WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste risk reward

  1. Radioactive waste. Risk, reward, space and time dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, I J

    2001-01-01

    to ensure isolation from the biosphere while it remains hazardous. The outcome of this research is applicable to the disposal of all solid hazardous waste. This study considers, in a geographical context, issues arising from the disposal of radioactive waste with particular emphasis on societal perceptions of Risk, Trust, NIMBYand Time. It establishes that the wider community now accepts the concepts of 'user pays' and offsetting compensation to any community that accepts a risk, such risk to be minimised and interruptible as necessary. The underlying causes of NIMBYism have been misjudged by industry and this work establishes that they are as much due to exclusion from the decision making process as they are to direct concerns about the social impact, health and environment. The principal cause of NIMBYism is discussed and a procedure to assist siting approval is suggested. This study establishes that industry, government or specialists working alone in this field engender less trust by society than composit...

  2. The Risks and Rewards of Sexual Debut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Rachel Lynn; Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    The sex-positive framework of sexual development hypothesizes that healthy sexual experiences can be developmentally appropriate and rewarding for adolescents despite the risks involved. Research has not examined whether risky behaviors and rewarding cognitions actually change with sexual debut at a normative or late age. This study measured the…

  3. Calculate the risk and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Nicola

    2014-07-15

    Change not only creates opportunities for improvement, but for problems too. So it is no surprise that in health care, where the stakes can be life or death, resistance to change is common. The challenge for nursing is learning how to manage the risks associated with change.

  4. Biofuels: balancing risks and rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Patricia; Gilbert, Paul

    2013-02-06

    This paper describes a framework that can be used to evaluate the environmental risks and benefits associated with biofuel production. It uses the example of biodiesel produced from Argentinean soy to show how such a framework can be used to conceptualize trade-offs between different environmental, social and economic impacts of biofuel production. Results showing the greenhouse-gas savings and overall life-cycle impact of different 'soy-biodiesel' production methods are presented. These impacts and the significance of uncertainty in overall assessments of key parameters, such as greenhouse-gas savings, are discussed. It is shown that, even where sufficient knowledge exists to be able to quantify these impacts, the sustainability of supply of a particular biofuel is inextricably linked to values and ethical judgements. However, tailoring certification efforts to the issues that are most likely to make a significant difference to the overall sustainability could improve the effectiveness of certification efforts. The potential for a framework to guide and focus certification efforts is discussed and future research and policy priorities suggested.

  5. Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderman, Richard B; Kamer, Aaron P

    2011-05-01

    For much of the 20th century, psychologists and economists operated on the assumption that work is devoid of intrinsic rewards, and the only way to get people to work harder is through the use of rewards and punishments. This so-called carrot-and-stick model of workplace motivation, when applied to medical practice, emphasizes the use of financial incentives and disincentives to manipulate behavior. More recently, however, it has become apparent that, particularly when applied to certain kinds of work, such approaches can be ineffective or even frankly counterproductive. Instead of focusing on extrinsic rewards such as compensation, organizations and their leaders need to devote more attention to the intrinsic rewards of work itself. This article reviews this new understanding of rewards and traces out its practical implications for radiology today.

  6. Reward, attention, and HIV-related risk in HIV+ individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A; Kronemer, Sharif I; Rilee, Jessica J; Sacktor, Ned; Marvel, Cherie L

    2016-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often contracted through engaging in risky reward-motivated behaviors such as needle sharing and unprotected sex. Understanding the factors that make an individual more vulnerable to succumbing to the temptation to engage in these risky behaviors is important to limiting the spread of HIV. One potential source of this vulnerability concerns the degree to which an individual is able to resist paying attention to irrelevant reward information. In the present study, we examine this possible link by characterizing individual differences in value-based attentional bias in a sample of HIV+ individuals with varying histories of risk-taking behavior. Participants learned associations between experimental stimuli and monetary reward outcome. The degree of attentional bias for these reward-associated stimuli, reflected in their ability to capture attention when presented as task-irrelevant distractors, was then assessed both immediately and six months following reward learning. Value-driven attentional capture was related to substance abuse history and non-planning impulsiveness during the time leading up to contraction of HIV as measured via self-report. These findings suggest a link between the ability to ignore reward-associated information and prior HIV-related risk-taking behavior. Additionally, particular aspects of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders were related to attentional bias, including motor deficits commonly associated with HIV-induced damage to the basal ganglia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risks from nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljenzin, J.O.; Rydberg, J. [Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The first part of this review discusses the importance of risk. If there is any relation between the emotional and rational risk perceptions (for example, it is believed that increased knowledge will decrease emotions), it will be a desirable goal for society, and the nuclear industry in particular, to improve the understanding by the laymen of the rational risks from nuclear energy. This review surveys various paths to a more common comprehension - perhaps a consensus - of the nuclear waste risks. The second part discusses radioactivity as a risk factor and concludes that it has no relation in itself to risk, but must be connected to exposure leading to a dose risk, i.e. a health detriment, which is commonly expressed in terms of cancer induction rate. Dose-effect relations are discussed in light of recent scientific debate. The third part of the report describes a number of hazard indexes for nuclear waste found in the literature and distinguishes between absolute and relative risk scales. The absolute risks as well as the relative risks have changed over time due to changes in radiological and metabolic data and by changes in the mode of calculation. To judge from the literature, the risk discussion is huge, even when it is limited to nuclear waste. It would be very difficult to make a comprehensive review and extract the essentials from that. Therefore, we have chosen to select some publications, out of the over 100, which we summarize rather comprehensively; in some cases we also include our remarks. 110 refs, 22 figs.

  8. Risk-taking in disorders of natural and drug rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voon, Valerie; Morris, Laurel S; Irvine, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Pathological behaviors toward drugs and food rewards have underlying commonalities. Risk-taking has a fourfold pattern varying as a function of probability and valence leading to the nonlinearity of probability weighting with overweighting of small probabilities and underweighting of large probab...

  9. Planning High-Risk High-Reward Activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casault, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    This body of work addresses a gap in financial and economic theories related to assets that are typically associated with high uncertainty. Specifically, this thesis provides some foundational work towards a new way to quantify and explain how high-risk high-reward activities, such as exploration,

  10. Listening to music in a risk-reward context: The roles of the temporoparietal junction and the orbitofrontal/insular cortices in reward-anticipation, reward-gain, and reward-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2015-12-10

    Artificial rewards, such as visual arts and music, produce pleasurable feelings. Popular songs in the verse-chorus form provide a useful model for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of artificial rewards, because the chorus is usually the most rewarding element of a song. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the stimuli were excerpts of 10 popular songs with a tensioned verse-to-chorus transition. We examined the neural correlates of three phases of reward processing: (1) reward-anticipation during the verse-to-chorus transition, (2) reward-gain during the first phrase of the chorus, and (3) reward-loss during the unexpected noise followed by the verse-to-chorus transition. Participants listened to these excerpts in a risk-reward context because the verse was followed by either the chorus or noise with equal probability. The results showed that reward-gain and reward-loss were associated with left- and right-biased temporoparietal junction activation, respectively. The bilateral temporoparietal junctions were active during reward-anticipation. Moreover, we observed left-biased lateral orbitofrontal activation during reward-anticipation, whereas the medial orbitofrontal cortex was activated during reward-gain. The findings are discussed in relation to the cognitive and emotional aspects of reward processing.

  11. What Makes You Go Faster?: The Effect of Reward on Speeded Action under Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-jie Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the potential reward and risk associated with a choice of action plays an important role in everyday decision making. However, the details behind how reward and risk affect the decisions for actions remain unclear. The present study investigates the influence of reward and risk on a decision to make a speeded motor response. One hundred and ten college students performed a Speed-Rewarded Go-NoGo task during which they were rewarded proportionally based on the speed and accuracy of their response. On each trial, the magnitude of potential reward and the probability of a forthcoming Go signal (Go-probability were presented prior to the Go or NoGo signal. Personality traits, such as risk taking and impulsive tendencies, were measured to determine their contribution in explaining individual differences in task performance. The results showed that larger amount of rewards can motivate people to respond faster, and this effect was modulated by the assessed risk, suggesting that decisions for actions are based on a systematic trade-off between rewards and risks. Moreover, when the assessed risk was high, individuals with greater risk taking and impulsive tendencies did not adequately adjust their behavior across different reward levels. These findings shed light on the mechanistic understanding of the effect of reward and risk on decisions for a speeded action.

  12. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior : A Longitudinal TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  13. The Allure of High-Risk Rewards in Huntington’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wouwe, Nelleke C.; Kanoff, Kristen E.; Claassen, Daniel O.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Hedera, Peter; Harrison, Madaline B.; Wylie, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that produces a bias toward risky, reward-driven decisions in situations where the outcomes of decisions are uncertain and must be discovered. However, it is unclear whether HD patients show similar biases in decision-making when learning demands are minimized and prospective risks and outcomes are known explicitly. We investigated how risk decision-making strategies and adjustments are altered in HD patients when reward contingencies are explicit. Methods HD (N = 18) and healthy control (HC; N = 17) participants completed a risk-taking task in which they made a series of independent choices between a low-risk/low reward and high-risk/high reward risk options. Results Computational modeling showed that compared to HC, who showed a clear preference for low-risk compared to high-risk decisions, the HD group valued high-risks more than low-risk decisions, especially when high-risks were rewarded. The strategy analysis indicated that when high-risk options were rewarded, HC adopted a conservative risk strategy on the next trial by preferring the low-risk option (i.e., they counted their blessings and then played the surer bet). In contrast, following a rewarded high-risk choice, HD patients showed a clear preference for repeating the high-risk choice. Conclusions These results indicate a pattern of high-risk/high-reward decision bias in HD that persists when outcomes and risks are certain. The allure of high-risk/high-reward decisions in situations of risk certainty and uncertainty expands our insight into the dynamic decision-making deficits that create considerable clinical burden in HD. PMID:26708084

  14. The neural dynamics of reward value and risk coding in the human orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yansong; Vanni-Mercier, Giovanna; Isnard, Jean; Mauguière, François; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex is known to carry information regarding expected reward, risk and experienced outcome. Yet, due to inherent limitations in lesion and neuroimaging methods, the neural dynamics of these computations has remained elusive in humans. Here, taking advantage of the high temporal definition of intracranial recordings, we characterize the neurophysiological signatures of the intact orbitofrontal cortex in processing information relevant for risky decisions. Local field potentials were recorded from the intact orbitofrontal cortex of patients suffering from drug-refractory partial epilepsy with implanted depth electrodes as they performed a probabilistic reward learning task that required them to associate visual cues with distinct reward probabilities. We observed three successive signals: (i) around 400 ms after cue presentation, the amplitudes of the local field potentials increased with reward probability; (ii) a risk signal emerged during the late phase of reward anticipation and during the outcome phase; and (iii) an experienced value signal appeared at the time of reward delivery. Both the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex encoded risk and reward probability while the lateral orbitofrontal cortex played a dominant role in coding experienced value. The present study provides the first evidence from intracranial recordings that the human orbitofrontal cortex codes reward risk both during late reward anticipation and during the outcome phase at a time scale of milliseconds. Our findings offer insights into the rapid mechanisms underlying the ability to learn structural relationships from the environment.

  15. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior: A Longitudinal TRAILS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents’ risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this study we tested whether the imbalance between behavioral control and reward sensitivity underlies risk taking behavior in adolescence, using a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 715 ad...

  16. Reward learning in pediatric depression and anxiety: preliminary findings in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bethany H; Bylsma, Lauren M; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Kovacs, Maria; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    Reward learning has been postulated as a critical component of hedonic functioning that predicts depression risk. Reward learning deficits have been established in adults with current depressive disorders, but no prior studies have examined the relationship of reward learning and depression in children. The present study investigated reward learning as a function of familial depression risk and current diagnostic status in a pediatric sample. The sample included 204 children of parents with a history of depression (n = 86 high-risk offspring) or parents with no history of major mental disorder (n = 118 low-risk offspring). Semistructured clinical interviews were used to establish current mental diagnoses in the children. A modified signal detection task was used for assessing reward learning. We tested whether reward learning was impaired in high-risk offspring relative to low-risk offspring. We also tested whether reward learning was impaired in children with current disorders known to blunt hedonic function (depression, social phobia, PTSD, GAD, n = 13) compared to children with no disorders and to a psychiatric comparison group with ADHD. High- and low-risk youth did not differ in reward learning. However, youth with current anhedonic disorders (depression, social phobia, PTSD, GAD) exhibited blunted reward learning relative to nondisordered youth and those with ADHD. Our results are a first demonstration that reward learning deficits are present among youth with disorders known to blunt anhedonic function and that these deficits have some degree of diagnostic specificity. We advocate for future studies to replicate and extend these preliminary findings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Reward salience and risk aversion underlie differential ACC activity in substance dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex, especially the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, has long been implicated in cognitive control and error processing. Although the association between ACC and behavior has been established, it is less clear how ACC contributes to dysfunctional behavior such as substance dependence. Evidence from neuroimaging studies investigating ACC function in substance users is mixed, with some studies showing disengagement of ACC in substance dependent individuals (SDs, while others show increased ACC activity related to substance use. In this study, we investigate ACC function in SDs and healthy individuals performing a change signal task for monetary rewards. Using a priori predictions derived from a recent computational model of ACC, we find that ACC activity differs between SDs and controls in factors related to reward salience and risk aversion between SDs and healthy individuals. Quantitative fits of a computational model to fMRI data reveal significant differences in best fit parameters for reward salience and risk preferences. Specifically, the ACC in SDs shows greater risk aversion, defined as concavity in the utility function, and greater attention to rewards relative to reward omission. Furthermore, across participants risk aversion and reward salience are positively correlated. The results clarify the role that ACC plays in both the reduced sensitivity to omitted rewards and greater reward valuation in SDs. Clinical implications of applying computational modeling in psychiatry are also discussed.

  18. The Risks and Rewards of Value-Based Reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Robert J; Maryland, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    As healthcare systems across the country shift to value-based care, they face an enormous challenge. Not only must they reimagine how they identify, engage, and manage the care of patients, they also need to determine new ways of engaging and aligning physicians and other caregivers in creating better-coordinated care across the continuum. This article explores how healthcare systems making the transition from volume to value can maximize their reward while managing their risk. As the largest not-for-profit healthcare system in the United States and the largest Catholic healthcare system in the world, Ascension is committed to making its own transition, marked by broad-based innovation. We call this goal the Quadruple Aim: improving health outcomes, patient experiences, and provider experiences while lowering the overall cost of care. Healthcare systems and providers have many value-based models to choose from, including pay for performance (P4P), shared savings, bundled payments, shared risk, global capitation, and provider-sponsored health plans. Analysis of these options should include an evaluation of market readiness (i.e., the ability of a health system to align with the needs of employers or commercial insurers in a given market). Healthcare systems also must be prepared to invest in resources that facilitate effective transitions and continuity of care--for example, care management. In addition, they need to recognize that as they focus on wellness, inpatient volumes will decline, requiring cost-structure adjustments and added ancillary services to compensate for this decline. Some healthcare systems are even exploring the possibility of becoming their own payer, taking on more risk and responsibility for the health of patients and populations.

  19. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking by Enhancing Activity in the Brain's Reward Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…

  20. The rewards, risks and challenges of regional tobacco tax harmonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan; Drope, Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    Combining international relations theory and a technical discussion of tobacco taxation, we examine prospects for regional tobacco tax harmonization and how it might heighten the positive effects of taxation for public health. The specific rewards of harmonized tobacco taxation that follow "best practices" might reasonably include increased tax revenue, higher prices for tobacco products and related decreases in tobacco consumption and/or smoking prevalence. Harmonization, however, is often politically and technically challenging as each region has political and economic idiosyncrasies that create multiple, and often conflicting constraints on tax harmonization. For example, governments must overcome different types of collective action problems to agree politically on harmonized policy. Though there is no "one size fits all" approach, we find that setting appropriate and realistic goals and developing reasonable expectations are important for success.

  1. Understanding Producers’ Motives for Adopting Sustainable Practices: The Role of Expected Rewards, Risk Perception, and Risk Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofenk, D.J.B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Trujillo Barrera, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines producers’ motives underlying the adoption of sustainable practices. In particular, we focus on expected economic, social, and personal rewards, and examine the role of producers’ risk perception and risk tolerance. Results from personal computer-guided interviews with164 hog pro

  2. Understanding producers’ motives to adopt sustainable practices: the role of expected rewards, risk perception, and risk tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofenk, D.J.B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Trujillo Barrera, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine producers’ motives underlying the adoption of sustainable practices. In particular, we focus on expected economic, social, and personal rewards, and examine the roles of producers’ risk perception and risk tolerance. Preliminary results from a survey

  3. Gambling for Gatorade: risk-sensitive decision making for fluid rewards in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Determining how both humans and animals make decisions in risky situations is a central problem in economics, experimental psychology, behavioral economics, and neurobiology. Typically, humans are risk seeking for gains and risk averse for losses, while animals may display a variety of preferences under risk depending on, amongst other factors, internal state. Such differences in behavior may reflect major cognitive and cultural differences or they may reflect differences in the way risk sensitivity is probed in humans and animals. Notably, in most studies humans make one or a few choices amongst hypothetical or real monetary options, while animals make dozens of repeated choices amongst options offering primary rewards like food or drink. To address this issue, we probed risk-sensitive decision making in human participants using a paradigm modeled on animal studies, in which rewards were either small squirts of Gatorade or small amounts of real money. Possible outcomes and their probabilities were not made explicit in either case. We found that individual patterns of decision making were strikingly similar for both juice and for money, both in overall risk preferences and in trial-to-trial effects of reward outcome on choice. Comparison with decisions made by monkeys for juice in a similar task revealed highly similar gambling styles. These results unite known patterns of risk-sensitive decision making in human and nonhuman primates and suggest that factors such as the way a decision is framed or internal state may underlie observed variation in risk preferences between and within species.

  4. Dopamine agonist increases risk taking but blunts reward-related brain activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Riba

    Full Text Available The use of D2/D3 dopaminergic agonists in Parkinson's disease (PD may lead to pathological gambling. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study in healthy volunteers, we observed riskier choices in a lottery task after administration of the D3 receptor-preferring agonist pramipexole thus mimicking risk-taking behavior in PD. Moreover, we demonstrate decreased activation in the rostral basal ganglia and midbrain, key structures of the reward system, following unexpected high gains and therefore propose that pathological gambling in PD results from the need to seek higher rewards to overcome the blunted response in this system.

  5. 40 CFR 266.109 - Low risk waste exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.109 Low risk waste... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low risk waste exemption. 266.109...

  6. Ecological Risk Assessment of Jarosite Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihone Kerolli-Mustafa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite waste, originating from zinc extraction industry, is considered hazardous due to the presence and the mobility of toxic metals that it contains. Its worldwide disposal in many tailing damps has become a major ecological concern. Three different methods, namely modified Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP, three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI Method were used to access the ecological risk of jarosite waste disposal in Mitrovica Industrial Park, Kosovo. The combination of these methods can effectively identify the comprehensive and single pollution levels of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and As present in jarosite waste. Moreover, the great positive relevance between leaching behavior of heavy metals and F1 fraction was supported by principal component analysis (PCA. PERI results indicate that Cd showed a very high risk class to the environment. The ecological risk of heavy metals declines in the following order: Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>As.

  7. Psychostimulants As Cognitive Enhancers in Adolescents: More Risk than Reward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R. Urban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate and other psychostimulants, originally developed to treat attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, are increasingly abused by healthy adolescents and adults seeking an advantage in scholastic performance and work productivity. However, how these drugs may affect cognitive performance, especially in the young brain, remains unclear. Here, we review recent literature and emphasize the risks of abuse of psychostimulants in healthy adolescents and young adults. We conclude that while the desire for cognitive enhancement, particularly with rising costs of education and increasingly competitive nature of scholarship programs, is unlikely to diminish in the near future, it is crucial for the scientific community to thoroughly examine the efficacy and safety of these stimulants in healthy populations across development. The current dearth of knowledge on the dose–response curve, metabolism, and cognitive outcomes in adolescents following methylphenidate or other psychostimulant exposure may be perpetuating a perception of these drugs as “safe” when that might not be true for developing brains.

  8. Reeling In Outsourcing: Evaluating Supply Chain Risk And Reward Under Economic Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta S. Russell; Marilyn Smith

    2011-01-01

    In today’s climate of economic uncertainty, companies that have relied on outsourcing in the past to curtail costs are increasingly “reeling in” their outsourcing decision to more appropriately balance supply chain risk and reward.  This paper provides a review of the literature on reversing supply chain outsourcing and frames the sourcing decision in terms of multiple options, including multi- sourcing, near sourcing, and in-sourcing. A decision tree model is presented to aid the decision ma...

  9. Sensitivity and bias in decision-making under risk: evaluating the perception of reward, its probability and value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine E Sharp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are few clinical tools that assess decision-making under risk. Tests that characterize sensitivity and bias in decisions between prospects varying in magnitude and probability of gain may provide insights in conditions with anomalous reward-related behaviour. OBJECTIVE: We designed a simple test of how subjects integrate information about the magnitude and the probability of reward, which can determine discriminative thresholds and choice bias in decisions under risk. DESIGN/METHODS: Twenty subjects were required to choose between two explicitly described prospects, one with higher probability but lower magnitude of reward than the other, with the difference in expected value between the two prospects varying from 3 to 23%. RESULTS: Subjects showed a mean threshold sensitivity of 43% difference in expected value. Regarding choice bias, there was a 'risk premium' of 38%, indicating a tendency to choose higher probability over higher reward. An analysis using prospect theory showed that this risk premium is the predicted outcome of hypothesized non-linearities in the subjective perception of reward value and probability. CONCLUSIONS: This simple test provides a robust measure of discriminative value thresholds and biases in decisions under risk. Prospect theory can also make predictions about decisions when subjective perception of reward or probability is anomalous, as may occur in populations with dopaminergic or striatal dysfunction, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia.

  10. Risk management in waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M; Strube, I

    2005-01-01

    With the continuous restructuring of the water market due to liberalisation, privatisation and internationalisation processes, the requirements on waste water disposal companies have grown. Increasing competition requires a target-oriented and clearly structured procedure. At the same time it is necessary to meet the environment-relevant legal requirements and to design the processes to be environment-oriented. The implementation of risk management and the integration of such a management instrument in an existing system in addition to the use of modern technologies and procedures can help to make the operation of the waste water treatment safer and consequently strengthen market position. The risk management process consists of three phases, risk identification, risk analysis/risk assessment and risk handling, which are based on each other, as well as of the risk managing. To achieve an identification of the risks as complete as possible, a subdivision of the kind of risks (e.g. legal, financial, market, operational) is suggested. One possibility to assess risks is the portfolio method which offers clear representation. It allows a division of the risks into classes showing which areas need handling. The determination of the appropriate measures to handle a risk (e.g. avoidance, reduction, shift) is included in the concluding third phase. Different strategies can be applied here. On the one hand, the cause-oriented strategy, aiming at preventive measures which aim to reduce the probability of occurrence of a risk (e.g. creation of redundancy, systems with low susceptibility to malfunction). On the other hand, the effect-oriented strategy, aiming to minimise the level of damage in case of an undesired occurrence (e.g. use of alarm systems, insurance cover).

  11. Relationships between reward sensitivity, risk-taking and family history of alcoholism during an interactive competitive fMRI task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley L Yarosh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with a positive family history for alcoholism (FHP have shown differences from family-history-negative (FHN individuals in the neural correlates of reward processing. FHP, compared to FHN individuals, demonstrate relatively diminished ventral striatal activation during anticipation of monetary rewards, and the degree of ventral striatal activation shows an inverse correlation with specific impulsivity measures in alcohol-dependent individuals. Rewards in socially interactive contexts relate importantly to addictive propensities, yet have not been examined with respect to how their neural underpinnings relate to impulsivity-related measures. Here we describe impulsivity measures in FHN and FHP individuals as they relate to a socially interactive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI task. METHODS: Forty FHP and 29 FHN subjects without histories of Axis-I disorders completed a socially interactive Domino task during functional magnetic resonance imaging and completed self-report and behavioral impulsivity-related assessments. RESULTS: FHP compared to FHN individuals showed higher scores (p = .004 on one impulsivity-related factor relating to both compulsivity (Padua Inventory and reward/punishment sensitivity (Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis within a reward-related network revealed a correlation between risk-taking (involving another impulsivity-related factor, the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART and right ventral striatum activation under reward >punishment contrast (p<0.05 FWE corrected in the social task. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral risk-taking scores may be more closely associated with neural correlates of reward responsiveness in socially interactive contexts than are FH status or impulsivity-related self-report measures. These findings suggest that risk-taking assessments be examined further in socially interactive settings relevant to addictive behaviors.

  12. Risk-taking in disorders of natural and drug rewards: neural correlates and effects of probability, valence, and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Morris, Laurel S; Irvine, Michael A; Ruck, Christian; Worbe, Yulia; Derbyshire, Katherine; Rankov, Vladan; Schreiber, Liana Rn; Odlaug, Brian L; Harrison, Neil A; Wood, Jonathan; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T; Grant, Jon E

    2015-03-01

    Pathological behaviors toward drugs and food rewards have underlying commonalities. Risk-taking has a fourfold pattern varying as a function of probability and valence leading to the nonlinearity of probability weighting with overweighting of small probabilities and underweighting of large probabilities. Here we assess these influences on risk-taking in patients with pathological behaviors toward drug and food rewards and examine structural neural correlates of nonlinearity of probability weighting in healthy volunteers. In the anticipation of rewards, subjects with binge eating disorder show greater risk-taking, similar to substance-use disorders. Methamphetamine-dependent subjects had greater nonlinearity of probability weighting along with impaired subjective discrimination of probability and reward magnitude. Ex-smokers also had lower risk-taking to rewards compared with non-smokers. In the anticipation of losses, obesity without binge eating had a similar pattern to other substance-use disorders. Obese subjects with binge eating also have impaired discrimination of subjective value similar to that of the methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Nonlinearity of probability weighting was associated with lower gray matter volume in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in healthy volunteers. Our findings support a distinct subtype of binge eating disorder in obesity with similarities in risk-taking in the reward domain to substance use disorders. The results dovetail with the current approach of defining mechanistically based dimensional approaches rather than categorical approaches to psychiatric disorders. The relationship to risk probability and valence may underlie the propensity toward pathological behaviors toward different types of rewards.

  13. The risk for problematic opioid use in chronic pain: What can we learn from studies of pain and reward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Patrick H; Remeniuk, Bethany; Dunn, Kelly E

    2017-08-01

    Problematic prescription opioid use is cited as a primary contributor to the current 'opioid epidemic' in the United States, which is characterized by recent rapid increases in individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence and staggering rates of opioid overdose deaths. Individuals with chronic pain are commonly prescribed opioids to treat pain, and by this mere exposure are at increased risk for the development of problematic opioid use. However, the factors contributing to variation in risk across patients have only recently begun to be unraveled. In the present review, we describe the recent and expanding literature on interactions between pain and reward system function in an effort to inform our understanding of risk for problematic opioid use in chronic pain. To that end, we describe the limited experimental evidence regarding opioid abuse liability under conditions of pain, and offer suggestions for how to advance a research agenda that better informs clinicians about the factors contributing to opioid addiction risk in patients with chronic pain. We raise mechanistic hypotheses by highlighting the primary conclusions of several recent reviews on the neurobiology of pain and reward, with an emphasis on describing dopamine deficits in chronic pain, the role of the reward system in mediating the affective and motivational components of pain, and the role of opponent reward/anti-reward processes in the perpetuation of pain states and the development of problematic opioid use behaviors. Finally, we also argue that positive affect-which is directly regulated by the mesolimbic reward system-is a key pain inhibitory factor that, when deficient, may increase risk for problematic opioid use, and present a model that integrates the potential contributions of pain, reward system function, and positive affect to problematic opioid use risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Combining work and family: rewards or risks for children's mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazdins, Lyndall; Obrien, Léan V; Lucas, Nina; Rodgers, Bryan

    2013-06-01

    Prevailing child psychopathology paradigms focus on caregiving in isolation from market work. Yet most children's caregivers - mothers and fathers - are also employed. Although policy and academic debate has voiced concerns that employment could hamper mothers' capacity to care, less emphasis is given to the benefits generated by mothers' jobs. By contrast, theories of child mental health often view fathers' employment as beneficial, indeed necessary, for children's wellbeing, and few problematise fathers' capacity to combine work and care. This paper aims to integrate these seemingly contradictory concerns. We consider whether mothers' and fathers' rewards from combining employment with childcare may be protective for children's mental health, and whether their conflicts and dilemmas generate risks. Analyses use cross-sectional data from a representative survey of families with 4-5 year old children (Growing Up in Australia Study). We restricted our sample to employed parents (N = 2809 mothers; 3982 fathers), using data gathered in 2004. While a majority of parents reported benefits and rewards from working (work-family facilitation), more than one third also reported difficulties and conflicts (work-family conflict). When mothers or fathers experienced conflict we found elevations in young children's emotional and behavioural symptoms, with the risks compounding if both parents experienced conflict between work and family. Associations persisted after adjusting for family socioeconomic circumstances and composition, and they were not offset by work-family facilitation. We did not find evidence for heightened vulnerability to work-family conflict in families with few socioeconomic resources. However, among these disadvantaged families we observed stronger protective associations with children's mental health when parents had rewarding and supportive jobs. Our study extends current paradigms of child mental health by considering the interplay between care

  15. High effort, low reward, and cardiovascular risk factors in employed Swedish men and women: baseline results from the WOLF Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, R; Alfredsson, L; Hammar, N; Siegrist, J; Theorell, T; Westerholm, P

    1998-09-01

    To examine associations between measures of work stress (that is, the combination of high effort and low reward) and cardiovascular risk factors. Cross sectional first screening of a prospective cohort study. The study was conducted among 5720 healthy employed men and women living in the greater Stockholm area aged 19-70 years. All analyses were restricted to subjects with complete data (n = 4958). The investigation of associations between indicators of effort-reward imbalance and cardiovascular risk factors was restricted to the age group 30-55 years (n = 3427). Subjects reporting high effort and low reward at work had a higher prevalence of well known risk factors for coronary heart disease. After adjustment for relevant confounders, associations between a measure of extrinsic effort and reward (the effort-reward ratio) and hypertension (multivariate prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.62-1.68), increased total cholesterol (upper tertile 220 mg/dl)(POR = 1.24) and the total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol ratio (upper tertile 4.61)(POR 1.26-1.30) were found among men. Among women a measure of high intrinsic effort (immersion) was related to increased low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (upper tertile 130 mg/dl)(POR 1.37-1.39). Analyses of variance showed increasing mean values of LDL cholesterol with an increasing degree of the effort-reward ratio among men and increased LDL-cholesterol among women with high levels of intrinsic effort (upper tertile of immersion). Findings lend support to the hypothesis that effort-reward imbalance represents a specific constellation of stressful experience at work related to cardiovascular risk. The relation was not explained by relevant confounders (for example, lack of physical exercise, body weight, cigarette smoking).

  16. Effort-reward imbalance at work and the risk of antidepressant treatment in the Danish workforce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Aust, Birgit;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that high effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work is a risk factor for the onset of self-reported depressive symptoms. In this study, we examined whether ERI predicts risk of treatment with antidepressant medication in a representative sample of the Danish...... workforce. Methods: We linked survey data on ERI and covariates of 4541 participants from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study 2000 with the Danish National Prescription Registry that includes all legally purchased prescription drugs at pharmacies in Denmark since 1995. Participants with a history...... of antidepressant treatment or with self-reported depressive symptoms at baseline were excluded. Using Cox proportional hazard analyses we examined the prospective association between ERI at baseline and incident antidepressant treatment while adjusting for potential confounders. Time of follow-up was 5 years...

  17. Pavlovian conditioning to food reward as a function of eating disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astur, Robert S; Palmisano, Alexandra N; Hudd, Ellie C; Carew, Andrew W; Deaton, Bonnie E; Kuhney, Franchesca S; Niezrecki, Rachel N; Santos, Melissa

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the extent to which eating disorder risk affects the strength of food-reward conditioning. Eighty food-restricted undergraduates were placed into a VR environment consisting of two visually distinct rooms. Participants underwent multiple pairing sessions in which they were confined into one of the two rooms and explored a VR environment. Room A was paired with real-life M&Ms for three sessions, and Room B was paired with no food for three sessions. After a short delay, a test session was administered, and participants were given free access to the entire VR environment for 5 min. Participants also completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; [11]), which is a standard screening tool of eating disorder risk. Participants displayed a significant conditioned place preference for the VR room previously paired with food, and they displayed a significant explicit preference for the M&M-paired room in a forced-choice test. There was a significant positive correlation between place preference strength and scores on the dieting subscale of the EAT-26. Additionally, ratings of the no-food room were significantly lower as dieting scores increased. This suggests that components of eating disorder risk can influence basic conditioning strength to places associated with food reward. For both males and females, additional correlations between eating disorder risk subscales and conditioning variables are discussed, and implications for future research are proposed in hopes of understanding how conditioning paradigms can provide insight into treating and preventing eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk, reward, and decision-making in a rodent model of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ryan J; Mitchell, Marci R; Simon, Nicholas W; Bañuelos, Cristina; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Impaired decision-making in aging can directly impact factors (financial security, health care) that are critical to maintaining quality of life and independence at advanced ages. Naturalistic rodent models mimic human aging in other cognitive domains, and afford the opportunity to parse the effects of age on discrete aspects of decision-making in a manner relatively uncontaminated by experiential factors. Young adult (5-7 months) and aged (23-25 months) male F344 rats were trained on a probability discounting task in which they made discrete-trial choices between a small certain reward (one food pellet) and a large but uncertain reward (two food pellets with varying probabilities of delivery ranging from 100 to 0%). Young rats chose the large reward when it was associated with a high probability of delivery and shifted to the small but certain reward as probability of the large reward decreased. As a group, aged rats performed comparably to young, but there was significantly greater variance among aged rats. One subgroup of aged rats showed strong preference for the small certain reward. This preference was maintained under conditions in which large reward delivery was also certain, suggesting decreased sensitivity to reward magnitude. In contrast, another subgroup of aged rats showed strong preference for the large reward at low probabilities of delivery. Interestingly, this subgroup also showed elevated preference for probabilistic rewards when reward magnitudes were equalized. Previous findings using this same aged study population described strongly attenuated discounting of delayed rewards with age, together suggesting that a subgroup of aged rats may have deficits associated with accounting for reward costs (i.e., delay or probability). These deficits in cost-accounting were dissociable from the age-related differences in sensitivity to reward magnitude, suggesting that aging influences multiple, distinct mechanisms that can impact cost-benefit decision-making.

  19. Longitudinal changes in adolescent risk-taking: a comprehensive study of neural responses to rewards, pubertal development, and risk-taking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braams, Barbara R; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A

    2015-05-01

    Prior studies have highlighted adolescence as a period of increased risk-taking, which is postulated to result from an overactive reward system in the brain. Longitudinal studies are pivotal for testing these brain-behavior relations because individual slopes are more sensitive for detecting change. The aim of the current study was twofold: (1) to test patterns of age-related change (i.e., linear, quadratic, and cubic) in activity in the nucleus accumbens, a key reward region in the brain, in relation to change in puberty (self-report and testosterone levels), laboratory risk-taking and self-reported risk-taking tendency; and (2) to test whether individual differences in pubertal development and risk-taking behavior were contributors to longitudinal change in nucleus accumbens activity. We included 299 human participants at the first time point and 254 participants at the second time point, ranging between ages 8-27 years, time points were separated by a 2 year interval. Neural responses to rewards, pubertal development (self-report and testosterone levels), laboratory risk-taking (balloon analog risk task; BART), and self-reported risk-taking tendency (Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System questionnaire) were collected at both time points. The longitudinal analyses confirmed the quadratic age pattern for nucleus accumbens activity to rewards (peaking in adolescence), and the same quadratic pattern was found for laboratory risk-taking (BART). Nucleus accumbens activity change was further related to change in testosterone and self-reported reward-sensitivity (BAS Drive). Thus, this longitudinal analysis provides new insight in risk-taking and reward sensitivity in adolescence: (1) confirming an adolescent peak in nucleus accumbens activity, and (2) underlining a critical role for pubertal hormones and individual differences in risk-taking tendency.

  20. Risk, reward, and decision-making in a rodent model of cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired decision-making in aging can directly impact factors (financial security, quality of healthcare that are critical to maintaining quality of life and independence at advanced ages. Naturalistic rodent models mimic human aging in other cognitive domains, and afford the opportunity to parse the effects of age on discrete aspects of decision-making in a manner relatively uncontaminated by experiential factors. Young adult (5-7 mo. and aged (23-25 mo. male F344 rats were trained on a probability discounting task in which they made discrete-trial choices between a small certain reward (1 food pellet and a large but uncertain reward (2 food pellets with varying probabilities of delivery ranging from 100% to 0%. Young rats chose the large reward when it was associated with a high probability of delivery and shifted to the smaller but certain reward as probability of the large reward decreased. As a group, aged rats performed comparably to young, but there was significantly greater variance among aged rats. One subgroup of aged rats showed strong preference for the small certain reward. This preference was maintained under conditions in which large reward delivery was certain, suggesting decreased sensitivity to reward magnitude. In contrast, another subgroup of aged rats showed strong preference for the large reward at low probabilities of delivery. Interestingly, this subgroup also showed elevated preference for probabilistic rewards when reward magnitudes were equalized. Previous findings using this same aged study population described strongly attenuated discounting of delayed rewards with age, together suggesting that a subgroup of aged rats may have deficits associated with accounting for costs (i.e., delay, probability. These deficits in cost-accounting were dissociable from the age-related differences in sensitivity to reward magnitude, suggesting that aging influences multiple, distinct neural mechanisms that can impact cost

  1. Employee perceptions of risks and rewards in terms of corporate entrepreneurship participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristo Nikolov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Early studies recognise how important corporate entrepreneurship (CE is to achieving sustainable competitive advantage.Research purpose: With the scope of CE widening, organisations that lack prior entrepreneurial recognition are adopting CE in order to survive and succeed in increasingly competitive and financially constrained environments.Motivation for the study: By using conjoint analysis, the study is able to determine empirically which criteria organisations use, when they decide to participate in CE activities, are significant.Research design, approach and method: The authors used conjoint analysis. It simulates real life situations where it presents and tests various scenarios in terms of combinations of attributes and levels of intensity that influence decisions to participate in CE.Main findings: The results show that the most important attribute that influences the decision to participate in CE is the probability of venture success. Financial reward follows closely. As expected, job risk, pay risk and exerted effort are deterrents to CE participation.Practical/managerial implications: The study provides guidance to managers and leaders interested in motivating their employees to undertake CE activities. The results give direction to employees by offering them different scenarios of incentives and commensurate risks when they participate in CE.Contribution/value-add: This is one of the first studies to test empirically the likelihood of CE participation in terms of conjoint analysis. It provides managers with a dashboard of possible attributes, according to which they can devise optimal incentive strategies.

  2. Managing waste exports when closure risks are endogenous

    OpenAIRE

    Stähler, Frank; Michaelis, Peter

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a rationale for taxing waste exports when closure risks are endogenous in that they depend on the importing country's accumulated stock of waste. The paper shows that the optimal time path of waste exports requires a progressively increasing tax rate which even surmounts a Hotelling tax which tackles the problem by evaluating the expected closure stock.

  3. Employee reward

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: • To present the main historical and theoretical foundations underpinning contemporary employee reward practice. • To define employee reward and identify the key components of reward. • To explore the concept of reward management and the benefits and difficulties associated with introducing a strategic approach to reward. • To consider key employee reward choices facing organisations in the contemporary era. • To explore the economic and legal context for reward and the implicatio...

  4. Nuclear Waste, Risks and Sustainable Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Mikael [Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Stockholm (Sweden); Swahn, Johan [Swedish NGO Office for Nuclear Waste Review (MKG), Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    believe it is possible to increase trust in so far as gaining public commitment for a repository, but only as long as long-term environmental safety is made the central objective. Trust will also increase along with continued transfer to a sustainable energy system. The problems of dealing with nuclear waste are often seen as a 'show-stopper' for nuclear power. It must, however, be emphasised that nuclear power does not become compatible with sustainable development even if the best environmental solution is found for the already existing waste. Nuclear power is fundamentally based on finite resources. The technology relies on environmentally harmful mining and creates extremely hazardous waste. It also has an intrinsic risk for catastrophic release of harmful radiation and increases the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation.

  5. Toxic urban waste's assault on cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. De Rosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A cardiovascular health survey of 1203 persons in households located near the hazardous waste disposal sites and in a reference community, was conducted from 2009 until today to assess whether rates of adverse cardiovascular health outcomes were elevated among persons living near the sites. Data included medical records of reported cardiovascular disease certificates and hospital admission for cardiovascular diseases from hospital database. The study areas appeared similar with respect to mortality, cancer incidence, and pregnancy outcomes. In contrast, rate ratios were greater than 1.5 for 2 of 19 reported diseases, i.e., angina pectoris, and strokes. The apparent broad-based elevation in reported diseases and symptoms may reflect increased perception or recall of conditions by respondents living near the sites. Our study found that cardiovascular risk is associated only with PM2.5 concentrations, derived from uncontrolled burning of municipal solid waste in particular sites of our country. Their analysis demonstrated a relationship between increased levels of eventual fine particulate pollution and higher rates of death and complications from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Management of solid waste releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Future community-based health studies should include medical and psychosocial assessment instruments sufficient to distinguish between changes in health status and effects of resident reporting tendency.

  6. EVALUATION OF RISKS AND WASTE CHARACTERIZATION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSURANIC WASTE EMPLACED IN WIPP DURING 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Channell, J.K.; Walker, B.A.

