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Sample records for waste rock pile

  1. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness.

  2. Modelling temperature-dependent heat production over decades in High Arctic coal waste rock piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    controlling the internal build up of heat leading to potential self-incineration. However, site specific measurements of temperature-dependent heat production as well as simulation results show that the heat produced from pyrite oxidation alone cannot cause such a temperature increase and that processes......Subsurface heat production from oxidation of pyrite is an important process that may increase subsurface temperatures within coal waste rock piles and increase the release of acid mine drainage, AMD. Waste rock piles in the Arctic are especially vulnerable to changes in subsurface temperatures...... as the release of AMD normally is limited by permafrost. Here we show that temperatures within a 20 year old heat-producing waste rock pile in Svalbard (78°N) can be modelled by the one-dimensional heat and water flow model (CoupModel) with a new temperature-dependent heat-production module that includes both...

  3. Investigation of Hydrologic and Geochemical Properties of an Unsaturated Waste Rock Pile at Key Lake, Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, J.; Smith, L.; Beckie, R.

    2001-12-01

    Waste rock is any rock that must be removed to gain access to the ore at a mine. Waste rock piles at mine sites often rest above the water table, which exposes the rock to oxygen, and promotes the oxidation of sulfide minerals releasing sulfuric acid, metals and heat. Water flow through unsaturated waste rock and its role in geochemical processes is not well understood. The objective of this work was to identify spatial relationships between hydrologic and geochemical properties of waste rock. A 12-meter high waste rock pile was deconstructed and sampled during the summer of 2000. Approximately 175 samples were collected to assess the physical properties of matric potential, volumetric water content, and grain-size distribution and the geochemical properties of temperature, paste pH, pore-water chemistry, mineralogy, and bulk rock chemistry. In addition, we characterized weathering using selective extractions that target the weathering products that contain sulfur and iron. We discuss the influence of fluid flow paths, gain-size distribution, mineralogy and sample volume on the characterization of waste rock weathering.

  4. Effect of heterogeneity and anisotropy related to the construction method on transfer processes in waste rock piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmira, Belkacem; Lefebvre, René; Aubertin, Michel; Bussière, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Waste rock piles producing acid mine drainage (AMD) are partially saturated systems involving multiphase (gas and liquid) flow and coupled transfer processes. Their internal structure and heterogeneous properties are inherited from their wide-ranging material grain sizes, their modes of deposition, and the underlying topography. This paper aims at assessing the effect of physical heterogeneity and anisotropy of waste rock piles on the physical processes involved in the generation of AMD. Generic waste rock pile conditions were represented with the numerical simulator TOUGH AMD based on those found at the Doyon mine waste rock pile (Canada). Models included four randomly distributed material types (coarse, intermediate, fine and very fine-grained). The term "randomly" as used in this study means that the vertical profile and spatial distribution of materials in waste rock piles (internal structure) defy stratigraphy principles applicable to natural sediments (superposition and continuity). The materials have different permeability and capillary properties, covering the typical range of materials found in waste rock piles. Anisotropy with a larger horizontal than vertical permeability was used to represent the effect of pile construction by benches, while the construction by end-dumping was presumed to induce a higher vertical than horizontal permeability. Results show that infiltrated precipitation preferentially flows in fine-grained materials, which remain almost saturated, whereas gas flows preferentially through the most permeable coarse materials, which have higher volumetric gas saturation. Anisotropy, which depends on pile construction methods, often controls global gas flow paths. Construction by benches favours lateral air entry close to the pile slope, whereas end-dumping leads to air entry from the surface to the interior of the pile by secondary gas convection cells. These results can be useful to construct and rehabilitate waste rock piles to minimize

  5. The behavior of waste rock piles; Le comportement des haldes de steriles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, R. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Georessources, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada). Centre Geoscientifique de Quebec; Hockley, D. [SRK Consulting, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Wels, C.

    2000-07-01

    Under the auspices of the Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) Program, several waste rock piles were monitored and characterized. Acid rock drainage (ARD) became a mechanism better understood based on the data acquired during these projects. Numerical simulation was used to better comprehend the quantitative issues associated with the characterization of three specific sites for the purpose of this study. The sites selected were the south waste rock pile of the Doyon Mine in Quebec, the Northdale of the mining district of Ronnenberg in Germany, and the waste rock pile of the Sugar Shack South of the Questa mine in New Mexico. The observed and simulated conditions were very distinct from one mine to another, even if the same mechanisms were involved. The dominant oxygen and heat transfer mechanisms displayed the most varied behavior between the sites. ARD control or site rehabilitation decisions were based on the quantitative understanding gained from the monitoring and led to better engineering decisions. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Mixing-controlled uncertainty in long-term predictions of acid rock drainage from heterogeneous waste-rock piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, D.; Beckie, R. D.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    The chemistry of drainage from waste-rock piles at mine sites is difficult to predict because of a number of uncertainties including heterogeneous reactive mineral content, distribution of minerals, weathering rates and physical flow properties. In this presentation, we examine the effects of mixing on drainage chemistry over timescales of 100s of years. We use a 1-D streamtube conceptualization of flow in waste rocks and multicomponent reactive transport modeling. We simplify the reactive system to consist of acid-producing sulfide minerals and acid-neutralizing carbonate minerals and secondary sulfate and iron oxide minerals. We create multiple realizations of waste-rock piles with distinct distributions of reactive minerals along each flow path and examine the uncertainty of drainage geochemistry through time. The limited mixing of streamtubes that is characteristic of the vertical unsaturated flow in many waste-rock piles, allows individual flowpaths to sustain acid or neutral conditions to the base of the pile, where the streamtubes mix. Consequently, mixing and the acidity/alkalinity balance of the streamtube waters, and not the overall acid- and base-producing mineral contents, control the instantaneous discharge chemistry. Our results show that the limited mixing implied by preferential flow and the heterogeneous distribution of mineral contents lead to large uncertainty in drainage chemistry over short and medium time scales. However, over longer timescales when one of either the acid-producing or neutralizing primary phases is depleted, the drainage chemistry becomes less controlled by mixing and in turn less uncertain. A correct understanding of the temporal variability of uncertainty is key to make informed long-term decisions in mining settings regarding the management of waste material.

  7. Geophysical experiments to image the shallow internal structure and the moisture distribution of a mine waste rock pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Jérôme; Chouteau, Michel; Aubertin, Michel; Campos, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Several field surveys of a waste rock pile were carried out during the summers of 2002 and 2003 using ground-penetrating radar, electromagnetic conductivity and DC resistivity imaging. The waste rock deposit is prone to generate acid mine drainage (AMD) due to the oxidation of sulphidic minerals. One of the most critical factors that lead to the production of AMD is unsaturated water flow and the ensuing moisture distribution in the waste rock. This geophysical characterization study, performed over a 30 m × 30 m test zone, was designed to image the internal structure controlling the water flux at shallow depth. The subsurface was found to consist of three zones for the first 6 m of the pile, mainly based on electrical resistivities: a thin superficial conductive material, an intermediate 2 to 3 m thick highly resistive zone, and a lower, more conductive medium. With the help of hydrogeological tests, chemical analyses and two 2.5 m-deep trenches, it is shown that the two conductive zones are correlated with fine-grained waste rock and the resistive zone correlates with a coarser material. In the two deeper zones, the contact between the two types of waste rock is typically highlighted by a sharp resistive/conductive boundary. An increase of conductance in the relatively thin upper layer towards the edge of the pile appears to be caused by an increase in thickness of the fine-grained material. Additional geophysical surveys carried out on a profile along the flank of the upper bench of the pile show that the main features of the internal structure are sub-parallel to the slope, at least for the first 3 m in depth. The data also show an increase in resistivity from the top to bottom of the slope, in accordance with expected particle segregation, from fine-grained material at the top to coarser material at the bottom. Wide-angle reflection GPR monitoring during large scale infiltration tests seems to indicate preferential flow paths towards the direction of coarser

  8. Environmental effects of radon and its progeny from uranium waste rock piles. Pt. 1. Measurements by passive and continuous monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimori, Yuu; Ito, Kimio; Furuta, Sada-aki [Ningyo Toge Works, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The radon concentration in atmosphere on and around the uranium waste rock pile sites has been measured by integrating passive monitors since 1989. In fiscal 1996, except for the Katamo-shimo 1, the average concentration of radon on the sites, around the sites and in control areas, ranged from 11 to 194 Bq/m{sup 3} (average: 45 Bq/m{sup 3}), from 8 to 75 Bq/m{sup 3} (average: 26 Bq/m{sup 3}), and from 9 to 77 Bq/m{sup 3} (average: 30 Bq/m{sup 3}), respectively. Additionally, the typical daily and seasonal variations of radon concentration, radon progeny concentration and radon exhalation rate are observed with continuous or automatic monitors. According to the measurement results by passive monitors and continuous monitors, the environmental effects of radon and its progeny from the waste rock pile sites are estimated small in residential regions around the sites. (author)

  9. Radon as a natural tracer for gas transport within uranium waste rock piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N C; Chagas, E G L; Abreu, C B; Dias, D C S; Lopez, D; Guerreiro, E T Z; Alberti, H L C; Braz, M L; Branco, O; Fleming, P

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been identified as the main cause for outflow of acid water and radioactive/non-radioactive contaminants. AMD encompasses pyrites oxidation when water and oxygen are available. AMD was identified in uranium waste rock piles (WRPs) of Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil-Caldas facility (Brazilian uranium mine), resulting in high costs for water treatment. AMD reduction is the main challenge, and scientific investigation has been conducted to understand oxygen and water transportation within WRPs, where 222Rn is used as natural tracer for oxygen transportation. The study consists of soil radon gas mapping in the top layer of WRP4 using active soil gas pumping, radon adsorption in active charcoal and 222Rn determination using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A sampling network of 71 points was built where samples were collected at a depth of 40 cm. Soil radon gas concentration ranged from 33.7 to 1484.2 kBq m(-3) with mean concentration of 320.7±263.3 kBq m(-3).

  10. Growth rate characteristics of acidophilic heterotrophic organisms from mine waste rock piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, T. W.; Silverstein, J.; Jenkins, J.; Andre, B. J.; Rajaram, H.

    2010-12-01

    Autotrophic iron oxidizing bacteria play a key role in pyrite oxidation and generation of acid mine drainage AMD. Scarcity of organic substrates in many disturbed sites insures that IOB have sufficient oxygen and other nutrients for growth. It is proposed that addition of organic carbon substrate to waste rock piles will result in enrichment of heterotrophic microorganisms limiting the role of IOB in AMD generation. Previous researchers have used the acidophilic heterotroph Acidiphilium cryptum as a model to study the effects of organic substrate addition on the pyrite oxidation/AMD cycle. In order to develop a quantitative model of effects such as competition for oxygen, it is necessary to use growth and substrate consumption rate expressions, and one approach is to choose a model strain such as A. cryptum for kinetic studies. However we have found that the growth rate characteristics of A. cryptum may not provide an accurate model of the remediation effects of organic addition to subsurface mined sites. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) assays of extracts of mine waste rock enriched with glucose and yeast extract did not produce countable numbers of cells in the Acidiphilium genus, with a detection limit of3 x 104 cells/gram rock, despite evidence of the presence of well established heterotrophic organisms. However, an MPN enrichment produced heterotrophic population estimates of 1x107 and 1x109 cells/gram rock. Growth rate studies of A. cryptum showed that cultures took 120 hours to degrade 50% of an initial glucose concentration of 2,000 mg/L. However a mixed culture enriched from mine waste rock consumed 100% of the same amount of glucose in 24 hours. Substrate consumption data for the mixed culture were fit to a Monod growth model: {dS}/{dt} = μ_{max}S {( {X_0}/{Y} + S_0 -S )}/{(K_s +S)} Kinetic parameters were estimated utilizing a non linear regression method coupled with an ODE solver. The maximum specific growth rate of the mixed population with

  11. Environmental effect of radon from waste rock piles at closed uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki; Ito, Kimio; Ishimori, Yuu; Nakajima, Yuuji [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1997-04-01

    The radon concentrations at working area had been measured during uranium exploration by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Although the uranium exploration was closed by 1987, the measurements of environmental radon and the confirmation of public dose under 1 mSv/year out of supervising area has been necessary by the regulation since 1989, the year of the change of Japanese mine safety law. However radon exists in natural environment, it`s quite difficult to distinguish the radon from closed uranium mine from natural`s. Therefore the effective doses were estimated by the calculations using the atmospheric dispersion models, and by the measurements of radon emanation from the waste rock area of closed uranium mines. The radon influence from the waste rock was also investigated by the tracer gas dispersion experiments. Consequently the effective doses from the mining facilities were confirmed under the public limits 1 mSv/year of the regulations by this study. (author)

  12. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 19. Leaching Characteristics of Composited Materials from Mine Waste-Rock Piles and Naturally Altered Areas near Questa, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Briggs, Paul H.; Sutley, Stephen J.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Livo, K. Eric; Verplanck, Philip L.; Adams, Monique G.; Gemery-Hill, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to compare and contrast the leachability of metals and the acidity from individual mine waste-rock piles and natural erosional scars in the study area near Questa, New Mexico. Surficial multi-increment (composite) samples less than 2 millimeters in diameter from five waste-rock piles, nine erosional-scar areas, a less-altered site, and a tailings slurry-pipe sample were analyzed for bulk chemistry and mineralogy and subjected to two back-to-back leaching procedures. The first leaching procedure, the U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test (FLT), is a short-duration leach (5-minute shaking and 10-minute settling) and is intended to leach readily soluble materials. The FLT was immediately followed by an 18-hour, end-over-end rotation leaching procedure. Comparison of results from the back-to-back leaching procedures can provide information about reactions that may take place upon migration of leachates through changing geochemical conditions (for example, pH changes), both within the waste-rock and scar materials and away from the source materials. For the scar leachates, the concentrations of leachable metals varied substantially between the scar areas sampled. The scar leachates have low pH (pH 3.2-4.1). Under these low-pH conditions, cationic metals are solubilized and mobile, but anionic species, such as molybdenum, are less soluble and less mobile. Generally, metal concentrations in the waste-rock leachates did not exceed the upper range of those metal concentrations in the erosional-scar leachates. One exception is molybdenum, which is notably higher in the waste-rock leachates compared with the scar leachates. Most of the waste-rock leachates were at least mildly acidic (pH 3.0-6.2). The pH values in the waste-rock leachates span a large pH range that includes some pH-dependent solubility and metal-attenuation reactions. An increase in pH with leaching time and agitation indicates that there is pH-buffering capacity in some of the

  13. Stochastic multicomponent reactive transport analysis of low quality drainage release from waste rock piles: Controls of the spatial distribution of acid generating and neutralizing minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Beckie, Roger D.

    2017-06-01

    In mining environmental applications, it is important to assess water quality from waste rock piles (WRPs) and estimate the likelihood of acid rock drainage (ARD) over time. The mineralogical heterogeneity of WRPs is a source of uncertainty in this assessment, undermining the reliability of traditional bulk indicators used in the industry. We focused in this work on the bulk neutralizing potential ratio (NPR), which is defined as the ratio of the content of non-acid-generating minerals (typically reactive carbonates such as calcite) to the content of potentially acid-generating minerals (typically sulfides such as pyrite). We used a streamtube-based Monte-Carlo method to show why and to what extent bulk NPR can be a poor indicator of ARD occurrence. We simulated ensembles of WRPs identical in their geometry and bulk NPR, which only differed in their initial distribution of the acid generating and acid neutralizing minerals that control NPR. All models simulated the same principal acid-producing, acid-neutralizing and secondary mineral forming processes. We show that small differences in the distribution of local NPR values or the number of flow paths that generate acidity strongly influence drainage pH. The results indicate that the likelihood of ARD (epitomized by the probability of occurrence of pHuniversally safe; threshold to ensure non-acidic waters in practical applications. Our results suggest that new methods that explicitly account for mineralogical heterogeneity must be sought when computing effective (upscaled) NPR values at the scale of the piles.

  14. Experimental Research on Large Diameter Cast-in-Place Piles Embedded in Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衡朝阳; 何满潮; 姚爱军

    2001-01-01

    This paper expatiated the field test of large diameter cast-in-place piles embedded in soft rock, including static loading test, high or low strain dynamic test, measurement of stresses and strains of pile body, and pressure measurements between pile tip and soft rock. The relative in-situ test problems are discussed. Based on the limit equilibrium theory and the load transfer equation, a synthesis method of analyzing the ultimate carrying capacity of single large diameter pile is put forward. The research results show that the key to determining the ultimate carrying capacity of single pile with a large diameter is the analysis of the intensity of soft rock.

  15. The characteristics of heavy metal accumulation in earthworms in the vicinities of the coal waste rock piles in Huainan%淮南煤矸石山周边土壤中蚯蚓对重金属的富集特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴明; 刘桂建; 董众兵; 周春财; 梅静梁; 姚杰

    2012-01-01

    为研究蚯蚓对煤矸石周边土壤中重金属的富集作用,从不同堆积年限煤矸石山周边土壤采集蚯蚓,分析了蚯蚓中Zn,Pb,Cd,Ni,Cr,V,Cu与土壤中相应重金属浓度关系。结果表明:随煤矸石堆积时间的增加,蚯蚓体内Pb,Cd,Cu含量增加,Ni,Cr,V含量先增加再降低,而Zn含量变化规律不明显;蚯蚓体内Zn和Cd含量可较准确反映煤矸石周边土壤中重金属浓度,而蚯蚓体内Ni,Cr,V含量可在距离上显示与煤矸石山远近关系;蚯蚓只对Zn和Cd产生富集效应(富集系数大于1),且对Cd富集作用最大。蚯蚓可作为煤矸石山周边土壤Cd和Zn的指示生物。%Aiming to investigate the characteristics of heavy metal accumulation in earthworms around coal waste rock piles, some earthworm samples were collected from the vicinities of coal waste rock piles of different ages in Huainan. The concentration of Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, V, Cu in earthworms and soils were analyzed by ICP-OES. The results show that the concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu in earthworm increases with the increased accumulation time of coal waste rock pile, while the concentration of Ni, Cr, V in earthworm increases first then decreases with the increased accumulation time. However, the concentration of Zn in the earthworm appeares no significant trend with the accumulation time changing. Through the analysis of correlation and regression, the concentrations of Zn and Cd in earthworms can accu- rately indicate the corresponding concentration of Zn and Cd in soils, while the concentration of Ni, Cr, V can denote the distance between the earthworm sampling site and the coal waste rock pile. As the bioconcentration factors of Zn and Cd in earthworms are higher than 1, and the bioconcentration factors of Cd is the highest, it manifests that the earthworms can accumulate Zn and Cd in soils. Therefore, earthworms can be used as a biological indicator of Cd and Zn in soils in the vicinity of coal waste rock pile.

  16. Comparison of Different Methods for Determination of Pyrite Oxidation Rate in Wate Rock Pile at Mine Doyon, Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sracek, O.; Nicholson, R.; Gélinas, P.; Lefebvre, R.

    2004-05-01

    Mine Doyon is a gold mine located close to Noranda, Québec, Canada. The South waste rock pile contains mostly highly friable sericite schists with pyrite content up to 7 wt percent. Oxidation of pyrite resulted in the production of acid mine drainage with pH values of about 2.0, and sulfate concentrations in pore water above 200 g/L. The waste rock material is characterized by high permeability allowing thermally driven convective supply of oxygen at temperatures reaching up to 67oC close to the slopes of the pile. Several methods for the determination of pyrite oxidation rate (POR) in waste rock have been compared and evaluated. Methods based on data collected in situ such as the interpretation of oxygen concentration profiles in waste rock pile and pyrite concentrations in solid phase were compared with the oxygen consumption method (OCM) in the laboratory. Analytical 1-D solution based on oxygen and temperature profiles in the pile was used for preliminary determination of POR. Analytical modeling results were used as an input for 2-D numerical model using TOUGH AMD. POR values based on pyrite mass balance (PMB) in solid phase were also calculated, assuming that average pyrite content in the deep, almost non-oxidized zone of the pile represents pre-oxidation conditions. Calculations were performed for prismatic columns with 1 m2 base. An approach based on dissolved sulfate mass balance was not used because of the lack of data from early stage of the pile and the non-conservative behavior of sulfate (precipitation of gypsum and jarosite in the pile). Finally, the oxygen consumption method (OCM) in the laboratory was based on oxygen concentration decline in headspace of closed chamber, where samples of waste rock sprinkled by water were located. Both fresh samples from mining operation and partially weathered samples collected in the pile were used. A range of POR values (mol(O2).kg-1.s-1) were obtained from the various methods. At Site 6 on the slope of the pile

  17. Effect of sediment on vertical dynamic impedance of rock-socketed pile with large diameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞缙; 蔡燕燕; 吴文兵

    2013-01-01

    Based on the fictitious soil pile model, the effect of sediment on the vertical dynamic impedance of rock-socketed pile with large diameter was theoretically studied by means of Laplace transform technique and impedance function transfer method. Firstly, the sediment under rock-socketed pile was assumed to be fictitious soil pile with the same sectional area. The Rayleigh-Love rode model was used to simulate the rock-socketed pile and the fictitious soil pile with the consideration of the lateral inertial effect of large-diameter pile. The layered surrounding soils and bedrock were modeled by the plane strain model. Then, by virtue of the initial conditions and boundary conditions of the soil pile system, the analytical solution of the vertical dynamic impedance at the head of rock-socketed pile was derived for the arbitrary excitation acting on the pile head. Lastly, based on the presented analytical solution, the effect of sediment properties, bedrock property and lateral inertial effect on the vertical dynamic impedance at rock-socketed pile head were investigated in detail. It is shown that the sediment properties have significant effect on the vertical dynamic impedance at the rock-socketed pile head. The ability of soil-pile system to resist dynamic vertical deformation is weakened with the increase of sediment thickness, but amplified with the increase of shear wave velocity of sediment. The ability of soil pile system to resist dynamic vertical deformation is amplified with the bedrock property improving, but the ability of soil-pile system to resist vertical vibration is weakened with the improvement of bedrock property.

  18. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  19. Sources of acid and metals from the weathering of the Dinero waste pile, Lake Fork watershed, Leadville, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, Phil L.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Herron, J.T.; Desborough, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two trenches were dug into the south Dinero mine-waste pile near Leadville, Colorado, to study the weathering of rock fragments and the mineralogic sources of metal contaminants in the surrounding wetland and Lake Fork Watershed. Water seeping from the base of the south Dinero waste-rock pile was pH 2.9, whereas leachate from a composite sample of the rock waste was pH 3.3. The waste pile was mostly devoid of vegetation, open to infiltration of precipitation, and saturated at the base because of placement in the wetland. The south mine-waste pile is composed of poorly sorted material, ranging from boulder-size to fine-grained rock fragments. The trenches showed both matrix-supported and clast-supported zones, with faint horizontal color banding, suggesting zonation of Fe oxides. Secondary minerals such as jarosite and gypsum occurred throughout the depth of the trenches. Infiltration of water and transport of dissolved material through the pile is evidenced by optically continuous secondary mineral deposits that fill or line voids. Iron-sulfate material exhibits microlaminations with shrinkage cracking and preferential dissolution of microlayers that evidence drying and wetting events. In addition to fluids, submicron-sized to very fine-grained particles such as jarosite are transported through channel ways in the pile. Rock fragments are coated with a mixture of clay, jarosite, and manganese oxides. Dissolution of minerals is a primary source of metals. Skeletal remnants of grains, outlined by Fe-oxide minerals, are common. Potassium jarosite is the most abundant jarosite phase, but Pb-and Ag-bearing jarosite are common. Grain-sized clusters of jarosite suggest that entire sulfide grains were replaced by very fine-grained jarosite crystals. The waste piles were removed from the wetland and reclaimed upslope in 2003. This was an opportunity to test methods to identify sources of acid and metals and metal transport processes within a waste pile. A series of

  20. Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Force analysis of pile foundation in rock slope based on upper-bound theorem of limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming-hua; LIU Jian-hua; LIU Dai-quan; WANG You

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristic that the potential sliding surfaces of rock slope are commonly in the shape of either line or fold line, analysis thought of conventional pile foundation in the flat ground under complex load condition was applied and the upper-bound theorem of limit analysis was used to compute thrust of rock layers with all possible distribution shapes. The interaction of slope and pile was considered design load in terms of slope thrust, and the finite difference method was derived to calculate inner-force and displacement of bridge pile foundation in rock slope under complex load condition. The result of example shows that the distribution model of slope thrust has certain impact on displacement and inner-force of bridge pile foundation. The maximum displacement growth rate reaches 54% and the maximum moment and shear growth rates reach only 15% and 20%, respectively, but the trends of inner-force and displacement of bridge pile foundation are basically the same as those of the conventional pile foundation in the flat ground. When the piles bear the same level lateral thrust, the distribution shapes of slope thrust have different influence on inner-force of pile foundation, especially the rectangle distribution, and the triangle thrust has the smallest displacement and inner-force of pile foundation.

  2. Prediction and Control of Air Flow in Acid-Generating Waste Rock Dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wels, C.; Lefebvre, R.; Robertson, A. M.

    2004-05-01

    Air movement and associated oxygen transport through waste rock dumps has the potential to significantly enhance the rate of oxidation of pyrite-bearing material. While this is a desired outcome for most heap leach operations, airflow in waste rock storage facilities can result in significant increases in generation and acceleration of acid rock drainage. Hence, a good understanding of internal airflow through waste rock dumps is required to control ARD and minimize any associated liability. The principal mechanisms contributing to airflow and oxygen transport in a waste rock pile include (i) diffusion, (ii) advection due to a thermal gradient (chimney effect) and/or wind pressure gradients and (iii) advection due to barometric pumping. While diffusion is typically limited to a near-surface zone of a few meters depth, advection and barometric pumping have the potential to move air (and oxygen) to much greater depths into the pile. In general, the more permeable the waste rock material, and the greater the height-to-width ratio of the waste rock pile, the greater is the potential for advective air movement. The reactivity of the waste rock material as well as the coarseness (hence air permeability), and the spatial variability of these properties within a pile, have a strong influence on the magnitude of thermally induced advection. In contrast, air movement due to barometric pumping is controlled by the waste rock porosity, changes in ambient air pressure and the heterogeneity of air permeability of the waste rock dump. Results of field monitoring and numerical modeling using TOUGH AMD are presented to illustrate the concepts on air movement in waste rock piles. During the design and construction phase, airflow can be controlled by judicious placement of reactive waste rock and use of selective placement techniques to control the internal structure of the waste rock facility (e.g. introduction of horizontal layering, prevention of inclined, high

  3. Burning of coal waste piles from Douro Coalfield (Portugal): Petrological, geochemical and mineralogical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J.; Flores, D. [Departamento and Centro de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); da Silva, E. Ferreira [GeoBioTec, GeoBiosciences, Geotechnologies and Geoenginering Research Center, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2010-04-01

    In the Douro Coalfield anthracites were exploited for decades (1795-1994). Besides many small mines Douro Coalfield had two principal mining areas (S. Pedro da Cova and Pejao). Coal mining activities cause several impacts on the environment, one of which is the amount of discard or waste which was disposed of all over Douro Coalfield resulting in one of the most significant and severe impacts on the environment. Over 20 waste piles exist in the old mining areas, geographically dispersed, and three of them are presently burning. Their ignition was caused by forest fires during the summer of 2005. Samples from the burning and unburned zones of the waste piles were studied as were the gas from vents and the minerals resulting after combustion. Geochemical processes and mineralogical transformations in the burning coal waste pile were investigated. Microscopic analyses of the samples identified some particular aspects related with combustion: oxidation of pyrite, the presence of iron oxides, organic particles with cracks and rims with lowered (suppressed) Rr, devolatilization vacuoles and some char structures. The occurrence of vitreous (glassy) material as well as Fe-Al spinels in the burning coal waste provide evidences that the combustion temperature could have reached values above 1000 C. Due to combustion, and as expected, the samples studied reported high ash yields. Samples taken from the burning zones reported an increase of As, Cr, Li, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr and LREE concentrations and a decrease in Zr and HREE concentrations. Enrichment in Cs, Li and Rb was noted when comparing with the geochemical composition of black shales and world coals composition that is related with the contribution of granitic rocks in the sediments that originated the main lithologies of the Douro Coalfield (carbonaceous shale and lithic arenites). Cluster analyses (R-type and Q-type) were performed to understand the trend between the unburned and burning samples and it seems that some

  4. 广东某铀废石堆周边土壤中铀污染特征及其环境有效性%Pollution Characteristics and Environmental Availability of Uranium in the Soils around A Uranium Waste Rock Pile in Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彬; 冯志刚; 马强; 陈荣; 王小龙; 段先哲; 韩世礼

    2015-01-01

    到充分重视。本研究为开展铀矿冶地域的放射性环境影响评价和土壤修复提供了有益的参考。%There are large amounts of waste rocks produced during uranium mining and hydrometallurgy in China. As their radionuclide contents are generally considered as low, most of these rocks are stacked along the valleys and exposed to open air without percolation-proofing for the sites that store them. Currently, the potential environmental radioactive risks posed by these rocks have not yet received extensive attention. In his study, five soil profiles were selected from the area around a uranium waste rock pile in a granite-type uranium mine in Guangdong Province, China. Among them, two (i.e., BP1 and BP2 in the upstream direction of the pile, with the distances of 10 and 20 meters from the pile, respectively) and other three (i.e., WP1, WP2 and WP3 in the downstream direction, with the distances of 50, 100 and 180 meters from the pile, respectively) were used as the background and potentially uranium-polluted, respectively. Through the comparison between the uranium distributions of these profiles, the influx of exogenous uranium in the uranium-polluted soils was quantitatively estimated. In addition, the chemical speciation and environmental availability of uranium in the soil profiles were analyzed by the sequential chemical extraction procedures. The results demonstrated the following points: 1) A significant radioactive pollution to ambient soils from the uranium waste rock pile was detected. The average contents of the uranium in the downstream profiles WP1, WP2 and WP3 are about 635, 10, and 4 times as much as that of the background, respectively. On the other hand, the influx of exogenous uranium in the profiles WP1, WP2 and WP3 are 4 840.36, 86.72 and 20.46μg·g-1, respectively, indicating that the closer the profile is to the pile, the greater the influx of uranium is;2) A large amount of exogenous uranium detected at the soil surface

  5. Survival of plant pathogens in static piles of ground green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, A J; Crohn, D; Faber, B; Daugovish, O; Becker, J O; Menge, J A; Mochizuki, M J

    2008-05-01

    Ground green waste is used as mulch in ornamental landscapes and for tree crops such as avocados. Survival of Armillaria mellea, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans was assessed for 8 weeks within unturned piles of either recently ground or partially composted green waste. S. sclerotiorum survived at the pile surface and at 10, 30, and 100 cm within the pile for the entire 8 weeks in both fresh green waste (FGW) and aged green waste (AGW). A. mellea and T. semipenetrans did not survive more than 2 days in FGW, while P. cinnamomi persisted for over 21 days in FGW. AGW was less effective in reducing pathogen viability than FGW, most likely because temperatures in AGW peaked at 45 degrees C compared with 70 degrees C in FGW. Survival modeling curves based on pile temperatures indicate the time to inactivate 10 propagules of pathogens was 11, 30, 363, and 50 days for A. mellea, P. cinnamomi, S. sclerotiorum, and T. semipenetrans, respectively. Sclerotia-forming pathogens pose the greatest risk for escape; to ensure eradication of persistent fungi, green waste stockpiles should be turned intermittently to mix pile contents and move pathogen propagules to a location within the pile where they are more likely to be killed by heat, microbial attack, or chemical degradation.

  6. Application Study of Self-balanced Testing Method on Big Diameter Rock-socketed Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-biao WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through the technological test of self-balanced testing method on big diameter rock-socketed piles of broadcasting centre building of Tai’an, this paper studies and analyzes the links of the balance position selection, the load cell production and installation, displacement sensor selection and installation, loading steps, stability conditions and determination of the bearing capacity in the process of self-balanced testing. And this paper summarizes key technology and engineering experience of self-balanced testing method of big diameter rock-socketed piles and, meanwhile, it also analyzes the difficult technical problems needed to be resolved urgently at present. Conclusion of the study has important significance to the popularization and application of self-balanced testing method and the similar projects.

  7. Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of piles embedded in rock%嵌岩桩非线性动力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春林; 程昌钧; 胡胜刚

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a pile embedded in a rock were investigated.Suppose that both the materials of the pile and the soil around the pile obey nonlinear elastic and linear viscoelastic constitutive relations.The nonfinear partial differential equation governing the dynamm characteristics of the pile was first derived.The Galerkin method Wasusedto simplify the equation and to obtain a nonlinear ordinary differential equation.The methods in nonlinear dynamics were employed to solve the simplified dynamical system,and the time-path curves,phase-trajectory diagrams,power spectrum,the dynamic characteristics of the system were also considered in detail.

  8. Variably-saturated Flow Through Mine Waste Rock in a Permafrost Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, M.; Gupton, M.; Smith, L.; Blowes, D.; Sego, D.

    2007-12-01

    Mining in northern Canada creates waste rock piles with the potential of generating acid rock drainage (ARD). Test piles fifteen meters high and smaller-scale collection lysimeters have been constructed to investigate infiltration and variably-saturated water flow through heterogeneous material in a region of continuous permafrost. Data collection includes time domain and frequency domain reflectrometry, lysimetry, tensiometers, electrical conductivity sensors, and flow gauges. Capillarity-driven flow travels slower than seasonal frost and thaw propagation, resulting in wetting fronts that freeze and are remobilized in the following summer period. In addition, highly permeable zones of waste rock can transmit water at rates as high as meters per hour, under certain conditions. Results from the research may be incorporated into mine closure strategies to minimize contaminant loading in cold climates.

  9. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Critical construction periods shall include at a minimum: (i) Foundation preparation including the removal... revegetated upon completion of construction. (c) Placement. (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be... professional engineer, shall inspect the refuse pile during construction. The professional engineer...

  10. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Critical construction periods shall include at a minimum: (i) Foundation preparation including the removal... revegetated upon completion of construction. (c) Placement. (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be... professional engineer, shall inspect the refuse pile during construction. The professional engineer...

  11. Buckling analysis of super-long rock-socketed filling piles in soft soil area by element free Galerkin method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to discuss the buckling stability of super-long rock-socketed filling piles widely used in bridge engineering in soft soil area such as Dongting Lake, the second stability type was adopted instead of traditional first type, and a newly invented numerical analysis method, i.e. the element-free Galerkin method (EFGM), was introduced to consider the non-concordant deformation and nonlinearity of the pile-soil interface. Then, based on the nonlinear elastic-ideal plastic pile-soil interface model, a nonlinear iterative algorithm was given to analyze the pile-soil interaction, and a program for buckling analysis of piles by the EFGM(PBAP-EFGM) and arc length method was worked out as well. The application results in an engineering example show that, the shape of pile top load-settlement curve obtained by the program agrees well with the measured one, of which the difference may be caused mainly by those uncertain factors such as possible initial defects of pile shaft and the eccentric loading during the test process.However, the calculated critical load is very close with the measured ultimate load of the test pile, and the corresponding relative error is only 5.6%, far better than the calculated values by linear and nonlinear incremental buckling analysis (with a greater relative error of 37.0% and 15.4% respectively), which also verifies the rationality and feasibility of the present method.

  12. Distributed Temperature Measurement in a Self-Burning Coal Waste Pile through a GIS Open Source Desktop Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lia Duarte; Ana Claudia Teodoro; Jose Alberto Gonçalves; Joana Ribeiro; Deolinda Flores; Alexia Lopez-Gil; Alejandro Dominguez-Lopez; Xabier Angulo-Vinuesa; Sonia Martin-Lopez; Miguel Gonzalez-Herraez

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of this work was to develop a new application to produce dynamic maps for monitoring the temperature variations in a self-burning coal waste pile, under a GIS open source environment-GIS-ECOAL (freely available...

  13. Real Scale test and analysis of the skin friction on a pile in rock; Ensayo a escala real e interpretacion del comportamiento de un pilote por fuest en roca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo, D. del; Melentijevic, S.; Prieto, L.; Olalla, C.

    2011-07-01

    The skin friction behaviour of a pile in a flysch rock in San Sebastian (Guipuzcoa) has been studied. The static load test was performed on a pile of 1 meter diameter, on the 5 meter length segment of the pile between 12 and 17 meters depth- Two Osterberg cells were embedded into the pile segment to apply the load on the pile-rock system. The mechanism of the load transfer between the pile and the rock has been analyzed by laboratory tests on rock samples, load test results and a finite element method calculus. the results have also been compared to the existing formations of world wide published standards. (Author) 16 refs.

  14. Model Test Research on the End Bearing Behavior of the Large-Diameter Cast-in-Place Concrete Pile for Jointed Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For large-diameter, cast-in-place concrete piles, the end bearing capacity of a single pile is affected by discontinuous surfaces that exist in natural rock masses when the bearing layer of the pile end is located in the rock layer. In order to study the influence of the jointed dip angle on the bearing characteristics of the pile end, the discrete element models are adopted to simulate the mechanical characteristics of the jointed rock masses, and the model tests of the failure mode of the jointed rock masses were also designed. The results of the numerical calculations and modeling tests show that the joints, which have a filtering effect on the internal stress of the bedrock located at the pile end, change the load transferring paths. And the failure mode of the jointed rock foundation also changes as jointed dip angle changes. The rock located at the pile end generally presents a wedge failure mode. In addition, the Q-S curves obtained by model tests show that the ultimate end bearing capacity of a single pile is influenced by the jointed dip angle. The above results provide an important theoretical basis for how to correctly calculate end resistance for a cast-in-place concrete pile.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in burning and non-burning coal waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joana; Silva, Tais; Mendonca Filho, Joao Graciano; Flores, Deolinda

    2012-01-15

    The coal waste material that results from Douro Coalfield exploitation was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the identification and quantification of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), defined as priority pollutants. It is expected that the organic fraction of the coal waste material contains PAHs from petrogenic origin, and also from pyrolytic origin in burning coal waste piles. The results demonstrate some similarity in the studied samples, being phenanthrene the most abundant PAH followed by fluoranthene and pyrene. A petrogenic contribution of PAHs in unburned samples and a mixture of PAHs from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources in the burning/burnt samples were identified. The lowest values of the sum of the 16 priority PAHs found in burning/burnt samples and the depletion LMW PAHs and greater abundance of HMW PAHs from the unburned coal waste material relatively to the burning/burnt material demonstrate the thermal transformation attributed to the burning process. The potential environmental impact associated with the coal waste piles are related with the release of petrogenic and pyrolytic PAHs in particulate and gaseous forms to soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Symmetric Rock Fall on Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreten Mastilovic

    2001-08-09

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the Naval SNF (spent nuclear fuel) Waste Package (WP) and the emplacement pallet (EP) subjected to the rock fall DBE (design basis event) dynamic loads. The scope of this calculation is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities and residual stresses in the WP, and stress intensities and maximum permanent downward displacements of the EP-lifting surface. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP and EP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for those designs only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and is performed by the Waste Package Design Section in accordance with Reference 24. AP-3.124, ''Calculations'', is used to perform the calculation and develop the document.

  17. Metal binding by bacteria from uranium mining waste piles and its technological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, K; Raff, J; Merroun, M; Fahmy, K; Selenska-Pobell, S

    2006-01-01

    Uranium mining waste piles, heavily polluted with radionuclides and other toxic metals, are a reservoir for bacteria that have evolved special strategies to survive in these extreme environments. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial adaptation may enable the development of novel bioremediation strategies and other technological applications. Cell isolates of Bacillus sphaericus JG-A12 from a uranium mining waste pile in Germany are able to accumulate high amounts of toxic metals such as U, Cu, Pb, Al, and Cd as well as precious metals. Some of these metals, i.e. U, Cu, Pd(II), Pt(II) and Au(III), are also bound by the highly orderd paracrystalline proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) that envelopes the cells of this strain. These special capabilities of the cells and the S-layer proteins of B. sphaericus JG-A12 are highly interesting for the clean-up of uranium contaminated waste waters, for the recovery of precious metals from electronic wastes, and for the production of metal nanoclusters. The fabricated nanoparticles are promising for the development of novel catalysts. This work reviews the molecular biology of the S-layer of the strain JG-A12 and the S-layer dependent interactions of the bacterial cells with metals. It presents future perspectives for their application in bioremediation and nanotechnology.

  18. Measurements and predictions of surface gas fluxes and actual evaporation on mine waste rock dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabwe, L.K.; Wilson, G.W. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Process Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Long-term closure issues with respect to the mining industry and acid rock drainage (ARD) management require accurate measurements, predictions and monitoring of surface gas fluxes and actual evaporation on mine waste-rock dumps. This study uses a technique, called the dynamic closed chamber system (DCC) that measures the oxygen flux into mine waste dumps. The technique was used with an oxygen gas analyzer to directly measure the change in the oxygen concentration in the headspace of the chamber installed at the surface of the waste dumps. A SoilCover model was also used to predict evaporation fluxes on a waste-rock pile after heavy rainfall events. Measurement of actual evaporation across the surfaces of waste dumps is important in the design of soil covers. The paper discussed the site locations including the Key Lake uranium mine located at the southern rim of the Athabasca Basin in north central Saskatchewan as well as the Syncrude Canada Ltd. mine, located 30 km north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Materials and methods used in the study as well as results and subsequent discussion were also presented. The effect of relative humidity and the effect of soil cover system on oxygen diffusion was reviewed. It was concluded that the SoilCover numerical model can be a useful tool for prediction of actual evaporation on mine waste dumps. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Offshore construction of batter pile of steel pipe rock- socketed pile%海上钢管嵌岩桩斜桩施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁昆; 张禹; 陈冬宇

    2014-01-01

    结合境外工程现场实际情况,将JK-8冲击钻钻头改装成圆筒形锤头进行钢管嵌岩斜桩的成孔,打破了嵌岩斜桩只能由顶置式回转钻机或立轴式回转钻机施工的固定模式。该工法适应性好,安全系数高,具有推广价值。%Combined with the practical situation of overseas projects, we changed the JK-8 impact drill bit into a tubular type impact hammer to drilling the steel pipe rock-socketed pile. This technology has broken the fixed pattern of batter pile con-struction using overhead type slewing drilling machine or vertical shafts slewing drilling machine only. The technology has good adaptability, high safety, and promotional value.

  20. Feasibility Studies on Static Pile Co Composting of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Dairy Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Gopinathan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk processing consumes a large amount of water and generates 6–10 liters of effluent per liter of milk processed. An effluent volume is approximately four times the volume of processed milk. Since the pollutants generated by industry are great losses of production, improvements in production efficiency are recommended to reduce pollutant loads. In this research a series of experimental studies were conducted with regard to bioconversion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste along with dairy waste water at different C/N ratios. About 50 kg of shredded waste containing dairy waste water, saw dust, and organic fraction of municipal solid waste was placed in static piles of different proportions and 500 ml of effective micro-organisms was added to them. The variation in physical and chemical parameters was monitored throughout the process. Results indicate that co composting of dairy waste water with municipal solid waste produces compost that is more stable and homogenous and can be effectively used as soil conditioner.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.963

  1. Distribution pattern and limiting factors of vegetation in coal waste pile of Xinzhuangzi coal mine in Huainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhao-xia; WANG Shun-chang; WANG Xing-ming

    2012-01-01

    In China,coal mine spoils have traditionally been dumped in cone-shaped heaps that have the potential to pollute air,soil and water environments.The coal waste pile occupies lots of arable land and endangers the ecological system in the coal mine district.Vegetation restoration is an efficient approach for controlling the environment pollution of coal waste pile,and is also a topic of current interest in restoration ecology and degradation system ecology.This study focused on the distribution pattern and limiting factors of vegetation in coal waste pile of Xinzhuangzi Coal Mine in Huainan.The results show that two stable plant communities (Synodon dactylon+Erigeron bonariensis.L+Setaria viridis community and Humulus scanden+Erigeron bonariensis.L community) exist at the bottom of the pile.Synodon dactylon and Erigeron bonariensis.L have much higher values of summed dominance ratio,which denote that these two species can be used for restoration of coal waste piles.The high levels of pH (8.77) and salinity,low levels of total P and total K in coal mine spoil can be the limiting factors for the residence and growth of vegetation.

  2. 40 CFR 761.347 - First level sampling-waste from existing piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing piles. 761.347 Section 761.347 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... from existing piles. (a) General. Sample piles that are either specifically configured for sampling... alternate sampling plan in accordance with § 761.62(c). (b) Specifically configured piles. A...

  3. ROCK FALL CALCULATIONS FOR SINGLE CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIAL WASTE PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Ceylan

    1999-03-23

    The purpose of this activity is to determine the structural performance of waste packages (WP) subject to rock fall design basis event (DBE) dynamic loads and document the calculation results that describe the threshold rock sizes for crack-initiation and through cracks in waste package shells. This activity is associated with the waste package design. AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, Calculations, is used to develop the calculation.

  4. ROCK FALL CALCULATIONS FOR SINGLE CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIAL WASTE PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bader

    1999-09-20

    The purpose of this activity is to determine the structural performance of waste packages (WP) subject to rock fall design basis event (DBE) dynamic loads and document the calculation results that describe the threshold rock sizes for crack-initiation and through-cracks in waste package shells. This activity is associated with the waste package design. AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, Calculations, is used to develop the calculation.

  5. Information base for waste repository design. Volume 3. Waste/rock interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplick, C.M.; Pentz, D.L.; Oston, S.G.; Talbot, R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the important effects resulting from interaction between radioactive waste and the rock in a nuclear waste repository. The state of the art in predicting waste/rock interactions is summarized. Where possible, independent numerical calculations have been performed. Recommendations are made pointing out areas which require additional research.

  6. Identification of nanominerals and nanoparticles in burning coal waste piles from Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Joana [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Flores, Deolinda [Centro de Geologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Geociencias, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Territorio, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Ward, Colin R. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: felipeqma@yahoo.com.br [Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2010-11-01

    A range of carbon nanoparticles, agglomerates and mineral phases have been identified in burning coal waste pile materials from the Douro Coalfield of Portugal, as a basis for identifying their potential environmental and human health impacts. The fragile nature and fine particle size of these materials required novel characterization methods, including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) techniques. The chemical composition and possible correlations with morphology of the nanominerals and associated ultra-fine particles have been evaluated in the context of human health exposure, as well as in relation to management of such components in coal-fire environments.

  7. Safety impact of piled municipal solid waste dumps in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on water quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The safety of water quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir(TGR)is very important.Protections and remediation of environment safety are very crucial for guaranteeing TGR environmental quality.When piled municipal solid waste(MSW) dumps are submerged without treatment,pollutants in the MSW will leach into the water and threaten the water safety of the reservoir.Based on the surveys of the amount,distribution and characteristics of piled MSW in the TGR area,this study focusing on the MSW dumps at the water leve...

  8. Oxygen influx and geochemistry of percolate water from reactive mine waste rock underlying a sloping channelled soil cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Qing, E-mail: qsong3@uwo.ca [Geotechnical Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada); Yanful, Ernest K., E-mail: eyanful@eng.uwo.ca [Geotechnical Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > A channelled cover with preferential flow can still mitigate ARD to some extent. > Oxygen ingress was more sensitive to the location of the channel than to K{sub s}. > The channel in the barrier layer was a major passage for O{sub 2} ingress. > Actual flushing was an important factor when estimating O{sub 2} decay coefficient. - Abstract: An ideal engineered soil cover can mitigate acid rock drainage (ARD) by limiting water and gaseous O{sub 2} ingress into an underlying waste rock pile. However, the barrier layer in the soil cover almost invariably tends to develop cracks or fractures after placement. These cracks may change water flow and O{sub 2} transport in the soil cover and decrease performance in the long run. The present study employed a 10-cm-wide sand-filled channel installed in a soil barrier layer (silty clay) to model the aggregate of cracks or fractures that may be present in the cover. The soil cover had a slope of 20%. Oxygen transport through the soil cover and oxidation of the underlying waste rock were investigated and compared to a controlled column test with bare waste rock (without soil cover). Moreover, gaseous O{sub 2} transport in the soil cover with channel and its sensitivity to channel location as well as the influence of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the channel material were modeled using the commercial software VADOSE/W. The results indicted that the waste rock underlying the soil cover with channel had a lower oxidation rate than the waste rock without cover because of reduced O{sub 2} ingress and water flushing in the soil cover with channel, which meant a partial soil cover might still be effective to some extent in reducing ARD generation. Gaseous O{sub 2} ingress into the covered waste rock was more sensitive to the channel location than to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the material filling the channel. Aqueous equilibrium speciation modeling and scanning electron microscopy with energy

  9. Environmental Geochemistry and Acid Mine Drainage Evaluation of an Abandoned Coal Waste Pile at the Alborz-Sharghi Coal Washing Plant, NE Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodeiri Shokri, Behshad, E-mail: b.jodeiri@hut.ac.ir [Hamedan University of Technology (HUT), Department of Mining Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz [University of Tehran, School of Mining, College of Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramazi, Hamidreza [Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, an abandoned waste coal pile, which is resulted from Alborz-Sharghi coal washing plant, NE of Iran was mineralogically and geochemically characterized to evaluate pyrite oxidation, acid mine drainage (AMD) generation, and trace element mobility. After digging ten trenches and vertical sampling, a quantitative method including the atomic absorption test, and the quality-based methods including optical study were carried out for determination of pyrite fractions in the waste pile. The geochemical results revealed that the fraction of remaining pyrite increased with depth, indicating that pyrite oxidation is limited to the shallower depths of the pile which were confirmed by variations of sulfate, pH, EC, and carbonate with depth of the pile. To evaluate the trend of trace elements and mineralogical constituents of the waste particles, the samples were analyzed by using XRD, ICP-MS, and ICP-OES methods. The results showed the secondary and neutralizing minerals comprising gypsum have been formed below the oxidation zone. Besides, positive values of net neutralization potential indicated that AMD generation has not taken in the waste pile. In addition, variations of trace elements with depth reveal that Pb and Zn exhibited increasing trends from pile surface toward the bottom sampling trenches while another of them such as Cu and Ni had decreasing trends with increasing depth of the waste pile.

  10. Prevention of sulfide oxidation in sulfide-rich waste rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Elsa; Alakangas, Lena

    2015-04-01

    The ability to reduce sulfide oxidation in waste rock after mine closure is a widely researched area, but to reduce and/or inhibit the oxidation during operation is less common. Sulfide-rich (ca 30 % sulfur) waste rock, partially oxidized, was leached during unsaturated laboratory condition. Trace elements such as As and Sb were relatively high in the waste rock while other sulfide-associated elements such as Cu, Pb and Zn were low compared to common sulfide-rich waste rock. Leaching of unsaturated waste rock lowered the pH, from around six down to two, resulting in continuously increasing element concentrations during the leaching period of 272 days. The concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6.9 mg/L), Sb (1.2 mg/L), Zn (149 mg/L) and S (43 g/L) were strongly elevated at the end of the leaching period. Different alkaline industrial residues such as slag, lime kiln dust and cement kiln dust were added as solid or as liquid to the waste rock in an attempt to inhibit sulfide oxidation through neo-formed phases on sulfide surfaces in order to decrease the mobility of metals and metalloids over longer time scale. This will result in a lower cost and efforts of measures after mine closure. Results from the experiments will be presented.

  11. Tridimensional modelling and resource estimation of the mining waste piles of São Domingos mine, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre; Matos, João; Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) northern sector, near the Portuguese/Spanish border, the outcropping São Domingos deposit was mined since Roman time. Between 1854 and 1966 the Mason & Barry Company developed open pit excavation until 120 m depth and underground mining until 420 m depth. The São Domingos subvertical deposit is associated with felsic volcanics and black shales of the IPB Volcano-Sedimentary Complex and is represented by massive sulphide and stockwork ore (py, cpy, sph, ga, tt, aspy) and related supergene enrichment ore (hematite gossan and covellite/chalcocite). Different mine waste classes were mapped around the old open pit: gossan (W1), felsic volcanic and shales (W2), shales (W3) and mining waste landfill (W4). Using the LNEG (Portuguese Geological Survey) CONASA database (company historical mining waste characterization based on 162 shafts and 160 reverse circulation boreholes), a methodology for tridimensional modelling mining waste pile was followed, and a new mining waste resource is presented. Considering some constraints to waste removal, such as the Mina de São Domingos village proximity of the wastes, the industrial and archaeological patrimony (e.g., mining infrastructures, roman galleries), different resource scenarios were considered: unconditioned resources (total estimates) and conditioned resources (only the volumes without removal constraints considered). Using block modelling (SURPAC software) a mineral inferred resource of 2.38 Mt @ 0.77 g/t Au and 8.26 g/t Ag is estimated in unconditioned volumes of waste. Considering all evaluated wastes, including village areas, an inferred resource of 4.0 Mt @ 0.64 g/t Au and 7.30 g/t Ag is presented, corresponding to a total metal content of 82,878 oz t Au and 955,753 oz t Ag. Keywords. São Domingos mine, mining waste resources, mining waste pile modelling, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

  12. The disturbed rock zone at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2003-12-01

    The Disturbed Rock Zone constitutes an important geomechanical element of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The science and engineering underpinning the disturbed rock zone provide the basis for evaluating ongoing operational issues and their impact on performance assessment. Contemporary treatment of the disturbed rock zone applied to the evaluation of the panel closure system and to a new mining horizon improves the level of detail and quantitative elements associated with a damaged zone surrounding the repository openings. Technical advancement has been realized by virtue of ongoing experimental investigations and international collaboration. The initial portion of this document discusses the disturbed rock zone relative to operational issues pertaining to re-certification of the repository. The remaining sections summarize and document theoretical and experimental advances that quantify characteristics of the disturbed rock zone as applied to nuclear waste repositories in salt.

