculated through several phases: The inventory of each radionuclide is calculated by ORIGEN-2 code using the realistic burnup conditions. ST in the release from the core to primary sodium is calculated by using the assumption of ANL methodology. Lastly, ST in the release from the primary sodium to cover gas space is calculated by using equation and experimental materials

  13. Plastic waste in the marine environment: A review of sources, occurrence and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Tse, H F; Fok, L

    2016-10-01

    This review article summarises the sources, occurrence, fate and effects of plastic waste in the marine environment. Due to its resistance to degradation, most plastic debris will persist in the environment for centuries and may be transported far from its source, including great distances out to sea. Land- and ocean-based sources are the major sources of plastic entering the environment, with domestic, industrial and fishing activities being the most important contributors. Ocean gyres are particular hotspots of plastic waste accumulation. Both macroplastics and microplastics pose a risk to organisms in the natural environment, for example, through ingestion or entanglement in the plastic. Many studies have investigated the potential uptake of hydrophobic contaminants, which can then bioaccumulate in the food chain, from plastic waste by organisms. To address the issue of plastic pollution in the marine environment, governments should first play an active role in addressing the issue of plastic waste by introducing legislation to control the sources of plastic debris and the use of plastic additives. In addition, plastics industries should take responsibility for the end-of-life of their products by introducing plastic recycling or upgrading programmes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Conceptual model for deriving the repository source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.H.; Apted, M.J.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Van Luik, A.E.; Williford, R.E.; Doctor, P.G.; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA; Roy F. Weston, Inc./Rogers and Assoc. Engineering Corp., Rockville, MD)

    1984-01-01

    Part of a strategy for evaluating the compliance of geologic repositories with Federal regulations is a modeling approach that would provide realistic release estimates for a particular configuration of the engineered-barrier system. The objective is to avoid worst-case bounding assumptions that are physically impossible or excessively conservative and to obtain probabilitistic estimates of (1) the penetration time for metal barriers and (2) radionuclide-release rates for individually simulated waste packages after penetration has occurred. The conceptual model described in this paper will assume that release rates are explicitly related to such time-dependent processes as mass transfer, dissolution and precipitation, radionuclide decay, and variations in the geochemical environment. The conceptual model will take into account the reduction in the rates of waste-form dissolution and metal corrosion due to a buildup of chemical reaction products. The sorptive properties of the metal-barrier corrosion products in proximity to the waste form surface will also be included. Cumulative released from the engineered-barrier system will be calculated by summing the releases from a probabilistically generated population of individual waste packages. 14 refs., 7 figs

  15. Conceptual model for deriving the repository source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.H.; Apted, M.J.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Doctor, P.G.; Williford, R.E.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1984-11-01

    Part of a strategy for evaluating the compliance of geologic repositories with federal regulations is a modeling approach that would provide realistic release estimates for a particular configuration of the engineered-barrier system. The objective is to avoid worst-case bounding assumptions that are physically impossible or excessively conservative and to obtain probabilistic estimates of (1) the penetration time for metal barriers and (2) radionuclide-release rates for individually simulated waste packages after penetration has occurred. The conceptual model described in this paper will assume that release rates are explicitly related to such time-dependent processes as mass transfer, dissolution and precipitation, radionuclide decay, and variations in the geochemical environment. The conceptual model will take into account the reduction in the rates of waste-form dissolution and metal corrosion due to a buildup of chemical reaction products. The sorptive properties of the metal-barrier corrosion products in proximity to the waste form surface will also be included. Cumulative releases from the engineered-barrier system will be calculated by summing the releases from a probabilistically generated population of individual waste packages. 14 refs., 7 figs

  16. Benchmarking the New RESRAD-OFFSITE Source Term Model with DUST-MS and GoldSim - 13377

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    RESRAD-OFFSITE is a computer code developed by Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is designed on the basis of RESRAD (onsite) code, a computer code designated by DOE and NRC for evaluating soil-contaminated sites for compliance with human health protection requirements pertaining to license termination or environmental remediation. RESRAD-OFFSITE has enhanced capabilities of modeling radionuclide transport to offsite locations and calculating potential radiation exposure to offsite receptors. Recently, a new source term model was incorporated into RESRAD-OFFSITE to enhance its capability further. This new source term model allows simulation of radionuclide releases from different waste forms, in addition to the soil sources originally considered in RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes. With this new source term model, a variety of applications can be achieved by using RESRAD-OFFSITE, including but not limited to, assessing the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. This paper presents the comparison of radionuclide release rates calculated by the new source term model of RESRAD-OFFSITE versus those calculated by DUST-MS and GoldSim, respectively. The focus of comparison is on the release rates of radionuclides from the bottom of the contaminated zone that was assumed to contain radioactive source materials buried in soil. The transport of released contaminants outside of the primary contaminated zone is beyond the scope of this paper. Overall, the agreement between the RESRAD-OFFSITE results and the DUST-MS and GoldSim results is fairly good, with all three codes predicting identical or similar radionuclide release profiles over time. Numerical dispersion in the DUST-MS and GoldSim results was identified as potentially contributing to the disagreement in the release rates. In general, greater discrepancy in the release rates was found for short

  17. Benchmarking the New RESRAD-OFFSITE Source Term Model with DUST-MS and GoldSim - 13377

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C.

    2013-01-01

    RESRAD-OFFSITE is a computer code developed by Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is designed on the basis of RESRAD (onsite) code, a computer code designated by DOE and NRC for evaluating soil-contaminated sites for compliance with human health protection requirements pertaining to license termination or environmental remediation. RESRAD-OFFSITE has enhanced capabilities of modeling radionuclide transport to offsite locations and calculating potential radiation exposure to offsite receptors. Recently, a new source term model was incorporated into RESRAD-OFFSITE to enhance its capability further. This new source term model allows simulation of radionuclide releases from different waste forms, in addition to the soil sources originally considered in RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes. With this new source term model, a variety of applications can be achieved by using RESRAD-OFFSITE, including but not limited to, assessing the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. This paper presents the comparison of radionuclide release rates calculated by the new source term model of RESRAD-OFFSITE versus those calculated by DUST-MS and GoldSim, respectively. The focus of comparison is on the release rates of radionuclides from the bottom of the contaminated zone that was assumed to contain radioactive source materials buried in soil. The transport of released contaminants outside of the primary contaminated zone is beyond the scope of this paper. Overall, the agreement between the RESRAD-OFFSITE results and the DUST-MS and GoldSim results is fairly good, with all three codes predicting identical or similar radionuclide release profiles over time. Numerical dispersion in the DUST-MS and GoldSim results was identified as potentially contributing to the disagreement in the release rates. In general, greater discrepancy in the release rates was found for short

  18. A system dynamics model to evaluate effects of source separation of municipal solid waste management: A case of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukholthaman, Pitchayanin; Sharp, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste has been considered as one of the most immediate and serious problems confronting urban government in most developing and transitional economies. Providing solid waste performance highly depends on the effectiveness of waste collection and transportation process. Generally, this process involves a large amount of expenditures and has very complex and dynamic operational problems. Source separation has a major impact on effectiveness of waste management system as it causes significant changes in quantity and quality of waste reaching final disposal. To evaluate the impact of effective source separation on waste collection and transportation, this study adopts a decision support tool to comprehend cause-and-effect interactions of different variables in waste management system. A system dynamics model that envisages the relationships of source separation and effectiveness of waste management in Bangkok, Thailand is presented. Influential factors that affect waste separation attitudes are addressed; and the result of change in perception on waste separation is explained. The impacts of different separation rates on effectiveness of provided collection service are compared in six scenarios. 'Scenario 5' gives the most promising opportunities as 40% of residents are willing to conduct organic and recyclable waste separation. The results show that better service of waste collection and transportation, less monthly expense, extended landfill life, and satisfactory efficiency of the provided service at 60.48% will be achieved at the end of the simulation period. Implications of how to get public involved and conducted source separation are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical characteristics and methane potentials of source-separated and pre-treated organic municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Svärd, Å; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    A research project has investigated the biogas potential of pre-screened source-separated organic waste. Wastes from five Danish cities have been pre-treated by three methods: screw press; disc screen; and shredder and magnet. This paper outlines the sampling procedure used, the chemical...... composition of the wastes and the estimated methane potentials....

  20. Utilization of solid catfish manure waste as carbon and nutrient source for lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Suan; Li, Jing; Blersch, David M

    2018-04-19

    The aim of this work was to study the solid waste (manure) produced by catfish as a potential feedstock for the production of lactic acid (LA) via fermentation. The solid waste contains high levels of both carbohydrates and nutrients that are sufficient for LA bacteria. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) was applied using enzyme and Lactobacillus pentosus, and different loadings of enzyme and solid waste were tested. Results showed LA concentrations of 35.7 g/L were obtained at 15% solids content of catfish waste. Because of the high nutrient content in the fish waste, it could also be used as supplementary substrate for nitrogen and carbon sources with other lignocellulosic materials. A combined feedstock of catfish waste and paper mill sludge was tested, increasing the final LA concentration to 43.1 g/L at 12% solids loading. The catfish waste was shown to be a potential feedstock to provide both carbon and nutrients for LA production, suggesting its use as a sole substrate or in combination with other lignocellulosic materials.

  1. Minimally processed beetroot waste as an alternative source to obtain functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anne Porto Dalla; Hermes, Vanessa Stahl; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Flôres, Simone Hickmann

    2017-06-01

    Large amounts of waste are generated by the minimally processed vegetables industry, such as those from beetroot processing. The aim of this study was to determine the best method to obtain flour from minimally processed beetroot waste dried at different temperatures, besides producing a colorant from such waste and assessing its stability along 45 days. Beetroot waste dried at 70 °C originates flour with significant antioxidant activity and higher betalain content than flour produced from waste dried at 60 and 80 °C, while chlorination had no impact on the process since microbiological results were consistent for its application. The colorant obtained from beetroot waste showed color stability for 20 days and potential antioxidant activity over the analysis period, thus it can be used as a functional additive to improve nutritional characteristics and appearance of food products. These results are promising since minimally processed beetroot waste can be used as an alternative source of natural and functional ingredients with high antioxidant activity and betalain content.

  2. Estimation of long-term probabilities for inadvertent intrusion into radioactive waste management areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eedy, W.; Hart, D.

    1988-05-01

    The risk to human health from radioactive waste management sites can be calculated as the product of the probability of accidental exposure (intrusion) times the probability of a health effect from such exposure. This report reviews the literature and evaluates methods used to predict the probabilities for unintentional intrusion into radioactive waste management areas in Canada over a 10,000-year period. Methods to predict such probabilities are available. They generally assume a long-term stability in terms of existing resource uses and society in the management area. The major potential for errors results from the unlikeliness of these assumptions holding true over such lengthy periods of prediction

  3. Moving Forward with Lessons Learned About Long-term Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Elizabeth; Dalton, John

    2006-01-01

    A range of lessons have been identified from previous attempts to implement long term radioactive waste management policy in the UK and internationally. Many of these relate to the way the decision-making process is undertaken and the fact that there needs to be an open, transparent process that enables continuous stakeholder involvement. Nirex believes that using the SEA and EIA frameworks will help to incorporate the lessons learned into the future decision-making process relating to long-term radioactive waste management

  4. Moving Forward with Lessons Learned About Long-term Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, Elizabeth; Dalton, John [UK Nirex Ltd., Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    A range of lessons have been identified from previous attempts to implement long term radioactive waste management policy in the UK and internationally. Many of these relate to the way the decision-making process is undertaken and the fact that there needs to be an open, transparent process that enables continuous stakeholder involvement. Nirex believes that using the SEA and EIA frameworks will help to incorporate the lessons learned into the future decision-making process relating to long-term radioactive waste management.

  5. Environmental effects of the long term management of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.C.

    1980-08-01

    Criteria for interim application in uranium mill tailings management, pending the outcome of a thorough investigation of the tailings problem, are outlined. For a closed-out tailings site only passive or natural barriers are to be used to control releases; surface water recharge is to be limited to that from direct natural precipitation, and no permanent water pool will be allowed; all designed systems must be evaluated in terms of their long-term durability; long-term performance and economic guarantees will be required; access must be limited to the maximum extent practical; and pathway analyses should be performed to determine the health, safety and environmental impacts of the expected level of releases. Releases to water should be no greater than those experienced during the operating phase of the facility. Radon emanation should not exceed 2-10 pCi/m 2 .s, and gamma radiation should be reduced to 10-50 μR/hr at 1 metre above the surface. Particulate emissions originating from the tailings material should be virtually non-existent

  6. Optimisation of the neutron source based on gas dynamic trap for transmutation of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikeev, Andrey V.

    2012-06-01

    The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in collaboration with the Russian and foreign organizations develop the project of 14 MeV neutron source, which can be used for fusion material studies and for other application. The projected neutron source of plasma type is based on the plasma Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT), which is a special magnetic mirror system for plasma confinement. Presented work continues the subject of development the GDT-based neutron source (GDT-NS) for hybrid fusion-fission reactors. The paper presents the results of recent numerical optimization of such neutron source for transmutation of the long-lives radioactive wastes in spent nuclear fuel.

  7. Radiolytic gas production during long-term storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    Gases produced by in situ radiolysis of sealed solidified nuclear wastes during long-term storage could conceivably breach containment. Therefore, candidate waste forms (matrices containing simulated nuclear wastes) were irradiated with 60 Co-γ and 244 Cm-α radiation. These forms were: cement containing simulated fission product sludges, vermiculite containing organic liquids, and cellulosics contaminated with α-emitting transuranic isotopes. For cement waste forms exposed to γ-radiolysis, an equilibrium hydrogen pressure was reached that was dose rate dependent. For α-radiolysis, equilibrium was not reached. With organic wastes (n-octane on vermiculite), H 2 and traces of CO 2 and CH 4 were produced, and O 2 was consumed with both radiations. Only energy absorbed by the organic material was effective in producing H 2 . At low dose rates with both α- and γ-irradiations, G(H 2 ) was 4.5 and G(-O 2 ) was 5.0. Also, equilibrium was not obtained. For cellulosic material, H 2 , CO 2 , and CO were produced in the ratio of 1.0:0.7:0.3, and O 2 was consumed. With α-radiolysis, G(gas) was dose dependent; measured values ranged from 2.2 to 0.6 as the dose increased. Implications of all these results on long-term storage of radioactive waste are discussed. Some data from an actual nuclear wasteform are also presented

  8. The influence of source term release parameters on health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ha, Jae Joo

    1998-08-01

    In this study, the influence of source term release parameters on the health effects was examined. This is very useful in identifying the relative importance of release parameters and can be an important factor in developing a strategy for reducing offsite risks. The release parameters investigated in this study are release height, heat content, fuel burnup, release time, release duration, and warning time. The health effects affected by the change of release parameters are early fatalities, cancer fatalities, early injuries, cancer injuries, early fatality risk, population weighted early fatality risk, population weighted cancer fatality risk, effective whole body population dose, population exceeding an early acute red bone marrow dose of 1.5 Sv, and distance at which early fatalities are expected to occur. As release height increases, the values of early health effects such as early fatalities and injuries decrease. However, the release height dose not have significant influences on late health effects. The values of both early and late health effects decrease as heat content increases. The increase fuel burnup, i.e., the increase of core inventories increases the late health effects, however, has small influence on the early health effects. But, the number of early injuries increases as the fuel burnup increases. The effects of release time increase shows very similar influence on both the early and late health effects. As the release time increases to 2 hours, the values of health effects increase and then decrease rapidly. As release duration increases, the values of late health effects increase slightly, however, the values of early health effects decrease. As warning time increases to 2 hours, the values of late health effects decrease and then shows no variation. The number of early injuries decreases rapidly as the warning time increases to 2 hours. However, the number of early fatalities and the early fatality risk increase as the warning time increases

  9. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. ► Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. ► Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. ► Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19–6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20–30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352–450 mL CH 4 /g VS added ) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  10. Long-term interactions of full-scale cemented waste simulates with salt brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, B.; Borkel, C.; Metz, V.; Schlieker, M.

    2016-07-01

    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A significant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO{sub 3} solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1979. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the transferability of results obtained with laboratory samples to real waste forms and at the investigation of the effects of the industrial cementation process on the properties of the waste forms. This research program lasted until 2013. The corroding salt solutions were sampled several times and after termination of the experiments, the solid materials were analyzed by various methods. The results presented in this report cover the evolution of the solutions and the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the solids including radionuclides and waste components, and the paragenesis of solid phases (corrosion products). The outcome is compared to the results of model calculations. For safety analysis, conclusions are drawn on radionuclide retention, evolution of the geochemical environment, evolution of the density of solutions, and effects of temperature and porosity of the cement waste simulates on cesium mobilization.

  11. Long-term interactions of full-scale cemented waste simulates with salt brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzler, B.; Borkel, C.; Metz, V.; Schlieker, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A significant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO 3 solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1979. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the transferability of results obtained with laboratory samples to real waste forms and at the investigation of the effects of the industrial cementation process on the properties of the waste forms. This research program lasted until 2013. The corroding salt solutions were sampled several times and after termination of the experiments, the solid materials were analyzed by various methods. The results presented in this report cover the evolution of the solutions and the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the solids including radionuclides and waste components, and the paragenesis of solid phases (corrosion products). The outcome is compared to the results of model calculations. For safety analysis, conclusions are drawn on radionuclide retention, evolution of the geochemical environment, evolution of the density of solutions, and effects of temperature and porosity of the cement waste simulates on cesium mobilization.