    2000-05-01

    Specifically this report: 1. Compares requirements of the WAP that are pertinent from a technical viewpoint with the WIPP pre-Permit waste characterization program, 2. Presents the results of a risk analysis of the currently emplaced wastes. Expected and bounding risks from routine operations and possible accidents are evaluated; and 3. Provides conclusions and recommendations.

  7. Waste injection risk identification: keys to control waste containment and procure a safe waste injection operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovalle, Adriana P.; Ronderos, Julio R. [M-I SWACO, Houston, TX (United States); Francisco, Francisco F.

    2008-07-01

    As the world faces new challenges to protect the environment from all human-generated wastes, self-imposed industry standards as well as governmental regulations support new green politics to prevent environmental damage due to spillage during the course of operations. As such, the oil industry produces wastes from the drilling and production phases which ultimately are required to be disposed of in a safe manner. Waste Injection (WI) has been selected as the sound engineering and cost-effective final disposal methodology by many operators and legislators based on the capability to achieve zero discharge in a safe and efficient manner when compared to other existing proven technologies. This is particularly true for large-scale projects where WI has been strategically implemented as an integral component in field developments because of the commitment to the environment and the acceptance of subsurface engineering by local legislation. With the view of an assured process, the project development and implementation of WI technology is carefully designed using risk-based analysis that comprehends fracturing studies of the area of injection, logistics, equipment specification, and operation monitoring with the objective to perform a seamless and risk-free job. This paper addresses WI planning and implementation methodology and cites real examples to demonstrate the value of proper preparation of the injection operation to attain maximum efficiency under QHSE standards. (author)

  8. Tank Waste Transport, Pipeline Plugging, and the Prospects for Reducing the Risk of Waste Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2001-09-27

    This report provides an overview of the capabilities and limitations of some current models being applied to the analysis of waste transfers; identifies the modeling capabilities needed to reduce the risk of pipeline plugging during tank waste transfers; and summarizes ongoing, planned, and future work needed to add these capabilities. Development of improved waste transport modeling tools with these capabilities will also help with waste transfer planning and evaluation, process control, and diagnosis of plugging events. Other potential applications include evaluation of waste-mixing scenarios, analysis of waste transfer stability, analysis of waste-unplugging alternatives, minimization of water addition, maximization of system availability, evaluation of risk-reduction strategies, and evaluation of cost-reduction strategies.

  9. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  10. Striatal dopaminergic reward response relates to age of first drunkenness and feedback response in at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Barbara J; Zucker, Robert A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2017-03-01

    Dopamine receptor concentrations, primarily in the striatum, are hypothesized to contribute to a developmental imbalance between subcortical and prefrontal control systems in emerging adulthood potentially biasing motivation and increasing risky behaviors. Positron emission tomography studies have found significant reductions in striatal dopamine D2 receptors, and blunted amphetamine-induced dopamine release, in substance users compared with healthy controls. Extant literature is limited and inconsistent concerning vulnerability associated with having a family history of substance abuse (FH+). Some studies have reported familial liability associated with higher dopamine receptor levels, reduced dopamine response to stimulant challenges and decreased response to oral alcohol. However, other reports have failed to find group differences based on family history. We explored the interaction of familial liability and behavioral risk with multi-modal molecular and neural imaging of the dopaminergic system. Forty-four young adult male subjects performed monetary incentive delay tasks during both [(11) C]raclopride positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. FH+ subjects were identified as low (n = 24) or high risk (n = 9) based on early initiation of drunkenness. FH+ high-risk subjects exhibited heightened striatal dopamine response to monetary reward but did not differ in neural activations compared with FH+ low risk subjects and controls with no familial loading (n = 11). Across all subjects, a negative relationship was found between dopamine release and age of first drunkenness and a positive relationship with neural response to reward receipt. These results suggest that in at-risk individuals, higher dopamine transmission associated with monetary reward may represent a particularly useful neurobiological phenotype. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Deficient Event-Related Theta Oscillations in Individuals at Risk for Alcoholism: A Study of Reward Processing and Impulsivity Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chella Kamarajan

    Full Text Available Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. Event-related oscillations (EROs have been used to effectively measure brain (dysfunction during cognitive tasks in individuals with alcoholism and related disorders and in those at risk to develop these disorders. The current study examines ERO theta power during reward processing as well as impulsivity in adolescent and young adult subjects at high risk for alcoholism.EROs were recorded during a monetary gambling task (MGT in 12-25 years old participants (N = 1821; males = 48% from high risk alcoholic families (HR, N = 1534 and comparison low risk community families (LR, N = 287 from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA. Impulsivity scores and prevalence of externalizing diagnoses were also compared between LR and HR groups.HR offspring showed lower theta power and decreased current source density (CSD activity than LR offspring during loss and gain conditions. Younger males had higher theta power than younger females in both groups, while the older HR females showed more theta power than older HR males. Younger subjects showed higher theta power than older subjects in each comparison. Differences in topography (i.e., frontalization between groups were also observed. Further, HR subjects across gender had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders compared to LR subjects.As theta power during reward processing is found to be lower not only in alcoholics, but also in HR subjects, it is proposed that reduced reward-related theta power, in addition to impulsivity and externalizing features, may be related in a predisposition to develop alcoholism and related disorders.

  12. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-21

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  13. Resting-state EEG theta activity and risk learning: sensitivity to reward or punishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massar, Stijn A A; Kenemans, J Leon; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-03-01

    Increased theta (4-7 Hz)-beta (13-30 Hz) power ratio in resting state electroencephalography (EEG) has been associated with risky disadvantageous decision making and with impaired reinforcement learning. However, the specific contributions of theta and beta power in risky decision making remain unclear. The first aim of the present study was to replicate the earlier found relationship and examine the specific contributions of theta and beta power in risky decision making using the Iowa Gambling Task. The second aim of the study was to examine whether the relation were associated with differences in reward or punishment sensitivity. We replicated the earlier found relationship by showing a positive association between theta/beta ratio and risky decision making. This correlation was mainly driven by theta oscillations. Furthermore, theta power correlated with reward motivated learning, but not with punishment learning. The present results replicate and extend earlier findings by providing novel insights into the relation between thetabeta ratios and risky decision making. Specifically, findings show that resting-state theta activity is correlated with reinforcement learning, and that this association may be explained by differences in reward sensitivity.

  14. Relative radiological risks derived from different TENORM wastes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, B; Teng, I L; Muhammad Samudi, Y

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes are mainly the product of the oil and gas industry and mineral processing. Among these TENORM wastes are tin tailing, tin slag, gypsum and oil sludge. Mineral processing and oil and gas industries produce large volume of TENORM wastes that has become a radiological concern to the authorities. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk related to workers working at these disposal sites and landfills as well as to the members of the public should these areas be developed for future land use. Radiological risk was assessed based on the magnitude of radiation hazard, effective dose rates and excess cancer risks. Effective dose rates and excess cancer risks were estimated using RESRAD 6.4 computer code. All data on the activity concentrations of NORM in wastes and sludges used in this study were obtained from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board, Malaysia, and they were collected over a period of between 5 and 10 y. Results obtained showed that there was a wide range in the total activity concentrations (TAC) of nuclides in the TENORM wastes. With the exception of tin slag and tin tailing-based TENORM wastes, all other TENORM wastes have TAC values comparable to that of Malaysia's soil. Occupational Effective Dose Rates estimated in all landfill areas were lower than the 20 mSv y(-1) permissible dose limit. The average Excess Cancer Risk Coefficient was estimated to be 2.77×10(-3) risk per mSv. The effective dose rates for residents living on gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes landfills were estimated to be lower than the permissible dose limit for members of the public, and was also comparable to that of the average Malaysia's ordinary soils. The average excess cancer risk coefficient was estimated to be 3.19×10(-3) risk per mSv. Results obtained suggest that gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes should be exempted from any radiological regulatory

  15. Security risks in nuclear waste management: Exceptionalism, opaqueness and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Beken, Tom; Dorn, Nicholas; Van Daele, Stijn

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses some potential security risks, concerning terrorism or more mundane forms of crime, such as fraud, in management of nuclear waste using a PEST scan (of political, economic, social and technical issues) and some insights of criminologists on crime prevention. Nuclear waste arises as spent fuel from ongoing energy generation or other nuclear operations, operational contamination or emissions, and decommissioning of obsolescent facilities. In international and EU political contexts, nuclear waste management is a sensitive issue, regulated specifically as part of the nuclear industry as well as in terms of hazardous waste policies. The industry involves state, commercial and mixed public-private bodies. The social and cultural dimensions--risk, uncertainty, and future generations--resonate more deeply here than in any other aspect of waste management. The paper argues that certain tendencies in regulation of the industry, claimed to be justified on security grounds, are decreasing transparency and veracity of reporting, opening up invisible spaces for management frauds, and in doing allowing a culture of impunity in which more serious criminal or terrorist risks could arise. What is needed is analysis of this 'exceptional' industry in terms of the normal cannons of risk assessment - a task that this paper begins.

  16. Interaction of Reward Seeking and Self-Regulation in the Prediction of Risk Taking: A Cross-National Test of the Dual Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, Natasha; Steinberg, Laurence; Chein, Jason; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Lei, Chang; Chaudhary, Nandita; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fanti, Kostas A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-01-01

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether…

  17. Rewards and Performance Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigon, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rewards and performance incentives for employees, including types of rewards; how rewards help in managing; dysfunctional awards; selecting the right reward; how to find rewards that fit; and delivering rewards effectively. Examples are included. (three references) (LRW)

  18. Reward-based decision making in pathological gambling: the roles of risk and delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehler, Antonius; Peters, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a non-substance based addiction that shares many behavioral and neural features with substance based addictions. However, in PG behavioral and neural changes are unlikely to be confounded by effects of acute or chronic drug exposure. Changes in reward based decision-making in particular increases in impulsivity are hallmark features of addictions. Here we review studies in PG that applied three reward-related decision tasks: the Iowa Gambling Task, probability discounting and delay discounting. We discuss the findings and focus on the impact of addiction severity and the relation of effects to impulsivity measures. While there is evidence that PGs differ from healthy controls on all three tasks, there is only little support for a further modulation of impairments by addiction severity. Conceptually, delay discounting is related to impulsivity measures and findings in this task show a considerable correlation with e.g. questionnaire-based measures of impulsivity. Taken together, impairments in PG on these three tasks are relatively well replicated, although impairments appear to be largely uncorrelated between tasks. An important next step will be to conceptualize a process-based account of behavioral impairments in PG.

  19. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  20. Chronic wasting disease risk analysis workshop: An integrative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Shana; Dein, Joshua; Salman, Mo; Richards, Bryan; Duarte, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Risk analysis tools have been successfully used to determine the potential hazard associated with disease introductions and have facilitated management decisions designed to limit the potential for disease introduction. Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) poses significant challenges for resource managers due to an incomplete understanding of disease etiology and epidemiology and the complexity of management and political jurisdictions. Tools designed specifically to assess the risk of CWD introduction would be of great value to policy makers in areas where CWD has not been detected.

  1. The waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository: A case study in radioactive waste disposal safety and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological defense-generated transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) repository in the United States was certified on the 13 of May 1998 and opened on the 26 of March 1999. Two sets of safety/performance assessment calculations supporting the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository show that the maximum annual individual committed effective dose will be 32 times lower than the regulatory limit and that the cumulative amount of radionuclide releases will be at least 10 times, more likely at least 20 times, lower than the regulatory limits. Yet, perceptions remain among the public that the WIPP TRUW repository imposes an unacceptable risk.

  2. Research on Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the topics of Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWL, including municipal refuse landfills or industrial solid waste landfills, MSWL). At first, health risk assessment

  3. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. A. Owca

    2007-06-21

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

  4. The influence of mortality and socioeconomic status on risk and delayed rewards: a life history theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M; Delton, Andrew W; Robertson, Theresa E

    2011-06-01

    Why do some people take risks and live for the present, whereas others avoid risks and save for the future? The evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that preferences for risk and delay in gratification should be influenced by mortality and resource scarcity. A series of experiments examined how mortality cues influenced decisions involving risk preference (e.g., $10 for sure vs. 50% chance of $20) and temporal discounting (e.g., $5 now vs. $10 later). The effect of mortality depended critically on whether people grew up in a relatively resource-scarce or resource-plentiful environment. For individuals who grew up relatively poor, mortality cues led them to value the present and gamble for big immediate rewards. Conversely, for individuals who grew up relatively wealthy, mortality cues led them to value the future and avoid risky gambles. Overall, mortality cues appear to propel individuals toward diverging life history strategies as a function of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting important implications for how environmental factors influence economic decisions and risky behaviors.

  5. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  6. Interaction of reward seeking and self-regulation in the prediction of risk taking: A cross-national test of the dual systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, Natasha; Steinberg, Laurence; Chein, Jason; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Lei, Chang; Chaudhary, Nandita; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fanti, Kostas A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-10-01

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether these relations differ as a function of age and culture. To compare across cultures, we conduct 2 sets of analyses: 1 comparing individuals from Asian and Western countries, and 1 comparing individuals from low- and high-GDP countries. Results indicate that reward seeking and self-regulation have largely independent associations with risk taking and that the influences of each variable on risk taking are not unique to adolescence, but that their link to risk taking varies across cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Mercury concentrations in Northwest Atlantic winter-caught, male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias): A geographic mercury comparison and risk-reward framework for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Gelais, Adam T; Costa-Pierce, Barry A

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (Hg) contamination testing was conducted on winter-caught male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in southern New England and results compared to available data on Hg concentrations for this species. A limited risk-reward assessment for EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid) lipid concentrations of spiny dogfish was completed in comparison with other commonly consumed marine fish. Mean Hg concentrations were 0.19 ppm (±0.30) wet weight. In comparison, mean Hg concentrations in S. acanthias varied geographically ranging from 0.05 ppm (Celtic Sea) to 2.07 ppm (Crete, Mediterranean Sea). A risk-reward assessment for Hg and DHA+EPA placed S. acanthias in both "low-risk, high-reward" and "high-risk, high-reward" categories for consumption dependent on locations of the catch. Our results are limited and are not intended as consumption advisories but serve to illustrate the need for making more nuanced, geo-specific, consumption guidance for spiny dogfish that is inclusive of seafood traceability and nutritional benefits.

  8. 真实和虚拟金钱奖赏影响风险决策行为*%Real or Hypothetical Monetary Rewards Modulates Risk Taking Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐四华; 方卓; 饶恒毅

    2013-01-01

    Understanding human risk taking and decision making behavior poses a major challenge for psychological and economical research during the last decades. Although real or hypothetical monetary rewards are commonly used as reinforcers in previous studies, it remains controversial whether real and hypothetical rewards have the same effects to motivate risk taking and decision making behavior. The recently developed balloon analogue risk task (BART) is a laboratory-based risk taking paradigm and offers an ecologically valid model for objective measurement of risk taking propensity and behavior. In the present study, the authors used the BART paradigm in two experiments to compare the effects of real and hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking behavior. We predicted that compared with hypothetical monetary reward, real monetary rewards will show stronger impacts on the risk taking behavior during the BART task. In Experiment 1, forty-four healthy young adults completed both real money and hypothetical monetary versions of the BART task, in which they were required to sequentially inflate a virtual balloon that can either grow larger or explode. The order of two tasks was counter-balanced between subjects. Paired t-tests and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were conducted to compare the effects of real and hypothetical monetary rewards on the BART risk taking behavior, including the mean adjusted number of balloon inflations, the number of balloon explosions, and the number of balloon inflations after positive or negative feedbacks. Experiment 2 added a variable of reward magnitude and used a 2 (authenticity: real, hypothetical) × 2 (magnitude:small, large) factorial design. Thirty healthy young adults completed the experiment 2. The results from Experiment 1 showed that during the real monetary reward BART condition, subjects stopped inflating balloons earlier and were more risk averse for the current balloon trial if they lost the last balloon (i.e., the

  9. Determination of acceptable risk criteria for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1977-10-21

    The initial phase of the work performed during FY 1977 consisted of performing a ''scoping'' study to define issues, determine an optimal methodology for their resolution, and compile a data base for acceptable risk criteria development. The issues, spanning technical, psychological, and ethical dimensions, were categorized in seven major areas: (1) unplanned or accidental events, (2) present vs future risks, (3) institutional controls and retrievability, (4) dose-response mechanism and uncertainty, (5) spatial distribution of exposed populations, (6) different types of nuclear wastes, and (7) public perception. The optimum methodology for developing ARC was determined to be multi-attribute decision analysis encompassing numerous specific techniques for choosing, from among several alternatives, the optimal course of action when the alternatives are constrained to meet specified attributes. The data base developed during the study comprises existing regulations and guidelines, maximum permissible dose, natural geologic hazards, nonradioactive hazardous waste practices, bioethical perspectives, and data from an opinion survey.

  10. Improving value assessment of high-risk, high-reward biotechnology research: the role of 'thick tails'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casault, Sébastien; Groen, Aard J; Linton, Jonathan D

    2014-03-25

    This paper presents work toward improving the efficacy of financial models that describe the unique nature of biotechnology firms. We show that using a 'thick tailed' power law distribution to describe the behavior of the value of biotechnology R&D used in a Real Options Pricing model is significantly more accurate than the traditionally used Gaussian approach. A study of 287 North-American biotechnology firms gives insights into common problems faced by investors, managers and other stakeholders when using traditional techniques to calculate the commercial value of R&D. This is important because specific quantitative tools to assess the value of high-risk, high-reward R&D do not currently exist. This often leads to an undervaluation of biotechnology R&D and R&D intensive biotechnology firms. For example, the widely used Net Present Value (NPV) method assumes a fixed risk ignoring management flexibility and the changing environment. However, Real Options Pricing models assume that commercial returns from R&D investments are described by a normal random walk. A normal random walk model eliminates the possibility of drastic changes to the marketplace resulting from the introduction of revolutionary products and/or services. It is possible to better understand and manage biotechnology research projects and portfolios using a model that more accurately considers large non-Gaussian price fluctuations with thick tails, which recognize the unusually large risks and opportunities associated with Biotechnology R&D. Our empirical data show that opportunity overcompensates for the downside risk making biotechnology R&D statistically more valuable than other Gaussian options investments, which may otherwise appear to offer a similar combination of risk and return. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reward processing deficits and impulsivity in high-risk offspring of alcoholics: A study of event-related potentials during a monetary gambling task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Chorlian, David B.; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T.; Bauer, Lance O.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. The goal of the present study is to elucidate reward processing deficits, externalizing disorders, and impulsivity as elicited by electrophysiological, clinical and behavioral measures in subjects at high risk for alcoholism from families densely affected by alcoholism in the context of brain maturation across age groups and gender. Methods Event-related potentials (ERPs) and current source density (CSD) during a monetary gambling task (MGT) were measured in 12–25 year old offspring (N = 1864) of families in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) Prospective study; the high risk (HR, N = 1569) subjects were from families densely affected with alcoholism and the low risk (LR, N = 295) subjects were from community families. Externalizing disorders and impulsivity scores were also compared between LR and HR groups. Results HR offspring from older (16–25 years) male and younger (12–15 years) female subgroups showed lower P3 amplitude than LR subjects. The amplitude decrement was most prominent in HR males during the loss condition. Overall, P3 amplitude increase at anterior sites and decrease at posterior areas were seen in older compared to younger subjects, suggesting frontalization during brain maturation. The HR subgroups also exhibited hypofrontality manifested as weaker CSD activity during both loss and gain conditions at frontal regions. Further, the HR subjects had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders. P3 amplitudes during the gain condition were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores. Conclusions Older male and younger female HR offspring, compared to their LR counterparts, manifested reward processing deficits as indexed by lower P3 amplitude and weaker CSD activity, along with higher prevalence of externalizing disorders and higher impulsivity scores

  12. AN EXTENDED REINFORCEMENT LEARNING MODEL OF BASAL GANGLIA TO UNDERSTAND THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF SEROTONIN AND DOPAMINE IN RISK-BASED DECISION MAKING, REWARD PREDICTION, AND PUNISHMENT LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragathi Priyadharsini Balasubramani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although empirical and neural studies show that serotonin (5HT plays many functional roles in the brain, prior computational models mostly focus on its role in behavioral inhibition. In this study, we present a model of risk based decision making in a modified Reinforcement Learning (RL-framework. The model depicts the roles of dopamine (DA and serotonin (5HT in Basal Ganglia (BG. In this model, the DA signal is represented by the temporal difference error (δ, while the 5HT signal is represented by a parameter (α that controls risk prediction error. This formulation that accommodates both 5HT and DA reconciles some of the diverse roles of 5HT particularly in connection with the BG system. We apply the model to different experimental paradigms used to study the role of 5HT: 1 Risk-sensitive decision making, where 5HT controls risk assessment, 2 Temporal reward prediction, where 5HT controls time-scale of reward prediction, and 3 Reward/Punishment sensitivity, in which the punishment prediction error depends on 5HT levels. Thus the proposed integrated RL model reconciles several existing theories of 5HT and DA in the BG.

  13. An extended reinforcement learning model of basal ganglia to understand the contributions of serotonin and dopamine in risk-based decision making, reward prediction, and punishment learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, Pragathi P; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2014-01-01

    Although empirical and neural studies show that serotonin (5HT) plays many functional roles in the brain, prior computational models mostly focus on its role in behavioral inhibition. In this study, we present a model of risk based decision making in a modified Reinforcement Learning (RL)-framework. The model depicts the roles of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in Basal Ganglia (BG). In this model, the DA signal is represented by the temporal difference error (δ), while the 5HT signal is represented by a parameter (α) that controls risk prediction error. This formulation that accommodates both 5HT and DA reconciles some of the diverse roles of 5HT particularly in connection with the BG system. We apply the model to different experimental paradigms used to study the role of 5HT: (1) Risk-sensitive decision making, where 5HT controls risk assessment, (2) Temporal reward prediction, where 5HT controls time-scale of reward prediction, and (3) Reward/Punishment sensitivity, in which the punishment prediction error depends on 5HT levels. Thus the proposed integrated RL model reconciles several existing theories of 5HT and DA in the BG.

  14. Evaluating Ecological Risk to Invertebrate Receptors from PAHs in Sediments at Hazardous Waste Sites (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) announced the release of the final report, Evaluating Ecological Risk to Invertebrate Receptors from PAHs in Sediments at Hazardous Waste Sites. The report provides an overview of an approach for assessing risk to ...

  15. Evaluating Ecological Risk to Invertebrate Receptors from PAHs in Sediments at Hazardous Waste Sites (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) announced the release of the final report, Evaluating Ecological Risk to Invertebrate Receptors from PAHs in Sediments at Hazardous Waste Sites. The report provides an overview of an approach for assessing risk to ...

  16. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between job demand-control, effort-reward imbalance and cardiovascular heart disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderberg Mia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study explored relationships between psychosocial work environment, captured by job demand-control (JDC and effort-reward imbalance (ERI, and seven cardiovascular heart disease (CHD risk factors in a general population. Method The sampled consists of randomly-selected men and women from Gothenburg, Sweden and the city’s surrounding metropolitan areas. Associations between psychosocial variables and biomarkers were analysed with multiple linear regression adjusted for age, smoking, education and occupational status. Results The study included 638 men and 668 women aged 24–71. Analysis between JDC and CHD risk factors illustrated that, for men, JDC was associated with impaired scores in several biomarkers, especially among those in high strain jobs. For women, there were no relationships between JDC and biomarkers. In the analysis of links between ERI and CHD risk factors, most associations tested null. The only findings were raised triglycerides and BMI among men in the fourth quartile of the ERI-ratio distribution, and lowered LDL-cholesterol for women. An complementary ERI analysis, combining high/low effort and reward into categories, illustrated lowered triglycerides and elevated HDL-cholesterol values among women reporting high efforts and high rewards, compared to women experiencing low effort and high reward. Conclusions There were some associations between psychosocial stressors and CHD risk factors. The cross-sectional design did not allow conclusions about causality but some results indicated gender differences regarding sensitivity to work stressors and also how the models might capture different psychosocial dimensions.

  17. Power Saving Strategies and Technologies in Network Equipment Opportunities and Challenges, Risk and Rewards

    CERN Document Server

    Ceuppens, Luc; Kharitonov, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from todays best-in-class solutions, we identify power-saving strategies that have succeeded in the past and look forward to new ideas and paradigms. We strongly believe that designing energy-efficient network equipment can be compared to building sports cars, task-oriented, focused and fast. However, unlike track-bound sports cars, ultra-fast and purpose-built silicon yields better energy efficiency when compared to more generic family sedan designs that mitigate go-to-market risks by being the masters of many tasks. Thus, we demonstrate that the best opportunities for power savings come via protocol simplification, best-of-breed technology, and silicon and software optimization, to achieve the least amount of processing necessary to move packets. We also look to the future of networking from a new angle, where energy efficiency and environmental concerns are viewed as fundamental design criteria and forces that need to be harnessed to continually create more powerful networking equipment.

  18. The future costs, risks and rewards of drug development: the economics of pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joseph; Hunter, Graeme; Vernon, John A

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the evolving field of pharmacogenomics, which is the science of using genomic markers to predict drug response, and how it may impact the future costs, risks and returns to pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). We uncover a number of factors and issues that are likely to influence the expected returns and, hence, the incentive to invest in new pharmaceutical R&D in tandem with the development of pharmacogenomics. Specifically, we identify how pharmacogenomics may lower the cost of drug development by shortening drug development times. Thus, pharmacogenomics may lead to an increase in a drug's effective patent life, and may also increase the demand and adoption rate for new products. For these and other reasons, pharmacogenomics may one day enhance expected future returns to R&D, leading to higher levels of R&D investment and an increased pace of pharmaceutical innovation. Our conclusions must be read with much caution, however, as there is considerable uncertainty as to how the area will evolve, both clinically and economically. The time horizon necessary for the science to develop and be adopted into clinical practice is not clear. Nevertheless, we think the issues and factors outlined in this article shed light on possible future economic outcomes and changes in the industry's structure, conduct and performance. Hopefully, this will provide researchers with avenues to pursue regarding a better understanding of the economics of pharmacogenomics.

  19. Quantity judgements in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: First count, then hunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia ePanteleeva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We simulated the vital situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants. In the first (preliminary experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different size, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37±003 to 4±0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m 2per min in the vicinity of anthills and ants’ routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgements in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents.. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs 15, 5 vs 30 and 10 vs 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents.

  20. Quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: first "count," then hunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, Sofia; Reznikova, Zhanna; Vygonyailova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    We simulated the situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants). In the first (preliminary) experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different quantities, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37 ± 003 to 4 ± 0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, likely because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m(2) per min) in the vicinity of anthills and ants' routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs. 15, 5 vs. 30, and 10 vs. 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents.

  1. Risk factors for episodes of enteric disease in cattle wastes handlers in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madoshi, B; Lupindu, A. M.; Mtambo, MMA

    2017-01-01

    of handlers who were aware of risks of acquiring enteric episodes in animal waste handlers was low (43.6 %. There was limited awareness of government guideline on handling such wastes (3.2%) and washing hands without soap was found to be the most common health measures taken after handling animal wastes (70...

  2. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-08-01

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.

  3. A network model of basal ganglia for understanding the roles of dopamine and serotonin in reward-punishment-risk based decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragathi Priyadharsini Balasubramani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that in addition to reward-punishment based decision making, the Basal Ganglia (BG contributes to risk-based decision making as well. Despite this evidence, little is known about the computational principles and neural correlates of risk computation in this subcortical system. We have previously proposed a reinforcement learning based model of the BG that simulates the interactions between dopamine (DA and serotonin (5HT in a diverse set of experimental effects including reward, punishment and risk based decision making. Starting with the idea that the activity of DA represents reward prediction error, the model posits that serotoninergic activity in the striatum controls risk-prediction error. Our prior model of the BG was an abstract model that did not incorporate anatomical and cellular-level data. In this work, we expand the earlier model into a detailed network model of the BG and demonstrate the joint contributions of DA-5HT in risk and reward-punishment sensitivity. At the core of the proposed network model is the following insight regarding cellular correlates of value and risk computation. Just as DA D1 receptor (D1R expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs of the striatum were thought to be neural substrates for value computation, we propose that DA D1R and D2R co-expressing MSNs, reported to occupy a significant proportion of the striatum and are implicated in disorders like schizophrenia and drug addiction, are capable of computing risk. Ours is the first-of-its-kind model that accounts for the significant computational possibilities of these co-expressing D1R-D2R MSNs, and describes how DA-5HT mediated activity in these classes of neurons (D1R-, D2R-, D1R-D2R- MSNs contribute to the BG dynamics. We also apply the model to capture the behaviour of PD patients in a probabilistic learning paradigm. The study observes that optimizing 5HT levels along with DA medication could be essential to improving the

  4. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-Fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  5. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  6. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility, desirability and preferred approaches for disposal of selected high-level nuclear wastes in space were analyzed. Preliminary space disposal risk estimates and estimates of risk uncertainty are provided.

  7. Risk management for outsourcing biomedical waste disposal – Using the failure mode and effects analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Ching-Jong; Ho, Chao Chung, E-mail: ho919@pchome.com.tw

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • This study is based on a real case in hospital in Taiwan. • We use Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) as the evaluation method. • We successfully identify the evaluation factors of bio-medical waste disposal risk. - Abstract: Using the failure mode and effects analysis, this study examined biomedical waste companies through risk assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the supervisors of biomedical waste units in hospitals, and factors relating to the outsourcing risk assessment of biomedical waste in hospitals by referring to waste disposal acts. An expert questionnaire survey was conducted on the personnel involved in waste disposal units in hospitals, in order to identify important factors relating to the outsourcing risk of biomedical waste in hospitals. This study calculated the risk priority number (RPN) and selected items with an RPN value higher than 80 for improvement. These items included “availability of freezing devices”, “availability of containers for sharp items”, “disposal frequency”, “disposal volume”, “disposal method”, “vehicles meeting the regulations”, and “declaration of three lists”. This study also aimed to identify important selection factors of biomedical waste disposal companies by hospitals in terms of risk. These findings can serve as references for hospitals in the selection of outsourcing companies for biomedical waste disposal.

  8. Rewarding prayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjødt, Uffe; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Geertz, Armin W; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2008-10-10

    We report a highly significant regional increase of the BOLD response in the caudate nucleus in a group of Danish Christians while performing silent religious prayer. The effect was found in a main-effect analysis of high-structured and low-structured religious recitals relative to comparable secular recitals and to a non-narrative baseline. This supports the hypothesis that religious prayer as a form of frequently recurring behavior is capable of stimulating the dopaminergic reward system in practicing individuals. It extends recent research which demonstrates a relation between interpersonal trust and activation in the dopaminergic system to also encompass relations to abstract entities.

  9. Co-effect of Demand-control-support Model and Effort-reward Imbalance Model on Depression Risk Estimation in Humans:Findings from Henan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shan Fa; NAKATA Akinori; GU Gui Zhen; SWANSON Naomi G; ZHOU Wen Hui; HE Li Hua; WANG Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the co-effect of Demand-control-support (DCS) model and Effort-reward Imbalance (ERI) model on the risk estimation of depression in humans in comparison with the effects when they are used respectively. Methods A total of 3 632 males and 1 706 females from 13 factories and companies in Henan province were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Job Content Questionnaire and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (Chinese version). Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results DC (demands/job control ratio) and ERI were shown to be independently associated with depressive symptoms. The outcome of low social support and overcommitment were similar. High DC and low social support (SS), high ERI and high overcommitment, and high DC and high ERI posed greater risks of depressive symptoms than each of them did alone. ERI model and SS model seem to be effective in estimating the risk of depressive symptoms if they are used respectively. Conclusion The DC had better performance when it was used in combination with low SS. The effect on physical demands was better than on psychological demands. The combination of DCS and ERI models could improve the risk estimate of depressive symptoms in humans.

  10. MANAGING THE RETRIEVAL RISK OF BURIED TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE WITH UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WOJTASEK, R.D.; GADD, R.R.; GREENWELL, R.D.

    2006-01-19

    United States-Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store transuranic (TRU) waste are almost certain to encounter waste packages with characteristics that are so unique as to warrant special precautions for retrieval. At the Hanford Site, a subgroup of stored TRU waste (12 drums) had special considerations due to the radioactive source content of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}), and the potential for high heat generation, pressurization, criticality, and high radiation. These characteristics bear on the approach to safely retrieve, overpack, vent, store, and transport the waste package. Because of the potential risk to personnel, contingency planning for unexpected conditions played an effective role in work planning and in preparing workers for the field inspection activity. As a result, the integrity inspections successfully confirmed waste package configuration and waste confinement without experiencing any perturbations due to unanticipated packaging conditions. This paper discusses the engineering and field approach to managing the risk of retrieving TRU waste with unique characteristics.

  11. Waste Crime – Waste Risks: Gaps in Meeting the Global Waste Challenge : A UNEP Rapid Response Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieva Rucevska; Christian Nelleman; Nancy Isarin; Wanhua Yang; Ning Liu; Kelly Yu; Siv Sandnaes; Katie Olley; Howard McCann; Leila Devia; L.C.J. Bisschop (Lieselot); Denise Soesilo; Tina Schoolmeester; Rune Hendriksen; Rannveig Nilsen; Claire Eamer

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMore than ever, our future depends upon how we manage the future of our waste. As an integrated part of sustainable development, effective waste management can reduce our global footprint. Ignoring or neglecting the challenges of waste, however, can lead to significant health,

  12. The 'bankability' of the new waste technologies: an econometric method for risk sharing in private finance waste contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, I; Seaton, R; Chackiath, S; Wagland, S T; Pollard, S J T; Longhurst, P J

    2011-12-01

    The identification of risk and its appropriate allocation to partners in project consortia is essential for minimizing overall project risks, ensuring timely delivery and maximizing benefit for money invested. Risk management guidance available from government bodies, especially in the UK, does not specify methodologies for quantitative risk assessment, nor does it offer a procedure for allocating risk among project partners. Here, a methodology to quantify project risk and potential approaches to allocating risk and their implications are discussed. Construction and operation of a waste management facility through a public-private finance contract are discussed. Public-private partnership contracts are special purpose vehicle (SPV) financing methods promoted by the UK government to boost private sector investment in facilities for public service enhancement. Our findings question the appropriateness of using standard deviation as a measure for project risk and confirm the concept of portfolio theory, suggesting the pooling of risk can reduce total risk and its impact.

  13. Nuclear waste form risk assessment for US defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report fiscal year 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, H.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

    1981-07-01

    Waste form dissolution studies and preliminary performance analyses were carried out to contribute a part of the data needed for the selection of a waste form for the disposal of Savannah River Plant defense waste in a deep geologic repository. The first portion of this work provides descriptions of the chemical interactions between the waste form and the geologic environment. We reviewed critically the dissolution/leaching data for borosilicate glass and SYNROC. Both chemical kinetic and thermodynamic models were developed to describe the dissolution process of these candidate waste forms so as to establish a fundamental basis for interpretation of experimental data and to provide directions for future experiments. The complementary second portion of this work is an assessment of the impacts of alternate waste forms upon the consequences of disposal in various proposed geological media. Employing systems analysis methodology, we began to evaluate the performance of a generic waste form for the case of a high risk scenario for a bedded salt repository. Results of sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity to uncertainty analysis are presented.

  14. Occupational Risks Associated with Solid Waste Management in the Informal Sector of Gweru, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerie, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies and analyses the occupational risks associated with solid waste management practices in the informal enterprises of Gweru. Many concerns have been raised about the potential harm from waste to the environment and the general public, but the risks and consequent costs of occupational hazards in waste management have received little attention in the rush to adopt or adapt technologies such as composting. A multimethods research design that triangulates qualitative and quantitative research paradigms is employed in this study. The quantitative design involves physical characterisation of solid waste through material component separation and measurements as well as a questionnaire survey that investigates the risks associated with waste management. The qualitative component includes interviews, open-ended questionnaires, and field observations. Occupational risks occur at every stage in the waste management process, from the point where workers handle waste in the enterprises for collection or recycling to the point of ultimate disposal. Key findings from the study revealed that solid waste management practices are dominated by manual handling tasks hence the higher incidents of muscular-skeletal disorders. Other safety and health hazards associated with waste management in the informal enterprises of Gweru include incidents of diarrhoea, viral hepatitis, and higher incidents of obstructive and restrictive disorders.

  15. Behavioral measures of risk tasking, sensation seeking and sensitivity to reward may reflect different motivations for spicy food liking and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Nadia K; Hayes, John E

    2016-08-01

    Based on work a quarter century ago, it is widely accepted personality traits like sensation seeking are related to the enjoyment and intake of spicy foods; however, data supporting this belief is actually quite limited. Recently, we reported strong to moderate correlations between remembered spicy food liking and two personality traits measured with validated questionnaires. Here, participants consumed capsaicin-containing strawberry jelly to generate acute estimates of spicy food liking. Additionally, we used a laboratory-based behavioral measure of risk taking (the mobile Balloon Analogue Risk Task; mBART) to complement a range of validated self-report measures of risk-related personality traits. Present data confirm Sensation Seeking correlates with overall spicy meal liking and liking of the burn of a spicy meal, and extends prior findings by showing novel correlations with the liking of sampled stimuli. Other personality measures, including Sensitivity to Punishment (SP), Sensitivity to Reward (SR), and the Impulsivity and Risk Taking subscales of the DSM5 Personality Inventory (PID-5) did not show significant relationships with liking of spicy foods, either sampled or remembered. Our behavioral risk taking measure, the mBART, also failed to show a relationship with remembered or sampled liking. However, significant relationships were observed between reported intake of spicy foods and Sensitivity to Reward, and the Risk Taking subscale of the PID-5 (PID5-RT). Based on the observed patterns among various personality measures, and spicy food liking and intake, we propose that personality measures may exert their influence on intake of spicy food via different mechanisms. We also speculate that Sensation Seeking may reflect motivations for consuming spicy foods that are more intrinsic, while the motivations for eating spicy foods measured by SR and PID5-RT may be more extrinsic.

  16. Evaluating the operational risks of biomedical waste using failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Tsai, Pei-Yi

    2017-06-01

    The potential problems and risks of biomedical waste generation have become increasingly apparent in recent years. This study applied a failure mode and effects analysis to evaluate the operational problems and risks of biomedical waste. The microbiological contamination of biomedical waste seldom receives the attention of researchers. In this study, the biomedical waste lifecycle was divided into seven processes: Production, classification, packaging, sterilisation, weighing, storage, and transportation. Twenty main failure modes were identified in these phases and risks were assessed based on their risk priority numbers. The failure modes in the production phase accounted for the highest proportion of the risk priority number score (27.7%). In the packaging phase, the failure mode 'sharp articles not placed in solid containers' had the highest risk priority number score, mainly owing to its high severity rating. The sterilisation process is the main difference in the treatment of infectious and non-infectious biomedical waste. The failure modes in the sterilisation phase were mainly owing to human factors (mostly related to operators). This study increases the understanding of the potential problems and risks associated with biomedical waste, thereby increasing awareness of how to improve the management of biomedical waste to better protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  17. Waste Crime – Waste Risks: Gaps in Meeting the Global Waste Challenge: A UNEP Rapid Response Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ieva Rucevska; Christian Nelleman; Nancy Isarin; Wanhua Yang; Ning Liu; Kelly Yu; Siv Sandnaes; Katie Olley; Howard McCann; Leila Devia; Bisschop, Lieselot; Denise Soesilo; Tina Schoolmeester; Rune Hendriksen; Rannveig Nilsen

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMore than ever, our future depends upon how we manage the future of our waste. As an integrated part of sustainable development, effective waste management can reduce our global footprint. Ignoring or neglecting the challenges of waste, however, can lead to significant health, environmental and economic consequences. A staggering 1.3 billion tonnes of food is produced each year to feed the world’s 7 billion people. Yet, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),...

  18. Risk management for outsourcing biomedical waste disposal - using the failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ching-Jong; Ho, Chao Chung

    2014-07-01

    Using the failure mode and effects analysis, this study examined biomedical waste companies through risk assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the supervisors of biomedical waste units in hospitals, and factors relating to the outsourcing risk assessment of biomedical waste in hospitals by referring to waste disposal acts. An expert questionnaire survey was conducted on the personnel involved in waste disposal units in hospitals, in order to identify important factors relating to the outsourcing risk of biomedical waste in hospitals. This study calculated the risk priority number (RPN) and selected items with an RPN value higher than 80 for improvement. These items included "availability of freezing devices", "availability of containers for sharp items", "disposal frequency", "disposal volume", "disposal method", "vehicles meeting the regulations", and "declaration of three lists". This study also aimed to identify important selection factors of biomedical waste disposal companies by hospitals in terms of risk. These findings can serve as references for hospitals in the selection of outsourcing companies for biomedical waste disposal.

  19. Risk mitigation by waste-based permeable reactive barriers for groundwater pollution control at e-waste recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Zhang, Weihua; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have proved to be a promising passive treatment to control groundwater contamination and associated human health risks. This study explored the potential use of low-cost adsorbents as PRBs media and assessed their longevity and risk mitigation against leaching of acidic rainfall through an e-waste recycling site, of which Cu, Zn, and Pb were the major contaminants. Batch adsorption experiments suggested a higher adsorption capacity of inorganic industrial by-products [acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) and coal fly ash (CFA)] and carbonaceous recycled products [food waste compost (FWC) and wood-derived biochar] compared to natural inorganic minerals (limestone and apatite). Continuous leaching tests of sand columns with 10 wt% low-cost adsorbents were then conducted to mimic the field situation of acidic rainfall infiltration through e-waste-contaminated soils (collected from Qingyuan, China) by using synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) solution. In general, Zn leached out first, followed by Cu, and finally delayed breakthrough of Pb. In the worst-case scenario (e.g., at initial concentrations equal to 50-fold of average SPLP result), the columns with limestone, apatite, AMDS, or biochar were effective for a relatively short period of about 20-40 pore volumes of leaching, after which Cu breakthrough caused non-cancer risk concern and later-stage Pb leaching considerably increased both non-cancer and lifetime cancer risk associated with portable use of contaminated water. In contrast, the columns with CFA or FWC successfully mitigated overall risks to an acceptable level for a prolonged period of 100-200 pore volumes. Therefore, with proper selection of low-cost adsorbents (or their mixture), waste-based PRBs is a technically feasible and economically viable solution to mitigate human health risk due to contaminated groundwater at e-waste recycling sites.