  13. Controls on Weathering of Pyrrhotite in a Low-Sulfide, Granitic Mine-Waste Rock in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, J. B.; Holland, S.; Sinclair, S.; Blowes, D.

    2013-12-01

    Increased environmental risk is incurred with expansion of mineral extraction in the Arctic. A greater understanding of geochemical processes associated with hard-rock mining in this cold climate is needed to evaluate and mitigate these risks. A laboratory and in-situ experiment was conducted to examine mineral weathering and the generation of acid rock drainage in a low-sulfide, run-of-mine waste rock in an Arctic climate. Rock with different concentrations of sulfides (primarily pyrrhotite [Fe7S8] containing small amounts of Co and Ni) and carbonates were weathered in the laboratory and in-situ, large-scale test piles to examine leachate composition and mineral weathering. The relatively larger sulfide-containing rock produced sufficient acid to overcome carbonate buffering and produced a declining pH environment with concomitant release of SO4, Fe, Co, and Ni. Following carbonate consumption, aluminosilicate buffering stabilized the pH above 4 until a reduction in acid generation. Results from the laboratory experiment assisted in determining that after consumption of 1.6 percent of the total sulfide, the larger sulfide-concentration test pile likely is at an internal steady-state or maximal weathering rate after seven years of precipitation input and weathering that is controlled by an annual freeze-thaw cycle. Further weathering of the test pile should be driven by external factors of temperature and precipitation in this Arctic, semi-arid region instead of internal factors of wetting and non-equilibrium buffering. It is predicted that maximal weathering will continue until at least 20 percent of the total sulfide is consumed. Using the identified evolution of sulfide consumption in this Arctic climate, a variable rate factor can now be assessed for the possible early evolution and maximal weathering of larger scale waste-rock piles and seasonal differences because of changes in the volume of a waste-rock pile undergoing active weathering due to the freeze

  14. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  15. Distributed Temperature Measurement in a Self-Burning Coal Waste Pile through a GIS Open Source Desktop Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Duarte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Information Systems (GIS are often used to assess and monitor the environmental impacts caused by mining activities. The aim of this work was to develop a new application to produce dynamic maps for monitoring the temperature variations in a self-burning coal waste pile, under a GIS open source environment—GIS-ECOAL (freely available. The performance of the application was evaluated with distributed temperature measurements gathered in the S. Pedro da Cova (Portugal coal waste pile. In order to obtain the temperature data, an optical fiber cable was disposed over the affected area of the pile, with 42 location stakes acting as precisely-located control points for the temperature measurement. A monthly data set from July (15 min of interval was fed into the application and a video composed by several layouts with temperature measurements was created allowing for recognizing two main areas with higher temperatures. The field observations also allow the identification of these zones; however, the identification of an area with higher temperatures in the top of the studied area was only possible through the visualization of the images created by this application. The generated videos make possible the dynamic and continuous visualization of the combustion process in the monitored area.

  16. Petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the Serrinha coal waste pile (Douro Coalfield, Portugal) and the potential environmental impacts on soil, sediments and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Centro de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Ferreira da Silva, E. [GeoBioTec, Geobiosciences, Geotechnologies and Geoengineering Research Center, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Li, Z.; Ward, C. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales. Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Flores, D. [Departamento de Geociencias, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Territorio, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-09-01

    Serrinha is the largest coal waste pile resulting from mining activities in the Douro Coalfield, Portugal. The exploitation of anthracite in tens of small mines caused some environmental impacts, as is the case of the coal waste piles that exist in old mines and adjacent areas. The Serrinha waste pile is essentially made up of 2 million tonnes of shales and carbonaceous shales, deposited in a topographical depression over about 30 years. Despite the environmental restoration accomplished in the Serrinha waste pile, some environmental problems seem to persist. In this study a petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization was done in order to recognize and understand these problems. The materials studied were coal waste, sediments and waters from the drainage system and decanting basins, soils from the surrounding areas, leachates from waste material and neoformed minerals formed at the bottom of the waste pile. The main lithologies (carbonaceous shale and lithic arenite) and coal from the Douro Coalfield were also analyzed. Petrographic analysis shows some evidence of weathering (on organic and inorganic matter) related to the time of exposure to the weathering agents and the easy access of air within the waste pile (due to both the poor compaction and the heterogeneity of the material). Mineralogically, the composition of coal waste material has contributions from both the coal and the associated lithologies. R-type cluster analysis of the waste pile material allows two distinct clusters to be identified. In the first cluster a sulfide fraction is represented by the association of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, while Fe clustered with Al, Co, and Ti indicates that some of the Fe and the other elements are likely associated with silicate minerals such as clays. The second cluster, represented by Cr, V, Zr, Rb, REE, Mn, Li and Ba, probably represent a silicate fraction, perhaps detrital accessory minerals. The waste pile material, leachates, soils

  17. Plant growth in amended molybdenum mine waste rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Owen T; Redente, Edward F; Lambert, Charles E

    2017-04-01

    This greenhouse study examined the use of organic and inorganic soil amendments in waste rock material from the former Questa Molybdenum Mine in northern New Mexico to promote beneficial soil properties. Waste rock material was amended with 11 soil amendment treatments that included municipal composted biosolids, Biosol®, inorganic fertilizer, and two controls (pure waste rock and sand). Elymus trachycaulus and Robinia neomexicana growth performance and plant chemistry were assessed across all treatments over a period of 99 and 141 days, respectively. Even though waste rock material had more than 200 times the molybdenum concentration of native soils, adverse effects were not observed for either species. The two main limiting factors in this study were soil nutritional status and soil water retention. The biosolid amendment was found to provide the greatest buffer against these limiting factors due to significant increases in both nutrition and soil water retention. As a result, both species responded with the highest levels of biomass production and the least amount of required water demands. Use of organic amendments such as biosolids, even though short lived in the soil, may provide plants the necessary growth stimulus to become more resilient to the harsh conditions found on many mine reclamation sites.

  18. Preliminary review of Precambrian Shield rocks for potential waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yardley, D.H.; Goldich, S.S.

    1975-11-01

    This review of the Canadian Shield is primarily concerned with the part (such as in the Lake Superior region) that is seismically the least active of the North American continent. The crystalline metamorphic and igneous rocks of the more stable elements of the shield provide excellent possibilities for dry excavations suitable for long-term storage of radioactive waste materials. (DLC)

  19. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... pressure level modelling indicates that the waste rock dump has a potential to ... Problems related to noise include stress related illnesses, high blood pressure, speech ... modelling consist of physical parameters that are ... The monitoring activity was ... efficiency of 40% (assumed) will reduce the noise.

  20. FGC-15D large-diameter DTH air hammer drilling system and its application in offshore rock-socketed pile hole drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun YIN; Jianming PENG; Maosen WANG; Zhanjiang ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    In the past two decades, numerous large-diameter rock-socketed piles were constructed in China to support foundations of skyscrapers, great bridges or to retain soil in potential geological hazard areas. However, drilling large-diameter rock-socketed pile holes with conventional drilling method such as rotary drilling or cable tool drilling is time-consuming and the cost is usually very high. In order to drill large-diameter rock-socketed pile holes faster at relatively low cost, the FGC15A large-diameter DTH air hammer drilling system was developed in 1987 and was given the second-class award by Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources in 1991. Since it was innovated the drilling system has been used in more than twenty important and tough projects on land, and wonderful results were acquired. At the same time the large-diameter DTH air hammer drilling system was improved continuously. The FGC15D is the latest version of the technique.

  1. Motion analysis of waste rock in gas-solids fluidized bed in coal dry beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭迎福; 陈安华; 张永忠; 邓志鹏; 毛树楷

    2002-01-01

    Through the analysis of forces acting on the waste rock in the gas-solid fluidized bed, the waste rock velocity equations and displacement equations in the gas-solids fluidized bed were achieved and the influential factors of the waste rock motion in the fluidized bed were studied in this paper. The conclusions show that the primary factors influencing the waste rock motion are the waste rock grain size and the scraper velocity according to the computer simulation. This has provided the theoretical foundation both for improving the separating effect and ascertaining the length of the separating cell.

  2. Characterisation of sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps using electrical resistivity imaging: the case study of the Rio Marina mining district (Elba Island, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Mauro; Servida, Diego; Lupis, Domenico

    2013-07-01

    Sulphide-bearing mine dumps are potential sources of pollution when acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs. Because the generation of AMD depends on the volume and composition of waste materials, their characterisation is crucial for the evaluation of geochemical hazards and for the design of remediation strategies to minimise their environmental impact. In this paper, a cost-effective strategy for the characterisation of an inactive mine dump in the Rio Marina mining district (Elba Island, Italy) using earth resistivity imaging (ERI) is presented. As no information regarding the nature of waste rocks is found in reports for the mine, five ERI profiles were acquired at the top of the waste pile. The results show that waste rocks are heterogeneous with a maximum thickness of 30 m. Due to the large amounts of dispersed sulphide minerals, the waste rocks are characterised by an electrically conductive geophysical signature in comparison to the surrounding resistive metamorphic bedrock. A geostatistical approach was adopted to estimate the elevation of the edges of the mine dump, and the net volume of the waste rocks was computed through a raster analysis of the elevations of the upper and lower boundaries of the mine dump. High-conductivity anomalies were detected within the core of the mine dump. The integration of the hydrogeological, geochemical and geological framework of the Rio Marina mining district suggests that these anomalies could be a geophysical signature of subsurface regions where AMD is currently generated or stored, thus representing sources of environmental pollution.

  3. Plant and invertebrate assemblages on waste rock at Wangaloa coal mine, Otago, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufaut, C.G.; Hammit, S.; Craw, D.; Clearwater, S.G. [University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    2006-07-01

    Natural regeneration on waste rock was investigated at the old Wangaloa coal mine, south-east Otago. A 450-m long waste rock stack had been created 40-50 years ago, and has had little anthropogenic intervention since. The stack is made up of a gradient of three main waste rock types, defined as 'silt-rich', 'mixed', and I quartz-rich, which reflect different proportions of loess siltstone and quartz gravel conglomerate. Plant species assemblages were quantified in four 5-m{sup 2} quadrats in each waste rock type. Invertebrates were heat extracted from substrate cores (7 cm diameter; depth 5 cm) collected from quadrats over an eight-week period in spring 2003. Ordination analysis showed statistically distinct plant and invertebrate assemblages had arisen on each waste rock type. Revegetation patterns were dominated by native, woody individuals on all waste rock types, particularly manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and kanuka (Kunzea ericoides). Plant cover on 'silt-rich' waste rock was four-fold that on 'quartz-rich' waste rock. Total numbers of invertebrates were highest on 'quartz-rich' waste rock, but richness greatest on 'silt-rich' waste rock. Collembola dominated the fauna but their numbers were proportionally greatest in poorly vegetated areas. Further work is required to explain the absence of plants and invertebrates from local areas of waste rock.

  4. Probabilities for survival of glassy-winged sharpshooter and olive fruit fly pests in urban yard waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn, David M; Faber, Ben; Downer, A James; Daugovish, Oleg

    2008-03-01

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homolodisca coagulate) and olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) were introduced into unturned, chipped yard waste piles to evaluate their survival with time and depth within the piles. In all three trials, no pests lasted more than 14 d, and in no trial did pests survive more than 4d at the 30 and 100 cm depths. No survivors were found after 14 d in any of the treatments at any depth. Neither of the pests survived 100 cm after 2d. A mathematical model for describing pest survival probabilities is described. The model modifies time according to the Arrhenius equation in order to include heat effects on pest survival and can be used to determine exposure times necessary to eliminate these pests with a determined statistical probability. Model projections suggest that for conditions similar to this study, there is 99% confidence that all glassy-winged sharpshooter eggs would be eliminated from 1000 infected leaves in 6.1d at 15 cm depth and in 4.8d at 30 cm or below. Olive fruit fly larvae at these depths would require 4.8 and 4.1d, respectively, for 1000 infected olive fruits. Projected elimination times at the surface were longer, 6.5d for sharpshooter eggs and 14.3d for fruit fly larvae.

  5. Comparison of Design Schemes of Inclined Pile and Vertical Pile in Embedded Rock Pile of Thin Walled Abut-ment%薄壁桥台嵌岩桩基础斜桩与直桩设计方案的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利强

    2012-01-01

      According to the pile foundation engineering of 2nd section of Monapo bridge foundation project in Nampula-Cua-mbaroad road upgrading and regeneration in Mozambique, calculation analysis was made on the stress and reinforcement of different base heights and pile lengths of embedded rock pile of thin walled abutment with Prokon 2.5 structure analysis software, so as to provide the basis for rational selection of pile foundation type based on different formation conditions and base heights in the design.%  结合莫桑比克Nampula-Cuamba道路升级改造项目第二标段Monapo桥基础桩基工程,采用Prokon 2.5结构分析软件对薄壁桥台嵌岩斜桩和直桩在不同台高和不同桩长的受力和配筋情况分别进行计算分析,从而为设计中根据不同地层条件和不同台高选择合理的桩基形式提供依据.

  6. A case study of long-term geochemical evolution of coal waste rock drainage and its remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, A.P.; Gandy, C.J. [Newcastle Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach Group

    2010-07-01

    The geochemical evolution of drainage from an 35 hectare orphan waste rock pile over a 15-year period was described. Spoil material at the site was generated during coal mining at 2 collieries between 1922 and 1970, and was comprised of grey and black shale, ash, coal, and coal dust. The heap was founded on an impermeable clay layer. Located in northern England, drainage from the rock heap was intercepted by a small compost wetland system installed in 1997. The waste rock heap was selectively capped in 1998. Water samples were collected and analyzed. Anion concentrations were determined using an ion chromatograph. The samples were filtered periodically. Acidity concentrations and flow rates were determined. Results of the study showed measurable improvements in water quality as a result of capping the heap. The study demonstrated that a combination of selective spoil capping and wetland treatment can serve as a low-cost solution to acid mine drainage at some abandoned mine sites. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  7. 40 CFR 270.18 - Specific part B information requirements for waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM...; (2) Control of run-on; (3) Control of run-off; (4) Management of collection and holding units... complied with; (h) A description of how hazardous waste residues and contaminated materials will be removed...

  8. Mine Waste Disposal and Managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young-Wook; Min, Jeong-Sik; Kwon, Kwang-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research project deals with: Analysis and characterization of mine waste piles or tailings impoundment abandoned in mining areas; Survey of mining environmental pollution from mine waste impounds; Modelling of pollutants in groundwater around tailings impoundment; Demonstration of acid rock drainage from coal mine waste rock piles and experiment of seeding on waste rock surface; Development of a liner using tailings. Most of mine wastes are deposited on natural ground without artificial liners and capping for preventing contamination of groundwater around mine waste piles or containments. In case of some mine waste piles or containments, pollutants have been released to the environment, and several constituents in drainage exceed the limit of discharge from landfill site. Metals found in drainage exist in exchangeable fraction in waste rock and tailings. This means that if when it rains to mine waste containments, mine wastes can be pollutant to the environment by release of acidity and metals. As a result of simulation for hydraulic potentials and groundwater flow paths within the tailings, the simulated travel paths correlated well with the observed contaminant distribution. The plum disperse, both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, with time. Therefore liner system is a very important component in tailings containment system. As experimental results of liner development using tailings, tailings mixed with some portion of resin or cement may be used for liner because tailings with some additives have a very low hydraulic conductivity. (author). 39 refs.

  9. Measurements and modeling of gas fluxes in unsaturated mine waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabwe, L.K.

    2008-07-01

    A technique known as dynamic closed chamber (DDC) was recently developed to measure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fluxes from the soil surface to the atmosphere. The field application of the DCC was investigated in this thesis with a particular focus on quantifying reaction rates in 2 waste-rock piles at the Key Lake uranium mine in northern Saskatchewan. The dominant geochemical reactions in both waste-rock piles were not typical of acid rock drainage (ARD) waste-rock piles. The CO{sub 2} fluxes measured in this study occur in the organic material underlying the waste rocks. The study provided a complete suite of measurements needed to characterize spatial distribution of CO{sub 2} fluxes on larger-scale studies of waste-rock piles. In comparison to other CO{sub 2} flux measuring techniques, the DCC method accurately quantified field soil respiration and had an added advantage in terms of speed and repeatability. The DCC was also used to investigate CO{sub 2} fluxes under the climatic variables that affect soil water content in waste-rock piles. A simple model for predicting the effects of soil water content on CO{sub 2} diffusion coefficient and concentration profiles was developed and verified. It was concluded that the DCC method is suitable for field applications to quantify CO{sub 2} fluxes and to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of CO{sub 2} fluxes from unsaturated C-horizon soils and waste-rock piles.

  10. Bacterial diversity in soil samples from two uranium waste piles as determined by rep-APD, RISA and 16S rDNA retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenska-Pobell, S; Kampf, G; Hemming, K; Radeva, G; Satchanska, G

    2001-06-01

    The bacterial diversity in two uranium waste piles was studied. Total DNA was recovered from a large number of soil samples collected from different sites and depths in the piles using two procedures for direct lysis. Significant differences in the bacterial composition of the samples were revealed by the use of rep-APD, RISA and 16S ARDREA. The 16S rDNA analyses showed that the uranium wastes were dominated by Acidithiobacillusferrooxidans and by several Pseudomonas species classified in the gamma-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The three kinds of A. ferrooxidans 16S and IGS rDNA specific fragments that were found corresponded to the three phylogenetic groups recognised in this species. This microdiversity probably reflects the genetic adaptation of the uranium waste strains to different concentrations of heavy metals.

  11. Effects of bioleaching on the mechanical and chemical properties of waste rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sheng-Hua; Wu, Ai-Xiang; Wang, Shao-Yong; Ai, Chun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Bioleaching processes cause dramatic changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of waste rocks, and play an important role in metal recovery and dump stability. This study focused on the characteristics of waste rocks subjected to bioleaching. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the evolution of rock properties during the bioleaching process. Mechanical behaviors of the leached waste rocks, such as failure patterns, normal stress, shear strength, and cohesion were determined through mechanical tests. The results of SEM imaging show considerable differences in the surface morphology of leached rocks located at different parts of the dump. The mineralogical content of the leached rocks reflects the extent of dissolution and precipitation during bioleaching. The dump porosity and rock size change under the effect of dissolution, precipitation, and clay transportation. The particle size of the leached rocks decreased due to the loss of rock integrity and the conversion of dry precipitation into fine particles.

  12. Suitability of static tests for acid rock drainage assessment of mine waste rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi M. Kauppila

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, eight rock samples were analysed with a modified acid-base accounting (ABA test and the corresponding net acid generation (NAG test. In addition, the main and trace elements solubilised during the tests were determined with ICPOES/MS. Both the modified ABA and NAG tests classified the rock samples with a lowsulphide-S content (0.1–0.4 % and low carbonate mineral content (≤0.2 % into the category of ‘potentially acid generating’. The low neutralization potentials of these rocks were partly due to additional acid produced in silicate weathering, upon the hydrolyzation of Fe and Al during the tests. In contrast to the modified ABA, the contribution of slowly reactive carbonate minerals to the neutralisation potential was seen in the NAG test and in the carbonate NP calculation, as they classified the rock samples containing these minerals into the category of ‘non-acid generating’. This supports the use of the carbonate neutralizing potential (NP and/or the NAG test in mine waste screening. In the NAG test, acid generation and neutralization reactions either raising or decreasing the pH significantly influenced the solubility of trace metals and Al. This suggests that the extract contents could be useful in assessing contaminant mobility during long-term acid generating reactions.

  13. Rock Smelting of Copper Ores with Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgate, Terry; Jahanshahi, Sharif; Haque, Nawshad

    It is generally recognised that the grades of metallic ores are falling globally. This trend can be expected to increase the life cycle-based energy requirement for primary metal production due to the additional amount of material that must be handled and treated in the mining and mineral processing stages of the metal production life cycle. Rock (or whole ore) smelting has been suggested as a possible alternative processing route for low grade ores with a potentially lower energy intensity and environmental impact than traditional processing routes. In this processing route, the beneficiation stage is eliminated along with its associated energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, but this is partially offset by the need for more solid material to be handled and heated up to smelting temperatures. A life cycle assessment study was carried out to assess the potential energy and greenhouse gas benefits of a conceptual flowsheet of the rock smelting process, using copper ore as an example. Recovery and utilisation of waste heat in the slag (via dry slag granulation) and offgas streams from the smelting step was also included in the study, with the waste heat being utilised either for thermal applications or electricity generation.

  14. Concepts and Technologies for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Rock Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernt Brewitz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, rock salt was selected to host a repository for radioactive waste because of its excellent mechanical properties. During 12 years of practical disposal operation in the Asse mine and 25 years of disposal in the disused former salt mine Morsleben, it was demonstrated that low-level wastes (LLW and intermediate-level wastes (ILW can be safely handled and economically disposed of in salt repositories without a great technical effort. LLW drums were stacked in old mining chambers by loading vehicles or emplaced by means of the dumping technique. Generally, the remaining voids were backfilled by crushed salt or brown coal filter ash. ILW were lowered into inaccessible chambers through a borehole from a loading station above using a remote control.Additionally, an in-situ solidification of liquid LLW was applied in the Morsleben mine. Concepts and techniques for the disposal of heat generating high-level waste (HLW are advanced as well. The feasibility of both borehole and drift disposal concepts have been proved by about 30 years of testing in the Asse mine. Since 1980s, several full-scale in-situ tests were conducted for simulating the borehole emplacement of vitrified HLW canisters and the drift emplacement of spent fuel in Pollux casks. Since 1979, the Gorleben salt dome has been investigated to prove its suitability to host the national final repository for all types of radioactive waste. The “Concept Repository Gorleben” disposal concepts and techniques for LLW and ILW are widely based on the successful test operations performed at Asse. Full-scale experiments including the development and testing of adequate transport and emplacement systems for HLW, however, are still pending. General discussions on the retrievability and the reversibility are going on.

  15. Big Pile or Small Pile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Mario; Quidacciolu, Rossana G.; Soletta, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    The construction of a voltaic pile (battery) is a simple laboratory activity that commemorates the invention of this important device and is of great help in teaching physics. The voltaic pile is often seen as a scientific toy, with the "pile" being constructed from fruit. These toys use some strips of copper and zinc inserted in a piece…

  16. Geophysical study in waste landfill localized above fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariveltom Cosme da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical survey is an important method for investigation of contaminated areas used in the characterization of contrasting physical properties in the presence of pollutants. This work applied the geophysical methods of Electrical Resistivity and Self Potential in waste landfill, located in Caçapava do Sul city, RS. The landfill is located over fractured metamorphic rocks. Eight lines of electrical profiling with 288 measures of self potential were done. In addition, 83 measurements of direction and dip of fractures were taken. The application of spontaneous potential method permitted to detect the direction of groundwater flow. The electrical resistivity measurements allowed the identification of low-intensity anomalies associated with the presence of leachate. There is a relationship between anomalous zones and the directions of fractures.

  17. The mechanical characters analysis of rock-socketed pile%嵌岩支护桩力学性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董希祥; 张永磊

    2014-01-01

    运用有限元软件ABAQUS对基坑开挖过程中嵌岩支护桩的受力和变形进行了模拟分析,获得了桩体剪力、弯矩和变形规律,并通过工程案例实际监测值与数值计算结果对比,证明数值计算方法和计算结果基本符合实际。%Using the finite element software ABAQUS to foundation pit excavation process of rock-socketed pile has carried on the simulation anal-ysis of force and deformation,the pile shearing force,bending moment and deformation law,through the actual engineering case monitoring value compared with the results of numerical calculation,prove that the results of numerical calculation method and calculation in line with the actual.

  18. Molybdenum and zinc stable isotope variation in mining waste rock drainage and waste rock at the Antamina mine, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skierszkan, E.K., E-mail: eskiersz@eos.ubc.ca [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2020-2207 Main Mall, Vancouver V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Mayer, K.U. [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2020-2207 Main Mall, Vancouver V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Weis, D. [Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR), Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2020-2207 Main Mall, Vancouver V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Beckie, R.D. [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2020-2207 Main Mall, Vancouver V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    The stable isotope composition of molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn) in mine wastes at the Antamina Copper–Zn–Mo mine, Peru, was characterized to investigate whether isotopic variation of these elements indicated metal attenuation processes in mine drainage. Waste rock and ore minerals were analyzed to identify the isotopic composition of Mo and Zn sources, namely molybdenites (MoS{sub 2}) and sphalerites (ZnS). Molybdenum and Zn stable isotope ratios are reported relative to the NIST-SRM-3134 and PCIGR-1 Zn standards, respectively. δ{sup 98}Mo among molybdenites ranged from − 0.6 to + 0.6‰ (n = 9) while sphalerites showed no δ{sup 66}Zn variations (0.11 ± 0.01‰, 2 SD, n = 5). Mine drainage samples from field waste rock weathering experiments were also analyzed to examine the extent of isotopic variability in the dissolved phase. Variations spanned 2.2‰ in δ{sup 98}Mo (− 0.1 to + 2.1‰) and 0.7‰ in δ{sup 66}Zn (− 0.4 to + 0.3‰) in mine drainage over a wide pH range (pH 2.2–8.6). Lighter δ{sup 66}Zn signatures were observed in alkaline pH conditions, which was consistent with Zn adsorption and/or hydrozincite (Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 6}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}) formation. However, in acidic mine drainage Zn isotopic compositions reflected the value of sphalerites. In addition, molybdenum isotope compositions in mine drainage were shifted towards heavier values (0.89 ± 1.25‰, 2 SD, n = 16), with some overlap, in comparison to molybdenites and waste rock (0.13 ± 0.82‰, 2 SD, n = 9). The cause of heavy Mo isotopic signatures in mine drainage was more difficult to resolve due to isotopic heterogeneity among ore minerals and a variety of possible overlapping processes including dissolution, adsorption and secondary mineral precipitation. This study shows that variation in metal isotope ratios are promising indicators of metal attenuation. Future characterization of isotopic fractionation associated to key environmental reactions will improve the power

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles and Debris) Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 511, Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris). The CAU is comprised of nine corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of nine CASs: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 511 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) and closure activities were performed from January 2005 through August 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris)'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 511 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate preliminary

  20. Meso-Scale and Macro-Scale Analysis of the Geochemical and Physical Processes Responsible for Acid Rock Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otwinowski, Matthew

    1997-08-01

    We have developed a computer model which describes the geochemical and physical processes responsible for acid drainage from waste rock piles. The model is in the form of coupled nonlinear PDEs which describe: the kinetics of the chemical reactions, the release of contaminants, the generation of energy due to the exothermic oxidation of sulphides, the diffusive and convective transport of oxygen and water, and the transport of energy by conduction and convection. The meso-scale and large-scale characterization of waste rock and waste rock piles is discussed. We show that long-term leaching rates are inversely proportional to the square of particle diameter and that the previously used models underestimate the particle size effect on long-term sulphide oxidation. Experimental data on rock fragmentation are used for a fractal statistical characterization of waste rock piles. The acid generation rates, oxygen consumption rates and temperature profiles have been determined for piles containing from fifty thousand to five hundred thousand tonnes of waste rock. The thermodynamic instabilities, which occur at certain critical values of pile height, are responsible for thermodynamic catastrophes which result in a rapid increase of acid generation rates. The critical height is determined by the values of sulphide concentration, particle size, pile porosity and other factors. The numerical code is based on the finite elements method with an adaptive grid generator. abstract.

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris), Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-08-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris), Nevada Test Site, Nevada, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The general purpose of the investigation is to ensure adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select viable corrective actions. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details for CAU 511, whereas programmatic aspects of this project are discussed in the ''Project Management Plan'' (DOE/NV, 1994). General field and laboratory quality assurance and quality control issues are presented in the ''Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan'' (NNSA/NV, 2002). Health and safety aspects of the project are documented in the current version of the Environmental Engineering Services Contractor's Health and Safety Plan and will be supplemented with a site-specific safety basis document. Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of the following nine corrective action sites in Nevada Test Site Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). Corrective Action Sites 18-99-10 and 19-19-03 were identified after a review of the ''1992 RCRA Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Volume IV, Section L Potential Solid Waste Management Unit'' (DOE/NV, 1992). The remaining seven sites were first identified in the 1991 Reynolds

  2. Feasibility Studies on Static Pile Co Composting of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Dairy Waste Water

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Gopinathan; Meenambal Thirumurthy

    2012-01-01

    Milk processing consumes a large amount of water and generates 6–10 liters of effluent per liter of milk processed. An effluent volume is approximately four times the volume of processed milk. Since the pollutants generated by industry are great losses of production, improvements in production efficiency are recommended to reduce pollutant loads. In this research a series of experimental studies were conducted with regard to bioconversion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste along wit...

  3. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  4. Analysis on Effect of Karst Cave on Bearing Characteristics of Rock-socketed Pile%溶洞对嵌岩桩承载特性的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周栋梁; 廖辉煌; 戴国亮

    2013-01-01

    岩溶发育地质中的嵌岩桩,由于溶洞的存在,其受力机理与承载特性非常复杂.利用ABAQUS有限元分析软件,分析研究岩溶发育地质中溶洞对嵌岩桩的承载特性的影响,设计了四种不同的数值模拟分析对比方案,得出了岩溶地质中嵌岩桩的不同承载特性及桩侧摩阻力和桩端阻力的规律性结果,能使桩基设计达到优化的目的.%Rock-socked pile in karst geology, due to existence of karst cave, has complex force mechanism and bearing characteristics. In this paper, with ABAQUS finite element analysis software, the effect of karst cave developed in karst geology on bearing characteristics of rock-socketed pile is analyzed to the extent that four numerical simulation schemes for comparison are designed. As a result, regularity of bearing characteristics, side friction and end resistance of such rock-socketed pile are obtained and the pile foundation design could be optimized.

  5. Nitrate release from waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Fazilatun N; Barbour, S Lee; Kennedy, C; Hendry, M Jim

    2017-12-15

    The origin, distribution and leaching of nitrate (NO3(-)) from coal waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada were defined using chemical and NO3(-) isotope analyses (δ(15)N- and δ(18)O-NO3(-)) of solids samples of pre- and post-blast waste rock and from thick (up to 180m) unsaturated waste rock dump profiles constructed between 1982 and 2012 as well as water samples collected from a rock drain located at the base of one dump and effluent from humidity cell (HC) and leach pad (LP) tests on waste rock. δ(15)N- and δ(18)O-NO3(-) values and NO3(-) concentrations of waste rock and rock drain waters confirmed the source of NO3(-) in the waste rock to be explosives and that limited to no denitrification occurs in the dump. The average mass of N released during blasting was estimated to be about 3-6% of the N in the explosives. NO3(-) concentrations in the fresh-blast waste rock and recently placed waste rock used for the HC and LP experiments were highly variable, ranging from below detection to 241mg/kg. The mean and median concentrations of these samples ranged from 10-30mg/kg. In this range of concentrations, the initial aqueous concentration of fresh-blasted waste rock could range from approximately 200-600mg NO3(-)-N/L. Flushing of NO3(-) from the HCs, LPs and a deep field profile was simulated using a scale dependent leaching efficiency (f) where f ranged from 5-15% for HCs, to 35-80% for the LPs, to 80-90% for the field profile. Our findings show aqueous phase NO3(-) from blasting residuals is present at highly variable initial concentrations in waste rock and the majority of this NO3(-) (>75%) should be flushed by recharging water during displacement of the first stored water volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety assessment of waste rock dump built on existing tailings ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全明; 袁会娜; 钟茂华

    2015-01-01

    The construction of waste rock dumps on existing tailing ponds has been put into practice in China to save precious land resources. This work focuses on the safety assessment of the Daheishan molybdenum mine waste rock dump under construction on two adjoining tailings ponds. The consolidation of the tailings foundation and the filling quality of the waste rock are investigated by the transient electromagnetic method through detecting water-rich areas and loose packing areas, from which, the depth of phreatic line is also estimated. With such information and the material parameters, the numerical method based on shear strength reduction is applied to analyzing the overall stability of the waste rock dump and the tailings ponds over a number of typical cross sections under both current and designed conditions, where the complex geological profiles exposed by site investigation are considered. Through numerical experiments, the influence of soft lenses in the tailings and possible loose packing areas in the waste rock is examined. Although large displacements may develop due to the soft tailings foundation, the results show that the waste rock dump satisfies the safety requirements under both present and designed conditions.

  7. Discussion on Calculation of Vertical Bearing Capacity of Rock-socketed Pile%嵌岩桩竖向承载力计算问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕世明; 范开敏

    2014-01-01

    The formulas for bearing capacity of the rock-socketed pile in current industry standards are different from each other.The cause of the difference is pointed out based on analyzing the existing data comprehensively, and also some of the other problems.The results of comparative analysis show that the standard empirical formu-lae have the advantages as easy calculating and convenient spreading,which are calculated by the use of uniaxial compressive strength,but there is limitation of weak control for the influencing factors,and the calculated results tend to be conservative.Although theoretical analytic solutions are usually more closer to the in-site measured values than empirical values,it is not suitable for engineering works because of the multitudinous variables and complex calculation;so it is recommended that the design and application of the rock-socketed pile should focus on the accumulation of experiences and the establishment of regional standards.Furthermore,a method is pro-posed to determine the optimal embedding depth,and it is corresponding to the depth when the lateral resistance or end resistance accounting for the total load of the embedded section about 40% to 60%,by the way,the cal-culation of the bearing capacity of the pile at this depth is achieved by the introduction of partial coefficients.%在综合分析现有文献的基础上,指出现行各行业规范中嵌岩桩承载力计算公式产生差异的缘由及存在的问题。通过对比分析指出,规范经验公式采用岩石单轴抗压强度计算嵌岩桩承载力具有计算简单、便于推广应用的优点,但也存在对影响因素控制性差的局限,计算结果往往偏保守;理论计算通常较规范经验值更接近于现场实测值,但其参数繁多、计算复杂而不便于应用。建议嵌岩桩设计应在现行国家标准规范的基础上,注重地区经验的积累并建立健全地方标准。通过对嵌岩深度问题的深入分析

  8. Piles of Rocks Create Mountains of Understanding; The Fossil Finders Model for success in Earth Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pella-Donnelly, M. A.; Daley, B.; Crawford, B.

    2010-12-01

    Through the implementation of the Fossil Finders Resources and Tools Project; students across the country have found increased academic understanding of biological evolution. Evolution curriculum is currently covered minimally in many elementary and middle schools. Fossil Finders is a collaboration of the Cornell University Department of Education, The Paleontological Institution of Ithaca, New York and classrooms all over the United States. Essential elements of this curriculum include a scaffolded series of lessons on nature of science, making observations and inferences of fossils and development of an increased understanding of essential earth science topics including the Law of Uniformitarianism and the principle of superposition . Through these hands-on lessons, students begin to understand evolutionary theory and nature of science. The rewards of implementing this curriculum can be observed with student excitement as they engage in authentic research; they become student paleontologists as they scour bags of rocks for the fossils that may be unearthed. The rocks had been collected during a field study, by the teachers and are well known to contain a multitude of Devonian era fossils. Students become researchers as they examine, identify, measure and quantify all fossils found in these rocks. As the children contribute their own data to an online database of an actual paleontological study, they become self driven to examine that compiled data in order to construct explanations of past life in that collection area. This presentation will focus on personal experiences of two teachers, as they engaged their students in authentic research in earth science It will focus on using inquiry-based strategies that can be transferred to a multitude of classrooms and how to use this basic format to engage, excite and develop understanding of earth science. Teachers will learn about effective inquiry-based lessons that incorporate aspects nature of science. Additionally

  9. Assessment of Performance for Alternative Cover Systems on a Waste Rock Storage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argunhan, C.; Yazicigil, H.

    2015-12-01

    A cover is usually applied to the top of the mining wastes to prevent exposure of sulphide minerals in the waste to water and oxygen ingress in order to mitigate the unwanted consequences such as acid rock drainage. Hence, the selection and design of the appropriate cover system by considering the climatic conditions, local unsaturated and saturated properties and the availability of the cover materials become an important issue. This study aims to investigate the performance of various cover systems and designs for the North Waste Rock Storage Area in Kışladağ Gold Mine located in Uşak in Western Turkey. SEEP/W and VADOSE/W softwares are used to model the flow in unsaturated and saturated zones and to assess the performance of various cover systems. The soil water characteristics and parameters used in the model for saturated and unsaturated conditions were taken from field tests and literature. Accuracy of input data is checked during calibration for steady state conditions with SEEP/W. Then, bedrock, waste rock and cover alternatives are modeled under transient conditions for 20 years using daily climatic data. The effectiveness of the various cover systems for minimizing the ingress of water and air that cause acid rock drainage is evaluated and recommendations are made so that the impacts to groundwater from the waste rock storage areas during closure period are minimized.

  10. GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION NEEDS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION IN CRYSTALLINE AND ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS SYMPOSIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1978-12-19

    Today there exists in the United States a large volume of nuclear wastes that result from both military and commercial activities. The United States has to date placed major emphasis on disposal in only one rock type--salt--whereas other nations have considered other rock types, such as granite in England and Sweden and clays in Belgium. No comprehensive evaluation of isolation in rocks other than salt has been made in the United States, and it is most appropriate that other rock types be evaluated both for constructing disposal sites in areas devoid of salt and also for having alternative waste management plans in case substantial problems are encountered in using salt as a disposal medium. To evaluate the state-of-the-art, research needs, and research priorities related to waste disposal in largely-impermeable rocks, scientists and engineers working on geologic aspects of nuclear waste disposal were brought together. The Geotechnical Assessment and Instrumentation Needs (GAIN) Symposium for Nuclear Waste Isolation in Crystalline and Argillaceous Rocks was held July 16-20, 1978 in Berkeley. This report and recommendations are the proceedings from that symposium. The location, design, and testing of a potential nuclear waste disposal site are both a geologic and an engineering problem. Disposal requires isolating the wastes from the surface and subsurface of the earth for a period of time of ten to hundreds of thousands of years. Engineers have never before been called upon to predict the behavior of structures or the flow of groundwater so far into the future.

  11. Settlement behavior of coal mine waste in different surrounding rock conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-de; LI Xi-bing; HU Bing-nan; CHEN Feng; XU Ji-cheng; LI Di-yuan

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of complex conditions of in-situ surrounding rocks on the settlement behavior of nubbly coal mine waste subjected to high gravity pressure, four kinds of loading chambers made of different similar materials with different elastic moduli in experiments were used to simulate the deformation features of in-site rocks, including soft, moderate hardness, hard and extra-hard rocks. The results show that all the settlement-axial load (or axial strain-stress) curves obtained under four different surrounding rock conditions present power-exponential function feature. The final settlement of coal mine waste under the same axial load is closely related to the lumpiness gradations and the deformation behavior of chamber materials used to simulate behaviors of different in-situ surrounding rocks. In the same surrounding rock condition, the final settlement under the same maximum axial load decreases with the decrease of the proportion of larger gradation of coal mine waste. While for the same lumpiness gradation case, the settlement increases with the decrease of elastic modulus of simulated surrounding rocks and the lateral pressure induced by axial load increases with the increase of elastic modulus of loading chambers that are used to simulate different surrounding rocks. The test results also reveal that both the compaction curve and lateral pressure curve show a three-stage behavior, and the duration of each stage, which is closely related to gradations and the deformation feature of loading chamber materials, decreases with the increase of the proportion of the small size of coal mine waste and elastic modulus of the simulated rock materials.

  12. Stabilisation of acid generating waste rock with fly ash : immobilization of arsenic under alkaline conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, M. [Orebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology Environment Research Centre; Sartz, L. [Bergslagen, Kopparberg (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated the potential for using fly ash as an alkaline material for increasing the pH and decreasing arsenic leaching from highly acidic mine waste. A wood ash sample known to contain high concentrations of both calcium and barium was tested with highly acidic mine waste samples that leached approximately 200 mg/L of arsenic at a liquid/solid ratio of 2. Samples were mixed with the fly ash. Control samples consisted of only mine waste, while the amended samples contained 10 g of mine waste and 10 g of wood ash. Ultra pure water was used as a leachant for both systems until the liquid-solid ratio that corresponded to 900 years of drainage for a waste pile that was 3 m high with an annual run-off of 300 mm. Results of the experimental study showed that the pH in the control increased from 1.7 to 2.7, while the pH in the amended system decreased from 12.6 to 11.5. Initial concentrations of arsenic decreased by almost 3 orders of magnitude in the amended systems. Co-precipitation with the iron, and the calcium arsenate precipitation process were identified as the principal arsenic immobilization mechanisms. The study demonstrated that under the right chemical conditions, alkaline amendments can be used to reduce arsenic leaching from mine wastes. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  13. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 4. Baseline rock properties: salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Salt has long been considered a possible repository medium for nuclear waste disposal. This report is a result of a literature survey to determine rock mass properties of a generic salt. The properties of bedded salt deposits from three different areas are considered, namely, the Salina basin, the Permia basin and the Paradox basin. Dome salts are also considered. Because of the special characteristics of salt, especially, its self-healing properties, the rock-mass properties are similar to the intact properties.

  14. Effects of Weathering at Waste Rock Dump on Water Quality Inside the Mine Wastes; A Case Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, G.; Cheong, Y.; Park, H.; Ji, S.; Lee, H.

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the route of acid rock drainage production and some of the important factors at the abandoned Geo-pung copper mine in Okcheon, Korea. In this research area, planting and remediation have been carried out to prevent environmental pollution, but these effects turned out to be a failure and that acid rock drainage is observed around waste rock dump and planted vegetation is dying. Currently, the slope of mine waste rock dump in the study site is about 40°. It is composed of particles with a variety of shapes, with the surface exposure to atmosphere being transformed to oxide minerals due to weathering. Since groundwater level underneath the mine wastes is directly related to rainfall, a comparative evaluation of weather records and groundwater level data obtained using on-site measuring device (CTD diver) would allow estimation of locational media-specific pattern of rainfall effect in term of infiltration flux and time of threshold impact on groundwater. Sampling and analysis of there borehole water were conducted in July and September, 2007. It was found that all of the borehole water had highly variable levels of Fe (0.4-588 mg/l), Al (8.2-41.9 mg/l), Cu (6.0-32.2 mg/l), Zn (22.2-226.7 mg/l) and other elements. Also, in general, pH of the borehole waters decreased while electric conducivity measured. Such a high variance in the water quality among different borehole water suggests that geochemical environment inside the mine wastes is largely dependent on the local variation in rainfall infiltration of waste rock dump and underneath groundwater level. Vadose zone which has vertical variation of 2-4 m is directly impacted by amount of rainfall and maintains oxidizing condition due to diffusion of oxygen carred by rainfall. Therefore, sulfide minerals within in the zone continued to be oxidized, producing acid rock drainage. To prevent production of acid rock drainage of mine waste, it is necessary to control infiltration of

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-18, 184-B Powerhouse Debris Pile, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-11-30

    The 100-B-18 Powerhouse Debris Pile contained miscellaneous demolition waste from the decommissioning activities of the 184-B Powerhouse. The debris covered an area roughly 15 m by 30 m and included materials such as concrete blocks, mixed aggregate/concrete slabs, stone rubble, asphalt rubble, traces of tar/coal, broken fluorescent lights, brick chimney remnants, and rubber hoses. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Suitability of static tests for acid rock drainage assessment of mine waste rock

    OpenAIRE

    Päivi M. Kauppila; Timo Myöhänen; Marja Liisa Räisänen

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, eight rock samples were analysed with a modified acid-base accounting (ABA) test and the corresponding net acid generation (NAG) test. In addition, the main and trace elements solubilised during the tests were determined with ICPOES/MS. Both the modified ABA and NAG tests classified the rock samples with a lowsulphide-S content (0.1–0.4 %) and low carbonate mineral content (≤0.2 %) into the category of ‘potentially acid generating’. The low neutralization potentials of t...

  17. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J

    2007-01-15

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project.

  18. Geochemistry of arsenic in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ashis; Hendry, M Jim; Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the geochemistry of arsenic (As) in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock of the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Its abundance and mineralogical associations in waste rock of different placement periods were determined in addition to its mobilization into porewater and rock-drain effluent. The mean (5.34mg/kg; 95% confidence interval: 4.95-5.73mg/kg) As concentration in the waste rock was typical of sedimentary rock. Electron microprobe and As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopic analyses showed the As is predominantly associated with primary pyrites in both source and freshly blasted waste rock. However, in aged waste rock the As is associated with both primary pyrites and secondary Fe oxyhydroxides. Oxidation of pyrite in waste rock dumps was reflected by the presence of high concentrations of SO4(2-) in porewater and oxidation rims of Fe oxyhydroxides around pyrite grains. Acid released from pyrite oxidation to Fe oxyhydroxides is neutralized by carbonate mineral dissolution that buffers the pH in the waste rock to circumneutral values. Adsorption of As onto secondary Fe oxyhydroxides provides an internal geochemical control on As release during pyrite oxidation and porewater flushing from the dump, resulting in the low As concentrations observed in porewater (median: 9.91μg/L) and rock-drain effluent (median: 0.31μg/L). Secondary Fe oxyhydroxides act as a long-term sink for As under present day hydrologic settings in waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley.

  19. Acidic Microenvironments in Waste Rock Characterized by Neutral Drainage: Bacteria–Mineral Interactions at Sulfide Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Dockrey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial populations and microbe-mineral interactions were examined in waste rock characterized by neutral rock drainage (NRD. Samples of three primary sulfide-bearing waste rock types (i.e., marble-hornfels, intrusive, exoskarn were collected from field-scale experiments at the Antamina Cu–Zn–Mo mine, Peru. Microbial communities within all samples were dominated by neutrophilic thiosulfate oxidizing bacteria. However, acidophilic iron and sulfur oxidizers were present within intrusive waste rock characterized by bulk circumneutral pH drainage. The extensive development of microbially colonized porous Fe(III (oxyhydroxide and Fe(III (oxyhydroxysulfate precipitates was observed at sulfide-mineral surfaces during examination by field emission-scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS. Linear combination fitting of bulk extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectra for these precipitates indicated they were composed of schwertmannite [Fe8O8(OH6–4.5(SO41–1.75], lepidocrocite [γ-FeO(OH] and K-jarosite [KFe3(OH6(SO42]. The presence of schwertmannite and K-jarosite is indicative of the development of localized acidic microenvironments at sulfide-mineral surfaces. Extensive bacterial colonization of this porous layer and pitting of underlying sulfide-mineral surfaces suggests that acidic microenvironments can play an important role in sulfide-mineral oxidation under bulk circumneutral pH conditions. These findings have important implications for water quality management in NRD settings.

  20. Microorganisms in potential host rocks for geological disposal of nuclear waste and their interactions with radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkouk, A.; Liebe, M.; Luetke, L.; Moll, H.; Stumpf, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2015-07-01

    The long-term safety of nuclear waste in a deep geological repository is an important issue in our society. Microorganisms indigenous to potential host rocks are able to influence the oxidation state, speciation and therefore the mobility of radionuclides as well as gas generation or canister corrosion. Therefore, for the safety assessment of such a repository it is necessary to know which microorganisms are present in the potential host rocks (e.g. clay, salt) and if these microorganisms can influence the performance of a repository. Microbial diversity in potential host rocks for geological disposal of nuclear waste was analyzed by culture-independent molecular biological methods (e.g. 16S rRNA gene retrieval) as well as enrichment and isolation of indigenous microbes. Among other isolates, a Paenibacillus strain, as a representative of Firmicutes, was recovered in R2A media under anaerobic conditions from Opalinus clay from the Mont Terri in Switzerland. Accumulation experiments and potentiometric titrations showed a strong interaction of Paenibacillus sp. cells with U(VI) within a broad pH range (3-7). Additionally, the interactions of the halophilic archaeal strain Halobacterium noricense DSM 15987, a salt rock representative reference strain, with U(VI) at high ionic strength was investigated. After 48 h the cells were still alive at uranium concentrations up to 60 μM, which demonstrates that Halobacterium noricense can tolerate uranium concentrations up to this level. The formed uranium sorption species were examined with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The results about the microbial communities present in potential host rocks for nuclear waste repositories and their interactions with radionuclides contribute to the safety assessment of a prospective nuclear waste repository.

  1. Geochemical Characterization of the Waste Rock Dump at the abandoned Geo-pung Mine, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S.; Lee, H.; Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.; Park, H.

    2008-05-01

    To propose basic data for the establishment of the reclamation plan of the mine waste rock dumps, the geochemical studies including Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) test, water quality analyses of leachate and run-off waters, metal extraction test, and pot test were performed at the abandoned Geo-pung mine, located in the middle part of Korea. The acid generation capacities of the Geo-pung mine waste rocks (samples from ten points at the waste dump) showed high acid forming potential except for one point (G7). The maximum value of NAPP (Net Acid Producing Potential), which calculated by total sulfur (MPA, Maximum Potential Acidity, kg H2SO4/t) and ANC (Acid Neutralizing Capacity), was 80.94 kg H2 SO4/t. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the leachate from the waste rock dump have high concentration of Al (56 mg/l), Mn (39 mg/l), Cu (26.3 mg/l), Zn (155.3 mg/l), SO42- (1430 mg/l) and low pH (3.19). Run-off waters (surface flow of waste dump when rain) were, although partly different, showed high concentration of Al (1.7 ~ 20.2 mg/l), Cu (1.8 ~ 14.7 mg/l), Zn (2.4 ~ 26.5 mg/l) and low pH (3.08 ~ 4.07). From the metal extraction test, concentration of zinc was showed high level, from 579 mg/kg to 3,934 mg/kg. The upper parts of the Geo-pung mine waste dump have very low nutrient which needed for plant growth. The organic content was 9 g/kg, bioavailable phosphate was 0.1 mg/kg, and the exchangeable cation (K, Na, Mg) content also under the limit value (1 mg/kg) for the plant growth. The result of pot test also showed that this waste dump is unsuitable for media for plant growth due to lack of nutrient components. So when establish the reclamation plan of the Geo- pung mine waste dump, the cover system which have the function of prevention of sulfide oxidation and provision of nutrient with neutralize materials for revegetation must be considered. key words : Abandoned Mine, Waste Rock Dump, Acid-Base Accounting, Cover System

  2. Simulation of coupled THM process in surrounding rock mass of nuclear waste repository in argillaceous formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋中明; 陈永贵

    2015-01-01

    To investigate and analyze the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupling phenomena of a surrounding rock mass in an argillaceous formation, a nuclear waste disposal concept in drifts was represented physically in an in-situ test way. A transversely isotropic model was employed to reproduce the whole test process numerically. Parameters of the rock mass were determined by laboratory and in-situ experiments. Based on the numerical simulation results and in-situ test data, the variation processes of pore water pressure, temperature and deformation of surrounding rock were analyzed. Both the measured data and numerical results reveal that the thermal perturbation is the principal driving force which leads to the variation of pore water pressure and deformations in the surrounding rock. The temperature, pore pressure and deformation of rock mass change rapidly at each initial heating stage with a constant heating power. The temperature field near the heater borehole is relatively steady in the subsequent stages of the heating phase. However, the pore pressure and deformation fields decrease gradually with temperature remaining unchanged condition. It also shows that a transversely isotropic model can reproduce the THM coupling effects generating in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository in an argillaceous formation.

  3. Properties of Clay for Ceramics with Rock Waste for Production Structural Block by Pressing and Firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, N. A.; Choe, D.; Alexandre, J.; Azevedo, A. R. G.; Xavier, C. G.; Souza, V. B.

    Building work requires optimization of materials and labor, so that the execution of its subsystems contribute to the quality, reduce costs, decrease waste in buildings, productivity, practicality and especially agility. Thus, the fitting blocks can contribute in this direction. This work therefore consists of physical characterization (determination of fitness levels, grain size and bulk density), chemical (EDX) and thermal (DTA and TGA) sample clay Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ and waste rock ornamental Cachoeiro de Itapemirim-ES, to verify potential for producing red ceramic blocks, pressed and burned, male and female type. The output of block will be with different pe rcentages of incorporation of residues of ornamental rocks (0%, 5% and 10%). With the results obtained, it was found that the raw materials under consideration has the potential for application in the production of ceramic articles.

  4. Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakangas, Lena; Andersson, Elin; Mueller, Seth

    2013-11-01

    Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system's neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m3 tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pH9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation.

  5. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 7. Baseline rock properties-basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/7 Baseline Rock Properties--Basalt, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This report contains an evaluation of the results of a literature survey to define the rock mass properties of a generic basalt, which could be considered as a geological medium for storing radioactive waste. The general formation and structure of basaltic rocks is described. This is followed by specific descriptions and rock property data for the Dresser Basalt, the Amchitka Island Basalt, the Nevada Test Site Basalt and the Columbia River Group Basalt. Engineering judgment has been used to derive the rock mass properties of a typical basalt from the relevant intact rock property data and the geological information pertaining to structural defects, such as joints and faults.