  12. Combustion quality analysis of briquettes from variety of agricultural waste as source of alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.; Yuliah, Y.; Mulyana, C.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing in world population and the industrial sector led to increased demand for energy sources. To do this by utilizing the agricultural waste as a fuel source of alternative energy in the form of bio briquette. The aim at this study was to obtain data onto the characteristics of a wide variety of biomass briquettes from waste agricultural industry. The basic ingredients used are biomass waste from coconut husks, sawdust, rice husks and coffee husks. Each of these biomass residues are dried, crushed, then mixed with starch adhesives. This mixture is molded and dried using sunlight. Each type of briquettes was characterized and analyzed the physical-chemical properties, including calorific value, water content, fixed carbon content and the results were compared with charcoal and coal that was used as fuel in public. The results showed that bio briquettes from coconut husks get the highest calorific value of 4,451 cal/g.

  13. Evolution of safety standards for the long-term management of nuclear waste, and their application in Ontario Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, T.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the need to develop current radiation protection methodologies further in order to take account of the special features of long-term waste management. The need to expand the scope and nature of regulatory submissions is also addressed. It is concluded that an international consensus is emerging as to requirements for a safety case for long-term waste management, and on safety assessment approaches and criteria to be applied in the regulation of long-term waste management facilities. The application of some of this methodology in preliminary concept assessments carried out by OPG for long-term waste management facilities is described. (author)

  14. Regulatory objectives, requirements and guidelines for the disposal of radioactive wastes - long-term aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    It is the purpose of this document to present the regulatory basis for judging the long-term acceptability of radioactive waste disposal options, assuming that the operational aspects of waste emplacement and facility closure satisfy the existing regulatory framework of requirements. Basic objectives of radioactive waste disposal are given, as are the regulatory requirements which must be satisfied in order to achieve these objectives. In addition, guidelines are given on the application of the radiological requirements to assist proponents in the preparation of submissions to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The primary focus of the requirements is on radiation protection, although environmental protection and institutional controls are also addressed in a more general way since these factors stem directly from the overall objectives for radioactive waste disposal

  15. Glossary of terms used in the disposal of high-level wastes: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This glossary provides definitions of words and phrases specific to, or used in a special way in, documents of the US Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. In many cases, two or more definitions of a word or phrase are given. Sources are provided for all definitions. 33 refs

  16. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  17. Wood wastes and residues generated along the Colorado Front Range as a potential fuel source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie E. Ward; Kurt H. Mackes; Dennis L. Lynch

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the United States there is interest in utilizing renewable fuel sources as an alternative to coal and nat-ural gas. This project was initiated to determine the availability of wood wastes and residues for use as fuel in ce-ment kilns and power plants located along the Colorado Front Range. Research was conducted through literature searches, phone surveys,...

  18. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in China Based on Point Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Bo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Citation: Cai, B.-F., Liu, J.-G., Gao, Q.-X., et al., 2014. Estimation of methane emissions from municipal solid waste landfills in China based on point emission sources. Adv. Clim. Change Res. 5(2, doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1248.2014.081.

  19. Insects associated with the composting process of solid urban waste separated at the source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Estela Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcosaprophagous macroinvertebrates (earthworms, termites and a number of Diptera larvae enhance changes in the physical and chemical properties of organic matter during degradation and stabilization processes in composting, causing a decrease in the molecular weights of compounds. This activity makes these organisms excellent recyclers of organic matter. This article evaluates the succession of insects associated with the decomposition of solid urban waste separated at the source. The study was carried out in the city of Medellin, Colombia. A total of 11,732 individuals were determined, belonging to the classes Insecta and Arachnida. Species of three orders of Insecta were identified, Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Diptera corresponding to 98.5% of the total, was the most abundant and diverse group, with 16 families (Calliphoridae, Drosophilidae, Psychodidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Milichiidae, Ulidiidae, Scatopsidae, Sepsidae, Sphaeroceridae, Heleomyzidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae, Phoridae, Tephritidae and Curtonotidae followed by Coleoptera with five families (Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Ptiliidae, Hydrophilidae and Phalacaridae. Three stages were observed during the composting process, allowing species associated with each stage to be identified. Other species were also present throughout the whole process. In terms of number of species, Diptera was the most important group observed, particularly Ornidia obesa, considered a highly invasive species, and Hermetia illuscens, both reported as beneficial for decomposition of organic matter.

  20. DOE progress in assessing the long term performance of waste package materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berusch, A.; Gause, E.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA)[1], the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) is conducting activities to select and characterize candidate sites suitable for the construction and operation of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. DOE is funding three first repository projects: Basalt Waste Isolation Project, BWIP; Nevada Nuclear Waste Isolation Project, NNWSI; and Salt Repository Project Office, SRPO. It is essential in the licensing process that DOE demonstrate to the NRC that the long-term performance of the materials and design will be in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 60.113 on substantially complete containment within the waste packages for 300 to 1000 years and a controlled release rate from the engineered barrier system (EBS) for 10,000 years of 1 part in 10 5 per year for radionuclides present in defined quantities 100 years after permanent closure. Obviously, the time spans involved make it impractical to base the assessment of the long term performance of waste package materials on real time, prototypical testing. The assessment of performance will be implemented by the use of models that are supported by real time field and laboratory tests, monitoring, and natural analog studies. Each of the repository projects is developing a plan for demonstrating long-term waste package material performance depending on the particular materials and the package-perturbed, time-dependent environment under which the materials must function. An overview of progress in each of these activities for each of the projects is provided in the following

  1. Residents’ Household Solid Waste (HSW Source Separation Activity: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed. Based on the survey, the authors used an ordered probit regression to study residents’ HSW source separation activities for both Suzhou and for the five community groups. Results showed that 43% of the respondents in Suzhou thought they knew how to source separate HSW, and 29% of them have source separated HSW accurately. The results also found that the current HSW source separation pilot program in Suzhou is valid, as HSW source separation facilities and residents’ separation behavior both became better and better along with the program implementation. The main determinants of residents’ HSW source separation behavior are residents’ age, HSW source separation facilities and government preferential policies. The accessibility to waste management service is particularly important. Attitudes and willingness do not have significant impacts on residents’ HSW source separation behavior.

  2. Techniques for long term conditioning and storage of radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Gheorghe; Dragolici, Felicia; Nicu, Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    The Horia Hulubei National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering developed its own technology for conditioning the radium spent sealed radioactive sources. The laboratory dedicated to radiological characterization, identification of radium sources as well as the encapsulation of spent sealed radioactive sources was equipped with a local ventilation system, welding devices, tightness test devices as well as radiometric portable devices. Two types of capsules have been designed for conditioning of radium spent sealed radioactive sources. For these kinds of capsules different types of storage packaging were developed. Data on the radium inventory will be presented in the paper. The paper contains the description of the process of conditioning of spent sealed radioactive sources as well as the description of the capsules and packaging. The paper describes the equipment used for the conditioning of the radium spent sealed sources. (authors)

  3. Diverse perspectives on governance on the very long term. Biodiversity, climatic change, CO2 storage, radioactive wastes, space wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeuf, Gilles; Gouyon, Pierre Henry; Rollinger, Francois; Besnus, Francois; Heriard Dubreuil, Gilles; Dahan, Amy; Alby, Fernand; Arnould, Jacques; Fabriol, Hubert; Hoummady, Moussa; Demarcq, Francois; Farret, Regis; Hubert, Philippe; Weber, Jacques; Charton, Patrick; Boissier, Fabrice; Lopez, Mirelle; Devisse, Jean-Jacques; Mathy, Sandrine; Hourcade, Jean-Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Bourcier, Danielle; Roure, Francoise; Henry, Claude; Bartet, Jean Hughes; Calame, Mathieu; Biteau, Benoit; Kastler, Guy; Ducret, Pierre; Berest, Pierre; Charron, Sylvie; Clin, Francois; Gadbois, Serge; Gueritte, Michel; Heriard-Dubreuil, Bertrand; Laville, Bettina; Marie, Michel; Marignac, Yves; Ollagnon, Henry; Pelegrin, Flora; Roure, Francoise; Rouyer, Michel; Schellenberger, Thomas; Toussaint, Jean-Francois

    2013-03-01

    This bibliographical note contains the program of a workshop and a presentation of a book based on the contributions to this workshop proposed by experts, representatives of institutional bodies and associations, or local representatives. This workshop addressed the issue of the governance on the very long term with respect to the management of resources such as climate, geology, biodiversity or space. How to make a possible usage of these resources while ensuring their protection and durability? What are the solutions or new challenges are raising these usages on the very long term? The first part addresses the main challenges and ethical issues for governance on the very long term for each of the examined topics: biodiversity, climatic change, CO 2 storage, radioactive waste storage, and space debris). The next parts propose contributions from different origins and disciplines, present relevant data, and report evidences

  4. Solid waste as an energy source for the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.

    1976-06-01

    This report, one of a series prepared for the BNL study of the Energy Future of the Northeastern United States, presents an assessment of the potential contribution of energy recovery from municipal refuse to energy supply in the region. A brief review of the present and likely future quantity and composition of municipal refuse and the technologies available for energy recovery (Chapters II and III) is followed by a comparison of the potential contributions to energy supply of the various recovery options including direct firing in utility boilers, pyrolysis to oil or gas, and steam generation for industrial process heat or district space heating (Chapter IV). The relationship of refuse energy recovery to market conditions for alternative energy sources is considered in Chapter V, which also includes an analysis of the impact of haul costs, interest rates, and delivered prices of the major fuels. Institutional barriers to implementation of energy recovery are reviewed in Chapter VI, and the environmental implications of the concept are addressed in Chapter VII. In the concluding chapters, scenarios of energy recovery are developed for 1985 and 2000, and the sensitivity of overall energy yield to projections and assumptions is examined. Although even under the most optimistic assumptions, refuse energy recovery is found to contribute only some 5 percent of total regional consumption, the economic and environmental benefits, coupled with the increasing difficulty of finding other refuse disposal alternatives, make energy recovery a very attractive policy choice for helping to relieve future energy supply difficulties in the Northeast. (auth)

  5. DUSTMS-D: DISPOSAL UNIT SOURCE TERM - MULTIPLE SPECIES - DISTRIBUTED FAILURE DATA INPUT GUIDE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Performance assessment of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the source term). The focus of this work is to develop a methodology for calculating the source term. In general, the source term is influenced by the radionuclide inventory, the wasteforms and containers used to dispose of the inventory, and the physical processes that lead to release from the facility (fluid flow, container degradation, wasteform leaching, and radionuclide transport). Many of these physical processes are influenced by the design of the disposal facility (e.g., how the engineered barriers control infiltration of water). The complexity of the problem and the absence of appropriate data prevent development of an entirely mechanistic representation of radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Typically, a number of assumptions, based on knowledge of the disposal system, are used to simplify the problem. This has been done and the resulting models have been incorporated into the computer code DUST-MS (Disposal Unit Source Term-Multiple Species). The DUST-MS computer code is designed to model water flow, container degradation, release of contaminants from the wasteform to the contacting solution and transport through the subsurface media. Water flow through the facility over time is modeled using tabular input. Container degradation models include three types of failure rates: (a) instantaneous (all containers in a control volume fail at once), (b) uniformly distributed failures (containers fail at a linear rate between a specified starting and ending time), and (c) gaussian failure rates (containers fail at a rate determined by a mean failure time, standard deviation and gaussian distribution). Wasteform release models include four release mechanisms: (a) rinse with partitioning (inventory is released instantly upon container failure subject to equilibrium partitioning (sorption) with

  6. Long-term monitoring on environmental disasters using multi-source remote sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Y. C.; Chen, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental disasters are extreme events within the earth's system that cause deaths and injuries to humans, as well as causing damages and losses of valuable assets, such as buildings, communication systems, farmlands, forest and etc. In disaster management, a large amount of multi-temporal spatial data is required. Multi-source remote sensing data with different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions is widely applied on environmental disaster monitoring. With multi-source and multi-temporal high resolution images, we conduct rapid, systematic and seriate observations regarding to economic damages and environmental disasters on earth. It is based on three monitoring platforms: remote sensing, UAS (Unmanned Aircraft Systems) and ground investigation. The advantages of using UAS technology include great mobility and availability in real-time rapid and more flexible weather conditions. The system can produce long-term spatial distribution information from environmental disasters, obtaining high-resolution remote sensing data and field verification data in key monitoring areas. It also supports the prevention and control on ocean pollutions, illegally disposed wastes and pine pests in different scales. Meanwhile, digital photogrammetry can be applied on the camera inside and outside the position parameters to produce Digital Surface Model (DSM) data. The latest terrain environment information is simulated by using DSM data, and can be used as references in disaster recovery in the future.

  7. Application of 10CFR61 to long-term fusion waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to be accepted by the public, as well as by regulatory authorities, fusion reactors will have to meet both quantitative and qualitative criteria for the disposal and/or reuse of radioactive wastes. The most important quantitative criteria, which will be used primarily by the regulatory agencies, are presently codified in 10CFR61, which governs the near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes in the United States. Because of the variety of materials that may be present in a fusion, a large number of activation products could be produced. These isotopes as well as differences in physical form will require revision of 10CFR61 for application to fusion. The qualitative criteria, which will be used by the general public in assessing fusion, are much more difficult to foresee at this time, but will be equally important in determining the viability of fusion as an energy source. Comparisons readily perceived by the public, such as the volumes of waste generated or the robustness of the waste form, will in the end be more important to the acceptance of fusion than comparisons of Curies or man-rems. In the second part of the paper methods developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for reducing low level waste volumes and mobility could be applied to fusion waste to reduce public concerns. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Modular design of processing and storage facilities for small volumes of low and intermediate level radioactive waste including disused sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-15

    A number of IAEA Member States generate relatively small quantities of radioactive waste and/or disused sealed sources in research or in the application of nuclear techniques in medicine and industry. This publication presents a modular approach to the design of waste processing and storage facilities to address the needs of such Member States with a cost effective and flexible solution that allows easy adjustment to changing needs in terms of capacity and variety of waste streams. The key feature of the publication is the provision of practical guidance to enable the users to determine their waste processing and storage requirements, specify those requirements to allow the procurement of the appropriate processing and storage modules and to install and eventually operate those modules.

  9. Municipal solid waste source-separated collection in China: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai Jun; Zhang Weiqian; Che Yue; Feng Di

    2011-01-01

    A pilot program focusing on municipal solid waste (MSW) source-separated collection was launched in eight major cities throughout China in 2000. Detailed investigations were carried out and a comprehensive system was constructed to evaluate the effects of the eight-year implementation in those cities. This paper provides an overview of different methods of collection, transportation, and treatment of MSW in the eight cities; as well as making a comparative analysis of MSW source-separated collection in China. Information about the quantity and composition of MSW shows that the characteristics of MSW are similar, which are low calorific value, high moisture content and high proportion of organisms. Differences which exist among the eight cities in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are presented in this paper. Only Beijing and Shanghai demonstrated a relatively effective result in the implementation of MSW source-separated collection. While the six remaining cities result in poor performance. Considering the current status of MSWM, source-separated collection should be a key priority. Thus, a wider range of cities should participate in this program instead of merely the eight pilot cities. It is evident that an integrated MSWM system is urgently needed. Kitchen waste and recyclables are encouraged to be separated at the source. Stakeholders involved play an important role in MSWM, thus their responsibilities should be clearly identified. Improvement in legislation, coordination mechanisms and public education are problematic issues that need to be addressed.

  10. Generation projection of solid and liquid radioactive wastes and spent radioactive sources in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia A, E.; Hernandez F, I. Y.; Fernandez R, E.; Monroy G, F.; Lizcano C, D.

    2014-10-01

    This work is focused to project the volumes of radioactive aqueous liquid wastes and spent radioactive sources that will be generated in our country in next 15 years, solids compaction and radioactive organic liquids in 10 years starting from the 2014; with the purpose of knowing the technological needs that will be required for their administration. The methodology involves six aspects to develop: the definition of general objectives, to specify the temporary horizon of projection, data collection, selection of the prospecting model and the model application. This approach was applied to the inventory of aqueous liquid wastes, as well as radioactive compaction organic and solids generated in Mexico by non energy applications from the 2001 to 2014, and of the year 1997 at 2014 for spent sources. The applied projection models were: Double exponential smoothing associating the tendency, Simple Smoothing and Lineal Regression. For this study was elected the first forecast model and its application suggests that: the volume of the compaction solid wastes, aqueous liquids and spent radioactive sources will increase respectively in 152%, 49.8% and 55.7%, while the radioactive organic liquid wastes will diminish in 13.15%. (Author)

  11. Materials recovery system for source-separated noncombustible rubbish and bulky waste in Nishinomiya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Yoshihiro

    1987-01-01

    Since 1980, the city of Nishinomiya has been recovering materials from source-separated non-combustible and bulky waste to reduce the amount of final disposal. Materials amounting to 33-39% of the throughput are recovered in the Shredding and Separation Facility, which consists of a manual separation system, a mechanical separation system, a shredder, a pair of shears and incinerators. The facility system is shown in order of processing of the waste. The secondary pollution control, safety equipment, instrumentation, etc., are also described. The recovery percentage and use of revenues are explained in detail.

  12. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... routed to incineration. Emission factors ranged from 27 to 40kg CO2/GJ. The results appeared most sensitive towards variations in waste composition and water content. Recycling rates and lower heating values could not be used as simple indicators of the resulting emission factors for residual household...... different studies and when using the values for environmental assessment purposes....

  13. Integrated system for long-term radioactive waste management in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.; Wisbey, S.