  20. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    Safety guidelines are presented. Waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication facilities, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, payload primary container/core, radiation shield, reentry systems, launch site facilities, uprooted space shuttle launch vehicle, Earth packing orbits, orbit transfer systems, and space destination are discussed. Disposed concepts and risks are then discussed.

  1. Preliminary characterization of risks in the nuclear waste management system based on information in the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Rhoads, R.E.; Van Luick, A.E.; Fecht, B.A.; Nilson, S.A.; Sevigny, N.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Armstrong, G.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hill, D.H.; Rowe, M.; Stern, E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This document presents preliminary information on the radiological and nonradiological risks in the nuclear waste management system. The objective of the study was to (1) review the literature containing information on risks in the nuclear waste management system and (2) use this information to develop preliminary estimates of the potential magnitude of these risks. Information was collected on a broad range of risk categories to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in communicating information about the risks in the waste management systems. The study examined all of the portions of the nuclear waste management system currently expected to be developed by the DOE. The scope of this document includes the potential repository, the integral MRS facility, and the transportation system that supports the potential repository and the MRS facility. Relevant literature was reviewed for several potential repository sites and geologic media. A wide range of ``risk categories`` are addressed in this report: (1) public and occupational risks from accidents that could release radiological materials, (2) public and occupational radiation exposure resulting from routine operations, (3) public and occupational risks from accidents involving hazards other than radioactive materials, and (4) public and occupational risks from exposure to nonradioactive hazardous materials during routine operations. The report is intended to provide a broad spectrum of risk-related information about the waste management system. This information is intended to be helpful for planning future studies.

  2. Resting-state brain and the FTO obesity risk allele: default mode, sensorimotor and salience network connectivity underlying different somatosensory integration and reward processing between genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia eOlivo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene are linked to obesity, but how these SNPs influence resting-state neural activation is unknown. Few brain-imaging studies have investigated the influence of obesity-related SNPs on neural activity, and no study has investigated resting-state connectivity patterns. We tested connectivity within three, main resting-state networks: default mode (DMN, sensorimotor (SMN, and salience network (SN in thirty male participants, grouped based on genotype for the rs9939609 FTO SNP, as well as punishment and reward sensitivity measured by the Behavioral Inhibition (BIS and Behavioral Activation System (BAS questionnaires. Because obesity is associated with anomalies in both systems, we calculated a BIS/BAS ratio (BBr accounting for features of both scores. A prominence of BIS over BAS (higher BBr resulted in increased connectivity in frontal and paralimbic regions. These alterations were more evident in the obesity-associated AA genotype, where a high BBr was also associated with increased SN connectivity in dopaminergic circuitries, and in a subnetwork involved in somatosensory integration regarding food. Participants with AA genotype and high BBr, compared to corresponding participants in the TT genotype, also showed greater DMN connectivity in regions involved in the processing of food cues, and in the SMN for regions involved in visceral perception and reward-based learning. These findings suggest that neural connectivity patterns influence the sensitivity toward punishment and reward more closely in the AA carriers, predisposing them to developing obesity. Our work explains a complex interaction between genetics, neural patterns, and behavioral measures in determining the risk for obesity and may help develop individually-tailored strategies for obesity prevention.

  3. The Rewards of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Although intrinsic rewards are important, they (along with punishment and encouragement) are insufficient for efficient learning. Teachers must supplement intrinsic rewards with extrinsic rewards, such as praising, complimenting, applauding, and providing other forms of recognition for good work. Teachers should use the weakest reward required to…

  4. The Rewards of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Although intrinsic rewards are important, they (along with punishment and encouragement) are insufficient for efficient learning. Teachers must supplement intrinsic rewards with extrinsic rewards, such as praising, complimenting, applauding, and providing other forms of recognition for good work. Teachers should use the weakest reward required to…

  5. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A model standardized risk assessment protocol for use with hazardous waste sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, G M; Day, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a model standardized risk assessment protocol (SRAP) for use with hazardous waste sites. The proposed SRAP focuses on the degree and patterns of evidence that exist for a significant risk to human populations from exposure to a hazardous waste site. The SRAP was designed with at least four specific goals in mind: to organize the available scientific data on a specific site and to highlight important gaps in this knowledge; to facilitate rational, cost-effective decision ma...

  7. Formulation and Presentation of Risk Assessments to Address Risk Targets for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    The Swedish regulators have been active in the field of performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities for many years and have developed sophisticated approaches to the development of scenarios and other aspects of assessments. These assessments have generally used dose as the assessment end-point. Regulations recently established in Sweden (SSI FS 1998:1) have introduced a risk criterion for radioactive waste disposal: the annual risk of harmful effects after closure of a disposal facility should not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. This report evaluates different approaches to the definition and use of probabilities in the context of risk assessments, and examines the presentation of the results of risk assessments in safety cases to meet risk targets. The report illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different possible approaches to risk assessment by reference to assessments in other countries, and provides suggestions for future activity and development in this area by the Swedish regulators. The review of experience in other countries has led to a number of key observations relevant to the conduct of regulatory work on risk assessments and preparations for review. These highlight the importance of developing a protocol for conducting calculations, and linking such a protocol to the requirements of risk assessment calculations and to existing code and model capabilities. There are a number of decisions and assumptions required in developing a risk assessment methodology that could potentially affect the calculated results. These assumptions are independent of the analysis of performance, and relate to issues such as the expectation value of risk, risk dilution, the definition of probability density functions and achieving convergence. A review of a proponent's risk assessment should address these issues in determining the appropriateness and validity of the results presented

  8. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Mikhael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions.

  9. Public Health Risks from Mismanagement of Healthcare Wastes in Shinyanga Municipality Health Facilities, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchibanda, Kizito; Mayo, Aloyce W

    2015-01-01

    The increase of healthcare facilities in Shinyanga municipality has resulted in an increase of healthcare wastes, which poses serious threats to the environment, health workers, and the general public. This research was conducted to investigate management practices of healthcare wastes in Shinyanga municipality with a view of assessing health risks to health workers and the general public. The study, which was carried out in three hospitals, involved the use of questionnaires, in-depth interview, and observation checklist. The results revealed that healthcare wastes are not quantified or segregated in all the three hospitals. Healthcare wastes at the Shinyanga Regional Referral Hospital are disposed of by on-site incineration and burning and some wastes are disposed off-site. At Kolandoto DDH only on-site burning and land disposal are practiced, while at Kambarage UHC healthcare solid wastes are incinerated, disposed of on land disposal, and burned. Waste management workers do not have formal training in waste management techniques and the hospital administrations pay very little attention to appropriate management of healthcare wastes. In light of this, it is evident that management of healthcare solid wastes is not practiced in accordance with the national and WHO's recommended standards.

  10. Public Health Risks from Mismanagement of Healthcare Wastes in Shinyanga Municipality Health Facilities, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizito Kuchibanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of healthcare facilities in Shinyanga municipality has resulted in an increase of healthcare wastes, which poses serious threats to the environment, health workers, and the general public. This research was conducted to investigate management practices of healthcare wastes in Shinyanga municipality with a view of assessing health risks to health workers and the general public. The study, which was carried out in three hospitals, involved the use of questionnaires, in-depth interview, and observation checklist. The results revealed that healthcare wastes are not quantified or segregated in all the three hospitals. Healthcare wastes at the Shinyanga Regional Referral Hospital are disposed of by on-site incineration and burning and some wastes are disposed off-site. At Kolandoto DDH only on-site burning and land disposal are practiced, while at Kambarage UHC healthcare solid wastes are incinerated, disposed of on land disposal, and burned. Waste management workers do not have formal training in waste management techniques and the hospital administrations pay very little attention to appropriate management of healthcare wastes. In light of this, it is evident that management of healthcare solid wastes is not practiced in accordance with the national and WHO’s recommended standards.

  11. Applying behavioral-ecological theory to plant defense: light-dependent movement in Mimosa pudica suggests a trade-off between predation risk and energetic reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Evelyn L; Dill, Lawrence M; Cahill, James F

    2011-03-01

    Many animal species tolerate different amounts of predation risk based on environmental conditions and the individual's own condition, often accepting greater risk when energetically stressed. We studied the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica to see whether it too accepts greater risk of predation when less light energy is available. This plant displays a defensive behavior of rapidly folding its leaves when stimulated by touch, thereby decreasing visibility to herbivores. Averting herbivory involves a trade-off because leaf closure results in a reduction in light foraging. We manipulated the light environment of individual M. pudica plants and recorded the time it took a plant to reopen its leaves following stimulation as a measure of tolerance of predation risk. As predicted by theory, avoidance behavior was sustained longer under high light conditions than under more light-limited conditions. These findings suggest this species balances the risk and reward of antiherbivore behavior in relation to current environmental conditions and that behavioral-ecological theory is a useful framework for understanding plant responses to predators.

  12. Preliminary risk analysis applied to the handling of health-care waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho S.M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 75% and 90% of the waste produced by health-care providers no risk or is "general" health-care waste, comparable to domestic waste. The remaining 10-25% of health-care waste is regarded as hazardous due to one or more of the following characteristics: it may contain infectious agents, sharps, toxic or hazardous chemicals or it may be radioactive. Infectious health-care waste, particularly sharps, has been responsible for most of the accidents reported in the literature. In this work the preliminary risks analysis (PRA technique was used to evaluate practices in the handling of infectious health-care waste. Currently the PRA technique is being used to identify and to evaluate the potential for hazard of the activities, products, and services from facilities and industries. The system studied was a health-care establishment which has handling practices for infectious waste. Thirty-six procedures related to segregation, containment, internal collection, and storage operation were analyzed. The severity of the consequences of the failure (risk that can occur from careless management of infectious health-care waste was classified into four categories: negligible, marginal, critical, and catastrophic. The results obtained in this study showed that events with critics consequences, about 80%, may occur during the implementation of the containment operation, suggesting the need to prioritize this operation. As a result of the methodology applied in this work, a flowchart the risk series was also obtained. In the flowchart the events that can occur as a consequence of a improper handling of infectious health-care waste, which can cause critical risks such as injuries from sharps and contamination (infection from pathogenic microorganisms, are shown.

  13. Modular risk analysis for assessing multiple waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nazarali, A. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Human-health impacts, especially to the surrounding public, are extremely difficult to assess at installations that contain multiple waste sites and a variety of mixed-waste constituents (e.g., organic, inorganic, and radioactive). These assessments must address different constituents, multiple waste sites, multiple release patterns, different transport pathways (i.e., groundwater, surface water, air, and overland soil), different receptor types and locations, various times of interest, population distributions, land-use patterns, baseline assessments, a variety of exposure scenarios, etc. Although the process is complex, two of the most important difficulties to overcome are associated with (1) establishing an approach that allows for modifying the source term, transport, or exposure component as an individual module without having to re-evaluate the entire installation-wide assessment (i.e., all modules simultaneously), and (2) displaying and communicating the results in an understandable and useable maimer to interested parties. An integrated, physics-based, compartmentalized approach, which is coupled to a Geographical Information System (GIS), captures the regional health impacts associated with multiple waste sites (e.g., hundreds to thousands of waste sites) at locations within and surrounding the installation. Utilizing a modular/GIS-based approach overcomes difficulties in (1) analyzing a wide variety of scenarios for multiple waste sites, and (2) communicating results from a complex human-health-impact analysis by capturing the essence of the assessment in a relatively elegant manner, so the meaning of the results can be quickly conveyed to all who review them.

  14. Leaching characteristics, ecotoxicity, and risk assessment based management of mine wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.; Hong, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    Mine wastes generated during mining activities in metal mines generally contain high concentrations of metals that may impose toxic effects to surrounding environment. Thus, it is necessary to properly assess the mining-impacted landscapes for management. The study investigated leaching characteristics, potential environmental effects, and human health risk of mine wastes from three different metal mines in South Korea (molybdenum mine, lead-zinc mine, and magnetite mine). The heavy metal concentrations in the leachates obtained by using the Korean Standard Test Method for Solid Wastes (STM), Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) met the Korea Waste Control Act and the USEPA region 3 regulatory levels accordingly, even though the mine wastes contained high concentrations of metals. Assuming that the leachates may get into nearby water sources, the leachate toxicity was tested using Daphnia Magna. The toxic unit (TU) values after 24 h and 48 h exposure of all the mine wastes tested met the Korea Allowable Effluent Water Quality Standards (TUmine waste may have long-term toxic effects (TU>1 for the eluent at L/S of 30) implying that the long-term effect of mine wastes left in mining areas need to be assessed. Considering reuse of mine wastes as a way of managing mine wastes, the human health risk assessment of reusing the lead-zinc mine waste in industrial areas was carried out using the bioavailable fraction of the heavy metals contained in the mine wastes, which was determined by using the Solubility/Bioavailability Research Consortium method. There may be potential carcinogenic risk (9.7E-05) and non-carcinogenic risk (HI, Hazard Index of 1.0E+00) as CR≧1.0E-05 has carcinogenic risk and HI≧1.0E+00 has non-carcinogenic risk. Overall, this study shows that not only the concentration-based assessment but ecological toxic effect and human health risk based assessments can be utilized for mining

  15. Chemical and radiological risk factors associated with waste from energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Benestad, C.

    1992-01-01

    We have tried to estimate the toxic potential of waste from nuclear power plants and from power plants burning fossil fuels. The potential risks have been expressed as 'risk potentials' or 'person equivalents'. These are purely theoretical units and represent only an attempt to quantify the poten......We have tried to estimate the toxic potential of waste from nuclear power plants and from power plants burning fossil fuels. The potential risks have been expressed as 'risk potentials' or 'person equivalents'. These are purely theoretical units and represent only an attempt to quantify...... and one has to accept a certain small risk by accepting the concentration limit. This is in line with the establishment of limits for radiation. Waste products from coal combustion have the highest potential risk among the fossil fuel alternatives. The highest risk is caused by metals, and the fly ash...... represents the effluent stream giving the largest contribution to the potential risk. The waste from nuclear power production has a lower potential risk than coal if today's limit values are used. If one adjusts the limits for radiation dose and the concentration limit values so that a similar risk...

  16. Comparative health risks of domestic waste combustion in urban and rural Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová, Jana; Eschenroeder, Alan Q

    2007-10-01

    This paper addresses the health risk incurred by two alternative waste management schemes: open burning of household waste in barrels practiced in rural Slovakia and controlled municipal waste combustion in the city of Bratislava. Using agricultural land use data and village population data we formulate three prototype villages, each representing about one-third of the rural population. The two configurations of the controlled combustion are an outdated municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and a modern waste-to-energy (WTE) plant equipped with modern air pollution control devices. These configurations actually exist(ed) in Bratislava, Slovakia at the same site, but in different time frames. The CALPUFF model provides direct exposure data and the EMERAM software (developed in this paper) computes indirect exposure. A major source of uncertainty is that of the fraction of waste burned in the open. The analysis presented here assumed 10%. At this level, the cancer risk from open burning ranges from 10 to 80 times the commonly regarded de minimus value of one in a million. This means that underthe U.S. contemporary regulatory culture, some regulatory action to control or enforce the burning ban would be expected. Cancer risks from the incinerator ranged from 7 to 371 in a million while the WTE risks were below 1 in a million. Cancer risks from open burning are higher than those of the WTE plant and at the same time affect a larger portion of concerned population.

  17. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  18. Neural processing of reward in adolescent rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Simon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Immaturities in adolescent reward processing are thought to contribute to poor decision making and increased susceptibility to develop addictive and psychiatric disorders. Very little is known; however, about how the adolescent brain processes reward. The current mechanistic theories of reward processing are derived from adult models. Here we review recent research focused on understanding of how the adolescent brain responds to rewards and reward-associated events. A critical aspect of this work is that age-related differences are evident in neuronal processing of reward-related events across multiple brain regions even when adolescent rats demonstrate behavior similar to adults. These include differences in reward processing between adolescent and adult rats in orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Surprisingly, minimal age related differences are observed in ventral striatum, which has been a focal point of developmental studies. We go on to discuss the implications of these differences for behavioral traits affected in adolescence, such as impulsivity, risk-taking, and behavioral flexibility. Collectively, this work suggests that reward-evoked neural activity differs as a function of age and that regions such as the dorsal striatum that are not traditionally associated with affective processing in adults may be critical for reward processing and psychiatric vulnerability in adolescents.

  19. A new way to ask the experts: Rating radioactive waste risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1996-11-08

    The possible risks of a proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain include the dozen or more young volcanos near by. Now some earth scientists have a new approach to evaluating hazards accounting for uncertainty at every step - `expert elicitation.` This pulls together a panel of experts, carefully assesses the uncertainties of each of their views then mathematically combines their risk estimates along with the accompanying uncertainties. The article goes on to describe just such a panel which considered seismic hazards to Yucca Mountain, how they came to their conclusions, the arguments about the conclusions, and the future of expert elicitation in evaluating the risks of nuclear waste disposal.

  20. [Current status on storage, processing and risk communication of medical radioactive waste in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Maehara, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Atsuko; Koizumi, Mitsue; Kimura, Yumi; Horitsugi, Genki

    2013-03-01

    Decay-in-storage for radioactive waste including that of nuclear medicine has not been implemented in Japan. Therefore, all medical radioactive waste is collected and stored at the Japan Radioisotope Association Takizawa laboratory, even if the radioactivity has already decayed out. To clarify the current situation between Takizawa village and Takizawa laboratory, we investigated the radiation management status and risk communication activities at the laboratory via a questionnaire and site visiting survey in June 2010. Takizawa laboratory continues to maintain an interactive relationship with local residents. As a result, Takizawa village permitted the acceptance of new medical radioactive waste containing Sr-89 and Y-90. However, the village did not accept any non-medical radioactive waste such as waste from research laboratories. To implement decay-in-storage in Japan, it is important to obtain agreement with all stakeholders. We must continue to exert sincere efforts to acquire the trust of all stakeholders.

  1. Different roads to the same destination - The impact of impulsivity on decision-making processes under risk within a rewarding context in a healthy male sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu-Biringer, Ramona; Nees, Frauke; Falquez, Rosalux; Berger, Moritz; Barnow, Sven

    2016-02-28

    The results of research about the influences of impulsivity on decision-making in situations of risk have been inconsistent. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of decision-making under risk in 12 impulsive, as defined by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and 13 normal men. Although both groups showed similar decision-making behavior, neural activation regarding decision-making processes differed significantly. Impulsive persons revealed stronger activation in the (ventro-) medial prefrontal cortex and less deactivation of the orbitofrontal cortex while playing for potential gains. These brain regions might be associated with the emotional components of decision-making processes. Significant differences in brain areas linked to cognitive decision-making components were not found. This activation pattern might be seen as an indication for a hypersensitivity to rewarding cues in impulsive persons and might be linked to the propensity for inappropriate risk-taking behavior in persons with more extreme impulsivity levels, especially in situations in which they have a strong emotional involvement in the decision process.

  2. An obesity-associated risk allele within the FTO gene affects human brain activity for areas important for emotion, impulse control and reward in response to food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemerslage, Lyle; Nilsson, Emil K; Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda; Ence-Eriksson, Fia; Castillo, Sandra; Larsen, Anna L; Bylund, Simon B A; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Olivo, Gaia; Bandstein, Marcus; Titova, Olga E; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Benedict, Christian; Brooks, Samantha J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how genetics influences obesity, brain activity and eating behaviour will add important insight for developing strategies for weight-loss treatment, as obesity may stem from different causes and as individual feeding behaviour may depend on genetic differences. To this end, we examined how an obesity risk allele for the FTO gene affects brain activity in response to food images of different caloric content via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty participants homozygous for the rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism were shown images of low- or high-calorie food while brain activity was measured via fMRI. In a whole-brain analysis, we found that people with the FTO risk allele genotype (AA) had increased activity compared with the non-risk (TT) genotype in the posterior cingulate, cuneus, precuneus and putamen. Moreover, higher body mass index in the AA genotype was associated with reduced activity to food images in areas important for emotion (cingulate cortex), but also in areas important for impulse control (frontal gyri and lentiform nucleus). Lastly, we corroborate our findings with behavioural scales for the behavioural inhibition and activation systems. Our results suggest that the two genotypes are associated with differential neural processing of food images, which may influence weight status through diminished impulse control and reward processing.

  3. Public Health Risks from Mismanagement of Healthcare Wastes in Shinyanga Municipality Health Facilities, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kizito Kuchibanda; Mayo, Aloyce W.

    2015-01-01

    The increase of healthcare facilities in Shinyanga municipality has resulted in an increase of healthcare wastes, which poses serious threats to the environment, health workers, and the general public. This research was conducted to investigate management practices of healthcare wastes in Shinyanga municipality with a view of assessing health risks to health workers and the general public. The study, which was carried out in three hospitals, involved the use of questionnaires, in-depth interv...

  4. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  5. Motivation and reward systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerde, W.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reward systems are identified as one of the human resource management (HRM) practices that may impact motivation. Reward systems may consist of several components, including financial and nonfinancial rewards, in fixed and variable amounts. Reinforcement, expectancy, and equity principles are discus

  6. Punished by Rewards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Ron

    1995-01-01

    The author of "Punished by Rewards" (1993), claims that rewards and punishments serve to manipulate behavior and destroy the potential for real learning. Praise is especially tricky, since intangible rewards can also foster compliance, not motivation. An engaging curriculum and a caring atmosphere encourage kids to exercise their natural…

  7. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, K.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-22

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions.

  8. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Campbell, J.E.; Ortiz, N.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Guzowski, R.V. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-04-01

    This report contains the description of a procedure for selecting scenarios that are potentially important to the isolation of high- level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. In this report, the term scenario is used to represent a set of naturally occurring and/or human-induced conditions that represent realistic future states of the repository, geologic systems, and ground-water flow systems that might affect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository to humans. The scenario selection procedure discussed in this report is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical waste disposal site containing a bedded-salt formation as the host medium for the repository. A final set of 12 scenarios is selected for this site. 52 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-12-01

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones.

  10. Assessment of occupational safety risks in Floridian solid waste systems using Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastani, Mehrad; Celik, Nurcin

    2015-10-01

    Safety risks embedded within solid waste management systems continue to be a significant issue and are prevalent at every step in the solid waste management process. To recognise and address these occupational hazards, it is necessary to discover the potential safety concerns that cause them, as well as their direct and/or indirect impacts on the different types of solid waste workers. In this research, our goal is to statistically assess occupational safety risks to solid waste workers in the state of Florida. Here, we first review the related standard industrial codes to major solid waste management methods including recycling, incineration, landfilling, and composting. Then, a quantitative assessment of major risks is conducted based on the data collected using a Bayesian data analysis and predictive methods. The risks estimated in this study for the period of 2005-2012 are then compared with historical statistics (1993-1997) from previous assessment studies. The results have shown that the injury rates among refuse collectors in both musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have decreased from 88 and 15 to 16 and three injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. However, a contrasting trend is observed for the injury rates among recycling workers, for whom musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have increased from 13 and four injuries to 14 and six injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. Lastly, a linear regression model has been proposed to identify major elements of the high number of musculoskeletal and dermal injuries.

  11. Waste management programmatic environmental impact statement methodology for estimating human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergenback, B. [Midwest Technical, Inc. (United States); Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has produced large quantities of radioactive and hazardous waste during years of nuclear weapons production. As a result, a large number of sites across the DOE Complex have become chemically and/or radiologically contaminated. In 1990, the Secretary of Energy charged the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM) with the task of preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS should identify and assess the potential environmental impacts of implementing several integrated Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) alternatives. The determination and integration of appropriate remediation activities and sound waste management practices is vital for ensuring the diminution of adverse human health impacts during site cleanup and waste management programs. This report documents the PEIS risk assessment methodology used to evaluate human health risks posed by WM activities. The methodology presents a programmatic cradle to grave risk assessment for EM program activities. A unit dose approach is used to estimate risks posed by WM activities and is the subject of this document.

  12. Effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of sleep disturbances. Cross-sectional and prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Norborg, Malene; Sørensen, Tilde Sand;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze if adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined by the model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), increase the risk of sleep disturbances in the Danish workforce. METHODS: Analyses were conducted both cross-sectionally and prospectively in a representative...... with gender-stratified, multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for numerous covariates. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, a 1 S.D. increase in the ERI ratio was associated with sleep disturbances among both men [odds ratio (OR)=1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.20-2.27] and women (OR=1.......82, 95% CI=1.46-2.28). In the prospective analysis, a 1 S.D. increase of the ERI ratio at baseline predicted the onset of sleep disturbances among men (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.03-1.87) but not among women (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.76-1.24). CONCLUSION: Among men, ERI is a risk factor for the development of sleep...

  13. Risk Reduction from Minimization of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Waste Materials Within the U.S. Industrial Solid Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study addressed three questions of interest in national-scale solid and hazardous waste management decision-making within the United States: 1) can we quantify the reduction in risk to human and ecological receptors resulting from the reduction of certain industrial waste s...

  14. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Thurkow, T.J.; Fritz, R.L.; Nuhlestein, L.O.; Allen, M.R.; Stuart, R.J. [ARES Corp. (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences.

  15. High metal reactivity and environmental risks at a site contaminated by glass waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, A; Åström, M; Bergbäck, B; Elert, M; Höglund, L O; Kleja, D B

    2016-07-01

    This study addresses the reactivity and risks of metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As and Sb) at a Swedish site with large glass waste deposits. Old glassworks sites typically have high total metal concentrations, but as the metals are mainly bound within the glass waste and considered relatively inert, environmental investigations at these kinds of sites are limited. In this study, soil and landfill samples were subjected to a sequential chemical extraction procedure. Data from batch leaching tests and groundwater upstream and downstream of the waste deposits were also interpreted. The sequential extraction revealed that metals in metals are released from pristine glass and subsequently largely retained in the surrounding soil and/or on secondary mineral coatings on fine glass particles. From the approximately 12,000 m(3) of coarse glass waste at the site, almost 4000 kg of Pb is estimated to have been lost through corrosion, which, however, corresponds to only a small portion of the total amount of Pb in the waste. Metal sorption within the waste deposits or in underlying soil layers is supported by fairly low metal concentrations in groundwater. However, elevated concentrations in downstream groundwater and in leachates of batch leaching tests were observed for several metals, indicating on-going leaching. Taken together, the high metal concentrations in geochemically active forms and the high amounts of as yet uncorroded metal-rich glass, indicate considerable risks to human health and the environment.

  16. Projection of hospital and clinic health care risk waste generation quantities and treatment capacities for the national waste management strategy implementation project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rogers, DEC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the need for quantitative data for planning health care risk waste (HCRW) management from hospitals and clinics in South Africa. Quantitative estimates of HCRW generation and treatment capacity are determined for hospitals...

  17. Is it real? Can we win? Is it worth doing? Managing risk and reward in an innovation portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, George S

    2007-12-01

    Minor innovations make up most of a company's development portfolio, on average, but they never generate the growth companies seek. The solution, says Day--the Geoffrey T. Boisi Professor of Marketing and a codirector of the Mack Center for Technological Innovation at Wharton--is for companies to undertake a systematic, disciplined review of their innovation portfolios and increase the number of major innovations at an acceptable level of risk. Two tools can help them do this. The first, called the risk matrix, graphically reveals the distribution of risk across a company's entire innovation portfolio. The matrix allows companies to estimate each project's probability of success or failure, based on how big a stretch it is for the firm to undertake. The less familiar the product or technology and the intended market, the higher the risk. The second tool, dubbed the R-W-W (real-win-worth it) screen, allows companies to evaluate the risks and potential of individual projects by answering six fundamental questions about each one: Is the market real? Explores customers' needs, their willingness to buy, and the size of the potential market. Is the product real? Looks at the feasibility of producing the innovation. Can the product be competitive? and Can our company be competitive? Investigate how well suited the company's resources and management are to compete in the marketplace with the product. Will the product be profitable at an acceptable risk? Explores the financial analysis needed to assess an innovation's commercial viability. Last, Does launching the product make strategic sense? examines the project's fit with company strategy and whether management supports it.

  18. Markov reward processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous applications in the area of computer system analysis can be effectively studied with Markov reward models. These models describe the behavior of the system with a continuous-time Markov chain, where a reward rate is associated with each state. In a reliability/availability model, upstates may have reward rate 1 and down states may have reward rate zero associated with them. In a queueing model, the number of jobs of certain type in a given state may be the reward rate attached to that state. In a combined model of performance and reliability, the reward rate of a state may be the computational capacity, or a related performance measure. Expected steady-state reward rate and expected instantaneous reward rate are clearly useful measures of the Markov reward model. More generally, the distribution of accumulated reward or time-averaged reward over a finite time interval may be determined from the solution of the Markov reward model. This information is of great practical significance in situations where the workload can be well characterized (deterministically, or by continuous functions e.g., distributions). The design process in the development of a computer system is an expensive and long term endeavor. For aerospace applications the reliability of the computer system is essential, as is the ability to complete critical workloads in a well defined real time interval. Consequently, effective modeling of such systems must take into account both performance and reliability. This fact motivates our use of Markov reward models to aid in the development and evaluation of fault tolerant computer systems.

  19. Risk-based decision-making for drilling waste discharges using a fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq, R. [National Research Council, Ottawa. Ont. (Canada). Institute for Research in Construction; Husain, T.; Veitch, B.; Bose, N. [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2004-11-01

    Offshore petroleum drilling wastes contain toxic substances that are potentially harmful to the marine ecosystem. Despite environmentally benign characteristics, wastes associated with synthetic-based fluids still contain a certain amount of pollutants due to contamination with formation oil and the presence of trace heavy metals in barite, which may pose risk when discharged into the marine environment. A framework is presented here for a decision support system for the selection of the best drilling waste discharge option. Uncertainties in the quantification of risk, cost and technical feasibility are expressed by fuzzy numbers. An analytical hierarchy process with a technique called fuzzy synthetic evaluation is employed to determine the best management alternative (discharge scenario). (author)0.

  20. Risk-based decision-making for drilling waste discharges using a fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq, R. [National Research Council, Ottawa. Ont. (Canada). Institute for Research in Construction; Husain, T.; Veitch, B.; Bose, N. [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2004-11-01

    Offshore petroleum drilling wastes contain toxic substances that are potentially harmful to the marine ecosystem. Despite environmentally benign characteristics, wastes associated with synthetic-based fluids still contain a certain amount of pollutants due to contamination with formation oil and the presence of trace heavy metals in barite, which may pose risk when discharged into the marine environment. A framework is presented here for a decision support system for the selection of the best drilling waste discharge option. Uncertainties in the quantification of risk, cost and technical feasibility are expressed by fuzzy numbers. An analytical hierarchy process with a technique called fuzzy synthetic evaluation is employed to determine the best management alternative (discharge scenario). (author)

  1. Carcinogenic risk assessment for emissions from clinical waste incineration and road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Andrew; Sadhra, Steven

    2010-10-01

    The most significant potentially carcinogenic substances arising from a state-of-the-art clinical waste incinerator (CWI) and vehicle emissions were identified as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, 1-butadiene, arsenic, cadmium, chromium and nickel. Long-term exposures of the notional maximum exposed individual (MEI) in the local environment, together with aggregate emissions from transport of clinical waste, were estimated. Mass emission rates of PAHs from the CWI to air were compared with previously published estimates of mass emissions to land from CWI bottom ash. Aggregate emissions from road transport of clinical waste were of a similar order to stack emissions from incineration. Mass emissions of PAHs to landfill generally greatly exceeded those from stack emissions. Emissions associated with operation of the CWI present a negligible contribution to overall cancer risk from PAHs and other carcinogens. Uncertainty in the quantitative risk estimates presented here is discussed in the context of these findings.

  2. Risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P

    2004-07-17

    Uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the Animal By-Products Regulations. This paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. The factors controlling the level of risk are the separation of the meat at source, the efficiency of the composting process, and the decay and dilution of the pathogens in soil. The net pathogen destruction by the composting process is determined largely by the degree of bypass, and to accommodate the possibility of large joints or even whole carcases being discarded uncooked to catering waste, a time/temperature condition of 60 degrees C for two days is recommended. Where data are lacking, worst-case assumptions have been applied. According to the model, classical swine fever virus constitutes the highest risk, but the assessment shows that a two-barrier composting approach, together with a two-month grazing ban, reduces the risk to one infection in pigs every 190 years in England and Wales. This work defined the operational conditions for the composting of catering waste as set out in the Animal By-Products Regulations 2003 (SI 1482).

  3. Environmental risk assessment of the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture is considered a way of maintaining or restoring the quality of soils, enlarging the slow cycling soil organic carbon pool. However, a wide variety of undesired substances, such as potentially trace elements and organic contaminants, can have adverse effects on the environment. That fact was highlighted by the Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive, which recognized that "soil degradation or soil improvements have a major impact on other areas, (…) such as surface waters and groundwater, human health, climate change, protection of nature and biodiversity, and food safety". Taking that into account, the research project "ResOrgRisk" aims to assess the environmental risk involved in the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments, evidencing their benefits and constraints, and defining the most suitable tests to reach such assessment. The organic wastes selected for this purpose were: sewage sludge, limed, not limed, and co-composted with agricultural wastes, agro-industrial sludge, mixed municipal solid waste compost, compost produced from organic farming residues, and pig slurry digestate. Whereas threshold values for heavy metals in sludge used for agriculture have been set by the European Commission, actually there is no definitive European legislation for organic contaminants. Guide values for some organic contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs) have been adopted at national level by many European countries, such as Portugal. These values should be taken into account when assessing the risk involved in the use of organic wastes as soil amendments. However, chemical analysis of organic waste often gives scarce information because it does not include possible interactions between chemicals. Furthermore, an exhaustive identification and quantification of all substances is impractical. In this study, ecotoxicological tests (comprising solid and aquatic phases

  4. Review of issues relevant to acceptable risk criteria for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1978-02-22

    Development of acceptable risk criteria for nuclear waste management requires the translation of publicly determined goals and objectives into definitive issues which, in turn, require resolution. Since these issues are largely of a subjective nature, they cannot be resolved by technological methods. Development of acceptable risk criteria might best be accomplished by application of a systematic methodology for the optimal implementation of subjective values. Multi-attribute decision analysis is well suited for this purpose.

  5. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.; Elizalde, Luciana; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. PMID:27226469

  6. Comparison of solid-phase and eluate assays to gauge the ecotoxicological risk of organic wastes on soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, Xavier; Alcañiz, Josep M; Andrés, Pilar

    2008-02-01

    Development of methodologies to assess the safety of reusing polluted organic wastes in soil is a priority in Europe. In this study, and coupled with chemical analysis, seven organic wastes were subjected to different aquatic and soil bioassays. Tests were carried out with solid-phase waste and three different waste eluates (water, methanol, and dichloromethane). Solid-phase assays were indicated as the most suitable for waste testing not only in terms of relevance for real situations, but also because toxicity in eluates was generally not representative of the chronic effects in solid-phase. No general correlations were found between toxicity and waste pollutant burden, neither in solid-phase nor in eluate assays, showing the inability of chemical methods to predict the ecotoxicological risks of wastes. On the contrary, several physicochemical parameters reflecting the degree of low organic matter stability in wastes were the main contributors to the acute toxicity seen in collembolans and daphnids.

  7. Environmental risks of HBCDD from construction and demolition waste: a contemporary and future issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Ziliang; Fang, Yanyan; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Xingrun; Die, Qingqi; Gao, Xingbao; Zhang, Fengsong; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2015-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), as one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is of great concern globally because of its persistence in the environment and negative impacts on humans and animals. HBCDD has been mainly used in flame-retarded expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for insulation in the construction industry. Most of these products will become a part of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste at the end of their life cycle (30-50 years) which is typically disposed of into landfills or incineration. However, the recycling of this material takes quite a low share compared with landfill and incineration. Consequently, high environmental risks will exist in these disposal approaches due to the HBCDD in C&D waste. Currently, XPS or EPS products containing HBCDD in the construction industry have not reached the end of their life cycle in most countries. Relatively little attention has been paid to this emergency issue by either the government or public. Furthermore, C&D waste is most likely disposed of by direct dumping, simple stacking, or open burning in developing countries. Therefore, this paper highlights the global environmental risks of HBCDD from C&D waste. Areas of research for key problems of HBCDD contained in C&D waste are suggested to help control and finally eliminate the impact.

  8. Testing contamination risk assessment methods for toxic elements from mine waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdaal, A.; Jordan, G.; Szilassi, P.; Kiss, J.; Detzky, G.

    2012-04-01

    Major incidents involving mine waste facilities and poor environmental management practices have left a legacy of thousands of contaminated sites like in the historic mining areas in the Carpathian Basin. Associated environmental risks have triggered the development of new EU environmental legislation to prevent and minimize the effects of such incidents. The Mine Waste Directive requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe by May 2012. In order to address the mining problems a standard risk-based Pre-selection protocol has been developed by the EU Commission. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination in acid mine drainage (AMD) for risk assessment (RA) along the Source-Pathway-Receptor chain using decision support methods which are intended to aid national and regional organizations in the inventory and assessment of potentially contaminated mine waste sites. Several recognized methods such as the European Environmental Agency (EEA) standard PRAMS model for soil contamination, US EPA-based AIMSS and Irish HMS-IRC models for RA of abandoned sites are reviewed, compared and tested for the mining waste environment. In total 145 ore mine waste sites have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection protocol as a case study from Hungary. The proportion of uncertain to certain responses for a site and for the total number of sites may give an insight of specific and overall uncertainty in the data we use. The Pre-selection questions are efficiently linked to a GIS system as database inquiries using digital spatial data to directly generate answers. Key parameters such as distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, to settlements and protected areas are calculated and statistically evaluated using STATGRAPHICS® in order to calibrate the RA models. According to our scientific research results, of the 145 sites 11 sites are the most risky having foundation slope >20o, 57 sites are within distance 66 (class VI

  9. Genetic risk assessment of acid waste water containing heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miadoková, E; Dúhová, V; Vlcková, V; Sládková, L; Sucha, V; Vlcek, D

    1999-10-01

    The mutagenic/cancerogenic potential of acid-mine water from the Slovak mining area Rudnany containing a high load of toxic metals was evaluated after its application to three model test organisms (bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and plant Vicia sativa L.). The results obtained from the modified preincubation Ames assay proved that 1000-fold diluted waste water exhibited mutagenic effect in three (TA97, TA98, TA102) of four bacterial strains. In the test on yeast the toxicity and genotoxicity increased as a function of the concentration. At the highest concentration used (0.06%) the frequency of revertants increased 6 times and convertants increased 4.5 times above the control level. In the simultaneous phytotoxicity and clastogenicity assay, concentration dependent toxicity and statistically significant clastogenicity was proved. We can conclude that heavy metals might be responsible for the genotoxic/cancerogenic potential of the test water. However, we do not entirely exclude the possibility that its genotoxicity might be promoted by its high acidity.

  10. Risk assessment framework of fate and transport models applied to hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1993-06-01

    Risk assessment is an increasingly important part of the decision-making process in the cleanup of hazardous waste sites. Despite guidelines from regulatory agencies and considerable research efforts to reduce uncertainties in risk assessments, there are still many issues unanswered. This paper presents new research results pertaining to fate and transport models, which will be useful in estimating exposure concentrations and will help reduce uncertainties in risk assessment. These developments include an approach for (1) estimating the degree of emissions and concentration levels of volatile pollutants during the use of contaminated water, (2) absorption of organic chemicals in the soil matrix through the skin, and (3) steady state, near-field, contaminant concentrations in the aquifer within a waste boundary.

  11. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  12. Reward Merit with Praise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Hans A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the efforts of two educational institutions to reward teaching excellence using positive feedback rather than merit pay incentives. An Arizona district, drawing on Herzberg's motivation theories, offers highly individualized rewards ranging from computers to conference money, while an Illinois community college bestows engraved plaques…

  13. The Timing Effects of Reward, Business Longevity, and Involvement on Consumers’ Responses to a Reward Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Munir Sukoco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Managers could elicit customers’ repeat purchase behavior through a well-designed reward program. This study examines two extrinsic cues - business longevity and timing effects of reward – to determine the consumers’ perceived risk and intention to participate in this kind of program. Moreover, this study discusses how different levels of involvement might interact with these two cues. An experiment with a 2 (business longevity: long vs. short x 2 (timing of reward: delayed vs. immediate x 2 (involvement: high vs. low between-subject factorial design is conducted to validate the proposed research hypotheses. The results show that an immediate reward offered by an older, more established, firm for a highly-involved product, make loyalty programs less risky and consequently attract consumers to participate. Interestingly, immediate rewards that are offered by older firms for a product that customers are less involved in has the opposite effects. Managerial and academic implications are further presented in this study.