  6. 桩底嵌岩锚杆锚固段应力分布研究%Distribution of Stresses on Bonded Length of Rock-socketed Anchor Rods under Pile Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明华; 廖彬彬; 刘思思; 黄利雄

    2011-01-01

    According to the mechanical characteristics of compression type rock-socketed anchor rods under pile toe in the system of vertical load-bearing capacity test of pile foundation by the self-anchored technique,an elastic solution for stress distribution of compression type anchor rods was derived based on the Kelvin's solution of elastic displacement and the dilatancy effect between anchorage body and surrounding rock. Then,the distribution of stresses of rock-socketed anchor rods under pile toe along the anchorage length were analy ed on the basis of the obtained analytical solution, and the effect of various geotechnical parameters on shear stress distribution along bonded length was also analyzed. The results show that ( 1 ) the normal stress along the anchorage length decreases with the distance from the loaded plate increases; (2) the shear stress increases at first and then decreases with the distance from the loaded plate increases, the peak shear stress increases with the angle of dilatancy increases, and decreases with the Poisson's ratio of the anchorage body increases.%针对基桩竖向承载力自锚法测试体系中桩底嵌岩压力型锚杆的受力特点,基于Kelvin问题的弹性位移解,并结合锚固体-岩石作用的剪胀机理,推导了压力型锚杆应力分布的弹性解.基于所获得的解答,分析了桩底嵌岩锚杆锚固段应力沿锚固长度的分布规律,并分析了各种岩土参数变化对锚固段剪应力分布的影响.结果表明:桩底嵌岩锚杆锚固段上的正应力随着距承载板距离的增大而减小,剪应力随着距承载板距离的增大先增大后减小,峰值剪应力随着剪胀角的增大而增大,随着锚固体泊松比的增大而减小.

  7. The High Pressure Jet Grouting Pile Engineering Examples in the Construction Waste Landfill Area%高压旋喷桩在建筑垃圾填埋区的工程实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌海

    2014-01-01

    工程建造于废弃的采石场,采石场留下较大的采石坑,坑中填充了各种建筑垃圾和生活垃圾。原设计采用冲孔灌注桩作为工程的基础桩,由于场地内存在小范围的土洞,开始施工冲孔灌注桩时就发生了严重的塌孔事故。改用高压旋喷桩地基处理的基础方案达到了良好的效果。就此讨论了在此类建筑垃圾填埋区域进行高压旋喷桩地基处理的整个流程。对试桩过程、设计参数取用、施工过程和检测过程中应注意的问题进行了研究和讨论。%The engineering construction in the abandoned quarry,quarry left large quarries,pit filled with all sorts of construction waste and household refuse.The original design using punching as the basis of engineering pile,due to the existence of a small scale soil caves in field,when punching pile construction a serious down hole accidents took place. To switch to foundation treatment of the high pressure j et grouting pile foundation scheme achieved good effect.This paper discussed the whole process of high pressure j et grouting pile foundation treatment.Process of test pile,design parameters,construction process and testing process were studied.

  8. Damage-plasticity model of the host rock in a nuclear waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, Tomáš; Kruis, Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes damage-plasticity model for the modelling of the host rock environment of a nuclear waste repository. Radioactive Waste Repository Authority in Czech Republic assumes the repository to be in a granite rock mass which exhibit anisotropic behaviour where the strength in tension is lower than in compression. In order to describe this phenomenon, the damage-plasticity model is formulated with the help of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion which can be set to capture the compression behaviour while the tensile stress states is described with the help of scalar isotropic damage model. The concept of damage-plasticity model was implemented in the SIFEL finite element code and consequently, the code was used for the simulation of the Äspö Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE) which was performed in order to determine yielding strength under various conditions in similar granite rocks as in Czech Republic. The results from the performed analysis are presented and discussed in the paper.

  9. Radioactive waste processing: Borosilicate glasses and synthetic rocks. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The biliography contains citations concerning radioactive waste processing and disposal by incorporation in borosilicate glasses and synthetic rock materials. Formulations, leach tests and evaluations, melting characteristics, phase determinations, scaled-up processes, and process variables are considered. The Synroc process, and general preparation and evaluation studies are also included. Waste vitrification in materials other than borosilicates and synthetic rocks, and waste fixation using cements and bitumens are discussed in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Vertical bearing capacity of pile based on load transfer model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming-hua; YANG Ming-hui; ZOU Xin-jun

    2005-01-01

    The load transfer analytical method is applied to study the bearing mechanism of piles with vertical load in this paper. According to the different hardening rules of soil or rock around the pile shaft, such as work-softening, ideal elasto-plastic and work-hardening, a universal tri-linear load transfer model is suggested for the development of side and tip resistance by various types of soil (rock) with the consideration of sediment at the bottom of the pile. Based on the model, a formula is derived for the relationship between the settlement and load on the pile top to determine the vertical bearing capacity, taking into account such factors as the characteristics of the stratum, the side resistance along the shaft, and tip resistance under the pile tip. A close agreement of the calculated results with the measured data from a field test pile lends confidence to the future application of the present approach in engineering practice.

  11. Investigation on the oxygen transport mechanisms in the Sarcheshmeh waste rock dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Yousefi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage (AMD are the serious environmental problems associated with the mining activities in sulphide ores. The rate of pyrite oxidation is governed by the availability of oxygen (Borden, 2003. Therefore, the identifying oxygen supplying mechanism is one of the most important issues related to the environmental assessment of waste rock dumps (Cathles and Apps, 1975; Jaynes et al., 1984; Davis and Ritchie, 1986. Although comprehensive researches were performed on the mathematical description of oxygen transport processes using the numerical modeling (Morin et al., 1988; Blowes et al., 1991; Wunderly et al., 1986; Elberling et al., 1994; Jannesar Malakooti et al., 2014, so far, the interactions between these processes and geochemical and mineralogical characteristics has not been studied especially in waste rock dumps. Therefore the main objective of this study is to identify the evidences for knowing the oxygen transport mechanisms in the waste dumps and also, its role in intensity of pyrite oxidation. It is expected that such these structural studies could be useful for better understanding of dominant processes in numerical modeling and also providing environmental management strategies in the study area and other sites by similar characteristics. Materials and Methods In this study, thirty solid samples were collected from six excavated trenches in the waste rock dumps No. 19 and 31 of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine. Collected samples were studied using several methods such as XRD, ASTM-D2492, paste pH and grain size distribution. The results obtained from these methods were used with the field observations in order to characterize some detail information about oxygen supplying mechanisms for oxidation reactions in the waste rock dumps. Result The main minerals found by the XRD analysis were quartz and muscovite which were present in all samples. Pyrite, orthose, albite, and chlorite were also

  12. The pile EL3; Pile EL3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, J.; Raievski, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Hainzelin, J. [Chantiers de l' Atlantique (Penhoet-Loire), 75 - Paris (France)

    1959-07-01

    The programme of the high flux laboratory pile EL3 was laid down in october 1954. It is a heavy-water moderated and cooled pile. The fuel rods are of uranium metal with 1.6 per cent - 2 per cent of molybdenum, with aluminium canning. The maximum thermal flux in the moderator is 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Studies began in january 1955, construction in may 1955, and the first divergence took place in July 1957. This report gives a general description of the pile and its adjacent buildings, the physical study of the pile, and certain technological studies carried out for the construction of EL3. (author) [French] Le programme de la pile laboratoire a haut flux EL3, a ete fixe en octobre 1954. C'est une pile moderee et refroidie a l'eau lourde. Les barres de combustible sont en uranium metal a 1,6 pour cent - 2 pour cent de molybdene, gainees a l'aluminium. Le flux thermique maximum dans le moderateur est de 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Les etudes ont commence en janvier 1955, la construction en mai 1955, la premiere divergence a eu lieu en juillet 1957. On trouvera dans ce rapport, une description generale de la pile et de ses batiments annexes, l'etude physique de la pile et un certain nombre d'etudes technologiques executees pour la construction d'EL3. (auteur)

  13. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  14. Mass wasting process at the surface of the Sangun metamorphic rocks in Kaminishigawa area, Asahi-machi, Okayama Prefecture.

    OpenAIRE

    新宮原, 秀和; 平山, 恭之; 津島, 淳; 於保, 幸正

    1999-01-01

    The relation among microstructures, weathering and mass wasting of the Sangun metamorphic rocks in the Kaminishigawa area, Asahi-machi, Okayama Prefecture, was studied. Three stages of penetrative planar structures are recognized; S1 schistosity, S2 crenulation cleavage and S3 crenulation cleavage. The S2 cleavage is the most commonly observed structure. The deree of weathering is divided into two classes on the base of appearance; slightly weathered and highly weathered rock. The three types...

  15. FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ROCK FALL ON UNCANISTERED FUEL WASTE PACKAGE DESIGNS (SCPB: N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Ceylan

    1996-10-18

    The objective of this analysis is to explore the Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Tube Design waste package (WP) resistance to rock falls. This analysis will also be used to determine the size of rock that can strike the WP without causing failure in the containment barriers from a height based on the starter tunnel dimensions. The purpose of this analysis is to document the models and methods used in the calculations.

  16. APPLICATION OF WATER FLOW AND GEOCHEMICAL MODELS TO SUPPORT THE REMEDIATION OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM THE URANIUM MINING SITE OF POCOS DE CALDAS, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the use of two numerical models (HYDRUS-2D and STEADQL-v4) for simulating water flow and relevant geochemical processes in one of the waste rock piles of the first uranium mine in Brazil, in order to facilitate the selection of appropriate remediation strategies. The long time s...

  17. Fractured rock modeling in the National Waste Terminal Storage Program: a review of requirements and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. John, C.; Krug, A.; Key, S.; Monsees, J.

    1983-05-01

    Generalized computer codes capable of forming the basis for numerical models of fractured rock masses are being used within the NWTS program. Little additional development of these codes is considered justifiable, except in the area of representation of discrete fractures. On the other hand, model preparation requires definition of medium-specific constitutive descriptions and site characteristics and is therefore legitimately conducted by each of the media-oriented projects within the National Waste Terminal Storage program. However, it is essential that a uniform approach to the role of numerical modeling be adopted, including agreement upon the contribution of modeling to the design and licensing process and the need for, and means of, model qualification for particular purposes. This report discusses the role of numerical modeling, reviews the capabilities of several computer codes that are being used to support design or performance assessment, and proposes a framework for future numerical modeling activities within the NWTS program.

  18. Thermal Conductivity Of Rubble Piles

    CERN Document Server

    Luan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Rubble piles are a common feature of solar system bodies. They are composed of monolithic elements of ice or rock bound by gravity. Voids occupy a significant fraction of the volume of a rubble pile. They can exist up to pressure $P\\approx \\epsy\\mu$, where $\\epsy$ is the monolithic material's yield strain and $\\mu$ its rigidity. At low $P$, contacts between neighboring elements are confined to a small fraction of their surface areas. As a result, the effective thermal conductivity of a rubble pile, $\\kcon\\approx k(P/(\\epsy\\mu))^{1/2}$, can be orders of magnitude smaller than, $k$, the thermal conductivity of its monolithic elements. In a fluid-free environment, only radiation can transfer energy across voids. It contributes an additional component, $\\krad=16\\ell\\sigma T^3/3$, to the total effective conductivity, $\\keff=\\kcon +\\krad$. Here $\\ell$, the inverse of the opacity per unit volume, is of order the size of the elements and voids. An important distinction between $\\kcon$ and $\\krad$ is that the former i...

  19. 40 CFR 264.257 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND... placed in the same pile, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with. (b) A pile of hazardous waste that is..., or other device. (c) Hazardous waste must not be piled on the same base where incompatible wastes or...

  20. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  1. Fabrication and physical characteristics of new glasses from wastes of limestone and phosphorite rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YASSER B SADDEEK; K A ALY; RABIE S FARAG; M A M UOSIF; K H S SHAABAN

    2016-12-01

    In this work, new glasses were synthesized from wastes of limestone and phosphate rocks besides commercial borax. The glasses were characterized by FTIR, DTA, ultrasonic techniques and UV spectroscopy. It was found that the concentration of both CaO and P$_2$O$_5$ increases and the concentrations of B$_2$O$_3$ and Na$_2$O decrease as the content of phosphate rocks increases. Variation of the contents of the different oxides affects the concentration of the structural units constituting the glass, which was indicated by the behaviour of the fraction N$_4$ of BO$_4$ units in the borate matrix. The density and the refractive index of the glasses decrease as the CaO and P$_2$O$_5$ contents increase, which was attributed to the increase of [BO$_3$] structural units. On the other hand, the physical parameterssuch as the ultrasonic velocity, the elastic moduli, the optical bandgap and the optical polarizability increased, which was attributed to the higher coordination number of CaO$_6$ compared with the coordination of borate structuralunits and to the former effect of P$_2$O$_5$. As a result, a polymerization of the total co-ordination number of the glass, crosslink density and connectivity within the glass network will occur.

  2. The application of rotary drilling rig and percussion drill combination in rock-embedded pile construction%旋挖钻机与冲击钻机组合在嵌岩桩施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永胜

    2016-01-01

    以某跨河桥梁段施工为例,分析了该工程的施工技术难点,从测量放样、埋设护筒、泥浆制备等方面,介绍了旋挖钻机与冲击钻机组合在嵌岩桩施工中的工艺流程,并探讨了施工中的注意事项,指出旋挖钻机与冲击钻机联合使用,缩短了工期,提高了工程效益。%Taking a across river bridge segment construction as an example,this paper analyzed the construction technical difficulties of the engi-neering,from the measuring lofting,embedding liners,slurry preparation and other aspects,introduced the process ofrotary drilling rig and per-cussion drill combination in rock-embedded pile construction,and discussed the matters needing attention in construction,pointed out that the combination use of rotary drilling rig and percussion drill,shortened the time limit for a project,improved the engineering benefit.

  3. Characterization of waste rock associated with acid drainage at the Penn Mine, California, by ground-based visible to short-wave infrared reflectance spectroscopy assisted by digital mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, S.I.C.; Brimhall, G.H.; Alpers, C.N.; Swayze, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Prior to remediation at the abandoned Cu-Zn Penn Mine in the Foothills massive sulfide belt of the Sierra Nevada, CA, acid mine drainage (AMD) was created, in part, by the subaerial oxidation of sulfides exposed on several waste piles. To support remediation efforts, a mineralogical study of the waste piles was undertaken by acquiring reflectance spectra (measured in the visible to short-wave infrared range of light (0.35-2.5 ??m) using a portable, digitally integrated pen tablet PC mapping system with differential global positioning system and laser rangefinder support. Analysis of the spectral data made use of a continuum removal and band-shape comparison method, and of reference spectral libraries of end-member minerals and mineral mixtures. Identification of secondary Fe-bearing minerals focused on band matching in the region between 0.43 and 1.3 ??m. Identification of sheet and other silicates was based on band-shape analysis in the region between 1.9 and 2.4 ??m. Analysis of reflectance spectra of characterized rock samples from the mine helped in gauging the spectral response to particle size and mixtures. The resulting mineral maps delineated a pattern of accumulation of secondary Fe minerals, wherein centers of copiapite and jarosite that formed at low pH (mine drainage into the environment, as well as the effectiveness of the mapping method to detect subtle changes in surface mineralogy and to produce maps useful to agencies responsible for remediating the site. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung-waste paper mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuofin, F O; Mnkeni, P N S

    2014-11-01

    Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung-paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg(-1) dry weight of cow dung-waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg(-1) resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of 1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg(-1) feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Argillaceous rock as host rock for final storage of radioactive waste in Germany; Tongesteine als Wirtsgesteine fuer die Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuer, V.; Hoth, P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology (BMWi), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials (BGR) in a study described argillaceous rock formations as potential host rock for repositories in some areas of Germany, and evaluated them. The study was based on available and usable data derived from maps, archives, and approx. 25,000 drillings. No additional field tests or laboratory examinations were conducted. The study was published in April 2007 under the title of 'Untersuchung und Bewertung von Tongesteinsformationen' (www.bgr.bund.de). The exclusion criteria and minimum requirements recommended by the Working Group on Repository Sites (AkEnd) in 2002 served as a basis for defining the subareas eligible for further study. In addition, internationally acknowledged selection criteria as well as weighting criteria to be taken into account especially under German conditions were applied. The result of the study is not a representation of repository sites. However, the investigations show that argillaceous rock meeting host rock requirements occurs in the Lower Cretacious as well as in rock formations of the Lower and Middle Jurassic of Northern Germany. In Southern Germany, rock of the Middle Jurassic was found to be worthy of examination. The clay formations of the Tertiary are not considered in the study because of their relatively adverse mechanical properties in Germany. The areas highlighted are situated mainly in Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt, Baden-Wuerttemberg and, to a lesser extent, also im Bavaria, Brandenburg, and North Rhine-Westphalia. Other regional restrictions are mentioned in the study. Any further assessment of the argillaceous rock in the study would require an extensive program of investigations with a view to selecting sites for the final storage of high-level radioactive waste. (orig.)

  6. Analytical model of vertical vibrations in piles for different tip boundary conditions: parametric study and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning WANG; Kui-hua WANG; Wen-bing WU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,a model named fictitious soil pile was introduced to solve the boundary coupled problem at the pile tip.In the model,the soil column between pile tip and bedrock was treated as a fictitious pile,which has the same properties as the local soil.The tip of the fictitious soil pile was assumed to rest on a rigid rock and no tip movement was allowed.In combination with the plane strain theory,the analytical solutions of vertical vibration response of piles in a frequency domain and the corresponding semi-analytical solutions in a time domain were obtained using the Laplace transforms and inverse Fourier transforms.A parametric study of pile response at the pile tip and head showed that the thickness and layering of the stratum between pile tip and bedrock have a significant influence on the complex impedances.Finally,two applications of the analytical model were presented.One is to identify the defects of the pile shaft,in which the proposed model was proved to be accurate to identify the location as well as the length of pile defects.Another application of the model is to identify the sediment thickness under the pile tip.The results showed that the sediment can lead to the decrease of the pile stiffness and increase of the damping,especially when the pile is under a low frequency load.

  7. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung–waste paper mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unuofin, F.O., E-mail: funmifrank2009@gmail.com; Mnkeni, P.N.S., E-mail: pmnkeni@ufh.ac.za

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Vermidegradation of RP-enriched waste mixtures is dependent on E. fetida stocking density. • A stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup -1} resulted in highly humified vermicomposts. • P release from RP-enriched waste vermicomposts increases with E. fetida stocking density. • RP-enriched waste vermicomposts had no inhibitory effect on seed germination. - Abstract: Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung–paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} dry weight of cow dung–waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg{sup −1} feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered.

  8. Exploring the techno-economic feasibility of mine rock waste utilisation in road works: The case of a mining deposit in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Stephen; Ampadu, Samuel I K

    2016-02-01

    Mine rock waste, which is the rock material removed in order to access and mine ore, is free from gold processing chemical contaminants but presents a significant environmental challenge owing to the large volumes involved. One way of mitigating the environmental and safety challenges posed by the large volume of mine rock waste stockpiled in mining communities is to find uses of this material as a substitute for rock aggregates in construction. This article reports on a study conducted to evaluate the engineering properties of such a mine deposit to determine its suitability for use as road pavement material. Samples of mine rock waste, derived from the granitic and granodioritic intrusive units overlying the gold-bearing metavolcanic rock and volcano-clastic sediments of a gold mining area in Ghana, were obtained from three mine rock waste disposal facilities and subjected to a battery of laboratory tests to determine their physical, mechanical, geotechnical, geometrical and durability properties. The overall conclusion was that the mine rock waste met all the requirements of the Ghana Ministry of Transportation specification for use as aggregates for crushed rock subbase, base and surface dressing chippings for road pavements. The recommendation is to process it into the required sizes for the various applications.

  9. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal

  10. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  11. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  12. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-06-20

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  13. The effect of rehabilitation on the rate of oxidation of pyrite in a mine waste rock dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, J R; Ritchie, A I

    1987-06-01

    Temperature profiles within a mine waste rock dump undergoing pyritic oxidation have been used to estimate the rate of oxidation and the sites where oxidation was occurring. The waste rock dump is located at the abandoned Rum Jungle mine site in Northern Australia and was a major source of pollution to the local river system. The dump was rehabilitated in 1983-84 by reshaping to reduce erosion and covering with clay and soil to reduce infiltration of water.Heat source distributions were derived from temperature profiles measured in the dump. The oxidation of pyritic material is the main cause of heat in the dump, hence the rate and location of oxidation can be obtained from the distribution of heat sources. A comparison of the heat source distributions before and after rehabilitation showed that rehabilitation greatly reduced or stopped the oxidation of pyrite in the dump.

  14. Deformation Monitoring of Waste-Rock-Backfilled Mining Gob for Ground Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongbin; Zhang, Yubao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Zhanhai; Ma, Shuqi

    2017-01-01

    Backfill mining is an effective option to mitigate ground subsidence, especially for mining under surface infrastructure, such as buildings, dams, rivers and railways. To evaluate its performance, continual long-term field monitoring of the deformation of backfilled gob is important to satisfy strict public scrutiny. Based on industrial Ethernet, a real-time monitoring system was established to monitor the deformation of waste-rock-backfilled gob at −700 m depth in the Tangshan coal mine, Hebei Province, China. The designed deformation sensors, based on a resistance transducer mechanism, were placed vertically between the roof and floor. Stress sensors were installed above square steel plates that were anchored to the floor strata. Meanwhile, data cables were protected by steel tubes in case of damage. The developed system continually harvested field data for three months. The results show that industrial Ethernet technology can be reliably used for long-term data transmission in complicated underground mining conditions. The monitoring reveals that the roof subsidence of the backfilled gob area can be categorized into four phases. The bearing load of the backfill developed gradually and simultaneously with the deformation of the roof strata, and started to be almost invariable when the mining face passed 97 m. PMID:28475168

  15. Deformation Monitoring of Waste-Rock-Backfilled Mining Gob for Ground Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongbin; Zhang, Yubao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Zhanhai; Ma, Shuqi

    2017-05-05

    Backfill mining is an effective option to mitigate ground subsidence, especially for mining under surface infrastructure, such as buildings, dams, rivers and railways. To evaluate its performance, continual long-term field monitoring of the deformation of backfilled gob is important to satisfy strict public scrutiny. Based on industrial Ethernet, a real-time monitoring system was established to monitor the deformation of waste-rock-backfilled gob at -700 m depth in the Tangshan coal mine, Hebei Province, China. The designed deformation sensors, based on a resistance transducer mechanism, were placed vertically between the roof and floor. Stress sensors were installed above square steel plates that were anchored to the floor strata. Meanwhile, data cables were protected by steel tubes in case of damage. The developed system continually harvested field data for three months. The results show that industrial Ethernet technology can be reliably used for long-term data transmission in complicated underground mining conditions. The monitoring reveals that the roof subsidence of the backfilled gob area can be categorized into four phases. The bearing load of the backfill developed gradually and simultaneously with the deformation of the roof strata, and started to be almost invariable when the mining face passed 97 m.

  16. Effect of Chemical Corrosion on the Mechanical Characteristics of Parent Rocks for Nuclear Waste Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tielin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term immersion was adopted to explore the damage deterioration and mechanical properties of granite under different chemical solutions. Here, granite was selected as the candidate of parent rocks for nuclear waste storage. The physical and mechanical properties of variation regularity immersed in various chemical solutions were analyzed. Meanwhile, the damage variable based on the variation in porosity was used in the quantitative analysis of chemical damage deterioration degree. Experimental results show that granite has a significant weakening tendency after chemical corrosion. The fracture toughness KIC, splitting tensile strength, and compressive strength all demonstrate the same deteriorating trend with chemical corrosion time. However, a difference exists in the deterioration degree of the mechanical parameters; that is, the deterioration degree of fracture toughness KIC is the greatest followed by those of splitting tensile strength and compressive strength, which are relatively smaller. Strong acid solutions may aggravate chemical damage deterioration in granite. By contrast, strong alkaline solutions have a certain inhibiting effect on chemical damage deterioration. The chemical solutions that feature various compositions may have different effects on chemical damage degree; that is, SO42- ions have a greater effect on the chemical damage in granite than HCO3- ions.

  17. A comparative simulation study of coupled THM processes and their effect on fractured rock permeability around nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Barr, Deborah; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Fujisaki, Kiyoshi; Kolditz, Olf; Liu, Quan-Shen; Fujita, tomoo; Wang, Wenqing; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan

    2008-10-23

    This paper presents an international, multiple-code, simulation study of coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes and their effect on permeability and fluid flow in fractured rock around heated underground nuclear waste emplacement drifts. Simulations were conducted considering two types of repository settings: (a) open emplacement drifts in relatively shallow unsaturated volcanic rock, and (b) backfilled emplacement drifts in deeper saturated crystalline rock. The results showed that for the two assumed repository settings, the dominant mechanism of changes in rock permeability was thermal-mechanically-induced closure (reduced aperture) of vertical fractures, caused by thermal stress resulting from repository-wide heating of the rock mass. The magnitude of thermal-mechanically-induced changes in permeability was more substantial in the case of an emplacement drift located in a relatively shallow, low-stress environment where the rock is more compliant, allowing more substantial fracture closure during thermal stressing. However, in both of the assumed repository settings in this study, the thermal-mechanically-induced changes in permeability caused relatively small changes in the flow field, with most changes occurring in the vicinity of the emplacement drifts.

  18. A Pile of Legos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePino, Andrew, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the relationships a high school built with neighborhood industry, a national laboratory, a national museum, and a large university while trying to build a scale model of the original atomic pile. Provides suggestions for teachers. (MVL)

  19. Numerical simulations of water flow and contaminants transport near mining wastes disposed in a fractured rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Abdelghani Farouk; Aubertin Michel; Simon Richard; Therrien René

    2015-01-01

    A numerical tool, called Hydro-Geosphere, was used to simulate unsaturated water flow and contami-nants migration around an open pit filled with mining wastes. Numerical simulations had been carried out to assess the influence of various factors on water flow and solute transport in and around the surface openings including recharge, properties of the waste material and presence of fractures in the surround-ing rock mass. The effect of the regional hydraulic gradient was also investigated. The analyses were con-ducted by simulating various 2D cases using experimentally obtained material properties and controlled boundary conditions. The effects of the hydrogeological properties of the filling material (i.e., water reten-tion curve and hydraulic conductivity function), fracture network characteristics and conductivity of the joints were assessed. The results illustrate that fractures control water flow and contaminants transport around the waste disposal area. A fracture network can desaturate the system and improve the regional gradient effect.

  20. A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation water, and host rock during deep well injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spycher, Nicolas; Larkin, Randy

    2004-05-14

    A new disposal well was drilled in the vicinity of an injection well that had been in operation for 12 years. The drilling activities provided an opportunity to assess the fate and transport of waste products injected in the nearby well, and the impact, if any, on the host geologic formation. The origin of the fluid collected while drilling the new well and the interaction between injected waste and the formation were investigated using analyses of formation waters, waste, and formation minerals, by applying traditional graphical methods and sophisticated numerical models. This approach can be used to solve a wide range of geochemical problems related to deep well injection of waste. Trilinear Piper diagrams, Stiff diagrams, and correlation plots show that the chemical characteristics of recovered fluid at the new well are similar to those of formation water. The concentrations of most major constituents in the fluid appear diluted when compared to formation water sampled at other locations. This could be explained by mixing with waste, which is less saline than formation water. However, the waste injected near the new well consists primarily of ammonia and sulfate, and these waste constituents are not found at concentrations elevated enough to suggest that significant mixing of formation water with waste has occurred. To determine whether chemical interactions between injected waste and formation could explain the chemistry of fluid recovered from the new well, we simulated the chemical reaction between waste, formation water, and the formation rock by numerical modeling. Initial modeling calculations were done using a multicomponent geochemical reaction-path model to simulate fresh waste reacting with the formation. A more complex simulation coupling flow, transport, and reaction was then run using a multicomponent geochemical reactive transport model. These numerical simulations were carried out to calculate porosity changes and evaluate chemical processes

  1. Numerical analysis of pile lateral behavior of pile supported embankment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆志东; 刘力; 郑刚; 姜岩

    2008-01-01

    A finite difference numerical method was adopted to evaluate the pile lateral behavior of pile supported embankment. A published case history was used to verify the proposed methodology. By simulating the case history, the determination of parameters needed were verified. Then three embankments constructed on different ground conditions with different soil-pile relative stiffnesses were analyzed to study pile lateral behaviors including pile deflection and bending moment. The results show that pile deflections and bending moments induced by soil lateral deformation and embankment vertical load are different for piles at different positions under the same embankment. The relative stiffness between pile and soil affected by the properties of different reinforcing piles such as concrete pile and deep mixing method pile exert important effects on the pile lateral behavior and the pile’s failure modes. Consequently, it is necessary to consider the different piles lateral behaviors and possible failure modes at different positions and the different piles proprieties with different reinforcing methods in the embankment stability analysis.

  2. Estimates of water and solute release from a coal waste rock dump in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, S A; Barbour, S L; Hendry, M J; Carey, S K

    2017-12-01

    Long term (1999 to 2014) flow and water quality data from a rock drain located at the base of a coal waste rock dump constructed in the Elk Valley, British Columbia was used to characterize the release of three solutes (NO3(-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-)) from the dump and obtain whole dump estimates of net percolation (NP). The concentrations of dump derived solutes in the rock drain water were diluted by snowmelt waters from the adjacent natural watershed during the spring freshet and reached a maximum concentration during the winter baseflow period. Historical peak baseflow concentrations of conservative ions (NO3(-) and Cl(-)) increased until 2006/07 after which they decreased. This decrease was attributed to completion of the flushing of the first pore volume of water stored within the dump. The baseflow SO4(2-) concentrations increased proportionally with NO3(-) and Cl(-) to 2007, but then continued to slowly increase as NO3(-) and Cl(-) concentrations decreased. This was attributed to ongoing production of SO4(2-) due to oxidation of sulfide minerals within the dump. Based on partitioning of the annual volume of water discharged from the rock drain to waste rock effluent (NP) and water entering the rock drain laterally from the natural watershed, the mean NP values were estimated to be 446±50mm/a (area normalized net percolation/year) for the dump and 172±71mm/a for the natural watershed. The difference was attributed to greater rates of recharge in the dump from summer precipitation compared to the natural watershed where rainfall interception and enhanced evapotranspiration will increase water losses. These estimates included water moving through subsurface pathways. However, given the limitations in quantifying these flows the estimated NP rates for both the natural watershed and the waste rock dump are considered to be low, and could be much higher (e.g. ~450mm/a and ~800mm/a). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Basic investigation and analysis for preferred host rocks and natural analogue study area with reference to high level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Ryul; Park, J. K.; Hwang, D. H.; Lee, J. H.; Yun, H. S.; Kim, D. Y.; Park, H. S.; Koo, S. B.; Cho, J. D.; Kim, K. E. [Korea Inst. of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is basic investigation and analysis for preferred host rocks and natural analogue study area to develope underground disposal technique of high level radioactive waste in future. The study has been done for the crystalline rocks(especially granitic rocks) with emphasis of abandoned metallic mines and uranium ore deposits, and for the geological structure study by using gravity and aeromagnetic data. 138 refs., 54 tabs., 130 figs. (author)

  4. Soil-Pile Interaction in the Pile Vertical Vibration Based on Fictitious Soil-Pile Model

    OpenAIRE

    Guodong Deng; Jiasheng Zhang; Wenbing Wu; Xiong Shi; Fei Meng

    2014-01-01

    By introducing the fictitious soil-pile model, the soil-pile interaction in the pile vertical vibration is investigated. Firstly, assuming the surrounding soil of pile to be viscoelastic material and considering its vertical wave effect, the governing equations of soil-pile system subjected to arbitrary harmonic dynamic force are founded based on the Euler-Bernoulli rod theory. Secondly, the analytical solution of velocity response in frequency domain and its corresponding semianalytical solu...

  5. Application of Gujiao Cofferdam in the Construction of Pile Foundations in Deep-water and Slope Rock Condition%固脚围堰在深水坡岩条件下桩基施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟

    2012-01-01

    Cutian Creek Super Major Bridge is located in Cutian county in Fukien province and Minqing county in Fujian province to hand over boundary place, among them 7# main piers are lacated in the central Cutian construction,water depth about 43m, river bed is weak weathered standstone, without overburden and highly level off.within the scope of pile caps is terrain elevation to achieve 5m-7m, cause the steel pipe piles and casings of drilling platforms can not be inserted into the rock steadly.In addition, because of the influence of downstream Shuikou hydropower shiplock, large floating crane can not get into the area,selection of construction equipment severely limited. After the alternative schemes, decide to carry on the construction by lmmersioning the Gujiao cofferdam with Floating gantry. According to the measured data of the elevation of the river, process the steel cofferdam with high and low blade foot.and put together on Floating gantry and sink into the river, use the Floating gantry and crane sink down the steel casings, pouring underwater concrete bottom sealing,and use the steel casings to construct the drilling platforms of the main pier foundations by Floating crane.%古田溪特大桥位于福建省古田县和闽清县交界处,其中7#主墩位于古田溪库区中央,施工水深约43米,河床为弱风化砂岩,无覆盖层而且极不平整,承台范围内地形高差达到5m-7m,造成钻孔平台钢管桩、钢护筒无法插打入岩稳固.此外,因受桥址下游水口电站船闸影响,大型浮吊等施工设备无法进入施工区,施工设备选择严重受限.经过方案比选,决定采用浮龙门下放固脚围堰的方式进行施工.根据已测得的河床标高数据分片加工高低刃脚钢围堰,在浮龙门上拼组成整体并下沉至河床,利用浮龙门和浮吊下放钢护筒,然后浇筑水下封底混凝土,再利用浮吊以稳固好的钢护筒为承力基础,搭设钻孔平台进行承台桩基施工.

  6. A simplified analysis method for piled raft and pile group foundations with batter piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiyodom, Pastsakorn; Matsumoto, Tatsunori

    2002-11-01

    A simplified method of numerical analysis has been developed to estimate the deformation and load distribution of piled raft foundations subjected to vertical, lateral, and moment loads, using a hybrid model in which the flexible raft is modelled as thin plates and the piles as elastic beams and the soil is treated as springs. Both the vertical and lateral resistances of the piles as well as the raft base are incorporated into the model. Pile-soil-pile, pile-soil-raft and raft-soil-raft interactions are taken into account based on Mindlin's solutions for both vertical and lateral forces. The validity of the proposed method is verified through comparisons with several existing methods for single piles, pile groups and piled rafts. Workable design charts are given for the estimation of the lateral displacement and the load distribution of piled rafts from the stiffnesses of the raft alone and the pile group alone. Additionally, parametric studies were carried out concerning batter pile foundations. It was found that the use of batter piles can efficiently improve the deformation characteristics of pile foundations subjected to lateral loads.

  7. Rock waste dumps on the Davydov Glacier (Akshyirak Range, Tien Shan)

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Since 1995, a barren rock has been formed at the Davydov Glacier, due to the works at the Kumtor Gold Mine. By the end of 2010, total amount of the rock, stockpiled on the glacier, apparently exceeded 200 million tons, the height of dumps of rock sometimes exceeded 50 meters. The most noticeable effects of this are provoking local surges of the Davydov Glacier and squeezing glacier ice out of the dumps of rock. For a detailed analysis of both processes, we also used the results of periodic ge...

  8. Mechanisms and modelling of waste-cement and cement-host rock interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Safe and sustainable disposal of hazardous and radioactive waste is a major concern in today's industrial societies. The hazardous waste forms originate from residues of thermal treatment of waste, fossil fuel combustion and ferrous/non-ferrous metal smelting being the most important ones in terms of waste production. Low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste is produced in the course of nuclear applications in research and energy production. For both waste forms encapsulation in alkaline, cement-based matrices is considered to ensure long-term safe disposal. Cementitious materials are in routine use as industrial materials and have mainly been studied with respect to their evolution over a typical service life of several decades. Use of these materials in waste management applications, however, requires assessments of their performance over much longer time periods on the order of thousands to several ten thousands of years.

  9. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia.

  10. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  11. Assessment of acid rock drainage pollutants release in the uranium mining site of Poços de Caldas--Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, H M; Franklin, M R

    2001-01-01

    We compared three different techniques to assess acid drainage occurrence connected to pyritic waste rock piles at a uranium mining and milling site in Poços de Caldas--Brazil: (1) mass balance calculations, (2) column leaching experiments and (3) geochemical modelling. The study site was chosen because all the drainage coming from the pile is collected in one holding pond and a huge database (monitoring program) was available. The three independent methods predicted similar values for the intrinsic oxidation rate (IOR) (about 10(-9) kg m-3 s-1). We estimate the total time for consumption of all oxidizable material in the dump to be greater than 500 years. Geochemical model results showed a good agreement between predicted sulphate concentrations in relation to those found in the waste pile drainage, although the Al values were overestimated and pH values were underestimated.

  12. Durability of Actinide Ceramic Waste Forms Under Conditions of Granitoid Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burakov, B. E.; Anderson, E. B.

    2002-02-26

    Three samples of {sup 239}Pu-{sup 241}Am-doped ceramics obtained from previous research were used for alteration experiments simulating corrosion of waste forms in ion-saturated solutions. These were ceramics based on: pyrochlore, (Ca,Hf,Pu,U,Gd){sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, containing 10 wt.% Pu and 0.1 wt.% Am; zircon, (Zr,Pu)SiO{sub 4}, containing 5-6 wt.% Pu and 0.05 wt.% Am; cubic zirconia, (Zr,Gd,Pu)O{sub 2}, containing 10 wt.% Pu and 0.1 wt.% Am. All these samples were milled in an agate mortar to obtain powder with particle sizes less than 30 micron. Sample of granite taken from the depth 500-503 m was studied and then used for preparing ion-saturated water solutions. A rock sample was ground, washed and classified. A fraction with particle size 0.10-0.25 mm was selected for alteration experiments. Powdered ceramic samples were separately placed into deionized water together with ground granite (approximately 1gram granite per 12-ml water) in special Teflon{trademark} vessels and set at 90 C in the oven for 3 months. After alteration experiments, the ceramic powders were studied by precise XRD analysis. Aqueous solutions and granite grains were analyzed for Am and Pu contents. The results show that alteration did not cause significant phase transformation in all ceramic samples. For all altered samples, the Am contents in aqueous solutions after experiments were similar (approximately n x 10{sup 2} Bq/ml) as well as Am amounts absorbed on granite grains (approximately n x 10{sup 5} Bq/g). Results on Pu contents were varied: for the solutions--from 60 Bq/ml for pyrochlore ceramic to 2.1 x 10{sup 3} Bq/ml for zircon ceramic; and for the absorption on granite--from 2.6 x 10{sup 4} Bq/g for zirconia ceramic to 1.4-6.8 x 10{sup 5} Bq/g for pyrochlore and zircon ceramics.

  13. Actinorhizal Alder Phytostabilization Alters Microbial Community Dynamics in Gold Mine Waste Rock from Northern Quebec: A Greenhouse Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Katrina L.; Roy, Sébastien; Khasa, Damase P.; Whyte, Lyle G.; Greer, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    Phytotechnologies are rapidly replacing conventional ex-situ remediation techniques as they have the added benefit of restoring aesthetic value, important in the reclamation of mine sites. Alders are pioneer species that can tolerate and proliferate in nutrient-poor, contaminated environments, largely due to symbiotic root associations with the N2-fixing bacteria, Frankia and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. In this study, we investigated the growth of two Frankia-inoculated (actinorhizal) alder species, A. crispa and A. glutinosa, in gold mine waste rock from northern Quebec. Alder species had similar survival rates and positively impacted soil quality and physico-chemical properties in similar ways, restoring soil pH to neutrality and reducing extractable metals up to two-fold, while not hyperaccumulating them into above-ground plant biomass. A. glutinosa outperformed A. crispa in terms of growth, as estimated by the seedling volume index (SVI), and root length. Pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for fungi provided a comprehensive, direct characterization of microbial communities in gold mine waste rock and fine tailings. Plant- and treatment-specific shifts in soil microbial community compositions were observed in planted mine residues. Shannon diversity and the abundance of microbes involved in key ecosystem processes such as contaminant degradation (Sphingomonas, Sphingobium and Pseudomonas), metal sequestration (Brevundimonas and Caulobacter) and N2-fixation (Azotobacter, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Pseudomonas) increased over time, i.e., as plants established in mine waste rock. Acetate mineralization and most probable number (MPN) assays showed that revegetation positively stimulated both bulk and rhizosphere communities, increasing microbial density (biomass increase of 2 orders of magnitude) and mineralization (five-fold). Genomic techniques proved useful in investigating

  14. Actinorhizal Alder Phytostabilization Alters Microbial Community Dynamics in Gold Mine Waste Rock from Northern Quebec: A Greenhouse Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina L Callender

    Full Text Available Phytotechnologies are rapidly replacing conventional ex-situ remediation techniques as they have the added benefit of restoring aesthetic value, important in the reclamation of mine sites. Alders are pioneer species that can tolerate and proliferate in nutrient-poor, contaminated environments, largely due to symbiotic root associations with the N2-fixing bacteria, Frankia and ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi. In this study, we investigated the growth of two Frankia-inoculated (actinorhizal alder species, A. crispa and A. glutinosa, in gold mine waste rock from northern Quebec. Alder species had similar survival rates and positively impacted soil quality and physico-chemical properties in similar ways, restoring soil pH to neutrality and reducing extractable metals up to two-fold, while not hyperaccumulating them into above-ground plant biomass. A. glutinosa outperformed A. crispa in terms of growth, as estimated by the seedling volume index (SVI, and root length. Pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region for fungi provided a comprehensive, direct characterization of microbial communities in gold mine waste rock and fine tailings. Plant- and treatment-specific shifts in soil microbial community compositions were observed in planted mine residues. Shannon diversity and the abundance of microbes involved in key ecosystem processes such as contaminant degradation (Sphingomonas, Sphingobium and Pseudomonas, metal sequestration (Brevundimonas and Caulobacter and N2-fixation (Azotobacter, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Pseudomonas increased over time, i.e., as plants established in mine waste rock. Acetate mineralization and most probable number (MPN assays showed that revegetation positively stimulated both bulk and rhizosphere communities, increasing microbial density (biomass increase of 2 orders of magnitude and mineralization (five-fold. Genomic techniques proved useful in

  15. Modeling the Use of Mine Waste Rock as a Porous Medium Reservoir for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelick, R. A.; Donelick, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    We are studying the engineering and economic feasibilities of constructing Big Mass Battery (BiMBy) compressed air energy storage devices using some of the giga-tonnes of annually generated and historically produced mine waste rock/overburden/tailings (waste rock). This beneficial use of waste rock is based on the large mass (Big Mass), large pore volume, and wide range of waste rock permeabilities available at some large open pit metal mines and coal strip mines. Porous Big Mass is encapsulated and overlain by additional Big Mass; compressed air is pumped into the encapsulated pore space when renewable energy is abundant; compressed air is released from the encapsulated pore space to run turbines to generate electricity at the grid scale when consumers demand electricity. Energy storage capacity modeling: 1) Yerington Pit, Anaconda Copper Mine, Yerington, NV (inactive metal mine): 340 Mt Big Mass, energy storage capacity equivalent to 390k-710k home batteries of size 10 kW•h/charge, assumed 20% porosity, 50% overall efficiency. 2) Berkeley Pit, Butte Copper Mine, Butte, MT (inactive metal mine): 870 Mt Big Mass, energy storage capacity equivalent to 1.4M-2.9M home batteries of size 10 kW•h/charge, assumed 20% porosity, 50% overall efficiency. 3) Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, MT (active coal strip mine): 87 Mt over 2 years, energy storage capacity equivalent to 45k-67k home batteries of size 10 kW•h/charge, assumed 30% porosity, 50% overall efficiency. Encapsulating impermeable layer modeling: Inactive mine pits like Yerington Pit and Berkeley Pit, and similar active pits, have associated with them low permeability earthen material (silt and clay in Big Mass) at sufficient quantities to manufacture an encapsulating structure with minimal loss of efficiency due to leakage, a lifetime of decades or even centuries, and minimal need for the use of geomembranes. Active coal strip mines like Rosebud mine have associated with them low permeability earthen material such as

  16. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of sulfur and iron in coal waste rock, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Hendry, M Jim; Dynes, James J; Hu, Yongfeng; Biswas, Ashis; Lee Barbour, S; Day, S

    2017-02-12

    Exposure of coal waste rock to atmospheric oxygen can result in the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the release of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and associated trace elements (e.g., Se, As, Cd, and Zn) to groundwaters and surface waters. Similarly, reduced iron minerals such as siderite, ankerite, and the sulfide, pyrite, present in the waste rock can also undergo oxidation, resulting in the formation of iron oxyhydroxides that can adsorb trace elements released from the oxidation of the sulfide minerals. Characterization and quantification of the distribution of sulfide and iron minerals, their oxidation products, as well as leaching rates are critical to assessing present-day and future impacts of SO4(2-) and associated trace elements on receiving waters. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopic analysis of coal waste rock samples from the Elk Valley, British Columbia showed Fe present as pyrite (mean 6.0%), siderite (mean 44.3%), goethite (mean 35.4%), and lepidocrocite (mean 14.3%) with S present as sulfide (mean 26.9%), organic S (mean 58.7%), and SO4(2-) (mean 14.4%). Squeezed porewater samples from dump solids yielded mean concentrations of 0.28mg/L Fe and 1246mg/L SO4(2-). Geochemical modeling showed the porewaters in the dumps to be supersaturated with respect to Fe oxyhydroxides and undersaturated with respect to gypsum, consistent with solids analyses. Coupling Fe and S mineralogical data with long-term water quality and quantity measurements from the base of one dump suggest about 10% of the sulfides (which represent 2% of total S) in the dump were oxidized over the past 30years. The S from these oxidized sulfides was released to the receiving surface water as SO4(2-) and the majority of the Fe precipitated as secondary Fe oxyhydroxides (only 3.0×10(-5)% of the Fe was released to the receiving waters over the past 30years). Although the data suggest that the leaching of SO4(2-) from the waste rock dump could continue for about 300years

  17. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF WASTE ROCKS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE ABANDONED COAL MINE OF JERADA CITY (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDRA B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of urban dwellers calls for an increased awareness of urban ecosystems and appropriate,long-term management practices. Especially the water supply needs to be secured, both in terms of quantity and quality. In Morocco, numerous urban mine sites were abandoned regardless rehabilitation strategy.Consequently, mining activity contributes massively to deteriorate air, soil and water quality, to degrade natural ecosystems and to menace public health. The abandoned coalmine of Jerada is located in north east of Morocco,in horst zone, in the productive geological formation of Westphalian C. The mining activity has generated along 65 years (1936-2001, 15 to 20 millions tons of washery waste rocks, cumulated principally in urban center. The groundwater (n=30 and waste rock (n=7 sampling was led in the middle of May 2008, which presents in local climatic context the end of rainy season and the beginning of sec season. Waste rocks are exhaustively black schist, with a paucity in pyrite (anthracite debris contain between 2 to 5% of synergic pyrite and predominance of calcareous minerals essentially as dolomite. Consequently, the majority of waste rock samples are not acid generators. The pyrite oxidation produces sulphuric acid, which will be quickly neutralized by carbonates. The alkaline tendency of pH classifies Jerada abandoned coal mine in circum neutral mining drainage type (NMD. The leaching through unsaturated and saturated zone will be facilitated due to a big pore size and a breakingtectonic having fractured Jerada coal basin. The deformed black schist alternative to sandstone permits a good water circulation. The massive product of mining drainage and the major pollutant of groundwater is undoubtedly S-SO4 (27/30 exceed WHO guideline. The spatial correlation between S-total and salinity illustrates the deterioration of groundwater quality due to pyrite oxidation. The alteration of schist and halite dissolution contribute to

  18. Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    This study is related to the design of anti-slide piles for several landslides in Wanzhou city located in the Three Gorges area. Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir the hydro-geological conditions in this area have deteriorated significantly, leading to larger instability problems. China has invested a lot of money in slope stabilization measures for the treatment of landslides in the Three Gorges area. One of the methods for the stabilization of large landslides is the design of anti-sliding piles. This paper focuses on extensive slope stability analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of the landslide masses, and the parameters required for designing the number, size and dimensions of reinforced concrete stabilization piles. The study focuses on determining the rock parameters, anchor depth, and the pile and soil interaction coefficient. The study aims to provide guidelines for anti-slide pile stabilization works for landslides in the Wanzhou area. The research work contains a number of aspects. First a study is carried out on the distribution of pressures expected on the piles, using two different methods that take into account the expected pore water pressure and seismic acceleration. For the Ercengyan landslide , the Limit Equilibrium Method and Strength Reduction Method of FEM are compared through the results of the landslide pressure distributions on the piles and stress fields in the piles. The second component is the study of the required anchor depth of antislide piles, which is carried out using a statistical analysis with data from 20 landslides that have been controlled with anti-sliding piles. The rock characteristics of the anchor locations were obtained using laboratory tests, and a classification of rock mass quality is made for the anchors of antislide piles. The relationship between the critical anchor height and the angle of the landslide slip surface is determined. Two different methods are presented for the length

  19. Flexible pile thermal barrier insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. E.; Fell, D. M.; Tesinsky, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible pile thermal barrier insulator included a plurality of upstanding pile yarns. A generally planar backing section supported the upstanding pile yarns. The backing section included a plurality of filler yarns forming a mesh in a first direction. A plurality of warp yarns were looped around said filler yarns and pile yarns in the backing section and formed a mesh in a second direction. A binder prevented separation of the yarns in the backing section.

  20. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests...... in the laboratory show ultimate resistances close to the estimated limits and p - y curves close to curves based on test results from full-scale piles. Rough and smooth piles with circular and square cross sections are investigated....

  1. Characterizing fractured plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield for deep geological disposal of Canada`s radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, G.S.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. , Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1998-09-01

    Since 1978 AECL has been investigating plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield as a potential medium for the disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste. During the last two years this study has been continued as part of Ontario Hydro`s used fuel disposal program. Methods have been developed for characterizing the geotechnical conditions at the regional scale of the Canadian Shield as well as for characterizing conditions at the site scale and the very near-field scale needed for locating and designing disposal vault rooms and waste emplacement areas. The Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba have been extensively used to develop and demonstrate the different scales of characterization methods. At the regional scale, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys combined with LANDSAT 5 and surface gravity survey data have been helpful in identifying boundaries of the plutonic rocks , overburden thicknesses, major lineaments that might be geological structures, lithological contacts and depths of the batholiths. Surface geological mapping of exposed rock outcrops, combined with surface VLF/EM, radar and seismic reflection surveys were useful in identifying the orientation and depth continuity of low-dipping fracture zones beneath rock outcrops to a depth of 500 to 1000 m. The surface time-domain EM method has provided encouraging results for identifying the depth of highly saline pore waters. The regional site scale investigations at the WRA included the drilling of twenty deep boreholes (> 500 m) at seven separate study areas. Geological core logging combined with borehole geophysical logging, TV/ATV logging, flowmeter logging and full waveform sonic logging in these boreholes helped to confirm the location of hydro geologically important fractures, orient cores and infer the relative permeability of some fracture zones. Single-hole radar and crosshole seismic tomography surveys were useful to establish the

  2. Long-term temporal variability of the radon-222 exhalation flux from a landform covered by low uranium grade waste rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Doering, Che

    2016-01-01

    Radon-222 exhalation flux densities from two different substrates of several metres thickness, waste rock and waste rock mixed with approximately 30% lateritic material, were measured over a period of five years in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Fourteen measurement campaigns using activated charcoal canisters (n > 1000) covered both dry and wet seasons and showed differences in seasonal and long term trends of the (222)Rn exhalation flux densities normalised to the (226)Ra activity concentrations of the substrate. Dry season (222)Rn exhalation was generally higher for the mixed substrate, due to the larger fraction of fines. Seasonality established within the first year of landform construction on the mixed substrate, due to the higher water holding capacity of the lateritic material. In contrast, waste rock only shows no seasonality until years four and five after construction, when average normalised dry season (222)Rn exhalation flux densities from waste rock increase to values (0.47 ± 0.06 mBq m(-2) s(-1) per Bq kg(-1)) similar to the mixed substrate (0.64 ± 0.08 mBq m(-2) s(-1) per Bq kg(-1)), likely due to an increase in fines from rapid weathering of the schistose waste rock. Volumetric water content has been used to parametrize relative (222)Rn exhalation and we determined that wet season (222)Rn exhalation is about 40% of the dry season exhalation.

  3. 40 CFR 265.252 - Waste analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste analysis. 265.252 Section 265... FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.252 Waste analysis. In addition to the waste analyses required by § 265.13, the... in the pile to which it is to be added. The analysis conducted must be capable of...