    2003-01-01

    Since the failure of Nirex application to build a Rock Characterisation Facility near Sellafield in 1997, Nirex has been applying lessons learnt from that failure. Some of the issues involved are generic and relate to the process by which legitimate authority can be gained for government policy development, the structure of the nuclear industry and the behaviour of institutions. Transparency must be central to the culture of organisations attempting to win public acceptance. In the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) have started a consultation process - stage one completed in March 2002 - to consult about the safe management of radioactive waste. Nirex has modified its approach to long-term waste management, using a concept of phased (stepwise and reversible) geological disposal. Nirex also provides waste producers with advice on, and endorsement of, the packaging and transport of wastes. Through these examples, this paper will demonstrate how Nirex is providing an integrated approach to the long-term management of radioactive wastes in the UK. (orig.)

  14. Disposal of radioactive waste: can long-term safety be evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The long-term safety of any hazardous waste disposal system must be convincingly shown prior to its implementation. For radioactive wastes, safety assessments over timescales far beyond the normal horizon of social and technical planning have already been conducted in many countries. These assessments provide the principal means to investigate, quantify, and explain long-term safety of each selected disposal concept and site for the appropriate authorities and the public. Such assessments are based on four main elements: definition of the disposal system and its environment, identification of possible processes and events that may affect the integrity of the disposal system, quantification of the radiological impact by predictive modelling, and description of associated uncertainties. The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee and the IAEA International Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee have carefully examined the current scientific methods for safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal systems, as briefly summarized in this report. The Committees have also reviewed the experience now available from using safety assessment methods in many countries, for different disposal concepts and formations, and in the framework of both nationally and internationally conducted studies, as referenced in this report [fr

  15. Quantification of severe accident source terms of a Westinghouse 3-loop plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Min; Ko, Y.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated severe accident analysis codes are used to quantify the source terms of the representative sequences identified in PSA study. The characteristics of these source terms depend on the detail design of the plant and the accident scenario. A historical perspective of radioactive source term is provided. The grouping of radionuclides in different source terms or source term quantification tools based on TID-14844, NUREG-1465, and WASH-1400 is compared. The radionuclides release phenomena and models adopted in the integrated severe accident analysis codes of STCP and MAAP4 are described. In the present study, the severe accident source terms for risk quantification of Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant of Taiwan Power Company are quantified using MAAP 4.0.4 code. A methodology is developed to quantify the source terms of each source term category (STC) identified in the Level II PSA analysis of the plant. The characteristics of source terms obtained are compared with other source terms. The plant analyzed employs a Westinghouse designed 3-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with large dry containment

  16. Source term estimation and the isotopic ratio of radioactive material released from the WIPP repository in New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.

    2016-01-01

    After almost 15 years of operations, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) had one of its waste drums breach underground as a result of a runaway chemical reaction in the waste it contained. This incident occurred on February 14, 2014. Moderate levels of radioactivity were released into the underground air. A small portion of the contaminated underground air also escaped to the surface through the ventilation system and was detected approximately 1 km away from the facility. According to the source term estimation, the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP site was less than 1.5 mCi. The highest activity detected on the surface was 115.2 μBq/m 3 for 241 Am and 10.2 μBq/m 3 for 239+240 Pu at a sampling station located 91 m away from the underground air exhaust point and 81.4 μBq/m 3 of 241 Am and 5.8 μBq/m 3 of 239+240 Pu at a monitoring station located approximately 1 km northwest of the WIPP facility. The dominant radionuclides released were americium and plutonium, in a ratio that matches the content of the breached drum. Air monitoring across the WIPP site intensified following the first reports of radiation detection underground to determine the extent of impact to WIPP personnel, the public, and the environment. In this paper, the early stage monitoring data collected by an independent monitoring program conducted by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC) and an oversight monitoring program conducted by the WIPP's management and operating contractor, the Nuclear Waste Partnership (NWP) LLC were utilized to estimate the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP underground. The Am and Pu isotope ratios were measured and used to support the hypothesis that the release came from one drum identified as having breached that represents a specific waste stream with this radionuclide ratio in its inventory. This failed drum underwent a heat and gas producing reaction that overpowered its vent and

  17. Long term governance of radioactive waste - research and guidance on governance methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.

    2007-01-01

    Our modern society is increasingly faced with challenges and problems that cannot be solved by a purely technical, political or social approach. Radioactive waste disposal site selection and management can be characterised as one of these challenges that require a transdisciplinary approach, integrating social, philosophical and ethical aspects in a 'technical' practice. Along the spirit of this transdisciplinary approach, and in order to ensure the necessary public support for a policy decision regarding this practice, stakeholder involvement is more and more seen as a necessary policy element in the decision making process. The aim is to achieve the broad involvement of individuals from civil society, with significant representation from local communities, elected representatives and NGO's, as well as scientists from outside radioactive waste management organisations, together with established players in the field, such as the implementers of radioactive waste management, public authorities, experts and waste producers. Several initiatives regarding stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management have been taken already in Europe, as well in the research era as in 'the real world'. Among them was the EC FP6 COWAM2 project ('Community Waste Management 2 - Improving the Governance of Nuclear Waste Management and Disposal in Europe') that run from January 2003 to December 2006. The objective of COWAM 2 was to contribute to the actual improvement of the governance of Radioactive Waste Management (RWM) in order to address the issue of geological waste disposal in Europe, by: Better addressing and understanding societal expectations, needs and concerns as regards radioactive waste decision making processes, notably at local and regional levels, taking advantage of the past and ongoing successful and unsuccessful experiences of RWM in the concerned European countries; Increasing societal awareness of and accountability for RWM at local, national and European

  18. Regulatory issues related to long-term storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.; Romanenko, O.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Zhunussova, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Reported material is a result of activity accomplished in the framework of cooperation program between Kazakhstan and Norway within 2009-2012. This work was divided into three distinctive parts, as follows: 1. Analysis of existing threats associated with radioactive wastes in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The objective of this part of the work was to reveal the most important threats in the sphere of radioactive waste management in the Republic of Kazakhstan, which require an increased regulatory attention. Threat assessment needed to identify: main radiological threats both for people who work with radioactive wastes and for population living near the radioactive waste storage places now and in the long term which require an increased regulatory attention; problems that need urgent and detailed analysis; and main problems in the realization of regulatory process in Kazakhstan including weakness in the regulatory and legal framework. Threat assessment analysis showed that in order to reduce the level of threats it was necessary to begin developing a national policy and strategy for radioactive waste management which need to be approved by the Government, to develop proposals for Radioactive Wastes new classification, including identification of relevant categories of Radioactive Wastes, as well as criteria for their disposal in accordance with IAEA recommendations and experience from other countries. 2. Development of new classification system for radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan. Following the results of threat assessment performed within the first stage, the objective of the second part of work was to develop a proposal to adopt a new Radioactive Wastes classification in Kazakhstan in accordance with the IAEA recommendations, including implementation of new categories, taking into account international experience and current situation in Kazakhstan. The result of this stage of work was a proposal for a new Radioactive Wastes classification and

  19. Legal, administrative and financial aspects of long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, Pierre.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive waste management raises technical, political and legal problems. The technical question covers mainly choice of the method and the location for waste disposal or storage: seabed, geologic formations or a disposal facility. The political problem is mainly acceptability by the public of decisions taken or planned by the competent authority. Finally, the legal frame is an important factor in the definition of long-term control. The institutional system to be created requires political consensus and an efficient and credible technique so as to be successful. (NEA) [fr

  20. Design surface covers: an approach to long-term waste site stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; McShane, M.C.

    1983-02-01

    The wide range of existing environmental conditions, potential contaminants and available cover materials at waste disposal sites necessitates site-specific designing of surface covers for effective long-term erosion resistance. This paper presents a systematic approach to designing surface covers for hazardous waste repositories that can be tailored to conditions at any site. The approach consists of three phases: (1) an assessment, during which the degree of required surface protection (erosion potential) is determined; (2) a preliminary design that integrates surface cover design with the need to minimize transport of contaminants; and (3) a final design, where the cost and effectiveness of the surface cover are determined. 1 figure

  1. Evaluation on the long-term durability and leachability of cemented waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Jae Won; Ryue, Young Gerl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    The long-term durability and leachability on the cemented waste form containing boric acids produced in domestic nuclear nuclear power plants were evaluated. Compressive strength of waste form after durability test such as thermal stability and water immersion cycle was higher than before test and consistently increased with increasing of test time in range of 83 of 286 kgf/cm{sup 2}. Long-term leachability was evaluated by standard test methods, leach affecting factors, and prediction of long-term leachability with result data of short-term leach test. In all leach tests, the release of Cs-137 was controlled by diffusion, whereas release of Co-60 was not controlled by diffusion. Leach rate of Cs-137 was relatively constant at standard leach test methods such as NAS 16.1, IAEA, ISO-6961, and MCC-1, but that of Co-60 increased with leachant-renewal frequencies. The leach rate of both Cs-137 and Co-60 increased as test temperature raised. The release of Co-137 decreased in simulated seawater as leachant, but increased with increasing leachant volume. The prediciton of long-term release of Cs-137 from large-scale waste form using the results from short-term leach test of small-scale waste form were within {+-} 5% of actual release. The leachability indexes of Cs-137 were between 6.5 and 7.5 and those of Co-60 were ranged from 11.6 to 13.3, increasing as cumulative leaching time increased. (author). 22 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Source term development for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    A novel method for developing a source term for radiation and hazardous material content of sludge processing equipment and barrels in a new waste water treatment facility is presented in this paper. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), located at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. A process information and hazards analysis document needed a process flowsheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics, and organics throughout the process, including the sludge effluent flow. A hazards analysis for a processing facility usually includes a flowsheet showing the process, materials, heat balances, and instrumentation for that facility. The flow sheet estimates stream flow quantities, activities, compositions, and properties. For the 300 Area TEDF, it was necessary to prepare the flow sheet with all of the information so that radiation doses to workers could be estimated. The noble method used to develop the 300 Area TEDF flowsheet included generating recycle factors. To prepare each component in the flowsheet, precipitation, destruction, and two recycle factors were developed. The factors were entered into a spreadsheet and provided a method of estimating the steady-state concentrations of all of the components in the facility. This report describes how the factors were developed, explains how they were used in developing the flowsheet, and presents the results of using these values to estimate radiation doses for personnel working in the facility. The report concludes with a discussion of the effect of estimates of radioactive and hazardous material concentrations on shielding design and the need for containment features for equipment in the facility

  3. Reassessment of the technical bases for estimating source terms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, M.; Mitchell, J.A.; Meyer, R.O.; Ryder, C.P.

    1986-07-01

    This document describes a major advance in the technology for calculating source terms from postulated accidents at US light-water reactors. The improved technology consists of (1) an extensive data base from severe accident research programs initiated following the TMI accident, (2) a set of coupled and integrated computer codes (the Source Term Code Package), which models key aspects of fission product behavior under severe accident conditions, and (3) a number of detailed mechanistic codes that bridge the gap between the data base and the Source Term Code Package. The improved understanding of severe accident phenonmena has also allowed an identification of significant sources of uncertainty, which should be considered in estimating source terms. These sources of uncertainty are also described in this document. The current technology provides a significant improvement in evaluating source terms over that available at the time of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) and, because of this significance, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff is recommending its use

  4. Wool-waste as organic nutrient source for container-grown plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State University, North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Stratton, Glenn W [Department of Plant and Animal Sciences and Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS, B2N 5E3 (Canada); Pincock, James [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4J3 (Canada); Butler, Stephanie [Department of Plant and Animal Sciences and Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS, B2N 5E3 (Canada); Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A [Mississippi State University, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Nedkov, Nedko K [Research Institute for Roses and Aromatic Crops, 49 Osvobojdenie Blv., Kazanluk (Bulgaria); Gerard, Patrick D [Department of Applied Economics and Statistics, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A container experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that uncomposted wool wastes could be used as nutrient source and growth medium constituent for container-grown plants. The treatments were: (1) rate of wool-waste application (0 or unamended control, 20, 40, 80, and 120 g of wool per 8-in. pot), (2) growth medium constituents [(2.1) wool plus perlite, (2.2) wool plus peat, and (2.3) wool plus peat plus perlite], and (3) plant species (basil and Swiss chard). A single addition of 20, 40, 80, or 120 g of wool-waste to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in pots with growth medium provided four harvests of Swiss chard and five harvests of basil. Total basil yield from the five harvests was 1.6-5 times greater than the total yield from the unamended control, while total Swiss chard yield from the four harvests was 2-5 times greater relative to the respective unamended control. The addition of wool-waste to the growth medium increased Swiss chard and basil tissue N, and NO{sub 3}-N and NH{sub 4}-N in growth medium relative to the unamended control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis of wool fibers sampled at the end of the experiments indicated various levels of decomposition, with some fibers retaining their original surface structure. Furthermore, most of the wool fibers' surfaces contained significant concentrations of S and much less N, P, or K. SEM/EDX revealed that some plant roots grow directly on wool-waste fibers suggesting either (1) root directional growth towards sites with greater nutrient concentration and/or (2) a possible role for roots or root exudates in wool decomposition. Results from this study suggest that uncomposted wool wastes can be used as soil amendment, growth medium constituent, and nutrient source for container-grown plants.

  5. Wool-waste as organic nutrient source for container-grown plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Stratton, Glenn W.; Pincock, James; Butler, Stephanie; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A.; Nedkov, Nedko K.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2009-01-01

    A container experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that uncomposted wool wastes could be used as nutrient source and growth medium constituent for container-grown plants. The treatments were: (1) rate of wool-waste application (0 or unamended control, 20, 40, 80, and 120 g of wool per 8-in. pot), (2) growth medium constituents [(2.1) wool plus perlite, (2.2) wool plus peat, and (2.3) wool plus peat plus perlite], and (3) plant species (basil and Swiss chard). A single addition of 20, 40, 80, or 120 g of wool-waste to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in pots with growth medium provided four harvests of Swiss chard and five harvests of basil. Total basil yield from the five harvests was 1.6-5 times greater than the total yield from the unamended control, while total Swiss chard yield from the four harvests was 2-5 times greater relative to the respective unamended control. The addition of wool-waste to the growth medium increased Swiss chard and basil tissue N, and NO 3 -N and NH 4 -N in growth medium relative to the unamended control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis of wool fibers sampled at the end of the experiments indicated various levels of decomposition, with some fibers retaining their original surface structure. Furthermore, most of the wool fibers' surfaces contained significant concentrations of S and much less N, P, or K. SEM/EDX revealed that some plant roots grow directly on wool-waste fibers suggesting either (1) root directional growth towards sites with greater nutrient concentration and/or (2) a possible role for roots or root exudates in wool decomposition. Results from this study suggest that uncomposted wool wastes can be used as soil amendment, growth medium constituent, and nutrient source for container-grown plants.

  6. [PHAHs levels in soil samples from the E-waste disassembly sites and their sources allocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gao-Feng; Wang, Zi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Soil samples (each with 3 replicates of - 1 kg, at the top 0-5 cm layer) were collected from each of the e-waste disassembly sites and the control site. Also obtained from each disassembly site were samples (each weighing - 0.2 kg) of cable coating,stuffing powder, and circuit boards chipping. The contents of 23 PBB congeners, 12 PBDE congeners, and 27 PCB congeners in soil and in their potential sources, including e-waste residues, were measured using the GC-MS5975B technique. The highest level of PBBs was found in the cable coating among the three e-waste residues, with a concentration of 35.25 ng x g(-1). The contents of low-brominated PBBs (including monobromobiphenyls and dibromobiphenyls) accounted for 38% of the total PBBs concentration observed in cable coating sample. The highest levels of PBDEs and PBDE209 were found in the stuffing powder for electronic component among the collected e-waste residues, with a concentration of 29.71 and 4.19 x 10(3) ng x g(-1). PBDE153 and PBDE183 were the most predominant PBDE congeners, with their concentration accounting for 43% and 24% of the total PBDEs concentration observed in the stuffing powder sample, respectively. Levels of PCBs in cable coating were the highest in these e-waste residues, with a concentration of 680.02 ngx g(-1). The observed values of the three PHAHs in soils from the disassembly site were considerably higher than their corresponding values observed in the control site (p < 0.05), which indicates that these PHAHs from e-waste is the pollution source of local environment.