  14. Risk Factors Associated with Parasitic Infection Among Municipality Solid-Waste Workers in an Egyptian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassa, Safaa M; El-Wahab, Ekram W Abd; Lotfi, Sameh E; El Masry, Sanaa A; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2016-04-01

    Solid-waste management is associated with several health hazards, particularly parasitic infection. The objective of the study was to determine the association between risk factors and the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections (potentially pathogenic) among municipal waste collectors in Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the main municipality company in Alexandria. A total of 346 municipality solid-waste workers (MSWWs) was interviewed using an in-depth questionnaire. The type of parasitic infections among waste handlers was determined using formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. About half of the workers were infected with parasites. The profile of parasitic infection revealed 12 parasitic species. These were comprised of the following helminths: Schistosoma mansoni (13.3%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%), and Hymenolepis nana ova (0.6%). Among protozoa were pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica (3.2%), Giardia intestinalis (2.9%), nonpathogenic protozoa such as Entamoeba coli (1.7%), and potentially pathogenic or opportunistic ones as Cryptosporidium (23.4%), Microsporidia (20.25%), Cyclospora (2.0%), Blastocystis hominis (1.7%), and Cystoisospora belli (1.2%). About 1.4% of MSWWs have pediculosis and phthiriasis in their scalp and eyelashes respectively. Risk factors for infection were associated with direct exposure to solid fecal waste (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.0) and occupational activities that allowed for direct exposure to solid fecal waste (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.4-4.0). Logistic regression model has revealed that educational level and residence were the factors that contribute to parasitic infection among MSWWs (P acquiring parasitic infections. Data of the present study highlighted the need for greater biomonitoring of MSWWs and the improvement of environmental conditions and health care in such marginalized communities to prevent parasitic

  15. Quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: first “count,” then hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, Sofia; Reznikova, Zhanna; Vygonyailova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    We simulated the situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants). In the first (preliminary) experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different quantities, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37 ± 003 to 4 ± 0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, likely because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m2 per min) in the vicinity of anthills and ants' routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs. 15, 5 vs. 30, and 10 vs. 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents. PMID:23407476

  16. Risk perception on management of nuclear high-level and transuranic waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Lawrence A. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    The Department of Energy`s program for disposing of nuclear High-Level Waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of actual risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive waste from the nations military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. In addition, the analysis indicates that even the highly educated technical community is not well informed on the latest technology involved with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. It is not surprising then, that the general public feels uncomfortable with DOE`s management plans for with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. Postponing the permanent geologic repository and use of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. It would also allow time for the public to become better educated if DOE chooses to become proactive.

  17. Risk Management Status of Waste Anesthetic Gases Using ECRI Institute Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Asefzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was assessment the risk management status of waste anesthetic gases in academicals hospitals in Iran to prevent from harmful effects of these gases on employees' health.Methods: A descriptive-analytic study was designed in 2011. Standard structured checklist developed by ECRI institute (Emergency Care Research Institute was applied. Checklists were filled onsite through direct observation and interviews with anesthesia personnel in 46 operating rooms at 4 hospitals from all of the hospitals under affiliation of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. These hospitals were selected based on the number of surgical beds.Results: Total means score of WAGs risk management status was 1.72 from the scale of 3. In the studied operating rooms, only 28% complied with predetermined standards, 16% needed improvement and 56% had no compliance. Total mean scores of compliance in planning, training and evaluation and monitoring of waste anesthetic gases were weak and equipment and work activity was at medium level.Conclusion: The risk management status of waste anesthetic gases in the hospitals to be weak, therefore operating room personnel are exposed to medium to high level of these gases. The hospital mangers should prepare and apply scavenging equipment, development of control program, quality improvement, risk management and maintenance of anesthesia equipment. Finally, ongoing monitoring and evaluation, education to personnel and modification of policy and procedures and improvement of work activities should be considered.

  18. Brain Reward Circuits in Morphine Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhwan; Ham, Suji; Hong, Heeok; Moon, Changjong; Im, Heh-In

    2016-01-01

    Morphine is the most potent analgesic for chronic pain, but its clinical use has been limited by the opiate’s innate tendency to produce tolerance, severe withdrawal symptoms and rewarding properties with a high risk of relapse. To understand the addictive properties of morphine, past studies have focused on relevant molecular and cellular changes in the brain, highlighting the functional roles of reward-related brain regions. Given the accumulated findings, a recent, emerging trend in morphine research is that of examining the dynamics of neuronal interactions in brain reward circuits under the influence of morphine action. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the roles of several reward circuits involved in morphine addiction based on pharmacological, molecular and physiological evidences. PMID:27506251

  19. Wastes and health: representation of sanitary risks linked to wastes and to their processing modes; Dechets et sante: representations des risques sanitaires lies aux dechets et a leurs modes de traitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuilier, D.; Cochin, Y.

    1999-10-01

    This research has for objective the analysis of perception of sanitary risks in relation with wastes and the waste processing facilities. This work in at the intersection of the sociological study and the psychologic one. (N.C.)

  20. The role of risk perception and technical information in scientific debates over nuclear waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L

    1998-01-01

    This article examines how members of the lay public factor risk perceptions, trust and technical information from differing scientific sources into policy judgements about potentially hazardous facilities. Focusing on radwaste storage repositories, we examine how members of the public filter new information about potential hazards through risk perceptions, and adjust their own beliefs about risks in light of that information. Scientists play a large (and increasing) role in public policy debates concerning nuclear waste issues, in which public perceptions of human health and environmental risks often differ substantially from scientific consensus about those risks. Public concerns and uncertainties are compounded when scientists from competing groups (government agencies, scientific institutions, industries, and interest groups) make different claims about the likely health and environmental consequences of different policy options. We show the processes by which the public receive and process scientific information about nuclear waste management risks using data taken from interviews with 1800 randomly selected individuals (1200 in New Mexico, and 600 nationwide). Among the more important findings are: (1) members of the public are able to make quite reasonable estimates about what kinds of positions on the risks of nuclear waste disposal will be taken by scientists from differing organizations (e.g. scientists from environmental groups, government agencies, or the nuclear industry); (2) in assessing the credibility of scientific claims, members of the public place great emphasis on the independence of the scientists from those who fund the research; and (3) prior expectations about the positions (or expected biases) of scientists from different organizations substantially affects the ways in which members of the public weigh (and utilize) information that comes from these scientists.

  1. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities.

  2. Health risks in areas close to urban solid waste landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson; Prado, Rogerio Ruscitto do

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the association between living close to solid waste landfill sites and occurrences of cancer and congenital malformations among populations in their vicinity. Deaths among people living in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2002 were selected and geocoded, according to selected causes. Over the period evaluated, there were 351 deaths due to liver cancer, 160 due to bladder cancer and 224 due to leukemia, among adults, 25 due to childhood leukemia and 299 due to congenital malformation, in areas close to landfill sites. Buffer zones of radius 2 km around the 15 sites delimited the areas exposed. Standardized mortality ratios for each outcome were analyzed in Bayesian spatial models. In a general manner, the highest values for the standardized mortality ratios were found in more central areas of the municipality, while the landfill sites were located in more peripheral areas. The standardized mortality ratios did not indicate any excess risk for people living in areas close to solid waste landfill sites in the municipality of São Paulo. For landfill sites in operation, there was a greater risk of bladder and liver cancer, and death due to congenital malformation, but without statistical significance. No increase in the risk of cancer or congenital malformations was found in areas in the vicinity of urban waste dumps in the municipality of São Paulo. The weak associations and the imprecision of the estimates obtained did not allow any causal relationship to be established.

  3. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Human health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.T.; Douthat, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow- up information to the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that could cause potential human health risk and ecological risk within WAG2 at ORNL. The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the human health risk assessment results based on the data collected for the WAG 2 Phase 1 RI. Estimates of risk are provided based on measured concentrations in the surface water, floodplain soil, and sediment of White Oak Creek, Melton Branch, and their tributaries. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). First, the data for the different media are elevated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), contaminants to be considered in the risk assessment are identified for each assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of these analyses are combined and summarized in a risk characterization.

  4. Volatile compounds emission and health risk assessment during composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq; Liu, Yanjun; Duan, Zhenhan

    2017-01-01

    Degradation of mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste in composting facilities is among the major contributors of volatile compounds (VCs) generation and emission, causes nuisance problems and health risks on site as well as in the vicinages. The aim of current study...... was to determine the seasonal (summer and winter) variation and human health risk assessment of VCs in the ambient air of different processing units in MSOF at composting plant in China. Average concentration of VCs was 58.50 and 138.03 mg/m3 in summer and winter respectively. Oxygenated compounds were found...

  5. Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Removal of {sup 230}Th from uranium process residues would significantly reduce the buildup of {sup 226}Ra (half-life of 1600 years), and since {sup 230}Th concentrations at most of the important sites greatly exceed the {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such removal would reduce the accumulation of additional radiation risks associated with {sup 226}Ra and its products; and, if treatment also removed {sup 226}Ra, these risks could be mitigated even further. Removal of {sup 232}Th from thorium process residues would remove the source material for {sup 228}Ra, and since {sup 228}Ra has a half-life of 5.76 years, its control at FUSRAP sites could be done with land use controls for the 30--50 years required for {sup 228}Ra and the risks associated with its decay products to decay away. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation.

  6. Academic staff reward

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    improvement of performance evaluation and the reward system, and improving the skill and ability of ... motivation and morale of the employees .... express their opinion using a scale, 1 to 3. (agree = 1, undecided ..... Organizational Behavior.

  7. Potential enhancements to addressing programmatic risk in the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, A.; Fassbender, L.; Bilyard, G.; Levine, L.

    1996-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management methodology development task. The objective of this task was to develop risk management methodology focused on (1) the use of programmatic risk information in making TWRS architecture selection decisions and (2) the identification/evaluation/selection of TWRS risk-handling actions. Methods for incorporating programmatic risk/uncertainty estimates into trade studies are provided for engineers/analysts. Methods for identifying, evaluating, and selecting risk-handling actions are provided for managers. The guidance provided in this report is designed to help decision-makers make difficult judgments. Current approaches to architecture selection decisions and identification/evaluation/selection of risk-handling actions are summarized. Three categories of sources of programmatic risk (parametric, external, and organizational) are examined. Multiple analytical approaches are presented to enhance the current alternative generation and analysis (AGA) and risk-handling procedures. Appendix A describes some commercially available risk management software tools and Appendix B provides a brief introduction to quantification of risk attitudes. The report provides three levels of analysis for enhancing the AGA Procedure: (1) qualitative discussion coupled with estimated uncertainty ranges for scores in the alternatives-by-criteria matrix; (2) formal elicitation of probability distributions for the alternative scores; and (3) a formal, more structured, comprehensive risk analysis. A framework is also presented for using the AGA programmatic risk analysis results in making better decisions. The report also presents two levels of analysis for evaluation and selection of risk-handling actions: (1) qualitative analysis and judgmental rankings of alternative actions, and (2) Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART).

  8. Contracting with Private Rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Kirkegaard

    2015-01-01

    I extend the canonical moral hazard model to allow the agent to face endogenous and non-contractible uncertainty. The agent works for the principal and simultaneously pursues private rewards. I establish conditions under which the first-order approach remains valid. The model adds to the literature on intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. Specifically, to induce higher effort at work the contract may offer higher rewards but flatter incentives. The contract change makes the agent reevaluate ...

  9. Decision-Making Risks Concerning the Construction of the Goiania Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoa, A.S. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rozental, J.J. [Ministry of Environment (Israel); Tranjan Filho, A. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    As it is well known, an accident with a teletherapy source made of {sup 137}CsCl with an initial activity of 59 TBq occurred in Goiania, in September of 1987. This paper will discuss the decision-making process, and the struggle that followed the decision to build the final repository for the remnants of the Goiania accident. The Goiania final repository was built as planned. The two subsurface structures under the grassy artificial hills hold the overall volume of the remnants of the Goiania accident. The near hill holds 5x10{sup 3} m3 of stabilized wastes without radioactivity, or with very low radioactivity. The far hill holds the remaining 6.5x10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of stabilized wastes with low and medium radioactivity. The central part of each subsurface hill has been shielded by wastes with less and less radioactivity. The overall fenced area occupies 1.85x10{sup 5} m{sup 2}. The external radiation levels are similar to the surrounding background, and much lower than those found in the Brazilian areas of high natural radioactivity. The site is permanently monitored by independent institutions, including Brazilian universities, and national and international organizations. As it was mentioned earlier, the final repository was build to last for at least 400 years. Although the initial decision to adopt a too conservative decontamination criterion in the case of the Goiania accident was bound to produce excessive amount of waste; such decision proved, retrospectively, not to be bad because the excess low radioactive waste produced was used as extra shielding material in final repository. The technical decision-maker should not abandon risk estimates, but should be aware that credibility is the main basis to achieve acceptability of a decision by the general public. Risk perception should be regarded as only a first step towards what may be called knowledge, or comprehension of risk estimates, but risk perception by the general public is still an open issue. The

  10. Decision-Making Risks Concerning the Construction of the Goiania Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoa, A.S. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rozental, J.J. [Ministry of Environment (Israel); Tranjan Filho, A. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    As it is well known, an accident with a teletherapy source made of {sup 137}CsCl with an initial activity of 59 TBq occurred in Goiania, in September of 1987. This paper will discuss the decision-making process, and the struggle that followed the decision to build the final repository for the remnants of the Goiania accident. The Goiania final repository was built as planned. The two subsurface structures under the grassy artificial hills hold the overall volume of the remnants of the Goiania accident. The near hill holds 5x10{sup 3} m3 of stabilized wastes without radioactivity, or with very low radioactivity. The far hill holds the remaining 6.5x10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of stabilized wastes with low and medium radioactivity. The central part of each subsurface hill has been shielded by wastes with less and less radioactivity. The overall fenced area occupies 1.85x10{sup 5} m{sup 2}. The external radiation levels are similar to the surrounding background, and much lower than those found in the Brazilian areas of high natural radioactivity. The site is permanently monitored by independent institutions, including Brazilian universities, and national and international organizations. As it was mentioned earlier, the final repository was build to last for at least 400 years. Although the initial decision to adopt a too conservative decontamination criterion in the case of the Goiania accident was bound to produce excessive amount of waste; such decision proved, retrospectively, not to be bad because the excess low radioactive waste produced was used as extra shielding material in final repository. The technical decision-maker should not abandon risk estimates, but should be aware that credibility is the main basis to achieve acceptability of a decision by the general public. Risk perception should be regarded as only a first step towards what may be called knowledge, or comprehension of risk estimates, but risk perception by the general public is still an open issue. The

  11. Using Learner Controlled Progress-Based Rewards to Promote Motivation and Achievement of At-Risk Students in Managed Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Carlton A.

    2011-01-01

    Technology enhancements of the past two decades have not successfully overcome the problem of low motivation in Kindergarten through Grade 12 (K-12). Motivation and math achievement have been identified as major factors contributing to the high school dropout problem (30-50% in traditional/online programs). The impact of extrinsic rewards on…

  12. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  13. Are municipal solid waste collectors at increased risk of Hepatitis A Virus infection? A Greek cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiotis, George; Tsovili, Eva; Papagiannis, Dimitrios; Markaki, Adelais; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-12-01

    Municipal solid waste collectors are reportedly at risk for Hepatitis A virus infection (HAV) as an occupational hazard. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and possible risk factors of HAV infection among solid waste collectors in a municipality of the broader region of Attica, Greece. A cross-sectional sero-prevalence study was conducted. Fifty (n=50) waste collectors participated in the study (response rate: 95%). The group of municipal waste collectors was compared to a convenient sample of workers not exposed to solid waste (n=83). Municipal solid waste collectors recorded a higher, but not statistically significant, prevalence of anti-HAV(+) in comparison to subjects without occupational exposure to waste (40% vs 34% respectively p=0,4). No significant associations were found between inappropriate work practices and anti- HAV (+). Education was the only factor independently associated with the risk of HAV infection. This study did not corroborate previous reports of an increased prevalence of Hepatitis A Virus infection among municipal solid waste collectors.

  14. A risk governance approach for high-level waste in Belgium: A process appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Erik (Flemish Inst. for Technological Research (VITO)/Univ. of Antwerp, Div. Transition Energy and Environment, Mol (Belgium)), e-mail: erik.laes@vito.be; Eggermont, Gilbert (Free Univ. of Brussels (VUB), Brussels (Belgium)); Bombaerts, Gunter ((Belgium))

    2010-09-15

    The Belgian nuclear waste management organisation (NIRAS-ONDRAF) has recently started up a public debate on the strategic waste management options for the intermediate- and high-level radioactive waste (cat. B and C waste). This public debate takes place in the context of a (mandatory) strategic environmental impact assessment (SEA) procedure. The paper proposes a critical investigation of four interrelated aspects of this procedure from the point of view of 'good governance': assessment of the remaining uncertainties, guardianship of the democratic process, the organisation of expertise and the interpretation of transgenerational ethics and distributive justice in the new crisis context of globalization and failure of electricity liberalisation. We argue that - in spite of the overall soundness of the geological disposal option - many uncertainties remain: a new technical concept needs to be demonstrated and international financial management needs to be organised. On the process side we argue that although NIRAS-ONDRAF can take up a role as initiator of a public participation process, it can hardly act as a guardian of this process. The debate must be lifted above the local level, opened up to new actors with an active role of the safety authorities and guarded by a non-involved organisation. A condition for success is the creation of critical awareness and the capacity to manage controversy in future with critical expertise. Referring to the RISCOM model for transparent risk communication, we suggest some improvements to the process that is currently taking place

  15. High-risk facilities. Emergency management in nuclear, chemical and hazardous waste facilities; Hochrisikoanlagen. Notfallschutz bei Kernkraft-, Chemie- und Sondermuellanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, Michael (ed.) [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book on emergency management in high-risk facilities covers the following topics: Change in the nuclear policy, risk management of high-risk facilities as a constitutional problem - emergency management in nuclear facilities, operational mechanisms of risk control in nuclear facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for nuclear facilities, operational mechanism of the risk control in chemical plants, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for chemical facilities, operational mechanisms of the risk control in hazardous waste facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for hazardous waste facilities, civil law consequences in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, criminal prosecution in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, safety margins as site risk for emission protection facilities, national emergency management - strategic emergency management structures, warning and self-protection of the public in case of CBRN hazards including aspects of the psych-social emergency management.

  16. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  17. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soils surrounding oil waste disposal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Wang, Hanxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Mengchao; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Xiaoxue; Zong, Meihan

    2016-02-01

    More attention is being devoted to heavy metal pollution because heavy metals can concentrate in higher animals through the food chain, harm human health and threaten the stability of the ecological environment. In this study, the effects of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Hg) emanating from oil waste disposal on surrounding soil in Jilin Province, China, were investigated. A potential ecological risk index was used to evaluate the damage of heavy metals and concluded that the degree of potential ecological damage of heavy metals can be ranked as follows: Hg > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Zn. The average value of the potential ecological harm index (Ri) is 71.93, thereby indicating light pollution. In addition, this study researched the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals by means of ArcGIS (geographic information system) spatial analysis software. The results showed that the potential ecological risk index (R) of the large value was close to the distance from the oil waste disposal area; it is relatively between the degree of heavy metals in soil and the distance from the waste disposal area.

  18. Time discounting for primary rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Samuel M; Ericson, Keith M; Laibson, David I; Loewenstein, George; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2007-05-23

    Previous research, involving monetary rewards, found that limbic reward-related areas show greater activity when an intertemporal choice includes an immediate reward than when the options include only delayed rewards. In contrast, the lateral prefrontal and parietal cortex (areas commonly associated with deliberative cognitive processes, including future planning) respond to intertemporal choices in general but do not exhibit sensitivity to immediacy (McClure et al., 2004). The current experiments extend these findings to primary rewards (fruit juice or water) and time delays of minutes instead of weeks. Thirsty subjects choose between small volumes of drinks delivered at precise times during the experiment (e.g., 2 ml now vs 3 ml in 5 min). Consistent with previous findings, limbic activation was greater for choices between an immediate reward and a delayed reward than for choices between two delayed rewards, whereas the lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex responded similarly whether choices were between an immediate and a delayed reward or between two delayed rewards. Moreover, relative activation of the two sets of brain regions predicts actual choice behavior. A second experiment finds that when the delivery of all rewards is offset by 10 min (so that the earliest available juice reward in any choice is 10 min), no differential activity is observed in limbic reward-related areas for choices involving the earliest versus only more delayed rewards. We discuss implications of this finding for differences between primary and secondary rewards.

  19. The potential risk of environmental contamination by mercury contained in Polish coal mining waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Antoszczyszyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains reference literature analysis concerning mercury content in Polish bituminous coal and post-mining waste as well as the impact of mercury content on the environment. The aim of the paper was to determine the occurrence of the risk of contamination of the environment with mercury compounds found in demolition bituminous coal landfills. Mercury, due to its toxic properties has been classified among the most dangerous substances to human health. There are three groups of sources of mercury release into the environment: natural, anthropogenic and remission. Coal mining, its processing and use in the energy sector has the greatest relevance regarding the pollution of the environment with mercury compounds in Poland. A review of reference literature shows that the average content of mercury in Polish bituminous coal varies within a wide range of 41–399 ppb, which is conditional on the origin, age and type of coal. The production of coal has led to a number of facilities in the form of structurally and age-varied landfills, heaps and mining waste dumps. The content of mercury in post-mining waste is in the range from approximately 55 to 380 ppb. The problem of environmental contamination with mercury has attracted considerable interest due to the effects that its concentration have in the biosphere. On the basis of the existing data it has been found that the content of mercury in soils in areas degraded by mining and processing of coal is even 10–16 times higher, compared to the geochemical background. It is necessary to conduct research in this area due to the limited results of research on mercury content in deposited waste from the preparation and flotation of Polish bituminous coals and the potential harmful effect of mercury on the environment. The paper is dedicated to the mercury content in waste from the extraction and processing of bituminous coal.

  20. Nuclear waste transportation: case studies of identifying stakeholder risk information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Christina H; Grace, Deirdre A; Silbernagel, Susan M; Hemmings, Erin S; Smith, Alan; Griffith, William C; Takaro, Timothy K; Faustman, Elaine M

    2003-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of our nation's nuclear legacy, involving complex decisions about how and where to dispose of nuclear waste and how to transport it to its ultimate disposal site. It is widely recognized that a broad range of stakeholders and tribes should be involved in this kind of decision. All too frequently, however, stakeholders and tribes are only invited to participate by commenting on processes and activities that are near completion; they are not included in the problem formulation stages. Moreover, it is often assumed that high levels of complexity and uncertainty prevent meaningful participation by these groups. Considering the types of information that stakeholders and tribes need to be able to participate in the full life cycle of decision making is critical for improving participation and transparency of decision making. Toward this objective, the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) participated in three public processes relating to nuclear waste transportation and disposal in 1997-1998. First, CRESP organized focus groups to identify concerns about nuclear waste transportation. Second, CRESP conducted exit surveys at regional public workshops held by DOE to get input from stakeholders on intersite waste transfer issues. Third, CRESP developed visual tools to synthesize technical information and allow stakeholders and tribes with varying levels of knowledge about nuclear waste to participate in meaningful discussion. In this article we share the results of the CRESP findings, discuss common themes arising from these interactions, and comment on special considerations needed to facilitate stakeholder and tribal participation in similar decision-making processes.

  1. Pain and suicidality: insights from reward and addiction neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Igor; Borsook, David; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-10-01

    Suicidality is exceedingly prevalent in pain patients. Although the pathophysiology of this link remains unclear, it may be potentially related to the partial congruence of physical and emotional pain systems. The latter system's role in suicide is also conspicuous during setbacks and losses sustained in the context of social attachments. Here we propose a model based on the neural pathways mediating reward and anti-reward (i.e., allostatic adjustment to recurrent activation of the reward circuitry); both are relevant etiologic factors in pain, suicide and social attachments. A comprehensive literature search on neurobiology of pain and suicidality was performed. The collected articles were critically reviewed and relevant data were extracted and summarized within four key areas: (1) physical and emotional pain, (2) emotional pain and social attachments, (3) pain- and suicide-related alterations of the reward and anti-reward circuits as compared to addiction, which is the premier probe for dysfunction of these circuits and (4) mechanistically informed treatments of co-occurring pain and suicidality. Pain-, stress- and analgesic drugs-induced opponent and proponent states of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways may render reward and anti-reward systems vulnerable to sensitization, cross-sensitization and aberrant learning of contents and contexts associated with suicidal acts and behaviors. These findings suggest that pain patients exhibit alterations in the brain circuits mediating reward (depressed function) and anti-reward (sensitized function) that may affect their proclivity for suicide and support pain and suicidality classification among other "reward deficiency syndromes" and a new proposal for "enhanced anti-reward syndromes". We suggest that interventions aimed at restoring the balance between the reward and anti-reward networks in patients with chronic pain may help decreasing their suicide risk.

  2. Pain and suicidality: Insights from reward and addiction neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Igor; Borsook, David; Volkow, Nora D.

    2016-01-01

    Suicidality is exceedingly prevalent in pain patients. Although the pathophysiology of this link remains unclear, it may be potentially related to the partial congruence of physical and emotional pain systems. The latter system’s role in suicide is also conspicuous during setbacks and losses sustained in the context of social attachments. Here we propose a model based on the neural pathways mediating reward and anti-reward (i.e., allostatic adjustment to recurrent activation of the reward circuitry); both are relevant etiologic factors in pain, suicide and social attachments. A comprehensive literature search on neurobiology of pain and suicidality was performed. The collected articles were critically reviewed and relevant data were extracted and summarized within four key areas: (1) physical and emotional pain, (2) emotional pain and social attachments, (3) pain-and suicide-related alterations of the reward and anti-reward circuits as compared to addiction, which is the premier probe for dysfunction of these circuits and (4) mechanistically informed treatments of co-occurring pain and suicidality. Pain-, stress- and analgesic drugs-induced opponent and proponent states of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways may render reward and anti-reward systems vulnerable to sensitization, cross-sensitization and aberrant learning of contents and contexts associated with suicidal acts and behaviors. These findings suggest that pain patients exhibit alterations in the brain circuits mediating reward (depressed function) and anti-reward (sensitized function) that may affect their proclivity for suicide and support pain and suicidality classification among other “reward deficiency syndromes” and a new proposal for “enhanced anti-reward syndromes”. We suggest that interventions aimed at restoring the balance between the reward and anti-reward networks in patients with chronic pain may help decreasing their suicide risk. PMID:23827972

  3. Perceived risk and benefit of nuclear waste repositories: four opinion clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Moser, Corinne; Stauffacher, Michael; Krütli, Pius

    2013-06-01

    Local public resistance can block the site-selection process, construction, and operation of nuclear waste repositories. Social science has established that the perception of risks and benefits, trust in authorities, and opinion on nuclear energy play important roles in acceptance. In particular, risk and benefit evaluations seem critical for opinion formation. However, risks and benefits have rarely been studied independently and, most often, the focus has been on the two most salient groups of proponents and opponents. The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the often-neglected majority of people holding ambivalent or indifferent opinions. We used cluster analysis to examine the sample (N = 500, mailed survey in German-speaking Switzerland) in terms of patterns of risk and benefit perception. We reveal four significantly different and plausible clusters: one cluster with high-benefit ratings in favor of a repository and one cluster with high-risk ratings opposing it; a third cluster shows ambivalence, with high ratings on both risk and benefit scales and moderate opposition, whereas a fourth cluster seems indifferent, rating risks and benefits only moderately compared to the ambivalent cluster. We conclude that a closer look at the often neglected but considerable number of people with ambivalent or indifferent opinions is necessary. Although the extreme factions of the public will most probably not change their opinion, we do not yet know how the opinion of the ambivalent and indifferent clusters might develop over time.

  4. Thermal disposal of waste containing nanomaterials: first investigations on a methodology for risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounoughene, G.; LeBihan, O.; Debray, B.; Chivas-Joly, C.; Longuet, C.; Joubert, A.; Lopez-Cuesta, J.-M.; Le Coq, L.

    2017-06-01

    Considering the wide use and production of NMs since last two decades, these trendy nanomaterials (NMs) are expected to end up in thermal disposal and waste incineration plants (WIP). It seems relevant to assess the risks related to the thermal disposal and incineration of waste containing NMs (WCNMs). The objective of this work is to present a first approach to develop a preliminary methodology for risk management in order (1) to give insights on nanosafety of exposed operators and on potential environmental risks related to the incineration and thermal disposal of WCNMs, and (2) to eventually support decision-makers and incineration plant managers. Therefore, the main challenge is to find (a) key parameter(s) which would govern the decision related to risk management of NMs thermal disposal. On the one hand, we focused on the relevant literature studies about experimental works on incineration of NMs. On the other hand, we conducted an introductory discussion with a group of experts. The review of this literature highlights that the nano-object’s nanostructure destruction appears as a relevant indicator of the risks related to the NMs incineration. As a consequence, we defined a “temperature of nanostructure destruction” (TND) which would be the temperature from which the nanostructure will be destroyed. This parameter has been assumed to be a consistent indicator to develop a preliminary methodology. If the combustion chamber temperature is higher than the TND of the NM (or if they are close to each other), then the nanostructure will be destroyed and no risks related to NMs remain. If the TND of the NMs is higher than the combustion chamber temperature, then the nanostructure will not be destroyed and risks related to NMs have to be considered. As a result, five groups of NMs have been identified. WCNMs including carbonic NMs appear to be in good position to be destroyed safely in WIP. On the other hand, based on this criterion, there would be no

  5. Public perceptions of low-level waste risks -- Lessons learned in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsife, W.; Serie, P.

    1989-11-01

    People in Pennsylvania are no different than citizens of other eastern states, other states, or any place in the world--they care most deeply about their health, the safety and security of their families, their investments, and their autonomy. How a particular risk is perceived depends on how it is believed to affect those valued possessions. The perception of risk from exposure to the radioactivity contained in low-level radioactive low-level waste disposal facility. The Commonwealth`s program, administered by the Department of Environmental Resources, places high priority on public dialogue on this issue. This paper discusses the Department`s program to develop and promulgate low-level waste regulations, provide a framework for selection of a qualified disposal facility operator, contract with the selected firm, and oversee its activities in siting, licensing, constructing, and operating the facility. This facility will meet the needs of the states of the Appalachian States Compact, including, in addition to Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. The focus of the paper is on the public information and outreach program accomplished to date, and the lessons learned regarding public perceptions of risk.

  6. Bioethical perspective on acceptable-risk criteria for nuclear-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1977-07-15

    Wisely managing the profound human and environmental risks of nuclear wastes requires complex moral and ethical judgments. Whereas traditional ethics is limited to interpersonal relations, a new system of ethics--bioethics--concerns man's relation with nature. Environmentalists claim that technology has upset the balance of nature, that nature is sacred and has inviolable rights, and that man must therefore regulate his behavior to conform to earth's limited carrying capacity. They also say that Judeo-Christian monotheism and anthropocentrism have sanctioned the exploitation of nature in the West, whereas Eastern religions teach adaptation to nature. Evidence suggests, however, that the balance of nature is neither absolute nor precarious, but is continually changing. Moreover, technology has brought more good than harm to man, and man's needs should supersede nature's. Other evidence indicates that the earth's resources may be neither limited nor nearly exhausted. Persuasive arguments also demonstrate that man's relation with nature is not traceable to religious assumptions. In assessing the risks/benefits of nuclear-waste management, we should avoid risks that jeopardize the rights of future generations without imposing excessive sacrifices on the present generation.

  7. 一类占线融资租赁问题的最优竞争策略与风险补偿模型%Competitive Strategy and Risk Reward Model for Online Financial Leasing Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王扬; 徐维军; 徐寅峰

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal competitive strategy and risk reward model for online financial leasing problem by using online algorithm and competitive analysis method, of which the asset ownership of the assets may be transferred to the lessee after a certain lease time. We first obtain the optimal offline solution of this problem. According to the relation among the given leasing time, purchase price and rent cost, we present three online strategies and analyze their competitive ratios respectively. Finally, under the formwork of online risk reward proposed by Al-Binali, we propose two kinds of forecast and their optimal online reward strategies.%运用占线算法与竞争分析方法,研究了资产所有权在一定的租赁时间后转移给承租人的融资租赁问题的最优竞争策略与风险补偿模型.首先给出了该问题的最优离线解;然后,根据约定的租赁时限与购买价格及租赁费用的大小关系,分别给出了3种情形的占线策略及相应的竞争比分析;最后,在AL-BINALI提出的占线风险补偿分析框架下,给出了2种预期形式及相应最优占线收益策略.

  8. Reward deficiency and anti-reward in pain chronification

    OpenAIRE

    Borsook, D.; Linnman, C.; Faria, Vanda; Strassman, A.M.; Becerra, L; Elman, I

    2016-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that the pathophysiology of pain is mediated to a substantial degree via allostatic neuroadaptations in reward- and stress-related brain circuits. Thus, reward deficiency (RD) represents a within-system neuroadaptation to pain-induced protracted activation of the reward circuits that leads to depletion-like hypodopaminergia, clinically manifested anhedonia, and diminished motivation for natural reinforcers. Anti-reward (AR) conversely pertains to a between...

  9. Musculoskeletal disorders among municipal solid waste workers in India: A cross-sectional risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endreddy Manikanta Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Waste management is a necessary activity around the world, but involves a variety of health hazards. In a developing country like India, municipal solid waste is collected manually requiring heavy physical activity. Among all occupational health issues, musculoskeletal problems are common among waste collectors in the form of nonfatal injuries because of the presence of such risk factors (lifting, carrying, pulling, and pushing. We have thus conducted this study to evaluate musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among municipal solid waste (MSW workers. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using probability proportionate to size sampling, recruited 220 MSW workers from the Chennai Municipal Corporation, India for this study. A pretested validated questionnaire has been used to collect data on demographic and occupational history and information on musculoskeletal pain. Data analysis was performed using R software (3.0.1 version. Results: 70% of the participants reported that they had been troubled with musculoskeletal pain in one or more of the 9 defined body regions during the last 12 months, whereas 91.8% had pain during the last 7 days. Higher prevalence of symptoms in knees, shoulders, and lower back was found to be 84.5%, 74.5%, and 50.9% respectively. Female illiterate workers with lower socioeconomic status were found to have higher odds for MSDs. Similarly, higher body mass index having no physical activity increases the chance of odds having MSDs. Conclusion: The higher percentage of musculoskeletal symptoms among MSW workers could be attributed to the long duration of employment, the low job control, and the nature of their job, which is physically demanding. A workplace of health promotion model integration can minimize the reported high prevalence, and a prospective cohort study could be recommended further.

  10. U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

  11. Baseline Risk Assessment Supporting Closure at Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Kristin M. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-07

    The Office of River Protection under the U.S. Department of Energy is pursuing closure of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) C under the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO). A baseline risk assessment (BRA) of current conditions is based on available characterization data and information collected at WMA C. The baseline risk assessment is being developed as a part of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS) at WMA C that is mandatory under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and RCRA corrective action. The RFI/CMS is needed to identify and evaluate the hazardous chemical and radiological contamination in the vadose zone from past releases of waste from WMA C. WMA C will be under Federal ownership and control for the foreseeable future, and managed as an industrial area with restricted access and various institutional controls. The exposure scenarios evaluated under these conditions include Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Method C, industrial worker, maintenance and surveillance worker, construction worker, and trespasser scenarios. The BRA evaluates several unrestricted land use scenarios (residential all-pathway, MTCA Method B, and Tribal) to provide additional information for risk management. Analytical results from 13 shallow zone (0 to 15 ft. below ground surface) sampling locations were collected to evaluate human health impacts at WMA C. In addition, soil analytical data were screened against background concentrations and ecological soil screening levels to determine if soil concentrations have the potential to adversely affect ecological receptors. Analytical data from 12 groundwater monitoring wells were evaluated between 2004 and 2013. A screening of groundwater monitoring data against background concentrations and Federal maximum concentration levels was used to determine vadose zone

  12. Do Economic Rewards Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    The love of learning--that intrinsic desire to gain knowledge and insight into new subjects--was once its own reward. That was altered decades ago when parents started using the proverbial "stick and carrot" to motivate their children to do well in school, or even just show up. Today, educators across the country have taken hold of this approach…

  13. Stress and reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chumbley, J R; Hulme, O; Köchli, H

    2014-01-01

    Healthy individuals tend to consume available rewards like food and sex. This tendency is attenuated or amplified in most stress-related psychiatric conditions, so we asked if it depends on endogenous levels of the 'canonical stress hormone' cortisol. We unobtrusively quantified how hard healthy...

  14. Study of field assessment methods and worker risks for processing alternatives to support principles for FUSRAP waste materials. Part 1: Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Its purpose was to provide information to the Environmental Management Advisory Board`s FUSRAP Committee for use in its deliberation of guiding principles for FUSRAP sites, in particular the degree to which treatment should be considered in the FUSRAP Committee`s recommendations. Treatment of FUSRAP wastes to remove thorium could be beneficial to management of lands that contain thorium if such treatment were effective and cost efficient. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation. Both types of information should be useful for decisions on whether and how to apply thorium removal methods to FUSRAP waste materials.

  15. Abnormal reward functioning across substance use disorders and major depressive disorder: Considering reward as a transdiagnostic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Foti, Dan

    2015-11-01

    A common criticism of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is that its criteria are based more on behavioral descriptions than on underlying biological mechanisms. Increasingly, calls have intensified for a more biologically-based approach to conceptualizing, studying, and treating psychological disorders, as exemplified by the Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC). Among the most well-studied neurobiological mechanisms is reward processing. Moreover, individual differences in reward sensitivity are related to risk for substance abuse and depression. The current review synthesizes the available preclinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging literature on reward processing from a transdiagnostic, multidimensional perspective. Findings are organized with respect to key reward constructs within the Positive Valence Systems domain of the RDoC matrix, including initial responsiveness to reward (physiological 'liking'), approach motivation (physiological 'wanting'), and reward learning/habit formation. In the current review, we (a) describe the neural basis of reward, (b) elucidate differences in reward activity in substance abuse and depression, and (c) suggest a framework for integrating these disparate literatures and discuss the utility of shifting focus from diagnosis to process for understanding liability and co-morbidity. Ultimately, we believe that an integrative focus on abnormal reward functioning across the full continuum of clinically heterogeneous samples, rather than within circumscribed diagnostic categories, might actually help to refine the phenotypes and improve the prediction of onset and recovery of these disorders.

  16. Ecological Risk Assessment of Lead (Pb after Waste Disposal from Metallurgical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Jafari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Not being available sufficient information about ERA of lead, this paper provides a brief critical review to the mentioned concept. Being presented in soils, heavy metals constitute serious environmental hazards from the point of view of polluting the soils and adjoining streams and rivers. Pb is generally the metal of great concern as well as being phytotoxic. Ecological risk assessment is a process that evaluates the likelihood that adverse ecological effects may occur or are occurring as a result of exposure to one or more stressors. Metallurgical waste like other waste materials consists not only of Pb, but also consists in large quantities relatively. The ubiquitous distribution and known toxicity of lead pollution in urban environment are posing great concern, in term of human health and environment. According to the importance and criticality of this issue, a holistic risk-based approach is inevitable at least for environmental health and monitoring (EHM. Reviewing literature, it is found that approximately most of the researches have been carried out in aquatic environments. From the other side, those carried out in terrestrial environment, are non-Pb focusing. Considering the researches pertaining to ERA, however few researches have been carried out in the field of metallurgical industries, none of them has addressed the Pb ERA in a holistic approach.

  17. Commitment to self-rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    People often overcome self-control problems by promising to reward themselves for accomplishing a task. Such strategies based on self-administered rewards however require the person to believe that she would indeed deny herself the reward if she should fail to achieve the desired outcome. Drawing...

  18. Commitment to self-rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    People often overcome self-control problems by promising to reward themselves for accomplishing a task. Such strategies based on self-administered rewards however require the person to believe that she would indeed deny herself the reward if she should fail to achieve the desired outcome. Drawing...

  19. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  20. Risk for non Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the vicinity of French municipal solid waste incinerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauleau Erik-André

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators are one of the major sources of dioxins and therefore are an exposure source of public concern. There is growing epidemiologic evidence of an increased risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL in the vicinity of some municipal solid waste incinerators with high dioxin emission levels. The purpose of this study was to examine this association on a larger population scale. Methods The study area consisted of four French administrative departments, comprising a total of 2270 block groups. NHL cases that had been diagnosed during the period 1990–1999, and were aged 15 years and over, were considered. Each case was assigned a block group by residential address geocoding. Atmospheric Dispersion Model System software was used to estimate immissions in the surroundings of 13 incinerators which operated in the study area. Then, cumulative ground-level dioxin concentrations were calculated for each block group. Poisson multiple regression models, incorporating penalized regression splines to control for covariates and dealing with Poisson overdispersion, were used. Five confounding factors were considered: population density, urbanisation, socio-economic level, airborne traffic pollution, and industrial pollution. Results A total of 3974 NHL incident cases was observed (2147 among males, and 1827 among females during the 1990–1999 time period. A statistically significant relationship was found at the block group level between risk for NHL and dioxin exposure, with a relative risk (RR of 1.120 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.002 – 1.251 for persons living in highly exposed census blocks compared to those living in slightly exposed block groups. Population density appeared positively linked both to risk for NHL and dioxin exposure. Subgroup multivariate analyses per gender yielded a significant RR for females only (RR = 1.178, 95% CI 1.013 – 1.369. Conclusion This study, in

  1. Risk assessement and feasibility study of solid waste minimization, recycling, and disposal at Huta Sendzimira, Krakow, Poland. Volume 1. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The scope of work included an investigation of opportunities to reduce the amount of solid waste that must be disposed of by Huta Sendzimira and opportunities to use and/or recycle materials that have accumulated in the waste pile for several years. The study also included an evaluation of the existing waste pile as a possible area to be developed into a modern, sanitary landfill to serve both the steel mill and the citizens of the Krakow area. Volume I contains: (1) Site Assessment; (2) Risk Assessment; (3) Waste Characterization; (4) Waste Pile Utilization; (5) Waste Minimization; and (6) Sanitary Landfill.