  4. Test Exponential Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico

    The Patent contains an extremely detailed description of an atomic pile employing natural uranium as fissile material and graphite as moderator. It starts with the discussion of the theory of the intervening phenomena, in particular the evaluation of the reproduction or multiplication factor, K, that is the ratio of the number of fast neutrons produced in one generation by the fissions to the original number of fast neutrons, in a system of infinite size. The possibility of having a self-maintaining chain reaction in a system of finite size depends both on the facts that K is greater than unity and the overall size of the system is sufficiently large to minimize the percentage of neutrons escaping from the system. After the description of a possible realization of such a pile (with many detailed drawings), the various kinds of neutron losses in a pile are depicted. Particularly relevant is the reported "invention" of the exponential experiment: since theoretical calculations can determine whether or not a chain reaction will occur in a give system, but can be invalidated by uncertainties in the parameters of the problem, an experimental test of the pile is proposed, aimed at ascertaining if the pile under construction would be divergent (i.e. with a neutron multiplication factor K greater than 1) by making measurements on a smaller pile. The idea is to measure, by a detector containing an indium foil, the exponential decrease of the neutron density along the length of a column of uranium-graphite lattice, where a neutron source is placed near its base. Such an exponential decrease is greater or less than that expected due to leakage, according to whether the K factor is less or greater than 1, so that this experiment is able to test the criticality of the pile, its accuracy increasing with the size of the column. In order to perform this measure a mathematical description of the effect of neutron production, diffusion, and absorption on the neutron density in the

  5. Soil-Pile Interaction in the Pile Vertical Vibration Based on Fictitious Soil-Pile Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By introducing the fictitious soil-pile model, the soil-pile interaction in the pile vertical vibration is investigated. Firstly, assuming the surrounding soil of pile to be viscoelastic material and considering its vertical wave effect, the governing equations of soil-pile system subjected to arbitrary harmonic dynamic force are founded based on the Euler-Bernoulli rod theory. Secondly, the analytical solution of velocity response in frequency domain and its corresponding semianalytical solution of velocity response in time domain are derived by means of Laplace transform technique and separation of variables technique. Based on the obtained solutions, the influence of parameters of pile end soil on the dynamic response is studied in detail for different designing parameters of pile. Lastly, the fictitious soil-pile model and other pile end soil supporting models are compared. It is shown that the dynamic response obtained by the fictitious soil-pile model is among the dynamic responses obtained by other existing models if there are appropriate material parameters and thickness of pile end soil for the fictitious soil-pile model.

  6. When Rubble Piles Collide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D. C.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Quinn, T.

    1999-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that many km-sized bodies in the Solar System may be rubble piles, gravitationally bound collections of solid material (Richardson, Bottke, & Love 1998, Icarus 134, 47). If true, then collisions may occur in free space between rubble piles. Here we present results from a project to map the parameter space of collisions between km-sized spherical rubble piles. The results will assist in parameterization of collision outcomes for Solar System formation models and may give insight into catastrophic disruption scaling laws. We use a direct numerical method (Richardson, Quinn, Stadel, & Lake 1999, Icarus, in press) to evolve the positions and velocities of the rubble pile particles under the constraints of gravity and physical collisions. We test the dependence of the collision outcomes on impact speed and angle, spin, mass ratio, and dissipation parameter. Speeds are kept low so that the maximum strain on the component material does not exceed the crushing strength, appropriate for dynamically cool systems such as the primordial disk during early planet formation. We compare our results with analytic estimates, laboratory experiments, hydrocode simulations, and stellar system collision models. We find that net accretion dominates the outcomes in head-on, slow encounters while net erosion dominates for off-axis, fast encounters. The dependence on impact angle is almost equally as important as the dependence on impact speed. Off-axis encounters can result in fast-spinning elongated remnants or contact binaries while fast encounters result in smaller fragments overall. Reaccumulation of debris escaping from the remnant can occur, leading to the formation of smaller rubble piles. Less than 2% of the system mass ends up in orbit around the remnant. Initial spin can reduce or enhance collision outcomes, depending on the relative orientation of the spin and orbital angular momenta. We derive a relationship between impact speed and angle for

  7. Application of Response Surface Methodology on Leaching of Iron from Partially Laterised Khondalite Rocks: A Bauxite Mining Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ranjita; Bhima Rao, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation, response surface methodology (RSM) is used for a quadratic model that continuously controls the process parameters. This model is used to optimize the removal of iron oxide from Partially Laterised Khondalite (PLK) rocks which is influenced by several independent variables namely acid concentration, time and temperature. Second order response functions are produced for leaching of iron oxide from PLK rocks-a bauxite mining waste. In RSM, Box-Behnken design is used for the process optimization to achieve maximum removal of iron oxide. The influence of the process variables of leaching of iron oxide is presented in the form of 3-D response graphs. The results of this investigation reveals that 3 M hydrochloric acid concentration, 240 min time and 373 K temperature are found to be the best conditions for removal of 99% Fe2O3. The product obtain at this condition contain 80% brightness which is suitable for ceramic and filler industry applications. The novelity of the work is that the waste can be a value added product after suitable physical beneficiation and chemical treatment.

  8. Probabilistic Assessment for Seismic Performance of Pile-Supported Wharves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Heidary Torkamani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of uncertainties associated with the material properties on the seismic performance of pile-supported wharves. For this purpose a two-dimensional finite difference model, representing typical pile-supported wharf structures from western United States has been constructed using software FLAC2D. Incremental dynamic analysis has been applied to evaluate the response of wharf structure under different levels of seismic loading. The uncertainties at both structural and geotechnical parameters have been investigated using a tornado diagram and a first-Order Second-Moment (FOSM analysis. It has been found that the uncertainties at the dead load of structure, friction angle of rock fill and the porosity of rock fill contribute most to the variability of the displacement ductility factor of the pile-supported wharf structures. Based on the results, design considerations have been provided.

  9. A new method for controlling of floor heave of deep tunnels in soft rocks by mini-tube grouting piles of crushed stones%微型碎石管注桩治理深部软岩巷道底鼓新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢芳; 王金安

    2013-01-01

    针对造成巷道底鼓的物理和力学两种重要机制,研究并提出微型碎石管注桩治理深部软岩巷道底鼓的新方法.在物理机制方面,微型碎石桩具有渗透性极好的特点,在巷道施工和使用期间可汲取岩体中的渗水并透过碎石桩中的插管排出,从而降低软岩层因遇水膨胀导致的变形;在力学机制方面,微型碎石桩一方面通过钻孔置换出少部分底板软岩,从体量上减少变形岩体,另一方面能利用碎石桩体的侧向可压缩性耗散岩体水平变形,底板岩层中的水平地应力得以释放,极大减缓了促使底鼓变形的力学作用;通过微型碎石桩中的插管注浆加固底板岩体,提高了底板复合地基整体承载力.通过数值分析,阐明该方法在治理软岩巷道底鼓机制上的有效性.%Focusing on two important mechanisms of physics and mechanics that give rise to the floor heave of tunnels , a new method of controlling the floor heave of deep tunnels in soft rocks was proposed by means of mini-tube grouting piles of crushed stones. In physical aspect, the method utilizes the characteristics of good permeability of crushed stone pile to absorb the water in rockmass and drainage out through the tubes in the pile during the construction and application of the tunnels, resulting in the decrease in expansion deformation of soft rock due to water saturation. In mechanical aspect, partial volume in floor stratum has been replaced, on one hand, by the installed mini piles which reduce the volume of the deforming rock body, and on the other hand, amount of horizontal deformation are dissipated through the lateral compressive deformation of the crushed stone pile, and the horizontal stress is released. As a result, the mechanical affect that induces the heave deformation in floor stratum is considerably reduced. By means of grouting the crushed stones through the tube inserted in the pile, the floor stratum is reinforced and the

  10. Ultra-fine grinding and mechanical activation of mine waste rock using a high-speed stirred mill for mineral carbonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-jie Li; Michael Hitch

    2015-01-01

    CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation can permanently store CO2 and mitigate climate change. However, the cost and reaction rate of mineral carbonation must be balanced to be viable for industrial applications. In this study, it was attempted to reduce the carbonation costs by using mine waste rock as a feed stock and to enhance the reaction rate using wet mechanical activation as a pre-treatment method. Slurry rheological properties, particle size distribution, specific surface area, crystallinity, and CO2 sequestration reaction efficiency of the initial and mechanically activated mine waste rock and olivine were characterized. The results show that serpentine acts as a catalyst, in-creasing the slurry yield stress, assisting new surface formation, and hindering the size reduction and structure amorphization. Mechanically activated mine waste rock exhibits a higher carbonation conversion than olivine with equal specific milling energy input. The use of a high-speed stirred mill may render the mineral carbonation suitable for mining industrial practice.

  11. Numerical modeling of rock stresses within a basaltic nuclear waste repository. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, M.P.; Hocking, G.

    1978-10-01

    The modeling undertaken during this project incorporated a wide range of problems that impact the design of the waste repository. Interaction of groundwater, heat and stress were considered on a regional scale, whereas on the room and canister scale thermo-mechanical analyses were undertaken. In the Phase II report, preliminary guidelines for waste densities were established based primarily on short-term stress criteria required to maintain stability during the retrievability period. Additional analyses are required to evaluate the effect of joints, borehole linings, room support and ventilation on these preliminary waste loading densities. The regional analyses did not indicate any adverse effect that could control the allowable waste loading densities. However, further refinements of geologic structure, hydrologic models, seismicity and possible induced seismicity are required before firm estimates of the loading densities can be made.

  12. Rock waste dumps on the Davydov Glacier (Akshyirak Range, Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, a barren rock has been formed at the Davydov Glacier, due to the works at the Kumtor Gold Mine. By the end of 2010, total amount of the rock, stockpiled on the glacier, apparently exceeded 200 million tons, the height of dumps of rock sometimes exceeded 50 meters. The most noticeable effects of this are provoking local surges of the Davydov Glacier and squeezing glacier ice out of the dumps of rock. For a detailed analysis of both processes, we also used the results of periodic geodetic measurements (over 8000 of monitoring rods (about 800 rods of the gold mining company. A number of local surges of the glacier has been found, the first of which began in March–April 2002. To analyze glacier squeezing out of the dumps of rock, mathematical modeling of that process has been done. It was established that in most cases, the glacier is almost completely squeezed out of for 1–2 years.

  13. A probabilistic approach to rock mechanical property characterization for nuclear waste repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kunsoo; Gao, Hang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A probabilistic approach is proposed for the characterization of host rock mechanical properties at the Yucca Mountain site. This approach helps define the probability distribution of rock properties by utilizing extreme value statistics and Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze mechanical property data of tuff obtained by the NNWSI Project to assess the utility of the methodology. The analysis indicates that laboratory measured strength and deformation data of Calico Hills and Bullfrog tuffs follow an extremal. probability distribution (the third type asymptotic distribution of the smallest values). Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to estimate rock mass deformation moduli using a one-dimensional tuff model proposed by Zimmermann and Finley. We suggest that the results of these analyses be incorporated into the repository design.

  14. Mono pile foundation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyngesen, S.; Brendstrup, C.

    1997-02-01

    The use of mono piles as foundations for maritime structures has been developed during the last decades. The installation requirements within the offshore sector have resulted in equipment enabling driving of piles up to 3-4 m to large penetration depths. The availability of this equipment has made the use of large mono piles feasible as foundations for structures like wind turbines. The mono pile foundations consists of three parts; the bare pile, a conical transition and a boat landing. All parts are prefitted at the yard in order to minimise the installation work that has to be carried out offshore. The study of a mono pile foundations for a 1.5 MW wind turbine has been conducted for two locations, Horns Rev and Roedsand. Three different water depths: 5, 8 and 11 m have been investigated in the study. The on-site welding between pile and conical transition is performed by an automatic welding machine. Final testing and eventually repair of the weld are conducted at least 16 hours after welding. This is followed by final installation of J-tube, tie-in to subsea cables and installation of the impressed current system for corrosive protection of the mono pile. The total cost for procurement and installation of the mono pile using the welded connection is estimated. The price does not include procurement and installation of access platform and boat landing. These costs are estimated to 250.000 DKK. Depending on water depth the cost of the pile ranges from 2,2 to 2,7 million DKK. Procurement and fabrication of the pile are approx. 75% of the total costs. The remaining 25% are due to installation. The total costs are very sensitive to the unit price of pile steel. During the project it became obvious that ice load has a very large influence on the dimensions of the mono pile. (EG)

  15. Diffusive transport and reaction in clay rocks: A storage (nuclear waste, CO2, H2), energy (shale gas) and water quality issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurent; Alt-Epping, Peter; Wersin, Paul; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Clay rocks are low permeability sedimentary formations that provide records of Earth history, influence the quality of water resources, and that are increasingly used for the extraction or storage of energy resources and the sequestration of waste materials. Informed use of clay rock formations to achieve low-carbon or carbon-free energy goals requires the ability to predict the rates of diffusive transport processes for chemically diverse dissolved and gaseous species over periods up to thousands of years. We survey the composition, properties and uses of clay rock and summarize fundamental science challenges in developing confident conceptual and quantitative gas and solute transport models.

  16. 煤矸石重金属释放活性及其污染土壤的生态风险评价%Characteristics of Heavy Metals Release from Coal Waste and Potential Ecological Risk Assessment of Contaminated Soil Around Coal Waste Piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明亮; 岳兴玲; 杨淑英

    2011-01-01

    通过野外采样与室内实验分析煤矸石重金属的释放活性,并利用潜在生态风险评价法分析煤矸石山周边土壤污染及其潜在生态风险特征。结果表明,实验用煤矸石中重金属主要以残渣态存在,Cu、Zn、Pb、Cr和Cd的残渣态分别占其总量的56.86%,53.27%,72.01%,68.61%和75.93%,不易发生释放迁移,但少量酸溶态和氧化物结合态重金属易被淋溶后在矸石山周围土壤中累积并造成重金属污染。煤矸石山周边土壤重金属含量随着距离的增加呈现减少趋势,表明周边土壤受到煤矸石重金属污染,并且在土壤表层重金属含量最高,加大了重金属进入食物链危害人体健康的风险。通过潜在生态风险评价研究,采样区属于重金属Cd和Pb风险突出区,煤矸石距离5~10 m处潜在生态风险指数为272.34和164.34,属于中等潜在生态风险,其他各点潜在生态风险指数范围为94.62~141.79,属于轻微生态风险。%Characteristics of heavy metals release from coal waste and potential ecological risk assessment of contaminated soil around coal waste piles were studied.The results showed that:(1)Residual fraction was the main fraction of heavy metal in coal waste,such as Cu,Zn,Pb,Cr and Cd accounted for 56.86%,53.27%,72.01%,68.61% and 75.93%,which could not easily release from coal waste,but few acid soluble fraction and oxidizable fraction could release and contaminate the soil;(2)Soil heavy metal contents decreased with the distance from coal waste piles increase,which showed the soil was contaminated,and heavy metal contents of top layer were highest than other soil layer,which could cause the heavy metal into crop and endanger human body.Potential ecological risk assessment was used to evaluate the contamination situation of various heavy metals,and Cd,Pb were the main ecological risk factor.The area within 5 m and 10 m distance from coal waste piles belongs to mild ecological risk

  17. Native fungi as metal remediators: Silver myco-accumulation from metal contaminated waste-rock dumps (Libiola Mine, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Grazia; Marescotti, Pietro; Di Piazza, Simone; Zotti, Mirca

    2017-03-04

    Metal contamination constitutes a major source of pollution globally. Many recent studies emphasized the need to develop cheap and green technologies for the remediation or reclamation of environmental matrices contaminated by heavy metals. In this context, fungi are versatile organisms that can be exploited for bioremediation activities. In our work, we tested silver (Ag) bioaccumulation capabilities of three microfungal strains (Aspergillus alliaceus Thom & Church, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, Clonostachys rosea (Link) Schroers, Samuels, Seifert & W. Gams) isolated from a silver polluted site. The aim was to select silver tolerant native strains and test their potential silver uptake. Among the three species tested, T. harzianum was the most efficient strain to tolerate and accumulate silver, showing an uptake capability of 153 mg L(-1) taken at the Ag concentration of 330 mg L(-1). Our study highlights the potential use of native microfungi spontaneously growing in sulphide-rich waste rock dumps, for silver bioaccumulation and bioremediation.

  18. 井下巷道矸石充填技术%On filling technique of underground roadway waste rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张越

    2015-01-01

    Combining with the allocation of the filled roadway of No. 2 east mining area at Longdong coal mine,the paper introduces the key e-quipment and structural principle of the filling technique of underground roadway waste rocks,and analyzes its factual craft procedure,so as to improve the recovery ratio of underground coal resources.%结合龙东煤矿东二采区充填巷道的布置情况,介绍了井下巷道矸石充填技术的关键设备及其结构原理,并对该施工技术的具体工艺流程进行了分析,以提高井下煤炭资源的回收率。

  19. Cementitious Mixtures for Sealing Evaporite and Clastic Rocks in a Radioactive-Waste Repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    on other materials (Struble, Skalny, and Mindess 1980; Barnes, Diamond, and Dolch 1978). Images of chloride distribution show concentrations of...Waste Management, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Struble, L., Skalny, L., and Mindess , S. 1980. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol 10, pp

  20. Preparation of soda-lime glass using rock wool waste; Preparacao de vidros sodo-calcicos utilizando residuo de la de rocha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, F.C.; Della, V.P. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Ballmann, T.J.S.; Folgueras, M.V. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil); Junkes, J.A., E-mail: janajunkes@gmail.com [Centro Universitario Tiradentes, Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Discarded by the mining industry during the maintenance stoppages of pelletizing furnaces, rock wool has in its composition SiO{sub 2} (56%), Na{sub 2} O (12%) and CaO (7%) propitious for obtaining soda-lime glasses. Under this focus, this work developed soda-lime glasses formulations, using as main raw-material rock wool waste in proportions from 50 to 100% by adjusting the chemical composition of the formulations with sand, sodium and calcium carbonates, as silica, soda and lime sources, respectively. In some formulations the sodium carbonate was replaced by sodium sulfate, which acts as a refining agent, improving homogenization and reducing the bubble formation during the melting. Initially, the raw-materials were evaluated by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The tests showed that the rock wool waste has potential to be used in soda-lime glasses production, however, the chemical composition must be corrected. After knowing the waste potential, seven mixtures were prepared and molten at 1550 °C for 1 to 2 h. It has been found that the maximum rock wool waste percentage that can be used is between 60 and 80%, and that the 2 h melting time resulted in more homogeneous glasses and fewer bubbles according to the addition of sodium sulfate which is efficient for bubbles removal. (author)

  1. Radon emission from uranium mining waste rock dumps and resulting radon immission; Radonemissionsverhalten von Halden des Uranbergbaus und daraus resultierende Radonemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regner, J.; Hinz, W.; Schmidt, P. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Since more than 20 years, Wismut GmbH has been investigating the radon situation at uranium mining waste rock dumps. In the present paper the results of 19 complex studies at uranium mining dumps in the Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) are reported. Although the mean specific activity of Ra-226 of the waste rock material was on a rather low level of about 0.5 Bq/g, the mean radon concentration in free atmosphere at the public exposure sites in the immediate vicinity of the dumps reached a value of about 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} for a half-year exposition and of about 600 Bq/m{sup 3} for a one-year exposition. Certain geometries and structures of waste rock dumps and the occurrence of convective airflows in the dumps are main reasons for the high radon emission despite of the relatively low specific Ra-226 activity. A case study for two buildings directly on the top of a waste rock dump in the town Johanngeorgenstadt is presented. The hypothetical interpolation of the results for Ra-226-activity to a value below the threshold value of 0.2 Bq/g leads to the assumption that problematic radon situations may also occur outside the areas of legacies of uranium mining. Considering the aspects mentioned, a clearance level for NORM of 1 Bq/g is questionable.

  2. Characterising and modelling the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in crystalline rock in the context of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, J.A.; Backstrom, A.; Rutqvist, J.; Jing, L.; Backers, T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Christiansson, R.; Feng, X.-T.; Kobayashi, A.; Koyama, T.; Lee, H.-S.; Neretnieks, I.; Pan, P.Z.; Rinne, M.; Shen, B.-T.

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes current knowledge about the nature of and potential for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical modelling of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) around the excavations for an underground radioactive waste repository. In the first part of the paper, the disturbances associated with excavation are explained, together with reviews of Workshops that have been held on the subject. In the second part of the paper, the results of a DECOVALEX research programme on modelling the EDZ are presented. Four research teams used four different models to simulate the complete stress-strain curve for Avro granite from the Swedish Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Subsequent research extended the work to computer simulation of the evolution of the repository using a 'wall block model' and a 'near-field model'. This included assessing the evolution of stress, failure and permeability and time dependent effects during repository evolution. As discussed, all the computer models are well suited to sensitivity studies for evaluating the influence of their respective supporting parameters on the complete stress-strain curve for rock and for modelling the EDZ.

  3. Use of geothermal piles combined with pile foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuzytskyi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of use of geothermal piles in conditions of cold climate is considered. Full-scale experiment is conducted for using this technology in Kiev. Obtained results testify about a possibility for using the system in conditions of Ukraine, but this technology requires more detailed study and simulation of multiannual cycle of use of geothermal piles 

  4. 美国某地下核废料库岩体变形分析%Analysis on One underground Nuclear Waste Repository Rock Mass in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈秋舲; 张田田

    2012-01-01

    在美国某地下核废料库的岩体力学分析中,现行研究均基于加载力学条件,未考虑岩体卸荷损伤.根据该地下核废料库实际加载区岩体和卸荷不同的力学条件,结合现行的加载岩体力学和卸荷岩体力学对地下核废料库的岩体变形进行综合分析.结果表明,综合分析结果与该地下核废料库的变形实测数据基本一致;研究结果可为该地下核废料库的支护提供支撑数据.%When analyzing the rock mass of a underground nuclear waste repository, the current studies are all based on the loading mechanical condition, and the unloading damage of rock mass is unconsidered. According to the different mechanical condition of actual engineering rock mass of loading and unloading, this paper implements a comprehensive analysis on the rock mass deformation of underground nuclear waste repository through the combination of present loading and unloading rock mass mechanics. It is found that the results of comprehensive analysis and actual measured data on the rock mass deformation of underground nuclear waste repository are basically the same, which provide supporting data for the underground nuclear waste repository.

  5. Coupled Biological-Geomechanical-Geochemical Effects of the Disturbed Rock Zone on the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S. C.; Herrick, C. G.; Lee, M. Y.

    2008-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is located at a depth of 655 m in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a deep underground disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) waste. The WIPP must comply with the EPA's environmental regulations that require a probabilistic risk analysis of releases of radionuclides due to inadvertent human intrusion into the repository at some time during the 10,000-year regulatory period. Sandia National Laboratories conducts performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP using a system of computer codes representing the evolution of underground repository and emplaced TRU waste in order to demonstrate compliance. One of the important features modeled in a PA is the disturbed rock zone (DRZ) surrounding the emplacement rooms in the repository. The extent and permeability of DRZ play a significant role in the potential radionuclide release scenarios. We evaluated the phenomena occurring in the repository that affect the DRZ and their potential effects on the extent and permeability of the DRZ. Furthermore, we examined the DRZ's role in determining the performance of the repository. Pressure in the completely sealed repository will be increased by creep closure of the salt and degradation of TRU waste contents by microbial activity in the repository. An increased pressure in the repository will reduce the extent and permeability of the DRZ. The reduced DRZ extent and permeability will decrease the amount of brine that is available to interact with the waste. Furthermore, the potential for radionuclide release from the repository is dependent on the amount of brine that enters the repository. As a result of these coupled biological-geomechanical-geochemical phenomena, the extent and permeability of the DRZ has a significant impact on the potential radionuclide releases from the repository and, in turn, the repository performance. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia

  6. Experimental study on pile-end post-grouting piles for super large bridge pile foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiming GONG; Guoliang DAI; Haowen ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    The application of pile-end post-grouting piles for super-large bridge pile foundations in some important projects was introduced in this paper. There are totally 21 test piles. The maximum pile diameter varies from 2.5 m to 3 m, and the maximum length is 125m; the bearing capacity of the post-grouting piles is over ten thousands tons. Based on the test results, the bearing capacity,displacement, and beating characteristics before and after grouting were analyzed. The results show that the beating capacity of the piles is increased in different degrees after grouting although the technical parameters, including the patterns of grouting pipes, pressure, dosages of cement, duration of grouting lasting time, are different. However,the obtained values are very discrete. In addition, the calculation formula for the post-grouting piles under specified grouting condition was deduced based on the statistics analysis results of 57 test piles. The research results have been applied in the design of bridge foundation.

  7. Pressured Grouting Method (PGM) in Pile Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴序; 于志强; 王旭

    2002-01-01

    Application of pressured grouting method (PGM) in pile engineering can tackle problems encountered during construction of bored piles. Bearing capacity of piles can be increased through compaction of subsoils around piles. This paper reports research efforts of this technique by the pile research team in Southwest Jiaotong University in last decade with respect to the construction process, test findings, and primary research conclusions. The social-economical benefits of this method and application market in pile engineering are also analyzed.

  8. Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoel, A.E.C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection (safeguar

  9. Control of floor heaves with steel pile in gob-side entry retaining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ying; Chen Jin; Bai Jianbiao

    2016-01-01

    A new approach named as steel pile method is innovatively proposed in this study to control severe floor heaves in gob-side entry retaining. It is required that the steel piles be installed in the floor corners with a certain interval before the influence of the dynamic pressure induced by current panel extraction. Using numerical simulation and theoretical analysis, this study investigated the interaction between the steel piles and the floor rocks during the service life of the steel piles, and revealed the mechanism of the steel piles in controlling floor heaves. The effect of the steel pile parameters on the control of floor heaves was presented and elaborated. It is found that the effectiveness of the steel piles in controlling floor heaves can be enhanced with greater installed dip angle, longer length and smaller interval of the steel piles. Compared with traditional methods, e.g., using floor anchor bolts and floor restoration, the advantages using steel pile were successfully defined in terms of controlling effect and economic benefits. It is hoped that the proposed method can contribute to the development of gob-side entry retaining technique.

  10. Uso do residuo de beneficiamento de rochas ornamentais na producao de argamassa de multiplo uso; Use of the ornamental rock waste in mortar multiple-use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faial, Alline Silveira Ribeiro; Xavier, Gustavo de Castro; Alexandre, Jonas; Maia, Paulo Cesar de Almeida; Albuquerque Junior, Fernando Saboya, E-mail: gxavier@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF/LECIV), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Civil

    2012-07-01

    The municipal district of Itapemirim-ES is the largest producer of ornamental stones in Brazil. The processing of these rocks for the manufacture of floor and produces a large amount of waste approximately 15,000 tons/month, which still are responsible for damage to the environment. Aiming at the use of this waste, this paper studies experimentally the production of mortars of multiple use, making the replacement of the use of hydrated lime, widely used in the manufacture of mortars in construction, by the waste of the processing of a marble industry Itapemirim -ES. The mortar waste was characterized and evaluated by comparing performance with mortar with the addition of hydrated lime. We used a slurry with lime as a reference, ie the mixture was made of 1:1:8 (cement: waste / lime sand), where the workability and the properties of the hardened condition were evaluated and compared with the mortars made with the waste of marble. The compressive strength results showed that the waste with lime mortars were 1.6 ± 0.5 MPa and 1.4 MPa respectively ± 0.6 after 28 days of curing, two were classified as P1 (ABNT 13279, 2005), can replace the waste lime, thereby reducing the cost of manufacture of the mortar. (author)

  11. Leach test methodology for the Waste/Rock Interactions Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.; McVay, G.L.; Coles, D.G.

    1980-05-01

    Experimental leach studies in the WRIT Program have two primary functions. The first is to determine radionuclide release from waste forms in laboratory environments which attempt to simulate repository conditions. The second is to elucidate leach mechanisms which can ultimately be incorporated into nearfield transport models. The tests have been utilized to generate rates of removal of elements from various waste forms and to provide specimens for surface analysis. Correlation between constituents released to the solution and corresponding solid state profiles is invaluable in the development of a leach mechanism. Several tests methods are employed in our studies which simulate various proposed leach incident scenarios. Static tests include low temperature (below 100/sup 0/C) and high temperature (above 100/sup 0/C) hydrothermal tests. These tests reproduce nonflow or low-flow repository conditions and can be used to compare materials and leach solution effects. The dynamic tests include single-pass, continuous-flow(SPCF) and solution-change (IAA)-type tests in which the leach solutions are changed at specific time intervals. These tests simulate repository conditions of higher flow rates and can also be used to compare materials and leach solution effects under dynamic conditions. The modified IAEA test is somewhat simpler to use than the one-pass flow and gives adequate results for comparative purposes. The static leach test models the condition of near-zero flow in a repository and provides information on element readsorption and solubility limits. The SPCF test is used to study the effects of flowing solutions at velocities that may be anticipated for geologic groundwaters within breached repositories. These two testing methods, coupled with the use of autoclaves, constitute the current thrust of WRIT leach testing.

  12. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  13. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1...

  14. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Pilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-04

    reported in all climatic conditions on unprotectej suJ pilings m contact with saline water (ie scawater and hrackisli ’.vater’’ tliat is siibj^ct... Pilings 6. AUTHOR(S) Brenda J. Little and Richard I. Ray 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Research Laboratory...ACRONYM(S) ONR 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S| 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Ao/£/o/3lz<l 14. ABSTRACT Sheet piles , used as retaining walls

  15. Grouted Pile and Its Bearing Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The grouting method applied in bored pile is an improvement to the conventional bored pile. Load tests have proved that grouting under the bored pile tip is an effective method to enhance the bearing capacity of the pile and to reduce the pile settlement. In this paper, the grouting technology is described and pile-load test results are discussed. In order to put the grouting method into design practice, the authors analyze the working mechanism of soil compaction. And, based on the theory of cavities expansion in soil mass, approximate formulae are proposed for estimating the bearing capacity of the grouted pile. The theoretical prediction agrees well with the load test results.

  16. Development of the Method of Bacterial Leaching of Metals out of Low-Grade Ores, Rocks, and Industrial Wastes Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tsertsvadze, L A; Petriashvili, Sh G; Chutkerashvili, D G; Kirkesali, E I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The results of preliminary investigations aimed at the development of an economical and easy to apply technique of bacterial leaching of rare and valuable metals out of low-grade ores, complex composition ores, rocks, and industrial wastes in Georgia are discussed. The main groups of microbiological community of the peat suspension used in the experiments of bacterial leaching are investigated and the activity of particular microorganisms in the leaching of probes with different mineral compositions is assessed. The element composition of the primary and processed samples was investigated by the epithermal neutron activation analysis method and the enrichment/subtraction level is estimated for various elements. The efficiency of the developed technique to purify wastes, extract some scrace metals, and enrich ores or rocks in some elements, e.g. Au, U, Th, Cs, Sr, Rb, Sc, Zr, Hf, Ta, Gd, Er, Lu, Ce, etc., is demonstrated.

  17. Hydrogeochemical studies of the Rustler Formation and related rocks in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Area, Southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.D.; Lambert, S.J.; Robinson, K.L. (eds.)

    1991-08-01

    Chemical, mineralogical, isotopic, and hydrological studies of the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation and related rocks are used to delineate hydrochemical facies and form the basis for a conceptual model for post-Pleistocene groundwater flow and chemical evolution. Modern flow within the Culebra in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area appears to be largely north-to-south; however, these flow directions under confined conditions are not consistent with the salinity distribution in the region surrounding the WIPP Site. Isotopic, mineralogical, and hydrological data suggest that vertical recharge to the Culebra in the WIPP area and to the immediate east and south has not occurred for several thousand years. Eastward increasing {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios suggest recharge from a near-surface Pleistocene infiltration zone flowing from the west-northwest and imply a change in flow direction in the last 30,000 to 12,000 years. 49 refs., 34 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Use of the Fracture Continuum Model for Numerical Modeling of Flow and Transport of Deep Geologic Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Crystalline Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgu, T.; Kalinina, E.; Klise, K. A.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical modeling of disposal of nuclear waste in a deep geologic repository in fractured crystalline rock requires robust characterization of fractures. Various methods for fracture representation in granitic rocks exist. In this study we used the fracture continuum model (FCM) to characterize fractured rock for use in the simulation of flow and transport in the far field of a generic nuclear waste repository located at 500 m depth. The FCM approach is a stochastic method that maps the permeability of discrete fractures onto a regular grid. The method generates permeability fields using field observations of fracture sets. The original method described in McKenna and Reeves (2005) was designed for vertical fractures. The method has since then been extended to incorporate fully three-dimensional representations of anisotropic permeability, multiple independent fracture sets, and arbitrary fracture dips and orientations, and spatial correlation (Kalinina et al. 20012, 2014). For this study the numerical code PFLOTRAN (Lichtner et al., 2015) has been used to model flow and transport. PFLOTRAN solves a system of generally nonlinear partial differential equations describing multiphase, multicomponent and multiscale reactive flow and transport in porous materials. The code is designed to run on massively parallel computing architectures as well as workstations and laptops (e.g. Hammond et al., 2011). Benchmark tests were conducted to simulate flow and transport in a specified model domain. Distributions of fracture parameters were used to generate a selected number of realizations. For each realization, the FCM method was used to generate a permeability field of the fractured rock. The PFLOTRAN code was then used to simulate flow and transport in the domain. Simulation results and analysis are presented. The results indicate that the FCM approach is a viable method to model fractured crystalline rocks. The FCM is a computationally efficient way to generate realistic

  19. In-situ grouting of uranium-mill-tailings piles: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Passage in 1978 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) initiated a program of remedial action for 22 existing mill tailings piles generated in the period 1940 to 1970 as part of the nation's defense and nuclear power programs. The presence of these piles poses potential health and environmental contamination concerns. Possible remedial actions proposed include multilayer covers over the piles to reduce water infiltration, reduce radon gas releases, and reduce airborne transport of tailings fines. In addition, suggested remedial actions include (1) the use of liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles and (2) chemical stabilization of the tailings to retain the radioactive and nonradioactive sources of contamination. Lining of the piles would normally be applicable only to piles that are to be moved from their present location such that the liner could be placed between the tailings and the groundwater. However, by using civil engineering techniques developed for grouting rocks and soils for strength and water control, it may be possible to produce an in situ liner for piles that are not to be relocated. The Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office requested that ORNL assess the potential application of grouting as a remedial action. This report examines the types of grouts, the equipment available, and the costs, and assesses the possibility of applying grouting technology as a remedial action alternative for uranium mill tailings piles.

  20. Viscoelastic behavior of concrete pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁科; 唐小弟

    2008-01-01

    Based on constitutive theory of viscoelasticity,the viscoelastic behaviour of concrete pile was investigated.The influence of viscosity coefficient on the stress,displacement and velocity response was discussed.With the increase of viscosity coefficient,the amplitude of stress wave decreases,and the maximum value of the stress wave shifts to deeper position of the pile.In other words,the viscosity coefficient behaves as lag effect to stress wave.

  1. DETERMINING DRIVING RESISTANCE WITH REBOUND OF PILE-TOP DURING PILE DRIVING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁朋; 胡亚元; 陈云敏

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a method to determine driving resistance with rebound of pile-top during pile driving. The soil around the pile shaft is assumed to be rigid-plastic, while that under the pile-tip is assumed to be ideally elastoplastic. The driving force acting on the pile-top is simplified to a triangular impact force. The kinematic equation of the pile-tip is established. From the one-dimensional wave equation, the movements of the pile-tip and pile-top are determined. The rebound at the pile-top can be written in a very concise form. It is shown that the shaft resistance makes the rebound at the pile-top decrease. In particular, when the pile is very long or the soil around the pile is very stiff, the decrease is very obvious.

  2. Simulation analysis for O-cell test of pile and the interaction of upper pile and lower pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ying-jie; ZHANG Ke-xu; ZHANG Er-qi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the soil-pile system of O-cell test of pile is simplified as an axi-symmetrie problem.By using aggregation of quadrilateral isoparametrie elements to simulate pile and soil, setting Goodman' s elements between pile and soils, a method of numerical simulation analysis on O-cell test of pile is presented with the consideration of nonlinear mechanical behavior of soils and pile-soil interface.The method is applied to the a-nalysis of a case of O-cell test of pile.The load-displacement curves and axial force curves of upper pile and lower pile obtained from the O-cell test of pile are fitted, and parameters of the mechanical model of soils and interface are determined.Analysis results validate that the numerical simulation analysis method put forward in this paper is applicable.Furthermore, the interaction and influence of upper pile and lower pile in the O-cell test are also studied with the method.The result shows that if load box is located in a soil layer with fine me-chanical behavior, the interaction of upper pile and lower pile in O-cell test can be ignored generally.

  3. 谈人工挖孔灌注桩硬质岩层水钻入岩施工方法%On construction methods for water drilling embedding rock of hardened stratum of manual hole digging pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊生

    2015-01-01

    针对人工挖孔灌注桩开挖施工过程中遇到非常坚硬的岩层的情况进行了分析,通过多方试验、对比,选用了适宜的水钻型号,并对水钻进行了改造,调整了水钻操作工艺,同时配合以风镐,使之能适应复杂条件下岩体的破除,达到安全施工,并保证质量、进度的目的。%The paper analyzes the hardened stratum in the excavation process of the manual hole digging pile,selects the proper water drilling type by many tests and comparison,reconstructs the water drilling,and adjusts its construction craft with the pneumatic pick,so as to make it a-dapt to the breaking of stratum with the aims of being safety and ensuring its quality and progress.

  4. Effect of Passive Pile on 3D Ground Deformation and on Active Pile Response

    OpenAIRE

    Bingxiang Yuan; Rui Chen; Jun Teng; Tao Peng; Zhongwen Feng

    2014-01-01

    Using a series of model tests, this study investigated the effect of a passive pile on 3D ground deformation around a laterally loaded pile and on that laterally loaded pile’s response in sand. The active pile head was subjected to lateral loads, and the passive pile was arranged in front of the active pile. In the model tests, the distance between the two pile centers was set to zero (i.e., a single pile test), 2.5, 4, and 6 times the pile width (B). The 3D ground surface deformations around...

  5. Analysis of Interaction Factors Between Two Piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ming; CHEN Long-zhu

    2008-01-01

    A rigorous analytical method is presented for calculating the interaction factor between two identical piles subjected to vertical loads. Following the technique proposed by Muki and Sternberg, the problem is decomposed into an extended soil mass and two fictitious piles characterized respectively by Young's modulus of the soil and that of the difference between the pile and soil. The unknown axial forces along fictitious piles are determined by solving a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind, which imposes the compatibility condition that the axial strains of the fictitious piles are equal to those corresponding to the centroidal axes of the extended soil. The real pile forces and displacements can subequally be calculated based on the determined fictitious pile forces, and finally, the desired pile interaction factors may be obtained. Results confirm the validity of the proposed approach and portray the influence of the governing parameters on the pile interaction.

  6. Effect of Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock on the dissolution rate of the SON68 simulated nuclear waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J., E-mail: James.Neeway@pnnl.gov [SUBATECH, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6457, École des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Nantes, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Ribet, Solange; El Mendili, Yassine [SUBATECH, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6457, École des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Nantes, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Schumacher, Stéphan [ANDRA, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1/7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Grambow, Bernd [SUBATECH, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6457, École des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Nantes, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2015-04-15

    Long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste glass in France is expected to occur in an engineered barrier system (EBS) located in a subsurface Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay rock formation in the Paris Basin in northeastern France. Understanding the behavior of glass dissolution in the complex system is critical to be able to reliably model the performance of the glass in this complex environment. To simulate this multi-barrier repository scenario in the laboratory, several tests have been performed to measure glass dissolution rates of the simulated high-level nuclear waste glass, SON68, in the presence of COx claystone at 90 °C. Experiments utilized a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pump to pass simulated Bure site COx pore water through a reaction cell containing SON68 placed between two COx claystone cores for durations up to 200 days. Silicon concentrations at the outlet were similar in all experiments, even the blank experiment with only the COx claystone (∼4 mg/L at 25 °C and ∼15 mg/L at 90 °C). The steady-state pH of the effluent, measured at room temperature, was roughly 7.1 for the blank and 7.3–7.6 for the glass-containing experiments demonstrating the pH buffering capacity of the COx claystone. Dissolution rates for SON68 in the presence of the claystone were elevated compared to those obtained from flow-through experiments conducted with SON68 without claystone in silica-saturated solutions at the same temperature and similar pH values. Additionally, through surface examination of the monoliths, the side of the monolith in direct contact with the claystone was seen to have a corrosion thickness 2.5× greater than the side in contact with the bulk glass powder. Results from one experiment containing {sup 32}Si-doped SON68 also suggest that the movement of Si through the claystone is controlled by a chemically coupled transport with a Si retention factor, K{sub d}, of 900 mL/g.

  7. The weathering of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash evaluated by some weathering indices for natural rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    The weathering of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues consists of complicated phenomena. This makes it difficult to describe leaching behaviors of major and trace elements in fresh/weathered MSWI bottom ash, which was relevant interactively to pH neutralization and formation of secondary minerals. In this study, mineralogical weathering indices for natural rock profiles were applied to fresh/landfilled MSWI bottom ash to investigate the relation of these weathering indices to landfill time and leaching concentrations of component elements. Tested mineralogical weathering indices were Weathering Potential Index (WPI), Ruxton ratio (R), Weathering Index of Parker (WIP), Vogt's Residual Index (V), Chemical Index of Alternation (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW), Plagioclase Index of Alternation (PIA), Silica-Titania Index (STI), Weathering Index of Miura (Wm), and Weatherability index of Hodder (Ks). Welch's t-test accepted at 0.2% of significance level that all weathering indices could distinguish fresh and landfilled MSWI bottom ash. However, R and STI showed contrasted results for landfilled bottom ash to theoretical expectation. WPI, WIP, Wm, and Ks had good linearity with reclamation time of landfilled MSWI bottom ash. Therefore, these four indices might be applicable as an indicator to identify fresh/weathered MSWI bottom ash and to estimate weathering time. Although WPI had weak correlation with leachate pH, other weathering indices had no significant correlation. In addition, all weathering indices could not explain leaching concentration of Al, Ca, Cu, and Zn quantitatively. Large difficulty to modify weathering indices correctly suggests that geochemical simulation including surface sorption, complexation with DOM, and other mechanisms seems to be the only way to describe leaching behaviors of major and trace elements in fresh/weathered MSWI bottom ash. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pile-up glass microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikutani, Yoshikuni; Hibara, Akihide; Uchiyama, Kenji; Hisamoto, Hideaki; Tokeshi, Manabu; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2002-11-01

    We made a 'pile-up' microreactor in which ten levels of microchannel circuits were integrated to form a single glass entity. Solutions were distributed to each layer via cylindrical holes with a diameter much larger than that of the microchannel. Fabrication of the pile-up reactor was completed using only conventional photolithography, wet etching and thermal bonding techniques, and no special facilities or instruments were required. An amide formation reaction between amine in aqueous solution and acid chloride in organic solution was carried out using the pile-up reactor. The yield of the amide formation reaction is dependent on the size of the specific surface area between the two solutions, and the small space inside the microchannels is good for acquiring a large specific surface area without any stirring processes. The maximum throughput for the ten-layered pile-up reactor was ten times larger than that of a single-layered one, yet the reaction yield was still high. Productivity of the pile-up reactor for the reaction was as high as on a gram per hour scale. This value suggests that many conventional plants producing fine chemicals can be replaced by microreactors through the numbering-up technology.

  9. Energy piles. A fundamental energy pile; Energiepfaehle. Eine fundamentale Energiequelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Holger; Beldermann, Nico [GF-Tec GmbH, Roedermark (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The Maintower, the new airport in Berlin/Brandenburg, a lot of Ikea buildings, and also small office buildings or residential buildings may exchange energy with the underground by means of pile fundaments. At the correct planning and execution, energy piles are low-cost geothermal power plants which sustainable generate heating and cooling for the buildings standing on them. Even more energy can be generated safely under compliance with the groundwater protection by means of a new development of the material and the transfer.

  10. Diavik Waste Rock Project: Evolution of Mineral Weathering, Element Release, and Acid Generation and Neutralization during a Five-Year Humidity Cell Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff B. Langman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A five-year, humidity-cell experiment was used to study the weathering evolution of a low-sulfide, granitic waste rock at 5 and 22 °C. Only the rock with the highest sulfide content (0.16 wt % released sufficient acid to overcome a limited carbonate acid-neutralization capacity and produce a substantial decline in pH. Leached SO4 and Ca quickly increased then decreased during the first two years of weathering. Sulfide oxidation continued to release acid and SO4 after carbonate depletion, resulting in an increase in acid-soluble elements, including Cu and Zn. With the dissolution of Al-bearing minerals, the pH stabilized above 4, and sulfide oxidation continued to decline until the end of the experiment. The variation in activation energy of sulfide oxidation correlates with changes in sulfide availability, where the lowest activation energies occurred during the largest releases of SO4. A decrease in sulfide availability was attributed to consumption of sulfide and weathered rims on sulfide grains that reduced the oxidation rate. Varying element release rates due to changing carbonate and sulfide availability provide identifiable geochemical conditions that can be viewed as neutralization sequences and may be extrapolated to the field site for examining the evolution of mineral weathering of the waste rock.

  11. Assessment of two kinetic tests to predict the acid mine drainage in waste rock samples of a uranium mine

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Adriana Trópia de; Faria, Efigênia Miranda de; Chaves, Carla Thamilis Fonseca; Leite,Adilson do Lago; Lena,Jorge Carvalho de

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage is the result of the oxidation process of sulfide bearing rocks. This process occurs when the sulfide material is exposed to atmospheric conditions. Under these conditions, successive oxidation reactions yield sulfuric acid generating acidic waters. This problem becomes more serious when the surrounding rocks are not able to neutralize the acid. The low pH condition of the drained water accelerates the solubility process of solid materials (rocks, soils and sediments) and f...

  12. Displacement and deformation analysis for uplift piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On the assumptions that the shear resistance increases linearly with increasing shear displacement between the uplift pile and surrounding soil,that the axis force is distributed as parabola along the pile length,that elastic distortion occurs when the pile is loaded,that the displacement of pile is in accord with that of the soil,and that the uplift pile failure is regarded as the soil failure,arational calculation method was proposed for calculating the deformation,ultimate displacement and shear resistance of piles.The distributions of frictional resistance and the shear displacement along the pile length were obtained with the method.The comparisons were made between the measurement results and the present results.The present theoretical results agree well with the measurement results,with the average difference being less than 12% before failure.The comparisons show that the proposed method is reasonable for uplift design and engineering construction of piles.

  13. Enhancing rock phosphate integration rate for fast bio-transformation of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures to organic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuofin, F O; Siswana, M; Cishe, E N

    2016-01-01

    Rock phosphate (RP) addition in cow-dung waste-paper mixtures at rates above 2% P has been reported to increase the rate of bio-transformation and humification of organic waste mixtures during vermicomposting to produce organic fertilizer for organic farming. However, the optimization of RP for vermicomposting was not established. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal amount of RP integration rates for effective bio-transformation of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures. Arrays of RP integration degrees (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4% P as RP) were thoroughly mixed with cow- dung waste-paper mixtures to achieve an optimized C:N ratio of 30 and allowed to vermidegrade following the introduction of earthworms at a stocking mass of 12.5 g-worms kg(-1). The bio-transformation of the waste mixtures was examined by measuring C:N ratios and humification index (HI) and per cent ash and volatile solids. Application of 1% P as RP resulted in fast bio-transformation and maturation of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphological properties of the different vermicomposts affected by rates of RP showing the degree of degradation of initial compacted aggregates of cellulose and protein fibres in the mixtures at maturity. A germination test was used to further determine phytotoxicity of the final composts and microbial biomass assessment. The final vermicompost (organic fertilizer) had a C:N ratio of 7, MBC of 900 mg kg(-1) and HI of 27.1%. The RP incorporation rate of 1% P of RP investigated is therefore, recommended for efficient vermidegradation and humification of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures. However, higher rates of RP incorporation should be considered where greater P enrichment of the final vermicompost (organic fertilizer) is desired.

  14. Shaft sealing concepts for high-level radioactive waste repositories based on the host-rock options rock salt and clay stone; Schachtverschlusskonzepte fuer zukuenftige Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Abfaelle fuer die Wirtsgesteinsoptionen Steinsalz und Ton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, Wolfram; Gruner, Matthias [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdbau und Spezialtiefbau; Herold, Philipp; Jobmann, Michael [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Unlike the shaft barriers used for the dry preservation of former mine workings and underground storage sites, shaft seals designed for radioactive-waste repositories must also fulfil additional requirements associated with the design diversity of the sealing system. This diversity makes use of the simple redundancy principle in order to prevent the proliferation of defects. In practice this means combining several sealing elements made from different materials or from materials with different properties. The R and D project, Shaft sealing systems for final repositories for high-level radioactive waste (ELSA) - phase 2: concept design for shaft seals and testing of the functional elements of shaft seals', which was funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), set out to investigate potential sealing elements for the two host-rock options rock salt and mudstone. This paper combines the text that the authors presented at the First International Freiberg Shaft Colloquium held at the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology on 01.10.2014 with a presentation on the sealing elements that were investigated as part of the R and D project.

  15. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system.

  16. 白银含铜废石生物柱浸试验研究%Experimental Research on Column Bioleaching of Copper-containing Waste Rock in Baiyin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘厚明; 舒荣波; 王晓慧; 程蓉; 梁友伟

    2012-01-01

    Research on leaching experiment by adopting bioleaching method was carried on the copper-containing waste rock in Baiyin. According to the ore properties and bioleaching characteristic, the influence of grain size,types of leaching bacteria, leaching temperature and leaching time on leaching results was studied. The results showed that the bioleaching of copper-containing waste rock using moderate thermoacidophile BioMetal SM-3 was feasible. And the relatively high leaching rate ofcopper( >60% ) was obtained for size of ?5mm after being bioleached for 190 days. The influence of ore size on metal leaching rate and column stability was also researched. When it was applied to industry, the ore should be crushed to -20mm before ore stacking to ensure the stability of ore heap and metal leaching rate. The obtained experimental parameter revealed the rule and process-controlled factors of the copper-containing waste rock in Baiyin, which can guide the industrial production of the copper-containing waste rock in Baiyin by adopting the method of bioleaching.%以白银矿区存有的大量含铜废石为研究对象,采用生物柱浸法对其进行浸出试验研究.结合白银废石铜矿特点与细菌浸出特性,分别研究不同矿样粒度,浸矿菌种,浸矿温度以及浸出时间等对浸出结果的影响.研究结果表明,采用BioMetal SM-3中等嗜热嗜酸菌浸出白银废石堆矿样是可行的,可在较短的浸出时间(190d)内获得较高的铜浸出率(-15mm粒级Cu浸出率>60%).通过对比不同矿样粒度对金属浸出率与矿柱稳定性的影响,在工业应用时,为保证矿堆的稳定性和金属浸出速率,建议将矿石破碎到-20 mm粒级然后筑堆..本试验研究所取得的试验参数揭示了白银含铜废石生物浸出规律及过程控制因素,对白银含铜废石采用生物堆浸工业生产具有指导意义.

  17. Acid rock drainage and metal leaching from mine waste material (tailings) of a Pb-Zn-Ag skarn deposit: environmental assessment through static and kinetic laboratory tests

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Adriana Méndez Ortiz; Alejandro Carrillo Chávez; Marcos Gustavo Monroy Fernández

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the processes and products involved in the generation of acid rock drainage – metal leaching (ARD-ML) from mine waste material (tailings) derived from the exploitation of an ore type Pb- Zn-Ag skarn were characterized. Laboratory tests (static and kinetic) of historic and recent tailings were conducted along with the mineralogical characterization of solids, and chemical analyses of solids and leachates. Pyrite (FeS2) is the most abundant sulfi de phase, and one of the main mine...

  18. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. DRIVEN POLYSTRONG REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES AND NEW DESIGN OF PILE CAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Bekbasarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents constructional and technological features for manufacturing driven piles with variable strength of pile shaft. Economical efficiency of their production has been shown in the paper. The paper provides a pile cap design that ensures perception of hammer impacts with the help of lateral edges of the pile cap. Driven reinforced concrete piles which are manufactured from three shaft sections having various strength have been proposed in the paper. Material strength (concrete grade and diameter of bars and length of shaft sections are given on a case by case basis in accordance with nature and rate of stresses in piles during their driving process. Manufacturing of polystrong piles provides an opportunity to select them for a particular construction site with due account of their preservation during driving process.A pile cap has been developed that as opposed to existing analogous designs makes it possible to transmit impact efforts from a hammer to the pile through lateral surface of its head part. The pile cap provides the possibility to increase an area for perception of hammer impact efforts by the pile and in doing so it is possible significantly to reduce a damage risk and destruction of pile concrete during its driving. Application of polystrong piles and their driving with the help of new pile cap are considered as a basis for defect-free and resource-saving technology for pile foundations in the construction.

  20. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  1. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  2. CONDUCTING AND ANALYZING THE RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL BOX TEST OF RETAINING WALL MODELS WITHOUT PILES AND ON THE PILE FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lisnevskyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Taking into consideration that the bearing capacity of the foundation may be insufficient, in the study it is assumed that pile foundation can be used to reduce the impact of the construction of new retaining structures on roads and railways near the existing buildings or in areas of dense urban development and ensure the stability of the foundation. To reduce the volume of excavation it is necessary to choose the economic structure of the retaining wall. To do this, one should explore stress-strain state (SSS of the retaining walls, to develop methods to improve their strength and stability, as well as to choose the most appropriate method of their analysis. Methodology. In the design of retaining walls foundation mat and piles are considered as independent elements. Since the combined effect of the retaining wall, piles and foundation mat as well as the effect of soil or rock foundation on the structure are considered not fully, so there are some limitations in the existing design techniques. To achieve the purpose the box tests of retaining walls models without piles and with piles for studying their interaction with the surrounding soil massif were conducted. Findings. Laboratory simulation of complex systems «surrounding soil – retaining wall – pile» was carried out and on the basis of the box test results were analyzed strains and its main parameters of the stress-strain state. Analysis of the results showed that the structure of a retaining wall with piles is steady and stable. Originality. So far, in Ukraine has not been carried out similar experimental box tests with models of retaining walls in such combinations. In the article has been presented unique photos and test results, as well as their analysis. Practical value. Using the methodology of experimental tests of the retaining wall models with piles and without them gives a wider opportunity to study stress-strain state of such structures.