  7. An assessment of biomass as an energy source: the case of energy from waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Alexi; Elliott, David

    2002-01-01

    Given that biomass plays a part in a complex natural cycle of decay and re-growth, providing the feedstock for a variety of often slow and subtle natural cycles, there are clearly limits to how much can be burnt without undermining key biological processes. This paper focuses on energy from waste, since, we argue, waste combustion is one of the more problematic options in terms of environmental sustainability, and we attempt to make a preliminary life cycle assessment of its impact. This suggests that the overall impact will depend not just on the total amount of wastes combusted, but also on their specific organic qualities, and on their role if they had not been diverted, in particular their role in maintaining soil quality. Given that soil plays a significant part in the process of carbon sequestration, we argue that consideration should be given to the concept of conservation of organic potentials. (Author)

  8. Long term safety requirements and safety indicators for the assessment of underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovk, Ivan

    1998-01-01

    This presentation defines: waste disposal, safety issues, risk estimation; describes the integrated waste disposal process including quality assurance program. Related to actinides inventory it shows the main results of calculated activity obtained by deterministic estimation. It includes the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards and requirements; features related to site, design and waste package characteristics, as technical long term safety criteria for radioactive waste disposal facilities. Fundamental concern regarding the safety of radioactive waste disposal systems is their radiological impact on human beings and the environment. Safety requirements and criteria for judging the level of safety of such systems have been developed and there is a consensus among the international community on their basis within the well-established system of radiological protection. So far, however, little experience has been gained in applying long term safety criteria to actual disposal systems; consequently, there is an international debate on the most appropriate nature and form of the criteria to be used, taking into account the uncertainties involved. Emerging from the debate is the increasing conviction that the combined use of a variety of indicators would be advantageous in addressing the issue of reasonable assurance in the different time frames involved and in supporting the safety case for any particular repository concept. Indicators including risk, dose, radionuclide concentration, transit time, toxicity indices, fluxes at different points within the system, and barrier performance have all been identified as potentially relevant. Dose and risk are the indicators generally seen as most fundamental, as they seek directly to describe the radiological impact of a disposal system, and these are the ones that have been incorporated into most national standards to date. There are, however, certain problems in applying them. Application of a variety of different indicators

  9. An approach for evaluating the effects of source separation on municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanskanen, J.H. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    An approach was developed for integrated analysis of recovery rates, waste streams, costs and emissions of municipal solid waste management (MSWM). The approach differs from most earlier models used in the strategic planning of MSWM because of a comprehensive analysis of on-site collection systems of waste materials separated at source for recovery. As a result, the recovery rates and sizes of waste streams can be calculated on the basis of the characteristics of separation strategies instead of giving them as input data. The modelling concept developed can also be applied in other regions, municipalities and districts. This thesis consists of four case studies. Three of these were performed to test the approach developed and to evaluate the effects of separation on MSWM in Finland. In these case studies the approach was applied for modelling: (1) Finland's national separation strategy for municipal solid waste, (2) the effects of separation on MSWM systems in the Helsinki region and (3) the efficiency of various waste collection methods in the Helsinki region. The models developed for these three case studies are static and linear simulation models which were constructed in the format of an Excel spreadsheet. In addition, a new version of the original Swedish MIMES/Waste model was constructed and applied in one of the case studies. The case studies proved that the approach is an applicable tool for various research settings and circumstances in the strategic planning of MSWM. The following main results were obtained from the case studies: A high recovery rate level (around 70 %wt) can be achieved in MSWM without incineration; Central sorting of mixed waste must be included in Finland's national separation strategy in order to reach the recovery rate targets of 50 %wt (year 2000) and 70 %wt (year 2005) adopted for municipal solid waste in the National Waste Plan. The feasible source separation strategies result in recovery rates around 35-40 %wt with the

  10. Source term estimation via monitoring data and its implementation to the RODOS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohunova, J.; Duranova, T.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology and computer code for interpretation of environmental data, i.e. source term assessment, from on-line environmental monitoring network was developed. The method is based on the conversion of measured dose rates to the source term, i.e. airborne radioactivity release rate, taking into account real meteorological data and location of the monitoring points. The bootstrap estimation methodology and bipivot method to estimate the source term from on-site gamma dose rate monitors is used. The mentioned methods provide an estimate of the mean value of the source term and a confidence interval for it. (author)

  11. Microbial processes relevant for the long-term performance of radioactive waste repositories in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleshyn, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A number of investigations on occurrence and viability of microbes in compacted clays have been aimed at studying possible microbial effects on long-term performance of a deep geological repository (DGR) for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SF). Compacted clays are considered in current DGR designs either as a buffer material or as a host rock. The primary purpose of the present work was to qualitatively evaluate the relevance of microbial activity for the long-term performance of a DGR and to identify which safety-relevant processes and properties can be potentially influenced by this activity. The present analysis identified eight clay properties essential for maintaining safety functions of containment and retardation of the disposal system - swelling pressure, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, anion sorption capacity, porosity, permeability, fluid pressure, plasticity - which can potentially be influenced by microbial processes in clay buffer and Clay-stone within a DGR for HLW/SF. Iron(III)- and sulphate-reducing, fermentative, methane-producing and oxidizing microbes can be considered to be present in any clay formation. Each habitat includes a massive number of microbial niches with perhaps only a small proportion of the species being metabolically active at the habitat's conditions, the remainder becoming not extinct. Moreover, clays contain electron donors and electron acceptors in amounts sufficient for these microbes to remain active during very long periods of time. Additional sources of electron donors or electron acceptors will inevitably be added to the repository system as a result of DGR excavation, placement of radioactive waste as well as backfilling and sealing of the DGR. In no case should the potential impact of microbes be underestimated based on a possible argument of comparably low biomass of the microbes in contact with metal surfaces or dissolved

  12. Feasibility study on utilization of vitrified radioactive waste as radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Yoshii, Fumio; Hyakutake, Kenichiro

    1995-01-01

    A feasibility study on utilization of vitrified high level radioactive waste (VW) as radiation source has been carried out. Natural rubber latex was radiation vulcanized with VW to demonstrate the feasibility. The dose rate was 0.1 kGy/hr. As a sensitizer, n-butyl acrylate was added. Negligible small activation of natural rubber (NR) latex by neutron from the VW was observed. The residual sensitizer in the irradiated latex and physical properties of film molded from the irradiated latex were the same level with the conventional radiation vulcanization of NR latex with γ-rays from Co-60. Surgical gloves and protective rubber gloves for radioactive contamination were produced from 20 litters of NR latex vulcanized with 2 VWs. The physical properties of both gloves were acceptable. These results suggested that vitrified high level waste can be used as an industrial radiation source. (author)

  13. Characterization, Improvement and Long Term Evaluation Of Cementitious Waste Products. An Indian Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaeotikar, R.G.; Rakesh, R.R.; Shirole, A.; Paul, B.; Valsala, T.P.; Choudhury, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Cement is a very good matrix for immobilization for different types of wastes. In India, the cementation process has been adopted and used for the last four decades. Depending on the waste composition, there is need to formulate the cement waste matrix appropriately to ensure adequate compressive strength and chemical durability. This has been achieved by using different additives/backfill materials during the cementation process with cements for example Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Slag Based Cements (SBC). Backfill materials studied include vermiculite and bentonite. They were evaluated for sorption characteristics, particle size distribution, water equilibration, etc. They were incorporated in the OPC-CWP (Cement Waste Product) with various waste compositions. The composition developed for ILW generated during reprocessing and during spent solvent hydrolysis were successfully adopted on a plant scale. Some of the compositions which are being developed are also in the process of being adopted in-plant. The long-term evaluation study of the CWP was carried out at actual site conditions where CWP in carbon steel drum, plastic drums and bare CWP were disposed in 2001 and removed in 2010: parameters including compressive strength and release of activity to the soil were measured. (author)

  14. Materials interactions relating to long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass, the glass will eventually interact with groundwater in the repository system. Interactions can also occur between the glass and other waste package materials that are present. These include the steel canister that holds the glass, the metal overpack over the canister, backfill materials that may be used, and the repository host rock. This review paper systematizes the additional interactions that materials in the waste package will impose on the borosilicate glass waste form-groundwater interactions. The repository geologies reviewed are tuff, salt, basalt, and granite. The interactions emphasized are those appropriate to conditions expected after repository closure, e.g. oxic vs anoxic conditions. Whenever possible, the effect of radiation from the waste form on the interactions is examined. The interactions are evaluated based on their effect on the release and speciation of various elements including radionuclides from the glass. It is noted when further tests of repository interactions are needed before long-term predictions can be made. 63 references, 1 table

  15. Long-term storage of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Under Federal law, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for safe disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste (GTCC LLW) generated by licenses of the Nuclear Regulatory commission (NRC) or Agreement States. Such waste must be disposed of in a facility licensed by the NRC. It is unlikely that licensed disposal of GTCC LLW will be available prior to the year 2010. Pending availability of disposal capacity, DOE is assessing the need for collective, long-term storage of GTCC LLW. Potential risks to public health and safety caused by long-term storage of GTCC LLW at the place of generation will be evaluated to determine if alternative facilities are warranted. If warranted, several options will be investigated to determine the preferred alternative for long-term storage. These options include modification of an existing DOE facility, development of a new DOE facility, or development of a facility by the private sector with or without DOE support. Reasonable costs for long-term storage would be borne by the waste generators. 5 refs., 1 fig

  16. Emergency preparedness source term development for the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards-Licensed Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, S.L.; Mishima, J.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Lindsey, C.G.

    1984-08-01

    In order to establish requirements for emergency preparedness plans at facilities licensed by the Office of Nuclear Materials Safety and Safeguards, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) needs to develop source terms (the amount of material made airborne) in accidents. These source terms are used to estimate the potential public doses from the events, which, in turn, will be used to judge whether emergency preparedness plans are needed for a particular type of facility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing the NRC with source terms by developing several accident scenarios for eleven types of fuel cycle and by-product operations. Several scenarios are developed for each operation, leading to the identification of the maximum release considered for emergency preparedness planning (MREPP) scenario. The MREPP scenarios postulated were of three types: fire, tornado, and criticality. Fire was significant at oxide fuel fabrication, UF 6 production, radiopharmaceutical manufacturing, radiopharmacy, sealed source manufacturing, waste warehousing, and university research and development facilities. Tornadoes were MREPP events for uranium mills and plutonium contaminated facilities, and criticalities were significant at nonoxide fuel fabrication and nuclear research and development facilities. Techniques for adjusting the MREPP release to different facilities are also described

  17. Spent fuel, plutonium and nuclear waste: long-term management; Le combustible use et le plutonium en tant que dechets nucleaires: gestion a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, G

    1998-11-01

    Different options for the management of nuclear waste arising from the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Special emphasis is on reprocessing followed by geological disposal, geological disposal of reprocessing waste, direct geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, long term storage. Particular emphasis is on the management of plutonium including recycling, immobilisation and disposal, partitioning and transmutation.

  18. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE USSR: A REVIEW OF UNCLASSIFIED SOURCES, 1963-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D. J.; Schneider, K. J.

    1990-03-01

    year capacity as the first of several modules, was about 30% completed by July 1989. The completion of this plant was subsequently "indefinitely postponed." The initial reprocessing scheme at the Kyshtym site used sodium uranyl acetate precipitation from fuel dissolved in nitric acid solutions. The basic method~ ology now appears to be based on the conventional PUREX process. Dry reprocessing on a pilot or laboratory scale has been under way in Dimitrovgrad since 1984, and a larger unit is now being built, according to the French CEA. Perhaps significantly, much research is being done on partitioning high-level waste into element fractions. The Soviets appear to have the technology to remove radioactive noble gases released during reprocessing operations; however, there are no indications of its implementation. Millions of curies of liquid low- and intermediate-level wastes have been disposed of by well injection into underground areas where they were supposedly contained by watertight rock strata. Some gaseous wastes were also disposed of by well injection. This practice is not referred to in recent literature and thus may not be widely used today. Rather, it appears that these waste streams are now first treated to reduce volume, and then solidified using bitumen or concrete. These solidified liquid wastes from Soviet nuclear power reactor operations, along with solid wastes, are disposed of in shallow-land burial sites located at most large power reactor stations. In addition, 35 shallow-land burial sites have been alluded to by the Soviets for disposal of industrial, medical, and research low-level wastes as well as ionization sources. Research on tritium-bearing and other gaseous wastes is mentioned, as well as a waste minimization program aimed at reducing the volume of waste streams by 30%. The Soviets have announced that their high-level waste management plan is to 1) store liquid wastes for 3-5 years; 2) incorporate the waste into glass (at a final glass

  19. Process performance and modelling of anaerobic digestion using source-sorted organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin

    2018-01-01

    Three distinctive start-up strategies of biogas reactors fed with source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste were investigated to reveal the most reliable procedure for rapid process stabilization. Moreover, the experimental results were compared with mathematical modeling outputs....... The combination of both experimental and modelling/simulation succeeded in optimizing the start-up process for anaerobic digestion of biopulp under mesophilic conditions....

  20. Determination of source terms in a degenerate parabolic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannarsa, P; Tort, J; Yamamoto, M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we prove Lipschitz stability results for inverse source problems relative to parabolic equations. We use the method introduced by Imanuvilov and Yamamoto in 1998 based on Carleman estimates. What is new here is that we study a class of one-dimensional degenerate parabolic equations. In our model, the diffusion coefficient vanishes at one extreme point of the domain. Instead of the classical Carleman estimates obtained by Fursikov and Imanuvilov for non degenerate equations, we use and extend some recent Carleman estimates for degenerate equations obtained by Cannarsa, Martinez and Vancostenoble. Finally, we obtain Lipschitz stability results in inverse source problems for our class of degenerate parabolic equations both in the case of a boundary observation and in the case of a locally distributed observation

  1. Reference biospheres for the long term safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Torres, C.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory guidance on the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposals usually requires the consequences of any radionuclide releases to be considered in terms of their potential impact on human health. This requires consideration of the prevailing biosphere and the habits of the potentially exposed humans within it. However, it could take many thousands of years for migrating radionuclides to reach the surface environment. In these circumstances, an assessment model that was based on the present-day biosphere could be inappropriate while future biospheres would be unpredictable. These and other considerations suggest that a standardised, or reference biosphere, approach may be useful. Theme 1 of the IAEA BIOMASS project was established to develop the concept of reference biospheres into a practical system that can be applied to the assessment of the long term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. The technical phase of the project lasted for four years until November 2000 and brought together disparate interests from many countries including waste disposal agencies, regulators and technical experts. Building on the experience from earlier BIOMOVS projects, a methodology was constructed for the logical and defensible construction of mathematical biosphere models that can be used in the total system performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The methodology was then further developed through the creation of a series of BIOMASS Example Reference Biospheres ('Examples'). These are stylised biosphere models that, in addition to illustrating the methodology, are intended to be useful assessment tools in their own right. (author)

  2. A simplified radionuclide source term for total-system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    A parametric model for releases of radionuclides from spent-nuclear-fuel containers in a waste repository is presented. The model is appropriate for use in preliminary total-system performance assessments of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; for this reason it is simpler than the models used for detailed studies of waste-package performance. Terms are included for releases from the spent fuel pellets, from the pellet/cladding gap and the grain boundaries within the fuel pellets, from the cladding of the fuel rods, and from the radioactive fuel-assembly parts. Multiple barriers are considered, including the waste container, the fuel-rod cladding, the thermal ''dry-out'', and the waste form itself. The basic formulas for release from a single fuel rod or container are extended to formulas for expected releases for the whole repository by using analytic expressions for probability distributions of some important parameters. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion of source segregated brown water (feces-without-urine) and food waste: For Singapore context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, Rajinikanth; Lim, Jun Wei; Mao, Yu; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of brown water (BW) [feces-without-urine] and food waste (FW) in decentralized, source-separation-based sanitation concept. An effort has been made to separate the yellow water (urine) and brown water from the source (using no-mix toilet) primarily to facilitate further treatment, resource recovery and utilization. Batch assay analytical results indicated that anaerobic co-digestion [BW + FW] showed higher methane yield (0.54–0.59 L CH 4 /gVS added ) than BW or FW as a sole substrate. Anaerobic co-digestion was performed in the semi-continuously fed laboratory scale reactors viz. two-phase continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and single-stage sequencing-batch operational mode reactor (SeqBR). Initial 120 d of operation shows that SeqBR performed better in terms of organic matter removal and maximum methane production. At steady-state, CODs, CODt, VS removals of 92.0 ± 3.0, 76.7 ± 5.1 and 75.7 ± 6.6% were achieved for SeqBR at 16 d HRT, respectively. This corresponds to an OLR of 2–3 gCOD/L d and methane yield of about 0.41 L CH 4 /gVS added . Good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA, showing better process stability of SeqBR at higher loading rates. The positive findings show the great potential of applying anaerobic co-digestion of BW + FW for energy production and waste management. In addition, daily flush water consumption is reduced up to 80%. Decentralized, source-separation-based sanitation concept is expected to provide a practical solution for those countries experiencing rapid urbanization and water shortage issues, for instance Singapore. - Highlights: ► Source separation of organic waste/wastewater streams on household level was done. ► Brown water (BW) was collected from a specially designed no-mix toilet. ► BW and food waste codigestion proved as a potential substrate for biogas production. ► A distinct improvement in methane yield

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of source segregated brown water (feces-without-urine) and food waste: For Singapore context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, Rajinikanth, E-mail: rrajinime@yahoo.co.in [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141 Singapore (Singapore); Lim, Jun Wei [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141 Singapore (Singapore); Mao, Yu [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141 Singapore (Singapore); School of Energy and Environmental Sciences, Yunnan Normal University, 121 Street, Kunming 650092 China (China); Chen, Chia-Lung [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141 Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Jing-Yuan [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141 Singapore (Singapore); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of brown water (BW) [feces-without-urine] and food waste (FW) in decentralized, source-separation-based sanitation concept. An effort has been made to separate the yellow water (urine) and brown water from the source (using no-mix toilet) primarily to facilitate further treatment, resource recovery and utilization. Batch assay analytical results indicated that anaerobic co-digestion [BW + FW] showed higher methane yield (0.54–0.59 L CH{sub 4}/gVS{sub added}) than BW or FW as a sole substrate. Anaerobic co-digestion was performed in the semi-continuously fed laboratory scale reactors viz. two-phase continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and single-stage sequencing-batch operational mode reactor (SeqBR). Initial 120 d of operation shows that SeqBR performed better in terms of organic matter removal and maximum methane production. At steady-state, CODs, CODt, VS removals of 92.0 ± 3.0, 76.7 ± 5.1 and 75.7 ± 6.6% were achieved for SeqBR at 16 d HRT, respectively. This corresponds to an OLR of 2–3 gCOD/L d and methane yield of about 0.41 L CH{sub 4}/gVS{sub added}. Good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA, showing better process stability of SeqBR at higher loading rates. The positive findings show the great potential of applying anaerobic co-digestion of BW + FW for energy production and waste management. In addition, daily flush water consumption is reduced up to 80%. Decentralized, source-separation-based sanitation concept is expected to provide a practical solution for those countries experiencing rapid urbanization and water shortage issues, for instance Singapore. - Highlights: ► Source separation of organic waste/wastewater streams on household level was done. ► Brown water (BW) was collected from a specially designed no-mix toilet. ► BW and food waste codigestion proved as a potential substrate for biogas production. ► A distinct improvement