  2. Waste dumping sites as a potential source of POPs and associated health risks in perspective of current waste management practices in Lahore city, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Saba; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Ali, Usman; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Zhang, Gan

    2016-08-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechloran plus (DP) were analyzed in air, dust, soil and water samples from waste dump site, Lahore, Pakistan. It was revealed that PCB levels were detected higher in all matrices than PBDEs and DPs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed higher usage of BDE-47, -99 and di-CBs, tri-CBs, tetra-CBs and penta-CBs. Health risk assessment of PCBs and PBDEs from soil and dust indicated low to moderate risk to the local population via different exposure pathways. It is recommended to improve current waste management practices in order to avoid emissions of contaminants and open dumping grounds should be modified into sanitary landfill.

  3. Biomass and waste management. Chances, risks, perspectives; Biomasse und Abfallwirtschaft. Chancen, Risiken, Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K.; Burth, M.; Wallmann, R. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    The meeting ''Biomass and waste management'' dealt with the following topics: Biodegradable wastes, their collection and sorting, cooperation with agriculture, waste processing, fermentation, biogas, thermal treatments,power generation, use as fertilizers, economics, ecology, fees, national and international waste market. (uke)

  4. Commitment to self-rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alexander K.; Nafziger, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Self-administered rewards are ubiquitous. They serve as incentives for personal accomplish¬ments and are widely recommended as tools for overcoming self-control problems. However, it seems puzzling why self-rewards can work: the prospect of a reward has a motivating force only if the threat of self-denial of the reward after low performance is credible. We explain how a rational forward-looking individual may achieve commitment to self-rewards, by applying Köszegi and Rabin's (2006) model of ...

  5. Report: risk factors associated with treatment of mixed municipal solid waste in the Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Asit

    2009-12-01

    Across India, all small and large urban local bodies (ULB) alike are grappling with the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW), which has reached critical dimensions because of, among others, rapidly increasing quantities and complex characteristics, inadequate regulation, lack of awareness, concern and cooperation on the part of the urban residents, limited resources for collection, transport and safe disposal, and limited expertise on the part of the ULBs. A number of ULBs have attempted to address the two-fold constraint of resources and land by setting up treatment plants under the premise of generating revenue and reducing liability of safe disposal. Over the last three decades, under the paradigms of converting 'waste to energy' and 'waste to wealth' various technologies have been tried out, however time and again it is seen that irrespective of the technology, MSW treatment plants run in to difficulties and/or close down. The issues do not pertain just to technology but are systemic and encompass project development, feedstock delivery system including quality and quantity, climate, high life-cycle costs, low value realization on outputs and adverse environmental and social impacts. With such a wide range of risk factors, experience has shown that the probability of manifestation of any one of them or a combination thereof at one or the other stages of the project is quite high. Investment in a mixed MSW treatment plant therefore can not deliver positive financial returns, rather it can become a non-performing asset without even guaranteeing the desired environmental and public health benefits. This paper therefore argues for the adoption of a robust, elastic and most forgiving option of sanitary landfill as a dependable and safe disposal system for MSW.

  6. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites.

  7. Association mapping of genetic risk factors for chronic wasting disease in wild deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomomi Matsumoto,; Samuel, Michael D.; Trent Bollinger,; Margo Pybus,; David W. Coltman,

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. We assessed the feasibility of association mapping CWD genetic risk factors in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using a panel of bovine microsatellite markers from three homologous deer linkage groups predicted to contain candidate genes. These markers had a low cross-species amplification rate (27.9%) and showed weak linkage disequilibrium (<1 cM). Markers near the prion protein and the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) genes were suggestively associated with CWD status in white-tailed deer (P = 0.006) and mule deer (P = 0.02), respectively. This is the first time an association between the NF1 region and CWD has been reported.

  8. Does the use of tubular digesters to treat livestock waste lower the risk of infection from Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Maureen N; Wald, Ileana; Camacho-Céspedes, Fabricio; Izurieta, Ricardo; Haas, Charles N; Ergas, Sarina J

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, high incidences of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are attributed to livestock waste. Quantitative microbial risk assessment can be used to estimate the risk of livestock related infections from Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. The objective of this paper was to assess the occupational and public health risks associated with management of raw and anaerobically digested livestock waste in two rural communities in Costa Rica based on fomite, soil and crop contamination and livestock waste management exposure pathways. Risks related to cattle waste were greater than swine waste due to cattle shedding more (oo)cysts. Cryptosporidium parvum also posed a greater risk than Giardia lamblia in all exposure pathways due to livestock shedding high loads of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and oocysts' lower inactivation rates during anaerobic digestion compared with Giardia lamblia cysts. The risk of infection from exposure to contaminated soil and crops was significantly lower for a community using tubular anaerobic digesters to treat livestock waste compared to a community where the untreated waste was applied to soil. The results indicate that treatment of livestock waste in small-scale tubular anaerobic digesters has the potential to significantly decrease the risk of infection below the World Health Organization's acceptable individual annual risk of infection (10(-4)).

  9. Fuzzy logic based risk assessment of effluents from waste-water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Julián; Ginebreda, Antoni; Guillén, Daniel; Martínez, Elena; Barceló, Damià; Moragas, Lucas; Robusté, Jordi; Darbra, Rosa Ma

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents a new methodology to assess the risk of water effluents from waste-water treatment plants (WWTPs) based on fuzzy logic, a well-known theory to deal with uncertainty, especially in the environmental field where data are often lacking. The method has been tested using the effluent's pollution data coming from 22 waste-water treatment plants (WWTPs) located in Catalonia (NE Spain). Thirty-eight pollutants were analyzed along three campaigns performed yearly from 2008 to 2010. Whereas 9 compounds have been detected in more than 70% of the samples analyzed, 7 compounds have been found at levels equal or higher than the river Environmental Quality Standards set by the Water Framework Directive. Upon combination of both criteria (presence and concentration), compounds of greatest environmental concern in the WWTP studied are nickel, the herbicide diuron, and the endocrine disruptors nonyl and octylphenol. It is remarkable the low variability of the pollutant concentration just differing for the case of nickel and zinc. These low values of exposure together with other pollutants' characteristics provide a medium or low risk assessment for all the WWTPs. The results of this new method have been compared with COMMPS procedure, a solid method developed in the context of the Water Framework Directive, and they show that the fuzzy model is more conservative than COMMPS. This is due to different reasons: the fuzzy model takes into account the persistence of chemical compounds whereas COMMPS does not; the fuzzy model includes the weights provided by an expert group inquired in previous works and also considers the uncertainty of the environmental data, avoiding the crisp values and offering a range of overlapping between the different fuzzy sets. However, the results even if being more conservative with fuzzy logic, are in good agreement with a solid methodology such as the COMMPS procedure.

  10. A model of food reward learning with dynamic reward exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Hammond

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of conditioning via reward learning is highly relevant to the study of food choice and obesity. Learning is itself shaped by environmental exposure, with the potential for such exposures to vary substantially across individuals and across place and time. In this paper, we use computational techniques to extend a well-validated standard model of reward learning, introducing both substantial heterogeneity and dynamic reward exposures. We then apply the extended model to a food choice context. The model produces a variety of individual behaviors and population-level patterns which are not evident from the traditional formulation, but which offer potential insights for understanding food reward learning and obesity. These include a lock-in effect, through which early exposure can strongly shape later reward valuation. We discuss potential implications of our results for the study and prevention of obesity, for the reward learning field, and for future experimental and computational work.

  11. Municipal solid waste management health risk assessment from air emissions for China by applying life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Nitivattananon, Vilas; Li, Peng

    2015-05-01

    This study is to quantify and objectively evaluate the extent of environmental health risks from three waste treatment options suggested by the national municipal solid waste management enhancing strategy (No [2011] 9 of the State Council, promulgated on 19 April 2011), which includes sanitary landfill, waste-to-energy incineration and compost, together with the material recovery facility through a case study in Zhangqiu City of China. It addresses potential chronic health risks from air emissions to residential receptors in the impacted area. It combines field survey, analogue survey, design documents and life cycle inventory methods in defining the source strength of chemicals of potential concern. The modelling of life cycle inventory and air dispersion is via integrated waste management(IWM)-2 and Screening Air Dispersion Model (Version 3.0) (SCREEN3). The health risk assessment is in accordance with United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment). The exposure concentration is based on long-term exposure to the maximum ground level contaminant in air under the 'reasonable worst situation' emissions and then directly compared with reference for concentration and unit risk factor/cancer slope factor derived from the national air quality standard (for a conventional pollutant) and toxicological studies (for a specific pollutant). Results from this study suggest that the option of compost with material recovery facility treatment may pose less negative health impacts than other options; the sensitivity analysis shows that the landfill integrated waste management collection rate has a great influence on the impact results. Further investigation is needed to validate or challenge the findings of this study.

  12. Waste dumping sites as a potential source of POPs and associated health risks in perspective of current waste management practices in Lahore city, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafeez, Saba [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Adeel [Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad PO: 45550 (Pakistan); State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ali, Usman [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Zhang, Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechloran plus (DP) were analyzed in air, dust, soil and water samples from waste dump site, Lahore, Pakistan. It was revealed that PCB levels were detected higher in all matrices than PBDEs and DPs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed higher usage of BDE-47, -99 and di-CBs, tri-CBs, tetra-CBs and penta-CBs. Health risk assessment of PCBs and PBDEs from soil and dust indicated low to moderate risk to the local population via different exposure pathways. It is recommended to improve current waste management practices in order to avoid emissions of contaminants and open dumping grounds should be modified into sanitary landfill. - Highlights: • The pioneer study provides the baseline data from waste dumping site from Lahore. • Dump site of Lahore is the potential source of PCBs, PBDEs and DPs in nearby environment. • Fugacity fractions indicated air to soil deposition of PCBs and PBDEs.

  13. Assessment of the disposal of radioactive petroleum industry waste in nonhazardous landfills using risk-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen P; Arnish, John J; Williams, Gustavious P; Blunt, Deborah L

    2003-05-15

    Certain petroleum production activities cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to accumulate in concentrations above natural background levels, making safe and cost-effective management of such technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) a key issue for the petroleum industry. As a result, both industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment One such alternative, currently allowed in Michigan with restrictions, is the disposal of TENORM wastes in nonhazardous waste landfills. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 (Ra-226) in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and health risks to workers and the public. Multiple scenarios were considered in evaluating the potential risks associated with landfill operations and the future use of the property. The scenarios were defined, in part, to evaluate the Michigan policy; sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key parameters on potential risks. The results indicate that the disposal of petroleum industry TENORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the Michigan policy and existing landfill regulations presents a negligible risk to most of the potential receptors considered in this study.

  14. Assessing social and economic effects of perceived risk: Workshop summary: Draft: BWIP Repository Project. [Basalt Waste Isolation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Liebow, E.B. (eds.)

    1988-03-01

    The US Department of Energy sponsored a one-day workshop to discuss the complex dimensions of risk judgment formation and the assessment of social and economic effects of risk perceptions related to the permanent underground storage of highly radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power plants. Affected parties have publicly expressed concerns about potentially significant risk-related effects of this approach to waste management. A selective review of relevant literature in psychology, decision analysis, economics, sociology, and anthropology was completed, along with an examination of decision analysis techniques that might assist in developing suitable responses to public risk-related concerns. The workshop was organized as a forum in which a set of distinguished experts could exchange ideas and observations about the problems of characterizing the effects of risk judgments. Out of the exchange emerged the issues or themes of problems with probabilistic risk assessment techniques are evident; differences exist in the way experts and laypersons view risk, and this leads to higher levels of public concern than experts feel are justified; experts, risk managers, and decision-makers sometimes err in assessing risk and in dealing with the public; credibility and trust are important contributing factors in the formation of risk judgments; social and economic consequences of perceived risk should be properly anticipated; improvements can be made in informing the public about risk; the role of the public in risk assessment, risk management and decisions about risk should be reconsidered; and mitigation and compensation are central to resolving conflicts arising from divergent risk judgments. 1 tab.

  15. High monetary reward rates and caloric rewards decrease temporal persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Murawski, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Temporal persistence refers to an individual's capacity to wait for future rewards, while forgoing possible alternatives. This requires a trade-off between the potential value of delayed rewards and opportunity costs, and is relevant to many real-world decisions, such as dieting. Theoretical models have previously suggested that high monetary reward rates, or positive energy balance, may result in decreased temporal persistence. In our study, 50 fasted participants engaged in a temporal persistence task, incentivised with monetary rewards. In alternating blocks of this task, rewards were delivered at delays drawn randomly from distributions with either a lower or higher maximum reward rate. During some blocks participants received either a caloric drink or water. We used survival analysis to estimate participants' probability of quitting conditional on the delay distribution and the consumed liquid. Participants had a higher probability of quitting in blocks with the higher reward rate. Furthermore, participants who consumed the caloric drink had a higher probability of quitting than those who consumed water. Our results support the predictions from the theoretical models, and importantly, suggest that both higher monetary reward rates and physiologically relevant rewards can decrease temporal persistence, which is a crucial determinant for survival in many species. PMID:28228517

  16. Rewarding the Multiplayer : How rewards and objectives influence Multiplayer games

    OpenAIRE

    Helin, Henry

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I analyse the reward systems of cooperative and competitive Multiplayer games – the games I have chosen were built for a Single-player campaign with Multiplayer as additional content. My main focus is on the Multiplayer and the reward systems of that game mode. The reward systems are important to consider when designing a game for fans of Multiplayer games, as a faulty reward system might hinder the aspect which makes Multiplayer games special – to be playing together and go fo...

  17. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (<10(-6)) both for children and workers. Exposure to ash increased workers' cancer risks and children's noncancer risks. Given the risk estimate is complex including toxicity/bioaccessibility of metals, the ways of exposure, and many uncertainties, further researches are required before any definite decisions on mitigating health risks caused by exposure to EDR incinerated ash are made.

  18. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern.

  19. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us.

  20. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

  1. Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcela Herrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioural inhibiton, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioural inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioural inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/Nogo and Stop Signal Tasks. Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on the performance of such tasks in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and ADHD. However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory paradigms are rare and consequently, little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and self-control. Here, we probed the effect of reward and reward magnitude on behavioural inhibition using two modified version of the widely used Stop Signal Task. The first task compared no reward with reward, whilst the other compared two different reward magnitudes. The reward magnitude effect was confirmed by the second study, whereas it was less compelling in the first study, possibly due to the effect of having no reward in some conditions. In addition, our results showed a kick start effect over global performance measures. More specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task, when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the protocol. These results demonstrate that individuals’ behavioural inhibition capacities are dynamic not static because they are modulated by the reward magnitude and initial reward history of the task at hand.

  2. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective.

  3. Farm level risk factors associated with severity of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Pablo; Velasova, Martina; Mastin, Alexander; Nevel, Amanda; Stärk, Katharina D C; Wieland, Barbara

    2011-09-01

    A cross-sectional study involving 147 pig farms across England was conducted in 2008-2009. Farm severity of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) was estimated through the use of an algorithm that combined data on post-weaning mortality, PMWS morbidity and proportion of porcine circovirus type 2 PCR positive pigs. Farms were classified as non/slightly, moderately or highly affected by PMWS. Data on potential PMWS risk factors were collected through interviews, on-farm assessment and serological sampling. Risk factors were identified using multivariable ordinal logistic regression and multivariable linear regression. Factors associated with increased PMWS severity were rearing growers indoors (OR=23.7), requiring a higher number of veterinarian visits per year (OR=9.6), having poorly isolated hospital pens (OR=6.4), buying replacement boars (OR=4.8) and seropositivity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (OR=4.29); factors associated with decreased PMWS severity were low stocking density for growers (OR=0.07), adjusting diets at least three times between weaning and 14 weeks of age (OR=0.12), and requiring visitors to be at least 2 days pig free (OR=0.14). This study provides evidence of the association between environmental and management factors and PMWS severity, and suggests that other pathogens may be important co-factors for the disease. In addition, this study highlights the potential efficacy of biosecurity measures in the reduction/prevention of within-farm PMWS severity.

  4. A new "loyalty rewards" program in health care customer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macstravic, Scott

    2006-01-01

    "Loyalty rewards" in sponsored DM and HRM programs can apply to both providers and consumers. Physicians and hospitals can be paid to "loyally" adhere to payers' guidelines for managing diseases and risks. Many payer and their outsourced vendor programs include significant efforts to create collaborations between payer and provider, rather than relying on unilateral efforts. And growing numbers are rewarding providers for their efforts and results achieved.

  5. Bio-aerosols and biological waste treatment systems. Causes, risks, reduction measures; Bioaerosole und biologische Abfallbehandlungsanlagen. Ursachen, Risiken, Minderungsmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeschmar-Lahl, B. [BZL Kommunikation und Projektsteuerung GmbH, Oyten (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Biodegradation starts already in the collecting stage. Fungi and actinomycetes will start to propagate while unpleasant smells are released at the same time. The decomposition process will continue during transport and conditioning of waste materials. In modern biological waste treatment systems, this process is optimized, e.g. by aeration and hydration. For better control, the processes take place in airtight containers. However, this means enhanced aerogenic concentrations of microorganisms, dust and odorants inside these containers. In open systems, on the other hand, high concentrations will be measured in the vicinity. The contribution states that the risk to staff and neighbourhood residents have been underestimated. (orig.)

  6. Fungal burden in waste industry: an occupational risk to be solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; dos Santos, Mateus; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Sabino, Raquel; Viegas, Susana

    2015-04-01

    High loads of fungi have been reported in different types of waste management plants. This study intends to assess fungal contamination in one waste-sorting plant before and after cleaning procedures in order to analyze their effectiveness. Air samples of 50 L were collected through an impaction method, while surface samples, taken at the same time, were collected by the swabbing method and subject to further macro- and microscopic observations. In addition, we collected air samples of 250 L using the impinger Coriolis μ air sampler (Bertin Technologies) at 300 L/min airflow rate in order to perform real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) amplification of genes from specific fungal species, namely Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus complexes, as well as Stachybotrys chartarum species. Fungal quantification in the air ranged from 180 to 5,280 CFU m(-3) before cleaning and from 220 to 2,460 CFU m(-3) after cleaning procedures. Surfaces presented results that ranged from 29×10(4) to 109×10(4) CFU m(-2) before cleaning and from 11×10(4) to 89×10(4) CFU m(-2) after cleaning. Statistically significant differences regarding fungal load were not detected between before and after cleaning procedures. Toxigenic strains from A. flavus complex and S. chartarum were not detected by qPCR. Conversely, the A. fumigatus species was successfully detected by qPCR and interestingly it was amplified in two samples where no detection by conventional methods was observed. Overall, these results reveal the inefficacy of the cleaning procedures and that it is important to determine fungal burden in order to carry out risk assessment.

  7. [Do pharmaceutical waste and drug residue pose a risk to public health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haguenoer, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Recently, awareness has developed of the environmental consequences of drug waste and disposal. These residues are identified as coming from either diffuse sources, the most significant of which is via the discharge of these residues in urine and feces, and thus the sewage system and water contains these drug remnants and their metabolites, or from point sources, sometimes with very high levels of concentration in waste from chemical and pharmaceutical industries, health care settings, but also from intensive livestock farming and aquaculture. Depending on their physical chemistry properties, these substances are more or less naturally biodegradable and easily treated in sewage purification plants. The effectiveness of these treatment processes is highly random and unpredictable, but is overall around 60%, nevertheless with variations of 2-99% according to the molecules. The silt from these treatment plants, sometimes very rich in lipophilic substances is on occasion reused for agricultural application as fertilizer, paving the way for a possible contamination of crops. Furthermore, the use of veterinary drugs in animals can lead to soil contamination either directly or through manure and slurry. The contamination can equally reach and affect surface water, groundwater and sometimes the water intended for human consumption. The National academy of Pharmacy has established some general recommendations on the proper use of drugs, environmental monitoring and surveillance, risk assessment for humans and the environment, prevention and the need for prevention. Several categories of drugs are more worrying: cancer treatments, antibiotics as well as transfers of anti-bio-resistance, and hormonal derivatives which has been previously demonstrated to contribute, along with other molecules, to detrimental effects on endocrines.

  8. Infectious risk assessment of unsafe handling practices and management of clinical solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sohrab; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Puvanesuaran, Vignesh R; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2013-01-31

    The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes.

  9. Infectious Risk Assessment of Unsafe Handling Practices and Management of Clinical Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes.

  10. Risk behaviors in a rural community with a known point-source exposure to chronic wasting disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeks Jennifer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence and continuing spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD in cervids has now reached 14 U.S. states, two Canadian provinces, and South Korea, producing a potential for transmission of CWD prions to humans and other animals globally. In 2005, CWD spread for the first time from the Midwest to more densely populated regions of the East Coast. As a result, a large cohort of individuals attending a wild game feast in upstate New York were exposed to a deer that was subsequently confirmed positive for CWD. Methods Eighty-one participants who ingested or otherwise were exposed to a deer with chronic wasting disease at a local New York State sportsman's feast were recruited for this study. Participants were administered an exposure questionnaire and agreed to follow-up health evaluations longitudinally over the next six years. Results Our results indicate two types of risks for those who attended the feast, a Feast Risk and a General Risk. The larger the number of risk factors, the greater the risk to human health if CWD is transmissible to humans. Long-term surveillance of feast participants exposed to CWD is ongoing. Conclusion The risk data from this study provide a relative scale for cumulative exposure to CWD-infected tissues and surfaces, and those in the upper tiers of cumulative risk may be most at risk if CWD is transmissible to humans.

  11. Rewards teach visual selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelazzi, Leonardo; Perlato, Andrea; Santandrea, Elisa; Della Libera, Chiara

    2013-06-07

    Visual selective attention is the brain function that modulates ongoing processing of retinal input in order for selected representations to gain privileged access to perceptual awareness and guide behavior. Enhanced analysis of currently relevant or otherwise salient information is often accompanied by suppressed processing of the less relevant or salient input. Recent findings indicate that rewards exert a powerful influence on the deployment of visual selective attention. Such influence takes different forms depending on the specific protocol adopted in the given study. In some cases, the prospect of earning a larger reward in relation to a specific stimulus or location biases attention accordingly in order to maximize overall gain. This is mediated by an effect of reward acting as a type of incentive motivation for the strategic control of attention. In contrast, reward delivery can directly alter the processing of specific stimuli by increasing their attentional priority, and this can be measured even when rewards are no longer involved, reflecting a form of reward-mediated attentional learning. As a further development, recent work demonstrates that rewards can affect attentional learning in dissociable ways depending on whether rewards are perceived as feedback on performance or instead are registered as random-like events occurring during task performance. Specifically, it appears that visual selective attention is shaped by two distinct reward-related learning mechanisms: one requiring active monitoring of performance and outcome, and a second one detecting the sheer association between objects in the environment (whether attended or ignored) and the more-or-less rewarding events that accompany them. Overall this emerging literature demonstrates unequivocally that rewards "teach" visual selective attention so that processing resources will be allocated to objects, features and locations which are likely to optimize the organism's interaction with the

  12. Health risk reduction behaviors model for scavengers exposed to solid waste in municipal dump sites in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirarattanasunthon, Phiman; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark; Borjan, Marija

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of comprehensive health risk protection behaviors, knowledge, attitudes, and practices among scavengers in open dump sites. A control group of 44 scavengers and an intervention group of 44 scavengers participated in this study. Interventions included the use of personal protective equipment, health protection training, and other measures. The analysis showed significant differences before and after the intervention program and also between the control and intervention groups. These observations suggest that further action should be taken to reduce adverse exposure during waste collection. To reduce health hazards to workers, dump site scavenging should be incorporated into the formal sector program. Solid waste and the management of municipal solid waste has become a human and environmental health issue and future research should look at constructing a sustainable model to help protect the health of scavengers and drive authorities to adopt safer management techniques.

  13. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 2: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D. [Enserch Environmental Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The objective of DOE`s Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area is to identify and develop new technologies that will reduce the risk and/or cost of remediating DOE underground waste storage tanks and tank contents. There are, however, many more technology investment opportunities than the current budget can support. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program. The report identifies the project objectives and provides a description of the model. Development of the first ``demonstration`` version of this model and a trial application have been completed and the results are presented. This model will continue to evolve as it undergoes additional user review and testing.

  14. Neuronal Reward and Decision Signals: From Theories to Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-07-01

    Rewards are crucial objects that induce learning, approach behavior, choices, and emotions. Whereas emotions are difficult to investigate in animals, the learning function is mediated by neuronal reward prediction error signals which implement basic constructs of reinforcement learning theory. These signals are found in dopamine neurons, which emit a global reward signal to striatum and frontal cortex, and in specific neurons in striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex projecting to select neuronal populations. The approach and choice functions involve subjective value, which is objectively assessed by behavioral choices eliciting internal, subjective reward preferences. Utility is the formal mathematical characterization of subjective value and a prime decision variable in economic choice theory. It is coded as utility prediction error by phasic dopamine responses. Utility can incorporate various influences, including risk, delay, effort, and social interaction. Appropriate for formal decision mechanisms, rewards are coded as object value, action value, difference value, and chosen value by specific neurons. Although all reward, reinforcement, and decision variables are theoretical constructs, their neuronal signals constitute measurable physical implementations and as such confirm the validity of these concepts. The neuronal reward signals provide guidance for behavior while constraining the free will to act.

  15. Neuronal Reward and Decision Signals: From Theories to Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Rewards are crucial objects that induce learning, approach behavior, choices, and emotions. Whereas emotions are difficult to investigate in animals, the learning function is mediated by neuronal reward prediction error signals which implement basic constructs of reinforcement learning theory. These signals are found in dopamine neurons, which emit a global reward signal to striatum and frontal cortex, and in specific neurons in striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex projecting to select neuronal populations. The approach and choice functions involve subjective value, which is objectively assessed by behavioral choices eliciting internal, subjective reward preferences. Utility is the formal mathematical characterization of subjective value and a prime decision variable in economic choice theory. It is coded as utility prediction error by phasic dopamine responses. Utility can incorporate various influences, including risk, delay, effort, and social interaction. Appropriate for formal decision mechanisms, rewards are coded as object value, action value, difference value, and chosen value by specific neurons. Although all reward, reinforcement, and decision variables are theoretical constructs, their neuronal signals constitute measurable physical implementations and as such confirm the validity of these concepts. The neuronal reward signals provide guidance for behavior while constraining the free will to act. PMID:26109341

  16. Risk management in the project of implantation of the repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borssatto, Maria de Fatima B.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O. de; Uemura, George, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br, E-mail: george@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Project RBMN is part of the Brazilian solution for the storage of radioactive waste generated by the activities of nuclear energy in Brazil. The aim of RBMN is to implement the National Repository to dispose the low and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Risk is a characteristic of all projects, and it is originated from uncertainties, assumptions and the environment of execution of the project. Risk management is the way to monitor systematically these uncertainties and a guaranty that the goals of the project will be attained. A specific methodology for the risk management of the Project RBMN is under development, which integrates models and processes for identification and analysis of risks, reactions, monitoring, control and planning of risk management. This methodology is fundamental and will be of primordial importance for future generations who will be responsible for the operation at final stages, closure and institutional control during the post-closure of the repository. It will provide greater safety to executed processes and safeguarding risks and specific solutions for this enterprise, guaranteeing the safety of the repository in its life cycle, which has a foreseen duration of at least three hundred years. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary analysis of the opportunities, threats, strong points and weak points identified up to now, that will provide support to implement risk management procedures. The methodology will be based on the PMBOK{sup R} - Project Management Board of Knowledge - and will take into consideration the best practices for project management.(author)

  17. Risk assessment of CST-7 proposed waste treatment and storage facilities Volume I: Limited-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of proposed CST-7 waste treatment & storage facilities. Volume II: Preliminary hazards analysis of proposed CST-7 waste storage & treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, K.

    1994-06-01

    In FY 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Group [CST-7 (formerly EM-7)] requested the Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group [TSA-11 (formerly N-6)] to conduct a study of the hazards associated with several CST-7 facilities. Among these facilities are the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF), the HWTF Drum Storage Building (DSB), and the Mixed Waste Receiving and Storage Facility (MWRSF), which are proposed for construction beginning in 1996. These facilities are needed to upgrade the Laboratory`s storage capability for hazardous and mixed wastes and to provide treatment capabilities for wastes in cases where offsite treatment is not available or desirable. These facilities will assist Los Alamos in complying with federal and state requlations.

  18. Risk-informed assessment of radionuclide release from dissolution of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae M., E-mail: tae.ahn@nrc.gov

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Dissolution of HLW waste form was assessed with long-term risk informed approach. • The radionuclide release rate decreases with time from the initial release rate. • Fast release radionuclides can be dispersed with discrete container failure time. • Fast release radionuclides can be restricted by container opening area. • Dissolved radionuclides may be further sequestered by sorption or others means. - Abstract: This paper aims to detail the different parameters to be considered for use in an assessment of radionuclide release. The dissolution of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste glass was considered for risk and performance insights in a generic disposal system for more than 100,000 years. The probabilistic performance assessment includes the waste form, container, geology, and hydrology. Based on the author’s previous extended work and data from the literature, this paper presents more detailed specific cases of (1) the time dependence of radionuclide release, (2) radionuclide release coupled with container failure (rate-limiting process), (3) radionuclide release through the opening area of the container and cladding, and (4) sequestration of radionuclides in the near field after container failure. These cases are better understood for risk and performance insights. The dissolved amount of waste form is not linear with time but is higher at first. The radionuclide release rate from waste form dissolution can be constrained by container failure time. The partial opening area of the container surface may decrease radionuclide release. Radionuclides sequestered by various chemical reactions in the near field of a failed container may become stable with time as the radiation level decreases with time.

  19. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Showing excellence in mechanics, electronics and cryogenics, three industries are honoured for their contributions to the ATLAS experiment. Representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony. For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Close interaction with CERN was a key factor in the selection of each rewarded company, in addition to the high-quality products they delivered to the experiment. Alu Menziken Industrie AG, of Switzerland, was honoured for the production of 380,000 aluminium tubes for the Monitored Drift Tube Chambers (MDT). As Giora Mikenberg, the Muon System Project Leader stressed, the aluminium tubes were delivered on time with an extraordinary quality and precision. Between October 2000 and Jan...

  20. Reward deficiency and anti-reward in pain chronification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsook, D; Linnman, C; Faria, V; Strassman, A M; Becerra, L; Elman, I

    2016-09-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that the pathophysiology of pain is mediated to a substantial degree via allostatic neuroadaptations in reward- and stress-related brain circuits. Thus, reward deficiency (RD) represents a within-system neuroadaptation to pain-induced protracted activation of the reward circuits that leads to depletion-like hypodopaminergia, clinically manifested anhedonia, and diminished motivation for natural reinforcers. Anti-reward (AR) conversely pertains to a between-systems neuroadaptation involving over-recruitment of key limbic structures (e.g., the central and basolateral amygdala nuclei, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the lateral tegmental noradrenergic nuclei of the brain stem, the hippocampus and the habenula) responsible for massive outpouring of stressogenic neurochemicals (e.g., norepinephrine, corticotropin releasing factor, vasopressin, hypocretin, and substance P) giving rise to such negative affective states as anxiety, fear and depression. We propose here the Combined Reward deficiency and Anti-reward Model (CReAM), in which biopsychosocial variables modulating brain reward, motivation and stress functions can interact in a 'downward spiral' fashion to exacerbate the intensity, chronicity and comorbidities of chronic pain syndromes (i.e., pain chronification). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Adaptive Reward Pursuit: How Effort Requirements Affect Unconscious Reward Responses and Conscious Reward Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, E.H.; Custers, R.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2012-01-01

    When in pursuit of rewards, humans weigh the value of potential rewards against the amount of effort that is required to attain them. Although previous research has generally conceptualized this process as a deliberate calculation, recent work suggests that rudimentary mechanisms operating without c

  2. Adaptive Reward Pursuit: How Effort Requirements Affect Unconscious Reward Responses and Conscious Reward Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijleveld, Erik; Custers, Ruud; Aarts, Henk

    2012-01-01

    When in pursuit of rewards, humans weigh the value of potential rewards against the amount of effort that is required to attain them. Although previous research has generally conceptualized this process as a deliberate calculation, recent work suggests that rudimentary mechanisms--operating without conscious intervention--play an important role as…

  3. Historical Relationship Between Performance Assessment for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Other Types of Risk Assessment in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-07-14

    This paper describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed to the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built upon methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty and the tools used to evaluate it.

  4. Levels of uncertainty, decision making and risk communication: the siting of nuclear waste in France and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poumadere, M

    1999-11-01

    The social demand for increased risk control is considered here as it applies to nuclear waste management. Britain`s Sellafield Repository Project and France`s Mediation Mission to site underground research laboratories are compared. While both management approaches show evolution away from an authoritarian model of decision making and towards implementation of a more socially responsive model, distinct methods of dealing with scientific and social uncertainty appear as well. (author)

  5. 太湖水华危机应急预案在线风险补偿启动策略%Online Risk-reward Starting Strategy of Emergency Preplan Against Water Bloom Crisis in Taihu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余昇; 徐寅峰; 郑斐峰

    2011-01-01

    In coping with crises, when to start an emergency preplan is a problem that calls for solution.Water bloom crisis in Taihu Lake represents a kind of public health emergency whose growth rate or diffusion speed is unexpected.Based on online theory and taking this crisis as the background, the authors present preplan starting strategy and prove it to be optimal competitive strategy.At the same time, taking into account the expectation of further information, we design an online risk-reward starting strategy.At last a practical example is given, which points out the relationship between the competitive ratio of strategy and response intensity of the preplan, and the relationship between the risk-reward and the tolerance of the decision maker.The results of the study have guiding significance and reference value to decision makers facing these crucial emergencies.%应急预案启动时机的选择是应急管理领域中应对危机时需要解决的关键问题.太湖水华危机代表一类具有生长速度或传播速度不确定性的突发公共卫生事件,以此为背景基于在线方法,设计了应急预案启动策略,并证明是最优竞争比策略.同时,考虑到对未知信息的预期,设计了在线风险补偿启动策略.最后对危机进行实际数值计算,并指出策略的竞争性与预案应对强度之间的关系,还有在线风险补偿策略的补偿收益与决策者风险容忍度之间的关系,研究结果具有一定的实际指导意义和参考价值.

  6. Random reward priming is task-contingent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2014-01-01

    Consistent financial reward of particular features influences the allocation of visual attention in many ways. More surprising are 1-trial reward priming effects on attention where reward schedules are random and reward on one trial influences attentional allocation on the next. Those findings...... for a Gabor patch of odd spatial frequency we found no evidence of reward priming, while we only partially replicate the reward priming in the exact original paradigm tested by Hickey and colleagues. The results cast doubt on the proposal that random reward enhances salience, suggested in the original papers......, and highlight the need for a more nuanced account. In many other paradigms reward effects have been found to progress gradually, becoming stronger as they build up, and we argue that for robust reward priming, reward schedules need to be more consistent than in the original 1-trial reward priming paradigm....

  7. Random reward priming is task-contingent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2014-01-01

    Consistent financial reward of particular features influences the allocation of visual attention in many ways. More surprising are 1-trial reward priming effects on attention where reward schedules are random and reward on one trial influences attentional allocation on the next. Those findings...... for a Gabor patch of odd spatial frequency we found no evidence of reward priming, while we only partially replicate the reward priming in the exact original paradigm tested by Hickey and colleagues. The results cast doubt on the proposal that random reward enhances salience, suggested in the original papers......, and highlight the need for a more nuanced account. In many other paradigms reward effects have been found to progress gradually, becoming stronger as they build up, and we argue that for robust reward priming, reward schedules need to be more consistent than in the original 1-trial reward priming paradigm....

  8. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste.......In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...

  9. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  10. Application of AHP for the development of waste management systems that minimize infection risks in developing countries: Case studies Lesotho and South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the establishment of waste management systems that minimize infection risks in the context of sustainable development in the developing country situations. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a known multi-criteria decision...

  11. Risks of nuclear waste disposal in space. III - Long-term orbital evolution of small particle distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Wells, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    A study of long term risks is presented that treats an additional pathway that could result in earth reentry, namely, small radioactive particles released in solar orbit due to payload fragmentation by accidental explosion or meteoroid impact. A characterization of such an event and of the initial mass size distribution of particles is given for two extremes of waste form strength. Attention is given to numerical results showing the mass-time distribution of material and the fraction of initial mass intercepted by earth. It is concluded that it appears that program planners need not be to concerned about the risks of this particular failure mechanism and return pathway.

  12. Employee Reward Systems in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došenović Dragana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Employee rewarding is one of the activities of human resource management concerning the management of money, goods and services that employees receive from their employer in exchange for their work. Given that a properly designed reward system is one of the conditions for a stable business, successful performance of work activities and the achievement of set objectives in each organization, the basic theme of this paper is the employee reward system, with a special focus on different elements of it. The purpose of this paper is to describe the role and significance of the observed system and to draw attention to its role in employee’s motivation.

  13. Relationship between e-waste recycling and human health risk in India: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    Informal recycling of waste (including e-waste) is an emerging source of environmental pollution in India. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and heavy metals, among other substances, are a major health concern for workers engaged in waste disposal and processing, and for residents living near these facilities, and are also a detriment to the natural environment. The main objective of this review article was to evaluate the status of these impacts. The review found that, huge quantity of e-waste/waste generated, only a small amount is treated formally; the remainder is processed through the informal sector. We also evaluated the exposure pathways, both direct and indirect, and the human body load markers (e.g., serum, blood, breast milk, urine, and hair), and assessed the evidence for the association between these markers and e-waste exposure. Our results indicated that the open dumping and informal e-waste recycling systems should be replaced by the best available technology and environmental practices, with proper monitoring and regular awareness programs for workers and residents. Further and more detailed investigation in this area is also recommended.

  14. The Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Among Municipal Solid Waste Workers: Necessity for Immunization of At-Risk Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari-Moghaddam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV is likely to be more prevalent in certain populations and occupational groups, such as municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs. Objectives The current study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HBV and its risk factors among MSWWs compared to other municipal employees not exposed to waste. Patients and Methods The current cross-sectional study included 654 municipal employees in Zahedan (south-eastern Iran. A sample of blood was taken from each participant and tested for HBsAg through the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Demographic and other data on high risk behaviors were also collected through in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and multiple regression analysis by STATA. Results The overall prevalence of HBV among municipal employees was 3.06% (95% CI: 1.70 - 4.30; however, it varied among the different employee subgroups as follows: 6.20% (95% CI: 2.70 - 9.70 in MSWWs, 3.3% (95% CI: 0.08 - 5.80 in drivers and 1% among staff who were not exposed to waste. Multiple regression analysis showed that exposure to waste [OR = 9.36; 95% CI = 2.01 - 43.7], lack of vaccination against HBV [OR = 3.83; 95% CI = 1.86 - 25.2], jaundice [OR = 6.91; 95% CI = 1.51 - 31.5], history of endoscopy [OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.08 - 7.62], and high risk behaviors [OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.96 - 27.2] were independently associated with HBV. Conclusions Greater encouragement for immunization against HBV as well as better education on HBV transmission routes and work safety precautions should be implemented to reduce the prevalence of HBV in MSWWs.

  15. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered.

  16. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level waste (LLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLW. Included are definition of the LLW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of WM LLW, an overview of the risk assessment method, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLW alternative considered.

  17. Experiences from risk communication in the siting of a geological repository for high level waste in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thegerstroem, C.; Engstroem, S. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    SKB is planning in the year 2001 to designate two siting alternatives for further site characterisation. The work in the municipalities of Oesthammar, Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp is taking place in an atmosphere of constructive discussions. There is a growing feeling in Sweden among broad categories of the public that the nuclear waste exists and should be taken care of by our generation, without many of these people ever getting positive to the use of nuclear energy. While the NIMBY syndrome might still have a good grip on some, there has never been a more constructive debate about the nuclear waste than now, even though there still is a lot of work to do. Siting a geological repository for high level waste puts our democratic system under hard tests. The decision making process is about openness, skills in interacting with the public, respect of people's fears and concerns and at last but not the least independent, competent and visible participation by other stakeholders (politicians locally and nationally, regulatory bodies etc). Good skills in risk communication are important ingredients that might facilitate SKB's task as a developer. Far more important however, is the trust we might get from past and present record of handling the waste and from the way we work and behave in the feasibility studies in the municipalities where SKB is involved.

  18. Risk assessment modelling of fecal shedding caused by extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli transmitted through waste milk fed to dairy pre-weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosile, Babafela B; Smith, Ben A

    2017-10-04

    Waste milk feeding is a common practice in dairy operations. Regardless of the benefits of this practice to the dairy farmers, concerns from the potential dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria through the gut and subsequent shedding by calves into the environment are increasing. In this study, we employed Monte Carlo simulation to assess the risk of shedding extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (ESC-R E. coli) caused by waste milk feeding in pre-weaned calves using an exponential dose-response model fit to data for E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. Data from pertinent studies were included in our model to predict the risk of shedding. The median (5th and 95th percentiles) for the daily risk of shedding ESC-R E. coli by calves fed only contaminated waste milk was predicted to be 2.9 × 10(-3) (2.1 × 10(-3), 3.7 × 10(-3)), representing a median daily risk of 29 out of 10,000 calves shedding ESC-R E. coli due to exclusive feeding of waste milk containing ESC-R E. coli. This median value was reduced by 94% when accounting for the proportion of waste milk that does not contain ESC-R E. coli. The overall risk of shedding ESC-R E. coli through the pre-weaning period for farms that feed waste milk to calves was 5.7 × 10(-3) (2.4 × 10(-3), 1.1 × 10(-2)), representing 57 out of 10,000 calves. When accounting for the proportion of farms that do not feed waste milk, the pre-weaning period risk was reduced by 23%. By varying the prevalence of ESC-R E. coli in waste milk using values of 3, 1.5, and 1%, the daily risk of shedding decreased by factors of 50, 65, and 82%, respectively, which supports the reduction of contamination or discontinuation of feeding waste milk containing ESC-R E. coli as major mitigation measures to reduce the risk of shedding caused by ingestion of resistant bacteria. It is anticipated that the effects of antimicrobial residues in waste milk, which was not considered herein due to lack of data, would further increase

  19. Environmental risk assessment of CRT and PCB workshops in a mobile e-waste recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingbin; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Duan, Huabo; Yuan, Wenyi

    2015-08-01

    The mobile e-waste recycling equipment was chosen as the object of this study, including manual dismantling, mechanical separation of cathode ray tubes (CRTs), and printed circuit boards (PCBs) in the two independent workshops. To determine the potential environmental contamination, the noise, the heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb), and the environmental impacts of the e-waste recycling processes in the two workshops of the mobile plant have been evaluated in this paper. This study determined that when control measures are employed, the noise within the two workshops (e-waste recycling process as a whole.