  3. Long-term cement corrosion in chloride-rich solutions relevant to radioactive waste disposal in rock salt - Leaching experiments and thermodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bube, C.; Metz, V.; Bohnert, E.; Garbev, K.; Schild, D.; Kienzler, B.

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are frequently solidified in a cement matrix. In a potential repository for nuclear wastes, the cementitious matrix is altered upon contact with solution and the resulting secondary phases may provide for significant retention of the radionuclides incorporated in the wastes. In order to assess the secondary phases formed upon corrosion in chloride-rich solutions, which are relevant for nuclear waste disposal in rock salt, leaching experiments were performed. Conventional laboratory batch experiments using powdered hardened cement paste in MgCl2-rich solutions were left to equilibrate for up to three years and full-scale cemented waste products were exposed to NaCl-rich and MgCl2-rich solutions for more than twenty years, respectively. Solid phase analyses revealed that corrosion of hardened cement in MgCl2-rich solutions advanced faster than in NaCl-rich solutions due to the extensive exchange of Mg from solution against Ca from the cementitious solid. Thermodynamic equilibrium simulations compared well to results at the final stages of the respective experiments indicating that close to equilibrium conditions were reached. At high cement product to brine ratios (>0.65 g mL-1), the solution composition in the laboratory-scale experiments was close to that of the full-scale experiments (cement to brine ratio of 2.5 g mL-1) in the MgCl2 systems. The present study demonstrates the applicability of thermodynamic methods used in this approach to adequately describe full-scale long-term experiments with cemented waste simulates.

  4. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrana Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  5. Multivariate adaptive regression splines and neural network models for prediction of pile drivability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wengang Zhang; Anthony T.C. Goh

    2016-01-01

    Piles are long, slender structural elements used to transfer the loads from the superstructure through weak strata onto stiffer soils or rocks. For driven piles, the impact of the piling hammer induces compression and tension stresses in the piles. Hence, an important design consideration is to check that the strength of the pile is sufficient to resist the stresses caused by the impact of the pile hammer. Due to its complexity, pile drivability lacks a precise analytical solution with regard to the phenomena involved. In situations where measured data or numerical hypothetical results are available, neural networks stand out in mapping the nonlinear interactions and relationships between the system’s predictors and dependent responses. In addition, unlike most computational tools, no mathematical relationship assumption between the dependent and independent variables has to be made. Nevertheless, neural networks have been criticized for their long trial-and-error training process since the optimal configu-ration is not known a priori. This paper investigates the use of a fairly simple nonparametric regression algorithm known as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), as an alternative to neural net-works, to approximate the relationship between the inputs and dependent response, and to mathe-matically interpret the relationship between the various parameters. In this paper, the Back propagation neural network (BPNN) and MARS models are developed for assessing pile drivability in relation to the prediction of the Maximum compressive stresses (MCS), Maximum tensile stresses (MTS), and Blow per foot (BPF). A database of more than four thousand piles is utilized for model development and comparative performance between BPNN and MARS predictions.

  6. Erective Sea Embankment with PCC Piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Han-long; FEI Kang; DENG An; ZHANG Ting

    2005-01-01

    The sea embankment is a critical civil works in marine and coastal engineering. In this study, an innovative technique is proposed for constructing erective sea embankments. In the construction of sea embankments, this technique integrates PCC pile installation, PVDs drainage systems, and geotextile reinforcements, resulting in sea embankments with PCC piles. In the application of a sea embankment with PCC piles, PCC piles are employed as the retaining structures;the soft sea ground inside PCC piles is drained and improved by PVDs and vacuum-surcharge combined preloading; geotextile-reinforced backfills lying over the improved soft ground form the embankment body. Brief descrptions of the fundamentals, design and construction of the sea embankment with PCC piles are presented. A case study on the stability of sea embankment with PCC piles is presented as well.

  7. Modeling of Batter Pile Behavior under Lateral Soil Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Hsu, H. Q.

    2017-06-01

    Pile foundation is frequently used when structures are located on weak sublayers or are at risk from lateral loadings such as earthquakes. The design of pile foundations has recently become crucial to stop slope movement. To understand the behavior of pile foundations subjected to lateral soil movement, the three-dimensional Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC3D) program was used to perform numerical simulations, which can reduce the cost of field testing. Vertical piles and batter piles were combined into 3 × 3 pile groups, and the response of batter piles to soil movement was analyzed. The outer batter piles led to an increased bending moment in the middle, vertical pile row. Increasing the pile spacing and the presence of battered piles reduced the pile group’s displacement. The batter pile group’s maximum bending moment was smaller than the vertical pile group’s in sand soil, but 5-8 times higher in clay soil.

  8. The reclamation plan for uranium mine facilities in Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, JNC. Mainly concerning waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Sato, Kazuhiko; Tokizawa, Takayuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Ningyo Toge Environmental Engineering Center, Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The JNC conducted R and D projects on uranium exploration in Japan from 1956 to 1987. Several mine facilities, such as waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond, were retained around Ningyo-Toge after the projects ended. Thus, JNC's Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center proposed a reclamation plan for these facilities with fundamental policy, an example of safety analysis and timetables. Although the plan is primarily based on the Japanese Mine Safety Law, it also refers to ICRP recommendations, IAEA reports, measures implemented overseas, etc. because this is the first such case in Japan. This plan was evaluated and validated from the technological viewpoint by the Technological Advisory Board on the Reclamation of the Ningyo-Toge uranium mining and milling facilities, in the 4th Meeting on April 11, 2002. The Board was established on January 29, 2001 and composes 10 experts regarding nuclear energy, radiology, mining, civil engineering, etc.; its chairperson is Dr. M. Nakano, a professor emeritus of Univ. of Tokyo. This report illustrates the reclamation plan mainly concerning waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond. (author)

  9. Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site, as a host for a rock mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-02-01

    This document discusses the potential of the Climax pluton, at the Nevada Test Site, as the host for a granite mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Climax granitic pluton has been the site of three nuclear weapons effects tests: Hard Hat, Tiny Tot, and Piledriver. Geologic exploration and mapping of the granite body were performed at the occasion of these tests. Currently, it is the site Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) conducted in the vicinity of and at the same depth as that of the Piledriver drifts. Significant exploration, mapping, and rock mechanics work have been performed and continue at this Piledriver level - the 1400 (ft) level - in the context of SFT-C. Based on our technical discussions, and on the review of the significant geological and rock mechanics work already achieved in the Climax pluton, based also on the ongoing work and the existing access and support, it is concluded that the Climax site offers great opportunities for a rock mechanics test facility. It is not claimed, however, that Climax is the only possible site or the best possible site, since no case has been made for another granite test facility in the United States. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Optimization Mathematical Model of Pile Forces for Offshore Piled Breasting Dolphins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周锡礽; 王东芹; 王晖; 朱福明

    2004-01-01

    An optimization mathematical model of the pile forces for piled breasting dolphins in the open sea under various loading conditions is presented. The optimum layout with the well distributed pile forces and the least number of piles is achieved by the multiplier penalty function method. Several engineering cases have been calculated and compared with the result of the conventional design method. It is shown that the number of piles can be reduced at least by 10% ~ 20%and the piles' bearing state is improved greatly.

  11. Modeling of Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes for Bentonite in a Clay-rock Repository for Heat-generating Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Rutqvist, J.; Zheng, L.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) that include a bentonite-based buffer are designed to isolate the high-level radioactive waste emplaced in tunnels in deep geological formations. The heat emanated from the waste can drive the moisture flow transport and induce strongly coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes within the bentonite buffer and may also impact the evolution of the excavation disturbed zone and the sealing between the buffer and walls of an emplacement tunnel The flow and contaminant transport potential along the disturbed zone can be minimized by backfilling the tunnels with bentonite, if it provides enough swelling stress when hydrated by the host rock. The swelling capability of clay minerals within the bentonite is important for sealing gaps between bentonite block, and between the EBS and the surrounding host rock. However, a high temperature could result in chemical alteration of bentonite-based buffer and backfill materials through illitization, which may compromise the function of these EBS components by reducing their plasticity and capability to swell under wetting. Therefore, an adequate THMC coupling scheme is required to understand and to predict the changes of bentonite for identifying whether EBS bentonite can sustain higher temperatures. More comprehensive links between chemistry and mechanics, taking advantage of the framework provided by a dual-structure model, named Barcelona Expansive Model (BExM), was implemented in TOUGHREACT-FLAC3D and is used to simulate the response of EBS bentonite in in clay formation for a generic case. The current work is to evaluate the chemical changes in EBS bentonite and the effects on the bentonite swelling stress under high temperature. This work sheds light on the interaction between THMC processes, evaluates the potential deterioration of EBS bentonite and supports the decision making in the design of a nuclear waste repository in light of the maximum allowance

  12. Some aspects of release and transport of gases in deep granitic rocks: possible implications for nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neretnieks, Ivars

    2013-12-01

    Radon, radium and helium data from three sites in granitic rock in Sweden (Forsmark and Laxemar) and Finland (Olkiluoto) from depths greater than 1,000 m were interpreted by a model that describes how daughter nuclides, including helium from uranium and thorium decay, escape from minerals, enter the pore water in the rock matrix and diffuse to the seeping water in the fractures in the rock. The radium concentrations are on the order of <30 Bq/l of water that has recently infiltrated and then emerged from the rock. Radon concentrations are mostly several orders of magnitude larger. The model predicts values in the same range. The fair agreement between model results, field data and laboratory data over a scale spanning micrometres over meters to kilometres, and time scales of days to millions of years, shows that the micropores of the rock matrix are connected even at depths down to and beyond a kilometre. Molecular diffusion in the matrix pore water is a key migration mechanism. Laboratory-derived sorption coefficients for radium are of the same magnitude as those needed in the modelling of the in situ data to give good agreement.

  13. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberid, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Campos, R.; Cuevas, A. M.; Fernandez, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  14. Radiation damage measurements on rock salt and other minerals for waste disposal applications. Quarterly report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swyler, K J; Loman, J M; Teutonico, L J; Elgort, G E; Levy, P W

    1980-04-10

    Different aspects of radiation damage in both synthetic NaCl crystals and various natural rock salt samples as well as granite, basalt and other minerals which will be important for radioactive waste disposal applications are being investigated. The principal means of measuring radiation damage is the determination of F-center concentrations, and the concentration and size of sodium metal colloid particles. Formation of these and other defects during irradiation and the annealing of defects and characterization of other processes occurring after irradiation are being studied as a function of dose rate, total dose, sample temperature during irradiation, strain applied prior to and during irradiation, etc. Measurements are being made on synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt samples from different geological locations, including some potential repository sites. It will be necessary to determine if radiation damage in the minerals from different localities is similar. If non-negligible differences are observed a detailed study must be made for each locality under consideration. Almost all current studies are being made on rock salt but other minerals particularly granite and basalt are being phased into the program. It is now established that radiation damage formation in both natural and synthetic rock salt is strongly dependent on strain. The strain related effects strongly indicate that the damage formation processes and in particular the colloid nucleation processes are related to the strain induced disolcations. A temporary theoretical effort has been started to determine which dislocation related effects are important for radiation damage processes and, most importantly, what dislocation interactions are most likely to create nucleation sites for colloid particles. If these preliminary studies indicate that additional theoretical studies will be useful an effort will be made to have them extended.

  15. Experimental Investigations on the Efficiency Coefficient of Pile Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Darsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influence on behavior of piles group such as type of soil, number of piles in the group and the distance between piles. In this paper, using a small laboratory model, the influence of these factors on the behavior of piles group has been examined.For this purpose a group of piles in different distances and variable number of piles was allocated in sand under anpressure axial load. The piles are preferably metal; thus to reduce weight a hollow type has been selected.In order to calculate the coefficient of piles group efficiency, a single pile has been experimented. Experimental observations show that the number of piles in the group and the distances between piles in sand have considerable effect on bearing capacity and the coefficient of pile group efficiency and the coefficient of efficiency in this type of soil have constantly been more than 1 and limited to 1 by increasing the distance between piles.

  16. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  17. Static Tension Tests on Axially Loaded Pile Segments in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This paper provides laboratory test results of static axially loaded piles in sand. With a newly developed test setup, the pile-soil interface friction was investigated by using an open-ended steel pile segment with a diameter of 0.5 m. Use of a pile length of 1 m enabled the pile-soil interface...

  18. Experiments of Multi-element Composite Foundation with Steel Pipe Pile and Gravel Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-zhi; ZHENG Jun-jie

    2008-01-01

    A set of self-developed apparatus for foundation physical model were utilized to conduct model tests of the multi-element composite foundation with a steel pipe pile and several gravel piles. Some load-bearing characteristics of the multi-element composite foundation, including the curves of foundation settlement, stresses of piles, pile-soil stress ratio, and load-sharing ratio of piles and soil, were obtained to study its working performances in silty sand soil. The experimental results revealed that the multi-element composite foundation with steel pipe pile and gravel pile contributed more than the gravel pile composite foundation in improving the bearing capacity of the silty fine sand.

  19. Effect of channelling on water balance, oxygen diffusion and oxidation rate in mine waste rock with an inclined multilayer soil cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing; Yanful, Ernest K.

    2010-05-01

    Engineered soil covers provide an option to mitigate acid rock drainage through reduced water flow and gaseous oxygen influx to underlying mine waste. Channels such as fissures, cracks or fractures developed in the barrier may influence the long-term performance of the soil cover. However, limited published information is available on the extent to which soil cover performance is impacted by these fissures and cracks. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of channelling in a barrier layer on water flow and oxygen transport in a soil cover. Two inclined (a slope of 20%) multilayer soil covers were examined under laboratory conditions. One cover had a 10-cm wide sand-filled channel in a compacted barrier layer (silty clay) at the upslope section, while the other cover was a normal one without the channel pathway. The soil covers were installed in plastic boxes measuring 120 cm × 120 cm × 25 cm (width × height × thickness). The sand-filled channel was designed to represent the aggregate of fissures and cracks that may be present in the compacted barrier. The soil covers were subjected to controlled drying and wetting periods selected to simulate field situation at the Whistle mine site near Capreol, Ontario, Canada. The measured results indicated that interflow decreased from 72.8% of the total precipitation in the soil cover without channel flow to 35.3% in the cover with channel flow, and percolation increased from zero in the normal soil cover to 43.0% of the total precipitation in the cover with channel flow. Gaseous oxygen transfer into the waste rock below the cover soils was 1091 times greater in the cover with channel than in the soil cover without channel. The channel pathway present in the barrier layer acted as a major passage for water movement and gaseous oxygen diffusion into the waste rock layer, thus decreasing the performance of the soil cover. The spacing of the channel with respect to the length of the test box is similar to those

  20. Prevention of ARD through stabilization of waste rock with alkaline by-products : results from a meso-scale experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, M.; Allard, B. [Orebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology Environment Research Centre; Sartz, L.; Karlsson, S. [Orebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology Environment Research Centre; Bergskraft Bergslagen, Kopparberg (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Mine waste can be mixed with alkaline materials to neutralize and increase the immobilization of trace elements. An impermeable layer can also be created if the alkaline additions react with the waste to form hardpans. Alkaline injection processes have been used in the western United States, where approximately 2 to 3.5 million tonnes of mine tailings have been limed with calcite, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}), and calcium oxide (CaO). In this study, stabilization experiments were conducted to simulate conditions where weathered mine waste was mixed with various alkaline materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal conditions for preventing the oxidation of mine waste isolating surfaces. The alkaline materials included fly ash, lime mud, green liquor dregs, and lime kiln dust. The mine waste and alkaline materials were layered in barrels. Expanded clay aggregates were used to minimize the risk of clogging. Results of the experiments showed that the pH in the alkaline-treated systems increased between 1.3 and 27 pH units when compared with untreated reference samples. The increased pH resulted in a decrease in trace element concentrations of approximately 96 percent. The samples containing fly ash performed better than other systems. 4 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  1. Global and local scour at pile groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: rigid-bed tests and actual scour tests. In these, the mean and turbulence properties of the flow were measured...... across the pile groups. The pile-group configurations were such that the global scour was distinguished from the local scour. The results show that the global scour can be quite substantial....

  2. Global and local scour at pile groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: (1) Rigid-bed tests, and (2) Actual scour tests. In the former tests, the mean and turbulence properties...... of the flow were measured across the pile groups. The pile group configurations were such that the global scour was distinguished from the local scour. The results show that the global scour can be quite substantial....

  3. Pile Spacing Optimization of Short Piled Raft Foundation System for Obtaining Minimum Settlement on Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suro, S. M.; Bakar, I.; Sulaeman, A.

    2016-07-01

    Short Piled Raft is a modified piled raft foundation system, which represents combination between raft foundation and pile foundation, but the length of pile is relatively shorter. The basic concept of the Short Piled Raft foundation system considers the passive soil pressure creating a stiff condition of slab-pile system. This means that the thin concrete slab floats on the supporting soil, while the piles serve as stiffeners concrete slab and also to reduce settlement of the foundation. Slab to pile ratio of such system has been mentioned by several researchers, however the optimum pile spacing of stability performance for obtaining minimum settlement on peat haven't been clearly discussed. In this study, finite element method to simulate the stability performance related to settlement of Short Piled Raft foundation system was used. Short Piled Raft foundation system with concrete slab of 7.0 m x 7.0 m square was assumed to be built on peat with the thickness of 3.5 m. The material properties of pile and raft were constant. The outer diameter of galvanized steel pipe as pile was 0.30 m; raft thickness was considered to be constant of 0.15 m and the length of pile was 3.0 m, while the pile spacing varied from 0.50 to 3.00 m. Point load varied from 0 to 100 kN with increment of 20 kN was also considered as a static load, acted on the centre of the concrete slab. Optimization was done by comparing each numerical result of simulations, thus conclusion can easily be drawn. The optimum pile spacing was 1.00 m which produced minimum settlement of 30.11 mm under the load of 100 kN.

  4. Influence of reaction piles on test pile response in a static load test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-qing ZHANG; Shu-cai LI; Zhong-miao ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new analytical method to analyze the influence of reaction piles on the test pile response in a static load test.In our method,the interactive effect between soil and pile is simulated using independent springs and the shear displacement method is adopted to analyze the influence of reaction piles on test pile response.Moreover,the influence of the sheltering effect between reaction piles and test pile on the test pile response is taken into account.Two cases are analyzed to verify the rationality and efficiency of the present method.This method can be easily extended to a nonlinear response of an influenced test pile embedded in a multilayered soil,and the validity is also demonstrated using centrifuge model tests and a computer program presented in the literature.The present analyses indicate that the proposed method will lead to an underestimation of the test pile settlement in a static load test if the influence of the presence of reaction piles on the test pile response is neglected.

  5. Uranium recovery from acid rock drainage: an alternative strategy for the decommissioning of the uranium mining and milling facilities of Pocos de Caldas, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, H.M.; Franklin, M.R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Acid Rock Drainage is of great concern to environmental regulators and mine operators in many countries around the world. During the operational life of an installation, the collect and treat strategy is a commonly employed strategy to reduce pollutant emissions to the environment. Regarding the post-operational scenarios a suite of different strategies is available in the literature. Acid drainage is a crucial problem at the uranium mining and milling site of Pocos de Caldas. Two waste-rock piles (of about 60 ha each) resulted from mining activities. Presently acid waters are being collected and neutralized, the solid material being disposed in the tailings dam. The Institute of Radiation Protection Dosimetry, has developed studies that concluded that a permanent solution to the problem should favor covering the dumps with a three layered cover system. However if the uranium average concentration in the drainage (about 10 mg/L) is taken into consideration, its economical recovery may be thought about. This strategy will imply in the recovery of 30 tons U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year - representing c.a. 30% of the mean annual production of the installation. The recovery would include the use of ion-exchange resins. The technical and economical viability of the strategy as well as technical and economical issues concerning the application of a dry cover to the waste rock piles will be presented and discussed in detail. (author)

  6. Characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rocks waste by magnetic separation; Caracterizacao da granalha de aco recuperada do residuo de rochas ornamentais por separacao magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junca, E.; Telles, V.B.; Rodrigues, G.F.; Oliveira, J.R. de; Tenorio, J.A.S., E-mail: eduardojunca@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work is characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rock waste by magnetic separation. The magnetic separation was realized in three steps: first, using a high intensity wet magnetic separator, which used only the remaining magnetic field of equipment. In the second step, the magnetic material obtained in the first phase was subjected to a new manual magnetic separation using rare earth magnets. In a third step, magnetic material obtained with rare earth magnets was subjected to manual magnetic separation using ferrite magnets. After the magnetic separation, the material was sent to characterization which was obtained by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and size analysis. The size analysis showed that the concentrate range from 0,5 to 563,67 {mu}m with 4 wt.% over 100 {mu}m and content metallic iron of 93 wt%. (author)

  7. Studying microfungi-mineral interactions in sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps: a 7 years survey in the Libiola mine, North-Eastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescotti, P.; Cecchi, G.; Di Piazza, S.; Lucchetti, G.; Zotti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps represent complex geological systems characterised by high percentages of low-grade mineralisations and non-valuable sulphides (such as pyrite and pyrrhotite). The sulphide oxidation triggers acid mine drainage (AMD) processes and the release of several metals of environmental concern. The severe physicochemical properties of these metal-contaminated environments tend to inhibit soil forming processes and represent an important stress factor for the biotic communities by exerting a strong selective pressure. Some macro- and micro-fungi are pioneer and extremophile organisms, which may survive and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metals in contaminated environments. Many studies show the fungal capability to bioaccumulate, biosorb, and store in their cells a high concentration of ecotoxic metals. A 7 years multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Libiola sulphide mine. The results evidenced that the waste rock dumps of the area are characterized by an extremely poor flora and a specific mycobiota, due to the soil acidity, high concentration of trace metals, and unavailability or paucity of nutrients and organic matter. Our studies allowed the complete mineralogical, geochemical, and mycological characterization of one of the biggest dumps of the mine. 30 microfungal vital strains were isolated in pure cultures and studied with molecular and morphological approach, for their identification. The results allowed the isolation of some rare and important extremophilic species. Penicillium was the most recurrent genus, together with Trichoderma and Cladosporium. In particular, Penicillium glandicola is a rare species previously isolated from cave or arid environments, whereas P. brevicompactum is one of the most important fungi for metal corrosion. Hence, some bioaccumulation tests allowed to select a Trichoderma harzianum strain efficient to uptake Cu and Ag from pyrite-bearing soils, highlighting its central role in fungal

  8. Waste Rock Discrimination Based on Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis%一种基于核典型相关分析的煤炭矸石鉴别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟永前; 王浩; 赵力

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种利用核典型相关分析(KCCA)来抽取煤炭矸石的非线性鉴别特征,并用其进行煤炭矸石自动识别的方法.实验表明,对小样本煤炭矸石图像,提出的方法可以得到较好的识别性能,再结合机械自动化技术即可以达到煤矸自动分选的目的.%This paper presents a method based on the KCCA(Kernal Canonical Correlation Analysis) to extract the nonlinear characteristics of the waste rock,and apply it to recognise the waste rock automatically. The experiments show that this method can get good recognition performance with small sample waste rock images. When combined with mechanical automation technology, this method can achieve the purpose of the waste rock sorting.

  9. Cumulative Damage in Strength-Dominated Collisions of Rocky Asteroids: Rubble Piles and Brick Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory impact experiments were performed to investigate the conditions that produce large-scale damage in rock targets. Aluminum cylinders (6.3 mm diameter) impacted basalt cylinders (69 mm diameter) at speeds ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 km/s. Diagnostics included measurements of the largest fragment mass, velocities of the largest remnant and large fragments ejected from the periphery of the target, and X-ray computed tomography imaging to inspect some of the impacted targets for internal damage. Significant damage to the target occurred when the kinetic energy per unit target mass exceeded roughly 1/4 of the energy required for catastrophic shattering (where the target is reduced to one-half its original mass). Scaling laws based on a rate-dependent strength were developed that provide a basis for extrapolating the results to larger strength-dominated collisions. The threshold specific energy for widespread damage was found to scale with event size in the same manner as that for catastrophic shattering. Therefore, the factor of four difference between the two thresholds observed in the lab also applies to larger collisions. The scaling laws showed that for a sequence of collisions that are similar in that they produce the same ratio of largest fragment mass to original target mass, the fragment velocities decrease with increasing event size. As a result, rocky asteroids a couple hundred meters in diameter should retain their large ejecta fragments in a jumbled rubble-pile state. For somewhat larger bodies, the ejection velocities are sufficiently low that large fragments are essentially retained in place, possibly forming ordered "brick-pile" structures.

  10. Effect of pile-cap connection on behavior of torsionally loaded pile groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-gang KONG; Li-min ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the respouses of fixed and pinned pile groups under torsiun, a method is presented to analyze the nonlinear behavior of free-standing pile groups with rigid pile caps. The method is capable of simulating the nonlinear soil response in the near field usingp-y and τ-θ curves, the far-field interactions through Mindlin's and Randolph's elastic solutions, and the coupling effect of lateral resistance on torsional resistance of the individual piles using an empirical factor. Based on comparisons of the solutions for fixedand pinned-head, 1×2, 2×2, and 3×3 pile groups subjected to torsion, it was found that pile-cap connection significantly influences the torsional capacity of pile groups and the assignment of applied torques in the pile groups. In this study, the applied torques for the pinned-head pile groups are only 44%~64% of those for the corresponding fixed-head pile groups at a twist angle of 2°. Such a difference is mainly due to the change of the lateral resistances of individual piles in the groups.

  11. Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The lengths of the bored piles varied from 2 m to 6 m and all were of a diameter of 140 mm. The piles were tested to failure in tension and the load-displacement relations were recorded. The investigation has shown pronounced differences between the load bearing capacities obtained by different...

  12. Steel Sheet Pile Walls in Soft Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    For almost a century, steel sheet pile walls are applied worldwide as earth retaining structures for excavations and quay walls. Within the framework of the development of European structural codes for Civil Engineering works, the Eurocodes, Eurocode 3 Part 5 for design of steel sheet pile walls was

  13. Analysis of pile load-transfer under pile-side softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 张可能

    2003-01-01

    A set of analytical equations for the variation of the axial force along depth and the pile-top load-settle-ment curve were established, using tri-linear softening model to pile-side soil and bilinear hardening model to pile-end soil . Influences of the pile-side and pile-end soil behavior on the load-settlement curve were discussed, indica-ting that the lowering reason for the variation step degree of the axial force along depth is the softening of the pile-side soil to result in the side friction lowering when the pile-top load is increased. To verify the reliability of thismethod, the parameters used in calculation are obtained from the test in Zhuzhou area. The obtained results are thencompared with the tested results. Contrast shows that the calculated results and the tested values are very close,which illustrates that the proposed method is reliable.

  14. Actinide Sorption in a Brine/Dolomite Rock System: Evaluating the Degree of Conservatism in Kd Ranges used in Performance Assessment Modeling for the WIPP Nuclear Waste Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Reed, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM is the only operating nuclear waste repository in the US and has been accepting transuranic (TRU) waste since 1999. The WIPP is located in a salt deposit approximately 650 m below the surface and performance assessment (PA) modeling for a 10,000 year period is required to recertify the operating license with the US EPA every five years. The main pathway of concern for environmental release of radioactivity is a human intrusion caused by drilling into a pressurized brine reservoir below the repository. This could result in the flooding of the repository and subsequent transport in the high transmissivity layer (dolomite-rich Culebra formation) above the waste disposal rooms. We evaluate the degree of conservatism in the estimated sorption partition coefficients (Kds) ranges used in the PA based on an approach developed with granite rock and actinides (Dittrich and Reimus, 2015; Dittrich et al., 2015). Sorption onto the waste storage material (Fe drums) may also play a role in mobile actinide concentrations. We will present (1) a conceptual overview of how Kds are used in the PA model, (2) technical background of the evolution of the ranges and (3) results from batch and column experiments and model predictions for Kds with WIPP dolomite and clays, brine with various actinides, and ligands (e.g., acetate, citrate, EDTA) that could promote transport. The current Kd ranges used in performance models are based on oxidation state and are 5-400, 0.5-10,000, 0.03-200, and 0.03-20 mL g-1 for elements with oxidation states of III, IV, V, and VI, respectively. Based on redox conditions predicted in the brines, possible actinide species include Pu(III), Pu(IV), U(IV), U(VI), Np(IV), Np(V), Am(III), and Th(IV). We will also discuss the challenges of upscaling from lab experiments to field scale predictions, the role of colloids, and the effect of engineered barrier materials (e.g., MgO) on transport conditions. Dittrich

  15. Model Tests of Pile Defect Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The pile, as an important foundation style, is being used in engineering practice. Defects of different types and damages of different degrees easily occur during the process of pile construction. So,dietecting defects of the pile is very important. As so far, there are some difficult problems in pile defect detection. Based on stress wave theory, some of these typical difficult problems were studied through model tests. The analyses of the test results are carried out and some significant results of the low-strain method are obtained, when a pile has a gradually-decreasing crosssection part, the amplitude of the reflective signal originating from the defect is dependent on the decreasing value of the rate of crosssection β. No apparent signal reflected from the necking appeares on the velocity response curve when the value of β is less than about 3.5 %.

  16. Deformation Measurement of a Driven Pile Using Distributed Fibre-optic Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsberger, Christoph; Woschitz, Helmut; Hayden, Martin

    2016-03-01

    New developments in distributed fibre-optic sensing allow the measurement of strain with a very high precision of about 1 µm / m and a spatial resolution of 10 millimetres or even better. Thus, novel applications in several scientific fields may be realised, e. g. in structural monitoring or soil and rock mechanics. Especially due to the embedding capability of fibre-optic sensors, fibre-optic systems provide a valuable extension to classical geodetic measurement methods, which are limited to the surface in most cases. In this paper, we report about the application of an optical backscatter reflectometer for deformation measurements along a driven pile. In general, pile systems are used in civil engineering as an efficient and economic foundation of buildings and other structures. Especially the length of the piles is crucial for the final loading capacity. For optimization purposes, the interaction between the driven pile and the subsurface material is investigated using pile testing methods. In a field trial, we used a distributed fibre-optic sensing system for measuring the strain below the surface of an excavation pit in order to derive completely new information. Prior to the field trial, the fibre-optic sensor was investigated in the laboratory. In addition to the results of these lab studies, we briefly describe the critical process of field installation and show the most significant results from the field trial, where the pile was artificially loaded up to 800 kN. As far as we know, this is the first time that the strain is monitored along a driven pile with such a high spatial resolution.

  17. Partitioning and speciation of Pu in the sedimentary rocks aquifer from the deep liquid nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmykov, Stepan N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry; Vlasova, Irina E.; Romanchuk, Anna Yu.; Presnyakov, Igor A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Zakharova, Elena V.; Volkova, Anna G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry

    2015-06-01

    Plutonium partitioning and speciation was studied under the conditions of a liquid nuclear waste repository site. The dominating effect of corrosion products (Fe and Cr) oxides on plutonium partitioning was established in batch sorption tests at 150 C and by using sequential extraction. Various techniques including Moessbauer spectrometry, XRD and TEM were used to characterize Fe/Cr oxide phases that form both precipitates and surface coatings which sorb plutonium. The sorption and speciation of plutonium was modeled thermodynamically using Pourbaix diagram that takes into account both surface complexation reaction and precipitation of insoluble PuO{sub 2}.

  18. Vertical vibration of a large diameter pipe pile considering transverse inertia effect of pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑长杰; 刘汉龙; 丁选明; 周航

    2016-01-01

    Considering the transverse inertia effect of pile, the vertical dynamic response of a large diameter pipe pile in viscoelastic soil layer is studied. The wave propagations in the outer and inner soil are simulated by three-dimensional elastodynamic theory and those in the pile are simulated by Rayleigh-Love rod theory. The vertical and radial displacements of the outer and inner soil are obtained by utilizing Laplace transform technique and differentiation on the governing equations of soils. Then, based on the continuous conditions between the pile and soils, the displacements of the pile are derived. The frequency domain velocity admittance and time domain velocity response of the pile top are also presented. The solution is compared to a classical rod model solution to verify the validity. The influences of the radii and Poisson ratio of pile on the transverse inertia effect of pile are analyzed. The parametric study shows that Poisson ratio and outer radius of pile have significant influence on the transverse inertia effect of large diameter pipe piles, while the inner radius has little effect.

  19. 3D finite element analysis on pile-soil interaction of passive pile group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming-hua; LIU Dun-ping; ZHANG Ling; JIANG Chong

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between pile and soft soil of the passive pile group subjected to soil movement was analyzed with three-dimensional finite element model by using ANSYS software. The soil was assumed to be elastic-plastic complying with the Drucker-Prager yield criterion in the analysis. The large displacement of soil was considered and contact elements were used to evaluate the interaction between pile and soil. The influences of soil depth of layer and number of piles on the lateral pressure of the pile were investigated, and the lateral pressure distributions on the (2×1) pile group and on the (2×2) pile group were compared. The results show that the adjacent surcharge may result in significant lateral movement of the soft soil and cousiderable pressure on the pile. The pressure acting on the row near the surcharge is higher than that on the other row, due to the "barrier" and arching effects in pile groups. The passive load and its distribution should be taken into account in the design of the passive piles.

  20. Centrifuge model test on dynamic behavior of group-pile foundation With inclined piles and its numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng ZHANG; Katsunori OKAWA; Makoto KIMURA

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, dynamic behavior of a grouppile foundation with inclined piles in loose sand has been investigated with centrifuge model tests. The test results are also simulated with elastoplastic dynamic finite ele-ment method, in which, not only sectional force of piles, stress of ground, but also deformation of piles are calcu-lated using a three-dimensional elastoplastic dynamic finite element analysis (Code name: DGPILE-3D). The numerical analyses are conducted with a full system in which a superstructure, a pile foundation and surround-ing ground are considered together so that interaction between pile foundation and soils can be properly simu-lated because the nonlinearities of both the pile and the ground are described with suitable constitutive models. Different types of piles, vertical pile or inclined pile, are considered in order to verify the different characteristics of a group pile foundation with inclined piles. The validity of the calculation is verified by the model tests.

  1. Analysis of effect of different construction methods of piles on the end effect on skin friction of piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hongbo; CHEN Zhuchang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the comparative analysis of end effect on skin friction of displacement-pile (driven pile),the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is studied.The end effect on skin friction between driven pile and bored pile is different and the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is reduce of skin friction in the soil layer adjacent to the pile end.The degradation degree of skin friction is deduced with the increase of the distance from pile end.The concept of additional mud cake formed by the effect of cushion at the bottom of borehole during pouring concrete is introduced to explain the mechanism of end effect on skin friction of the bored pile.The test results of post-grouting piles indicate that the post-grouting technique is an effective way to improve the end effect on skin friction of bored pile.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of 30 potential granitic rock sites for a radioactive waste storage facility in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

    1978-02-15

    Results of preliminary study are presented which was performed under subtask 2.7 of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Program Plan for 1978. Subtask 2.7 examines the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in a granitic stock or pluton in southern Nevada near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is assumed for the purposes of this study that such a repository cannot be located at NTS. This assumption may or may not be correct. This preliminary report does not identify a particular site as being a suitable location for a repository. Nor does it absolutely eliminate a particular site from further consideration. It does, however, answer the basic question of probable suitability of some of the sites and present a systematic method for site evaluation. Since the findings of this initial study have been favorable, it will be followed by more exhaustive and detailed studies of the original 30 sites and perhaps others. In future studies some of the evaluation criteria used in the preliminary study may be modified or eliminated, and new criteria may be introduced.

  3. Characteristics of ornamental rocks waste: application of mechanochemical concepts; Caracterizacao de residuos de rochas ornamentais: aplicacao de conceitos mecanoquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J. dos; Galembeck, F., E-mail: jsquimica@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2016-07-01

    Processing of ornamental rocks produces up to 80% weight residues which become an environmental problem. In this work, we analyzed residual powders from cutting and crushing granite Cinza Corumba, to study the influence of mechanical processes in the properties of the residues. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, surface area determination and adsorption of methylene blue. The same elements and minerals are found in both powders but the powders formed during crushing contain lubricating oil residues, from the crusher. Particle shapes of the crushed powder (surface area 2.85 m2/g) are more irregular than cut powder (surface area 1.98 m2/g). Adsorption of methylene blue is lighter in the crushed powder than in the cutting powder. Thus, the powders analyzed have different surface properties. (author)

  4. Safety precautions in atomic pile control (1962); Securite dans le controle des piles atomiques (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    We have been led to study the problem of safety in atomic pile control as a result of our participation on the one hand in the planning of C.E.A. atomic piles, and on the other hand in the pile safety sub omission considering atomic pile safety of operational or planned C.E.A. piles. We have thus had to consider the wishes occurring in piles during their operation and also their behaviour in the dynamic state The present work deals mainly with the importance of intrinsic safety devices, with the influence of reactivity variations on the power fluctuations during accidental operation, and with the development of robust and reliable safety appliances. The starting p accident has been especially studied both for low-flux piles where a compromise is necessary between the response time of the safety appliances and the statistical fluctuations and for high lux piles where xenon poisoning has an effect on the lower limit of the velocity of reactivity liberation. The desirability has been stressed of automation as a safety factor in atomic pile control. The details required for an understanding of the diagrams of the apparatus are given. (author) [French] Nous avons aborde le probleme de la securite dans le controle des piles atomiques a la suite de notre participation d'une part aux avant rojets de piles atomiques du CE.A. et d'autre part a l'examen au sein de la sous ommission de surete des piles, de la securite des piles du CE.A. en fonctionnement ou en projet. Nous avons ete amenes a nous interesser alors aux risques encourus par les piles pendant leur fonctionnement et par la meme a leur comportement en regime dynamique. Ce travail traite principalement de l'importance des securites intrinseques, de l'influence des variations de reactivite sur les evolutions de puissance en regime d'accident et du developpement d'appareillages de securite robustes et de fonctionnement tres sur. L'accident de demarrage a ete particulierement

  5. Long-time safe filling of nonmining wastes in solid rock formations; Langzeitsicherer Versatz mit bergbaufremden Abfaellen im Festgestein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thein, J. [Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaet Bonn (Germany). Geologisches Inst.; Veerhoff, M. [Kemski und Partner Beratende Geologen, Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The practice of filling underground mines with nonmining residues for mining engineering reasons has a long tradition. In anticipation, in the early 1980s, of large arisings of desulphurisation residues as a result of the Ordinance on Large Firing Installations the hard coal industry committed itself to exploring ways of reutilising this material. In 1988 the North-Rhine Westphalian State Agency for Water and Waste (now named State Environmental Agency), acting on behalf of the State Government, commissioned a study on possibilities of disposing of dusts from the waste air purification stages of household waste and sewage sludge incineration plants in mines of the Ruhr district. These activities were taken up in awareness that technologies to this end were emerging in the Ruhr mining region, but also in adherence to the policy of foresighted planning. This paper gives an account of the basic ideas of safety assessment, process flows, barriers as well as the model calculations on transport that were performed as part of a research project commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research on the proof of barrier efficacy. Amongst the paper's focal issues are the insights into geochemical processes that were gained at the Geology Institute of Bonn University in the course of the above-named research project. [German] Versatz auch mit bergbaufremden Rueckstaenden ist aus bergmaennischen Gruenden schon von alters her im Untertagebergbau bekannt. Der aufgrund der Grossfeuerungsverordnung Anfang der 80er Jahre erwartete Anfall an Entschwefelungsrueckstaenden aus Kohlekraftwerken hat speziell den Steinkohlebergbau dazu veranlasst, sich um Wiederverwendungsmoeglichkeiten zu bemuehen. Im Bewusstsein der sich abzeichnenden technischen Moeglichkeiten im Ruhrbergbau sowie der Zielsetzung einer vorausschauenden Konzeptentwicklung fuer die Entsorgung von Abgasreinigungsstaeuben aus Hausmuell- und Klaerschlammverbrennungsanlagen hat das Landesamt fuer Wasser und

  6. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214... Installations § 77.214 Refuse piles; general. (a) Refuse piles constructed on or after July 1, 1971, shall be..., tipples, or other surface installations and such piles shall not be located over abandoned openings...

  7. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by...

  8. Numerical Analysis of Piles in Layered Soils: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Reddy C

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, numerical analysis of a pile-soil interaction problem is presented considering the parameters influencing the axial load-deformation behavior of the pile embedded in a layered soil medium. The analysis is demonstrated with parametric solutions of a pile with underlain model soil strata under the axial force. An attempt is made to ascertain the extent of influence of elastic properties of the pile, geometry of the pile, end conditions of the pile and the elastic properties of the underlain soil strata on the response of the piles under axial loads lying in a model soil layers in terms of the settlement of the pile and the internal deformation of the pile. The study revealed that the increase in modulus of elasticity of pile improves the settlement resistance of the pile, increase in the ratio of cross sectional dimensions causes decrease in the top deformations of the pile, the settlement of the pile reduced to a great extent when the cross section of the pile adopted is non circular instead of circular and increase in the elastic modulii of top and bottom layers of soil has decreased the settlement of the pile to a great extent, but elastic modulus of soil layers other than top and bottom has got negligible influence on the settlement of the pile.

  9. Reliability-Based Design and Quality Control of Bored Piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, D.

    2014-01-01

    Bored piles are a type of deep foundations which have been and are being widely used in construction engineering such as high-rise buildings, bridges, jetties, and so on. Although bored piles have remarkable advantages over driven piles, the quality of bored piles is frequently affected by many caus

  10. Reliability-Based Design and Quality Control of Bored Piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, D.

    2014-01-01

    Bored piles are a type of deep foundations which have been and are being widely used in construction engineering such as high-rise buildings, bridges, jetties, and so on. Although bored piles have remarkable advantages over driven piles, the quality of bored piles is frequently affected by many

  11. Efficient stock piling of 40mm shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Nanda

    1958-10-01

    Full Text Available A problem was posed as to discuss efficient stock-piling of 40mm shells. There is, in fact no data from which emergency requirements can be deduced. A figure has been quoted by Army authorities that E rounds per month are required during an emergency. The size of the emergency stock pile will depend upon the difference of the normal peace time production, and also on the time taken for the crash programme of emergency production to come into fulfillment. In addition the delivery time from factories to the stock piles is also kept in view.

  12. Ore Dilution Prediction of Ore Drawing below Backfilling of Waste Rock Layer and Particle Flow Numerical Analysis%回填废石层下放矿损贫预测及颗粒流数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘增辉; 高谦; 李欣; 李俊华

    2011-01-01

    When open-air is transferred to underground mining, the backfilling of waste rock layer has a certain impact on ore loss and dilution in the ore drawing process. There are three main factors of ore loss and dilution below backfilling of waste rock layer, backfilling thickness, and particle size of waste rock layer and its non-uniformal level Through reprocesslng the experimental data from different tests ,the paper summed up the mathematical model of ore loss and dilution rate below the backfilling of waste rock layer. Combining with transition from open-pit to underground mining in stope Ⅲ of Sijiaying iron mine,the non-uniformity and particle size of the backfilling of waste rock layer are designed. Through the orthogonal experimental method of particle flow numerical simulation,the relationship of such four factors as ore dilution ratio λ,backfilling thickness h, particle diameter d, particle non-uniformity K of waste rock layer with the ore loss rate is set up,which provides a reference for the rational design of backfilling layer in similar conditions.%露天转地下开采,回填废石层在放矿过程中对矿石的损失和贫化有一定的影响.回填废石层下放矿损贫的主要影响因素有回填层厚度、废石的粒径和非均匀度3个方面,对不同试验者的实验数据重新处理,总结出了回填废石层下放矿贫化率和损失率的数学模型,并结合司家营铁矿Ⅲ采场的露天转地下工程进行了回填废石粒径与非均匀度的设计.通过颗粒流数值正交试验方法,分别从绝对因素和相对因素回归建立了贫化率λ、回填层厚度h、回填层粒径d、回填层粒径非均匀度K4个因素和损失率之间的关系,为类似条件下的回填层合理设计提供参考.

  13. Research on method of pressure grouting piling of driven tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianqi PAN; Zupei ZHANG; Diancai PAN; Yong CHEN; Maosen TAN

    2006-01-01

    The pressure grouting pile of driven tube can improve the load bearing capacity of the single pile from the mechanism of pressure grouting pile of driven tube. On the basis of analyzing the mechanism, the authors designed the machines and tools of pressure grouting, determined the operating manufacture and technology parameter on the pressure grouting secondly. The result shows that the pressure grouting pile of driven tube not only changes the pile type but also reduce the length of the pile and its engineering cost, it enhances the load bearing capacity of single pile an the same time.

  14. Ground vibrations due to pile and sheet pile driving : prediction models of today

    OpenAIRE

    Deckner, Fanny; Viking, Kenneth; Hintze, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    As part of aconstruction work pile and sheet pile driving unavoidably generates vibrations.As of today construction works are often located in urban areas and along withsociety’s increasing concern of environmental impact the need for vibrationprediction prior to construction is of immediate interest. This study presents a review of the predictionmodels existing today. For prediction of ground vibrations from pile and sheetpile driving there are roughly three different types of models; empiri...

  15. Environmental Impact Research Program. Brush Piles. Section 5.3.1, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    cover is scarce (Burger 1973, Craven 1981, Mettler 1984). Honey mesquite ( Prosopis glandulosa) has been commonly used for brush pile construction in the...layers of stones and logs, and Shomon et al. (1966) described a structure consisting of large flat rocks, sheet iron , or roofing above a base layer

  16. Far Field Sorption Data Bases for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in an Undisturbed Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradburry, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    An Opalinus Clay formation in the Zuercher Weinland is under consideration by Nagra as a potential location for a high-level and long-Iived intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and the purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop sorption data bases appropriate for an undisturbed Opalinus Clay host rock which are required for such safety analysis calculations. In tight, low water content argillaceous rock formations such as Opalinus Clay, there is uncertainty concerning the in situ pH/P{sub CO{sub 2}}. In order to take this intrinsic uncertainty into account porewater chemistries were calculated for a reference case, pH = 7.24, and for two other pH values, 6.3 and 7.8. Sorption data bases are given for the three cases. The basis for the sorption data bases is 'in-house' sorption measurements for Cs(I), Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III), Sn(IV), Se(IV), Th(IV) and I(-I) carried out on Opalinus Clay samples from Mont Terri (Canton Jura) since at the time the experiments were performed no core samples from the Benken borehole (Zuercher Weinland) were available. The Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri and Benken are part of the same geological formation . Despite having directly measured data for the above key radionuclides, some of the required distribution ratios (Rd) used to generate the sorption data bases still came from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these selected literature Rd values were modified so as to apply to the Benken Opalinus Clay mineralogy and groundwater chemistries calculated at the three pH values given above. The resulting Rd values were then further modified using so-called Lab{yields}Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which were appropriate to the in situ bulk rock for the selected range of water chemistry conditions. Finally, it is important to have some

  17. The Effect of Soil-Pile Interface Behaviour on Laterally Loaded Piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In current practice it is either the p – y curve concept, or analytical solutions assuming different formulations for ultimate soil resistance that are being used to evaluate the lateral pile response. The adequacy of the p – y curves or of the assumed pressure distribution and ultimate soil...... resistance have been questioned. In this study the lateral capacity of three-dimensional numerical models of rigid piles embedded in cohesionless soil was estimated. The potential variability of the friction properties along the perimeter of the pile was considered. The interface properties affect...... the ultimate soil resistance and the stiffness of the soil–pile response....

  18. Introduction of effective piles in a base structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.Б. Кашка

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  Design features of effective piles such as СВ and their advantages in use are considered at the device of the pile bases in comparison with widely widespread types of piles. From results of comparative tests of piles under static pressing loading in different earth conditions the tendency of redistribution of bearing (carrying ability between a trunk and expansions an effective pile such as СВ was determined on earth conditions.

  19. ATLAS Pile-up and Overlay Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Tadej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The high luminosity of the LHC results in a significant background to interesting physics events known as pile-up. ATLAS uses several methods for simulating the effects of pile-up. The mostly used method is a direct simulation of background events where multiple simulated background events are combined for each physics event. For some physics processes, a more accurate simulation can be achieved by overlaying real proton-proton collisions on a simulated hard-scatter process. Overlay is also being investigated for a premixed pile-up background to reduce CPU usage and I/O stress during the simulation. Embedding replaces the muons found in Z→mumu decays in data with simulated taus at the same 4-momenta, thus preserving the underlying event and pileup from the original data event. This talk compares the pile-up simulation methods used at the ATLAS experiment pointing their benefits and drawbacks.

  20. Development of a Comprehensive Plan for Scientific Research, Exploration, and Design: Creation of an Undergroung Radioactive Waste Isloation Facility at the Nizhnekansky Rock Massif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J

    2005-06-15

    ISTC Partner Project No.2377, ''Development of a General Research and Survey Plan to Create an Underground RW Isolation Facility in Nizhnekansky Massif'', funded a group of key Russian experts in geologic disposal, primarily at Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Design and Research Institute of Engineering Production (VNIPIPT) and Mining Chemical Combine Krasnoyarsk-26 (MCC K-26) (Reference 1). The activities under the ISTC Partner Project were targeted to the creation of an underground research laboratory which was to justify the acceptability of the geologic conditions for ultimate isolation of high-level waste in Russia. In parallel to this project work was also under way with Minatom's financial support to characterize alternative sections of the Nizhnekansky granitoid rock massif near the MCC K-26 site to justify the possibility of creating an underground facility for long-term or ultimate isolation of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). (Reference 2) The result was a synergistic, integrated set of activities several years that advanced the geologic repository site characterization and development of a proposed underground research laboratory better than could have been expected with only the limited funds from ISTC Partner Project No.2377 funded by the U.S. DOE-RW. There were four objectives of this ISTC Partner Project 2377 geologic disposal work: (1) Generalize and analyze all research work done previously at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif by various organizations; (2) Prepare and issue a declaration of intent (DOI) for proceeding with an underground research laboratory in a granite massif near the MCC K-26 site. (The DOI is similar to a Record of Decision in U.S. terminology). (3) Proceeding from the data obtained as a result of scientific research and exploration and design activities, prepare a justification of investment (JOI) for an underground research laboratory in as much detail as the available

  1. Local Scour Around Piles Under Wave Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国平; 左其华; 黄海龙

    2004-01-01

    The model tests are performed with regular waves, and the effect of wave height, wave period, water depth, scdiment size and pile diameter is evaluated. The shape and size of local scour around piles are studied. There are three typical scour patterns due to wave action. It is found that a relationship exists between the erosion depth and the wave number. An empirical formula of the maximum local scour is thus derived.

  2. Nonlinear calculating method of pile settlement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺炜; 王桂尧; 王泓华

    2008-01-01

    To study calculating method of settlement on top of extra-long large-diameter pile, the relevant research results were summarized. The hyperbola model, a nonlinear load transfer function, was introduced to establish the basic differential equation with load transfer method. Assumed that the displacement of pile shaft was the high order power series of buried depth, through merging the same orthometric items and arranging the relevant coefficients, the solution which could take the nonlinear pile-soil interaction and stratum properties of soil into account was solved by power series. On the basis of the solution, by determining the load transfer depth with criterion of settlement on pile tip, the method by making boundary conditions compatible was advised to solve the load-settlement curve of pile. The relevant flow chart and mathematic expressions of boundary conditions were also listed. Lastly, the load transfer methods based on both two-broken-line model and hyperbola model were applied to analyzing a real project. The related coefficients of fitting curves by hyperbola were not less than 0.96, which shows that the hyperbola model is truthfulness, and is propitious to avoid personal error. The calculating value of load-settlement curve agrees well with the measured one, which indicates that it can be applied in engineering practice and making the theory that limits the design bearing capacity by settlement on pile top comes true.

  3. Using imaging spectroscopy to map acidic mine waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, G.A.; Smith, K.S.; Clark, R.N.; Sutley, S.J.; Pearson, R.M.; Vance, J.S.; Hageman, P.L.; Briggs, P.H.; Meier, A.L.; Singleton, M.J.; Roth, S.

    2000-01-01

    The process of pyrite oxidation at the surface of mine waste may produce acidic water that is gradually neutralized as it drains away from the waste, depositing different Fe-bearing secondary minerals in roughly concentric zones that emanate from mine-waste piles. These Fe-bearing minerals are indicators of the geochemical conditions under which they form. Airborne and orbital imaging spectrometers can be used to map these mineral zones because each of these Fe-bearing secondary minerals is spectrally unique. In this way, imaging spectroscopy can be used to rapidly screen entire mining districts for potential sources of surface acid drainage and to detect acid producing minerals in mine waste or unmined rock outcrops. Spectral data from the AVIRIS instrument were used to evaluate mine waste at the California Gulch Superfund Site near Leadville, CO. Laboratory leach tests of surface samples show that leachate pH is most acidic and metals most mobile in samples from the inner jarosite zone and that leachate pH is near-neutral and metals least mobile in samples from the outer goethite zone.