  6. Continuous fermentation of food waste leachate for the production of volatile fatty acids and potential as a denitrification carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hakchan; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Hwang, Seokhwan; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the simultaneous effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and pH on the continuous production of VFAs from food waste leachate using response surface analysis. The response surface approximations (R(2)=0.895, p<0.05) revealed that pH has a dominant effect on the specific VFA production (PTVFA) within the explored space (1-4-day HRT, pH 4.5-6.5). The estimated maximum PTVFA was 0.26g total VFAs/g CODf at 2.14-day HRT and pH 6.44, and the approximation was experimentally validated by running triplicate reactors under the estimated optimum conditions. The mixture of the filtrates recovered from these reactors was tested as a denitrification carbon source and demonstrated superior performance in terms of reaction rate and lag length relative to other chemicals, including acetate and methanol. The overall results provide helpful information for better design and control of continuous fermentation for producing waste-derived VFAs, an alternative carbon source for denitrification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulatory impact of nuclear reactor accident source term assumptions. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasedag, W.F.; Blond, R.M.; Jankowski, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    This report addresses the reactor accident source term implications on accident evaluations, regulations and regulatory requirements, engineered safety features, emergency planning, probabilistic risk assessment, and licensing practice. Assessment of the impact of source term modifications and evaluation of the effects in Design Basis Accident analyses, assuming a change of the chemical form of iodine from elemental to cesium iodide, has been provided. Engineered safety features used in current LWR designs are found to be effective for all postulated combinations of iodine source terms under DBA conditions. In terms of potential accident consequences, it is not expected that the difference in chemical form between elemental iodine and cesium iodide would be significant. In order to account for the current information on source terms, a spectrum of accident scenerios is discussed to realistically estimate the source terms resulting from a range of potential accident conditions

  8. The effect of using different sources of dry materials on waste-form grout properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    A reference grout formulation had been developed for a liquid low-level radioactive waste using the following dry materials: ground limestone, ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement. The effect of varying the sources of these dry materials are tested. Two limestones, two fly ashes, two cements, and eight slags were tested. Varying the source of dry materials significantly affected the grout properties, but only the 28-d free-standing liquid varied outside of the preferred range. A statistical technique, Tukey's paired comparison, can be used to ascertain whether a given combination of dry materials resulted in grout properties significantly different from those of other combinations of dry materials

  9. Source Term Analysis of the Irradiated Graphite in the Core of HTR-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuegang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR has potential utilization due to its featured characteristics such as inherent safety and wide diversity of utilization. One distinct difference between HTGR and traditional pressurized water reactor (PWR is the large inventory of graphite in the core acting as reflector, moderator, or structure materials. Some radionuclides will be generated in graphite during the period of irradiation, which play significant roles in reactor safety, environmental release, waste disposal, and so forth. Based on the actual operation of the 10 MW pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-10 in Tsinghua University, China, an experimental study on source term analysis of the irradiated graphite has been done. An irradiated graphite sphere was randomly collected from the core of HTR-10 as sample in this study. This paper focuses on the analytical procedure and the establishment of the analytical methodology, including the sample collection, graphite sample preparation, and analytical parameters. The results reveal that the Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Eu-154 are the major γ contributors, while H-3 and C-14 are the dominating β emitting nuclides in postirradiation graphite material of HTR-10. The distribution profiles of the above four nuclides are also presented.

  10. Release of radionuclides following severe accident in interim storage facility. Source term determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandi, S.; Mariani, M.; Giacobbo, F.; Covini, R.

    2006-01-01

    Among the severe accidents that can cause the release of radionuclides from an interim storage facility, with a consequent relevant radiological impact on the population, there is the impact of an aircraft on the facility. In this work, a safety assessment analysis for the case of an aircraft crash into an interim storage facility is tackled. To this aim a methodology, based upon DOE, IAEA and NUREG standard procedures and upon conservative yet realistic hypothesis, has been developed in order to evaluate the total radioactivity, source term, released to the biosphere in consequence of the impact, without recurring to the use of complicated numerical codes. The procedure consists in the identification of the accidental scenarios, in the evaluation of the consequent damage to the building structures and to the waste packages and in the determination of the total release of radionuclides through the building-atmosphere interface. The methodology here developed has been applied to the case of an aircraft crash into an interim storage facility currently under design. Results show that in case of perforation followed by a fire incident the total released activity would be greater of some orders of magnitude with respect to the case of mere perforation. (author)

  11. Revised reactor accident source terms in the U.S. and implementation for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, L.; Lee, J.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Current NRC reactor accident source terms used for licensing are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4 and specify that 100 % of the core inventory of noble gases and 25 % of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental (I 2 ) iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear plant designs. Severe accident research results have confirmed that although the current source term is very substantial and has resulted in a very high level of plant capability, the present source term is no longer compatible with a realistic understanding of severe accidents. The NRC has issued a proposed revision of the reactor accident source terms as part of several regulatory activities to incorporate severe accident insights for future plants. A revision to 10 CFR 100 is also being proposed to specify site criteria directly and to eliminate source terms and doses for site evaluation. Reactor source terms will continue to be important in evaluating plant designs. Although intended primarily for future plants, existing and evolutionary power plants may voluntarily apply revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. The proposed revised accident source terms are presented in terms of fission product composition, magnitude, timing and iodine chemical form. Some implications for light water reactors are discussed. (author)

  12. Parameter values for the long-term nuclear waste management food chain model LIMCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, Reto.

    1982-09-01

    Eighteen parameters of LIMCAL, a comprehensive food chain model for predicting ICRP 26 50-year committed effective dose equivalents to man due to long-term nuclear waste management are reviewed. The parameters are: soil bulk density, plowlayer depth, soil surface layer depth, resusupension factor, atmospheric dust load, deposition velocity, plant interception fraction, plant environmental half-time, translocation factor, time of above-ground exposure, plant yield, holdup time, animals' feed consumption rate, animals' water consumption rate, man's water consumption rate, food type calorie conversion factors, man's total caloric intake rate and food type calorie fractions. LIMCAL has both traditional and unique parameters. The former occur in most of the currently used assessment models for nuclear installations, whereas the latter do not. For each of the parameters of LIMCAL, a suitable generic value for long-term nuclear waste management was determined. Thus, the general literature and the values currently used or recommended by various agencies were reviewed

  13. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  14. Design of the Long-term Waste Management Facility for Historic LLRW Port Hope Project - 13322

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Don; Barton, David [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Drive, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 1C2 (Canada); Case, Glenn [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, Ontario L1A 3S4 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Municipality of Port Hope is located on the northern shores of Lake Ontario approximately 100 km east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Starting in the 1930's, radium and later uranium processing by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited (subsequently Eldorado Nuclear Limited) (Eldorado) at their refinery in Port Hope resulted in the generation of process residues and wastes that were disposed of indiscriminately throughout the Municipality until about the mid-1950's. These process residues contained radium (Ra- 226), uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Between 1944 and 1988, Eldorado was a Federal Crown Corporation, and as such, the Canadian Federal Government has assumed responsibility for the clean-up and long-term management of the historic waste produced by Eldorado during this period. The Port Hope Project involves the construction and development of a new long-term waste management facility (LTWMF), and the remediation and transfer of the historic wastes located within the Municipality of Port Hope to the new LTWMF. The new LTWMF will consist of an engineered above-ground containment mound designed to contain and isolate the wastes from the surrounding environment for the next several hundred years. The design of the engineered containment mound consists of a primary and secondary composite base liner system and composite final cover system, made up of both natural materials (e.g., compacted clay, granular materials) and synthetic materials (e.g., geo-synthetic clay liner, geo-membrane, geo-textiles). The engineered containment mound will cover an area of approximately 13 hectares and will contain the estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of waste that will be generated from the remedial activities within Port Hope. The LTWMF will also include infrastructure and support facilities such as access roads, administrative offices, laboratory, equipment and personnel decontamination facilities, waste water treatment plant and other ancillary facilities

  15. Design of the Long-term Waste Management Facility for Historic LLRW Port Hope Project - 13322

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Don; Barton, David; Case, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    The Municipality of Port Hope is located on the northern shores of Lake Ontario approximately 100 km east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Starting in the 1930's, radium and later uranium processing by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited (subsequently Eldorado Nuclear Limited) (Eldorado) at their refinery in Port Hope resulted in the generation of process residues and wastes that were disposed of indiscriminately throughout the Municipality until about the mid-1950's. These process residues contained radium (Ra- 226), uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Between 1944 and 1988, Eldorado was a Federal Crown Corporation, and as such, the Canadian Federal Government has assumed responsibility for the clean-up and long-term management of the historic waste produced by Eldorado during this period. The Port Hope Project involves the construction and development of a new long-term waste management facility (LTWMF), and the remediation and transfer of the historic wastes located within the Municipality of Port Hope to the new LTWMF. The new LTWMF will consist of an engineered above-ground containment mound designed to contain and isolate the wastes from the surrounding environment for the next several hundred years. The design of the engineered containment mound consists of a primary and secondary composite base liner system and composite final cover system, made up of both natural materials (e.g., compacted clay, granular materials) and synthetic materials (e.g., geo-synthetic clay liner, geo-membrane, geo-textiles). The engineered containment mound will cover an area of approximately 13 hectares and will contain the estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of waste that will be generated from the remedial activities within Port Hope. The LTWMF will also include infrastructure and support facilities such as access roads, administrative offices, laboratory, equipment and personnel decontamination facilities, waste water treatment plant and other ancillary facilities. Preliminary

  16. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Christopher P., E-mail: cj0810@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Brenner, Ceri M. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Stitt, Camilla A. [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Mirfayzi, Seyed R. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wilson, Lucy A. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Allott, Ric [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Butler, Nicholas M.H. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Clarke, Robert J.; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Higginson, Adam [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Murphy, Christopher [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Notley, Margaret [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Jowsey, John [Ground Floor North B582, Sellafield Ltd, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • X-ray generation was achieved via laser interaction with a tantalum thin foil target. • Picosecond X-ray pulse from a sub-mm spot generated high resolution images. • MeV X-ray emission is possible, permitting analysis of full scale waste containers. • In parallel neutron emission of 10{sup 7}–10{sup 9} neutrons per steradian per pulse was attained. • Development of a 10 Hz diode pumped laser system for waste monitoring is envisioned. - Abstract: A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28 mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500 keV), with a source size of <0.5 mm. BAS-TR and BAS-SR image plates were used for image capture, alongside a newly developed Thalium doped Caesium Iodide scintillator-based detector coupled to CCD chips. The uranium penny was clearly resolved to sub-mm accuracy over a 30 cm{sup 2} scan area from a single shot acquisition. In addition, neutron generation was demonstrated in situ with the X-ray beam, with a single shot, thus demonstrating the potential for multi-modal criticality testing of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10 Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned.

  17. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher P.; Brenner, Ceri M.; Stitt, Camilla A.; Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R.; Mirfayzi, Seyed R.; Wilson, Lucy A.; Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad; Allott, Ric; Butler, Nicholas M.H.; Clarke, Robert J.; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina; Higginson, Adam; Murphy, Christopher; Notley, Margaret; Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos; Jowsey, John

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • X-ray generation was achieved via laser interaction with a tantalum thin foil target. • Picosecond X-ray pulse from a sub-mm spot generated high resolution images. • MeV X-ray emission is possible, permitting analysis of full scale waste containers. • In parallel neutron emission of 10"7–10"9 neutrons per steradian per pulse was attained. • Development of a 10 Hz diode pumped laser system for waste monitoring is envisioned. - Abstract: A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28 mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500 keV), with a source size of <0.5 mm. BAS-TR and BAS-SR image plates were used for image capture, alongside a newly developed Thalium doped Caesium Iodide scintillator-based detector coupled to CCD chips. The uranium penny was clearly resolved to sub-mm accuracy over a 30 cm"2 scan area from a single shot acquisition. In addition, neutron generation was demonstrated in situ with the X-ray beam, with a single shot, thus demonstrating the potential for multi-modal criticality testing of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10 Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned.

  18. National policy for control of radioactive sources and radioactive waste from non-power applications in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevinskas, G.; Mastauskas, A.

    2001-01-01

    According to the Law on Radiation Protection of the Republic of Lithuania (passed in 1999), the Radiation Protection Centre of the Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for the radiation protection of public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. One of its responsibilities is the control of radioactive sources from the beginning of their 'life cycle', when they are imported in, used, transported and placed as spent into the radioactive waste storage facilities. For the effective control of sources there is national authorization system (notification- registration-licensing) based on the international requirements and recommendations introduced, which also includes keeping and maintaining the Register of Sources, controlling and investigating events while illegally carrying on or in possession of radioactive material, decision making and performing the state radiation protection supervision and control of users of radioactive sources, controlling, within the limits of competence, the radioactive waste management activities in nuclear and non-nuclear power applications. According to the requirements set out in the Law on Radiation Protection and the Government Resolution 'On Establishment of the State Register of the Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Exposure of Workers' (1999) and supplementary legal acts, all licence-holders conducting their activities with sources of ionizing radiation have to present all necessary data to the State Register after annual inventory of sources, after installation of new sources, after decommissioning of sources, after disposal of spent sources, after finishing the activities with the generators of ionizing radiation. The information to the Radiation Protection Centre has to be presented every week from the Customs Department of the Ministry of Finance about all sources of ionizing radiation imported to or exported from Lithuania and the information about the companies performed these

  19. Long-term radiological aspects of management of wastes from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Due to the contamination of uranium mill tailings by long-lived natural radionuclides, their management presents specific radiation protection aspects in the long term. This report presents several examples of the application of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) methodology for the optimisation of radiation protection to these types of waste. The advantages and disadvantages of such an approach are discussed and several important limitations are identified

  20. Nuclear wastes: vitrification and long term behaviour. Information available on Internet sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    This document reports an information search on the long-term behaviour of vitrified nuclear wastes. This search has been performed on the Internet and this report presents 21 forms corresponding to the 21 relevant Internet web sites. These forms contain the name of the organization, its country, its Internet address, its language, a brief description of the available information, the concerned public (general public, scholars and students, scientific community)

  1. Significance of actinide chemistry for the long-term safety of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Il

    2006-01-01

    A geochemical approach to the long-term safety of waste disposal is discussed in connection with the significance of actinides, which shall deliver the major radioactivity inventory subsequent to the relatively short-term decay of fission products. Every power reactor generates transuranic (TRU) elements: plutonium and minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm), which consist chiefly of long-lived nuclides emitting alpha radiation. The amount of TRU actinides generated in a fuel life period is found to be relatively small (about 1 wt% or less in spent fuel) but their radioactivity persists many hundred thousands years. Geological confinement of waste containing TRU actinides demands, as a result, fundamental knowledge on the geochemical behavior of actinides in the repository environment for a long period of time. Appraisal of the scientific progress in this subject area is the main objective of the present paper. Following the introductory discussion on natural radioactivities, the nuclear fuel cycle is briefly brought up with reference to actinide generation and waste disposal. As the long-term disposal safety concerns inevitably with actinides, the significance of the aquatic actinide chemistry is summarized in two parts: the fundamental properties relevant to their aquatic behavior and the geochemical reactions in nanoscopic scale. The constrained space of writing allows discussion on some examples only, for which topics of the primary concern are selected, e.g. apparent solubility and colloid generation, colloid-facilitated migration, notable speciation of such processes, etc. Discussion is summed up to end with how to make a geochemical approach available for the long-term disposal safety of nuclear waste or for the Performance Assessment (PA) as known generally

  2. Safety and optimization aspects of radioactive waste long-term storage at the ''Vector'' site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarevs'kij, O.V.; Kondrat'jev, S.M.; Aleksjejeva, Z.M.; Ribalka, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes links between the final disposal option and needs for long-term storage of radioactive waste taking into proposals on possible changes in radwaste classification as regards disposal. It considers the conceptual approach to design facilities for long-term storage of long-lived radioactive waste at the Vector site and approaches to apply requirements of regulatory documents, radiation safety principles and criteria for long-term storage of radwaste and safety assessment.

  3. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Boldrin, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable......Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher...... recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant...

  4. Complex containment design for long-term encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungaila, M.A.; San, E.K.W.; Palmeter, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low-level radioactive waste in the Municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington. The Port Granby Project includes the construction of a long-term low-level radioactive waste management facility, the transfer of the contaminated material to the new facility from existing storage, construction and operation of a new waste water treatment facility, and monitoring and maintenance of the facility for a period of several hundred years. A key component of the new long-term facility is a highly-engineered containment mound incorporating a composite base liner, a leachate collection system, and a multi-layer final cover system. Issues of interest include the details of the design, the evolution of the design, as well as the field quality assurance measures that will be specified to ensure that the design is correctly implemented. (author)

  5. A study on Prediction of Radioactive Source-term from the Decommissioning of Domestic NPPs by using CRUDTRAN Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Lee, Sang Heon; Cho, Hoon Jo [Department of Nuclear Engineering Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    For the study, the behavior mechanism of corrosion products in the primary system of the Kori no.1 was analyzed, and the volume of activated corrosion products in the primary system was assessed based on domestic plant data with the CRUDTRAN code used to predict the volume. It is expected that the study would be utilized in predicting radiation exposure of workers performing maintenance and repairs in high radiation areas and in selecting the process of decontaminations and decommissioning in the primary system. It is also expected that in the future it would be used as the baseline data to estimate the volume of radioactive wastes when decommissioning a nuclear plant in the future, which would be an important criterion in setting the level of radioactive wastes used to compute the quantity of radioactive wastes. The results of prediction of the radioactive nuclide inventory in the primary system performed in this study would be used as baseline data for the estimation of the volume of radioactive wastes when decommissioning NPPs in the future. It is also expected that the data would be important criteria used to classify the level of radioactive wastes to calculate the volume. In addition, it is expected that the data would be utilized in reducing radiation exposure of workers in charge of system maintenance and repairing in high radiation zones and also predicting the selection of decontaminations and decommissioning processes in the primary systems. In future researches, it is planned to conduct the source term assessment against other NPP types such as CANDU and OPR-1000, in addition to the Westinghouse type nuclear plants.