  20. Heavy metals distribution and risk assessment in soil from an informal E-waste recycling site in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isimekhai, Khadijah A; Garelick, Hemda; Watt, John; Purchase, Diane

    2017-07-01

    Informal E-waste recycling can pose a risk to human health and the environment which this study endeavours to evaluate. The distribution of a number of heavy metals in soil from an informal recycling site in the largest market for used and new electronics and electrical equipment in West Africa was investigated. The potential bioavailability of heavy metals, extent of contamination, potential risk due to the recycling activities and impact of external factors such as rainfall were also assessed. The concentrations of all the heavy metals tested were higher in the area where burning of the waste occurred than at the control site, suggesting an impact of the recycling activities on the soil. The order of total metal concentrations was Cu > Pb > Zn > Mn > Ni > Sb > Cr > Cd for both the dry and wet seasons. The total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were all significantly higher (p soil guideline values. Using a sequential extraction method, the potential bioavailability of the heavy metals was indicated as Cd > Sb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. When the risk was assessed using the Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI), Cu was found to contribute the most to the potential ecological risk and Cd gave rise to the greatest concern due to its high toxic-response factor within the study site. Similarly, utilising the Risk Assessment Code (RAC) suggested that Cd posed the most risk in this site. This research establishes a high level of contamination in the study site and underscores the importance of applying the appropriate chemical speciation in risk assessment.

  1. Model Checking Multivariate State Rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    We consider continuous stochastic logics with state rewards that are interpreted over continuous time Markov chains. We show how results from multivariate phase type distributions can be used to obtain higher-order moments for multivariate state rewards (including covariance). We also generalise ...... the treatment of eventuality to unbounded path formulae. For all extensions we show how to obtain closed form definitions that are straightforward to implement and we illustrate our development on a small example.......We consider continuous stochastic logics with state rewards that are interpreted over continuous time Markov chains. We show how results from multivariate phase type distributions can be used to obtain higher-order moments for multivariate state rewards (including covariance). We also generalise...

  2. Dysfunctional Reward Processing in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admon, Roee; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia - diminished pleasure and/or decreased reactivity to pleasurable stimuli - is a core feature of depression that frequently persists after treatment. As a result, extensive effort has been directed towards characterizing the psychological and biological processes that mediate dysfunctional reward processing in depression. Reward processing can be parsed into sub-components that include motivation, reinforcement learning, and hedonic capacity, which, according to preclinical and neuroimaging evidence, involve partially dissociable brain systems. In line with this, recent findings indicate that behavioral impairments and neural abnormalities in depression vary across distinct reward-related constructs. Ultimately, improved understanding of precise reward-related dysfunctions in depression promises to improve diagnostic and therapeutic efforts in depression. PMID:26258159

  3. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Our wellbeing depends as much on our personal success, as it does on the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation a very much needed trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remain elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly reach social dynamics that explains why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding that is due to over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utiliz...

  4. Developing a Comprehensive Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, James C.

    1979-01-01

    Providing incentives for teachers of adults is an important means of attracting, retaining, and stimulating staff. Developing a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards and incentives and instituting them effectively are important administrative functions. (SK)

  5. Developing a Comprehensive Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, James C.

    1979-01-01

    Providing incentives for teachers of adults is an important means of attracting, retaining, and stimulating staff. Developing a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards and incentives and instituting them effectively are important administrative functions. (SK)

  6. Risk-informed criticality analysis as applied to waste packages subject to a subsurface igneous intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Darby Suzan

    Practitioners of many branches of nuclear facility safety use probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology, which evaluates the reliability of a system along with the consequences of various failure states. One important exception is nuclear criticality safety, which traditionally produces binary results (critical or subcritical, based upon value of the effective multiplication factor, keff). For complex systems, criticality safety can benefit from application of the more flexible PRA techniques. A new risk-based technique in criticality safety analysis is detailed. In addition to identifying the most reactive configuration(s) and determining subcriticality, it yields more information about the relative reactivity contributions of various factors. By analyzing a more complete system, confidence that the system will remain subcritical is increased and areas where additional safety features would be most effective are indicated. The first step in the method is to create a criticality event tree (a specialized form of event tree where multiple outcomes stemming from a single event are acceptable). The tree lists events that impact reactivity by changing a system parameter. Next, the value of keff is calculated for the end states using traditional methods like the MCNP code. As calculations progress, the criticality event tree is modified; event branches demonstrated to have little effect on reactivity may be collapsed (thus reducing the total number of criticality runs), and branches may be added if more information is needed to characterize the system. When the criticality event tree is mature, critical limits are determined according to traditional validation techniques. Finally, results are evaluated. Criticality for the system is determined by comparing the value of k eff for each end state to the critical limit derived for those cases. The relative contributions of various events to criticality are identified by comparing end states resulting from different

  7. Developmental effects of reward on sustained attention networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna B; Halari, Rozmin; Giampetro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael; Rubia, Katya

    2011-06-01

    Adolescence is typified by significant maturation in higher-level attention functions coupled with less developed control over motivation, and enhanced sensitivity to novelty and reward. This study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in seventy male and female participants aged between 10 and 43 years to identify age-related linear changes in cognitive sustained attention systems and the impact of reward on these systems, using a sustained attention task with and without a rewarded condition. For the non-rewarded sustained attention contrast, increasing age was associated with activation increases in typical regions of sustained attention including right inferior frontal, superior temporo-parietal and cerebellar cortices. Age-related activation decreases were observed within more posterior regions including posterior cingulate, insula and posterior cerebellar cortices, presumably mediating visual-spatial saliency detection. The effect of reward on sustained attention networks was associated with increased activation with age in regions associated with both executive attention control and reward processing, including dorsolateral, inferior and ventromedial prefrontal cortices (PFC), striatum, and temporo-parietal regions, suggestive of greater integration and executive control of motivation and cognition with maturity. Activation in paralimbic posterior cingulate and inferior temporal brain regions of visual-spatial saliency processing was progressively reduced in activation with increasing development. Thus, with increasing development between adolescence and adulthood, reward appears to enhance maturing cognitive sustained attention and executive reward-processing networks, whilst reducing paralimbic regions of saliency detection. These findings may be the neural underpinnings for the progressive maturation of motivational control over risk taking behaviours between adolescence and adulthood.

  8. Levels and ecological risk assessment of metals in soils from a typical e-waste recycling region in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weituo; Ding, Lei; Gu, Xiaowen; Luo, Jie; Liu, Yunlang; Guo, Li; Shi, Yi; Huang, Ting; Cheng, Shenggao

    2015-11-01

    Due to the high threat to human health and the ecosystem from metals, the levels and distribution of As, Hg, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, V, Sn, Sb, Li and Be in various layers of soil from an e-waste recycling area in Guiyu, China were investigated. The extent of pollution from the metals in soil was assessed using enrichment factors (EFs) and the Nemerow pollution index (P N ). To determine the metals' integrated potential ecological risks, the potential ecological risk index (RI) was chosen. The concentrations of Hg, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb were mainly enriched in the topsoil. EF values (2-5) of the elements Hg, Co, Ni, Zn, Sn, Li and Be revealed their moderate enrichment status in the topsoil, derived from e-waste recycling activities. P N presented a decreasing trend in different layers in the order topsoil (0-20 cm) > deep soil (100-150 cm) > middle soil (50-100 cm) > shallow soil (20-50 cm). With higher potential ecological risk factor (E(i)), Hg and Cd are the main contributors to the potential ecological risk. With respect to the RI, all the values in soil from the study area exceeded 300, especially for the soil at sites S2, S4, S5, S7 and S8, where RI was greater than 600. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil is necessary to prevent the release of metals and potential ecological harm.

  9. The analysis of environmental risk for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste vitrification facility of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dae Seok; Lee, Kun Jai [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chun Hyung; Lee, Kyung Ho; Maeng, Sung Jun; Lee, Myung Chan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    A vitrification facility for thetreatment of radioactive waste is under development by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). The facility is designed to vitrify low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste (LILW) generated from the nuclear power plants in Korea. During the operation of the facility, radioactive nuclides and hazardous chemicals are to be released to the environment and residents near the facility can be exposed to those materials. A computer code, VERAS(vitrification Facility's Environmental Risk Assessment System) was developed, based on GENII (B. A. Napier, et al. 1988) to calculate both radioactive and non-radioactive chemical risks from the operation of the vitrification facility. Only atmospheric release was taken into consideration in the code where Gaussian plume model was applied. For the dose calculation, methodologies of ICRP 26 and 30 was used whereas risks caused by chemical elements are calculated in terms of cancer risk increase. Safety assessment was made on a sample case of the postulated vitrification plant using the VERAS. The results showed that the vitrification system was environmentally safe. (author). 6 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Health risks for the population living in the vicinity of an Integrated Waste Management Facility: Screening environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, José L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Figueras, María J. [Microbiology Unit, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    We performed a screening investigation to assess the human health risks of the Integrated Waste Management Facility (IWMF: mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plant plus municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI); Ecoparc-3) of Barcelona (Spain). Air concentrations of pollutants potentially released by the MBT plant (VOCs and bioaerosols) and the MSWI (trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs) were determined. Trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were also analyzed in soil samples. The concentrations of trace elements and bioaerosols were similar to those previously reported in other areas of similar characteristics, while formaldehyde was the predominant VOC. Interestingly, PCDD/F concentrations in soil and air were the highest ever reported near a MSWI in Catalonia, being maximum concentrations 10.8 ng WHO-TEQ/kg and 41.3 fg WHO-TEQ/m{sup 3}, respectively. In addition, there has not been any reduction in soils, even after the closure of a power plant located adjacently. Human health risks of PCDD/F exposure in the closest urban nucleus located downwind the MSWI are up to 10-times higher than those nearby other MSWIs in Catalonia. Although results must be considered as very preliminary, they are a serious warning for local authorities. We strongly recommend to conduct additional studies to confirm these findings and, if necessary, to implement measures to urgently mitigate the impact of the MSWI on the surrounding environment. We must also state the tremendous importance of an individual evaluation of MSWIs, rather than generalizing their environmental and health risks. - Highlights: • Health risks of an Integrated Waste Management Facility in Catalonia are assessed. • PCDD/F exposure near this facility is up to 10-times higher than that near others. • Environmental monitoring of incineration plants should be performed case-by-case. • Since results are very preliminary, confirmatory studies should be conducted.

  11. Industrial release of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in the waste water bodies with their associated ecological risk in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Luqman; Mahmood, Tariq; Kamal, Atif; Shafqat, Mateen; Rashid, Audil

    2017-06-01

    The unchecked production and use of fluoroquinolones (FQs) for the treatment of infections in human and livestock has increased in Pakistan, which resulted in large amount of antibiotics in water bodies. In the current study, the prevalence and associated ecological risk of three FQs were investigated in waste-water bodies and sludge samples of Kahuta and Hattar industrial zones. The average concentrations of ciprofloxacin (CIP), enrofloxacin (ENR) and levofloxacin (LEV) in the waste-water samples were slightly higher in Kahuta (i.e. 58, 32.9, and 36.7μgL(-1) respectively), than those in Hattar sites (i.e. 42.1, 41.2, and 48.9μgL(-1) respectively). However, the concentrations of CIP, ENR and LEV in the sludge samples were significantly higher (i.e. 159; 153 and 164μgkg(-1) respectively) in Hattar sites, compared to those in Kahuta sites (i.e. 129, 58 and 91μgkg(-1) respectively). The uses of FQs in the health sector resulted in water pollution and poses the ecological risk to aquatic organisms. The individual risk associated with CIP was highest in Kahuta industrial sites for green algae ranging (2900-9100) followed by M. aeruginosa (5800-18200), cyanobacteria (580-18204) and invertebrates (24.2-75.8). These values suggested that the prevalence of antibiotics in the waste-disposal sites could be potential risk for the aquatic ecosystem, and harmful to biodiversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women...... regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary......'s vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo...

  13. Adolescents Prefer More Immediate Rewards when in the Presence of Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Lia; Albert, Dustin; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents take more risks in the presence of their peers, but the mechanism through which peer presence affects risky decision-making is unknown. We propose that the presence of peers increases the salience of the immediate rewards of a risky choice. The current study examined the effect of peer presence on reward sensitivity in a sample of 100…

  14. Longitudinal Changes in Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Brain Structures Involved in Reward Processing during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosevic, Snezana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin; Luciana, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of radical normative changes and increased risk for substance use, mood disorders, and physical injury. Researchers have proposed that increases in reward sensitivity (i.e., sensitivity of the behavioral approach system [BAS]) and/or increases in reactivity to all emotional stimuli (i.e., reward and threat sensitivities)…

  15. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of transuranic waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of transuranic waste (TRUW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but is necessary to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) contact- and remote-handed (CH and RH) TRUW. Included are definitions of the TRUW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of CH and RH TRUW, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM TRUW case considered.

  16. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  17. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  18. Risk assessment for human health and terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution near regional radioactive waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyeva, G. V.; Katkova, M. N.; Shoshina, R. R.; Synzynys, B. I.

    2017-01-01

    An impact of the radioactive waste storage facility at the regional population was assessed under supervision of IAEA. It was made in accordance with the methodology for assessment of doses and risks to human storage using different scenarios of radionuclides releases into the environment. The following scenarios were considered: leakage of fluid, resuspension of dust, fire, flooding. Thy evaluation of radiation doses received and the risks to the human showed that the risk has been acceptable for all scenarios. An approach for an ecological risk assessment for terrestrial ecosystem is presented as five modules: selection of the ecosystem-receptor of radiation effects; determination of reference species of living organisms and their survival indices; the critical load as an absorbed dose rate is calculated from the dependence between the absorbed Sr-90 radiation dose rate and the coefficient of radioactive strontium accumulation in mollusc shells; the critical dose; risk is assessed from a part of the ecosystem territory with increased mollusc loading; uncertainties appeared at each stage of risk assessment are characterized. The risk of exposure to the repository on the ecosystem should be characterized as unacceptable.

  19. Orbitofrontal reward sensitivity and impulsivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbertz, Gregor; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Delgado, Mauricio R; Maier, Simon; Feige, Bernd; Philipsen, Alexandra; Blechert, Jens

    2012-03-01

    Impulsivity symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as increased risk taking have been linked with impaired reward processing. Previous studies have focused on reward anticipation or on rewarded executive functioning tasks and have described a striatal hyporesponsiveness and orbitofrontal alterations in adult and adolescent ADHD. Passive reward delivery and its link to behavioral impulsivity are less well understood. To study this crucial aspect of reward processing we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) combined with electrodermal assessment in male and female adult ADHD patients (N=28) and matched healthy control participants (N=28) during delivery of monetary and non-monetary rewards. Further, two behavioral tasks assessed risky decision making (game of dice task) and delay discounting. Results indicated that both groups activated ventral and dorsal striatum and the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) in response to high-incentive (i.e. monetary) rewards. A similar, albeit less strong activation pattern was found for low-incentive (i.e. non-monetary) rewards. Group differences emerged when comparing high and low incentive rewards directly: activation in the mOFC coded for the motivational change in reward delivery in healthy controls, but not ADHD patients. Additionally, this dysfunctional mOFC activity in patients correlated with risky decision making and delay discounting and was paralleled by physiological arousal. Together, these results suggest that the mOFC codes reward value and type in healthy individuals whereas this function is deficient in ADHD. The brain-behavior correlations suggest that this deficit might be related to behavioral impulsivity. Reward value processing difficulties in ADHD should be considered when assessing reward anticipation and emotional learning in research and applied settings.

  20. Risk of cancer in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators: importance of using a flexible modelling strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goria Sarah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted an ecological study in four French administrative departments and highlighted an excess risk in cancer morbidity for residents around municipal solid waste incinerators. The aim of this paper is to show how important are advanced tools and statistical techniques to better assess weak associations between the risk of cancer and past environmental exposures. Methods The steps to evaluate the association between the risk of cancer and the exposure to incinerators, from the assessment of exposure to the definition of the confounding variables and the statistical analysis carried out are detailed and discussed. Dispersion modelling was used to assess exposure to sixteen incinerators. A geographical information system was developed to define an index of exposure at the IRIS level that is the geographical unit we considered. Population density, rural/urban status, socio-economic deprivation, exposure to air pollution from traffic and from other industries were considered as potential confounding factors and defined at the IRIS level. Generalized additive models and Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate the association between the risk of cancer and the index of exposure to incinerators accounting for the confounding factors. Results Modelling to assess the exposure to municipal solid waste incinerators allowed accounting for factors known to influence the exposure (meteorological data, point source characteristics, topography. The statistical models defined allowed modelling extra-Poisson variability and also non-linear relationships between the risk of cancer and the exposure to incinerators and the confounders. Conclusion In most epidemiological studies distance is still used as a proxy for exposure. This can lead to significant exposure misclassification. Additionally, in geographical correlation studies the non-linear relationships are usually not accounted for in the statistical analysis. In studies of

  1. Berm design to reduce risks of catastrophic slope failures at solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Matteo; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Clemmer, Ryan; Jahanfar, M Ali

    2016-11-01

    Existing waste disposal sites are being strained by exceeding their volumetric capacities because of exponentially increasing rates of municipal solid waste generation worldwide, especially in densely populated metropolises. Over the past 40 years, six well-documented and analyzed disposal sites experienced catastrophic failure. This research presents a novel analysis and design method for implementation of a series of in-situ earth berms to slow down the movement of waste material flow following a catastrophic failure. This is the first study of its kind that employs a dynamic landslide analysis model, DAN-W, and the Voellmy rheological model to approximate solid waste avalanche flow. A variety of single and multiple berm configuration scenarios were developed and tested to find an optimum configuration of the various earth berm geometries and number of berms to achieve desired energy dissipation and reduction in total waste material runout length. The case study application of the novel mitigation measure shows that by constructing a series of six relatively inexpensive 3 m high earth berms at an optimum distance of 250 m from the slope toe, the total runout length of 1000 m and associated fatalities of the Leuwigajah dumpsite catastrophic failure in Bandung, Indonesia, could have been reduced by half. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. [Pollution Characteristics and Ecological Risk of PBDEs in Water and Sediment from an Electronic Waste Dismantling Area in Taizhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-ping; Peng, Bao-qi; Lü, Su-ping; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Chang-jiang; Dong, Qiao-xiang

    2016-05-15

    An e-waste dismantling industrial park of Taizhou was selected as the sampling center, within a radius of 16 km, and a total of 30 sampling sites were designed in three circles as follows: C (3 km), S (5-10 km) and R (10-16 km). Pollution characteristics and ecological risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water and sediments were investigated. The concentrations of PBDEs in water ranged from 9.4 to 57.2 ng · L⁻¹, with a mean value of 25.9 ng · L⁻¹; and 3.7 to 38,775 ng · g⁻¹, with an average of 2 779 ng · g⁻¹ in sediments. BDE-209 was the predominant congener. The spatial distribution patterns of PBDE levels in water and sediment were both in the following order: C > S > R. Furthermore, the concentrations of PBDEs in sediments showed significant negative correlation against the distance from the industrial park (P waste dismantling activity was one of the significant sources for PBDEs pollution. It was estimated that a total of 30. 7 t PBDEs (including 28. 9 t BDE- 209) was discharged into surrounding environment as a result of dismantling industrial activities in last 40 years. A preliminary ecological risk assessment for PBDEs in water and sediments was conducted by hazard quotient method. The results demonstrated that the Penta-BDEs in the center of e-waste dismantling area ( a radius of 1.5 km) was at particularly high risk level and could cause serious influence on the ecological safety and human health.

  3. Risks in the physical recovery system of waste refrigerator cabinets and the controlling measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jujun; Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-12-18

    Environmental information in physical recovery system of waste refrigerator cabinets was provided in this paper. The system included closed shearing, activated carbon adsorption (ACA), air current separation, magnetic separation, and eddy current separation. Exposures of CFC-11, heavy metals, and noise emitted from the system were assessed. Abundant CFC-11 (>510 mg/m³) was detected in crusher cavity. However, due to the employment of ACA, little CFC-11 (refrigerator cabinets on environmental protection. Meanwhile, it contributed to the knowledge of environmental information of physical technology for recovering e-waste.

  4. Where to find a trustworthy source of information? four years of risk communication about a nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findahl, O. [Dept. of Media and Communication, Umea University, Umea (Sweden)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: in September 1997 there was a referendum, in a small local district in the north of Sweden, on the disposal of the swedish high intensive nuclear waste. A small majority of the 2500 voters stopped the examination of the conditions for a storage. Four years earlier the opinionagainst a local storage of nuclear waste had been much stronger but during the years that followed more people came to think that an examination of the conditions for a storage was OK; that will create new jobs, and what will come later we will see. The closer to the referendum the stronger this positive opinion became. They did not have any information problems. There were experts and information sources they could believe in. But the majority was still negative and they were dissatisfied. They could not find any trustworthy information. And though they in the end had prevented the localization of the nuclear waste storage to their commune they still felt that the decision had been taken high above their heads. Why is it like that? And what happened during these four years of experimentation in democratic risk communication? (author)

  5. Reward Processing in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet K.; Chang, Kiki D.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Cui, Xu; Sherdell, Lindsey; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition that commonly begins in adolescence, a developmental period that has been associated with increased reward seeking. Because youth with BD are especially vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors, understanding the neural mechanisms by which dysregulated affect interacts…

  6. Site specific risk assessment of an energy-from-waste/thermal treatment facility in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. Part B: Ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollson, Christopher A; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Knopper, Loren D; Dan, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The regions of Durham and York in Ontario, Canada have partnered to construct an energy-from-waste (EFW) thermal treatment facility as part of a long term strategy for the management of their municipal solid waste. In this paper we present the results of a comprehensive ecological risk assessment (ERA) for this planned facility, based on baseline sampling and site specific modeling to predict facility-related emissions, which was subsequently accepted by regulatory authorities. Emissions were estimated for both the approved initial operating design capacity of the facility (140,000 tonnes per year) and the maximum design capacity (400,000 tonnes per year). In general, calculated ecological hazard quotients (EHQs) and screening ratios (SRs) for receptors did not exceed the benchmark value (1.0). The only exceedances noted were generally due to existing baseline media concentrations, which did not differ from those expected for similar unimpacted sites in Ontario. This suggests that these exceedances reflect conservative assumptions applied in the risk assessment rather than actual potential risk. However, under predicted upset conditions at 400,000 tonnes per year (i.e., facility start-up, shutdown, and loss of air pollution control), a potential unacceptable risk was estimated for freshwater receptors with respect to benzo(g,h,i)perylene (SR=1.1), which could not be attributed to baseline conditions. Although this slight exceedance reflects a conservative worst-case scenario (upset conditions coinciding with worst-case meteorological conditions), further investigation of potential ecological risk should be performed if this facility is expanded to the maximum operating capacity in the future.

  7. Heightened activity in social reward networks is associated with adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Eckstrand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N = 47; 18M, 29F; 16.3 ± 1.4 years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. Neural response and functional connectivity to social reward were compared for adolescents with higher- and lower-risk sexual behavior. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus and the right temporoparietal junction during receipt of social reward. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors also demonstrated greater functional connectivity between the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and left anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The greater activation and functional connectivity in self-referential, social reward, and affective processing regions among higher sexual risk adolescents underscores the importance of social influence underlying sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, results suggest an orientation towards and sensitivity to social rewards among youth engaging in higher-risk sexual behavior, perhaps as a consequence of or vulnerability to such behavior.

  8. Health risk assessment of lead for children in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xin Cheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Miller, Greg [Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Ding, Gangqiang; Lou, Xiaoming; Cai, Delei; Chen, Zhijian; Meng, Jia; Tang, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xin Cheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Chu, Cordia [Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Mo, Zhe; Han, Jianlong [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xin Cheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310051 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Tinfoil manufacturing and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling remain rudimentary processes in Zhejing Province, China, which could account for elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) and health impacts on children. We assessed the potential health risks of lead in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas. 329 children in total aged 11-12 who lived in a tinfoil manufacturing area (Lanxi), an e-waste recycling area (Luqiao) and a reference area (Chun'an) were studied. Lead levels in children's blood were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, serum calcium, {delta}-Aminolaevulinic acid ({delta}-ALA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) were also measured. Geometric mean of BLLs in Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an were 8.11 {mu}g/dL, 6.97 {mu}g/dL, and 2.78 {mu}g/dL respectively, with 35.1%, 38.9% and 0% of children who had BLLs above 10 {mu}g/dL. The BLLs in exposed areas were much higher than those in the control area. Lanxi children had higher creatinine and calcium than Chun'an children, and Luqiao children had higher {delta}-ALA and lower calcium than Chun'an children. No significant differences of IQ were observed between Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an, however a negative relationship between BLLs and IQ was shown for the study children. The results indicated that lead pollution from e-waste recycling and tinfoil processing appears to be a potential serious threat to children's health. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No report on tinfoil processing impact on children's health before. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies reported health impacts of lead from e-waste processing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with blood lead levels < 10 {mu}g/dL are associated with a decrease in IQ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold appears to exist at blood lead level of about 20 {mu}g/dL for urinary {delta}-ALA.

  9. Reward and learning in the goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, G; Bitterman, M E

    1967-07-28

    An experiment with goldfish showed the effects of change in amount of reward that are predicted from reinforcement theory. The performance of animals shifted from small to large reward improved gradually to the level of unshifted large-reward controls, while the performance of animals shifted from large to small reward remained at the large-reward level. The difference between these results and those obtained in analogous experiments with the rat suggests that reward functions differently in the instrumental learning of the two animals.

  10. Arenas for risk governance in nuclear waste management - The European Union ARGONA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Josefin P.; Wetzel, Carina (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden)); Andersson, Kjell; Lidberg, Maria (Karita Research AB, Box 6048, SE-187 06 Taeby (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    There is a large knowledge base about governance issues but how to implement the new processes of transparency and participation is not self-evident. In other words there is a common demand for bridging the gap between research and implementation for the governance of nuclear waste management. There are legal, organizational, historical and cultural factors that set conditions which have to be understood for effective implementation. We must also understand how deliberative methods and the transparency approach relate to each other, and to formal decision-making in representative democracy. Therefore, the ARGONA project intends to demonstrate how participation and transparency link to the political and legal systems and how new approaches can be implemented in nuclear waste management programmes. For this purpose, the project includes: Studies of the context within which processes of participation and transparency take place, in order to understand how the processes can be used in the waste management programs. Studies of theory - in order to build participation and transparency on a firm ground; Case studies - to understand how different processes work; Implementation - to make a difference, learn and demonstrate. The project now approaches its finalization and it is foreseen that the reporting, in addition to 25 deliverables to the European Commission, will include a full final report, a summary final report and recommendations with proposed guidelines that can be considered by national actors of nuclear waste programmes as well as the European Commission

  11. Arenas for risk governance in nuclear waste management - The European Union ARGONA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Josefin P.; Wetzel, Carina (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden)); Andersson, Kjell; Lidberg, Maria (Karita Research AB, Box 6048, SE-187 06 Taeby (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    There is a large knowledge base about governance issues but how to implement the new processes of transparency and participation is not self-evident. In other words there is a common demand for bridging the gap between research and implementation for the governance of nuclear waste management. There are legal, organizational, historical and cultural factors that set conditions which have to be understood for effective implementation. We must also understand how deliberative methods and the transparency approach relate to each other, and to formal decision-making in representative democracy. Therefore, the ARGONA project intends to demonstrate how participation and transparency link to the political and legal systems and how new approaches can be implemented in nuclear waste management programmes. For this purpose, the project includes: Studies of the context within which processes of participation and transparency take place, in order to understand how the processes can be used in the waste management programs. Studies of theory - in order to build participation and transparency on a firm ground; Case studies - to understand how different processes work; Implementation - to make a difference, learn and demonstrate. The project now approaches its finalization and it is foreseen that the reporting, in addition to 25 deliverables to the European Commission, will include a full final report, a summary final report and recommendations with proposed guidelines that can be considered by national actors of nuclear waste programmes as well as the European Commission

  12. Introduction: Addiction and Brain Reward and Anti-Reward Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Eliot L.

    2013-01-01

    Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily self-administered by laboratory animals (usually avidly) and that they enhance the functioning of the reward circuitry of the brain (producing the “high” that the drug-user seeks). The core reward circuitry consists of an “in series” circuit linking the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum - via the medial forebrain bundle. Although originally believed to encode simply the set-point of hedonic tone, these circuits are now believed to be functionally far more complex - also encoding attention, expectancy of reward, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. “Hedonic dysregulation” within these circuits may lead to addiction. The “second-stage” dopaminergic component in this reward circuitry is the crucial addictive-drug-sensitive component. All addictive drugs have in common that they enhance (directly or indirectly or even transsynaptically) dopaminergic reward synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens. Drug self-administration is regulated by nucleus accumbens dopamine levels, and is done to keep nucleus accumbens dopamine within a specific elevated range (to maintain a desired hedonic level). For some classes of addictive drugs (e.g., opiates), tolerance to the euphoric effects develops with chronic use. Post-use dysphoria then comes to dominate reward circuit hedonic tone, and addicts no longer use drugs to get “high,” but simply to get back to normal (“get straight”). The brain circuits mediating the pleasurable effects of addictive drugs are anatomically, neurophysiologically, and neurochemically different from those mediating physical dependence, and from those mediating craving and relapse. There are important genetic variations in vulnerability to drug addiction, yet environmental factors such as stress and social defeat also alter brain-reward mechanisms in such a manner as to impart vulnerability to addiction. In short, the

  13. Pollution profiles and health risk assessment of VOCs emitted during e-waste dismantling processes associated with different dismantling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Taicheng; Huang, Yong; Li, Guiying; He, Zhigui; Chen, Jiangyao; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2014-12-01

    Pollution profiles of typical volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during dismantling of various printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) of e-wastes using different methods were comparatively investigated in the real e-waste dismantling workshops in South China in April 2013. Similar pollution profiles and concentrations of VOCs were observed between dismantling mobile phone and hard disk PCBAs by using electric blowers and between dismantling television and power supplier PCBAs using electric heating furnaces. Aromatic hydrocarbons (accounting for >60% of the sum of VOCs) were the dominant group during using electric blowers, while aromatic (accounting for >44% of the sum of VOCs) and halogenated hydrocarbons (accounting for >48% of the sum of VOCs) were the two dominant groups which contributed equally using electric heating furnaces. However, the distribution profiles of VOCs emitted during dismantling of televisions, hard disks and micro motors using rotary incinerators varied greatly, though aromatic hydrocarbons were still the dominant group. The combustion of e-wastes led to the most severe contamination of VOCs, with total VOCs (3.3×10(4) μg m(-3)) using rotary incinerators about 190, 180, 139, and 40 times higher than those using mechanical cutting, electric soldering iron, electric blower, and electric heating furnace, respectively. Both cancer and non-cancer risks existed for workers due to exposure to on-site emitted VOCs in all workshops especially in those using rotary incinerators according to the USEPA methodology, whereas only cancer risks existed in rotary incinerator workshops according to the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists methodology.

  14. Biomedical Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sikovska, Biljana; Dimova, Cena; Sumanov, Gorgi; Vankovski, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Medical waste is all waste material generated at health care facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, dental practices, blood banks, and veterinary hospitals/clinics, as well as medical research facilities and laboratories. Poor management of health care waste potentially exposes health care workers, waste handlers, patients and the community at large to infection, toxic effects and injuries, and risks polluting the environment. It is essential that all medical waste ma...

  15. The role of multimedia, multi-pathway exposure assessments in risk-based regulations at California hazardous wastes sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Butler, E.G.; Wong, J.J. [California Dept., of Toxic Substances Control, Sacrameto, CA (United States). Office of Scientific Affairs

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), within the California Environmental Protection Agency, has the responsibility for managing the State`s hazardous-waste program to protect public health and the environment. The Office of Scientific Affairs (OSA) within the DTSC provides scientific assistance in the areas of toxicology, risk and environmental assessment, training, and guidance to the regional offices within DTSC. Part of this assistance and guidance is the preparation of regulations, scientific standards, guidance documents, and recommended procedures for use by regional staff, local governmental agencies, or responsible parties and their contractors in the characterization and mitigation of hazardous-waste-substances-release sites. CalTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in health-risk assessments that address contaminated soils and the contamination of adjacent air, surface water, sediments, and ground water. The model system includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify and reduce uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure models. This paper lists the objectives of a multimedia, total exposure model; provides an overview of the CalTOX model components; and describes the philosophy under which the model was developed.

  16. Site specific risk assessment of an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. Part A: Human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollson, Christopher A; Knopper, Loren D; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Jayasinghe, Ruwan

    2014-01-01

    The regions of Durham and York in Ontario, Canada have partnered to construct an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility as part of a long term strategy for the management of their municipal solid waste. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive human health risk assessment for this facility. This assessment was based on extensive sampling of baseline environmental conditions (e.g., collection and analysis of air, soil, water, and biota samples) as well as detailed site specific modeling to predict facility-related emissions of 87 identified contaminants of potential concern. Emissions were estimated for both the approved initial operating design capacity of the facility (140,000 tonnes per year) and for the maximum design capacity (400,000 tonnes per year). For the 140,000 tonnes per year scenario, this assessment indicated that facility-related emissions are unlikely to cause adverse health risks to local residents, farmers, or other receptors (e.g., recreational users). For the 400,000 tonnes per year scenarios, slightly elevated risks were noted with respect to inhalation (hydrogen chloride) and infant consumption of breast milk (dioxins and furans), but only during predicted 'upset conditions' (i.e. facility start-up, shutdown, and loss of air pollution control) that represent unusual and/or transient occurrences. However, current provincial regulations require that additional environmental screening would be mandatory prior to expansion of the facility beyond the initial approved capacity (140,000 tonnes per year). Therefore, the potential risks due to upset conditions for the 400,000 tonnes per year scenario should be more closely investigated if future expansion is pursued.

  17. Mercury risk assessment combining internal and external exposure methods for a population living near a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chunyan; Xie, Han; Ye, Xuejie; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Maodian; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2016-12-01

    Risk assessments for human health have been conducted for municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in many western countries, whereas only a few risk assessments have been performed for MSWIs in developing countries such as China where the use of waste incineration is increasing rapidly. To assess the mercury exposure risks of a population living near the largest MSWI in South China, we combined internal exposure and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire. The mercury concentrations in air, soil, and locally collected food around the MSWI were assessed. The total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) of 447 blood samples from a control group, residential exposure group, and MSWI workers were measured. The internal and external exposures of the subject population were analyzed. Significant difference in MeHg concentrations was observed between the control group and the exposed group, between the control group and the MSWI workers, and between the exposed group and the MSWI workers (median levels: 0.70 μg/L, 0.81 μg/L, and 1.02 μg/L for the control group, exposed group, and MSWI workers, respectively). The MeHg/T-Hg ratio was 0.51 ± 0.19, 0.59 ± 0.17 and 0.58 ± 0.25, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that MeHg concentrations were positively correlated with the gaseous mercury in the air. Combining internal and external exposure assessment showed that the direct contribution of MSWI emissions was minor compared with the dietary contribution. The external and internal exposures were well matched with each other. This study also suggested that an integrated method combining internal and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire is feasible to assess the risks for a population living near a MSWI.

  18. The self-absorption correction factors for (210)Pb concentration in mining waste and influence on environmental radiation risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonczyk, Michal; Michalik, Boguslaw; Chmielewska, Izabela

    2017-03-01

    The radioactive lead isotope (210)Pb occurs in waste originating from metal smelting and refining industry, gas and oil extraction and sometimes from underground coal mines, which are deposited in natural environment very often. Radiation risk assessment requires accurate knowledge about the concentration of (210)Pb in such materials. Laboratory measurements seem to be the only reliable method applicable in environmental (210)Pb monitoring. One of the methods is gamma-ray spectrometry, which is a very fast and cost-effective method to determine (210)Pb concentration. On the other hand, the self-attenuation of gamma ray from (210)Pb (46.5 keV) in a sample is significant as it does not depend only on sample density but also on sample chemical composition (sample matrix). This phenomenon is responsible for the under-estimation of the (210)Pb activity concentration level often when gamma spectrometry is applied with no regard to relevant corrections. Finally, the corresponding radiation risk can be also improperly evaluated. Sixty samples of coal mining solid tailings (sediments created from underground mining water) were analysed. Slightly modified and adapted to the existing laboratory condition, a transmission method has been applied for the accurate measurement of (210)Pb concentration . The observed concentrations of (210)Pb range between 42.2 ÷ 11,700 Bq·kg(-1) of dry mass. Experimentally obtained correction factors related to a sample density and elemental composition range between 1.11 and 6.97. Neglecting this factor can cause a significant error or underestimations in radiological risk assessment. The obtained results have been used for environmental radiation risk assessment performed by use of the ERICA tool assuming exposure conditions typical for the final destination of such kind of waste.

  19. Evaluating risks of acquired clinical vulnerability among subjects exposed to E-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Kumar, Sushil

    2011-01-01

    Acquired clinical vulnerability (ACV) results from insults that produce consequential pathophysiological changes and predispose exposed subjects to future disease. ACV comprises a complex biological process that is manifested by exposure to toxicants, generally over the course of many years, and results from subtle changes that occur at the cellular and molecular level. A large proportion of the world's population has already been, or will be, exposed to toxicants emanating from E-waste during the course of their lives. In countries where E-waste recycling is an important economic activity (China, India, among others), the challenge facing researchers is to devise suitable methods for identifying and objectively measuring ACV. Primary prevention can be achieved through legislation/awareness/monitoring and secondary prevention by developing innovative diagnostic tools and corrective measures. Studies in which attempts are made to define the health impact of multiple exposures, as routinely occurs in E-waste recycling, should include measures of as many of the following parameters as possible: (a) characterization of pollutant levels in air/water/soil at the residential or workplace, (b) periodical clinical examination of exposed subjects, (c) assessments of circulating toxicant loads in blood/urine/hair, (d) genomic variation and resultant susceptibility to complex biological responses, (viz, inflammation/dysplasia/immunosuppression/tissue regeneration) that derive from pathway modulation (viz., cytoskeleton/metabolism/cell adhesion/immune system/neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction/cytokine/signaling), (e) routine monitoring of altered gene expression from modulation of hematology or the above-mentioned pathways. E-waste exposure may also serve as a model for the types of multiple exposures that occur in other industrial or environmental exposures. Moreover, the approach used to study and address or alleviate E-waste exposure may also be useful in other

  20. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  1. What Rewards Do Students Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Barbara Ann

    1978-01-01

    In general, students ranked personal kinds of recognition high and teachers ranked tangible sources of recognition high in surveys of the kinds of rewards that motivate students. The students' top two kinds of recognition were ranked as the bottom two by teachers. (Author/IRT)

  2. Should Virtuous Behavior Be Rewarded?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Shengxiang; Wu Ruowei; Fang Hua; Jin Zhen; Wan Xiaoyang; Wang Jie

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally Chinese people place much value in virtue, with a long-held belief that one should never appropriate valuable items lost by others. However, a recent regulation by the government of south China's Guangdong Province has provaked heated debate on whether such virtuaus behavior should be rewarded with money.

  3. The Hidden Costs of Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses ways managers can motivate their employees to work and at the same time to increase their performance. Two theories of motivation--Vroom's theory and Atkinson's theory--focus on the use of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards respectively. A managerial strategy that combines the best of both intrinsic and extrinsic approaches to…

  4. Risks and Rewards of Crowdsourcing Marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Chandler (Jesse); G. Paolacci (Gabriele); P. Mueller

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Crowdsourcing has become an increasingly popular means of flexibly deploying large amounts of human computational power. The present chapter investigates the role of microtask labor marketplaces in managing human and hybrid human machine computing. Labor marketplaces of

  5. Risks and Rewards of Crowdsourcing Marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Chandler (Jesse); G. Paolacci (Gabriele); P. Mueller

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Crowdsourcing has become an increasingly popular means of flexibly deploying large amounts of human computational power. The present chapter investigates the role of microtask labor marketplaces in managing human and hybrid human machine computing. Labor

  6. Risk of Leaching in Soils Amended by Compost and Digestate from Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquis, Ana M.; Cartagena, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    New European directives have proposed the direct application of compost and digestate produced from municipal solid wastes as organic matter sources in agricultural soils. Therefore information about phosphorus leaching from these residues when they are applied to the soil is increasingly important. Leaching experiments were conducted to determine the P mobility in compost and digestate mixtures, supplying equivalent amounts to 100 kg P ha−1 to three different types of soils. The tests were performed in accordance with CEN/TS 14405:2004 analyzing the maximum dissolved reactive P and the kinetic rate in the leachate. P biowaste fractionation indicated that digestate has a higher level of available P than compost has. In contrast, P losses in leaching experiments with soil-compost mixtures were higher than in soil-digestate mixtures. For both wastes, there was no correlation between dissolved reactive P lost and the water soluble P. The interaction between soil and biowaste, the long experimentation time, and the volume of leachate obtained caused the waste's wettability to become an influential parameter in P leaching behavior. The overall conclusion is that kinetic data analysis provides valuable information concerning the sorption mechanism that can be used for predicting the large-scale behavior of soil systems. PMID:25003139

  7. Radiological risk assessment and biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennwald, M S; van Dorp, F

    2009-12-01

    Long-term safety assessments for geological disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland involve the demonstration that the annual radiation dose to humans due to the potential release of radionuclides from the waste repository into the biosphere will not exceed the regulatory limit of 0.1 mSv. Here, we describe the simple but robust approach used by Nagra (Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) to quantify the dose to humans as a result to time-dependent release of radionuclides from the geosphere into the biosphere. The model calculates the concentrations of radionuclides in different terrestrial and aquatic compartments of the surface environment. The fluxes of water and solids within the environment are the drivers for the exchange of radionuclides between these compartments. The calculated radionuclide concentrations in the biosphere are then used to estimate the radiation doses to humans due to various exposure paths (e.g. ingestion of radionuclides via drinking water and food, inhalation of radionuclides, external irradiation from radionuclides in soils). In this paper we also discuss recent new achievements and planned future work.