  4. Implementation of a rock-matrix diffusion model in the discrete fracture network code NAPSAC[Groundwater flow; Radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoch, A

    1998-05-01

    Groundwater flow in many low permeability rocks is believed to occur within discrete fractures. Radionuclides in solution can diffuse away from the fractures into immobile water in the rock matrix. This process (rock-matrix diffusion) is important in determining the performance of a repository situated in fractured rock because it retards the transport of radionuclides that might otherwise return more rapidly towards the biosphere. NAPSAC is a computer program used to model groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in fractured rock. This report describes the implementation of a rock-matrix diffusion model in NAPSAC. (author)

  5. Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ECONOMY,KATHLEEN M.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; VAUGHN,PALMER

    1999-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a

  6. Study on pile drivability with one dimensional wave propagation theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁朋; 王仕方; 陈云敏

    2003-01-01

    Pile drivability is a key problem during the stage of design and construction installation of pile foundations. The solution to the one dimensional wave equation was used to determine the impact force at the top of a concrete pile for a given ram mass, cushion stiffness, and pile impedance. The kinematic equation of pile toe was established and solved based on wave equation theory. The movements of the pile top and pile toe were presented, which clearly showed the dynamic displacement, including rebound and penetration of pile top and toe. A parametric study was made with a full range of practical values of ram weight, cushion stiffness, dropheight, and pile impedance. Suggestions for optimizing the parameters were also presented. Comparisons between the results obtained by the present solution and in-situ measurements indicated the reliability and validity of the method.

  7. The Effect of the Propeller Jet on Pile Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kubilay Cihan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of jet propeller on the damage of berthing structures combined of armoured slope with pile groups. For this purpose, scour measurements were performed for four types berthing structures, which were armoured slope with tandem arrangements of piles for two and three piles and with side by side arrangements of piles for two and three piles. The effect of gap between piles on damage was investigated. The damage level induced by propeller jet between piles was determined. The gaps were 1, 2, 3, and 4 times the pile diameter. Three different values of Rpm (690, 820, and 950) were chosen for the tests. The diameter of circular piles is 40 mm. The slope ratio was 1/3 and the diameter of propeller was 10 cm.

  8. Characterizing Axial Stiffness of Individual Batter Piles with Emphasis on Elevated, Laterally Loaded, Clustered Pile Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Ebeling1 investigated the minimum required depth of embedment for an example vertical pile bent system founded in a cohesionless sandy soil with two...vertical to 1 horizontal (4V:1H), angled toward shore . Prior to pile driving, the river bottom was dredged, or filled if needed, to elevation 650 ft

  9. Characterisation and modelling of mixing processes in groundwaters of a potential geological repository for nuclear wastes in crystalline rocks of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, Javier B., E-mail: jgomez@unizar.es; Gimeno, María J., E-mail: mjgimeno@unizar.es; Auqué, Luis F., E-mail: lauque@unizar.es; Acero, Patricia, E-mail: patriace@unizar.es

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the mixing modelling results for the hydrogeochemical characterisation of groundwaters in the Laxemar area (Sweden). This area is one of the two sites that have been investigated, under the financial patronage of the Swedish Nuclear Waste and Management Co. (SKB), as possible candidates for hosting the proposed repository for the long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel. The classical geochemical modelling, interpreted in the light of the palaeohydrogeological history of the system, has shown that the driving process in the geochemical evolution of this groundwater system is the mixing between four end-member waters: a deep and old saline water, a glacial meltwater, an old marine water, and a meteoric water. In this paper we put the focus on mixing and its effects on the final chemical composition of the groundwaters using a comprehensive methodology that combines principal component analysis with mass balance calculations. This methodology allows us to test several combinations of end member waters and several combinations of compositional variables in order to find optimal solutions in terms of mixing proportions. We have applied this methodology to a dataset of 287 groundwater samples from the Laxemar area collected and analysed by SKB. The best model found uses four conservative elements (Cl, Br, oxygen-18 and deuterium), and computes mixing proportions with respect to three end member waters (saline, glacial and meteoric). Once the first order effect of mixing has been taken into account, water–rock interaction can be used to explain the remaining variability. In this way, the chemistry of each water sample can be obtained by using the mixing proportions for the conservative elements, only affected by mixing, or combining the mixing proportions and the chemical reactions for the non-conservative elements in the system, establishing the basis for predictive calculations. - Highlights: • Laxemar (Sweden) groundwater is the combined result

  10. The effect of dust emissions from open storage piles to particle ambient concentration and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvatzaki, E; Aleksandropoulou, V; Glytsos, T; Lazaridis, M

    2012-12-01

    The current study focus on the determination of dust emissions from piles in open storage yards of a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting site and the subsequent atmospheric dust dispersion. The ISC3-ST (Industrial Source Complex Version 3 - Short Term) model was used for the evaluation of the PM(10) ambient concentrations associated with the dispersion of MSW compost dust emissions in air. Dust emission rates were calculated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency proposed dust resuspension formulation from open storage piles using local meteorological data. The dispersion modelling results on the spatial distribution of PM(10) source depletion showed that the maximum concentrations were observed at a distance 25-75 m downwind of the piles in the prevailing wind direction. Sensitivity calculations were performed also to reveal the effect of the compost pile height, the friction velocity and the receptor height on the ambient PM(10) concentration. It was observed that PM(10) concentrations (downwind in the prevailing wind direction) increased with increasing the friction velocity, increasing the pile height (for distances greater than 125 m from the source) and decreasing the receptor height (for distances greater than 125 m from the source). Furthermore, the results of ISC3-ST were analysed with the ExDoM (Exposure Dose Model) human exposure model. The ExDoM is a model for calculating the human exposure and the deposition dose, clearance, and finally retention of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract (RT). PM(10) concentration at the composting site was calculated as the sum of the concentration from compost pile dust resuspension and the background concentration. It was found that the exposure to PM(10) and deposited lung dose for an adult Caucasian male who is not working at the composting site is less by 20-74% and 29-84%, respectively, compared to those for a worker exposed to PM concentrations at the composting site.

  11. Test Procedure for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test procedure described in the following is used when examining the effects of static or cyclic loading on the skin friction of an axially loaded pile in dense sand. The pile specimen is only loaded in tension to avoid any contribution from the base resistance. The pile dimensions are chosen...... to resemble full scale dimension of piles used in offshore pile foundations today. In this report is given a detailed description of the soil preparation and pile installation procedures as well data acquisition methods....

  12. Wavelet analyses for stress wave detection of piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jingtao; (王靖涛)

    2003-01-01

    The theoretical foundation for application of wavelet analysis to pile integrity detection has been presented. The mechanism of spectral variations of reflected pulse from various defects in piles is explained by using the wave scattering theory. The theoretical analyses have been verified through the tests of model piles and a lot of engineering piles. A quantitative evaluation method for estimating damage degree of piles is proposed. The characteristic indexes describing spectrum variations of reflected signals and their critical values are given. They can be used not only to evaluate the damage degree but also to identify the kinds of pile defects.

  13. Applicability of recycled aggregates in concrete piles for soft soil improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Junior, Ronaldo A; Balestra, Carlos Et; Lima, Maryangela G

    2017-01-01

    The expressive generation of construction and demolition waste is stimulating several studies for reusing this material. The improvement of soft soils by concrete compaction piles has been widely applied for 40 years in some Brazilian cities. This technique is used to improve the bearing capacity of soft soils, allowing executing shallow foundations instead of deep foundations. The compaction piles use a high volume of material. This article explored the possibility of using recycled aggregates from construction waste to replace the natural aggregates in order to improve the bearing capacity of the soft soil, regarding its compressive strength. Construction wastes from different stages of a construction were used in order to make samples of concrete with recycled aggregates. The strength of concretes with natural aggregates was compared with the strength of concretes with recycled (fine and coarse) aggregates. Results show that all samples met the minimum compressive strength specified for compaction piles used to improve the bearing capacity of soft soils. The concrete with recycled aggregate from the structural stage had even higher resistances than the concrete with natural aggregates. This behaviour was attributed to the large amount of cementitious materials in the composition of this type of concrete. It was also observed that concrete with recycled fine aggregate has a superior resistance to concrete with recycled coarse aggregate.

  14. A preliminary assessment of mineralogical criteria on the utility of argillaceous rocks and minerals for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, O.C.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review available data concerning the properties reported for shales and clay-rich rocks and clay minerals to determine whether such information could be instrumental in selecting the more favorable assemblages of clays for high-level waste repository purposes. Literature searches were conducted for reports dealing with the properties of these argillaceous materials. The properties that were obtained from appropriate references were recorded in an Appleworks Database. The data are divided into five major goups: chemical properties, general physical properties, hydrologic properties, mechanical properties, and thermal properties. The Database includes such information as the type of material, formation name, geological age, location, depth, test conditions, results, and reference(s). In general, noticeable correlations were not apparent when mineralogical information was compared with various properties using plots of the data for each individual property. The best correlations were obtained for chemical and certain mechanical and hydrologic properties. Thermal properties appear to be least influenced by clay mineral composition. An important reason for the inability to correlate mineralogical compositions with most properties was the lack of uniformity of test methods, test conditions, and even the units used for reporting the final data. There was very limited information concerning the mineralogical compositions of most of the shales tested. The potential exists for identifying the more suitable formations (or specific horizons within formations) using mineralogical data; however, in order to make such selections, it will be necessary to collect future data using standardized test methods and conditions. The mineralogical compositions of the samples tested need to be determined quantitatively rather than qualitatively.

  15. Characterisation and modelling of mixing processes in groundwaters of a potential geological repository for nuclear wastes in crystalline rocks of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Javier B; Gimeno, María J; Auqué, Luis F; Acero, Patricia

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents the mixing modelling results for the hydrogeochemical characterisation of groundwaters in the Laxemar area (Sweden). This area is one of the two sites that have been investigated, under the financial patronage of the Swedish Nuclear Waste and Management Co. (SKB), as possible candidates for hosting the proposed repository for the long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel. The classical geochemical modelling, interpreted in the light of the palaeohydrogeological history of the system, has shown that the driving process in the geochemical evolution of this groundwater system is the mixing between four end-member waters: a deep and old saline water, a glacial meltwater, an old marine water, and a meteoric water. In this paper we put the focus on mixing and its effects on the final chemical composition of the groundwaters using a comprehensive methodology that combines principal component analysis with mass balance calculations. This methodology allows us to test several combinations of end member waters and several combinations of compositional variables in order to find optimal solutions in terms of mixing proportions. We have applied this methodology to a dataset of 287 groundwater samples from the Laxemar area collected and analysed by SKB. The best model found uses four conservative elements (Cl, Br, oxygen-18 and deuterium), and computes mixing proportions with respect to three end member waters (saline, glacial and meteoric). Once the first order effect of mixing has been taken into account, water-rock interaction can be used to explain the remaining variability. In this way, the chemistry of each water sample can be obtained by using the mixing proportions for the conservative elements, only affected by mixing, or combining the mixing proportions and the chemical reactions for the non-conservative elements in the system, establishing the basis for predictive calculations.

  16. Influence of pile inclination on the lateral capacity of batter piles in clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S.N.; Veeresh, C. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India)

    1994-12-31

    In many coastal and offshore areas, there are several soft clay deposits and in such soils pile foundations are used to support structures. The foundations of these structures are usually subjected to large amounts of lateral loads. In such cases, inclined piles or batter piles are better suited to resist lateral loads as a part of lateral load is converted into axial load. This paper refers to an experimental investigation carried out on model piles installed in soft clayey soils. Tests were conducted on model aluminum pile of diameter 12mm embedded in soft clay bed with batter angle (angle of inclination with vertical varying from {minus}30 to +30) and at each of these inclinations piles were tested for embedment ratios of 30, 40 and 50. The results indicate that the lateral capacity of pile is influenced by angle of inclination and the direction of the load application, and depth of embedment. A method is proposed to predict the load deflection behavior with different inclinations using the results of load tests conducted at a particular inclination.

  17. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil. On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through red, green and blue filters that have been combined into this approximately true-color image. This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench. Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches. For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench. The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed

  18. Transient response of piles-bridge under horizontal excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏

    2003-01-01

    Moving ships and other objects drifting on water often impact a bridge's pile foundations. The mechanical model of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing was established, and a time-domain approach based on Finite-difference Method was developed for analyzing the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. For a single pile, good agreement between two computed results validated the present approach. The slenderness ratio of the pile, the pile-soil stiffness ratio and the type of the structure influence the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. The computed results showed that the stiffness of the structure determines the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing.

  19. Transient response of piles-bridge under horizontal excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏

    2003-01-01

    Moving ships and other objects drifting on water often impact a bridge' s pile foundations. The mechanical model of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing was established, and a time-domain approach based on Finite-difference Method was developed for analyzing the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. For a single pile, good agreement between two computed results validated the present approach.The slenderness ratio of the pile, the pile-soil stiffness ratio and the type of the structure influence the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. The computed results showed that the stiffness of the structure determines the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing.

  20. Pile-up detector for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Baskov, V A; Kim, V; Polyansky, V V; Verdi, A; Verdi, A.

    1999-01-01

    99-014 In this article we propose to use a dedicated pile-up detector --- 180 degree Cherenkov calorimeter which measures energies of gamma-quanta being produced in ppinteractions by the Cherenkov radiation intensity --- to ensure the conditions which will allow LHCb to work with luminosity 4--5 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . The calorimeter consists of a multiplicator with the width corresponding to the maximum of particles in an electromagnetic shower, behind which a quartz plate is situated where shower particles produce Cherenkov radiation. The pile-up detector is situated at the 180 degree angle relative to the LHCb spectrometer.

  1. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 2. Characterization of low permeable and fractured sediments and rocks in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.; Laier, T.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In Denmark, many different kinds of fine-grained sediments and crystalline rocks occur from the ground surface down to 300 meters depth. Therefore, the possible geological situations include sediments and rocks of different composition and age. These situations are geographical distributed over large areas of Denmark. These sediments and rocks are shortly described based on existing information and include five different major types of sediments and rocks: 1: Crystalline granite and gneiss of Bornholm (because these rock types are host for waste disposals in many other countries). 2: Sandstone and shale from Bornholm (as these sediments are rela- tively homogeneous although they have fracture permeability). 3: Chalk and limestone (because these sediments may act as low permeable seals, but in most areas they act as groundwater reservoirs). 4: Fine-grained Tertiary clay deposits (as these sediments have a low permeability, are widely distributed and can reach large thicknesses). 5: Quaternary glacial, interglacial and Holocene clay deposits. These sediments are distributed all over Denmark. Following the descriptions of the geologic deposits, the areas below (including several possible locations for waste disposal sites) are selected for further investigation. The Precambrian basement rocks of Bornholm could be host rocks for the disposal. The rock types for further evaluation will be: Hammer Granite, Vang Granite, Roenne Granite, Bornholm gneiss, Paradisbakke Migmatite and Alminding Granite. In the Roskilde Fjord area around Risoe, a combination of Paleocene clays, meltwater clay and clayey till could be interesting. The area is partly included in the OSD area in North Sjaelland but

  2. Risk assessement and feasibility study of solid waste minimization, recycling, and disposal at Huta Sendzimira, Krakow, Poland. Volume 1. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The scope of work included an investigation of opportunities to reduce the amount of solid waste that must be disposed of by Huta Sendzimira and opportunities to use and/or recycle materials that have accumulated in the waste pile for several years. The study also included an evaluation of the existing waste pile as a possible area to be developed into a modern, sanitary landfill to serve both the steel mill and the citizens of the Krakow area. Volume I contains: (1) Site Assessment; (2) Risk Assessment; (3) Waste Characterization; (4) Waste Pile Utilization; (5) Waste Minimization; and (6) Sanitary Landfill.

  3. Thermal-Hydraulics and Electrochemistry of a Boiling Solution in a Porous Sludge Pile A Test Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.F. Voelker

    2001-05-03

    When boiling occurs in a pile of porous corrosion products (sludge), chemical species can concentrate. These species can react with the corrosion products and transform the sludge into a rock hard mass and/or create a corrosive environment. In-situ measurements are required to improve the understanding of this process, and the thermal-hydraulic and electrochemical environment in the pile. A test method is described that utilizes a water heated instrumented tube array in an autoclave to perform the in-situ measurements. As a proof of method feasibility, tests were performed in an alkaline phosphate solution. The test data is discussed. Temperature changes and electrochemical potential shifts were used to indicate when chemicals concentrate and if/when the pile hardens. Post-test examinations confirmed hardening occurred. Experiments were performed to reverse the hardening process. A one-dimensional model, utilizing capillary forces, was developed to understand the thermal-hydraulic measurements.

  4. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Coto, I., E-mail: israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada I. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Sevilla, C/Virgen de Africa 7, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Vargas, A. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Instituto de Técnicas Energéticas, Campus Sud Edificio ETSEIB, Planta 0, Pabellón C, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bolívar, J.P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Variability of radon exhalation rates from PG piles has been studied using numerical simulation supported by experimental data. • Most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential and moisture saturation. • Piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. • A proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. - Abstract: Nearly 1.0 × 10{sup 8} tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by {sup 226}Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1})

  5. Optimising the bio-piling of weathered hydrocarbons within a risk management framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, R.; Brassington, K.; Sinke, A.; Crossley, J.; Paton, G.; Semple, K.; Risdon, G.; Jacobson, Ch.; Daly, P.; Jackman, S.; Lethbridge, G.; Pollard, S. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Thirty years of research into petroleum microbiology and bio-remediation have bypassed an important observation - that many hydrocarbon contaminated sites posing potential risks to human health harbour weathered, 'mid-distillate' or heavy oils rather than 'fresh product'. Ex-situ bio-piling is an important technology for treating soils contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons. However, its performance continues to be represented by reference to reductions in the hydrocarbon 'load' in the soils being treated, rather than reductions in the risks posed by the hydrocarbon contamination. The absence of 'risk' from the vocabulary of many operators and remediation projects reduces stakeholder (regulatory, investor, landowner, and public) confidence in remediation technologies, and subsequently limits the market potential of these technologies. Stakeholder confidence in the bio-piling of weathered hydrocarbons may be improved by demonstrating process optimisation within a validated risk management framework. To address these issues, a consortium led by Cranfield University's Integrated Waste Management Centre has secured funding from the UK Government's Bio-remediation LINK programme. Project PROMISE (involving BP, SecondSite Regeneration Ltd., Dew Remediation Ltd., TES Bretby (Mowlem Group), technology translators PERA, and academics from Aberdeen, Cranfield and Lancaster Universities) aims to improve market confidence in bio-piling by demonstrating how this treatment may be applied within a risk management context. For weathered hydrocarbons in particular, the underpinning scientific components of process control, waste diagnostics, environmental fate modelling, and risk assessment have yet to be fully integrated to allow bio-piling projects to be verified with improved confidence. The Joint Research Council Review of Bio-remediation recognised this in calling explicitly for the positioning of bio-remediation within a

  6. 30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180 days following written notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person...

  7. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by...

  8. 30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; reporting requirements. 77.215-2... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-2 Refuse piles; reporting requirements. (a) The proposed location of a new refuse pile shall be reported to and acknowledged in writing by the District...

  9. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pile driving equipment. 1926.603 Section 1926.603 Labor... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall meet the applicable requirements of...

  11. 30 CFR 77.209 - Surge and storage piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surge and storage piles. 77.209 Section 77.209... Installations § 77.209 Surge and storage piles. No person shall be permitted to walk or stand immediately above a reclaiming area or in any other area at or near a surge or storage pile where the...

  12. Stress wave propagation in reinforced concrete piles during driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorn, N.F.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this report is to give an insight into what happens in a reinforced concrete pile during driving, and to contribute to design requirements for the loading case pile driving. Since the behaviour of stress waves in piles is influenced by a various number of parameters, the fewest of which r

  13. Stress wave propagation in reinforced concrete piles during driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorn, N.F.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this report is to give an insight into what happens in a reinforced concrete pile during driving, and to contribute to design requirements for the loading case pile driving. Since the behaviour of stress waves in piles is influenced by a various number of parameters, the fewest of which

  14. The Tensile Capacity Of Bored Piles In Frictional Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Andersen, Allan; Damkilde, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Three series of 10 piles each were installed in two different locations. The length of the piles varied from 2 to 6 m and the diameters were 14 and 25 cm. The piles were constructed above the groundwater table using continuous flight augers and the concrete was placed by gravity free fall. The pi...

  15. Design Optimization of Piles for Offshore Wind Turbine Jacket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara

    Numerical methods can optimize the pile design. The aim of this study is to automatically design optimal piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations (Figure 1). Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil...

  16. Design Optimization of Piles for Offshore Wind Turbine Jacket Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Numerical methods can optimize the pile design. The aim of this study is to automatically design optimal piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations (Figure 1). Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil characteristics can translate into significant cost reductions.

  17. Repository for high level radioactive wastes in Brazil: the importance of geochemical (Micro thermometric) studies and fluid migration in potential host rocks; Repositorios para rejeitos radioativos de alto nivel (RANR) no Brasil: a importancia de estudos geoquimicos (microtermometricos) e de migracao de fluidos em rochas potenciamente hospedeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Francisco Javier; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Alves, James Vieira; Neves, Jose Marques Correia [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Inclusoes Fluidas e Metalogenese]. E-mail: javier@cdtn.br

    2003-04-15

    A detailed fluid inclusion study of host rocks, is of fundamental importance in the selection of geologically suitable areas for high level nuclear waste repository constructions (HLRW). The LIFM-CDTN is enabled to develop studies that confirm: the presence or not, of corrosive fluid in minerals from host rocks of the repository and the possible presence of micro fractures (and fluid leakage) when these rocks are submitted to high temperatures. These fluid geochemistry studies, with permeability determinations by means of pressurized air injection must be carried out in rocks hosting nuclear waste. Micro fracture determination is of vital importance since many naturally corrosive solutions, present in the mineral rocks, could flow out through these plans affecting the walls of the repository. (author)

  18. On the Modelling of Pile Installation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis introduces two different types of physical model tests to investigate the stress and density change in the soil during installation of a jacked pile as well as two numerical modelling approaches to model the same process in a finite element code capable of large deformations.

  19. Full size testing of sheet pile walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.

    1996-01-01

    Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check

  20. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a small-scal

  1. Underwater noise generated by offshore pile driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsouvalas, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise emission in the marine environment has always been an environmental issue of serious concern. In particular, the noise generated during the installation of foundation piles is considered to be one of the most significant sources of underwater noise pollution. This is mainly attri

  2. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests: Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  3. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests: Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  4. Collecting Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铮

    2007-01-01

    My hobby is collecting rocks.It is very special,isn’t it?I began to collect rocks about four years ago.I usually go hiking in the mountains,or near the river to look for rocks.When I find a rock,I pick it up and clean it with the brush and water.Then I put it into my bag.Most of the rocks I have collected are quartzite~*.They are really

  5. Near Field sorption Data Bases for Compacted MX-80 Bentonite for Performance Assessment of a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository in Opalinus Clay Host Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-08-01

    Bentonites of various types and compacted forms are being investigated in many countries as backfill materials in high-level radioactive waste disposal concepts. Nagra is currently considering an Opalinus clay (OPA) formation in the Zuercher Weinland as a potential location for a high-level radioactive waste repository. A compacted MX-80 bentonite is foreseen as a potential backfill material. Performance assessment studies will be performed for this site and one of the requirements for such an assessment are sorption data bases (SDB) for the bentonite near-field. The purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to develop the SDB. One of the pre-requisites for developing a SDB is a water chemistry for the compacted bentonite porewater. For a number of reasons mentioned in the report, and discussed in more detail elsewhere, this is not a straightforward task. There are considerable uncertainties associated with the major ion concentrations and in particular with the system pH and Eh. The MX-80 SDB was developed for a reference bentonite porewater (pH = 7.25) which was calculated using the reference OPA porewater. In addition, two further SDBs are presented for porewaters calculated at pH values of 6.9 and 7.9 corresponding to lower and upper bound values calculated for the range of groundwater compositions anticipated for the OPA host rock. 'In house' sorption isotherm data were measured for Cs(I), Ni(II), Eu(III), Th(IV), Se(IV) and 1(-1) on the 'as received' MX-80 material equilibrated with a simulated porewater composition. Complementary 'in house' sorption edge and isotherm measurements on conditioned Na/Ca montmorillonites were also available for many of these radionuclides. These data formed the core of the SDB. Nevertheless, some of the required sorption data still had to be obtained from the open literature. An important part of this report is concerned with describing selection procedures and the modifications

  6. Evaluation of geochemical mobility of heavy metals in the dump mine rocks Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsechko N.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Typification of turn mine rocks of Western Donbas is conducted after a size acid-lye the index of water-soluble complex. It is set that exactly rocks with the low value of it an index characterized the most sizes of middle content of water-soluble forms of heavy metals. It is well-proven that exactly mine dumps are the generating source of contamination of objects of environment of this region by heavy metals. The significant impact on the environment inflicted not only directly in the process of coal mining, but for many years after its completion. The source of contamination of environmental objects are dumps that occupy large areas of fertile land. Every year in the dumps is stored about 40 million. m3 moldboard mine rock. Most of the waste coal industry have potential toxic and mutagenic properties as containing a significant amount of heavy metals, which are practically not biodegradable in the environment and is therefore especially dangerous for living organisms paramount importance score geochemical mobility of heavy metals, ie their property to move from solid to liquid phase, migrate to the natural landscape and absorbed by vegetation. This applies particularly to water-soluble forms of metals, as in warehousing surface mine dump piles of rocks, the priority factor that regulates the processes of migration of heavy metals are leaching precipitation of solid phase wastes. It is the existence and content of heavy metals in water-soluble complex characterized by their solubility and migration activity and can be used to assess the real extent of possible contamination of the hydrosphere.

  7. Seismic Response Analysis of Portal Water Injection Sheet Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuanbin; GUO Haiyan; ZHANG Chunhui

    2007-01-01

    To further the study on the newly developed portal water injection sheet pile under static loads, in this paper, by adopting the nonlinear calculation module of FEM software ANSYS, a model for the interaction between the soil and the sheet piles is set up,and the seismic response analysis for this type of space-retaining structure is performed. The effects of the embedded depth and the distance between the front pile and the back pile on the dynamic characteristics of the portal water injection sheet pile are studied.

  8. NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PILES UNDER HORIZONTAL VIBRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yu-jia; CHENG Chang-jun; YANG Xiao

    2005-01-01

    The pile-soil system is regarded as a visco-elastic half-space embedded pile. Based on the method of continuum mechanics, a nonlinear mathematical model of pilesoil interaction was established-a coupling nonlinear boundary value problem. Under the case of horizontal vibration, the nonlinearly dynamical characteristics of pile applying the axis force were studied in horizontal direction in frequency domain. The effects of parameters, especially the axis force on the stiffness were studied in detail. The numerical results suggest that it is possible that the pile applying an axis force will lose its stability. So, the effect of the axis force on the pile is considered.

  9. The application of high-resolution 3D seismic data to model the distribution of mechanical and hydrogeological properties of a potential host rock for the deep storage of radioactive waste in France

    CERN Document Server

    Mari, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    In the context of a deep geological repository of high-level radioactive wastes, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra) has conducted an extensive characterization of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous rock and surrounding formations in the Eastern Paris Basin. As part of this project, an accurate 3D seismic derived geological model is needed. The paper shows the procedure used for building the 3D seismic constrained geological model in depth by combining time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons, consistent seismic velocity model and elastic impedance in time. It also shows how the 3D model is used for mechanical and hydrogeological studies. The 3D seismic field data example illustrates the potential of the proposed depth conversion procedure for estimating density and velocity distributions, which are consistent with the depth conversion of seismic horizons using the Bayesian Kriging method. The geological model shows good agreement with well log data obtained from a reference we...

  10. Friction effects on lateral loading behavior of rigid piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The adequacy of the p -y curves used in the current practice for the design of rigid pile foundations with large diameter, like in the case of monopile foundations of offshore wind turbines, has been widely questioned. The current study aims at analyzing the lateral behavior of rigid piles, while...... taking into account the shear frictional resistance along the pile. For this purpose efficient three dimensional finite element models of different diameter have been developed. The increase of the side friction and of the diameter of the pile is shown to alter the failure pattern and increase...... the lateral capacity of the pile. The obtained p - y curves demonstrate the importance of the aforementioned parameters in the design of rigid piles, as the reduction of friction along the interface reduces not only the ultimate load but also the stiffness of the soil-pile response. Read More: http...

  11. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    conditions for all tests. For verifications purposes six static tension tests conducted at three different vertical effective stress levels of 0, 35 and 70 kPa. The load-displacement curves showed that the test setup provides repeatable test results. A preliminary comparison between the unit shaft friction......This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...

  12. Permeability to brine of crushed salt rock for waste isolation, considering long-term pressure variation of overlying strata and dissolution processes. Final report; Durchlaessigkeitsverhalten von Steinsalzversatz gegenueber Laugen unter Beruecksichtigung von zeitlich veraenderlichen Ueberlagerungsdruecken und Loesungsvorgaengen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, H. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany); Conen, O. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Haefner, F.; Bruck, J. v. der [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    It cannot be excluded that there will be ingress of brines to underground isolation plants for nuclear and chemical toxic wastes. The transport mechanisms in the waste repository are much determined by the perviousness of the backfilling and the sealing material used after waste emplacement in salt rock mine shafts. The critical quantity is the permeability, both for inflow of brine into the bedded waste areas, and for contaminated brine squeeze-out mechanisms. The project research work was to establish the mass transfer parameters for calculating the transport mechanisms in backfilled and sealed shafts. Using near-reality simulation of conditions, the time-dependent influence of pressure variations of overlying strata, humidity and salt/brine interactions on the permeability was examined and quantified. (orig./CB) [German] In Endlagern fuer nukleare und chemotoxische Abfaelle im Salinar kann der Zutritt von Laugen nicht prinzipiell ausgeschlossen werden. Die Transportvorgaenge innerhalb des Endlagers werden wesentlich von der Durchlaessigkeit der Versatzmaterialien und der Verschluesse bestimmt. Die bestimmende Groesse, sowohl fuer den Laugenzufluss in die Einlagerungsbereiche als auch fuer das Auspressen kontaminierter Lauge aus dem Endlager, ist dabei die Permeabilitaet. Ziel der hier vorgestellten Arbeiten war es, Stofftransportparameter fuer die Berechnung von Ausbreitungsvorgaengen in den verfuellten Bereichen eines salinaren Endlagers bereitzustellen. Unter Simulation realitaetsnaher Bedingungen wurde der Einfluss von zeitabhaengigem Ueberlagerungsdruck (Gebirgsdruck), Feuchte und die Wechselwirkung von Salz/Lauge auf das Durchlaessigkeitsverhalten untersucht und quantifiziert. (orig.)

  13. A semi-analytical method for the analysis of pile-supported embankments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-huan ZHOU; Ren-peng CHEN; Lin-shuang ZHAO; Zheng-zhong XU; Yun-min CHEN

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a semi-analytical method for the analysis of pile-supported embankments is proposed.The mathematic model describes the cooperative behavior of pile,pile cap,foundation soil,and embankment fills.Based on Terzaghi's ID consolidation theory of saturated soil,the consolidation of foundation soil is calculated.The embankments with two different types of piles:floating piles and end-bearing piles are investigated and discussed.The results of axial force and skin friction distributions along the pile and the settlements of pile-supported embankments are presented.It is found that it takes a longer time for soil consolidation in the embankment with floating piles,compared with the case using end-bearing piles.The differential settlement between the pile and surrounding soil at the pile top is larger for the embankment with end-bearing piles,compared with the case of floating piles.

  14. Trace element emissions from spontaneous combustion of gob piles in coal mines, Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ge, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2008-01-01

    The emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements from spontaneous combustion of gob piles from coal mining in Shanxi Province, China, have been studied. More than ninety samples of solid waste from gob piles in Shanxi were collected and the contents of twenty potentially hazardous trace elements (Be, F, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, and U) in these samples were determined. Trace element contents in solid waste samples showed wide ranges. As compared with the upper continental crust, the solid waste samples are significantly enriched in Se (20x) and Tl (12x) and are moderately enriched in F, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Hg, Th, and U (2-5x). The solid waste samples are depleted in V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The solid waste samples are enriched in F, V, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sb, Th, and U as compared with the Shanxi coals. Most trace elements are higher in the clinker than in the unburnt solid waste except F, Sn, and Hg. Trace element abundances are related to the ash content and composition of the samples. The content of F is negatively correlated with the ash content, while Pb is positively correlated with the ash. The concentrations of As, Mn, Zn, and Cd are highly positively correlated with Fe2O3 in the solid waste. The As content increases with increasing sulfur content in the solid waste. The trace element emissions are calculated for mass balance. The emission factors of trace elements during the spontaneous combustion of the gobs are determined and the trace element concentrations in the flue gas from the spontaneous combustion of solid waste are calculated. More than a half of F, Se, Hg and Pb are released to the atmosphere during spontaneous combustion. Some trace element concentrations in flue gas are higher than the national emission standards. Thus, gob piles from coal mining pose a serious environmental problem. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The mechanical response of piles with consideration of pile-soil interactions under a periodic wave pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱峰; 徐卫亚; 王环玲

    2014-01-01

    The pile-soil interaction under wave loads is an extremely complex and difficult issue in engineering. In this study, a physical model test is designed based on the principle of the gravity similarity to obtain time histories of wave forces of unsteady regular waves, and to measure the magnitude and the distribution of wave forces acting on the piles. A numerical model and relevant numerical methods for the pile-soil contact surface are adopted based on the principles of elastic dynamics. For a practical project, the time histories of wave forces on the piles are obtained through physical model tests. The deformations of the piles in the pile-soil interactions and the distribution of the bending moment on the piles are studied. It is shown that, with the increase of the period of wave pressures, the absolute value of the horizontal displacement of the piles increases, the embedment depth of the piles increases, and the scope of influence of soils increases. The change of the bending moment on the piles is consistent with that of its theoretical results, and the proposed numerical method can very well simulate the properties of the piles.

  16. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  17. Risk assessment and feasibility study of solid waste minimization, recycling and disposal. Volume 2. Appendices. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The scope of work included an investigation of opportunities to reduce the amount of solid waste that must be disposed of by Huta Sendzimira and opportunities to use and/or recycle materials that have accumulated in the waste pile for several years. The study also included an evaluation of the existing waste pile as a possible area to be developed into a modern, sanitary landfill to serve both the steel mill and the citizens of the Krakow area. Appendix A concerns Waste Pile Boring Logs-Analytical Data; Appendix B covers Monitoring Well Boring Logs-Analytical Data; and Appendix C reports on Air Pollution Control Device-Annual Cost Spreadsheet Program.

  18. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  19. KREEP Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远

    2004-01-01

    KREEP rocks with high contents of K, REE and P were first recognized in Apollo-12 samples, and it was confirmed later that there were KREEP rock fragments in all of the Apollo samples, particularly in Apollo-12 and-14 samples. The KREEP rocks distributed on the lunar surface are the very important objects of study on the evolution of the moon, as well as to evaluate the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks. Based on previous studies and lunar exploration data, the authors analyzed the chemical and mineral characteristics of KREEP rocks, the abundance of Th on the lunar surface materials, the correlation between Th and REE of KREEP rocks in abundance, studied the distribution regions of KREEP rocks on the lunar surface, and further evaluated the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks.

  20. Effects of caving-mining ratio on the coal and waste rocks gangue flows and the amount of cyclically caved coal in fully mechanized mining of super-thick coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ningbo; Liu Changyou; Pei Mengsong

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at determining the appropriate caving–mining ratio for fully mechanized mining of 20 m thick coal seam, this research investigated the effects of caving–mining ratio on the flow fields of coal and waste rocks, amount of cyclically caved coal and top coal loss by means of numerical modeling. The research was based on the geological conditions of panel 8102 in Tashan coal mine. The results indicated the loose coal and waste rocks formed an elliptical zone around the drawpoint. The ellipse enlarged with decreasing caving–mining ratio. And its long axis inclined to the gob gradually became vertical and facil-itating the caving and recovery of top coal. The top coal loss showed a cyclical variation;and the loss cycle was shortened with the decreasing in caving–mining ratio. Moreover, the mean squared error (MSE) of the amount of cyclically caved coal went up with increasing caving–mining ratio, indicating a growing imbalance of amount of cyclically caved coal, which could impede the coordinated mining and caving operations. Finally it was found that a caving–mining ratio of 1:2.51 should be reasonable for the conditions.

  1. Are cometary nuclei primordial rubble piles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    Whipple's icy conglomerate model for the cometary nucleus has had considerable sucess in explaining a variety of cometary phenomena such as gas production rates and nongravitational forces. However, as discussed here, both observational evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the cometary nucleus may not be a well-consolidated single body, but may instead be a loosely bound agglomeration of smaller fragments, weakly bonded and subject to occasional or even frequent disruptive events. The proposed model is analogous to the 'rubble pile' model suggested for the larger main-belt asteroids, although the larger cometary fragments are expected to be primordial condensations rather than collisionally derived debris as in the asteroid case. The concept of cometary nuclei as primordial rubble piles is proposed as a modification of the basic Whipple model, not as a replacement for it.

  2. Behavior of instrumented model batter piles in clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimha Rao, S.; Veeresh, C. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Madras (India). Ocean Engineering Centre

    1995-12-31

    Pile foundations in several coastal and offshore structures are subjected to significant amounts of lateral loads due to wave action. Usually batter piles are adopted to resist large lateral loads. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the behavior of batter pile in clayey soils through an experimental program carried out on instrumented model aluminium piles of 26 mm diameter in a test tank of size, 1,200 mm x 800mm x 1,100 mm. The pile was instrumented with electrical resistance type strain gauges to determine the bending moment variations along the depth of embedment of pile. Bending moment vis depth relationships were used to determine the Soil reaction (p) and lateral displacement (y) along the length of the pile for the applied load. From the bending moment vs depth curves it is found that depth of maximum bending moment is greater for negative batter pile than for vertical and positive batter pile. The data of soil reaction and lateral displacement against depth can be used to develop p-y relationships which are useful in the design of laterally loaded piles.

  3. Bearing Behaviors of Stiffened Deep Cement Mixed Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Mai; ZHAO Xin

    2006-01-01

    A series of investigations were conducted to study the bearing capacity and load transfer mechanism of stiffened deep cement mixed (SDCM) pile.Laboratory tests including six specimens were conducted to investigate the frictional resistance between the concrete core and the cementsoil.Two model piles and twenty-four full-scale piles were tested to examine the bearing behavior of single pile.Laboratory and model tests results indicate that the cohesive strength is large enough to ensure the interaction between core pile and the outer cement-soil.The full-scale test results show that the SDCM piles exhibit similar bearing behavior to bored and cast-in-place concrete piles.In general, with the rational composite structure the SDCM piles can transmit the applied load effectively, and due to the addition of the stiffer core, the SDCM piles possess high bearing capacity.Based on the findings of these experimental investigations and theoretical analysis, a practical design method is developed to predict the vertical bearing capacity of SDCM pile.

  4. FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.

  5. 全尾矿废石骨料高强混凝土的试验研究%Experimental Study of High-strength Concrete with Waste Rocks and Iron Tailings as Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杏婕; 倪文; 吴辉; 汤畅; 仇夏杰

    2015-01-01

    从资源再生、生态环境保护和循环经济的角度出发,以重新级配后的密云地区铁矿废石为粗骨料、密云地区铁尾矿为细骨料,将铁尾矿与矿渣、水泥熟料、脱硫石膏通过梯级混磨得到混合料,与单独磨细的钢渣粉混合为胶凝材料,加入减水剂和水后制备成高强混凝土材料,并采用X射线衍射( XRD)、扫描电子显微镜( SEM)、能谱分析( EDS)等手段进行微观结构与物相组成的变化研究,进而分析反应机理。所制备的混凝土的固废总比例达到91%,使用废石代替天然石子,铁尾矿代替天然砂子,其天然砂石替代率达到100%,制得的混凝土试块28 d抗压强度达到75.92 MPa。%From viewpoints of resources regeneration,environmental protection and circular economy,the re-graded waste rocks in Miyun area were prepared as coarse aggregate,and iron tailings were prepared as fine aggregate. Then,iron tailings, blast furnace slag,cement clinker and FGD gypsum were mixed and ground to produce the mixture. Steel slag that was ground alone are together with the mixture to prepare cementitious materials. The high-strength concrete materials were produced with the cementitious materials and aggregates,by adding water-reducing agent and water. The changes of microstructure and phase composition of the high-strength concrete were studied by XRD,SEM,EDS,et al. Based on this,its reaction mechanism is ana-lyzed. The produced concrete materials obtained the compressive strength as high as 75. 92 MPa at 28 d and the content of wastes in products reached 91%. The replacement ratio of natural sands and rocks was 100% while natural sands were re-placed by Miyun iron tailings and natural rocks were replaced by Miyun waste rocks.

  6. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  7. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  8. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  9. Hydrodynamic Behavior of Curtainwall-Pile Breakwaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.Nejadkazem; A.R.M.Gharabaghi

    2012-01-01

    A numerical model is developed that can predict the interaction of regular waves normally incident upon a curtainwall-pile breakwater; the upper part of which is a vertical wall and the lower part consists of an array of vertical piles.The numerical model is based on an eigenfunetion expansion method,and utilizes a boundary condition nearby the vertical piles that accounts for wave energy dissipation.Numerical solution comprises a finite number of terms,which is a superposition of propagating waves and a series of evanescent waves.The modeling is validated by comparison with previous experimental studies and overall agreement between measurement and calculation is fairly good.The numerical results are related to reflection,transmission,and dissipation coefficient; wave run-up,wave force,and wave overturning moment are also presented.Effect of porosity,relative draft,and relative water depth are discussed; the choice of suitable range of them is described.The relative draft is more effective for shallow water waves.Model shows decrease in relative draft and leads to reduction of relative wave force,overturning moment,and nunup.It is shown that curtainwallpile breakwaters can operate both effectively and efficiently in the range of relative draft between 0.15 and 0.75.The range 0.5 to 0.2 is also recommended for porosity.

  10. Morphological clues to wet granular pile stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, M.; Seemann, R.; Brinkmann, M.; di Michiel, M.; Sheppard, A.; Breidenbach, B.; Herminghaus, S.

    2008-03-01

    When a granular material such as sand is mixed with a certain amount of liquid, the surface tension of the latter bestows considerable stiffness to the material, which enables, for example, sand castles to be sculpted. The geometry of the liquid interface within the granular pile is of extraordinary complexity and strongly varies with the liquid content. Surprisingly, the mechanical properties of the pile are largely independent of the amount of liquid over a wide range. We resolve this puzzle with the help of X-ray microtomography, showing that the remarkable insensitivity of the mechanical properties to the liquid content is due to the particular organization of the liquid in the pile into open structures. For spherical grains, a simple geometric rule is established, which relates the macroscopic properties to the internal liquid morphologies. We present evidence that this concept is also valid for systems with non-spherical grains. Hence, our results provide new insight towards understanding the complex physics of a large variety of wet granular systems including land slides, as well as mixing and agglomeration problems.

  11. Soil Plug Effect Prediction and Pile Driveability Analysis for Large-Diameter Steel Piles in Ocean Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Run; YAN Shu-wang; LI Zhi-hua

    2009-01-01

    Long steel piles with large diameters have been more widely used in the field of ocean engineering.Owing to the pile with a large diameter,soil plug development during pile driving has great influences on pile driveability and beating capacity.The response of soil plug developed inside the open-ended pipe pile during the dynamic condition of pile-driving is different from the response under the static condition of loading during service.This paper addresses the former aspect.A numerical procedure for soil plng effect prediction and pile driveability analysis is proposed and described.By taking into consideration of the pile dimension effect on side and tip resistance,this approach introduces a dimensional coefficient to the conventional static equilibrium equations for the plug differential unit and proposes an improved static equity method for the plug effect prediction.At the same time,this approach introduces a simplified model by use of one-dimensional stress wave equation to simulate the interaction between soft ping and pile inner wall.The proposed approach has been applied in practical engineering analyses.Results show that the calculated plug effect and pile driveability based on the proposed approach agree well with the observed data.

  12. 77 FR 15045 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Placement for ORPC Maine's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... pile bent arrangement consisting of 10 steel pipe piles. Each foundation pile will have a 76-centimeter... will be located in an area with up to 12 m (40 ft) of marine clay and some thin layers of glacial till... pile will be two m (six ft) in diameter, or consist of an array of three piles not greater than 76 cm...

  13. The Effects of Time on Soil Behaviour and Pile Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    this into account. This implies that the design methods used today do not in general make use of the full capacity of piles. This thesis is based on a number of scientific papers and reports that deal with elements of pile design and time effects in soils in general. With regard to pile design, focus is placed...... foundations. Further, design methods that take no account of time will be subject to considerable error unless they consider a tightly specified age range. Time functions (relation between time after installation and capacity), which have been offered for quantifying set-up for piles in clay, are investigated....... Therefore, the design of piles has remained a constant source of attention, especially with regard to the methodology for predicting the capacity. Three very different design methods for piles in both clay and sand are assessed by comparing predicted capacities with measured capacities from established...

  14. SCOUR MITIGATION AT BRIDGE PIERS USING SACRIFICIAL PILES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Anisul HAQUE; Md. Munsur RAHMAN; G.M. Tarekul ISLAM; M. Asad HUSSAIN

    2007-01-01

    To mitigate scour around bridge piers, sacrificial piles are economic method where natural processes are involved. The arrangement should be such that scoured materials from the sacrificial piles should have enough volume to fill the scour hole created upstream of the pier in such a way that sediments are trapped inside the scour hole. This concept differs from earlier study made with sacrificial piles that mainly deals to reduce the strength of horseshoe vortex. To determine the effect of sacrificial piles for scour mitigation, alternative arrangements of piles were tested in front of a rectangular pier under clear-water condition and found that when the group of piles is placed at a distance of twice the projected width of the pier, for which percentage of blockage of the pier width is 60%, the scour volume can be reduced upto 61% while the maximum scour depth can be reduced upto 50%.

  15. Settlement calculation for long-short composite piled raft foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming-hua; ZHANG Ling; YANG Ming-hui

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of long-short composite piled raft foundation was discussed. Assuming the relationship between shear stress and shear strain of the surrounding soil was elasto-plastic, shear displacement method was employed to establish the different explicit relational equations between the load and the displacement at the top of pile in either elastic or elasto-plastic period. Then Mylonakis & Gazetas model was introduced to simulate the interaction between two piles or between piles and soil. Considering the effect of cushion, the flexible coefficients of interaction were provided. With the addition of a relevant program, the settlement calculation for long-short composite piled raft foundation was developed which could be used to account for the interaction of piles,soil and cushion. Finally, the calculation method was used to analyze an engineering example. The calculated value of settlement is 10.2 mm, which is close to the observed value 8.8 mm.

  16. 40 CFR 264.259 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.259 Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27. (a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26... with these wastes; and (4) The effectiveness of additional treatment, design, or monitoring techniques...

  17. The reactor Cabri; La pile cabri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailloud, J.; Millot, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    exceptional circumstances... - experimental investigations on power excursions linked with precise initial conditions: the aim of this work is to define the basis for theoretical research, and the limits beyond which the risks of explosion cease to be negligible. The research work will be done so as to enable checking with outside reactor experiments and to continue them in the explosion field. - studies of the behaviour of the reactor control-instrumentation. - experimental investigations related with transient operation with initial short life (study of boiling, temperature measurements, vacuum pressure and fraction...) with the aim of defining the hypotheses of a theory on swimming-pool reactor kinetics related to heat transfer phenomena, - investigations of the behaviour of fuels in reactors (these experiments are planned to be carried out in loops) Preliminary experimental results. CABRI went critical on the 21 December 1963. The first transient experiments are expected for March 1964. (authors) [French] II devenait necessaire de construire en France une pile qui permette d'etudier les conditions de fonctionnement des installations futures, de choisir, tester et mettre au point les dispositifs de securite a adopter. On a choisi une pile a eau, type de pile qui correspond aux constructions les plus nouvelles du CEA en matiere de piles laboratoire ou d'universite; il importe en effet de pouvoir evaluer les risques presentes et d'etudier les possibilites d'augmentation de puissance constamment demandees par les utilisateurs: il est particulierement interessant d'eclaircir les phenomenes d'oscillation de puissance et les risques de calefaction (burn out). Les programmes de travaux sur CABRI seront harmonises avec les travaux effectues sur les Spert americains de meme type; lors de sa construction des contacts fructueux ont ete etablis avec les specialistes americains qui ont defini les premiers de ces reacteurs. La communication donne une

  18. Assessment of Time Functions for Piles Driven in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars; Sørensen, Carsten Steen

    The vertical bearing capacity of piles situated in clay is studied with regard to the long-term set-up. A statistical analysis is carried out on the basis of data from numerous static loading tests. The database covers a wide range of both soil and pile properties, which ensures a general....... Hence, it is suggested that a constant set-up factor should be applied for the prediction of pile capacities at a given time after initial driving....

  19. Bearing Capacity of Mixed Pile with Stiffness Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Jianwei; JIANG Xinliang; LING Guangrong

    2006-01-01

    To study load transfer mechanism and bearing capacity of a mixed pile with stiffness core (MPSC), which is formed by inserting a precast reinforced concrete pile (PRCP), in-situ tests involving MPSCs with different lengths, diameters, water cement ratios and PRCPs, cement mixed piles, and drilling hole piles, were carried out.Limit bearing capacities, load-settlement curves and stress distribution of MPSCs and mixed piles were obtained.The load transfer between cement soil and PRCP was analyzed by finite element method (FEM).Test results and FEM analysis show that an MPSC has fully utilized the big friction from a cement mixed pile and the high compressive strength from a PRCP which transfers outer top load into the inner cement soil, and that inserting a PRCP into a mixed pile changes the stress distribution of a mixed pile and improves frictional resistance between a mixed pile and soil.The length and the section area on PRCP of an MPSC both have an optimum value.Adopting MPSC is effective in improving the bearing capacity of soft soil ground.

  20. Bearing capacity and mechanical behavior of CFG pile composite foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋南; 赵明华; 周国华; 张主华

    2008-01-01

    CFG pile (i.e., pile constructed by granular materials of cement, fly-ash and gravel) composite foundation is applied in subsoil treatment widely and successfully. In order to have a further study of this kind of subsoil treatment technology, the influencing factors and calculation methods of the vertical bearing capacity of single CFG pile and the CFG pile composite foundation were discussed respectively. And based on the obtained solutions, effects by the cushion and measurements to reduce negative friction area were analyzed. Moreover, the developing law of settlement and bearing capacity eigenvalue controlled by the material strength with the increase of load were given for the CFG composite foundation. The in-situ static load test was tested for CFG pile. The results of test show that the maximum test load or half of the ultimate load is used from all the points of test, the average bearing capacity eigenvalue of single pile is 390 kN, and slightly greater than the design value of bearing capacity. The bearing capacity eigenvalues of composite foundation for 3 piles are greater than 300 kPa, and the mechanical properties of CFG pile composite foundation are almost identical in the case of the same load and cushion thickness. The pile-soil stress ratio and the load-sharing ratio can be adjusted through setting up cushion thickness.

  1. Vertical Dynamic Impedance of Tapered Pile considering Compacting Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on complex stiffness transfer model, the vertical vibration of tapered pile embedded in layered soil is theoretically investigated by considering the compacting effect of the soil layer surrounding the tapered pile in the piling process. Allowing for the stratification of the surrounding soil and variable crosssection of the tapered pile, the pile-soil system is discretized into finite segments. By virtue of the complex stiffness transfer model to simulate the compacting effect, the complex stiffness of different soil segments surrounding the tapered pile is obtained. Then, substituting the complex stiffness into the vertical dynamic governing equation of tapered pile, the analytical solution of vertical dynamic impedance of tapered pile under vertical exciting force is derived by means of the Laplace technique and impedance function transfer method. Based on the presented solutions, the influence of compacting effect of surrounding soil on vertical dynamic impedance at the pile head is investigated within the low frequency range concerned in the design of dynamic foundation.