  6. Source terms derived from analyses of hypothetical accidents, 1950-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of reactor accident source term assumptions. After the Three Mile Island accident, a number of theoretical and experimental studies re-examined possible accident sequences and source terms. Some of these results are summarized in this paper

  7. High level radioactive wastes storage characterization and long-term behaviour of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Arocas, P.P.; Garcia Serrano, J.; Mendez Martin, F.J.; Quinones Diez, J.; Rodriguez Almazan, J.L.; Serrano Agejas, J.A.; Esteban Hernandez, J.A.

    1997-04-01

    The knowledge of long term spent fuel behaviour in a repository is one of the main goals in the waste management assessment due to its influence on repository design topics and on the performance assessment. At the moment, Spain has not selected a geological formation for a final repository. Therefore, R AND D activities are performed by considering granite, salt and clay as candidate options. This report summarises the activities carried out in CIEMAT from 1991 to 1995 in the frame of the Agreement between CIEMAT and ENRESA in the Area of spent fuel direct disposed. Experimental activities include leaching experiments of spent fuel, UO 2 and SIMFUEL and co-precipitation/solubility experiments of relevant secondary solid phases expected under repository conditions. The objective of leaching studies is to understand the processes which will occur when the underground water accede to the source term and to provide leaching rates of spent fuel and the influence of several variables as pH, Eh, etc. The co-precipitation/solubility experiments are focused on the knowledge of the formation conditions of relevant secondary phases, to characterise these phases and to determine their solubility, which could control the leaching of spent fuel. One of the main items to carry out the objectives before indicated in both leaching and co-precipitation/solubility experiments is to perform a extensive solid phases characterisation in order to facilitate the understanding of the processes involved. This report is structured in three parts, the first include experimental procedures, characterisation techniques and solid and solution analyses. The second shows the leaching results obtained by considering the effect of pH, complex formation, redox conditions, surface/volume ratio, etc. The third supply the results of the co-precipitation/solubility studies. The conclusions obtained in this work are considered as the start point of going on and more extensive studies on the mechanisms

  8. Waste minimization methods for treating analytical instrumentation effluents at the source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.A.; Barnhart, C.

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to reduce the amount of hazardous waste being generated by the Savannah River Siste Defense Waste Processing Technology-analytical Laboratory (DWPT-AL). A detailed characterization study was performed on 12 of the liquid effluent streams generated within the DWPT-AL. Two of the streams were not hazardous, and are now being collected separately from the 10 hazardous streams. A secondary goal of the project was to develop in-line methods using primarily adsorption/ion exchange columns to treat liquid effluent as it emerges from the analytical instrument as a slow, dripping flow. Samples from the 10 hazardous streams were treated by adsorption in an experimental apparatus that resembled an in-line or at source column apparatus. The layered adsorbent bed contained activated carbon and ion exchange resin. The column technique did not work on the first three samples of the spectroscopy waste stream, but worked well on the next three samples which were treated in a different column. It was determined that an unusual form of mercury was present in the first three samples. Similarly, two samples of a combined waste stream were rendered nonhazardous, but the last two samples contained acetylnitrile that prevented analysis. The characteristics of these streams changed from the initial characterization study; therefore, continual, in-deptch stream characterization is the key to making this project successful

  9. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, T J; Giitter, J

    1987-07-01

    The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. The goal is to present a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. (author)

  10. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Giitter, J.

    1987-01-01

    The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. The goal is to present a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. (author)

  11. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Glitter, J.G.

    1988-10-01

    This document presents a method of source term estimation that reflects the current understanding of source term behavior and that can be used during an event. The various methods of estimating radionuclide release to the environment (source terms) as a result of an accident at a nuclear power reactor are discussed. The major factors affecting potential radionuclide releases off site (source terms) as a result of nuclear power plant accidents are described. The quantification of these factors based on plant instrumentation also is discussed. A range of accident conditions from those within the design basis to the most severe accidents possible are included in the text. A method of gross estimation of accident source terms and their consequences off site is presented. 39 refs., 48 figs., 19 tabs

  12. Operator aids for prediction of source term attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Simplified expressions for the attenuation of radionuclide releases by sprays and by water pools are devised. These expressions are obtained by correlation of the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of uncertainty distributions for the water pool decontamination factor and the spray decontamination coefficient. These uncertainty distributions were obtained by Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses using detailed, mechanistic models of the pools and sprays. Uncertainties considered in the analyses include uncertainties in the phenomena and uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions dictated by the progression of severe accidents. Final results are graphically displayed in terms of the decontamination factor achieved at selected levels of conservatism versus pool depth and water subcooling or, in the case of sprays, versus time. (author)

  13. The essential conditions for the choice of location for a long-term storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, V.

    1964-10-01

    The paper deals with a long-term storage of radioactive wastes with a special reference to the parameters to be considered in choosing the location. It gives a short account of methods for disposal of radioactive liquid and solid wastes used in nuclear centers in the world. The possibilities of radioactive wastes disposal in our country using the methods investigated are also presented (author)

  14. Impact of Alkali Source on Vitrification of SRS High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAMBERT, D. P.; MILLER, D. H.; PEELER, D. K.; SMITH, M. E.; STONE, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Savannah River Site is currently immobilizing high level nuclear waste sludge by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The processing strategy involves blending a large batch of sludge into a feed tank, washing the sludge to reduce the amount of soluble species, then processing the large ''sludge batch'' through the DWPF. Each sludge batch is tested by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using simulants and tests with samples of the radioactive waste to ''qualify'' the batch prior to processing in the DWPF. The DWPF pretreats the sludge by first acidifying the sludge with nitric and formic acid. The ratio of nitric to formic acid is adjusted as required to target a final glass composition that is slightly reducing (the target is for ∼20% of the iron to have a valence of two in the glass). The formic acid reduces the mercury in the feed to elemental mercury which is steam stripped from the feed. After a concentration step, the glass former (glass frit) is added as a 50 wt% slurry and the batch is concentrated to approximately 50 wt% solids. The feed slurry is then fed to a joule heated melter maintained at 1150 C. The glass must meet both processing (e.g., viscosity and liquidus temperature) and product performance (e.g., durability) constraints The alkali content of the final waste glass is a critical parameter that affects key glass properties (such as durability) as well as the processing characteristics of the waste sludge during the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Increasing the alkali content of the glass has been shown to improve the production rate of the DWPF, but the total alkali in the final glass is limited by constraints on glass durability and viscosity. Two sources of alkali contribute to the final alkali content of the glass: sodium salts in the waste supernate and sodium and lithium oxides in the glass frit added during pretreatment processes. Sodium salts in the waste supernate can

  15. Alternative high-level radiation sources for sewage and waste-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantine, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    The choice of an energy source for the radiation treatment of waste-water or sludge is between an electron accelerator or a gamma-ray source of radioactive cobalt or caesium. A number of factors will affect the ultimate choice and the potential future adoption of radiation as a treatment technique. The present and future availability of radioactive sources of cobalt and caesium is closely linked to the rate of nuclear power development and the assumption by uranium fuel reprocessors of a role as radioactive caesium suppliers. Accelerators are industrial machines which could be readily produced to meet any conceivable market demand. For energy sources in the 20-30 kW range, electron accelerators appear to have an initial capital cost advantage of about seven and an operating cost advantage of two. While radioisotope sources are inherently more reliable, accelerators at voltages to 3 MeV have achieved a reliability level adequate to meet the demands of essentially continuous operations with moderate maintenance requirements. The application of either energy source to waste-water treatment will be significantly influenced by considerations of the relative penetration capability, energy density and physical geometrical constraints of each option. The greater range of the gamma rays and the lower energy density of the isotopic sources permit irradiation of a variety of target geometrics. The low penetration of electrons and the high-energy density of accelerators limit application of the latter to targets presented as thin films of several centimetres thickness. Any potential use of radiation must proceed from a clear definition of process objectives and critical comparison of the radiation energy options for that specific objective. (Author)

  16. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin.

  17. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher P; Brenner, Ceri M; Stitt, Camilla A; Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R; Mirfayzi, Seyed R; Wilson, Lucy A; Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad; Allott, Ric; Butler, Nicholas M H; Clarke, Robert J; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina; Higginson, Adam; Murphy, Christopher; Notley, Margaret; Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos; Jowsey, John; McKenna, Paul; Neely, David; Kar, Satya; Scott, Thomas B

    2016-11-15

    A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500keV), with a source size of <0.5mm. BAS-TR and BAS-SR image plates were used for image capture, alongside a newly developed Thalium doped Caesium Iodide scintillator-based detector coupled to CCD chips. The uranium penny was clearly resolved to sub-mm accuracy over a 30cm(2) scan area from a single shot acquisition. In addition, neutron generation was demonstrated in situ with the X-ray beam, with a single shot, thus demonstrating the potential for multi-modal criticality testing of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. UK Regulators Long-term Management of Higher Activity Radioactive Wastes on Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are long time frames from the production of waste to packaging, transport, storage and final disposal in a repository. This entails changing custodians, as the responsible individuals and organisations change. This presentation once again pointed out the importance of a life cycle approach towards RK and M preservation and RWM in general. The traditional focus for the safety case has been examining individual facilities and short term goals (put bluntly, on 'getting the permit'). This approach does not lend itself to forward planning, or a holistic vision of the process. The 'Radioactive waste management case' is an effort to integrate the different individual safety cases, and focus on waste streams rather than facilities, so that the trail of decisions is documented. The concept of 'waste streams' was explained as having been developed in the context of decommissioning, in order to make concrete the idea of 'cradle to grave' life cycle analysis. The importance of creating an 'information management culture' at the level of organisations was underscored. With regard to needing to find a balance between completeness and overload, it was once again pointed out that one needs to wary to avoid a situation of 'Keep everything, find nothing'

  19. Long-term environmental assessment of waste from PyroGreen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Heejae; Hahm, Inhye; Sohn, Sungjune; Hwang, Il-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a long-term environmental assessment of a geological repository for Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) arising from PyroGreen processes that has been developed to decontaminate all HLW from the pyrochemical partitioning of spent nuclear fuels (SNF). PyroGreen process has been designed so that final ILW can meet conservative acceptance criteria such as one established for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in U.S.A. The nuclide inventory of final vitrified PyroGreen waste is calculated using ORIGEN 2.1 based on the design decontamination factor of PyroGreen processes applied to 18,171 metric tons of PWR SNF with 45 GWD/MTU burnup. Using GoldSim model, the environmental impact of ILW upon geological disposal at an intermediate depth. Among radioactive nuclides, Ra 226 , Rn 222 and Sn 126 are identified as key contributors to radiological dose for general public. The environmental impact of PyroGreen wastes satisfies the Korean dose limit of 0.1 mSv/year with sufficiently high margin. Sensitivity studies have shown that the predicted dose can vary significantly by distribution coefficient of Ra 226 and Rn 222 , solubility limit of Se 79 . (authors)

  20. Long-term environmental assessment of waste from PyroGreen system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Heejae; Hahm, Inhye; Sohn, Sungjune; Hwang, Il-Soon [Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    We have conducted a long-term environmental assessment of a geological repository for Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) arising from PyroGreen processes that has been developed to decontaminate all HLW from the pyrochemical partitioning of spent nuclear fuels (SNF). PyroGreen process has been designed so that final ILW can meet conservative acceptance criteria such as one established for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in U.S.A. The nuclide inventory of final vitrified PyroGreen waste is calculated using ORIGEN 2.1 based on the design decontamination factor of PyroGreen processes applied to 18,171 metric tons of PWR SNF with 45 GWD/MTU burnup. Using GoldSim model, the environmental impact of ILW upon geological disposal at an intermediate depth. Among radioactive nuclides, Ra{sup 226}, Rn{sup 222} and Sn{sup 126} are identified as key contributors to radiological dose for general public. The environmental impact of PyroGreen wastes satisfies the Korean dose limit of 0.1 mSv/year with sufficiently high margin. Sensitivity studies have shown that the predicted dose can vary significantly by distribution coefficient of Ra{sup 226} and Rn{sup 222}, solubility limit of Se{sup 79}. (authors)

  1. Context of the long-term management of low-level short-lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.

    2004-01-01

    Until the international moratorium of 1983, Belgium relied on sea disposal for its low-level waste. Since then, ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian radioactive waste management agency, has launched studies to look for land-based solutions. These studies, which are still going on, have gone through various phases. The sometimes harsh reactions in public opinion and the recommendations of independent experts, however, progressively led ONDRAF/NIRAS to question its work methodology. On 16 January 1998 was a milestone in Belgian's nuclear waste management. On that day, the Belgian federal government opted for a final, or potentially final, solution for the long-term management of short-lived, low-level radioactive waste, a solution that also had to be progressive, flexible, and reversible. At the same time, the government entrusted new missions to ONDRAF/NIRAS in particular that of developing methods to enable the integration of final repository project proposals at a local level and restricted the number of potential sites for final disposal to the four existing nuclear sites in Belgium and to possibly interested local districts. The government's decision of 16 January 1998 forced ONDRAF/NIRAS to change its strategy. The agency set up a new work programme and worked out an innovative methodology. This new methodology aims to generate, at the level of the interested towns and villages, draft projects for a final repository supported by a wide public consensus. (author)

  2. Approaches for treating uncertainty in the long term performance assessment of a geological waste repository in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, J.; Volckaert, G.; Wemaere, I.; Mallants, D.

    1998-01-01

    In Belgium the current strategy for high-level waste disposal is the geological disposal in a plastic clay layer. The performance assessment approach consists of a systematic scenario selection based on the FEP (features, events and processes) methodology followed by consequence analyses for the selected scenarios. In these consequence analyses the different sources of uncertainty are systematically considered. For the normal evolution scenario, i.e. the scenario which includes all FEP's which are about certain to occur, a stochastic technique of the Monte Carlo type is applied for treating uncertainty. For the altered evolution scenarios a deterministic approach is generally used to evaluate the uncertainties on the long-term. In the case of altered evolution scenarios, comparisons of fluxes from the far field into the biosphere with those calculated for the normal evolution scenario are used, beside dose calculations, to evaluate the safety consequences. Some typical examples of the above approaches will be presented. (author)

  3. Regulatory document R-104, Regulatory objectives, requirements and guidelines for the disposal of radioactive wastes - long-term aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this document is to present the regulatory basis for judging the long-term acceptability of radioactive waste disposal options. The basic objectives of radioactive waste disposal are given as are the regulatory requirements to be satisfied. (NEA)

  4. Local Fruit Wastes as a Potential Source of Natural Antioxidant: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, U. K.; Kamarrudin, N.; Suzihaque, M. U. H.; Hashib, S. Abd

    2017-06-01

    Food industry in Malaysia which used fruits as one of the raw material such as the production of fruit juices, concentrates, jams and dried fruits, the main wastes of the production are the peel and the seed of the fruit. Nowadays, people have shown the interests to study the antioxidant content in the fruit wastes. All kind of fruits are believed to contain high amount of natural antioxidant properties such as vitamins, phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid. Thus, this paper presented the work done by researcher on antioxidant activity in the peel especially on local fruit such as mango peel, watermelon rind, banana peel and mangosteen pericarp. The review shows that the peel of the fruit is a good source of antioxidant and other bioactive compounds which have many benefits especially towards human health.

  5. Human waste: An underestimated source of nutrient pollution in coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-05-15

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in many nutrient models. We quantify nutrient export by large rivers to coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and the associated eutrophication potential in 2000 and 2050. Our new estimates for N and P inputs from human waste are one to two orders of magnitude higher than earlier model calculations. This leads to higher river export of nutrients to coastal seas, increasing the risk of coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP). The newly calculated future ICEP, for instance, Godavori river is 3 times higher than according to earlier studies. Our modeling approach is simple and transparent and can easily be applied to other data-poor basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gelatin capsule waste: new source of protein to develop a biodegradable film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Campo

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aimed to develop biodegradable films utilizing a new source of gelatin derived from the nutraceutical capsule manufacture waste of coconut with safflower oil, coconut oil and safflower oil. The mechanical, physicochemical, barrier, optical, biodegradation, thermal and morphological properties were evaluated. All films showed low water vapor permeability, intermediate water solubility and high elongation at break. In addition, the films exhibited excellent barrier ability to ultraviolet light. After 15 days of soil burial degradation, the films lost over 68% of initial weight. Scanning electron microscopy showed an appearance free of pores, cracks or bubbles. Furthermore the films showed similar characteristics independent of the waste utilized. The results demonstrated that all the biodegradable films prepared presented appropriate characteristics to be used as substitute to synthetic packaging.