  8. Effects of Varying Contingency and Directness of Rewards upon Children's Performance under Implicit Reward Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the application of verbal praise as a reward with 84 third and fourth grade children who completed a digit-symbol coding task under contingent versus noncontingent and direct versus implicit reward conditions. Noncontingent rewards possessed no significant reinforcer effect under either reward condition. (SKC)

  9. Defining rewardable innovation in drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Ferner, Robin E; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2012-03-30

    Implementing mechanisms for rewarding those who introduce innovative medicinal products requires a definition of 'rewardable innovation'. Here, we propose a definition of innovation with respect to medicinal products, accompanied by a ranking of the importance of different types of innovativeness, with the aim of providing a basis for rewarding such innovation.

  10. Risk perspective on final disposal of nuclear waste. Individuals, society and communication; Riskperspektiv paa slutfoervaring av kaernavfall. Individ, samhaelle och kommunikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Inga-Britt (ed.)

    2007-09-29

    This report tries to evaluate the importance of the risk perspective in connection with final storage of nuclear waste. The concept 'risk' has different importance for experts and general public, within different research directions and among stakeholders in the nuclear waste issue. The report has been published in order to give an interdisciplinary scientific perspective on the risk concept. The authors have their background in different disciplines: radiation physics, psychology, media- and communications-science. The report treats four different themes: The first theme concerns perspectives on the risk concept and describes various principles for how risks can be handled in the society. The next theme is about comparing various risks. This section shows that risk comparisons can to be done within the framework of a scientific attitude and during certain given conditions. The third theme elucidates results from research about subjective risk, and shows that a large number of factors influence how risks are considered by individuals, and can influence his risk behavior and also how the individual means that the society will make decisions in risk-related questions. The fourth and last theme is about risk communication. Since the risk concept contains many different aspects it is clear that risk should not only be informed about, but also communicated. If a purely mathematical definition of risk was the only valid form, such information, from experts to the citizens, would possibly be sufficient. But since there are other relevant factors to take into consideration (t.ex the individual's own values), a communicative process must take place, i.e. the citizens should have influence on how risks are compared and managed. In the final theme, the authors have chosen to reflect around the themes above, i.e. different perspectives on the risk concept, risk comparisons, subjective risk view and risk communication are discussed.

  11. Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

  12. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from different plastic solid waste recycling workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhigui; Li, Guiying; Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-04-01

    The pollution profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different recycling workshops processing different types of plastic solid waste (PSW) and their health risks were investigated. A total of 64 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes, monoaromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), chlorinated VOCs (ClVOCs) and acrylonitrile during the melting extrusion procedure were identified and quantified. The highest concentration of total VOCs (TVOC) occurred in the poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) (ABS) recycling workshop, followed by the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC) workshops. Monoaromatics were found as the major component emitted from the ABS and PS recycling workshops, while alkanes were mainly emitted from the PE and PP recycling processes, and OVOCs from the PVC and PA recycling workshops. According to the occupational exposure limits' (OEL) assessment, the workers suffered acute and chronic health risks in the ABS and PS recycling workshops. Meanwhile, it was found that most VOCs in the indoor microenvironments were originated from the melting extrusion process, while the highest TVOC concentration was observed in the PS rather than in the ABS recycling workshop. Non-cancer hazard indices (HIs) of all individual VOCs were <1.0, whereas the total HI in the PS recycling workshop was 1.9, posing an adverse chronic health threat. Lifetime cancer risk assessment suggested that the residents also suffered from definite cancer risk in the PS, PA, ABS and PVC recycling workshops.

  13. Ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution - Ecological risk assessment for the biota on regional radioactive waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrentyeva, G.V.; Synzynys, B.I.; Shoshina, R.R.; Mirzeabasov, O.A. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, branch of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Department of Ecology, Studgorodok,1, 249040 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Now the methods of ecological regulation of a radiation factor from risk assessment are developed poorly. The paper attempts to assess and forecast the terrestrial ecosystem conditions under chronic ionizing radiation by calculating the critical loads. The paper is aimed at developing a methodology to assess the ecological risk for a terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution in a biotope of a regional radioactive waste storage. Objects and Methods: Biotope monitoring of a radioactive waste storage makes clear that the radioecological situation in this territory is stipulated by technogenic {sup 90}Sr found in soil, ground water and biota. Terrestrial mollusks of a shrubby Snail type (Bradybaena fruticum) were chosen as reference species due to their activity to accumulate {sup 90}Sr in shells and the number of colony-forming soil units (CFU) as reference indices. The number of CFU was determined by inoculation of solid medium. Soil and mollusk samples have been collected at most representative sites identified in the previous studies. To assess {sup 90}Sr content in the samples collected, radiochemical separation was used with further radionuclide activity measurements by a 'BETA-01C' scintillation beta-ray spectrometer according to a standard procedure of {sup 90}Sr content assessment from beta-radiation of its daughter radionuclide {sup 90}Y. Ecological risk was calculated from analyzed critical loads using a 'dose-effect' dependence. Statistical data processing was realized with Excell 2007 and R software programs [R Development Core Team, 2010]. The software R was also used for GIS creation. Results and Discussion: A methodology of ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution of a biotope near a regional radioactive waste storage has been developed in terms of the critical environmental loads analyzed. It consists of five stages: determination of effect indicators and assessment

  14. Heavy metals in food, house dust, and water from an e-waste recycling area in South China and the potential risk to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ke-hui; Yan, Xiao; Chen, She-Jun; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Peng, Xiao-Wu; Yuan, Jian-gang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2013-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni) were measured in the foodstuffs, house dust, underground/drinking water, and soil from an electronic waste (e-waste) area in South China. Elevated concentrations of these potentially toxic metals were observed in the samples but not in drinking water. The health risks for metal exposure via food consumption, dust ingestion, and drinking water were evaluated for local residents. For the average residents in the e-waste area, the non-carcinogenic risks arise predominantly from rice (hazard index=3.3), vegetables (2.2), and house dust (1.9) for adults, while the risks for young children are dominated by house dust (15). Drinking water may provide a negligible contribution to risk. However, local residents who use groundwater as a water supply source are at high non-carcinogenic risk. The potential cancer risks from oral intake of Pb are 8×10(-5) and 3×10(-4) for average adults and children, and thus groundwater would have a great potential to induce cancer (5×10(-4) and 1×10(-3)) in a highly exposed population. The results also reveal that the risk from oral exposure is much higher than the risk from inhalation and dermal contact with house dust. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental risks of radioactive discharges from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Dessel, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle, J Vives I; Sweeck, L; Wannijn, J; Vandenhove, H

    2016-10-01

    The potential radiological impact of releases from a low-level radioactive waste (Category A waste) repository in Dessel, Belgium on the local fauna and flora was assessed under a reference scenario for gradual leaching. The potential impact situations for terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora considered in this study were soil contamination due to irrigation with contaminated groundwater from a well at 70 m from the repository, contamination of the local wetlands receiving the highest radionuclide flux after migration through the aquifer and contamination of the local river receiving the highest radionuclide flux after migration through the aquifer. In addition, an exploratory study was carried out for biota residing in the groundwater. All impact assessments were performed using the Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and Management (ERICA) tool. For all scenarios considered, absorbed dose rates to biota were found to be well below the ERICA 10 μGy h(-1) screening value. The highest dose rates were observed for the scenario where soil was irrigated with groundwater from the vicinity of the repository. For biota residing in the groundwater well, a few dose rates were slightly above the screening level but significantly below the dose rates at which the smallest effects are observed for those relevant species or groups of species. Given the conservative nature of the assessment, it can be concluded that manmade radionuclides deposited into the environment by the near surface disposal of category A waste at Dessel do not have a significant radiological impact to wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanotechnology risk assessment from a waste management perspective: Are the current tools adequate?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available -workers21 show that CdTe QDs are immunotoxic to the fresh- water mussel Elliptio complanata and can cause oxi- dative stress in gills as well as DNA damage. Therefore, because of the breadth on the number of NMs and nano-induced products being... management frameworks were developed based on mass as a deter- minant of regulatory coverage, with no anticipation of waste streams whose impacts on the receptive envir- onments and organisms are a function of novel prop- erties owing to size, size...

  17. The Effects of Organic Wastes on Soil and Cotton Quality with respect to the Risk of Boron and Heavy Metal Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Seçer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on soil and cotton quality of organic wastes from medicinal and aromatic plant factories were investigated with regard to the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution. Oily cumin, oregano, oilless oregano wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to cotton in two field experiments performed in the years 2003 and 2006. The Pb content of the soil differed significantly in the 2003 experiment and oregano wastes had significantly decreasing effect. Boron of soil to which oily cumin wastes had been applied reached a toxic limit value in 2006. Boron in soil adversely affected long fibres; B in leaves had a positive effect on the fineness of fibres in 2006. Soil Ni adversely affected plant height in 2006 and seed cotton yield in 2003. Leaf Ni had an adverse effect on fibre elasticity in 2006. Soil Co increased ginning out-turn and Cr decreased the fibre fineness of cotton in 2003.

  18. Human health risk assessment based on trace metals in suspended air particulates, surface dust, and floor dust from e-waste recycling workshops in Hong Kong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winifred Ka Yan; Liang, Peng; Man, Yu Bon; Chung, Shan Shan; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated health risks exerted on electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workers exposed to cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and zinc (Zn) in Hong Kong. E-waste recycling workshops were classified into eight working areas: 1 = office, 2 = repair, 3 = dismantling, 4 = storage, 5 = desoldering, 6 = loading, 7 = cable shredding, and 8 = chemical waste. The aforementioned metal concentrations were analyzed in suspended air particulates, surface dust and floor dust collected from the above study areas in five workshops. Elevated Pb levels were measured in dismantling and desoldering areas (582 and 486 μg/100 cm(2) in surface and 3,610 and 19,172 mg/kg in floor dust, respectively). Blood lead levels of 10 and 39.5 μg/dl were estimated using United States Environmental Protection Agency's Adult Lead Model as a result of exposure to the floor dust from these two areas. Human health risk assessments were conducted to evaluate cancer and noncancer risks resulting from exposure to floor dust through the combined pathways of ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. Findings indicated that workers may be exposed to cancer risks above the acceptable range at 147 in a million at the 95th percentile in the dismantling area. Workers should be informed of associated risks to safeguard their health.

  19. Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator: a GIS-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garavelli Livia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waste incineration releases into the environment toxic substances having a teratogenic potential, but little epidemiologic evidence is available on this topic. We aimed at examining the relation between exposure to the emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator and risk of birth defects in a northern Italy community, using Geographical Information System (GIS data to estimate exposure and a population-based case-control study design. By modelling the incinerator emissions, we defined in the GIS three areas of increasing exposure according to predicted dioxins concentrations. We mapped the 228 births and induced abortions with diagnosis of congenital anomalies observed during the 1998–2006 period, together with a corresponding series of control births matched for year and hospital of birth/abortion as well as maternal age, using maternal address in the first three months of pregnancy to geocode cases and controls. Results Among women residing in the areas with medium and high exposure, prevalence of anomalies in the offspring was substantially comparable to that observed in the control population, nor dose-response relations for any of the major categories of birth defects emerged. Furthermore, odds ratio for congenital anomalies did not decrease during a prolonged shut-down period of the plant. Conclusion Overall, these findings do not lend support to the hypothesis that the environmental contamination occurring around an incineration plant such as that examined in this study may induce major teratogenic effects.

  20. Age differences in the impact of peers on adolescents’ and adults’ neural response to reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R. Smith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior research suggests that increased adolescent risk-taking in the presence of peers may be linked to the influence of peers on the valuation and processing of rewards during decision-making. The current study explores this idea by examining how peer observation impacts the processing of rewards when such processing is isolated from other facets of risky decision-making (e.g. risk-perception and preference, inhibitory processing, etc.. In an fMRI paradigm, a sample of adolescents (ages 14–19 and adults (ages 25–35 completed a modified High/Low Card Guessing Task that included rewarded and un-rewarded trials. Social context was manipulated by having participants complete the task both alone and while being observed by two, same-age, same-sex peers. Results indicated an interaction of age and social context on the activation of reward circuitry during the receipt of reward; when observed by peers adolescents exhibited greater ventral striatal activation than adults, but no age-related differences were evinced when the task was completed alone. These findings suggest that, during adolescence, peers influence recruitment of reward-related regions even when they are engaged outside of the context of risk-taking. Implications for engagement in prosocial, as well as risky, behaviors during adolescence are discussed.

  1. Age differences in the impact of peers on adolescents' and adults' neural response to reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley R; Steinberg, Laurence; Strang, Nicole; Chein, Jason

    2015-02-01

    Prior research suggests that increased adolescent risk-taking in the presence of peers may be linked to the influence of peers on the valuation and processing of rewards during decision-making. The current study explores this idea by examining how peer observation impacts the processing of rewards when such processing is isolated from other facets of risky decision-making (e.g. risk-perception and preference, inhibitory processing, etc.). In an fMRI paradigm, a sample of adolescents (ages 14-19) and adults (ages 25-35) completed a modified High/Low Card Guessing Task that included rewarded and un-rewarded trials. Social context was manipulated by having participants complete the task both alone and while being observed by two, same-age, same-sex peers. Results indicated an interaction of age and social context on the activation of reward circuitry during the receipt of reward; when observed by peers adolescents exhibited greater ventral striatal activation than adults, but no age-related differences were evinced when the task was completed alone. These findings suggest that, during adolescence, peers influence recruitment of reward-related regions even when they are engaged outside of the context of risk-taking. Implications for engagement in prosocial, as well as risky, behaviors during adolescence are discussed.

  2. Hunger does not motivate reward in women remitted from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina E; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Melrose, A James; Irvine, Zoe; Torres, Laura; Bailer, Ursula F; Simmons, Alan; Fudge, Julie L; McClure, Samuel M; Ely, Alice; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-04-01

    Hunger enhances sensitivity to reward, yet individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are not motivated to eat when starved. This study investigated brain response to rewards during hunger and satiated states to examine whether diminished response to reward could underlie food restriction in AN. Using a delay discounting monetary decision task known to discriminate brain regions contributing to processing of immediate rewards and cognitive control important for decision making regarding future rewards, we compared 23 women remitted from AN (RAN group; to reduce the confounding effects of starvation) with 17 healthy comparison women (CW group). Monetary rewards were used because the rewarding value of food may be confounded by anxiety in AN. Interactions of Group (RAN, CW) × Visit (hunger, satiety) revealed that, for the CW group, hunger significantly increased activation in reward salience circuitry (ventral striatum, dorsal caudate, anterior cingulate cortex) during processing of immediate reward, whereas satiety increased activation in cognitive control circuitry (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, insula) during decision making. In contrast, brain response in reward and cognitive neurocircuitry did not differ during hunger and satiety in the RAN group. A main effect of group revealed elevated response in the middle frontal gyrus for the RAN group compared with the CW group. Women remitted from AN failed to increase activation of reward valuation circuitry when hungry and showed elevated response in cognitive control circuitry independent of metabolic state. Decreased sensitivity to the motivational drive of hunger may explain the ability of individuals with AN to restrict food when emaciated. Difficulties in valuating emotional salience may contribute to inabilities to appreciate the risks inherent in this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adolescent development of the reward system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Galván

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased reward-seeking behavior. Investigators have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in conjunction with reward paradigms to test two opposing hypotheses about adolescent developmental changes in the striatum, a region implicated in reward processing. One hypothesis posits that the striatum is relatively hypo-responsive to rewards during adolescence, such that heightened reward-seeking behavior is necessary to achieve the same activation as adults. Another view suggests that during adolescence the striatal reward system is hyper-responsive, which subsequently results in greater reward-seeking. While evidence for both hypotheses has been reported, the field has generally converged on this latter hypothesis based on compelling evidence. In this review, I describe the evidence to support this notion, speculate on the disparate fMRI findings and conclude with future areas of inquiry to this fascinating question.

  4. Incremental effects of reward on creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, R; Rhoades, L

    2001-10-01

    The authors examined 2 ways reward might increase creativity. First, reward contingent on creativity might increase extrinsic motivation. Studies 1 and 2 found that repeatedly giving preadolescent students reward for creative performance in 1 task increased their creativity in subsequent tasks. Study 3 reported that reward promised for creativity increased college students' creative task performance. Second, expected reward for high performance might increase creativity by enhancing perceived self-determination and, therefore, intrinsic task interest. Study 4 found that employees' intrinsic job interest mediated a positive relationship between expected reward for high performance and creative suggestions offered at work. Study 5 found that employees' perceived self-determination mediated a positive relationship between expected reward for high performance and the creativity of anonymous suggestions for helping the organization.

  5. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher; Porreca, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex, activation of midbrain dopamine neurons and release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute and chronic pain. PMID:26603560

  6. Risk of Leaching in Soils Amended by Compost and Digestate from Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García-Albacete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New European directives have proposed the direct application of compost and digestate produced from municipal solid wastes as organic matter sources in agricultural soils. Therefore information about phosphorus leaching from these residues when they are applied to the soil is increasingly important. Leaching experiments were conducted to determine the P mobility in compost and digestate mixtures, supplying equivalent amounts to 100 kg P ha−1 to three different types of soils. The tests were performed in accordance with CEN/TS 14405:2004 analyzing the maximum dissolved reactive P and the kinetic rate in the leachate. P biowaste fractionation indicated that digestate has a higher level of available P than compost has. In contrast, P losses in leaching experiments with soil-compost mixtures were higher than in soil-digestate mixtures. For both wastes, there was no correlation between dissolved reactive P lost and the water soluble P. The interaction between soil and biowaste, the long experimentation time, and the volume of leachate obtained caused the waste’s wettability to become an influential parameter in P leaching behavior. The overall conclusion is that kinetic data analysis provides valuable information concerning the sorption mechanism that can be used for predicting the large-scale behavior of soil systems.

  7. Fertilizer efficiency and environmental risk of irrigating Impatiens with composting leachate in decentralized solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Wang, Rusong; Zhang, Yishan

    2010-06-01

    The reduction and reuse of composting leachate is an issue of importance in the field of decentralized solid waste management. In this study, composting leachate from source-separated food waste was treated and subsequently used as liquid fertilizer to irrigate Impatiens (Impatiens balsamina). The leachate was altered by adjusting storage time and dilution, and through addition of microbial inocula. For each test case, the effects of irrigation were monitored by analyzing the Impatiens extension degree, numbers of leaves and flowers, dry weight, and photosynthetic pigment content to assess fertilizer efficiency. The main results obtained revealed that the addition of microbial inocula and lengthening of storage times may lower COD concentrations, adjust pH value and maintain a comparatively high level of nutrient contents. By adding microbial inocula, a COD concentration of 9.6% and BOD(5) concentration of 6.7% were obtained for non-treated leachate with the same storage time. COD concentrations in leachate decreased to 69.4% after 36weeks storage. Moreover, composting leachate promoted growth of Impatiens. The dry weight biomass of Impatiens irrigated using treated diluted leachate was 1.15-2.94 times that obtained for Impatiens irrigated using tap water. Lastly, following the irrigation of Impatiens over a short period, soil did not accumulate VOCs and heavy metals to levels exceeding relative standards. Further research on heavy metal and salinity accumulation in plants should be undertaken to meet the needs of large-scale applications.

  8. Dispersion modeling and health risk assessment of dioxin emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator in Hangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jun MA; Xu-guang JIANG; Yu-qi JIN; Hong-mei LIU; Xiao-dong LI; Tong CHEN; Jian-hua YAN

    2012-01-01

    The emission of dioxins from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) has become a widespread concern.The effect of meteorological parameters (wind speed,atmospheric stability and mixing height) on the hourly ground level concentration (GLC) of dioxins was estimated using air dispersion models.Moreover,the health risks of dioxin exposure were evaluated for children and adults using the Nouwen equation.The total environmental exposure via air inhalation and food mgestion was calculated,based on linear fit equations.The results indicate that potentially severe pollution from dioxins occurs at a wind speed of 1.5 m/s with atmospheric stability class F.In addition,local residents in the study area are exposed to severe weather conditions most of the time,and the risk exposures for children are far higher than those for adults.The total exposure for children far exceeds the tolerable daily intake of dioxin recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 1-4 pg TEQ/(kg·d) under severe weather conditions.Results from modeling calculations of health risk assessment were consistent with dioxin levels obtained during actual monitoring of emissions.

  9. Perceived risk, stigma, and potential economic impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; Layman, M; Kraus, N; Flynn, J; Chalmers, J; Gesell, G

    1991-12-01

    This study investigates the potential impacts of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. Adverse impacts may be expected to result from perceptions of risk, stigmatization, and socially amplified reactions to "unfortunate events" associated with the repository (major and minor accidents, discoveries of radiation releases, evidence of mismanagement, attempts to sabotage or disrupt the facility, etc.). The conceptual underpinnings of risk perception, stigmatization, and social amplification are discussed and empirical data are presented to demonstrate how nuclear images associated with Las Vegas and the State of Nevada might trigger adverse economic effects. The possibility that intense negative imagery associated with the repository may cause significant harm to Nevada's economy can no longer be ignored by serious attempts to assess the risks and impacts of this unique facility. The behavioral processes described here appear relevant as well to the social impact assessment of any proposed facility that produces, uses, transports, or disposes of hazardous materials.

  10. A risk-based decision tool for the management of organic waste in agriculture and farming activities (FARMERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, Miguel; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Abad, Emilio; Roca, Enrique

    2011-01-30

    Currently, specific management guidelines must be implemented for guaranteeing the safe reuse of organic waste in agriculture. With that aim, this work was focused on the development of a decision support tool for a safe and sustainable management of cattle manure as fertiliser in pastureland, to control and limit metal accumulation in soil and to reduce metal biotransfer from soil to other compartments. The system was developed on the basis of an environmental risk assessment multi-compartmental model. In contrast to other management tools, a long-term dynamic modelling approach was selected considering the persistence of metals in the environment. A detailed description of the underlying flow equations which accounts for distribution, human exposure and risk characterisation of metals in the assessed scenario was presented, as well as model parameterization. The tool was implemented in Visual C++ and is structured on a data base, where all required data is stored, the risk assessment model and a GIS module for the visualization of the scenario characteristics and the results obtained (risk indexes). The decision support system allows choosing among three estimation options, depending on the needs of the user, which provide information to both farmers and policy makers. The first option is useful for evaluating the adequacy of the current management practices of the different farms, and the remaining ones provides information on the measures that can be taken to carry out a fertilising plan without exceeding risk to human health. Among other results, maximum values of application rates of manure, maximum permissible metal content of manure and maximum application times in a particular scenario can be estimated by this system. To illustrate tool application, a real case study with data corresponding to different farms of a milk production cooperative was presented.

  11. Health risk assessment as an approach to manage an old landfill and to propose integrated solid waste treatment: A case study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, O; Massabò, M

    2017-07-21

    The aim of the present paper is to show how an approach based on human health risk analysis can be used as a decisional tool for the evaluation of impacts on population and for deciding between different waste treatment processes. The situation in which the increasing production of solid wastes cannot be confined in the old existing Municipal Solid Waste landfill (settled in Genoa, Liguria Region, Italy) is used as a case study. Risk assessment for human health due to air, surface water, groundwater and soil contamination is performed in different scenarios for the old landfill and compared with alternative Waste-to-Energy management solutions that consider thermal treatment by gasification of the total waste or gasification of the dry fraction coupled with anaerobic digestion of the wet fraction, plus biogas combustion with or without sludge and bottom ash/slag disposal in the old landfill. Hazard Index (HI) and Cancer Risk (CR) in case of operating landfill and under the suspected situation of failure of the sealing system, were respectively 1.15 and 1.1∗10(-7). Unacceptable HI were found due to groundwater contamination, while HI due to river pollution was slightly under the threshold. Vegetables ingestion was the most important pathway and ammonia the most responsible of toxic adverse effects. Fish ingestion and dermal contact with contaminated water were found to be the most important exposure pathways for carcinogenic risk, due mainly to BTEX. HI and CR in the supposed scenario of total waste gasification were respectively 9.4∗10(-1) and 1.1∗10(-5) while they were respectively 3.2∗10(-1) and 6∗10(-6) in case of gasification of the dry fraction. CR in both scenarios was over the threshold mainly due to dioxins, where milk and meat ingestion were found to be the highest risk pathways. Inhalation resulted as the highest not-carcinogenic risk exposure pathway, mainly due to NOx. Decision making was made by weighing up the different scenarios, and

  12. Ecohealth approach to urban waste management: exposure to environmental pollutants and health risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamé, Parfait K; Dongo, Kouassi; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lüthi, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Biémi, Jean; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2014-10-02

    Poor waste management is a key driver of ill-health in urban settlements of developing countries. The current study aimed at assessing environmental and human health risks related to urban waste management in Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d'Ivoire. We undertook trans-disciplinary research within an Ecohealth approach, comprised of a participatory workshop with stakeholders and mapping of exposure patterns. A total of 492 randomly selected households participated in a cross-sectional survey. Waste deposit sites were characterised and 108 wastewater samples were subjected to laboratory examinations. The physico-chemical parameters of the surface water (temperature, pH, conductivity, potential oxidise reduction, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, ammonia and total Kendal nitrogen) did not comply with World Health Organization standards of surface water quality. Questionnaire results showed that malaria was the most commonly reported disease. Diarrhoea and malaria were associated with poor sanitation. Households having dry latrines had a higher risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.7) compared to latrines with septic tanks and also a higher risk for malaria (OR = 1.9, 95% (CI) 1.1-3.3). Our research showed that combining health and environmental assessments enables a deeper understanding of environmental threats and disease burdens linked to poor waste management. Further study should investigate the sanitation strategy aspects that could reduce the environmental and health risks in the study area.

  13. Groundwater contamination from waste management sites: The interaction between risk-based engineering design and regulatory policy: 1. Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massmann, Joel; Freeze, R. Allan

    1987-02-01

    This paper puts in place a risk-cost-benefit analysis for waste management facilities that explicitly recognizes the adversarial relationship that exists in a regulated market economy between the owner/operator of a waste management facility and the government regulatory agency under whose terms the facility must be licensed. The risk-cost-benefit analysis is set up from the perspective of the owner/operator. It can be used directly by the owner/operator to assess alternative design strategies. It can also be used by the regulatory agency to assess alternative regulatory policy, but only in an indirect manner, by examining the response of an owner/operator to the stimuli of various policies. The objective function is couched in terms of a discounted stream of benefits, costs, and risks over an engineering time horizon. Benefits are in the form of revenues for services provided; costs are those of construction and operation of the facility. Risk is defined as the cost associated with the probability of failure, with failure defined as the occurrence of a groundwater contamination event that violates the licensing requirements established for the facility. Failure requires a breach of the containment structure and contaminant migration through the hydrogeological environment to a compliance surface. The probability of failure can be estimated on the basis of reliability theory for the breach of containment and with a Monte-Carlo finite-element simulation for the advective contaminant transport. In the hydrogeological environment the hydraulic conductivity values are defined stochastically. The probability of failure is reduced by the presence of a monitoring network operated by the owner/operator and located between the source and the regulatory compliance surface. The level of reduction in the probability of failure depends on the probability of detection of the monitoring network, which can be calculated from the stochastic contaminant transport simulations. While

  14. Potential Human Health Risks of Tannery Waste-contaminated Poultry Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Latiful Bari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. The estimated daily intake value, THQ, along with the aggregate hazard index value, indicated a potential risk to consumers through consumption of contaminated chicken. Therefore, the study results clearly demonstrate heavy metals accumulation in chicken due to feeding SCW-based feed. The contaminated chicken further transfers these heavy metals to humans through ingestion. Hence, there is a potential human health risk through consumption of contaminated chicken meat.

  15. Memory Consolidation and Neural Substrate of Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redolar-Ripoll, Diego

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report is to analyze the relationships between reward and learning and memory processes. Different studies have described how information about rewards influences behavior and how the brain uses this reward information to control learning and memory processes. Reward nature seems to be processed in different ways by neurons in different brain structures, ranging from the detection and perception of rewards to the use of information about predicted rewards for the control of goal-directed behavior. The neural substrate underling this processing of reward information is a reliable way of improving learning and memory processes. Evidence from several studies indicates that this neural system can facilitate memory consolidation in a wide variety of learning tasks. From a molecular perspective, certain cardinal features of reward have been described as forms of memory. Studies of human addicts and studies in animal models of addiction show that chronic drug exposure produces stable changes in the brain at the cellular and molecular levels that underlie the long-lasting behavioral plasticity associated with addiction. These molecular and cellular adaptations involved in addiction are also implicated in learning and memory processes. Dopamine seems to be a critical common signal to activate different genetic mechanisms that ultimately remodel synapses and circuits. Despite memory is an active and complex process mediated by different brain areas, the neural substrate of reward is able to improve memory consolidation in a several paradigms. We believe that there are many equivalent traits between reward and learning and memory processes.

  16. Reward circuitry function in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N.; Green, Steven R.; Rittenberg, Alison M.; Sasson, Noah J.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Social interaction deficits and restricted repetitive behaviors and interests that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may both reflect aberrant functioning of brain reward circuits. However, no neuroimaging study to date has investigated the integrity of reward circuits using an incentive delay paradigm in individuals with ASDs. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess blood-oxygen level-dependent activation during reward anticipation and outcomes in 15 participants with an ASD and 16 matched control participants. Brain activation was assessed during anticipation of and in response to monetary incentives and object image incentives previously shown to be visually salient for individuals with ASDs (e.g. trains, electronics). Participants with ASDs showed decreased nucleus accumbens activation during monetary anticipation and outcomes, but not during object anticipation or outcomes. Group × reward-type-interaction tests revealed robust interaction effects in bilateral nucleus accumbens during reward anticipation and in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during reward outcomes, indicating differential responses contingent on reward type in these regions. Results suggest that ASDs are characterized by reward-circuitry hypoactivation in response to monetary incentives but not in response to autism-relevant object images. The clinical implications of the double dissociation of reward type and temporal phase in reward circuitry function in ASD are discussed. PMID:21148176

  17. Reward system dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Nehrkorn, Barbara; Müller, Kristin; Fink, Gereon R.; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Schultz, Robert T.; Konrad, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that social deficits of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are related to reward circuitry dysfunction, very little is known about the neural reward mechanisms in ASD. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated brain activations in response to both social and monetary reward in a group of children with ASD, relative to matched controls. Participants with ASD showed the expected hypoactivation in the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in response to both reward types. In particular, diminished activation in the nucleus accumbens was observed when money, but not when social reward, was at stake, whereas the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex were hypoactivated within the ASD group in response to both rewards. These data indicate that the reward circuitry is compromised in ASD in social as well as in non-social, i.e. monetary conditions, which likely contributes to atypical motivated behaviour. Taken together, with incentives used in this study sample, there is evidence for a general reward dysfunction in ASD. However, more ecologically valid social reward paradigms are needed to fully understand, whether there is any domain specificity to the reward deficit that appears evident in ASD, which would be most consistent with the ASD social phenotype. PMID:22419119

  18. Abnormal context-reward associations in an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental mouse model with relevance to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouesse, M A; Langhans, W; Meyer, U

    2015-09-15

    Impairments in central reward processing constitute an important aspect of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite its clinical relevance, the etiology of deficient reward processing in schizophrenia remains largely unknown. Here, we used an epidemiologically informed mouse model of schizophrenia to explore the effects of prenatal immune activation on reward-related functions. The model is based on maternal administration of the viral mimic PolyI:C and has been developed in relation to the epidemiological evidence demonstrating enhanced risk of schizophrenia and related disorders following prenatal maternal infection. We show that prenatal immune activation induces selective deficits in the expression (but not acquisition) of conditioned place preference for a natural reward (sucrose) without changing hedonic or neophobic responses to the reward. On the other hand, prenatal immune activation led to enhanced place preference for the psychostimulant drug cocaine, while it attenuated the locomotor reaction to the drug. The prenatal exposure did not alter negative reinforcement learning as assessed using a contextual fear conditioning paradigm. Our findings suggest that the nature of reward-related abnormalities following prenatal immune challenge depends on the specificity of the reward (natural reward vs drug of abuse) as well as on the valence domain (positive vs negative reinforcement learning). Moreover, our data indicate that reward abnormalities emerging in prenatally immune-challenged offspring may, at least in part, stem from an inability to retrieve previously established context-reward associations and to integrate such information for appropriate goal-directed behavior.

  19. Abnormal context–reward associations in an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental mouse model with relevance to schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouesse, M A; Langhans, W; Meyer, U

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in central reward processing constitute an important aspect of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite its clinical relevance, the etiology of deficient reward processing in schizophrenia remains largely unknown. Here, we used an epidemiologically informed mouse model of schizophrenia to explore the effects of prenatal immune activation on reward-related functions. The model is based on maternal administration of the viral mimic PolyI:C and has been developed in relation to the epidemiological evidence demonstrating enhanced risk of schizophrenia and related disorders following prenatal maternal infection. We show that prenatal immune activation induces selective deficits in the expression (but not acquisition) of conditioned place preference for a natural reward (sucrose) without changing hedonic or neophobic responses to the reward. On the other hand, prenatal immune activation led to enhanced place preference for the psychostimulant drug cocaine, while it attenuated the locomotor reaction to the drug. The prenatal exposure did not alter negative reinforcement learning as assessed using a contextual fear conditioning paradigm. Our findings suggest that the nature of reward-related abnormalities following prenatal immune challenge depends on the specificity of the reward (natural reward vs drug of abuse) as well as on the valence domain (positive vs negative reinforcement learning). Moreover, our data indicate that reward abnormalities emerging in prenatally immune-challenged offspring may, at least in part, stem from an inability to retrieve previously established context–reward associations and to integrate such information for appropriate goal-directed behavior. PMID:26371765

  20. Interaction between COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism and childhood adversity affects reward processing in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Treutlein, Jens; Rietschel, Marcella; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that altered dopamine transmission may increase the risk of mental disorders such as ADHD, schizophrenia or depression, possibly mediated by reward system dysfunction. This study aimed to clarify the impact of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism in interaction with environmental variation (G×E) on neuronal activity during reward processing. 168 healthy young adults from a prospective study conducted over 25years participated in a monetary incentive delay task measured with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. DNA was genotyped for COMT, and childhood family adversity (CFA) up to age 11 was assessed by a standardized parent interview. At reward delivery, a G×E revealed that fMRI activation for win vs. no-win trials in reward-related regions increased with the level of CFA in Met homozygotes as compared to Val/Met heterozygotes and Val homozygotes, who showed no significant effect. During the anticipation of monetary vs. verbal rewards, activation decreased with the level of CFA, which was also observed for EEG, in which the CNV declined with the level of CFA. These results identify convergent genetic and environmental effects on reward processing in a prospective study. Moreover, G×E effects during reward delivery suggest that stress during childhood is associated with higher reward sensitivity and reduced efficiency in processing rewarding stimuli in genetically at-risk individuals. Together with previous evidence, these results begin to define a specific system mediating interacting effects of early environmental and genetic risk factors, which may be targeted by early intervention and prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The combustion of Municipal Solid Waste in the Netherlands. Emissions occurring during Combustion. Dispersal of dioxins and the associated risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob W; Troost LM; Krijgsman M; Koning J de; Sein AA

    1993-01-01

    Elevated dioxin concentrations in Dutch cow's milk originating from areas near municipal solid waste incinerators triggered an extensive research programme in the Netherlands, including (1) emission measurements of all Dutch municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators, (2) compliance of MSW incinerator

  2. Girls’ challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melynda D. Casement

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence.

  3. What do lay people want to know about the disposal of nuclear waste? A mental model approach to the design and development of an online risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlatidou, A; Cheng, T; Haklay, M

    2012-09-01

    Public participation requires the involvement of lay people in the decision-making processes of issues that concern them. It is currently practiced in a variety of domains, such as transport and environmental planning. Communicating risks can be a complex task, as there may be significant differences between the risk perceptions of experts and those of lay people. Among the plethora of problems that require public involvement is the site selection of a nuclear waste disposal site in the United Kingdom, which is discussed in this article. Previous ineffective attempts to locate a site provide evidence that the problem has a strong social dimension, and studies ascribe public opposition to a loss of public trust in governmental agencies and decisionmakers, and to a lack of public understanding of nuclear waste issues. Although the mental models approach has been successfully used in the effective communication of such risks as climate change, no attempt has been made to follow a prescriptive mental model approach to develop risk communication messages that inform lay people about nuclear waste disposal. After interviewing 20 lay people and 5 experts, we construct and compare their corresponding mental models to reveal any gaps and misconceptions. The mental models approach is further applied here to identify lay people's requirements regarding what they want to know about nuclear waste, and how this information should be presented so that it is easily understood. This article further describes how the mental models approach was used in the subsequent development of an online information system for the site selection of a nuclear waste repository in the United Kingdom, which is considered essential for the improvement of public understanding and the reestablishment of trust. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste......Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  5. Simulations of long-term health risk from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.; Fields, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code developed under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. The model is intended to assess radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impact to a static local population for up to 1000 years following the end of burial operations. Human exposure scenarios that may be considered by model include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and near site farming. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include:groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Off-site population and individual doses and cancer risks may be calculated as well as doses and risks to the intruder and farmer. Data have been compiled for three extant shallow land burial sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. Some simulation results for the Barnwell site are presented. 13 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Health Risk Assessments of Waste Combustion Emissions Using Surrogate Analyte Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    to DoD health risk assessors are the AeroTrak® 9303 and the DustTrakTM DRX. Both measure PM with 44 aerodynamic diameters larger than 0.3 µm...Warnatz. “Emissions from the Combustion Process in Vegetation,” Fire in the Environment: The Ecological , Atmospheric, and Climatic Importance of

  7. PRESTO-II: a low-level waste environmental transport and risk assessment code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.; Chester, R.O.; Little, C.A.; Hiromoto, G.

    1986-04-01

    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code designed for the evaluation of possible health effects from shallow-land and, waste-disposal trenches. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios considered include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses, as well as doses to the intruder and farmer, may be calculated. Cumulative health effects in terms of cancer deaths are calculated for the population over the 1000-year period using a life-table approach. Data are included for three example sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. A code listing and example input for each of the three sites are included in the appendices to this report.

  8. Effects of anonymous peer observation on adolescents' preference for immediate rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigard, Alexander; Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; Smith, Ashley; Steinberg, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the presence of peers influences adolescent risk-taking by increasing the perceived reward value of risky decisions. While prior work has involved observation of participants by their friends, the current study examined whether observation by an anonymous peer could elicit similarly increased reward sensitivity. Late adolescent participants completed a delay discounting task either alone or under the belief that performance was being observed from a neighboring room by an unknown viewer of the same gender and age. Even in this limited social context, participants demonstrated a significantly increased preference for smaller, immediate rewards when they believed that they were being watched. This outcome challenges several intuitive accounts of the peer effect on adolescent risk-taking, and indicates that the peer influence on reward sensitivity during late adolescence is not dependent on familiarity with the observer. The findings have both theoretical and practical implications for our understanding of social influences on adolescents' risky behavior.

  9. Scoring methods and results for qualitative evaluation of public health impacts from the Hanford high-level waste tanks. Integrated Risk Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.W.; Gelston, G.M.; Farris, W.T.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this analysis is to qualitatively rank the Hanford Site high-level waste (HLW) tanks according to their potential public health impacts through various (groundwater, surface water, and atmospheric) exposure pathways. Data from all 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 23 of the 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program were analyzed for chemical and radiological carcinogenic as well as chemical noncarcinogenic health impacts. The preliminary aggregate score (PAS) ranking system was used to generate information from various release scenarios. Results based on the PAS ranking values should be considered relative health impacts rather than absolute risk values.

  10. The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, A; Uddh Söderberg, T; Jarsjö, J; Åström, M; Olofsson, B; Balfors, B; Destouni, G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.

  11. Individual Differences in Music Reward Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Mas-Herrero, E.; Marco Pallarés, Josep; Lorenzo-Seva, U.; Zatorre, R.; Rodriguez-Fornells, A.

    2013-01-01

    Music is one of the most pleasant human experiences, even though it has no direct biological advantage. However little is known about individual differences in how people experience reward in music-related activities. The goal of the present study was to describe the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. To this end we developed the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ), which was administrated to ...

  12. Reward circuitry function in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Felder, Jennifer N.; Green, Steven R.; Rittenberg, Alison M.; Sasson, Noah J.; Bodfish, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Social interaction deficits and restricted repetitive behaviors and interests that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may both reflect aberrant functioning of brain reward circuits. However, no neuroimaging study to date has investigated the integrity of reward circuits using an incentive delay paradigm in individuals with ASDs. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess blood-oxygen level-dependent activation during reward anticipation and outcom...