  2. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 2. Characterization of low permeable and fractured sediments and rocks in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.; Laier, T.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In Denmark, many different kinds of fine-grained sediments and crystalline rocks occur from the ground surface down to 300 meters depth. Therefore, the possible geological situations include sediments and rocks of different composition and age. These situations are geographical distributed over large areas of Denmark. These sediments and rocks are shortly described based on existing information and include five different major types of sediments and rocks: 1: Crystalline granite and gneiss of Bornholm (because these rock types are host for waste disposals in many other countries). 2: Sandstone and shale from Bornholm (as these sediments are rela- tively homogeneous although they have fracture permeability). 3: Chalk and limestone (because these sediments may act as low permeable seals, but in most areas they act as groundwater reservoirs). 4: Fine-grained Tertiary clay deposits (as these sediments have a low permeability, are widely distributed and can reach large thicknesses). 5: Quaternary glacial, interglacial and Holocene clay deposits. These sediments are distributed all over Denmark. Following the descriptions of the geologic deposits, the areas below (including several possible locations for waste disposal sites) are selected for further investigation. The Precambrian basement rocks of Bornholm could be host rocks for the disposal. The rock types for further evaluation will be: Hammer Granite, Vang Granite, Roenne Granite, Bornholm gneiss, Paradisbakke Migmatite and Alminding Granite. In the Roskilde Fjord area around Risoe, a combination of Paleocene clays, meltwater clay and clayey till could be interesting. The area is partly included in the OSD area in North Sjaelland but

  3. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  4. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  5. Exhalation of (222)Rn from phosphogypsum piles located at the Southwest of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, C; Liger, E; Cañete, S; Pérez, M; Bolívar, J P

    2007-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a waste product of the phosphoric acid production process and contains, generally, high activity concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. It is stored in piles formed over the last 40 years close to the town of Huelva (Southwest of Spain). The very broad expanse of the PG piles (about 1200 ha) produces a local, but unambiguous, radioactive impact to their surroundings. In 1992, the regional government of Andalusia restored an area of 400 ha by covering it with a 25-cm thick layer of natural soil and, currently, there is an additional zone of 400 ha in course of restoration (unrestored) and the same area of active PG stacks. Due to the high activity concentration of (226)Ra in active PG stacks (average 647 Bq kg(-1)), a significant exhalation of (222)Rn could be produced from the surface of the piles. Measurements have been made of (222)Rn exhalation from active PG stacks and from restored and unrestored zones. The (222)Rn exhalation from unrestored zones is half of that of the active PG stacks. Following restoration, the (222)Rn exhalation is approximately eight times lower than the active PG stacks. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (40)K, (232)Th) in the mentioned zones have been determined. This study was also conducted to determine the effect of (226)Ra activity concentration on the (222)Rn exhalation, and a good correlation was obtained between the (222)Rn exhalation and (226)Ra activity, porosity and density of soil.

  6. Summary of national and international fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.

    1984-07-01

    Worldwide activities related to nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs are summarized. Several trends have developed in waste management strategy: All countries having to dispose of reprocessing wastes plan on conversion of the high-level waste (HLW) stream to a borosilicate glass and eventual emplacement of the glass logs, suitably packaged, in a deep geologic repository. Countries that must deal with plutonium-contaminated waste emphasize pluonium recovery, volume reduction and fixation in cement or bitumen in their treatment plans and expect to use deep geologic repositories for final disposal. Commercially available, classical engineering processing are being used worldwide to treat and immobilize low- and intermediate-level wastes (LLW, ILW); disposal to surface structures, shallow-land burial and deep-underground repositories, such as played-out mines, is being done widely with no obvious technical problems. Many countries have established extensive programs to prepare for construction and operation of geologic repositories. Geologic media being studied fall into three main classes: argillites (clay or shale); crystalline rock (granite, basalt, gneiss or gabbro); and evaporates (salt formations). Most nations plan to allow 30 years or longer between discharge of fuel from the reactor and emplacement of HLW or spent fuel is a repository to permit thermal and radioactive decay. Most repository designs are based on the mined-gallery concept, placing waste or spent fuel packages into shallow holes in the floor of the gallery. Many countries have established extensive and costly programs of site evaluation, repository development and safety assessment. Two other waste management problems are the subject of major R and D programs in several countries: stabilization of uranium mill tailing piles; and immobilization or disposal of contaminated nuclear facilities, namely reactors, fuel cycle plants and R and D laboratories.

  7. Radioactive Waste Material From Tapping Natural Resources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Rocks around oil and gas and mineral deposits may contain natural radioactivity. Drilling through these rocks and bringing them to the surface creates radioactive waste materials. Once desired minerals have been removed from ore, the radionuclides left in the waste are more concentrated. Scientists call this waste Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material or simply TENORM.

  8. 'Earhart' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  9. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  10. Longitudinal vibration of pile in layered soil based on Rayleigh-Love rod theory and fictitious soil-pile model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Shu-hui; WANG Kui-hua; WU Wen-bing; C. J. LEO

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic response of pile in layered soil is theoretically investigated when considering the transverse inertia effect. Firstly, the fictitious soil-pile model is employed to simulate the dynamic interaction between the pile and the soil layers beneath pile toe. The dynamic interactions of adjacent soil layers along the vertical direction are simplified as distributed Voigt models. Meanwhile, the pile and fictitious soil-pile are assumed to be viscoelastic Rayleigh-Love rods, and both the radial and vertical displacement continuity conditions at the soil-pile interface are taken into consideration. On this basis, the analytical solution for dynamic response at the pile head is derived in the frequency domain and the corresponding quasi-analytical solution in the time domain is then obtained by means of the convolution theorem. Following this, the accuracy and parameter value of the hypothetical boundaries for soil-layer interfaces are discussed. Comparisons with published solution and measured data are carried out to verify the rationality of the present solution. Parametric analyses are further conducted by using the present solution to investigate the relationships between the transverse inertia effects and soil-pile parameters.

  11. Rock Art

    OpenAIRE

    Huyge, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Rock art, basically being non-utilitarian, non-textual anthropic markings on natural rock surfaces, was an extremely widespread graphical practice in ancient Egypt. While the apogee of the tradition was definitely the Predynastic Period (mainly fourth millennium BCE), examples date from the late Palaeolithic (c. 15,000 BCE) until the Islamic era. Geographically speaking, “Egyptian” rock art is known from many hundreds of sites along the margins of the Upper Egyptian and Nubian Nile Valley and...

  12. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  13. 等径桩、挤扩支盘桩相互作用系数数值研究%Numerical Analysis on Pile-pile Interaction Coefficient Between Equal Pile , Squeezed Branch Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰土根; 宋海洋; 王路博; 陈阳; 胡松

    2015-01-01

    Using Abaqus numerical analysis method,double equal piles,one equal pile and one squeezed branch pile,double squeezed branch piles models were built. Through lots of numerical simulation,analysis of the pile interaction coefficient under different situations,including pile load,pile spacing,soil Poisson's ratio and analysis of the influence to different double piles in surrounding load were carried out. Result shows that the pile-pile influence coefficient is approximately constant value in liner elastic deformation of loading piles ,and irrelevant to the load level and piles characters,but it decreased gradually until close to 0 in plase state,with the Poisson's ratio becomes large. The interaction coefficient gradually decreases,under the same conditions,the surrounding load have a greater impact on double equal piles than double squeezed branch piles and gradually decreases with the increase of poisson's ratio. The study provides a reference in practical engineering between different piles.%采用Abaqus数值分析方法,建立双等径桩、一等径桩一支盘桩、双挤扩支盘桩模型,通过大量的数值模拟计算,分析在不同桩顶荷载、不同桩间距、不同土体泊松比条件下桩的相互影响系数以及在桩周荷载条件下对不同双桩的影响,分析表明,在线弹性变形阶段,桩与桩的影响系数近似为恒定值,与荷载水平及桩的性状无关,进入塑性阶段后,则逐渐减小最后趋于0,随着泊松比的变大,桩之间的相互作用系数逐渐减小,在相同条件下,桩周荷载对双支盘桩的影响大于双等径桩且随泊松比的增大而减小. 研究结果为实际工程中桩之间的影响情况提供参考.

  14. A study on excavation of rock mass by lasers. Researching the possibility of utilizing low-power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Fumio [Taisei Corporation, Technology Research Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The object of this research is to develop the techniques of rock-mass excavation by laser irradiation. This rock-mass excavation technique by lasers has a characteristic of extremely little effect to the surroundings of an excavation site no matter how the target rock mass is with regard to geological aspects and given physical property. Moreover, it could be utilized in excavation of waste dump facilities, which need to be re-buried, and applied to excavation of long piles and tunnels, which are drilled through different kinds of strata, and to improvement of rock mass and ground. Lasers have a characteristic of concentrating the energy into a limited point and not only discontinue or cut a large area with a small output like sharp scissors but also block up the cracks deep inside the rock mass by fusing vitrification for its improvement. It leads to restrain the loss of energy, minimization of the effected environment, effective utilization of resources and energy, environmental restoration, and improvement of the working environment. In the field of nuclear fuel, which includes excavating dump pits, dismantling a furnace, and taking appropriate steps of mine remains, excavating, cutting, and fusing could be required to do within a limited space of rock mass or concrete. Up to the present, those things have been done mainly by large machines, but it is too scarce in possibility for them to improve their large size, heavy weight, difficulty in unmanned operation, limited shapes of cutting, and stabilization of waste. In this research the concrete system images have been examined, doing the fundamental researches about higher-power lasers, smaller sizing, transmitting by fibers to find our the breakthrough to realization of laser excavation, This year, as the summary of examining the laser excavation techniques, utilizing a low-power laser, which is thought to be highly effective in rock-mass improvement, will be examined, considering application of the technique

  15. Produção de mudas de tomateiro em substratos contendo fibra de coco e pó de rocha Tomato seedlings production using substrates with coconut fiber and rock waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regynaldo A Sampaio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar proporções dos resíduos fibra de coco (FC e pó de rocha de granito (RG como substratos na produção de mudas de tomateiro, cultivar Kada Gigante, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação na UFMG-ICA. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por uma testemunha e seis proporções de fibra de coco (FC e pó de rocha de granito (RG: T1 - Substrato comercial Hortimix®; T2 - 0% FC + 100% RG; T3 - 20% FC + 80% RG; T4 - 40% FC + 60% RG; T5 - 60% FC + 40% RG; T6 - 80% FC + 20% RG; T7 - 100% FC + 0% RG. O cultivo foi feito em bandeja de poliestireno expandido com células de 3,5 x 3,5 x 5,0 cm. Foram avaliados o diâmetro do coleto, a altura da planta, o índice de velocidade de emergência, a percentagem de emergência e a massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Em praticamente todas as características avaliadas o substrato comercial foi superior aos substratos contendo fibra de coco e pó de rocha. Considerando-se apenas os substratos contendo fibra de coco e pó de rocha, as mudas com melhores características foram obtidas com a mistura de aproximadamente 70% em volume de fibra de coco.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the ratio of coconut fiber and rock waste, in the tomato seedling production (cultivar Kada Gigante, in Montes Claros, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with four replicates. The treatments were composed of a control and six ratios of coconut fiber (FC and rock waste (RG: T1 - Commercial Substrate Hortimix®; T2 - 0% FC + 100% RG; T3 - 20% FC + 80% RG; T4 - 40% FC + 60% RG; T5 - 60% FC + 40% RG; T6 - 80% FC + 20% RG; T7 - 100% FC + 0% RG. The cultivation was done in polystyrene trays with cells of 3.5 x 3.5 x 5,0 cm. Stem diameter, seedling height, emergency speed index, emergency percentage, root and aerial part of fresh and dry matter were evaluated. In

  16. 废石-尾砂高浓度料浆的流变特性及输送参数优化%Rheological Properties of High-Density Slurry with Waste Rock-Tailings and Transmission Parameter Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张修香; 乔登攀

    2015-01-01

    As the basis of slurry pipeline transportation,rheological property of filling slurry bears influence on pipeline design and resistance calculation.Water cement ratio or aggregate characteristics of slurry with waste rock-tailings is different from fresh concrete and high density tailings,the complicated structure of which makes it more difficult to determine the best combination of slurry.Through the study of grading analysis to determine the optimized mixture ratio(the ratio of coarse sand and tailing is 6∶4,7∶3,8∶2 ),waste rocks and tailings from a certain mine is used in this paper as aggregates to prepare slurry for rheological experiments.The rheological pa-rameters are firstly obtained through rheological curve regression.The influence factors of yield stress and viscosi-ty are then evaluated and sorted by grey relational theory.Deport Expert software is finally adopted to determine the optimized combination of slurry.Results show that cement content and mass concentration are the key deter-minant of yield stress;the ratio of waste rock-tailings is the main influence factors of viscosity,cement quantity and mass concentration take second place;the optimized ratio of waste rock-tailings takes on the value 1.40;the mass concentration takes on the value 82%;and the cement content takes on the value 275.29 kg/m3 .This article provides a theoretical basis for mine gravity filling pipeline.%料浆的流变特性是实现料浆管道输送的基础,影响着管路设计与阻力计算等技术问题.废石-尾砂料浆的水灰比或骨料性质都不同于混凝土及全尾砂浆,料浆结构更加复杂,确定最佳管输料浆组合变得更加困难.通过对某矿山废石和尾砂的级配分析,选用废石和尾砂优化后的配合比(6∶4,7∶3,8∶2)制成高浓度料浆进行流变实验,首先回归流变曲线获取流变参数,其次应用灰色关联理论对屈服应力及粘度的影响因素进行排

  17. A partial analysis of using the melting of flame technoogy for the production of a deep shaft to rocks for the deposition of radioactive wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bielecki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with serious objectives, which handle to the economical valuation of vertical drilling. Simultaneously, are inter alia, a questions is answered if the LITO-JET method allows, under some economical conditions, a deposition of high radioactive waste into the depth more than 1000 meters and an increasing research is be necessary.

  18. The homogenisation of bulk material in blending piles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerstel, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the homogenisation of bulk material in three types of piles is dealt with. The homogenisation implies that the fluctuations of a material proprety in the input flow of the pile are transformed into output fluctuations, whereby the latter ones are evened out. Analyses are presented con

  19. Effect of piles on the seismic response of mosques minarets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-03-01

    Minaret (60.0-m height was studied to investigate the effects of soil stiffness, pile length, diameter, and arrangement, on the minaret and pile dynamic behavior. Comparison between study results and conventional analysis method is illustrated. Study results, discussion, and conclusion are given.

  20. Visualization of soil arching in flexible piled embankments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tuğba Eskışar

    2015-10-01

    Piled embankments rely on soil arching, but, when geogrid reinforcements are used, membrane action within the reinforcement contributes to load distribution. The arching of soil in unreinforced and reinforced piled embankments is evaluated in this study. A small-scale test apparatus is used to model the settlement up to 5 mm in an embankment with four pile elements. Visual inspection of the soil settlement and soil-reinforcement interaction is important to explain the mechanism of arching. In this study, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) method was used as a non-destructive technique. The arching of soil between the piles was observed in the case of rigid piles and in the case of flexible piles with grid type of reinforcement. The load carrying capacity increased up to 33% in the case of geogrid reinforcement, and the differential settlement decreased around 35%, proving the efficiency of piled embankments with geogrid reinforcements. It is also shown that, using X-ray CT method and visualization techniques provides a better understanding of soil behavior in a reinforced embankment with the flexible pile foundation system.

  1. Cause Analysis of Wuhan Tianheng Building Pile Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The geological condition and the original structure feature and foundation design of Wuhan Tianheng building are described. The accident appearance of pile foundation in the construction execution of work is illustrated. The generating source of this pile foundation accident is analyzed in great details.``

  2. Optimization of pile design for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara

    The aim of this study is to use numerical methods of structural design optimization to design piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations. Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil characteristics can translate...

  3. Optimization of pile design for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to use numerical methods of structural design optimization to design piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations. Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil characteristics can translate into significant cost reductions.

  4. Perturbation analysis on post-buckling behavior of pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinear large deflection differential equation, based on the assumption that the subsoil coefficient is the 2nd root of the depth, was established by energy method. The perturbation parameter was introduced to transform the equation to a series of linear differential equations to be solved, and the deflection function according with the boundary condition was considered. Then,the nonlinear higher-order asymptotic solution of post-buckling behavior of a pile was obtained by parameter-substituting. The influencing factors such as bury-depth ratio and stiffness ratio of soil to pile, slenderness ratio on the post-buckling behavior of a pile were analyzed. The results show that the pile is more unstable when the bury-depth ratio and stiffness ratio of soil to pile increase,and although the buckling load increases with the stiffness of soil, the pile may ruin for its brittleness. Thus, in the region where buckling behavior of pile must be taken into account, the high grade concrete is supposed to be applied, and the dynamic buckling behavior of pile needs to be further studied.

  5. Assessment of timber piles in Clallam County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arun K.; Tyler, Ross; Arnette, Clyde G.; Anthony, Ronald W.

    1998-03-01

    Timber bridges are very common in state and rural highway systems. According to the National Bridge Inventory (NBI), there are 41,743 timber bridges in the United States and another 42,102 bridges with timber decks as a part of the superstructure. As these bridges age, there is a critical need for reliable inspection and assessment methods for evaluating timber members. Under an FHWA mandate, these bridges also need to be evaluated for scour susceptibility. Knowledge of the length of timber piles supporting the bridge is a vital component in calculating scour resistance of a bridge. However, records of timber pile lengths are often nonexistent or incomplete due to the construction practices for timber piles. This paper presents nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques used for assessing timber piles on 10 bridges in Clallam County, Washington. Stress wave velocity and resistance drilling techniques were used to determine the presence of and quantify the extent of decay in the piles. A longitudinal stress wave technique was used for determining the length of timber piles. Determination of piles with decay aided in establishing maintenance and repair needs on the bridge substructures. Pile length estimates enabled Clallam County Road Department to determine the scour-susceptibility of these bridges.

  6. Physical Modelling of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wolf, Torben K.; Rasmussen, Kristian L.

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service...

  7. The Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Interaction in Undrained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalesari, Abbasali Taghavi; Barari, Amin; Amini, Pedram Fardad

    2013-01-01

    Offshore piled raft foundations are one of the most commonly used foundations in offshore structures. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, the addition of piles may improve both the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this paper,...

  8. Mont Terri Project - Heater experiment : rock and bentonite thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in the near field of a thermal source for development of deep underground high level radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, I.; Alheid, H.-J.; Kaufhold, St.; Naumann, M.; Pletsch, Th.; Plischke, I.; Schnier, H.; Schuster, K.; Sprado, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Meyer, T.; Miehe, R.; Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.; Rey, M. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E.; Lloret, A.; Munoz, J.J. [Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria (CIMNE), Barcelona (Spain); Weber, H. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland); Ploetze, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Geotechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Klubertanz, G. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Ammon, Ch. [Rothpletz Lienhard und Cie AG, Aarau (Switzerland); Graf, A.; Nussbaum, Ch.; Zingg, A. [Goetechnical Institute Ltd, Saint-Ursanne (Switzerland); Bossart, P. [Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo), Wabern (Switzerland); Buehler, Ch.; Kech, M.; Trick, Th. [Solexperts AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Emmerich, K. [ITC-WGT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fernandez, A. M. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The long-term safety of underground permanent repositories for radioactive waste relies on a combination of several engineered and geological barriers. The interactions between a host rock formation of the type 'Opalinus Clay' and an engineered barrier of the type 'bentonite buffer' are observed in the Heater Experiment (HE) during a hydration and a heating phase. The objective of the experiment is an improved understanding of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in a host rock-buffer system achieved by experimental observations as well as numerical modelling. The basic objectives are in detail: a) Long-term monitoring in the vicinity of the heater during hydration and heating; especially observation and study of coupled THM processes in the near field, i.e. continuous measurements of temperatures, pore pressures, displacements, electric conductivity, and analysis of the gases and water released into the rock by effect of heating; b) Determination of the properties of barrier and host rock done mainly by laboratory and in situ experiments, i.e. general mechanical and mineralogical properties, mechanical state in-situ, and changes induced by the experiment; c) Study of the interaction between host rock and bentonite buffer as well as validation and refinement of existing tools for modelling THM processes; d) Study of the behaviour and reliability of instrumentation and measuring techniques, i.e. inspection of sensors after dismantling the experimental setting. To achieve the objectives, the experiment was accompanied by an extensive programme of continuous monitoring, experimental investigations on-site as well as in laboratories, and numerical modelling of the coupled THM processes. Finally, the experiment was dismantled to provide laboratory specimens of post-heating buffer and host rock material. The continuous monitoring of the experiment by a multitude of sensors (for temperature, pore pressure, total pressure, relative

  9. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of waste transport in selected rocks: 1977 annual report of LBL Contract No. 45901AK. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program: collection and generation of transport data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.; Benson, L.V.; Lucas, J.; Mathur, A.K.; Tsao, L.

    1977-09-01

    During fiscal year 1977, the following subtasks were performed. (1) Thermodynamic data were tabulated for those aqueous complexes and solid phases of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium likely to form in the environment. (2) Eh-pH diagrams were computed and drafted for plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium at 25/sup 0/C and one atmosphere. (3) The literature on distribution coefficients of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium was reviewed. (4) Preliminary considerations were determined for an experimental method of measuring radionuclide transport in water-saturated rocks. (5) The transport mechanisms of radionuclides in water-saturated rocks were reviewed. (6) A computer simulation was attempted of mass transfer involving actinides in water-saturated rocks. Progress in these tasks is reported. Subtasks 1, 2, 3, and 4 are complete. The progress made in subtask 5 is represented by an initial theoretical survey to define the conditions needed to characterize the transport of radionuclides in rocks. Subtask 6 has begun but is not complete.

  10. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasinski Adam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of screw displacement piles (SDP is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  11. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  12. Distributed fibre optic strain measurements on a driven pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woschitz, Helmut; Monsberger, Christoph; Hayden, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In civil engineering pile systems are used in unstable areas as a foundation of buildings or other structures. Among other parameters, the load capacity of the piles depends on their length. A better understanding of the mechanism of load-transfer to the soil would allow selective optimisation of the system. Thereby, the strain variations along the loaded pile are of major interest. In this paper, we report about a field trial using an optical backscatter reflectometer for distributed fibre-optic strain measurements along a driven pile. The most significant results gathered in a field trial with artificial pile loadings are presented. Calibration results show the performance of the fibre-optic system with variations in the strain-optic coefficient.

  13. Pre-Stressed Rope Reinforced Anti-Sliding Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; WANG Chenghua

    2006-01-01

    Pre-stressed rope reinforced anti-sliding pile is a composite anti-sliding structure. It is made up of pre-stressed rope and general anti-sliding pile. It can bring traditional anti-sliding pile's retaining performance into full play, and to treat with landslide fast and economically. The difference between them is that the pre-stressed rope will transfix the whole anti-sliding pile through a prearranged pipe in this structure. The working mechanics, the design method and economic benefit are studied. The results show that the pre-stressed rope reinforced anti-sliding pile can treat with the small and middle landslides or high slopes well and possess the notable advantage of technology and economic.

  14. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    The application of screw displacement piles (SDP) is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque) during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  15. Application of PCC pile in soil improvement of highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芝平; 刘汉龙; 谭慧明

    2008-01-01

    The construction process and load-bearing behaviors of Cast-in-place concrete thin-wall pipe piles are analyzed based on its application on Yantong Expressway Project. The low strain test, static load test and field excavation were also carried out, and the bearing capacity of the new pile can meet the requirements of design. With the increase of pile diameter, the bearing capacity is increased. The settlement of composite foundation is decreased, when the replacement ratio of pile is increased. The test results also show that the load carried by inner soils is neglectable. According to the tests and application, it can be concluded that the new type of pile is convenient to construction with high bearing capacity and reliable quality, which has great potential in practical engineering.

  16. Optimum design methodologies for pile foundations in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Letsios

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of pile foundations in geotechnical engineering for supporting high-significance structures such as bridges, high-rise buildings, power plant stations, offshore platforms and museums, it becomes a necessity to find the best pile foundation design in terms of performance and economy. The number of piles required might exceed several hundreds or even thousands while the pile foundation cost might exceed 20% of the construction cost of the superstructure. In this work the problem of finding optimized designs of pile foundations is examined and is performed in accordance to two design code recommendations, namely Eurocode 7 and DIN 4014. The proposed structural optimization procedure is implemented in two real-world cases both located in London, UK in order to assess the efficiency of the proposed design formulation.

  17. Centrifuge modelling of drained lateral pile - soil response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte

    of rigid piles. The tests have been performed in homogeneously dense dry or saturated Fontainebleau sand in order to mimic simplified drained offshore soil conditions. Approximately half of the tests have been carried out to investigate the centrifuge procedure in order to create a methodology of testing...... for monopiles today. Therefore it appears that the methodology for monopiles lacks scientific justification and a better understanding of rigid piles is needed. More than 70 centrifuge tests on laterally loaded rigid model piles have been carried out in connection with this thesis to get a better understanding...... that enables the transformation of result from tests in model scale to prototype scale. The grain size to pile diameter ratio, the non-linear stress distribution and the pile installation was identified from this investigation as important parameters in reliable scaling of centrifuge results. The remaining...

  18. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A.; Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1996-06-01

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs.

  19. A methodology to constrain the parameters of a hydrogeological discrete fracture network model for sparsely fractured crystalline rock, exemplified by data from the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, Sven; Hartley, Lee; Rhén, Ingvar; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steven; Roberts, David; Swift, Ben

    2014-03-01

    The large-scale geological structure of the crystalline rock at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden, has been classified in terms of deformation zones of elevated fracture frequency. The rock between deformation zones was divided into fracture domains according to fracture frequency. A methodology to constrain the geometric and hydraulic parameters that define a discrete fracture network (DFN) model for each fracture domain is presented. The methodology is based on flow logging and down-hole imaging in cored boreholes in combination with DFN realizations, fracture connectivity analysis and pumping test simulations. The simulations suggest that a good match could be obtained for a power law size distribution where the value of the location parameter equals the borehole radius but with different values for the shape parameter, depending on fracture domain and fracture set. Fractures around 10-100 m in size are the ones that typically form the connected network, giving inflows in the simulations. The report also addresses the issue of up-scaling of DFN properties to equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) bulk flow properties. Comparisons with double-packer injection tests provide confidence that the derived DFN formulation of detailed flows within individual fractures is also suited to simulating mean bulk flow properties and their spatial variability.

  20. Influence of space of double row piles on soil arching effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao bo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available FLAC3d software, based on continuous theory, is used to analysis influence of space of double row piles on soil arching effect. The result shows that different from single row pile, double row piles will produce soil arching effect at front pile and rear pile severally, this phenomenon is called multiple soil arching effect; the residual load of front of front row pile will increase,the soil arch zone and the soil arching effect will decrease with the continuous increase of double row pile spacing.At the same time the soil arching effect of rear pile decreases, while the soil arching effect of front pile increases and finally the soil arching effect between front pile and rear pile will be equal.

  1. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  2. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  3. The influence of connecting pile cap-column in the mechanisms of break in the two pile caps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. MESQUITA

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper analyzes the two pile caps with partially embedded socket and subject a center load. Three models were experimentally tested, varying the type of conformation of the column and walls of the socket, with a smooth, the other rough, and a monolithic two pile cap, used for reference. The roughening of the column-socket interface was examined with the aim of verifying the difference of the distribution of compressive and tensile stresses in the strut an tie model used for design. The experimental test to show that the two pile caps with conformation rough of the column and walls of the socket, support more load in comparison with two pile caps with smooth of the column and walls of the socket. Both however underperformed the monolithic two pile cap, with values of 66% and 36% respectively.

  4. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Coto, I; Mas, J L; Vargas, A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-15

    Nearly 1.0 × 10(8) tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1,200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by (226)Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bqm(-2)s(-1)) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bqm(-2)s(-1)).

  5. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Evaluation of the Impact of Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Couplings in Bentonite and Near-Field Rock Barriers on a Nuclear Waste Repository in a Sparsely Fractured Hard Rock. Report of BMT1C/WP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Nguyen, T.S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    This report presents the works performed for the third, also the last, phase (BMT1C) of BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project for the period of 1999-2002. The works of BMT1 is divided into three phases: BMT1A, BMT1B and BMT1C. The BMT1A concerns with calibration of the computer codes with a reference Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The objective is to validate the numerical approaches, computer codes and material models, so that the teams simulating tools are at a comparable level of maturity and sophistication. The BMT1B uses the calibrated codes to perform scoping calculations, considering varying degrees of THM coupling and varying permeability values of the surrounding rock for a reference generic repository design without fractures. The aim is to identify the coupling mechanisms of importance for construction, performance and safety of the repository. BMT1C concerns with scoping calculations with different coupling combinations for the case where a horizontal fracture intersects the deposition hole and a vertical fracture zone divides two adjacent deposition tunnel/hole system. A hydrostatic condition is applied along the vertical fracture as a hydraulic boundary condition. In addition, the SKI/KTH team performed an additional calculation case of a highly fractured rock mass with two orthogonal sets of fractures with a spacing of 0.5 m. The chosen measures for evaluating the long term safety and performance of the repository are the maximal temperature created by the thermal loading from the emplaced wastes, the time for resaturation of the buffer, the maximal swelling stress developed in the buffer, the structural integrity of the rock mass and the permeability evolution in the rock mass. The analyses fro BMT1C were conducted by four research teams: SKI/KTH (Sweden), CNSC (Canada), IRSN/CEA(France) and JNC (Japan), using FEM approach with different computer codes. From the results, it is clear that the

  6. Study on distribution rule of sliding pushing force and remnant resistant sliding force acting on anti-sliding pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyang YU; Lei NIE

    2006-01-01

    Anti-slide pile is one of the important methods to administer landslide geological disaster because of its advantages. It plays important role in administering landslide. It is a premise of reasonable economy and technological advance to know the distribution rule and feature of the force between anti-sliding pile and surrounding rock. To determine the sliding force and remnant resistant sliding force, according to need of study, this paper sets up the geological model and mechanics model in term of a typical landslide, and analyzes the effect rule of sliding body distortion, strength and gravity to the pushing force and remnant resistant sliding force by use of the numerical model. The distribution rule of pushing force and remnant resistant sliding force of the type of landslide is given.

  7. Durabilidade de peças cerâmicas vermelhas com adição de rejeito de rocha ornamental isenta de granalha Durability of red ceramic samples with addition of ornamental rock waste free of steel particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação da degradação acelerada em laboratório sofrida pelos corpos de prova de cerâmica vermelha com adição de rejeito de rocha ornamental isento de granalha, foi utilizado um equipamento que lixivia com água quente e fria em tempos controlados, e também, congela a amostra em até -4 ºC. Os corpos de prova cerâmicos foram confeccionados com até 10% em massa de rejeito de rocha ornamental a seco, e em seguida, umedecidos e moldados por extrusão. Os materiais produzidos foram calcinados nas temperaturas de 700 ºC, 800 ºC e 900 ºC. Após 1060 h de degradação acelerada em equipamento de laboratório, analisaram-se as propriedades cerâmicas do material. Os resultados das resistências mecânicas foram comparados através da distribuição de Weibull, antes e depois da degradação. Nota-se que o material com adição de 10% de rejeito de rocha ornamental na massa cerâmica é mais confiável quando queimada a 900 ºC após a degradação, quando comparados com as amostras sem adição de rejeito, proporcionando maior durabilidade.For the evaluation of the accelerated degradation in laboratory of red ceramic specimens with addition of ornamental rock waste free from steel particles, an equipment that leach with hot and cool water and time control, and also freezing the specimen at -4 ºC was used,. The ceramic samples were made with up to 10 wt.% of the dry ornamental rock waste, and after humidifying and molding by extrusion. The specimens were fired at 700 ºC, 800 ºC and 900 ºC. After 1060 h of accelerated degradation lab test, ceramic properties were evaluated. The results of the strength were compared for Weibull distribution, before and after degradation. The specimens with addition of 10 wt.% waste is more durable and reliable when fired to 900 ºC after the degradation.

  8. Fluid geochemistry associated associated to rocks: preliminary tests om minerals of granite rocks potentially hostess of radioactive waste repository; Geoquimica de fluidos associados a rochas: testes preliminares em minerais de rochas granitoides potencialmente hospedeiras de repositorios de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Lucas E.D.; Rios, Francisco J.; Oliveira, Lucilia A.R. de; Alves, James V.; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Garcia, Luiz; Ribeiro, Yuri, E-mail: LDAmorim@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Matos, Evandro C. de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Fluid inclusions (FI) are micro cavities present on crystals and imprison the mineralizer fluids, and are formed during or posterior to the mineral formation. Those kind of studies are very important for orientation of the engineer barrier projects for this purpose, in order to avoid that the solutions present in the mineral FI can affect the repository walls. This work proposes the development of FI micro compositional studies in the the hostess minerals viewing the contribution for a better understanding of the solution composition present in the metamorphosis granitoid rocks. So, micro thermometric, microchemical and characterization of the material confined in the FI, and the hostess minerals. Great part of the found FI are present in the quartz and plagioclase crystals. The obtained data on the mineral compositions and their inclusions will allow to formulate hypothesis on the process which could occurs at the repository walls, decurrens from of the corrosive character (or not) of the fluids present in the FI, and propose measurements to avoid them

  9. Trace-metal sources and their release from mine wastes: examples from humidity cell tests of hardrock mine waste and from Warrior Basin coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Desborough, G.A.; White, W.W.; Lapakko, K.A.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Fey, David L.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the potential impact of metal and acid contamination from mine-waste piles, it is important to identify the mineralogic source of trace metals and their mode of occurrence. Microscopic analysis of mine-waste samples from both hard-rock and coalmine waste samples demonstrate a microstructural control, as well as mineralogic control, on the source and release of trace metals into local water systems. The samples discussed herein show multiple periods of sulfide mineralization with varying concentrations of trace metals. In the first case study, two proprietary hard-rock mine-waste samples exposed to a series of humidity cell tests (which simulate intense chemical weathering conditions) generated acid and released trace metals. Some trace elements of interest were: arsenic (45-120 ppm), copper (60-320 ppm), and zinc (30-2,500 ppm). Untested and humidity cell-exposed samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX), and electron microprobe analysis. Studies of one sample set revealed arsenic-bearing pyrite in early iron- and magnesium-rich carbonate-filled microveins, and iron-, copper-, arsenic-, antimony-bearing sulfides in later crosscutting silica-filled microveins. Post humidity cell tests indicated that the carbonate minerals were removed by leaching in the humidity cells, exposing pyrite to oxidative conditions. However, sulfides in the silica-filled veins were more protected. Therefore, the trace metals contained in the sulfides within the silica-filled microveins may be released to the surface and (or) ground water system more slowly over a greater time period. In the second case study, trace metal-rich pyrite-bearing coals from the Warrior Basin, Alabama were analyzed. Arsenic-bearing pyrite was observed in a late-stage pyrite phase in microfaults and microveins that crosscut earlier arsenic.

  10. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task B. Understanding and characterizing the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ). Final Report (EDZ Guidance Document) Characterising and Modelling the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) in Crystalline Rocks in the Context of Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, John A. (Imperial College and Rock Engineering Consultants (United Kingdom)); Baeckstroem, Ann; Lanru Jing (Royal lnstitute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rutqvist, Jonny (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)) (eds.) (and others)

    2008-06-15

    This report is intended as a Guidance Document explaining current knowledge about the nature of and potential for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical modelling of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) around the excavations for an underground radioactive waste repository. In Part 1 of the report, the disturbances associated with excavation are explained together with reviews of Workshops that have been held on the subject. The manifold aspects of the EDZ are discussed under the three headings of the rock mass response to tunnelling, the influence of the excavation method, and EDZ characterisation methods. The evolution of the repository over thousands of years is qualitatively described via the subjects of time-dependent effects and stress redistribution, thermal effects, hydrogeological effects, and chemical effects. The first part of the document concludes with a discussion of uncertainties and limitations in measuring and characterising the EDZ. In Part 2 of the report, the results of a DECOVALEX research programme on modelling the EDZ are presented. Initially, the research involved the physical testing and computer modelling of the failure behaviour of a rock specimen in uniaxial compression. Four research teams used four different models to simulate the complete stress-strain curve for Aevroe granite from the Swedish Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Conclusions are then made concerning the overall capabilities of these models. Subsequent research extended the work to computer simulation of the evolution of the repository using a 'wall block model' and a 'near-field model'. This included assessing the evolution of stress, failure and permeability and time dependent effects during repository evolution. In both sets of computer modelling, the types of codes used were an Elasto-Plastic Cellular Automaton (EPCA), the FRACOD boundary element (BEM) code with discrete fracture propagation, the THAMES finite element (FEM) code, and PFC, a distinct element

  11. ROCK ON

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas Grose

    2014-01-01

    ..., however, was music - especially the high-pitched sounds of pop and rock, which boosted energy output by up to 40 percent. By contrast, classical music's lower pitches barely raised effectiveness. O...

  12. Analysis of Wave Fields induced by Offshore Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnau, M.; Heitmann, K.; Lippert, T.; Lippert, S.; von Estorff, O.

    2015-12-01

    Impact pile driving is the common technique to install foundations for offshore wind turbines. With each hammer strike the steel pile - often exceeding 6 m in diameter and 80 m in length - radiates energy into the surrounding water and soil, until reaching its targeted penetration depth. Several European authorities introduced limitations regarding hydroacoustic emissions during the construction process to protect marine wildlife. Satisfying these regulations made the development and application of sound mitigation systems (e.g. bubble curtains or insulation screens) inevitable, which are commonly installed within the water column surrounding the pile or even the complete construction site. Last years' advances have led to a point, where the seismic energy tunneling the sound mitigation systems through the soil and radiating back towards the water column gains importance, as it confines the maximum achievable sound mitigation. From an engineering point of view, the challenge of deciding on an effective noise mitigation layout arises, which especially requires a good understanding of the soil-dependent wave field. From a geophysical point of view, the pile acts like a very unique line source, generating a characteristic wave field dominated by inclined wave fronts, diving as well as head waves. Monitoring the seismic arrivals while the pile penetration steadily increases enables to perform quasi-vertical seismic profiling. This work is based on datasets that have been collected within the frame of three comprehensive offshore measurement campaigns during pile driving and demonstrates the potential of seismic arrivals induced by pile driving for further soil characterization.

  13. Three-dimensional analysis of slopes reinforced with piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉峰; 叶茂; 张飞

    2015-01-01

    Based on the upper bound of limit analysis, the plane-strain analysis of the slopes reinforced with a row of piles to the 3D case was extended. A 3D rotational failure mechanism was adopted to yield the upper bound of the factor of safety. Parametric studies were carried out to explore the end effects of the slope failures and the effects of the pile location and diameter on the safety of the reinforced slopes. The results demonstrate that the end effects nearly have no effects on the most suitable location of the installed piles but have significant influence on the safety of the slopes. For a slope constrained to a narrow width, the slope becomes more stable owing to the contribution of the end effects. When the slope is reinforced with a row of piles in small space between piles, the effects of group piles are significant for evaluating the safety of slopes. The presented method is more appropriate for assessing the stability of slopes reinforced with piles and can be also utilized in the design of plies stabilizing the unstable slopes.

  14. Analysis of Pile Deformation Characters and Settlement of Pile Group Including New and Old Piles Considering Pile Timeliness%考虑沉桩时效性的新旧桩变形特性与沉降分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓晨; 朱杰江

    2016-01-01

    The bearing capacity of residue pile should be reassessed and then the internal relations and differences between the new pile and the residue one should be analyzed in soft soil area. Load⁃settlement relationship is expected to be obtained from above research. A three dimensional elastic⁃plastic finite element model is established by ABAQUS, old and new pile effect and the corresponding differential settlement are studied, and the load influencing factors of old and new piles are discussed. Research results show that with the increase of length to diameter ratio, the old and new pile settlement difference is slightly decreasing. With the increase of new pile diameter, pile of old and new different settlement are substantially reduced. With the increase of pile spacing and diameter ratio, the old pile settlement decreases sharply.%软土地区旧桩重新利用时须重新评估其承载能力,计算明确旧桩承载力与新桩承载力之间的内在联系与差异。采用ABAQUS软件构建新旧桩共同作用的三维弹塑性有限元分析模型,研究了新旧桩共同作用效应及相应的差异沉降,并对影响新旧桩荷载⁃沉桩关系的影响因素进行讨论。研究成果表明:随着长径比的增加,新旧桩的沉降差小幅减小;随着新桩桩径的增加,新旧桩的沉降差大幅减小;随着桩距与直径比值的增加,旧桩沉降大幅减小。

  15. Analysis of static and dynamic pile-soil-jacket behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azadi, Mohammad Reza Emami

    1998-12-31

    In the offshore industry, recent extreme storms, severe earthquakes and subsidence of the foundation of jacket platforms have shown that new models and methods must take into account the jacket- pile-soil foundation interaction as well as the non-linear dynamic performance/loading effects. This thesis begins with a review of the state of art pile-soil interaction model, recognizing that most existing pile-soil models have been established based on large diameter pile tests on specific sites. The need for site independent and mechanistic pile-soil interaction models led to the development of new (t-z) and (p-y) disk models. These are validated using the available database from recent large diameter pile tests in the North Sea and Gulf of Mexico. The established static disk models are applied for non-linear static analysis of the jacket-pile-soil system under extreme wave loading. Dynamic pile-soil interaction is studied and a new disk-cone model is developed for the non-linear and non-homogeneous soils. This model is applied to both surface and embedded disks in a soil layer with non-linear properties. Simplified non-linear as well as more complex analysis methods are used to study the dynamic response of the jacket platform under extreme sea and seismic loading. Ductility spectra analysis is introduced and used to study the dynamic performance of the jacket systems near collapse. Case studies are used to illustrate the effects of structural, foundation failure characteristics as well as dynamic loading effects on the overall performance of the jacket-pile-soil systems near ultimate collapse. 175 refs., 429 figs., 70 tabs.

  16. The effect of loading rate on pile bearing capacity of saturated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archeewa, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pile load tests are commonly used by engineers to determine its bearing capacity. At present, there are three methods of pile load tests: the static, the dynamic and the quasi-static test. The static pile load test is done by applying an axial load on the pile with a long duration. The dynamic and q

  17. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  18. The effect of loading rate on pile bearing capacity of saturated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archeewa, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pile load tests are commonly used by engineers to determine its bearing capacity. At present, there are three methods of pile load tests: the static, the dynamic and the quasi-static test. The static pile load test is done by applying an axial load on the pile with a long duration. The dynamic and q

  19. Laboratory Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hansen, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  20. Discrimination of pile up in a fission fragment detection experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dematte, L; Bax, H

    2002-01-01

    In this work the problem introduced in a fission experiment by the pile-up due to a strong alpha-background has been addressed. A novel scheme has been developed, able to reject more than 90% of pile-up affected pulses in a plutonium sample with an activity of approx 1 MBq. This procedure is necessary in order to improve the resolution to an acceptable level. With a proper calibration, however, the global mean energy and mass of the fragments are correctly reproduced both with and without pile-up rejection.

  1. Temporal and spatial variability of acid rock drainage in a rehabilitated coal mine, Wangaloa, South Otago, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begbie, M.; Craw, D.; Rufaut, C.; Martin, C. [University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    2007-09-15

    The Wangaloa open cast coal mine ceased operations in 1989, with no restoration of the 252 ha site, and moderate acid rock drainage developed. A major rehabilitation programme was initiated in 2002 with removal of exotic vegetation, and extensive planting ({gt}60,000) of native seedlings was begun in 2003. In 2003, substrates had moderate acidity (pH = 4.5 {+-} 0.9) with distinctly acid patches (pH down to {lt}2). By 2006, the average substrate pH was essentially unchanged. Some distinctly acid patches had higher pH, and one patch had apparently become more acid. Water compositions ({gt}100 samples frorn 15 sites) were also highly variable spatially and temporally. Incoming stream and rainwater (pH 5-6) chemically interacted with acid substrates, especially waste rock piles that contain pyrite-bearing material, and evolved to lower pH (pH down to 3.4), sulfate-rich waters. A pit take on the site receives most surface and groundwater runoff, and this lake, with a water residence time of 1-2 yr, controls the site discharge water quality. The lake pH varies on a monthly time-scale from 4.5 to 6.5, synchronised with pH variations in groundwater boreholes in waste rock. In addition, there has been a general increase in pH of the take during rehabilitation from consistent pH 4.6-4.8 before rehabilitation to near pH 6 during rehabilitation. The sulfate/chloride ratio of lake water has decreased from 20 to {lt}10 during rehabilitation as well. These changes in lake water composition from year to year may be a result of increased input of rainwater that has had less interaction with substrate than runoff water had before rehabilitation began.

  2. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    Reported are: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, criteria for defining waste isolation, and spent fuel and pool component integrity. (DLC)

  3. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  4. Numerical Simulation for the Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction under Seismic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Luan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles are widely used as reinforcement structures in geotechnical engineering designs. If the settlement of the soil is greater than the pile, the pile is pulled down by the soil, and negative friction force is produced. Previous studies have mainly focused on the interaction of pile-soil under static condition. However, many pile projects are located in earthquake-prone areas, which indicate the importance of determining the response of the pile-soil structure under seismic load. In this paper, the nonlinear, explicit, and finite difference program FLAC3D, which considers the mechanical behavior of soil-pile interaction, is used to establish an underconsolidated soil-pile mode. The response processes of the pile side friction force, the pile axial force, and the soil response under seismic load are also analyzed.

  5. The Influence of Time on Bearing Capacity of Driven Piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. Lysebjerg; Augustesen, A.; Sørensen, Carsten S.

    2004-01-01

    In Danish engineering practice, one of the ways to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of an axially loaded pile is by means of geostatic formulas. In the equation describing the contribution from the shaft friction to the total bearing capacity for piles located entirely or partly in clay......, a regeneration factor appears. The regeneration factor accounts for effects of dissipation of pore pressure due to pile driving and true time effects such as ageing on the ultimate bearing capacity. Normally the factor is 0.4 but in this paper, the influence of the undrained shear strength and time...... on the regeneration factor is investigated. A relation between the quantities is proposed, which in the end may imply an economical benefit in the design of pile foundations....

  6. Residual settlement calculation of geocell cushion over gravel piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌富; 杨宇; 肖淑君; 周志军

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of residual settlement of bidirectional reinforced composite foundation, which is composed of geocell cushion over gravel piles, was studied. The geocell cushion was modeled as a thin flexible plate with large deflection. Based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis, the governing differential equations and boundary conditions of the deformation of geocell cushion under working load were founded using von Karman method and solved by Galerkin method. On theses bases, the gravel piles and inter-pile soils were assumed as Winkler ground with variable spring stiffness so as to execute the approximate calculation of the residual settlement of the bidirectional reinforced composite foundation. The calculation method was verified by two laboratory experiments concerning settlement of embankments. One experiment was with just geocell cushion installed to treat the soft clay under embankments; another one was with both geocell cushion and gravel piles installed. The results show that the calculated settlement curve and the maximum settlement are closed to the observed ones.

  7. Airborne thermography of temperature patterns in sugar beet piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. G.; Bichsel, S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of thermography for locating spoilage areas (chimneys) within storage piles and to subsequently use the information for the scheduling of their processing. Thermal-infrared quantitative scanner data were acquired initially on January 16, 1975, over the storage piles at Moorhead, Minnesota, both during the day and predawn. Photographic data were acquired during the day mission to evaluate the effect of uneven snow cover on the thermal emittance, and the predawn thermography was used to locate potential chimneys. The piles were examined the day prior for indications of spoilage areas, and the ground crew indicated that no spoilage areas were located using their existing methods. Nine spoilage areas were interpreted from the thermography. The piles were rechecked by ground methods three days following the flights. Six of the nine areas delineated by thermography were actual spoilage areas.

  8. Lateral response of pile foundations in liquefiable soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asskar Janalizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction has been a main cause of damage to civil engineering structures in seismically active areas. The effects of damage of liquefaction on deep foundations are very destructive. Seismic behavior of pile foundations is widely discussed by many researchers for safer and more economic design purposes. This paper presents a pseudo-static method for analysis of piles in liquefiable soil under seismic loads. A free-field site response analysis using three-dimensional (3D numerical modeling was performed to determine kinematic loads from lateral ground displacements and inertial loads from vibration of the superstructure. The effects of various parameters, such as soil layering, kinematic and inertial forces, boundary condition of pile head and ground slope, on pile response were studied. By comparing the numerical results with the centrifuge test results, it can be concluded that the use of the p-y curves with various degradation factors in liquefiable sand gives reasonable results.

  9. Computerised analysis of sulphate action on model concrete piles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukh, A.M.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venugopal, C.

    Sulphate action severely affects the durability of marine structures. It is imperative to study precisely the effects of magnesium sulphate on pile foundations in the marine environment. In the present paper an attempt is made to assess and analyse...

  10. As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160914.html As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution To minimize exposure, researchers recommend shutting windows and ... Doing so can reduce your exposure to toxic air pollution from a traffic jam by up to 76 ...

  11. New Mathematical Modelling of Stabilizing Pile with Prestressed Tieback Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mathematical modelling for analyzing stabilizing piles with prestressed tieback anchors. The new differential equations governing the mechanical response of the stabilizing pile are formulated and the boundary conditions considering the tie-back anchors are mathematically specified. Then, the system of differential equations is numerically solved by the high-accuracy Runge-Kutta finite difference method. A simple computer program has been written on the platform of MATLAB to run the procedure of the proposed algorithm. This approach is entirely different from the traditional finite element method used to design the anchored piles. The FEM is employed to verify the feasibility of the developed method. The comparative case study indicates that the proposed method has more higher modeling and computing efficiency than the FEM and can be an alternative method for designing the anchored pile used for slope stabilization.

  12. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    in dry sand by use of centrifuge modelling and to compare the findings with the standard p-y curves. It has been chosen to apply piles with an embedment length of 6 to 10 times the diameter of the applied piles. The general static behaviour of monopiles in dry sand has based on centrifuge tests been...... in sand by use of physical modelling and comparison of the findings with standard p-y curves. The present research is based on use of the centrifuge facilities at Danish Technical University (DTU), the sole geotechnical centrifuge in Scandinavia. It became evident in the initial phase of the research...... that the available centrifuge facilities at DTU was outdated and the focus was changed to establish up-to-date centrifuge facilities for medium to large diameter piles, and to initiate the research on the behaviour of large diameter piles in sand under static and cyclic loading. Key elements in the establishment...

  13. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H

    1997-12-01

    The siting, design, construction, operation, decommissioning, and closure of a geological facility for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste is a complex undertaking that will span many decades. Both technical and social issues must be taken into account simultaneously and many factors must be considered. Based on studies carried out in Canada and elsewhere, it appears that these factors can be accommodated and that geological disposal is both technically and socially feasible. But throughout the different stages of implementing disposal, technical and social issues will continue to arise and these will have to be dealt with successfully if progress is to continue. This paper discusses these issues and a proposed approach for dealing with them. (author)

  14. 'Wopmay' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an unusual, lumpy rock informally named 'Wopmay' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the Canadian bush pilot Wilfrid Reid 'Wop' May. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe the lumps in Wopmay may be related to cracking and alteration processes, possibly caused by exposure to water. The area between intersecting sets of cracks eroded in a way that created the lumpy appearance. Rover team members plan to drive Opportunity over to Wopmay for a closer look in coming sols. This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 248 (Oct. 4, 2004), using its 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  15. THE NEW STRUCTURE OF A PLATE-PILE FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMORODOV О. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the construction of high-rise buildings with significant loads on foundations and bedding at the base of not rocky soils tend to use the most common pile foundation to reduce the deformation and correspond to regulations [1] on the maximum permissible deformation. Monitoring of the stress-strain state (SSS pile foundations constructed buildings shows the existing reserves of bearing capacity on the one hand - soil bases of the second group of limit states, on the other - the foundation of the first group of limit states by regulating the SSS foundation during construction and exploitation. Therefore, are increasingly using more progressive structure of foundations consisting of piles and of plate, as well as methods for their construction [2 - 10], however, in their design there are a number of disadvantages associated with the ambiguity of the application of methods for the calculation of such structures, which allows to do only partial conclusions and recommendations. Purpose. Is proposing the new structure of a plate-pile foundation, which overcomes the drawbacks of the existing design solutions and methods of consruction their, as well as is proposing an engineering method of a determination of basic parameters. Conclusion. Is proposes the new structure of a plate-pile foundation and the method of a determination of basic parameters his in the design of a soil base to the maximum permissible deformation Su buildings. Efficiency of application this type plate-pile foundation obtained by rational distribution resistance between a plate and piles, when under load from the building to the first work fully incorporated plate that allows maximum deformed for plate, and then the piles - due to of the hinge connection with the plate. Thus, depending on the maximum permissible deformation for buildings resistance of plate part of a full load of more than 50%, that significantly reduces the consumption of concrete.

  16. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    This document is the second of four notes concerning the effects of time (in this case ageing) on the vertical capacity of piles. It includes a critical review of the relevant publications described in note a.......This document is the second of four notes concerning the effects of time (in this case ageing) on the vertical capacity of piles. It includes a critical review of the relevant publications described in note a....

  17. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars

    This document is the third of four notes concerning the vertical capacity of piles. It includes an assessment of the effect of previous static load testing upon the measured capacity, i.e. preshearing effects.......This document is the third of four notes concerning the vertical capacity of piles. It includes an assessment of the effect of previous static load testing upon the measured capacity, i.e. preshearing effects....