  7. Development of a comprehensive source term model for the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The first detailed comprehensive simulation study to evaluate fate and transport of wastes disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has recently been conducted. One of the most crucial parts of this modeling was the source term or release model. The current study used information collected over the last five years defining contaminant specific information including: the amount disposed, the waste form (physical and chemical properties) and the type of container used for each contaminant disposed. This information was used to simulate the release of contaminants disposed in the shallow subsurface at the SDA. The DUST-MS model was used to simulate the release. Modifications were made to allow the yearly disposal information to be incorporated. The modeling includes unique container and release rate information for each of the 42 years of disposal. The results from this simulation effort are used for both a groundwater and a biotic uptake evaluation. As part of this modeling exercise, inadequacies in the available data relating to the release of contaminants have been identified. The results from this modeling study have been used to guide additional data collection activities at the SDA for purposes of increasing confidence in the appropriateness of model predictions

  8. Stakeholder Confidence and Radioactive Waste management - An annotated glossary of key terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, Meritxell; Pescatore, Claudio; Mays, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) Annotated Glossary is a review of concepts central to societal decision making about radioactive waste management. It records the evolution in understanding that has taken place in the group as the FSC has worked with these concepts over time. This should be a useful resource not only for new FSC participants but also for others: this annotated glossary forms a good reference handbook for future texts regarding societal aspects of radioactive waste management and its governance. Each glossary entry is structured, to the extent possible, as follows: - The term and its variants, if any, in FSC literature are identified. - The common FSC understanding of the concept and any guidance are captured, based upon a review of all FSC documents to date. - Any evolution of the concept observed over the decade of FSC work is analysed. - The FSC interpretation of the symbolic dimension is explored. - The current status of outlook in the FSC, and intended activities according to the current Programme of Work (2010 and beyond) are assessed. Overall, although different persons and groups may assign different meanings to words, and although terminology will continue to evolve, this glossary is the FSC's 'state-of-the-art' guide to key terms in use. As such, it should prove to be a handy reference for all those interested in the governance of radioactive waste management

  9. Technology transfer on long-term radioactive waste management - a feasible option for small nuclear programmes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.; Mathieson, J.

    2007-01-01

    The EU project CATT - Co-operation and technology transfer on long-term radioactive waste management for Member States with small nuclear programmes investigated the feasibility of countries with small nuclear programmes implementing long-term radioactive waste management solutions within their national borders, through collaboration on technology transfer with those countries with advanced disposal concepts. The main project objective was to analyse the existing capabilities of technology owning Member States and the corresponding requirements of potential technology acquiring Member States and, based on the findings, to develop a number of possible collaboration models and scenarios that could be used in a technology transfer scheme. The project CATT was performed as a specific support action under the EU sixth framework programme and it brought together waste management organisations from six EU Member States: UK, Bulgaria, Germany, Lithuania, Slovenia and Sweden. In addition, the EC Joint Research Centre from the Netherlands also participated as a full partner. The paper summarises the analyses performed and the results obtained within the project. (author)

  10. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Legal, administrative and financial aspects of the long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.; Reyners, P.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the principal features of a study undertaken by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency on the institutional problems raised by the long-term management of radioactive waste. The purpose of this study is to provide the competent national authorities with a common approach based on experience. All management operations which may extend over periods of more than 50 years are covered by the study, which analyses the control measures or other institutional measures that must be taken with regard to such operations. It distinguishes between ''active'' and ''passive'' control measures and describes their application ''before closure'' and ''after closure'' of the disposal or storage sites. An attempt is made to evaluate the lifetime of such institutional control measures and it is proposed, on this basis, that a period of several centuries, at most 300 years, should be considered reasonable in view of the need to avoid imposing an excessive burden on future generations. The study also provides a description of relations between governments and industry, stressing the increased responsibility of governments in the context of long-term management of radioactive waste. Specific questions of financing and responsibility for civil nuclear activities which relate to long-term management are also analysed. The general conclusion arrived at is that a long-term management strategy must be based on a viable combination of technological methods and institutional measures. (author)

  12. Prediction of long term stability for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Seiji; Koide, Hitoshi; Kono, Itoshi

    1998-01-01

    On geological disposal of radioactive wastes, study on prediction of diastrophism has been paid many attentions, and then long term future prediction ranging from some thousands to some tends thousands years may be necessary for some target nuclides. As there are various methods in the future prediction, it is essential to use a computational dynamic procedure to conduct a quantitative prediction. However, it causes an obstacle to advancement of the prediction method that informations on deep underground have a lot of uncertain elements because of their few and indirect data. In this paper, a long term prediction procedure of diastrophism relating to geological disposal of radioactive wastes with low level but isolation terms required to some thousands years was investigated and each one example was shown on flow of the investigation and its modeling method by using the finite element method. It seems to be a key to upgrade accuracy of future diastrophism prediction how an earth fault can be analyzed. And, as the diastrophism is a long term and complex phenomenon and its prediction has many uncertain elements, it is important to judge comprehensively results of its numerical analysis geologically and on rock engineering. (G.K.)

  13. Emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes - would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for some of these wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rein, K. von

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. After some generalities on the pollution of natural environment and the legislations taken by the swedish government the author tries to answer to the question : would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for the non-radioactive hazardous wastes? Then is given the general discussion of the last three articles concerning the background to current environmental policies and their implementation and more particularly the evolution and current thoughts about environmental policies, the managing hazardous activities and substances and the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. Comments and questions concerning the similarity or otherwise between the present position of radioactive waste disposal and the background to current environmental policies are indicated. (O.L.)

  14. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui Li; Huabo Duan; Pixing Shi

    2011-07-01

    The dismantling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing increasing concern because of its impacts on the environment and risks to human health. Heavy-metal concentrations in the surface soils of Guiyu (Guangdong Province, China) were monitored to determine the status of heavy-metal contamination on e-waste dismantling area with a more than 20 years history. Two metalloids and nine metals were selected for investigation. This paper also attempts to compare the data among a variety of e-waste dismantling areas, after reviewing a number of heavy-metal contamination-related studies in such areas in China over the past decade. In addition, source apportionment of heavy metal in the surface soil of these areas has been analysed. Both the MSW open-burning sites probably contained invaluable e-waste and abandoned sites formerly involved in informal recycling activities are the new sources of soil-based environmental pollution in Guiyu. Although printed circuit board waste is thought to be the main source of heavy-metal emissions during e-waste processing, requirement is necessary to soundly manage the plastic separated from e-waste, which mostly contains heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  15. Relative toxicity and long-term problems of actinide bearing wastes from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, H.O.

    1976-01-01

    Waste management systems are being developed that are capable of adequate protection during operational phases and providing the necessary long-term isolation for the long-lived radioisotopes to decay. For the assessment of the safety of proposed systems for managing wastes, methods for risk analysis are being developed in several countries. Risk analysis identifies the most likely sequences of failure events (for example by fault free analysis) possibly leading to release of radioactive material into man's environment, and evaluates the probabilities of these sequences. However, parts of the risk analysis are not yet developed to the necessary degree and will be a difficult task for the years ahead. We have therefore looked into some models and approaches which give no risk analysis but may be useful for entering into the magnitude and correlations of some of the problems

  16. Long-term effects of waste solutions on concrete and reinforcing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.I.; Stark, D.C.; Kaar, P.H.

    1982-04-01

    This report has been prepared for the In Situ Waste Disposal Program Tank Assessment Task (WG-11) as part of an investigation to evaluate the long-term performance of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This report, prepared by the Portland Cement Association, presents the results of four years of concrete degradation studies which exposed concrete and reinforcing steel, under load and at 180 0 F, to simulated double-shell slurry, simulated salt cake solution, and a control solution. Exposure length varied from 3 months to 36 months. In all cases, examination of the concrete and reinforcing steel at the end of the exposure indicated there was no attack, i.e., no evidence of rusting, cracking, disruption of mill scale or loss of strength

  17. Material interactions relating to long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    This review paper systematizes the additional interactions that materials in a geologic repository will impose on the borosilicate glass waste form-groundwater interactions. These materials are the steel canister that holds the glass, the steel overpack over the canister, backfill materials that may be used, and last, the repository host rock. The repository geologies reviewed are tuff, salt, basalt, and granite. The interactions emphasized are those appropriate to conditions expected after repository closure, e.g., oxic vs anoxic conditions. Whenever possible, the effect of radiation from the waste form on the interaction(s) is examined. The interactions are evaluated based on their effect on the release and speciation of various elements including radionuclides from the glass. Repository relevant interactions testing that requires further study before long-term predictions can be made are noted. 62 refs

  18. Radioactive waste disposal system for Cuba. Safety assessment for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.; Mirta Torrez, B.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is performed within the frame of evaluating the radiological impact of the post-closure stage of the facility for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated in Cuba, including a description of the waste disposal systems defined in the country, and taking account of significant elements of their long term safety. The Methodology for Safety Assessment includes: the definition of possible scenarios for evaluation, the identification of principal present uncertainties, the model simulating the release of the radionuclides of the facility, their transport through the geosphere, and their final access to man, evaluating ultimately the radiological impact of the disposal system considering the dose for a critical group. The results obtained allow to demonstrate the radiological safety of the nominative barrier in the design of the system for the particular conditions of Cuba. (author)

  19. Evaluation of waste management options in view of long-term maintenance-free landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, P.H.; Doeberl, G.; Huber, R.; Eder, M.; Pierrard, R.; Schoenbaeck, W.; Fruehwirth, W.; Hutterer, H.; Woeginger, H.

    2001-01-01

    The present case study compares and evaluates different waste management options with special consideration to their long-term implications. Multiple scenarios of these options were created and investigated as to which of term best fulfilled the goals of the Austrian waste management act (Abfallwirtschaftgesetz, AWG). Serving as a basis for this study, an elaborated model of the Austrian waste management, as described in GUA and IFIP (1998, 'Management of Household and Household-like Waste in Austria'), was used. Alterations to the GUA and IFIP study were done in order to best fulfill the needs of this assessment. Household and household-like waste, as well as municipal sewage sludge have been defined as the system input. The following list of scenarios were investigated against an up-dated status-quo (P0): M1 maximum landfilling of untreated waste; M2a maximum incineration without any after treatment; M2b maximum incineration with cement stabilization of the residual material; M2c maximum high temperature process; M3a maximum mechanical-biological treatment with the light fraction from sorting and splitting processed in a fluidized-bed furnace; M3b maximum mechanical-biological treatment with the light fraction from sorting and splitting processed in a rotary kiln for use in the cement industry; M3c maximum mechanical-biological treatment with the high caloric heavy fraction after decomposition processed in a fluidized-bed furnace; M3d maximum mechanical-biological treatment with the high caloric heavy fraction after decomposition processed in a rotary kiln for use in the cement industry. In order to oblige to the precautionary principle of the AWG, each of the scenarios were investigated, with regards to the short, middle, and long-term landfills behaviors of the deposited residual material. The macro-economical Cost-Benefit-Analysis (CBA) was used in the assessment. Additionally a so-called 'modified-Cost-Effect-Analysis' (MCEA) was developed. Unlike the

  20. Role of water balance in the long-term stability of hazardous waste site cover treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1986-01-01

    After the 30-year post-closure maintenance period at hazardous waste landfills, long-term stability must be assured without continued intervention. Understanding water balance in the established vegetative cover system is central to predicting such stability. A Los Alamos National Laboratory research project has established a series of experimental cover treatment plots on a closed waste disposal site which will permit the determination of the effects of such critical parameters as soil cover design, leaf area index, and rooting characteristics on water balance under varied conditions. Data from these experiments are being analyzed by water balance modeling and other means. The results show consistent differences in soil moisture storage between soil profiles and between vegetation cover treatments

  1. Current Status of the United Kingdom Programme for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C. H.; Hooper, A. J.; Mathieson, J.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations. The future of Nirex will be

  2. Using Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) modelling for Rapid Source Term Prediction. RASTEP Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knochenhauer, M.; Swaling, V.H.; Alfheim, P.

    2012-09-01

    The project is connected to the development of RASTEP, a computerized source term prediction tool aimed at providing a basis for improving off-site emergency management. RASTEP uses Bayesian belief networks (BBN) to model severe accident progression in a nuclear power plant in combination with pre-calculated source terms (i.e., amount, timing, and pathway of released radio-nuclides). The output is a set of possible source terms with associated probabilities. In the NKS project, a number of complex issues associated with the integration of probabilistic and deterministic analyses are addressed. This includes issues related to the method for estimating source terms, signal validation, and sensitivity analysis. One major task within Phase 1 of the project addressed the problem of how to make the source term module flexible enough to give reliable and valid output throughout the accident scenario. Of the alternatives evaluated, it is recommended that RASTEP is connected to a fast running source term prediction code, e.g., MARS, with a possibility of updating source terms based on real-time observations. (Author)

  3. Using Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) modelling for Rapid Source Term Prediction. RASTEP Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochenhauer, M.; Swaling, V.H.; Alfheim, P. [Scandpower AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    The project is connected to the development of RASTEP, a computerized source term prediction tool aimed at providing a basis for improving off-site emergency management. RASTEP uses Bayesian belief networks (BBN) to model severe accident progression in a nuclear power plant in combination with pre-calculated source terms (i.e., amount, timing, and pathway of released radio-nuclides). The output is a set of possible source terms with associated probabilities. In the NKS project, a number of complex issues associated with the integration of probabilistic and deterministic analyses are addressed. This includes issues related to the method for estimating source terms, signal validation, and sensitivity analysis. One major task within Phase 1 of the project addressed the problem of how to make the source term module flexible enough to give reliable and valid output throughout the accident scenario. Of the alternatives evaluated, it is recommended that RASTEP is connected to a fast running source term prediction code, e.g., MARS, with a possibility of updating source terms based on real-time observations. (Author)

  4. Synthesis of knowledge on the long-term behaviour of concretes. Applications to cemented waste packages; Synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des betons. Application aux colis cimentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richet, C.; Galle, C.; Le Bescop, P.; Peycelon, H.; Bejaoui, S.; Tovena, I.; Pointeau, I.; L' Hostis, V.; Levera, P

    2004-03-01

    As stipulated in the former law of December 91 relating to 'concrete waste package', a progress report (phenomenological reference document) was first provided in 1999. The objective was to make an assessment of the knowledge acquired on the long-term behaviour of cement-based waste packages in the context of deep disposal and/or interim storage. The present document is an updated summary report. It takes into account a new knowledge assessment, considers coupled mechanisms and should contribute to the first performance studies (operational calculations). Handling and radio-nuclides (RN) confinement are the two major functional properties requested from the concrete used for the waste packages. In unsaturated environment (interim storage/disposal prior to closing), the main problem is the generation of cracks in the material. This aspect is a key parameter from the mechanical point of view (retrievability). It can have a major impact on the disposal phase (confinement). In saturated environment (disposal post-closing phase), the main concern is the chemical degradation of the waste package concrete submitted to underground waters leaching. In this context, the major thema are: the durability of the concretes under water (chemical degradation) and in unsaturated medium (corrosion of reinforcement), matter transport, RN retention, chemistry / transport / mechanical couplings. On the other hand, laboratory data on the behaviour of concretes are used to evaluate the RN source term of waste packages in function of time (concrete waste package OPerational Model, i.e. 'Concrete MOP'). The 'MOP' provides the physico-chemical description of the RN release in relationship with the waste package degradation itself. This description is based on simplified phenomenology for which only dimensioning mechanisms are taken into account. The use of Diffu-Ca code (basic module for the MOP) on the CASTEM numerical plate-form, already allows operational

  5. Synthesis of knowledge on the long-term behaviour of concretes. Applications to cemented waste packages; Synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des betons. Application aux colis cimentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richet, C; Galle, C; Le Bescop, P; Peycelon, H; Bejaoui, S; Tovena, I; Pointeau, I; L' Hostis, V; Levera, P

    2004-03-01

    As stipulated in the former law of December 91 relating to 'concrete waste package', a progress report (phenomenological reference document) was first provided in 1999. The objective was to make an assessment of the knowledge acquired on the long-term behaviour of cement-based waste packages in the context of deep disposal and/or interim storage. The present document is an updated summary report. It takes into account a new knowledge assessment, considers coupled mechanisms and should contribute to the first performance studies (operational calculations). Handling and radio-nuclides (RN) confinement are the two major functional properties requested from the concrete used for the waste packages. In unsaturated environment (interim storage/disposal prior to closing), the main problem is the generation of cracks in the material. This aspect is a key parameter from the mechanical point of view (retrievability). It can have a major impact on the disposal phase (confinement). In saturated environment (disposal post-closing phase), the main concern is the chemical degradation of the waste package concrete submitted to underground waters leaching. In this context, the major thema are: the durability of the concretes under water (chemical degradation) and in unsaturated medium (corrosion of reinforcement), matter transport, RN retention, chemistry / transport / mechanical couplings. On the other hand, laboratory data on the behaviour of concretes are used to evaluate the RN source term of waste packages in function of time (concrete waste package OPerational Model, i.e. 'Concrete MOP'). The 'MOP' provides the physico-chemical description of the RN release in relationship with the waste package degradation itself. This description is based on simplified phenomenology for which only dimensioning mechanisms are taken into account. The use of Diffu-Ca code (basic module for the MOP) on the CASTEM numerical plate-form, already allows operational predictions. (authors)

  6. Effects of alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shujun; Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Xikui

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of some alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion (AD) from food waste (FW). Four alkalinity sources, namely lime mud from papermaking (LMP), waste eggshell (WES), CaCO3 and NaHCO3, were applied as buffer materials and their stability effects were evaluated in batch AD. The results showed that LMP and CaCO3 had more remarkable effects than NaHCO3 and WES on FW stabilization. The methane yields were 120.2, 197.0, 156.2, 251.0 and 194.8 ml g(-1) VS for the control and synergistic digestions of CaCO3, NaHCO3, LMP and WES added into FW, respectively. The corresponding final alkalinity reached 5906, 7307, 9504, 7820 and 6782 mg l(-1), while the final acidities were determined to be 501, 200, 50, 350 and 250 mg l(-1), respectively. This indicated that the synergism between alkalinity and inorganic micronutrients from different alkalinity sources played an important role in the process stability of AD from FW. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Residents’ Preferences for Household Kitchen Waste Source Separation Services in Beijing: A Choice Experiment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents’ preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly.

  9. E-Waste Informal Recycling: An Emerging Source of Lead Exposure in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Antonio; Sosa, Adriana; Bares, Cristina; Battocletti, Alejandra; Moll, María José; Pose, Darío; Laborde, Amalia; González, Hugo; Feola, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling creates exposures to several hazardous substances including lead. In Uruguay, primitive recycling procedures are a significant source of lead exposure. The aim of this study was to examine lead exposure in blood lead levels (BLLs) in low-income children exposed to lead through burning cables. A sample of children and adolescents exposed to lead through burning cable activities were assessed at the Department of Toxicology in Montevideo, Uruguay, between 2010 and 2014. Soil lead levels of residences were taken shortly after their assessment. The final sample included 69 children and adolescents (mean age 7.89 years). More than 66% of participants had an additional source of lead exposure-manual gathering of metals-and based paint (r = 0.23; P source of lead exposure was the manual gathering of metals. The average BLL among children and adolescents in this study is higher than the BLLs currently suggested in medical intervention. Future research should focus on exploring effective interventions to reduce lead exposure among this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Haste, T.; Kärkelä, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  11. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Haste, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Kärkelä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  12. Source-term reevaluation for US commercial nuclear power reactors: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Ball, J.R.; Ramaswami, D.

    1984-12-01

    Only results that had been discussed publicly, had been published in the open literature, or were available in preliminary reports as of September 30, 1984, are included here. More than 20 organizations are participating in source-term programs, which have been undertaken to examine severe accident phenomena in light-water power reactors (including the chemical and physical behavior of fission products under accident conditions), update and reevaluate source terms, and resolve differences between predictions and observations of radiation releases and related phenomena. Results from these source-term activities have been documented in over 100 publications to date

  13. An investigation of the closure problem applied to reactor accident source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brearley, I.R.; Nixon, W.; Hayns, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The closure problem, as considered here, focuses attention on the question of when in current research programmes enough has been learned about the source terms for reactor accident releases. Noting that current research is tending to reduce the estimated magnitude of the aerosol component of atmospheric, accidental releases, several possible criteria for closure are suggested. Moreover, using the reactor accident consequence model CRACUK, the effect of gradually reducing the aerosol release fractions of a pressurized water reactor (PWR2) source term (as defined in the WASH-1400 study) is investigated and the implications of applying the suggested criteria to current source term research discussed. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the LMFBR cover gas source term and synthesis of the associated R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balard, F.; Carluec, B.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the seventies and the beginning of the eighties, there appeared a pressing need of experimental results to assess the LMFBR's safety level. Because of the urgency, analytical studies were not systematically undertaken and maximum credible cover gas instantaneous source terms (radionuclides core release fraction) were got directly from crude out-of-pile experiment interpretations. Two types of studies and mock-ups were undertaken depending on the timescale of the phenomena: instantaneous source terms (corresponding to an unlikely energetic core disruptive accident CDA), and delayed ones (tens of minutes to some hours). The experiments performed in this frame are reviewed in this presentation: 1) instantaneous source term: - FAUST experiments: I, Cs, UO2 source terms (FzK, Germany), - FAST experiments : pool depth influence on non volatile source term (USA), - CARAVELLE experiments: nonvolatile source term in SPX1 geometry (CEA, France); 2) delayed source term: - NALA experiments: I, Cs, Sr, UO2 source term (FzK, Germany), - PAVE experiments: I source term (CEA, France), - NACOWA experiments: cover gas aerosols enrichment in I and Cs (FzK, Germany) - other French experiments in COPACABANA and GULLIVER facilities. The volatile fission products release is tightly bound to sodium evaporation and a large part of the fission products is dissolved in the liquid sodium aerosols present in the cover gas. Thus the knowledge of the amount of aerosol release to the cover gas is important for the evaluation of the source term. The maximum credible cover gas instantaneous source terms deduced from the experiments have led to conservative source terms to be taken into account in safety analysis. Nevertheless modelling attempts of the observed (in-pile or out-of-pile) physico-chemical phenomena have been undertaken for extrapolation to the reactor case. The main topics of this theoretical research are as follows: fission products evaporation in the cover gas (Fz

  15. Development of source term evaluation method for Korean Next Generation Reactor(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Park, Jin Baek; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Min Cheonl; Lee, Ho Jin [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    This project had investigated irradiation characteristics of MOX fuel method to predict nuclide concentration at primary and secondary coolant using a core containing 100% of all MOX fuel and development of source term evaluation tool. In this study, several prediction methods of source term are evaluated. Detailed contents of this project are : an evaluation of model for nuclear concentration at Reactor Coolant System, evaluation of primary and secondary coolant concentration of reference Nuclear Power Plant using purely MOX fuel, suggestion of source term prediction method of NPP with a core using MOX fuel.

  16. Biomethane Production as an Alternative Bioenergy Source from Codigesters Treating Municipal Sludge and Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Evren Ersahin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery potential of a mesophilic co-digester treating OFMSW and primary sludge at an integrated biomethanization plant was investigated based on feasibility study results. Since landfilling is still the main solid waste disposal method in Turkey, land scarcity will become one of the most important obstacles. Restrictions for biodegradable waste disposal to sanitary landfills in EU Landfill Directive and uncontrolled long-term contamination with gas emissions and leachate necessitate alternative management strategies due to rapid increase in MSW production. Moreover, since energy contribution from renewable resources will be required more in the future with increasing oil prices and dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources, the significance of biogas as a renewable fuel has been increased in the last decade. Results indicated that almost 93% of annual total cost can be recovered if 100% renewable energy subsidy is implemented. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 26 heavy good vehicles or 549 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed biomethanization plant (PE = 100,000; XPS = 61 g TS/PE⋅day; XSS-OFMSW=50 g TS/PE⋅day.

  17. Non-invasive shallow seismic source comparison for hazardous waste site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    Many commonly used shallow seismic sources are unacceptable for hazardous waste site investigations because they risk exhumation of contaminants in the soil, they add contaminants (e.g. lead) which are not allowed by regulations, or they add new migration paths for contaminants. Furthermore, recently developed high frequency vibrators for shallow investigations could be more effective at some sites than non-invasive impulsive sources because of their ability to tailor the source spectrum and reduce interference. The authors show preliminary results of a comparison test of eight non-invasive impulsive and swept sources in preparation for seismic reflection profiling on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. Well log data are used to determine geologic contacts and to generate synthetic seismograms for the site. Common midpoint (CMP) seismic data for each source were collected at 95 geophone groups from 125 shot points along a 400m test line. Hydrophone data were obtained at 1.5m spacing between 61m and 133m depth in a hole near the center of the CMP line. As of March, 1994, brute stacks have been completed for three of the eight sources. Depth penetration is demonstrated in brute stacks and shot gathers, which show a 200ms reflector for all of the sources tested along portions of the line. Source effectiveness will also be evaluated by comparing images of several shallower reflectors (40--150ms) which are apparent in many of the records. Imaging of these reflectors appears to depend upon the ability of the source to generate sufficient high frequency energy (>100 Hz)

  18. Effects of different sources of organic waste application on the growth and biomass production of kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahariara, M.S.; Tahsina, S.; Muhammad, S.; Gani, M.N.; Huq, I.

    2012-01-01

    The growth and biomass productivity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) grown with different sources of organic waste viz. sewage sludge, poultry litter, cow dung and rice straw application were observed in a field experiment. Organic wastes were applied at the rate of 5 t/ha and were compared with recommended dose of fertilizers and control. The plants were harvested at 120 days after sowing (at the flowering stage). Different sources of organic wastes had a significant effect (P cow dung>poultry litter > rice straw treatments. Among the four sources of organic wastes, sewage sludge treated plot produced the highest mean biomass of 23.33 t/ha (dry weight basis) which was 14.64% higher than the mean biomass production from control plot. (author)

  19. Effects of different sources of organic waste application on the growth and biomass production of kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahariar, M.S.; Tashin, S.; Gani, N.; Muhammad, S.; Huq, I.

    2012-01-01

    The growth and biomass productivity of kenaf(Hibiscus cannabinus L.) grown with different sources of organic waste viz. sewage sludge, poultry litter, cow dung and rice straw application were observed in a field experiment. Organic wastes were applied at the rate of 5 t/ha and were compared with recommended dose of fertilizers and control. The plants were harvested at 120 days after sowing (at the flowering stage). Different sources of organic wastes had a significant effect (P cow dung>poultry litter> rice straw treatments. Among the four sources of organic wastes, sewage sludge treated plot produced the highest mean biomass of 23.33 t/ha (dry weight basis) which was 14.64% higher than the mean biomass production from control plot. (author)

  20. Long term management of wastes to be produced by the conversion process. PNGMDR 2013-2015. Study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    Within the frame of the French national plan for the management of radioactive wastes (PNGMDR), this report addresses the issue of long term management of wastes to be produced by Comurhex installation in Malvesi (the first step of natural uranium processing in France, with purification and transformation into uranium tetrafluoride). The author studied how these wastes could be stored, and also a possible synergy with some uranium-containing or thorium-containing wastes in order to design optimised industrial processes. After a recall of the origin and an inventory of the concerned wastes, this document reports a preliminary acceptability study in a context of very-low-level wastes, and a preliminary acceptability study for a shallow storage

  1. Role of rural solid waste management in non-point source pollution control of Dianchi Lake catchments, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjing LU; Hongtao WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, with control of the main municipal and industrial point pollution sources and implementation of cleaning for some inner pollution sources in the water body, the discharge of point source pollution decreased gradually, while non-point source pollution has become increasingly distressing in Dianchi Lake catchments. As one of the major targets in non-point source pollution control, an integrated solid waste controlling strategy combined with a technological solution and management system was proposed and implemented based on the waste disposal situation and characteristics of rural solid waste in the demonstration area. As the key technoogy in rural solid waste treatment, both centralized plantscale composting and a dispersed farmer-operated waste treating system showed promise in rendering timely benefits in efficiency, large handling capacity, high quality of the end product, as well as good economic return. Problems encountered during multi-substrates co-com-posting such as pathogens, high moisture content, asyn-chronism in the decomposition of different substrates, and low quality of the end product can all be tackled. 92.5% of solid waste was collected in the demonstration area, while the treating and recycling ratio reached 87.9%, which pre-vented 32.2 t nitrogen and 3.9 t phosphorus per year from entering the water body of Dianchi Lake after imple-mentation of the project.

  2. Development of a High Fluence Neutron Source for Nondestructive Characterization of Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, Mark M.

    1999-01-01

    We are addressing the need to measure nuclear wastes, residues, and spent fuel in order to process these for final disposition. For example, TRU wastes destined for the WIPP must satisfy extensive characterization criteria outlined in the Waste Acceptance Criteria, the Quality Assurance Program Plan, and the Performance Demonstration Plan. Similar requirements exist for spent fuel and residues. At present, no nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation is capable of satisfying all of the PDP test cycles (particularly for Remote-Handled TRU waste). One of the primary methods for waste assay is by active neutron interrogation. The objective of this project is to improve the capability of all active neutron systems by providing a higher intensity neutron source (by about a factor of 1,000) for essentially the same cost, power, and space requirements as existing systems. This high intensity neutron source is an electrostatically confined (IEC) plasma device. The IEC is a symmetric sphere that was originally developed in the 1960s as a possible fusion reactor. It operates as DT neutron generator. Although it is not likely that this device will scale to fusion reactor levels, previous experiments1 have demonstrated a neutron yield of 2 x 1010 neutrons/second on a table-top device that can be powered from ordinary laboratory circuits (9 kilowatts). Subsequently, the IEC physics has been extensively studied at the University of Illinois and other locations. We have established theoretically the basis for scaling the output up to 1 x 1011 neutrons/second. In addition, IEC devices have run for cumulative times approaching 10,000 hours, which is essential for practical application to NDA. They have been operated in pulsed and continuous mode. The essential features of the IEC plasma neutron source, compared to existing sources of the same cost, size and power consumption, are: Table 1: Present and Target Operating Parameters for Small Neutron Generators Parameter Present IEC

  3. Estimation of Source Term Behaviors in SBO Sequence in a Typical 1000MWth PWR and Comparison with Other Source Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Han, Seok Jung; Ahn, Kwang Il; Fynan, Douglas; Jung, Yong Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Since the Three Mile Island (TMI) (1979), Chernobyl (1986), Fukushima Daiichi (2011) accidents, the assessment of radiological source term effects on the environment has been a key concern of nuclear safety. In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the long-term SBO (station blackout) accident occurs. Using the worst case assumptions like in Fukushima accident on the accident sequences and on the availability of safety systems, the thermal hydraulic behaviors, core relocation and environmental source terms behaviors are estimated for long-term SBO accident for OPR-1000 reactor. MELCOR code version 1.8.6 is used in this analysis. Source term results estimated in this study is compared with other previous studies and estimated results in Fukushima accidents in UNSCEAR-2013 report. This study estimated that 11 % of iodine can be released to environment and 2% of cesium can be released to environment. UNSCEAR-2013 report estimated that 2 - 8 % of iodine have been released to environment and 1 - 3 % of cesium have been released to the environment. They have similar results in the aspect of release fractions of iodine and cesium to environment.

  4. Economical comparison of imported energy sources in terms of long-term production planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gungor, Z.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the Turkish energy production sector is studied and power plants fueled by natural gas, imported coal and nuclear power are compared in terms of long-term (1996-2010) production economy. A net present value is used for comparing nuclear, coal and natural gas power plants. A scenario approach is utilized in establishing the effects of different factors, such as inflation rate, unit of investment costs, load factor change, discount rate and fuel price changes. Six different scenarios of interest are developed and discussed. The study ends with conclusions and recommendations based on a study of a reference scenario and alternative scenarios. (author)

  5. China's current status and long-term outlook of nuclear power and radioactive waste disposal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    This study identified the current status and long-term outlook of China's nuclear power development and radioactive waste disposal management after the 3.11 FUKUSHIMA accidents. China strengthened the actions for achieving nuclear power safety and cost efficiency as well as safety management of radioactive waste. It is a hard work to expand the capacity to 58 GW, the governmental target in 2020. The long-term development will strongly depend on the progress in safety management of nuclear power and radioactive waste and economic competitiveness. (author)

  6. Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste: practical issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste is a key part of making progress on the radioactive waste management issue. A survey of member countries has shown that differences exist both in the protection criteria being applied and in the methods for demonstrating compliance, reflecting historical and cultural differences between countries which in turn result in a diversity of decision-making approaches and frameworks. At the same time, however, these differences in criteria are unlikely to result in significant differences in long-term protection, as all the standards being proposed are well below levels at which actual effects of radiological exposure can be observed and a range of complementary requirements is foreseen. In order to enable experts from a wide range of backgrounds to debate the various aspects of these findings, the NEA organised an international workshop in November 2006 in Paris, France. Discussions focused on diversity in regulatory processes; the basis and tools for assuring long-term protection; ethical responsibilities of one generation to later generations and how these can be discharged; and adapting regulatory processes to the long time frames involved in implementing geological disposal. These proceedings include a summary of the viewpoints expressed as well as the 22 papers presented at the workshop. (author)

  7. Biological denitrification from mature landfill leachate using a food-waste-derived carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Haowei; Liu, Nuo; Zou, Quan

    2018-05-15

    The mature landfill leachate containing high ammonia concentration (>1000 mg/L) is a serious threat to environment; however, the low COD to TN ratio (C/N, waste and oil-added food waste, were first applied as external carbon sources for the biological nitrogen removal from mature landfill leachate in an aerobic/anoxic membrane bioreactor. "Acidogenic liquid b" served quite better than commercial sodium acetate, considering the higher denitrification efficiency and the slightly rapider denitrification rate. The effect of C/N and temperature were investigated under hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 d, which showed that C/N ≥ 7 (25 °C) was enough to meet the general discharge standards of NH 4 + -N, TN and COD in China. Even for some special areas of China, the more stringent discharge standards (NH 4 + -N ≤ 8 mg/L, TN ≤ 20 mg/L) could also be achieved under longer HRT of 14 d and C/N ≥ 6. Notably, the COD concentration in effluent could also be well reduced to 50-55 mg/L, without further physical-chemical treatment. This proposed strategy, involving the high-value utilization of food waste, is thus promising for efficient nitrogen removal from mature landfill leachate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sources, amounts, and characteristics of low-level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Low-level radioactive solid wastes (LLW) are generated in the nuclear fuel cycle, national defense programs, institutional (especially medical/biological) applications, and other research and development activities. The estimated total accumulation of defense LLW, approx. 50.8 x 10 6 ft 3 (approx. 1.4 x 10 6 m 3 ), is roughly three times that estimated for commercial LLW, mill tailings excepted. All nuclear fuel cycle steps generate some LLW, but power plants are the chief source. From 1975 through 1977, reactor process stream cleanup generated approx. 1 x 10 6 (approx. 2.8 x 10 4 m 3 ) annually. Spent fuel storage (or reprocessing) and facility decontamination and decommissioning will become important LLW generators as the nuclear power industry matures. The LLW contains dry contaminated trash, much of which is combustible and/or compactible; discarded tools and equipment; wet filter sludges and ion-exchange resins; disposable filter cartridges; and solidified or sorbed liquids, including some organics. A distinguishing characteristic of LLW is a long-lived alpha-emitting transuranic content of 5 ft 3 (approx. 2.1 x 10 4 m 3 )/y. The majority of these wastes