  18. Pile Structure Program, Projected Start Date : January 1, 2010 (Implementation).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Chris; Corbett, Catherine [Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership; Ebberts, Blaine [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    2009-07-27

    The 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion includes Reasonable and Prudent Alternative 38-Piling and Piling Dike Removal Program. This RPA directs the Action Agencies to work with the Estuary Partnership to develop and implement a piling and pile dike removal program. The program has since evolved to include modifying pile structures to enhance their habitat value and complexity by adding large woody debris. The geographic extent of the Pile Structure Program (PSP) includes all tidally-influenced portions of the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam; however, it will focus on the mainstem. The overarching goal of the PSP is to enhance and restore ecosystem structure and function for the recovery of federally listed salmonids through the active management of pile structures. To attain this goal, the program team developed the following objectives: (1) Develop a plan to remove or modify pile structures that have lower value to navigation channel maintenance, and in which removal or modification will present low-risk to adjacent land use, is cost-effective, and would result in increased ecosystem function. (2) Determine program benefits for juvenile salmonids and the ecosystem through a series of intensively monitored pilot projects. (3) Incorporate best available science and pilot project results into an adaptive management framework that will guide future management by prioritizing projects with the highest benefits. The PSP's hypotheses, which form the basis of the pilot project experiments, are organized into five categories: Sediment and Habitat-forming Processes, Habitat Conditions and Food Web, Piscivorous Fish, Piscivorous Birds, and Toxic Contaminant Reduction. These hypotheses are based on the effects listed in the Estuary Module (NOAA Fisheries in press) and others that emerged during literature reviews, discussions with scientists, and field visits. Using pilot project findings, future implementation will be adaptively managed

  19. Review of the literature on leachates from coal storage piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Runoff from coal storage piles associated with coal conversion or combustion facilities may represent a potential source of environmental pollution. This report is an assessment of existing information on coal pile leachate. The assessment indicates that few detailed studies have been conducted to date, and these are limited and the results are highly variable. More detailed long-range studies using various types of coal are recommended. These studies should be carried out both in the laboratory and in field-scale experiments.

  20. Source rock

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakr F. Makky; Mohamed I. El Sayed; Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata; Ibrahim M. Abd El-Gaied; Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah; Zakaria M. Abd-Allah

    2014-01-01

    West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro), and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members), Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history ...

  1. Discrete Fracture Network Characterization and Modeling in the Swedish Program for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Crystalline Rocks Using Information Acquired by Difference Flow Logging and Borehole Wall Image Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, S.; Stigsson, M.; Levén, J.

    2006-12-01

    Difference flow logging is a relatively new hydraulic test method. It offers a superior geometrical resolution compared to the classic double-packer injection test method. Other significant features of the difference flow logging method are the long duration of the test period and the line source flow regime. These three features are vital for the characterization and the modeling of the conductive fracture frequency in crystalline rocks. Further, combining difference flow logging with core mapping and in situ borehole wall image logging (BIPS) allows for an enhanced geological cross correlation and structural interpretation. The data and analyses presented here come from the ongoing site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in Forsmark managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. First, we demonstrate the statistical properties of the fracture transmissivities acquired by difference flow logging for a number of one-kilometer-long cored boreholes. Secondly, we make a hydraulic comparison between these data and the transmissivities acquired by double-packer injection tests. Thirdly, we present a method for investigating the geometrical connectivity of open fractures in fracture network simulations and how this connectivity can be cross correlated to the fracture transmissivity distribution acquired by difference flow logging. Finally, we discuss the geometrical properties of flowing fractures as acquired by BIPS data and the correlation to the current stress situation in Forsmark. The geometrical anisotropy observed in the transmissivity data suggests that the current stress situation is very important for the flow field in Forsmark. This puts constraints on the collection and use of geological/structural data for hydrogeological discrete fracture network modeling.

  2. Numerical modeling of centrifuge cyclic lateral pile load experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikos Gerolymos; Sandra Escoffer; George Gazetas; Jacques Gamier

    2009-01-01

    To gain insight into the inelastic behavior of piles, the response of a vertical pile embedded in dry sand and subjected to cyclic lateral loading was studied experimentally in centrifuge tests conducted in Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees. Three types of cyclic loading were applied, two asymmetric and one symmetric with respect to the unloaded pile. An approximately square-root variation of soil stiffness with depth was obtained from indirect in-flight density measurements, laboratory tests on reconstituted samples, and well-established empirical correlations. The tests were simulated using a cyclic nonlinear Winkler spring model, which describes the full range of inelastic phenomena, including separation and re-attachment of the pile from and to the soil. The model consists of three mathematical expressions capable of reproducing a wide variety of monotonic and cyclic experimental p-y curves. The physical meaning of key model parameters is graphically explained and related to soil behavior. Comparisons with the centrifuge test results demonstrate the general validity of the model and its ability to capture several features of pile-soil interaction, including: soil plastification at an early stage of loading, "pinching" behavior due to the formation of a relaxation zone around the upper part of the pile, and stiffness and strength changes due to cyclic loading. A comparison of the p-y curves derived from the test results and the proposed model, as well as those from the classical curves of Reese et al. (1974) for sand, is also presented.

  3. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K.; Tabor, Dennis; Yonker, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas-fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, filter-based metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled to determine emission factors, the amount of pollutant formed per amount of biomass burned. The effect on emissions from covering the piles with polyethylene (PE) sheets to prevent fuel wetting versus uncovered piles was also determined. Results showed that the uncovered ("wet") piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emission factors for VOCs, PM2.5, PCDD/PCDF, and PAHs. Removal of the PE prior to ignition, variation of PE size, and changing PE thickness resulted in no statistical distinction between emissions. Results suggest that dry piles, whether covered with PE or not, exhibited statistically significant lower emissions than wet piles due to better combustion efficiency.

  4. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-09-01

    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  5. PROCESS DIAGRAMS FOR INSTALLATION OF DRIVEN PILES IN PENETRATED WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main options of improved and newly devised designs and process diagrams for installation of foundations made of driven, or jack, piles in the penetrated wells with expanded shoe, mainly in weak wet (waterlogged and water-saturated soils. The article presents six options of process diagrams for installation of driven piles in penetrated wells, listing the main procedures: for well-compacted weak soils, for the case when the water ingress is excluded, for the case when it is necessary to increase the load-bearing capacity of pile's bearing face in the waterlogged soils, for the case when the load-bearing capacity of the pile shall be increased both for the end and for the sides, for the case when peat or other biogenous water-saturated soils are present at the bottom of the well, and for the case when there is no contracted zone nor practical possibility to ensure the stability of the walls. The proposed six options of process diagrams for installation of the driven piles in penetrated wells provide expansion of their area of application regarding the soil conditions, increase of load-bearing capacity, and possibility of using jack systems for driving the piles under conditions of dense urban development.

  6. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Implications of Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupling on the Near-Field Safety of a Nuclear Waste Repository in a Homogeneous Rock Mass. Report of BMT1B/WP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Nguyen, T.S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    This report presents the works performed for the second phase (BMT1B) of BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project for the period of 1999-2002. The works of BMT1 is divided into three phases: BMT1A, BMT1B and BMT1C. The BMT1A concerns with calibration of the computer codes with a reference T-H-M experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The objective is to validate the numerical approaches, computer codes and material models, so that the teams simulating tools are at a comparable level of maturity and sophistication. The BMT1B uses the calibrated codes to perform scoping calculations, considering varying degrees of THM coupling and varying permeability values of the surrounding rock for a reference generic repository design without fractures. The aim is to identify the coupling mechanisms of importance for construction, performance and safety of the repository. The chosen measures for evaluating the long term safety and performance of the repository are the maximal temperature created by the thermal loading from the emplaced wastes, the time for re-saturation of the buffer, the maximal swelling stress developed in the buffer, the structural integrity of the rock mass and the permeability evolution in the rock mass. Six teams participated in BMT1B: IRSN/CEA (France), CNSC (Canada), ANDRA/INERIS (France), JNC (Japan), BGR/ISEB-ZAG (Germany) and SKI/KTH (Sweden). All teams used FEM approach except the ANDRA/INERIS team who used the FDM approach, with different codes. All research teams except ISEB/ZAG used models with full THM coupling capabilities. The governing equations in these models were derived within the framework of Biot's theory of consolidation and have for primary unknown variables: temperature, pore fluid pressure and displacements of the solid skeleton. Since the original Biot's theory of consolidation is applicable to saturated materials and isothermal conditions, the research teams have to extend Biot's theory in order to deal with thermal effects and

  7. Corrosion Activity on CFRP-Strengthened RC Piles of High-Pile Wharf in a Simulated Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report test results from an experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP against reinforcing steel bar corrosion. Twelve reinforced-concrete pile specimens of 180 mm square by 1,600 mm long were cast. Three pile specimens were corroded to 5% steel mass loss and then strengthened with CFRP sheets; four specimens were strengthened by using CFRP sheets, whereas the remaining five specimens were not strengthened. The specimens were placed in a simulated marine environment, and corrosion was induced by an impressed current technique. At different theoretical corrosion degrees, nondestructive tests were performed to investigate the corrosion activity of the pile specimens, and destructive tests were performed to determine reinforcing steel bar mass loss. Based on the findings, the effectiveness of the CFRP-strengthened RC piles under aggressive marine environmental conditions was established.

  8. Constraints for estimating the future burial depth of host rocks for geological waste disposal: a case study from the Boom Clay, Campine area, Northern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, K.; De Craen, M.; Brassinnes, S.

    2012-04-01

    An important requirement for geological formations hosting a repository for radioactive waste is sufficient depth to ensure isolation of the waste for a very long time period, up to 1 Ma and beyond. Over such long timescales, the repository depth and the thickness of the overburden may vary significantly due to various geodynamic processes. In Belgium, the Boom Clay in the Campine area (NE-Belgium) is considered as reference host formation for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. First results are presented that illustrate the possible impact of future climate change (based on several scenarios studied in the BIOCLIM project (BIOCLIM, 2001)) and tectonic movements in the Campine area on the thickness of the sediment mass overlying the Boom Clay. At present, the subcrop area of Boom Clay in the Campine area is relatively flat (between ~ 0 m a.s.l. near the river Scheldt estuary in the west and ~ 60 m a.s.l. on the Campine Plateau in the east) and is occupied by several sub-basins that belong to the rivers Meuse and Scheldt. Future development of the area will heavily depend on the behaviour of these rivers and tributaries throughout the considered timeframe, in response to climatic changes and tectonic movements. The area is characterised by a long burial history, with some minor isolated uplift and erosional events during the last 30 Ma. In a global warming scenario during a long interglacial (> 50 ka AP), and/or in the case of subsidence, (relative) sea-level may rise such that various parts of the Boom Clay area will be occupied by the marine realm. This is likely to be a minimal erosion scenario because the baseline for landscape evolution will rise in the upstream parts while estuarine and marine deposition may increase the thickness of the overburden in the downstream parts. In the case of a continuation of Pleistocene glacial cycles, i.e. the alternation between warm interglacials and cold glacials, the area will be exposed to erosion and denudation

  9. Dispersed and piled woody residues volumes in coastal Douglas-fir cutblocks determined using high-resolution imagery from a UAV and from ground-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Gougeon, F.

    2015-12-01

    After forest harvest significant amounts of woody residues are left dispersed on site and some subsequently piled and burned. Quantification of residues is required for estimating C budgets, billable waste, harvest efficiency, bioenergy potential and smoke emissions. Trofymow (et al 2014 CJFR) compared remote sensing methods to ground-based waste and residue survey (WRS) methods for residue piles in 4 cutblocks in the Oyster River (OR) area in coastal BC. Compared to geospatial methods using 15cm orthophotos and LiDAR acquired in 2011 by helicopter, the WRS method underestimated pile wood by 30% to 50% while a USFS volume method overestimated pile wood by 50% if site specific packing ratios were not used. A geospatial method was developed in PCI Geomatica to analyze 2-bit images of logs >15cm diameters to determine dispersed wood residues in OR and compare to WRS methods. Across blocks, geospatial and WRS method wood volumes were correlated (R2=0.69), however volumes were 2.5 times larger for the geospatial vs WRS method. Methods for dispersed residues could not be properly compared as individual WRS plots were not georeferenced, only 12 plots were sampled in total, and low-resolution images poorly resolved logs. Thus, a new study in 2 cutblocks in the Northwest Bay (NWB) area acquired 2cm resolution RGB air-photography in 2014-15 using an Aeryon Sky Ranger UAV prior to and after burn pile construction. A total of 57 dispersed WRS plots and 24 WRS pile or accumulation plots were georeferenced and measured. Stero-pairs were used to generate point-clouds for pile bulk volumes. Images processed to 8-bit grey scale are being analyzed with a revised PCI method that better accounts for log overlaps. WRS methods depend on a good sample of plots and accurate determination of stratum (dispersed, roadside, piles, accumulations) areas. Analysis of NWB blocks shows WRS field methods for stratum area differ by 5-20% from that determined using orthophotos. Plot-level wood

  10. Geochemical Characteristics of TP3 Mine Wastes at the Elizabeth Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Briggs, Paul H.; Meier, Allen L.; Muzik, Timothy L.

    2003-01-01

    Remediation of the Elizabeth mine Superfund site in the Vermont copper belt poses challenges for balancing environmental restoration goals with issues of historic preservation while adopting cost-effective strategies for site cleanup and long-term maintenance. The waste-rock pile known as TP3, at the headwaters of Copperas Brook, is especially noteworthy in this regard because it is the worst source of surface- and ground-water contamination identified to date, while also being the area of greatest historical significance. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of the historic mine-waste piles known as TP3 at the Elizabeth mine Superfund site near South Strafford, Orange County, VT. TP3 is a 12.3-acre (49,780 m2) subarea of the Elizabeth mine site. It is a focus area for historic preservation because it encompasses an early 19th century copperas works as well as waste from late 19th- and 20th century copper mining (Kierstead, 2001). Surface runoff and seeps from TP3 form the headwaters of Copperas Brook. The stream flows down a valley onto flotation tailings from 20th century copper mining operations and enters the West Branch of the Ompompanoosuc River approximately 1 kilometer downstream from the mine site. Shallow drinking water wells down gradient from TP3 exceed drinking water standards for copper and cadmium (Hathaway and others, 2001). The Elizabeth mine was listed as a Superfund site in 2001, mainly because of impacts of acid-mine drainage on the Ompompanoosuc River.

  11. Preliminary report on coal pile, coal pile runoff basins, and ash basins at the Savannah River Site: effects on groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-28

    Coal storage piles, their associated coal pile runoff basins and ash basins could potentially have adverse environmental impacts, especially on groundwater. This report presents and summarizes SRS groundwater and soil data that have been compiled. Also, a result of research conducted on the subject topics, discussions from noted experts in the field are cited. Recommendations are made for additional monitor wells to be installed and site assessments to be conducted.

  12. Rock Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  13. Ayers Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧茹

    2002-01-01

    Ayers Rock is right in the centre of Australia.It's nearly two thousand kilometres______Sydney.So we flew most of the way.h was rather cloudy______But after we left the mountains behind us, there was hardly a cloud in thesky.

  14. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  15. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  16. The Supercritical Pile Model for GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2006-01-01

    We present the spectral and temporal radiative signatures expected within the Supercritical Pile model of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). This model is motivated by the need for a process that provides the dissipation necessary in GRB and presents a well defined scheme for converting the energy stored in the relativistic protons of the Relativistic Blast Waves (RBW) associated with GRB into radiation; at the same time it leads to spectra which exhibit a peak in the burst nuF(sub nu) distribution at an energy E(sub p) approximately equal to 1 MeV in the observer s frame, in agreement with observation and largely independent of the Lorentz factor GAMMA of the associated relativistic outflow. Furthermore, this scheme does not require (but does not preclude) acceleration of particles at the shock other than that provided by the isotropization of the flow bulk kinetic energy on the RBW frame. In the present paper we model in detail the evolution of protons, electrons and photons from a RBW to produce detailed spectra of the prompt GRB phase as a function of time from across a very broad range spanning roughly 4 log10 GAMMA decades in frequency. The model spectra are in general agreement with observations and provide a means for the delineating of the model parameters through direct comparison with trends observed in GRB properties.

  17. Dynamic Behaviours of a Single Soft Rock-Socketed Shaft Subjected to Axial Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-jiao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The soft rock was simulated by cement, plaster, sand, water, and concrete hardening accelerator in this paper. Meanwhile, uniaxial compressive strength tests and triaxial compression tests were conducted to study the mechanical properties of simulated soft rock samples. Model tests on a single pile socketed in simulated soft rock under axial cyclic loading were conducted by using a device which combined test apparatus with a GCTS dynamic triaxial system. Test results show that the optimal mix ratio is cement : plaster : medium sand : water : concrete hardening accelerator = 4.5% : 5.0% : 84.71% : 4.75% : 1.04%. The static load ratio (SLR, cyclic load ratio (CLR, and the number of cycles affect the accumulated deformation and cyclic secant modulus of the pile head. The accumulated deformation increases with increasing numbers of cycles. However, the cyclic secant modulus of pile head increases and then decreases with the growth in the number of cycles and finally remains stable after 50 cycles. According to the test results, the development of accumulated settlement was analysed. Finally, an empirical formula for accumulated settlement, considering the effects of the number of cycles, the static load ratio, the cyclic load ratio, and the uniaxial compressive strength, is proposed which can be used for feasibility studies or preliminary design of pile foundations on soft rock subjected to traffic loading.

  18. Parametric study on the effects of pile inclination angle on the response of batter piles in offshore jacket platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminfar, Ali; Ahmadi, Hamid; Aminfar, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Offshore jacket-type platforms are attached to the seabed by long batter piles. In this paper, results from a finite element analysis, verified against experimental data, are used to study the effect of the pile's inclination angle, and its interaction with the geometrical properties of the pile and the geotechnical characteristics of the surrounding soil on the behavior of the inclined piles supporting the jacket platforms. Results show that the inclination angle is one of the main parameters affecting the behavior of an offshore pile. We investigated the effect of the inclination angle on the maximum von Mises stress, maximum von Mises elastic strain, maximum displacement vector sum, maximum displacement in the horizontal direction, and maximum displacement in the vertical direction. The pile seems to have an operationally optimal degree of inclination of approximately 5°. By exceeding this value, the instability in the surrounding soil under applied loads grows extensively in all the geotechnical properties considered. Cohesive soils tend to display poorer results compared to grained soils.

  19. State-of-the-art review of some artificial intelligence applications in pile foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed A. Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Geotechnical engineering deals with materials (e.g. soil and rock) that, by their very nature, exhibit varied and uncertain behavior due to the imprecise physical processes associated with the formation of these materials. Modeling the behavior of such materials in geotechnical engineering applications is complex and sometimes beyond the ability of most traditional forms of physically-based engineering methods. Artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming more popular and particularly amenable to modeling the complex behavior of most geotechnical engineering applications because it has demonstrated superior predictive ability compared to traditional methods. This paper provides state-of-the-art review of some selected AI techniques and their applications in pile foundations, and presents the salient features associated with the modeling development of these AI techniques. The paper also discusses the strength and limitations of the selected AI techniques compared to other available modeling approaches.

  20. Prediction of the initial normal stress in piles and anchors constructed using expansive cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfield, C. M.

    2000-03-01

    Uses for expansive cements and additives have extended well beyond off-setting the shrinkage characteristics of grout and concrete to include enhancement of rock anchor and pile performance, providing an alternative form of connection for tubular members in off-shore structures and as an excavation tool in open-pit mines. In each case, the design rules governing the quantity of expansive additive to be used are based on guesswork or empiricism. This paper presents analytical solutions for estimating the degree of expansion and the level of normal stress developed for a range of different boundary conditions and expansive additive contents. The expansion process is modelled as a thermal expansion and is governed by one parameter that depends on the type of expansive additive and its dosage. Simple laboratory procedures for determining this property are outlined. Predictions from the analytical solutions are compared with laboratory experiments.

  1. Briquetagem da granalha de aço recuperada do resíduo de rochas ornamentais Briquetting of steel grit recovered from the ornamental rocks cutting waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Junca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho apresenta os resultados obtidos com a confecção de briquetes a partir da granalha de aço presente no resíduo de rochas ornamentais. A granalha recuperada através de separação magnética foi caracterizada pelo método titulométrico, EDS (Espectrometria por Dispersão de Elétrons e difração de raios X. O tamanho e a distribuição das partículas foram obtidos por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e análise granulométrica. O concentrado ferroso recuperado apresentou teor de 93% de ferro metálico. Os briquetes apresentaram resistência a verde para força até 1,02 kN e a seco para a força máxima de 3,59 kN.This paper presents the results obtained with the production of briquettes from the steel grit found in the residue of ornamental rocks. The grit recovered by magnetic separation was characterized by titrimetric analysis, EDS (Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction for the analysis of iron concentration in the residue. The size and distribution of particles were obtained by the granulometric analysis method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The process resulted in a concentrate containing 93% metallic iron. The maximum load before fracture of the green briquettes was 1.02kN and of the dry briquettes was 3.59kN.

  2. Dynamic characteristics of rocks and method of their determine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Schügerl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents selected problems of the research of the influence of technical vibrations on rocks. The vibrations are the products of the technological procedure, such as mining blasting, ramming of the piles, using of the drilling-equipment or vibration machines. The vibrations could be also evocated by road or train traffic. The most important dynamic characteristics of rocks are dynamic modulus of elasticity Edyn; dynamic modulus of deformation Edef, dyn; dynamic shear-modulus Gdyn; and especially dynamic Poisson´s ratio νdyn. These parameters were obtained by laboratory testing of conglomerate samples.

  3. Experimental Investigations of Tension Piles in Sand Subjected to Static and Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The present thesis regards the behavior of the piles in jacket pile foundations used for offshore wind turbines. The piles are often loaded in tension because of the combination of wind and wave conditions and the low self-weight of the wind turbine. The repeated cyclic loading can lead...... to accumulated upwards displacement of the piles and, thus, undesired deflection of the wind turbine structure. This study concerns the effect of cyclic loading on a pile installed in dense sand and loaded in tension. A new laboratory test setup was constructed to make these pile load tests. The thesis discusses...... the advantages and disadvantages of the test setup. The results of cyclic loading tests showed that the loading conditions are very important for the behavior of piles. Some wind and wave conditions can be beneficial and increase the pile capacity while other conditions can be damaging and reduce the pile...

  4. Numerical Analysis of the Stability of Embankment Slope Reinforced with Piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Wei; ZHANG Zhigeng; YAN Shuwang

    2007-01-01

    The effects of stabilizing piles on the stability of an embankment slope are analyzed by numerical simulation. The shear strength reduction method is used for the analysis, and the soil - pile interaction is simulated with zero-thickness elasto-plastic interface elements. Effects of pile spacing and pile position on the safety factor of slope and the behavior of piles under these conditions are given. The numerical analysis indicates that the positions of the pile have significant influence on the stability of the slope, and the pile needs to be installed in the middle of the slope for maximum safety factors. In the end, the soil arching effect closely associated with the space between stabilizing piles is analyzed. The results are helpful for design and construction of stabilizing piles.

  5. Seismic response of tall building considering soil-pile-structure interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The seismic behavior of tall buildings can be greatly affected by non-linear soil-pile interaction during strongearthquakes. In this study a 20-storey building is examined as a typical structure supported on a pile foundation for differentconditions: (1) rigid base, i.e. no deformation in the foundation: (2) linear soil-pile system; and (3) nonlinear soil-pile system.The effects of pile foundation displacements on the behavior of tall building are investigated, and compared with the behavior ofbuildings supported on shallow foundation. With a model of non-reflective boundary between the near field and far field,Novak's method of soil-pile interaction is improved. The computation method for vibration of pile foundations and DYNANcomputer program are introduced comprehensively. A series of dynamic experiments have been done on full-scale piles,including single pile and group, linear vibration and nonlinear vibration, to verify the validity of boundary zone model.

  6. Development technology of rigidity-drain pile and numerical analysis of its anti-liquefaction characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉龙; 陈育民; 赵楠

    2008-01-01

    Pile foundation is widely used in the offshore engineering. The pile can be seriously destroyed by the soil liquefaction during strong earthquakes. The potentials of liquefaction and damages of pile foundation due to the liquefaction can be reduced by the implementation of the drainage in the liquefiable foundation. A patented pile technology, named rigidity-drain pile, was introduced. The partial section of the pile body was filled by materials with higher penetrability which forms some effective drainage channels in the pile. The principles and construction methods were presented. 3D models for both rigidity-drain pile and ordinary pile were built in FLAC3D code. The dynamic loadings were applied on the bottom of the model. According to the numerical results, in the case of the rigidity-drain pile, the water in the relevant distance range around the pile flows toward the pile drainage, the contour of the pore pressure shows a funnel form. Contrast to the ordinary pile, the rigidity-drain pile can dissipate the accumulated excess pore water, maintain effective stress and obviously reduce the possibility of surrounding soil liquefaction.

  7. Capacity and failure mechanism of laterally loaded jet-grouting reinforced piles: Field and numerical investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ben; WANG LiZhong; HONG Yi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the results of field and numerical investigations of lateral stiffness,capacity,and failure mechanisms for plain piles and reinforced concrete piles in soft clay.A plastic-damage model is used to simulate concrete piles and jet-grouting in the numerical analyses.The field study and numerical investigations show that by applying jet-grouting surrounding the upper 7.5D (D =pile diameter) of a pile,lateral stiffness and bearing capacity of the pile are increased by about 110% and 100%,respectively.This is partially because the jet-grouting increases the apparent diameter of the pile,so as to enlarge the extent of failure wedge and hence passive resistance in front of the reinforced pile.Moreover,the jet-grouting provides a circumferential confinement to the concrete pile,which suppresses development of tensile stress in the pile.Correspondingly,tension-induced plastic damage in the concrete pile is reduced,causing less degradation of stiffness and strength of the pile than that of a plain pile.Effectiveness of the circumferential confinement provided by the jet-grouting,however,diminishes once the grouting cracks because of the significant vertical and circumferential tensile stress near its mid-depth.The lateral capacity of the jet-grouting reinforced pile is,therefore,governed by mobilized passive resistance of soil and plastic damage of jet-grouting.

  8. Seismic Demands for Pile-Supported Wharf Structures with Batter Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Amirabadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an optimal Probabilistic Seismic Demand Model (PSDM for pile-supported wharves whit batter plies. Four bins with twenty non-near-field ground motions and three typical pile-supported wharf structures from western United States ports are used to determine an optimal PSDM by using Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis (PSDA. PSDA is used to compute the relationship between Engineering Demand Parameters (EDPs and earthquake Intensity Measures (IMs. An optimal PSDM should be practical, sufficient, effective and efficient-all tested through several IM-EDP pairs. It has been found that for these types of structures, the optimal model comprises a spectral IM, such as spectral acceleration and one of several EDPs. These EDPs are considered for local (moment curvature ductility factor, intermediate (displacement ductility factor and horizontal displacement of embankment and global (differential settlement between deck and behind land response quantities. The considered PSDMs are a critical component in performance-based seismic design and seismic risk assessment. Results can be used in probabilistic framework for performance-based design developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER center.

  9. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  10. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Professional Engineer for technical data, such as design drawings and specifications, and engineering studies...) Hydrogeological and other relevant environmental conditions at the facility that may influence the migration of... waste no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive under § 261.21 or § 261.23 of this...

  11. Mechanism Research on the Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Single Pile by Pile-base Post Grouting Technique and Estimation of Bearing Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The slurry wall bored grouting has some defects. The pile-base post grouting technique can efficiently make up these defects and greatly improve the bearing capacity. Based on the pile-base post grouting technique and its process analysis, this paper carries out a detailed analysis about the improvement of mechanism of bearing capacity and mechanism of spherical expansion by the use of pile-base post grouting technique, as well as the estimation method of the bearing capacity of pile-base post grouting pile, which has a certain reference value for theoretical research and technical application of the technique.

  12. INTERACTION OF A LONG SINGLE PILE THAT HAS A DOUBLE-LAYER BASE WITH ACCOUNT FOR COMPRESSIBILITY OF THE PILE SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor'evich

    2012-07-01

    The authors provide their solution to the problem of interaction of a long compressible pile that has a double-layer linear deformable base. The paper demonstrates that taking account of compressible properties of the pile material leads to qualitatively new distribution of shearing stresses over the surface of a cylindrical pile. It is noteworthy that increase of the pile length and stiffness of the upper section of the base raise the share of the load perceived by the surface of the pile. Besides, in particular conditions of the soil environment, the load perceived by the lower section of the base may reach approximately 20-30 % of the total load.

  13. 载体桩在宁夏地区工程中的应用%Carrier pile in Ningxia area application in engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绍端; 王波; 刘晓涛; 杜方江

    2011-01-01

    The carrier pile has been used in Yinchuan technology professional college 21 #-23# students apartment building application as an example, using the carrier pile in vertical static load test and low strain of pile body completeness inspection method, the bearing capacity of pile body completeness is tested. By the test results and economic and technological comparison, we analyze the carrier in the application of engineering piles of the actual effect. The test results show that the carrier pile can bear capacity higher, lower cost, shorter construction period, which can use a lot of construction waste with economic and environmental protection, and a remarkable economic and social benefits, It will be a very broad application prospect in Ningxia.%以载体桩在银川科技职业学院21#~23#学生公寓楼的应用为实例,采用载体桩竖向静载荷试验及低应变桩身完整性检测的方法,对其承载力和桩身完整性进行了检测.通过检测结果及经济技术对比,分析了载体桩在本工程中应用的实际效果.试验结果表明,载体桩承载力高、造价低、工期短,可消耗大量建筑垃圾,既经济、环保,又有显著的经济效益和社会效益,在宁夏地区有着十分广泛应用的前景.

  14. WAVE CURRENT FORCES ON THE PILE GROUP OF BASE FOUNDATION FOR THE EAST SEA BRIDGE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the two structures of the bridge foundation designed for the East Sea Bridge, the wave current forces on four types of oblique piles, the pile group and the single piles at different positions in the pile group considering the effect of the super structures were experimentally investigated. The relationship between the wave current forces and the associated wave parameters, and the comparison of the wave current forces on the pile groups and the single piles were systematically analyzed. The group effectiveness and the reduction coefficient for the wave current forces on the group were examined for engineering design.

  15. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF PILED-RAFT FOUNDATIONS WITH SHORT-LENGTH CONIC PILES IN BUILDING AREAS OF MINSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sernov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent time piled foundations are extensively applied due to an increase of storeys in buildings constructed in Minsk and load increment on the soil. Preference is given to this approach even in the case when relatively firm soil occurs in the top part of the foundation bed. In this case maximum usage of the foundation bed bearing capacity and reduction of foundation cost are considered as top-priority tasks for designers. One of the ways to increase the bearing capacity of piled foundations is the necessity to take into account resistance of foundation bed soil located under raft bottom. The raft as well as a shallow foundation is capable to transfer a significant part of building load into the soil. Such approach makes it possible to reduce a number of piles in the foundation or shorten their length. Then it results in shortening of the construction period and significant reduction in zero cycle. However up to the present moment reliable calculation methods that permit to take into account soil resistance in the raft base. An analysis of previous investigations on the matter executed by various researchers and a number of field investigations have been carried out with the purpose to develop the proposed methods.The paper presents results of field investigations on foundations consisting of short stamped tapered piles which are joined together with the help of the raft fragment. Strength and deformation characteristics of the bases are increasing while making such foundations in the fill-up soil. In this case the filled-up ground layer becomes a bearing layer both for piles and rafts as well. Improvement of high-plastic clay-bearing soil properties is ensured by ramming dry concrete mix under pile foot. The paper describes an experience on application of the piled-raft foundation in complicated engineering and geological conditions while constructing the Orthodox Church in Minsk.

  16. Contribution to Estimating Bearing Capacity of Pile in Clayey Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusa, Marián; Gago, Filip; Vlček, Jozef

    2016-12-01

    The estimation of real geotechnical parameters is key factor for safe and economic design of geotechnical structures. One of these are pile foundations, which require proper design and evaluation due to accessing more deep foundation soil and because remediation work of not bearable piles or broken piles is a crucial operation. For this reason, geotechnical field testing like cone penetration test (CPT), standard penetration (SPT) or dynamic penetration test (DP) are realized in order to receive continuous information about soil strata. Comparing with rotary core drilling type of survey with sampling, these methods are more progressive. From engineering geologist point of view, it is more important to know geological characterization of locality but geotechnical engineers have more interest above the real geotechnical parameters of foundation soils. The role of engineering geologist cannot be underestimated because important geological processes in origin or during history can explain behaviour of a geological environment. In effort to streamline the survey, investigation by penetration tests is done as it is able to provide enough information for designers. This paper deals with actual trends in pile foundation design; because there are no new standards and usable standards are very old. Estimation of the bearing capacity of a single pile can be demonstrated on the example of determination of the cone factor Nk from CPT testing. Then results were compared with other common methods.

  17. Contribution to Estimating Bearing Capacity of Pile in Clayey Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of real geotechnical parameters is key factor for safe and economic design of geotechnical structures. One of these are pile foundations, which require proper design and evaluation due to accessing more deep foundation soil and because remediation work of not bearable piles or broken piles is a crucial operation. For this reason, geotechnical field testing like cone penetration test (CPT, standard penetration (SPT or dynamic penetration test (DP are realized in order to receive continuous information about soil strata. Comparing with rotary core drilling type of survey with sampling, these methods are more progressive. From engineering geologist point of view, it is more important to know geological characterization of locality but geotechnical engineers have more interest above the real geotechnical parameters of foundation soils. The role of engineering geologist cannot be underestimated because important geological processes in origin or during history can explain behaviour of a geological environment. In effort to streamline the survey, investigation by penetration tests is done as it is able to provide enough information for designers. This paper deals with actual trends in pile foundation design; because there are no new standards and usable standards are very old. Estimation of the bearing capacity of a single pile can be demonstrated on the example of determination of the cone factor Nk from CPT testing. Then results were compared with other common methods.

  18. Sources of salinity near a coal mine spoil pile, north-central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, R A; Otton, J K; Johnson, C A

    2001-01-01

    A small (1 km2) salt-affected stream drainage on the High Plains north of Denver, Colorado was sampled to determine the near-surface dispersion of soluble salts and metals from low-sulfur coal mining waste (spoil). Surface waters collected along the 0.8-km stream reach, and aqueous leachates of spoil and naturally saline local soil, were analyzed for chemical constituents and sulfur isotopes. In this semiarid setting with abundant carbonate-bearing surficial sediments, the limited, mildly acidic drainage from the spoil pile is quickly neutralized, restricting the mobility of many elements. However, some spoil-derived constituents were clearly traceable within the upper 0.4 km of the stream reach. Spoil leachates and surface water near the spoil pile have distinctive compositions of major anions and cations, and elevated levels of dissolved nitrate compared with downstream waters. Spoil-derived sulfate was traceable because it has generally positive values of delta34S that contrasted with generally negative values of delta34S in soil leachates and evaporite salts from the surrounding area. Spatial-chemical sampling of surface water showed an abrupt increase in dissolved U, Se, B, Li, and Mn in the lower 0.4 km of the stream reach where shallow ground water from surrounding irrigated fields contributed to surface flow. The downstream evolution of surface water chemistry and sulfur isotopic composition is consistent with mixing between spoil-affected upstream water and irrigation-return water. The methods described should be applicable at other sites in similar settings where the environmental effect of low-sulfur coal mining waste must be assessed and where access to samples of shallow ground water is limited.

  19. Gas and water flow in an excavation-induced fracture network around an underground drift: A case study for a radioactive waste repository in clay rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Vaissière, Rémi; Armand, Gilles; Talandier, Jean

    2015-02-01

    The Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) surrounding a drift, and in particular its evolution, is being studied for the performance assessment of a radioactive waste underground repository. A specific experiment (called CDZ) was designed and implemented in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in France to investigate the EDZ. This experiment is dedicated to study the evolution of the EDZ hydrogeological properties (conductivity and specific storage) of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone under mechanical compression and artificial hydration. Firstly, a loading cycle applied on a drift wall was performed to simulate the compression effect from bentonite swelling in a repository drift (bentonite is a clay material to be used to seal drifts and shafts for repository closure purpose). Gas tests (permeability tests with nitrogen and tracer tests with helium) were conducted during the first phase of the experiment. The results showed that the fracture network within the EDZ was initially interconnected and opened for gas flow (particularly along the drift) and then progressively closed with the increasing mechanical stress applied on the drift wall. Moreover, the evolution of the EDZ after unloading indicated a self-sealing process. Secondly, the remaining fracture network was resaturated to demonstrate the ability to self-seal of the COx claystone without mechanical loading by conducting from 11 to 15 repetitive hydraulic tests with monitoring of the hydraulic parameters. During this hydration process, the EDZ effective transmissivity dropped due to the swelling of the clay materials near the fracture network. The hydraulic conductivity evolution was relatively fast during the first few days. Low conductivities ranging at 10-10 m/s were observed after four months. Conversely, the specific storage showed an erratic evolution during the first phase of hydration (up to 60 days). Some uncertainty remains on this parameter due to volumetric strain during the

  20. Ground Vibration Isolation of Multiple Scattering by Using Rows of Tubular Piles as Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-miao Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formal solution for the multiple scattering of plane harmonic waves by a group of arbitrary configuration tubular piles in an elastic total space is derived. Each order of scattering satisfies prescribed boundary conditions at the interface of tubular piles, which is delivered as the sum of incident and scattering waves. The first order performs the scattering wave by each scattered pile and the subsequent orders resulted from the excitation of each pile of first order of scattering from the remaining tubular piles. Advanced scattering orders can be regarded as the same manners. Several series of scattering coefficients are figured out with the aids of addition theorem so that the exact steady-state solution for the scattered displacement and stress is obtained. Particularly, when internal diameter of tubular piles tends to be infinitely small, it degenerates to a solid pile problem. By imposing the normalized displacement amplitudes and transmissibility indices, the influences of specific parameters such as scattering orders, internal and external diameter ratio of piles, pile material rigidity, position and distances between tubular pile and pile rows, and pile numbers are discussed. Certain recommended conclusions have been drawn as the guidelines of practical engineering design for discontinuous barrier of tubular piles.

  1. Utilização do planejamento experimental em rede simplex no estudo de resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler para obtenção de máxima compacidade Use of simplex lattice experimental design in the study of ornamental rock waste as filler to obtain maximum compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Destefani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de agregados industrializados vem crescendo ao longo dos anos para atender a grande demanda da construção civil devido ao crescimento econômico do país. O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar o planejamento experimental em Rede Simplex para avaliar o efeito da adição do resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler na composição de misturas ternárias (brita 0, pó de pedra e resíduo, que levem a máxima compacidade (densidade seca aparente máxima. Foram tomados dezesseis pontos experimentais, cujos teores dos materiais utilizados variaram de 0 a 100%. O modelo em rede simplex cúbico completo apresentou melhor ajuste aos resultados experimentais, o qual resulta em respostas estatisticamente mais adequadas para as composições estudadas. A superfície de resposta gerada indicou que a densidade seca aparente máxima de 2,0 g/cm³ foi obtida para a composição ternária: 63% de brita 0/17% de pó de pedra/20% de resíduo de rocha ornamental. Portanto, o uso de resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler em agregados para a construção civil pode ser uma alternativa viável para deposição final deste abundante resíduo de forma ambientalmente correta.The use of industrial aggregates has grown over the years to meet the great demand of the civil construction due to the country's economical growth. The aim of this work was to use the experimental design in Simplex Lattice to evaluate the effect of the addition of ornamental rock waste as filler in the composition of ternary mixtures (crushed rock 0, stone powder, rock waste, leading to maximum compaction (maximum apparent dry density. Sixteen experimental points were taken, whose contents of the used materials ranged from 0 to 100%. The complete cubic simplex model showed to best fit to the experimental results, which results in more statistically appropriated responses to the studied compositions. The response surface generated indicated that the maximum apparent dry density (2

  2. Biological nutrient transformation during composting of pig manure and paper waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jonathan W C; Karthikeyan, Obulisamy P; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2017-03-01

    Composting of pig manure is a challenging task that requires appropriate co-substrate and bulking agent to provide optimum composting conditions and reduce nitrogen loss. In this study, paper waste is co-composted with pig manure as well as wood chips as the bulking agents. These raw materials were mixed at three different ratios of paper: pig manure: wood chips = 1:1:0 (pile 1), 3:2:1 (pile 2) and 3:1:1(pile 3), respectively. Each composting pile was about 11 m(3) in size equipped with negative-pressure forced aeration. The temperature of all the three piles ranged between 43 and 76°C and therefore produced pathogen-free compost. The overall total carbon reduction of 39%, 36% and 36% were achieved from pile 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The [Formula: see text] increased with the composting period, indicating the transformation of ammoniacal-N into nitrate by nitrification activity. However, all three piles showed significant variations in soluble [Formula: see text] at different stages of composting, which could be due to the microbial assimilation and mineralization. The results revealed that the co-composting of pig manure, paper along with wood chips was optimum under the mixing ratio of 3:2:1 (pile 2).

  3. ESTIMATION OF AGING EFFECTS OF PILES IN MALAYSIAN OFFSHORE LOCATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JERIN M. GEORGE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing demand for extending life and subsequently higher loading requirements of offshore jacket platforms are among the key problems faced by the offshore industry. The Aging effect has been proved to increase the axial capacity of piles, but proper methods to estimate and quantify these effects have not been developed. Borehole data from ten different Malaysian offshore locations have been analysed and they were employed to estimate the setup factor for different locations using AAU method. The setup factors found were used in the Skov and Denver equation to calculate capacity ratios of the offshore piles. The study showed that there will be an average improvement in the axial capacity of offshore piles by 42.2% and 34.9% for clayey and mixed soils respectively after a time equal to the normal design life (25 years of a jacket platform.

  4. Design of Jetty Piles Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjei Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the complication of jetty pile design process, artificial neural networks (ANN are adopted. To generate the training samples for training ANN, finite element (FE analysis was performed 50 times for 50 different design cases. The trained ANN was verified with another FE analysis case and then used as a structural analyzer. The multilayer neural network (MBPNN with two hidden layers was used for ANN. The framework of MBPNN was defined as the input with the lateral forces on the jetty structure and the type of piles and the output with the stress ratio of the piles. The results from the MBPNN agree well with those from FE analysis. Particularly for more complex modes with hundreds of different design cases, the MBPNN would possibly substitute parametric studies with FE analysis saving design time and cost.

  5. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    Small-scale tests have been conducted for the purpose of investigating the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank such that......Small-scale tests have been conducted for the purpose of investigating the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank...... such that it was possible to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. Hereby, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests has been avoided. A scaling law for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The novel testing method has been validated against...

  6. A Simple Pile-up Model for Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Diego J. R.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a simple pile-up model is presented. This model calculates the probability P(n| N) of having n counts if N particles collide with a sensor during an exposure time. Through some approximations, an analytic expression depending on only one parameter is obtained. This parameter characterizes the pile-up magnitude, and depends on features of the instrument and the source. The statistical model obtained permits the determination of probability distributions of measured counts from the probability distributions of incoming particles, which is valuable for time series analysis. Applicability limits are discussed, and an example of the improvement that can be achieved in the statistical analysis considering the proposed pile-up model is shown by analyzing real data.

  7. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    . The expected development of offshore wind farms is towards larger farms, larger turbines and larger water depths. Monopiles have been applied widely and it is of interest to investigate the possibilities to further optimize the design and in particular the modelling of the soil-structure interaction...... on the structure and the productivity of the turbine. Current design practice for monopiles are based on p-y curves developed for slender piles with a diameter of 0.6 m. The focus on the structure stiffness has entailed a significant research on the soil-structure interaction for large diameter monopiles...... in dry sand by use of centrifuge modelling and to compare the findings with the standard p-y curves. It has been chosen to apply piles with an embedment length of 6 to 10 times the diameter of the applied piles. The general static behaviour of monopiles in dry sand has based on centrifuge tests been...

  8. The Pressure Limitations on Flux Pile-Up Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Y. E.

    1999-05-01

    Flux pile-up magnetic reconnection was thought to be able to provide fast energy dissipation a strongly magnetized plasma, for example, in solar flares. We examine the problem of the plasma pressure limitations on the rapidity of flux pile-up reconnection. It is shown that for a two-dimensional stagnation point flow with nonzero vorticity the magnetic merging rate cannot exceed the Sweet-Parker scaling in a low-beta plasma, which is too slow to explain flares. Moreover, the solution has some undesireable properties such as a diffusion layer at the external boundary and the massively increasing inflow speed. The pressure limitation appears to be somewhat less restrictive for three-dimensional flux pile-up. This work was supported by NSF grant ATM-9813933.

  9. Grouting Control for Deep-Water Jacket Skirt Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing; ZHANG Jianxin; XU Lianjiang

    2006-01-01

    Deep-water jacket skirt pile grouting is a critical step in ocean platform construction. Because of the complexity of the skirt pile structure and grouting pipeline, the calculation of grouting pressure and the control of output pressure are involved. Beginning with the jacket skirt pile grouting construction scheme, grouting pressure is estimated on the basis of engineering fluid mechanics theory and variable frequency control technique. Programmable logic controller is the center of grouting pressure control system, which accomplishes the flow control of cement buffer tank water buffer tank, additive buffer tank, cement metering tank, water metering tank, additive metering tank, mixer and agitator. Based on PROFIBUS-DP network, the output pressure of the slurry pump is controlled by the inverter. This method has been applied successfully in JZ20-2 Nor. high spot jacket platform construction.

  10. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    of up-to-date facilities has been: Equipment for controlling centrifuge tests, data acquisition, preparation of test samples and equipment for and making of lateral load tests. The present research has been narrowed to investigate the static and cyclic behaviour of stiff piles with a diameter of 1-3 m...... on the structure and the productivity of the turbine. Current design practice for monopiles are based on p-y curves developed for slender piles with a diameter of 0.6 m. The focus on the structure stiffness has entailed a significant research on the soil-structure interaction for large diameter monopiles....... Comparison of the different approaches shows some discrepancy and conflicting statements, but the main findings can be summarized as: • The standard p-y curves are inadequate to describe the behaviour of lateral loaded large diameter rigid piles. • Initial stiffness of the p-y curves is depended...

  11. X-ray spectroscopy around the pile-up region

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kumar, Basu; Puri, Nitin Kumar; Nandi, Tapan

    2015-01-01

    We report a pile-up rejection technique based on X-ray absorption concept of Beer-Lambert law for measuring true events in the pile-up region. We have detected a four orders times weaker peak in the pile-up region. This technique also enables one to resolve the weak peaks adjacent to an intense peak provided the latter lies in the lower energy side, and the peaks are at least theoretically resolvable by the detector used. We have resolved such peaks by reducing the intensity ratios in our experiment. The technique allows us to obtain the actual intensities of the observed peaks to have been measured without any attenuator. The possible applications of this technique can be to study the physics of two electron one-photon transition as well as the properties of projectile-like or target-like ions.

  12. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned.

  13. Target reliability index for serviceability limit state of single piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边晓亚; 郑俊杰; 徐志军; 章荣军

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to develop an approach for the determination of the target reliability index for serviceability limit state (SLS) of single piles. This contributes to conducting the SLS reliability-based design (RBD) of piles. Based on a two-parameter, hyperbolic curve-fitting equation describing the load−settlement relation of piles, the SLS model factor is defined. Then, taking into account the uncertainties of load−settlement model, load and bearing capacity of piles, the formula for computing the SLS reliability index (βsls) is obtained using the mean value first order second moment (MVFOSM) method. Meanwhile, the limit state function for conducting the SLS reliability analysis by the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is established. These two methods are finally applied to determine the SLS target reliability index. Herein, the limiting tolerable settlement (slt) is treated as a random variable. For illustration, four load test databases from South Africa are compiled again to conduct reliability analysis and present the recommended target reliability indices. The results indicate that the MVFOSM method overestimatesβsls compared to that computed by the MCS method. Besides, both factor of safety (FS) and slt are key factors influencingβsls, so the combination of FS andβsls is welcome to be used for the SLS reliability analysis of piles when slt is determined. For smaller slt, pile types and soils conditions have significant influence on the SLS target reliability indices; for larger slt, slt is the major factor having influence on the SLS target reliability indices. This proves that slt is the most key parameter for the determination of the SLS target reliability index.

  14. AN ANALYTICAL SOLUTION TO LONGITUDINAL VIBRATION OF A PILE OF ARBITRARY SEGMENTS WITH VARIABLE MODULUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Teng; Wang Kuihua; Xie Kanghe

    2001-01-01

    The vibration problem of a pile of arbitrary segments with variable modulus under exciting force is established, in which the influence of the soil under pile toe and the surroundings is taken into account. With Laplace transforms, the transmit functions for velocity and displacement of pile are derived. Furthermore, in terms of the convolution theorem and inversed Laplace transform, an analytical solution for the time domain response of a pile subjected to a semi-sine impulse is developed,which is the theoretical basis of the sonic method in pile integrity testing. Based on the solution, the vibration properties of pile with sharp or continuous modulus are studied. The validity of this approach is verified through fidd dynamic tests on some engineering piles. It shows that the theoretical prediction and the response of the pile are in good agreement.

  15. Experimental study on DX pile performance in frozen soils under lateral loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoBing Liu; LiHong Chen; ZhongYang Yu; JianXiao Hu; Wen Peng

    2013-01-01

    Experiments about working mechanism and mechanical characteristics of the DX model pile foundation under lateral dynamic and static loading were conducted by using a model system of the dynamic frozen soil-pile interaction. The horizontal displacement-force relationship of the pile head and bending moment distribution along the body in frozen soils of different temperatures were discussed. According to test results, both the horizontal displacement-force relationship of the DX pile head and bending moment distribution of the DX pile body are smaller than that of equal-diameter piles under same lateral loads. The piles with different plate positions show different displacements and bending moments. This phenomenon is mainly related to the soil temperature and bearing plates locations. Thus, dynamic response analysis of the pile foundation should be taken into account.

  16. Numerical Analysis of Interaction Between Pile-Supported Pier and Bank Slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王年香

    2001-01-01

    Two- and three-dimensional finite element analysis programs for pile-soil interaction are compiled. Duncan-Chang's Model is used. The construction sequence of the pier is modeled. The pile-soil interface element is used. The influence of the combination type of piles on the deformation of bank slope and pile behaviour is analyzed. Different designs of a pile-supported pier are compared thoroughly. Calculation results show that the stresses and displacements of the pile are directly related to the distance from the bank slope and the direction of inclination. An inclined prop pile set in the rear platform would remarkably reduce the stresses of piles and the displacement of the pier.

  17. The effect of the cover and landscape design of waste rock dumps and tailings ponds on the water balance; Die wasserhaushaltliche Wirkung der Abdeckung und Landschaftsgestaltung von Halden und Absetzanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehne, R. [C and E Consulting und Engineering GmbH (Germany); Eckart, M. [GEOCONTROL GmbH (Germany); Marski, R.; Wolf, J. [WISMUT GmbH (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The dimensioning of cover systems for waste rock dumps and tailings ponds requires the prognosis of the water balances. Site specific field experiments as well as additional modelling efforts are necessary. The cover system could be a simple recultivation layering or a storage systems or a complex multi-layer-system. Uncovered dumps show typical percolation rates between 30 and 60%. Storage cover systems reduce the percolation rate down to 15 to 35%. The evapotranspiration rate is influenced especially by exposition and vegetation. Specific features for the cover of tailings ponds include a very low surface slope and the of percolation rate below 10%. Therefore, multi-layer-systems are most suitable, also because it is characterized by very low drainage velocities of hypodermic runoffs. The resulting, but temporarily high moisture and almost standing water at the surface leads to extreme evapotranspiration rates and consequently to an increase of percolation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Dimensionierung von Abdecksystemen und die nachfolgende Landschaftsgestaltung von Halden und Absetzanlagen des vormaligen Uranerzbergbaues im Zuge einer nachhaltigen umweltwirksamen Sanierung erfordert Prognosen der sich einstellenden wasserhaushaltlichen Verhaeltnisse. Diese lassen sich durch standortspezifische Feldexperimente und Messungen stuetzen, erfordern aber auch ergaenzende Simulationsrechnungen mittels geeigneter Modelle. Die standortrelevante Abdeckkonfiguration reicht von einfachen Rekultivierungsschichten bis zu komplexen Mehrbarrierensystemen. Unabgedeckte Halden sind durch Infiltrationsraten zwischen 30 und 60% gekennzeichnet. Abdeckungen mit 1 m Rekultivierungs- und Speicherschicht reduzieren die Perkolation durch die Halden auf 15 bis 35%. Dabei spielen Exposition und Art des Bewuchses eine wichtige verdunstungswirksame Rolle. Naturnahe Abdecksysteme sind effektiv und von ausgewogenem Wasserhaushalt. Die Spezifik der Abdeckung von Absetzanlagen besteht in dem sehr

  18. Wave Run-up on Slender Piles in Design Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Damsgaard, M. L.;

    2011-01-01

    in the design of Horns Reef 1. As a consequence damage was observed on the platforms. This has been the situation for several sites and design tools for platform loads are lacking. As a consequence a physical model test study was initiated at Aalborg University to clarify wave run-up on cylindrical piles...... to the pile an empirical factor is included on the velocity head. The evaluation of the calculation model shows that an accurate design rule can be established even in breaking wave conditions. However, calibration of a load model showed that it was necessary to increase the run-up factor on the velocity head...

  19. Experimental Investigations of Ice Rubble: Shear Box and Pile Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Astrup, Oda Skog

    2012-01-01

    The largest part of an ice ridge consists of unconsolidated ice rubble, whose material properties decide the load from ridges on ships and structures. Material resistance is attributed to the initial freeze-bonds and the friction and interlocking between blocks. The objective of the thesis was to investigate rubble behaviour by two tests: shear box test at NTNU and pile test at HSVA. The shear box test was aimed at investigating freeze-bond mechanisms in rubble. The pile test was aimed at sug...

  20. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Foglia, Aligi

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale tests have been conducted to investigate the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank such that it was possible...... to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. As a result of that, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests have been avoided. A normalisation criterion for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The test results using the novel...


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