  13. Endocannabinoid signaling in reward and addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Loren H.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2015-01-01

    Brain endocannabinoid signaling influences the motivation for natural rewards (such as palatable food, sexual activity and social interaction) and modulates the rewarding effects of addictive drugs. Pathological forms of natural and drug-induced reward are associated with dysregulated endocannabinoid signaling that may derive from pre-existing genetic factors or from prolonged drug exposure. Impaired endocannabinoid signaling contributes to dysregulated synaptic plasticity, increased stress r...

  14. Potential health risk for residents around a typical e-waste recycling zone via inhalation of size-fractionated particle-bound heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Luo, Pei; Wang, Zhao-Yi; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-11-05

    Health risk of residents dwelling around e-waste recycling zones has been a global concern, but has not been adequately examined. The present study was intended to evaluate the potential health risk of residents through inhalation exposure to size-fractionated particle-bound heavy metals in a typical e-waste recycling zone, South China. Anthropogenic metals (Zn, Se, Pb, Sb, As, and Cd) were predominantly enriched in fine particles (Dp1.8μm). Although the daily inhalation intakes of the target metals were significantly lower than those through food consumption and ingestion of house dust, the hazard quotients of total metals for adults (95% CI: 1.0-5.5) and children (95% CI: 3.0-17) were greater than 1. Moreover, the incremental lifetime cancer risks of five carcinogenic metals (Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd) for adults and children were 1.3×10(-3) (95% CI: 4.1×10(-4)-3.0×10(-3)) and 3.9×10(-3) (95% CI: 1.3×10(-3)-8.6×10(-3)), respectively, substantially higher than the acceptable cancer risk range of 10(-6)-10(-4). All these findings suggested that health risks were high for local residents dwelling around the e-waste recycling zone through inhalation exposure to particle-bound heavy metals, for both adults and children.

  15. The Social Rewards of Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Political interest is a crucial precursor to political engagement, but little is known about how to stimulate greater interest. The article explores the role social motives have in generating interest. A laboratory experiment is used in which it is possible to manipulate beliefs about the social...... particularly strong among individuals with low levels of external efficacy. Ultimately, the data provide clear evidence that political interest can be positively stimulated with social rewards mobilisation techniques and that it is rooted in beliefs about the potential motives pursuable through politics...

  16. Guidelines on the scope, content, and use of comprehensive risk assessment in the management of high-level nuclear waste transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golding, D.; White, A. [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States). Center for Technology, Environment, and Development

    1990-12-01

    This report discusses the scope of risk assessment strategies in the management of the transport of high-level radioactive wastes. In spite of the shortcomings of probabilistic risk assessment(PRA), the Transportation Needs Assessment recommended this as the preferred methodology to assess the risks of high level nuclear waste (HLNW) transportation. A PRA also will need to heed the lessons learned from the development and application of PRA elsewhere, such as in the nuclear power industry. A set of guidelines will aid this endeavor by outlining the appropriate scope, content, and use of a risk assessment which is more responsive to the uncertainties, human-technical interactions, social forces, and iterative relationship with risk management strategies, than traditional PRAS. This more expansive definition, which encompasses but is not totally reliant on rigorous data requirements and quantitative probability estimates, we term Comprehensive Risk Assessment (CRA) Guidelines will be developed in three areas: the limitations of existing methodologies and suggested modifications; CRA as part of a flexible, effective, adaptive risk management system for HLNW transportation; and, the use of CRA in risk communication.

  17. Submarine mass wasting and associated tsunami risk offshore western Thailand, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Schwab

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 2-D seismic data from the top and the western slope of Mergui Ridge in water depths between 300 and 2200 m off the Thai west coast have been investigated in order to identify mass transport deposits (MTDs and evaluate the tsunamigenic potential of submarine landslides in this outer shelf area. Based on our newly collected data, 17 mass transport deposits have been identified. Minimum volumes of individual MTDs range between 0.3 km3 and 14 km3. Landslide deposits have been identified in three different settings: (i stacked MTDs within disturbed and faulted basin sediments at the transition of the East Andaman Basin to the Mergui Ridge; (ii MTDs within a pile of drift sediments at the basin-ridge transition; and (iii MTDs near the edge of/on top of Mergui Ridge in relatively shallow water depths (< 1000 m. Our data indicate that the Mergui Ridge slope area seems to have been generally unstable with repeated occurrence of slide events. We find that the most likely causes for slope instabilities may be the presence of unstable drift sediments, excess pore pressure, and active tectonics. Most MTDs are located in large water depths (> 1000 m and/or comprise small volumes suggesting a small tsunami potential. Moreover, the recurrence rates of failure events seem to be low. Some MTDs with tsunami potential, however, have been identified on top of Mergui Ridge. Mass-wasting events that may occur in the future at similar locations may trigger tsunamis if they comprise sufficient volumes. Landslide tsunamis, emerging from slope failures in the working area and affecting western Thailand coastal areas therefore cannot be excluded, though the probability is very small compared to the probability of earthquake-triggered tsunamis, arising from the Sunda Trench.

  18. Social Influences on Creativity: Interactive Effects of Reward and Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    In a test of intrinsic motivation hypothesis of creativity, 60 undergraduate women did an artistic creativity task with either the expectation of receiving a reward or no expectation of reward. Reward was crossed with choice in task engagement, such that half of the reward Ss contracted to do the task in order to receive reward, and half simply…

  19. Data linkage to explore the risk of low birthweight associated with maternal proximity to hazardous waste sites from the National Priorities List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosniak, W.A.; Kaye, W.E. (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States)); Gomez, T.M. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    Data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey files were linked with data from the 1990 Environmental Protection Agency National Priorities List of hazardous waste sites to determine whether any relationship existed between living in proximity to hazardous waste sites and low birthweight. The odds ratio for low birthweight versus normal birthweight was 1.03 (95% confidence internal [95% Cl] = 0.98-1.16), and remained at 0.99 (95% Cl = 0.86-1.16) when adjusted for maternal age, parity, infant sex, prenatal care, and behavioral and socioeconomic factors. Very low birthweight, infant and fetal death, prematurity, and congenital malformation were not found to be associated with living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste site during pregnancy. Merging a large population database with environmental data proved to be an innovative but not very efficient method of assessing the risks of low birthweight related to the environment. 20 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Reward and non-reward learning of flower colours in the butterfly Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Ikuo; Yamaki, Takafumi

    2012-09-01

    Learning plays an important role in food acquisition for a wide range of insects. To increase their foraging efficiency, flower-visiting insects may learn to associate floral cues with the presence (so-called reward learning) or the absence (so-called non-reward learning) of a reward. Reward learning whilst foraging for flowers has been demonstrated in many insect taxa, whilst non-reward learning in flower-visiting insects has been demonstrated only in honeybees, bumblebees and hawkmoths. This study examined both reward and non-reward learning abilities in the butterfly Byasa alcinous whilst foraging among artificial flowers of different colours. This butterfly showed both types of learning, although butterflies of both sexes learned faster via reward learning. In addition, females learned via reward learning faster than males. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first empirical data on the learning speed of both reward and non-reward learning in insects. We discuss the adaptive significance of a lower learning speed for non-reward learning when foraging on flowers.

  1. Cognitive processing of food rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    Cues associated with tasty foods, such as their smell or taste, are strong motivators of eating, but the power of food cues on behaviour varies from moment to moment and from person to person. Variation in the rewarding value of a food with metabolic state explains why food cues are more attractive when hungry. However, cognitive processes are also important determinants of our responses to food cues. An urge to consume a tempting food may be resisted if, for example, a person has a longer term goal of weight loss. There is also evidence that responses to food cues can be facilitated or inhibited by memory processes. The aim of this review is to add to the literature on cognitive control of eating by reviewing recent evidence on the influence of working memory and episodic memory processes on responses to food cues. It is argued that processing of food information in working memory affects how much attention is paid to food cues in the environment and promotes the motivation to seek out food in the absence of direct contact with food cues. It is further argued that memories of specific recent eating episodes play an important role in directing food choices and influencing when and how much we eat. However, these memory processes are prone to disruption. When this happens, eating behaviour may become more cue-driven and less flexible. In the modern food environment, disruption of cognitive processing of food reward cues may lead to overconsumption and obesity.

  2. Reward guides vision when it's your thing: trait reward-seeking in reward-mediated visual priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Hickey

    Full Text Available Reward-related mesolimbic dopamine is thought to play an important role in guiding animal behaviour, biasing approach towards potentially beneficial environmental stimuli and away from objects unlikely to garner positive outcome. This is considered to result in part from an impact on perceptual and attentional processes: dopamine initiates a series of cognitive events that result in the priming of reward-associated perceptual features. We have provided behavioural and electrophysiological evidence that this mechanism guides human vision in search, an effect we refer to as reward priming. We have also demonstrated that there is substantial individual variability in this effect. Here we show that behavioural differences in reward priming are predicted remarkably well by a personality index that captures the degree to which a person's behaviour is driven by reward outcome. Participants with reward-seeking personalities are found to be those who allocate visual resources to objects characterized by reward-associated visual features. These results add to a rapidly developing literature demonstrating the crucial role reward plays in attentional control. They additionally illustrate the striking impact personality traits can have on low-level cognitive processes like perception and selective attention.

  3. Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research

    2006-09-15

    The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to

  4. The neuroscience of investing: fMRI of the reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard L

    2005-11-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has proven a useful tool for observing neural BOLD signal changes during complex cognitive and emotional tasks. Yet the meaning and applicability of the fMRI data being gathered is still largely unknown. The brain's reward system underlies the fundamental neural processes of goal evaluation, preference formation, positive motivation, and choice behavior. fMRI technology allows researchers to dynamically visualize reward system processes. Experimenters can then correlate reward system BOLD activations with experimental behavior from carefully controlled experiments. In the SPAN lab at Stanford University, directed by Brian Knutson Ph.D., researchers have been using financial tasks during fMRI scanning to correlate emotion, behavior, and cognition with the reward system's fundamental neural activations. One goal of the SPAN lab is the development of predictive models of behavior. In this paper we extrapolate our fMRI results toward understanding and predicting individual behavior in the uncertain and high-risk environment of the financial markets. The financial market price anomalies of "value versus glamour" and "momentum" may be real-world examples of reward system activation biasing collective behavior. On the individual level, the investor's bias of overconfidence may similarly be related to reward system activation. We attempt to understand selected "irrational" investor behaviors and anomalous financial market price patterns through correlations with findings from fMRI research of the reward system.

  5. [Polychlorinated biphenyls in house dust at an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China: sources and human exposure and health risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, She-Jun; Ding, Nan; Wang, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust from an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China. The PCB concentrations in house dust at the e-waste site ranged from 12.4 to 87 765 ng x g(-1), with an average of 10 167 ng x g(-1). There was no significant difference in the PCB concentrations between indoor and outdoor dust. The PCB homologue pattern was dominated by tri-, penta-, hexa-, and tetra-CBs, which was not similar to that in Chinese technical PCB product. There was also no significant difference in the PCB compositions between indoor and outdoor dust. PCB sources in house dust at the e-waste site were apportioned by chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The results showed that the PCBs were derived primarily from Aroclor 1262 (36.7% ), Aroclor 1254 (26.7%), Aroclor 1242 (21.4%), and Aroclor 1248 (18.5%). The daily exposure doses were 42, 17, and 2.9 ng x (kg x d)(-1) for toddlers, children/adolescents, and adults in the e-waste area, respectively. Risk assessment indicated that the hazard quotients were higher than 1 for toddlers and children/adolescents indicating adverse effects for them. The lifetime average excess carcinogenic risk for population in the e-waste area was 4.5 x 10(-5), within the acceptable range of U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The mean concentrations of PCBs in house dust in Guangzhou was 48.7 ng x g(-1). The low PCB level is consistent with the fact that technical PCBs were not widely used in China in the past. The risks of exposure to PCBs via house dust in Guangzhou are very low.

  6. Modelling and analysis of Markov reward automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guck, Dennis; Timmer, Mark; Hatefi, Hassan; Ruijters, Enno; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2014-01-01

    Costs and rewards are important ingredients for many types of systems, modelling critical aspects like energy consumption, task completion, repair costs, and memory usage. This paper introduces Markov reward automata, an extension of Markov automata that allows the modelling of systems incorporating

  7. Self-rewards and personal motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, A.K.; Nafziger, J.; Suvorov, A.; van de Ven, J.

    2014-01-01

    Self-administered rewards are ubiquitous. They serve as incentives for personal accomplishments and are widely recommended to increase personal motivation. We show that in a model with time-inconsistent and reference-dependent preferences, self-rewards can be a credible and effective tool to

  8. Resource Allocation Problems with Concave Reward Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundel, S.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In a resource allocation problem there is a common-pool resource, which has to be divided among agents. Each agent is characterized by a claim on this pool and an individual concave reward function on assigned resources. An assignment of resources is optimal if the total joint reward is ma

  9. Video game training and the reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.

  10. Status Characteristics, Reward Allocation, and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, Toby L.; Cook, Karen S.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between a group's power and prestige or status hierarchy and group members' patterns of reward allocation was investigated. The addition of evidence concerning actual task performance results in the alignment of reward and status rankings and encourages the use of distribution rules stressing equity as opposed to equality.…

  11. Performance-Based Rewards and Work Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganster, Daniel C.; Kiersch, Christa E.; Marsh, Rachel E.; Bowen, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Even though reward systems play a central role in the management of organizations, their impact on stress and the well-being of workers is not well understood. We review the literature linking performance-based reward systems to various indicators of employee stress and well-being. Well-controlled experiments in field settings suggest that certain…

  12. Video Game Training and the Reward System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Lorenz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual towards playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training.Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG or control group (CG. Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was conducted using a non-video game related reward task.At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated.This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the ventral striatum in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.

  13. Reward Magnitude Effects on Temporal Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment…

  14. Self-rewards and personal motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Suvorov, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Self-administered rewards are ubiquitous. They serve as incentives for personal accomplishments and are widely recommended to increase personal motivation. We show that in a model with time-inconsistent and reference-dependent preferences, self-rewards can be a credible and effective tool to over...

  15. Self-Rewards and Personal Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Suvorov, Anton

    Self-administered rewards are ubiquitous. They serve as incentives for personal accomplishments and are widely recommended to increase personal motivation. We show that in a model with time-inconsistent and reference-dependent preferences, self-rewards can be a credible and effective tool to over...

  16. Performance-Based Rewards and Work Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganster, Daniel C.; Kiersch, Christa E.; Marsh, Rachel E.; Bowen, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Even though reward systems play a central role in the management of organizations, their impact on stress and the well-being of workers is not well understood. We review the literature linking performance-based reward systems to various indicators of employee stress and well-being. Well-controlled experiments in field settings suggest that certain…

  17. Long-term risk analysis associated with nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Davis, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    An assessment and verification of previous analytic results on the long term risk of earth reentry for hazardous payloads is presented. The two areas were studied: (1) stability of nominal, near-circular storage orbits in the regions between Venus and earth and between earth and Mars, and (2) probability of earth reentry for off-nominal planet-crossing orbits resulting from deployment system failures. In the first area, numerical integrations of the equations of motion are compared with stability predications based on secular perturbation theory. The agreement is good in terms of the heliocentric distances covered and the general behavior of the orbital history, although certain near-resonance situations can lead to difficulty. In the second area, a Monte Carlo simulation of orbital evolution is used and the results compared with Opik's analytic theory of planetary encounters and collision statistics, with data verified to within a close order-of-magnitude.

  18. Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport: Current State of Knowledge from a Nuclear Waste Repository Risk Assessment Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.

  19. [Radiation risk assessment for plant reference species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) from the area of radium production waste storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Maĭstrenko, T A; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2012-01-01

    The risk of an enhanced level of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay series in the environment for reference plant species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) was assessed. 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Po, 232Th and 228Th concentration factors for plants were found to be lower than one. The aboveground parts of Vicia cracca sampled from the area of the radium production waste storage mainly accumulated 22Ra, Pinus sylvestris branches--210Pb, 226Ra and 210Po. LOEDR calculated for the chromosome aberration frequency in both plant studies was 17-71 microGy/h. LOERD values for the reproductive capacity decrease in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 17-71 microGy/h and 116-258 microGy/h, correspondingly. EDR10 for the chromosome aberration frequency in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 148 and 347 microGy/h, that is, correspondingly, 255 and 708 times higher that background values. EDR10 for the plant reproductive capacity was 11-34 microGy/h, which 19-69 times increases the background values.

  20. Risk assessment and feasibility study of solid waste minimization, recycling and disposal. Volume 2. Appendices. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The scope of work included an investigation of opportunities to reduce the amount of solid waste that must be disposed of by Huta Sendzimira and opportunities to use and/or recycle materials that have accumulated in the waste pile for several years. The study also included an evaluation of the existing waste pile as a possible area to be developed into a modern, sanitary landfill to serve both the steel mill and the citizens of the Krakow area. Appendix A concerns Waste Pile Boring Logs-Analytical Data; Appendix B covers Monitoring Well Boring Logs-Analytical Data; and Appendix C reports on Air Pollution Control Device-Annual Cost Spreadsheet Program.

  1. Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Edward A.; Williams, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews classroom behavior management studies to see if extrinsic rewards affect intrinsic reinforcement value of appropriate classroom behaviors. Conclusion indicates extrinsic rewards are useful. Teachers need not avoid the use of rewards in fear of undermining intrinsic interest. (LAB)

  2. Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Edward A.; Williams, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews classroom behavior management studies to see if extrinsic rewards affect intrinsic reinforcement value of appropriate classroom behaviors. Conclusion indicates extrinsic rewards are useful. Teachers need not avoid the use of rewards in fear of undermining intrinsic interest. (LAB)

  3. Serotonergic modulation of reward and punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the bulk of research on the human reward system was focused on studying the dopaminergic and opioid neurotransmitter systems. However, extending the initial data from animal studies on reward, recent pharmacological brain imaging studies on human participants bring a new line...... of evidence on the key role serotonin plays in reward processing. The reviewed research has revealed how central serotonin availability and receptor specific transmission modulates the neural response to both appetitive (rewarding) and aversive (punishing) stimuli in putative reward-related brain regions......-related processing and may also provide a neural correlated for the emotional blunting observed in the clinical treatment of psychiatric disorders with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Given the unique profile of action of each serotonergic receptor subtype, future pharmacological studies may favor receptor...

  4. Rewards and the evolution of cooperation in public good games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Properly coordinating cooperation is relevant for resolving public good problems, such as clean energy and environmental protection. However, little is known about how individuals can coordinate themselves for a certain level of cooperation in large populations of strangers. In a typical situation, a consensus-building process rarely succeeds, owing to a lack of face and standing. The evolution of cooperation in this type of situation is studied here using threshold public good games, in which cooperation prevails when it is initially sufficient, or otherwise it perishes. While punishment is a powerful tool for shaping human behaviours, institutional punishment is often too costly to start with only a few contributors, which is another coordination problem. Here, we show that whatever the initial conditions, reward funds based on voluntary contribution can evolve. The voluntary reward paves the way for effectively overcoming the coordination problem and efficiently transforms freeloaders into cooperators with a perceived small risk of collective failure. PMID:24478200

  5. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  6. Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) genetic variation and stress interact to influence reward learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Ryan; Santesso, Diane L; Fagerness, Jesen; Perlis, Roy H; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2011-09-14

    Stress is a general risk factor for psychopathology, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain largely unknown. Animal studies and limited human research suggest that stress can induce anhedonic behavior. Moreover, emerging data indicate that genetic variation within the corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor gene (CRHR1) at rs12938031 may promote psychopathology, particularly in the context of stress. Using an intermediate phenotypic neurogenetics approach, we assessed how stress and CRHR1 genetic variation (rs12938031) influence reward learning, an important component of anhedonia. Psychiatrically healthy female participants (n = 75) completed a probabilistic reward learning task during stress and no-stress conditions while 128-channel event-related potentials were recorded. Fifty-six participants were also genotyped across CRHR1. Response bias, an individual's ability to modulate behavior as a function of reward, was the primary behavioral variable of interest. The feedback-related positivity (FRP) in response to reward feedback was used as a neural index of reward learning. Relative to the no-stress condition, acute stress was associated with blunted response bias as well as a smaller and delayed FRP (indicative of disrupted reward learning) and reduced anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex activation to reward. Critically, rs12938031 interacted with stress to influence reward learning: both behaviorally and neurally, A homozygotes showed stress-induced reward learning abnormalities. These findings indicate that acute, uncontrollable stressors reduce participants' ability to modulate behavior as a function of reward, and that such effects are modulated by CRHR1 genotype. Homozygosity for the A allele at rs12938031 may increase risk for psychopathology via stress-induced reward learning deficits.

  7. Reward sensitivity and food addiction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxton, Natalie J; Tipman, Renée J

    2016-10-15

    Sensitivity to the rewarding properties of appetitive substances has long been implicated in excessive consumption of palatable foods and drugs of abuse. Previous research focusing on individual differences in reward responsiveness has found heightened trait reward sensitivity to be associated with binge-eating, hazardous drinking, and illicit substance use. Food addiction has been proposed as an extreme form of compulsive-overeating and has been associated with genetic markers of heightened reward responsiveness. However, little research has explicitly examined the association between reward sensitivity and food addiction. Further, the processes by which individual differences in this trait are associated with excessive over-consumption has not been determined. A total of 374 women from the community completed an online questionnaire assessing reward sensitivity, food addiction, emotional, externally-driven, and hedonic eating. High reward sensitivity was significantly associated with greater food addiction symptoms (r = 0.31). Bootstrapped tests of indirect effects found the relationship between reward sensitivity and food addiction symptom count to be uniquely mediated by binge-eating, emotional eating, and hedonic eating (notably, food availability). These indirect effects held even when controlling for BMI, anxiety, depression, and trait impulsivity. This study further supports the argument that high levels of reward sensitivity may offer a trait marker of vulnerability to excessive over-eating, beyond negative affect and impulse-control deficits. That the hedonic properties of food (especially food availability), emotional, and binge-eating behavior act as unique mediators suggest that interventions for reward-sensitive women presenting with food addiction may benefit from targeting food availability in addition to management of negative affect.

  8. Touch massage, a rewarding experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Lenita; Jacobsson, Maritha; Lämås, Kristina

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze healthy individuals' expressed experiences of touch massage (TM). Fifteen healthy participants received whole body touch massage during 60 minutes for two separate occasions. Interviews were analyzed by narrative analysis. Four identifiable storyline was found, Touch massage as an essential need, in this storyline the participants talked about a desire and need for human touch and TM. Another storyline was about, Touch massage as a pleasurable experience and the participants talked about the pleasure of having had TM. In the third storyline Touch massage as a dynamic experience, the informants talked about things that could modulate the experience of receiving TM. In the last storyline, Touch massage influences self-awareness, the participants described how TM affected some of their psychological and physical experiences. Experiences of touch massage was in general described as pleasant sensations and the different storylines could be seen in the light of rewarding experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Occurrence and ecological risk assessment of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in hospital waste of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Khan, Khujasta Nawaz; Rasool, Sana; Mustafa, Ghulam; Saif-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Sun, Qian; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, wastewater and sludge samples of two major hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan were analyzed by developing an HPLC-UV method for the possible occurrence of five frequently used fluoroquinolone antibiotics i.e. ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin. The highest detected concentration was for moxifloxacin in both wastewater (224 μg/L) and sludge samples (219 μg/kg. The highest concentration of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin and gemifloxacin were found to be 66, 18, 58 and 0.2 μg/L respectively. Risk quotient (RQ) was also calculated based on maximum measured concentrations and the RQ values were very high particularly for ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The maximum RQ values for ofloxacin against Vibrio fisheri, Pseudomonas putida, fish, Daphnia, Green algae and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were 3300, 66,000, 124, 46, 3300 and 6000, respectively. In case of ciprofloxacin, RQ values were found to be 1750 and 3500 against green algae and Microcystis aeruginosa, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalie Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refined sugars (e.g., sucrose, fructose were absent in the diet of most people until very recently in human history. Today overconsumption of diets rich in sugars contributes together with other factors to drive the current obesity epidemic. Overconsumption of sugar-dense foods or beverages is initially motivated by the pleasure of sweet taste and is often compared to drug addiction. Though there are many biological commonalities between sweetened diets and drugs of abuse, the addictive potential of the former relative to the latter is currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that when rats were allowed to choose mutually-exclusively between water sweetened with saccharin-an intense calorie-free sweetener-and intravenous cocaine-a highly addictive and harmful substance-the large majority of animals (94% preferred the sweet taste of saccharin. The preference for saccharin was not attributable to its unnatural ability to induce sweetness without calories because the same preference was also observed with sucrose, a natural sugar. Finally, the preference for saccharin was not surmountable by increasing doses of cocaine and was observed despite either cocaine intoxication, sensitization or intake escalation-the latter being a hallmark of drug addiction. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly demonstrate that intense sweetness can surpass cocaine reward, even in drug-sensitized and -addicted individuals. We speculate that the addictive potential of intense sweetness results from an inborn hypersensitivity to sweet tastants. In most mammals, including rats and humans, sweet receptors evolved in ancestral environments poor in sugars and are thus not adapted to high concentrations of sweet tastants. The supranormal stimulation of these receptors by sugar-rich diets, such as those now widely available in modern societies, would generate a supranormal reward signal in the brain, with the potential to override self

  11. High temporal discounters overvalue immediate rewards rather than undervalue future rewards: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniawsky, Avital S; Holroyd, Clay B

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity is characterized in part by heightened sensitivity to immediate relative to future rewards. Although previous research has suggested that "high discounters" in intertemporal choice tasks tend to prefer immediate over future rewards because they devalue the latter, it remains possible that they instead overvalue immediate rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded the reward positivity, a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) associated with reward processing, with participants engaged in a task in which they received both immediate and future rewards and nonrewards. The participants also completed a temporal discounting task without ERP recording. We found that immediate but not future rewards elicited the reward positivity. High discounters also produced larger reward positivities to immediate rewards than did low discounters, indicating that high discounters relatively overvalued immediate rewards. These findings suggest that high discounters may be more motivated than low discounters to work for monetary rewards, irrespective of the time of arrival of the incentives.

  12. Reward bias and lateralization in gambling behavior: behavioral activation system and alpha band analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta; Canavesio, Ylenia; Messina, Rossella

    2014-11-30

    The present research explored the main factors that can influence subjects' choices in the case of decisions. In order to elucidate the individual differences that influence the decisional processes, making their strategies more or less advantageous, we tested the effect of a reward sensitivity in the behavioral activation system (BAS-Reward) constructed on the ability to distinguish between high- and low-risk decisions. Secondly, the lateralization effect, related to increased activation of the left (BAS-related) hemisphere, was explored. Thirty-one subjects were tested using the Iowa Gambling Task, and the BAS-Reward measure was applied to distinguish between high-BAS and low-BAS groups. Behavioral responses (gain/loss options) and alpha-band modulation were considered. It was found that high-BAS group increased their tendency to opt in favor of the immediate reward (loss strategy) rather than the long-term option (win strategy). Secondly, high-BAS subjects showed an increased left-hemisphere activation in response to losing (with immediate reward) choices in comparison with low-BAS subjects. A "reward bias" effect was supposed to explain both the bad strategy and the unbalanced hemispheric activation for high-BAS and more risk-taking subjects.

  13. Risk of African swine fever introduction into the European Union through transport-associated routes: returning trucks and waste from international ships and planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mur Lina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The uncontrolled presence of African swine fever (ASF in Russian Federation (RF poses a serious risk to the whole European Union (EU pig industry. Although trade of pigs and their products is banned since the official notification in June 2007, the potential introduction of ASF virus (ASFV may occur by other routes, which are very frequent in ASF, and more difficult to control, such as contaminated waste or infected vehicles. This study was intended to estimate the risk of ASFV introduction into the EU through three types of transport routes: returning trucks, waste from international ships and waste from international planes, which will be referred here as transport-associated routes (TAR. Since no detailed and official information was available for these routes, a semi-quantitative model based on the weighted combination of risk factors was developed to estimate the risk of ASFV introduction by TAR. Relative weights for combination of different risk factors as well as validation of the model results were obtained by an expert opinion elicitation. Results Model results indicate that the relative risk for ASFV introduction through TAR in most of the EU countries (16 is low, although some countries, specifically Poland and Lithuania, concentrate high levels of risk, the returning trucks route being the analyzed TAR that currently poses the highest risk for ASFV introduction into the EU. The spatial distribution of the risk of ASFV introduction varies importantly between the analyzed introduction routes. Results also highlight the need to increase the awareness and precautions for ASF prevention, particularly ensuring truck disinfection, to minimize the potential risk of entrance into the EU. Conclusions This study presents the first assessment of ASF introduction into the EU through TAR. The innovative model developed here could be used in data scarce situations for estimating the relative risk associated to each EU country

  14. The role of cognitive effort in subjective reward devaluation and risky decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Matthew A J; Grima, Laura L; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2015-11-20

    Motivation is underpinned by cost-benefit valuations where costs-such as physical effort or outcome risk-are subjectively weighed against available rewards. However, in many environments risks pertain not to the variance of outcomes, but to variance in the possible levels of effort required to obtain rewards (effort risks). Moreover, motivation is often guided by the extent to which cognitive-not physical-effort devalues rewards (effort discounting). Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the influence of cognitive effort risks or discounting on motivation. We used two cost-benefit decision-making tasks to probe subjective sensitivity to cognitive effort (number of shifts of spatial attention) and to effort risks. Our results show that shifts of spatial attention when monitoring rapidly presented visual stimuli are perceived as effortful and devalue rewards. Additionally, most people are risk-averse, preferring safe, known amounts of effort over risky offers. However, there was no correlation between their effort and risk sensitivity. We show for the first time that people are averse to variance in the possible amount of cognitive effort to be exerted. These results suggest that cognitive effort sensitivity and risk sensitivity are underpinned by distinct psychological and neurobiological mechanisms.

  15. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60-99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12-30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed.

  16. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  17. Acute stress selectively reduces reward sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa H Berghorst

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task enabling comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go and punishment-driven (NoGo learning under either ‘no stress’ or ‘stress’ (threat-of-shock conditions. Cortisol samples and self-report measures were collected. Contrary to hypotheses, the groups did not differ significantly in task performance or cortisol reactivity. However, further analyses focusing only on individuals under ‘stress’ who were high responders with regard to both cortisol reactivity and self-reported negative affect revealed reduced reward sensitivity relative to individuals tested in the ‘no stress’ condition; importantly, these deficits were reward-specific. Overall, findings provide preliminary evidence that stress-reactive individuals show diminished sensitivity to reward but not punishment under stress. While such results highlight the possibility that stress-induced anhedonia might be an important mechanism linking stress to affective disorders, future studies are necessary to confirm this conjecture.

  18. Reinforcement Learning by Comparing Immediate Reward

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Punit; Kumar, Shishir

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces an approach to Reinforcement Learning Algorithm by comparing their immediate rewards using a variation of Q-Learning algorithm. Unlike the conventional Q-Learning, the proposed algorithm compares current reward with immediate reward of past move and work accordingly. Relative reward based Q-learning is an approach towards interactive learning. Q-Learning is a model free reinforcement learning method that used to learn the agents. It is observed that under normal circumstances algorithm take more episodes to reach optimal Q-value due to its normal reward or sometime negative reward. In this new form of algorithm agents select only those actions which have a higher immediate reward signal in comparison to previous one. The contribution of this article is the presentation of new Q-Learning Algorithm in order to maximize the performance of algorithm and reduce the number of episode required to reach optimal Q-value. Effectiveness of proposed algorithm is simulated in a 20 x20 Grid world dete...

  19. Prosocial reward learning in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngbin Kwak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of increased sensitivity to social contexts. To evaluate how social context sensitivity changes over development – and influences reward learning – we investigated how children and adolescents perceive and integrate rewards for oneself and others during a dynamic risky-decision-making task. Children and adolescents (N=75, 8-16 yrs performed the Social Gambling Task (SGT, (Kwak et al., 2014 and completed a set of questionnaires measuring other-regarding behavior. In the SGT, participants choose amongst four card decks that have different payout structures for oneself and for a charity. We examined patterns of choices, overall decision strategies, and how reward outcomes led to trial-by-trial adjustments in behavior, as estimated using a reinforcement-learning model. Performance of children and adolescents was compared to data from a previously collected sample of adults (N=102 performing the identical task. We found that that children/adolescents were not only more sensitive to rewards directed to the charity than self but also showed greater prosocial tendencies on independent measures of other-regarding behavior. Children and adolescents also showed less use of a strategy that prioritizes rewards for self at the expense of rewards for others. These results support the conclusion that, compared to adults, children and adolescents show greater sensitivity to outcomes for others when making decisions and learning about potential rewards.

  20. Reward expectation influences audiovisual spatial integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Patrick; Maiworm, Mario; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-08-01

    In order to determine the spatial location of an object that is simultaneously seen and heard, the brain assigns higher weights to the sensory inputs that provide the most reliable information. For example, in the well-known ventriloquism effect, the perceived location of a sound is shifted toward the location of a concurrent but spatially misaligned visual stimulus. This perceptual illusion can be explained by the usually much higher spatial resolution of the visual system as compared to the auditory system. Recently, it has been demonstrated that this cross-modal binding process is not fully automatic, but can be modulated by emotional learning. Here we tested whether cross-modal binding is similarly affected by motivational factors, as exemplified by reward expectancy. Participants received a monetary reward for precise and accurate localization of brief auditory stimuli. Auditory stimuli were accompanied by task-irrelevant, spatially misaligned visual stimuli. Thus, the participants' motivational goal of maximizing their reward was put in conflict with the spatial bias of auditory localization induced by the ventriloquist situation. Crucially, the amounts of expected reward differed between the two hemifields. As compared to the hemifield associated with a low reward, the ventriloquism effect was reduced in the high-reward hemifield. This finding suggests that reward expectations modulate cross-modal binding processes, possibly mediated via cognitive control mechanisms. The motivational significance of the stimulus material, thus, constitutes an important factor that needs to be considered in the study of top-down influences on multisensory integration.

  1. Using food as a reward: An examination of parental reward practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey; Marx, Jenna M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2017-09-23

    Eating patterns and taste preferences are often established early in life. Many studies have examined how parental feeding practices may affect children's outcomes, including food intake and preference. The current study focused on a common food parenting practice, using food as a reward, and used Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) to examine whether mothers (n = 376) and fathers (n = 117) of children ages 2.8 to 7.5 (M = 4.7; SD = 1.1) grouped into profiles (i.e., subgroups) based on how they use of food as a reward. The 4-class model was the best-fitting LPA model, with resulting classes based on both the frequency and type of reward used. Classes were: infrequent reward (33%), tangible reward (21%), food reward (27%), and frequent reward (19%). The current study also explored whether children's eating styles (emotional overeating, rood fussiness, food responsiveness, and satiety responsiveness) and parenting style (Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive) varied by reward profile. Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the four profiles differed significantly for all outcome variables except satiety responsiveness. It appears that the use of tangible and food-based rewards have important implications in food parenting. More research is needed to better understand how the different rewarding practices affect additional child outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Abnormal striatal BOLD responses to reward anticipation and reward delivery in ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Emi; Bado, Patricia; Tripp, Gail; Mattos, Paulo; Wickens, Jeff R; Bramati, Ivanei E; Alsop, Brent; Ferreira, Fernanda Meireles; Lima, Debora; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Sergeant, Joseph A; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Altered reward processing has been proposed to contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanism underlying this alteration remains unclear. We hypothesize that the transfer of dopamine release from reward to reward-predicting cues, as normally observed in animal studies, may be deficient in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate striatal responses to reward-predicting cues and reward delivery in a classical conditioning paradigm. Data from 14 high-functioning and stimulant-naïve young adults with elevated lifetime symptoms of ADHD (8 males, 6 females) and 15 well-matched controls (8 males, 7 females) were included in the analyses. During reward anticipation, increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the right ventral and left dorsal striatum were observed in controls, but not in the ADHD group. The opposite pattern was observed in response to reward delivery; the ADHD group demonstrated significantly greater BOLD responses in the ventral striatum bilaterally and the left dorsal striatum relative to controls. In the ADHD group, the number of current hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms was inversely related to ventral striatal responses during reward anticipation and positively associated with responses to reward. The BOLD response patterns observed in the striatum are consistent with impaired predictive dopamine signaling in ADHD, which may explain altered reward-contingent behaviors and symptoms of ADHD.

  3. Adaptive neural reward processing during anticipation and receipt of monetary rewards in mindfulness meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ulrich; Brown, Kirk Warren; Downar, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    Reward seeking is ubiquitous and adaptive in humans. But excessive reward seeking behavior, such as chasing monetary rewards, may lead to diminished subjective well-being. This study examined whether individuals trained in mindfulness meditation show neural evidence of lower susceptibility to monetary rewards. Seventy-eight participants (34 meditators, 44 matched controls) completed the monetary incentive delay task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The groups performed equally on the task, but meditators showed lower neural activations in the caudate nucleus during reward anticipation, and elevated bilateral posterior insula activation during reward anticipation. Meditators also evidenced reduced activations in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during reward receipt compared with controls. Connectivity parameters between the right caudate and bilateral anterior insula were attenuated in meditators during incentive anticipation. In summary, brain regions involved in reward processing-both during reward anticipation and receipt of reward-responded differently in mindfulness meditators than in nonmeditators, indicating that the former are less susceptible to monetary incentives. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Endocannabinoid signalling in reward and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Loren H; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2015-10-01

    Brain endocannabinoid (eCB) signalling influences the motivation for natural rewards (such as palatable food, sexual activity and social interaction) and modulates the rewarding effects of addictive drugs. Pathological forms of natural and drug-induced reward are associated with dysregulated eCB signalling that may derive from pre-existing genetic factors or from prolonged drug exposure. Impaired eCB signalling contributes to dysregulated synaptic plasticity, increased stress responsivity, negative emotional states and cravings that propel addiction. Understanding the contributions of eCB disruptions to behavioural and physiological traits provides insight into the eCB influence on addiction vulnerability.

  5. Forebrain substrates of reward and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Roy A

    2005-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle can reward arbitrary acts or motivate biologically primitive, species-typical behaviors like feeding or copulation. The subsystems involved in these behaviors are only partially characterized, but they appear to transsynaptically activate the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Basal function of the dopamine system is essential for arousal and motor function; phasic activation of this system is rewarding and can potentiate the effectiveness of reward-predictors that guide learned behaviors. This system is phasically activated by most drugs of abuse and such activation contributes to the habit-forming actions of these drugs.

  6. Endocannabinoid signaling in reward and addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Loren H.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2015-01-01

    Brain endocannabinoid signaling influences the motivation for natural rewards (such as palatable food, sexual activity and social interaction) and modulates the rewarding effects of addictive drugs. Pathological forms of natural and drug-induced reward are associated with dysregulated endocannabinoid signaling that may derive from pre-existing genetic factors or from prolonged drug exposure. Impaired endocannabinoid signaling contributes to dysregulated synaptic plasticity, increased stress responsivity, negative emotional states, and craving that propel addiction. Understanding the contributions of endocannabinoid disruptions to behavioral and physiological traits provides insight into the endocannabinoid influence on addiction vulnerability. PMID:26373473

  7. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  8. Looking for reward in all the wrong places: dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms indirectly affect aggression through sensation-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J; Estus, Steven; Lynam, Donald R; Peters, Jessica R; Jiang, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with genotypes that code for reduced dopaminergic brain activity often exhibit a predisposition toward aggression. However, it remains largely unknown how dopaminergic genotypes may increase aggression. Lower-functioning dopamine systems motivate individuals to seek reward from external sources such as illicit drugs and other risky experiences. Based on emerging evidence that aggression is a rewarding experience, we predicted that the effect of lower-functioning dopaminergic functioning on aggression would be mediated by tendencies to seek the environment for rewards. Caucasian female and male undergraduates (N = 277) were genotyped for five polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene; they reported their previous history of aggression and their dispositional reward-seeking. Lower-functioning DRD2 profiles were associated with greater sensation-seeking, which then predicted greater aggression. Our findings suggest that lower-functioning dopaminergic activity puts individuals at risk for violence because it motivates them to experience aggression's hedonically rewarding qualities.

  9. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  10. Consolidation power of extrinsic rewards: reward cues enhance long-term memory for irrelevant past events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Kitagami, Shinji

    2014-02-01

    Recent research suggests that extrinsic rewards promote memory consolidation through dopaminergic modulation processes. However, no conclusive behavioral evidence exists given that the influence of extrinsic reward on attention and motivation during encoding and consolidation processes are inherently confounded. The present study provides behavioral evidence that extrinsic rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) enhance human memory consolidation independently of attention and motivation. Participants saw neutral pictures, followed by a reward or control cue in an unrelated context. Our results (and a direct replication study) demonstrated that the reward cue predicted a retrograde enhancement of memory for the preceding neutral pictures. This retrograde effect was observed only after a delay, not immediately upon testing. An additional experiment showed that emotional arousal or unconscious resource mobilization cannot explain the retrograde enhancement effect. These results provide support for the notion that the dopaminergic memory consolidation effect can result from extrinsic reward.

  11. Reward is assessed in three dimensions that correspond to the semantic differential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Fennell

    Full Text Available If choices are to be made between alternatives like should I go for a walk or grab a coffee, a 'common currency' is needed to compare them. This quantity, often known as reward in psychology and utility in economics, is usually conceptualised as a single dimension. Here we propose that to make a comparison between different options it is important to know not only the average reward, but also both the risk and level of certainty (or control associated with an option. Almost all objects can be the subject of choice, so if these dimensions are required in order to make a decision, they should be part of the meaning of those objects. We propose that this ubiquity is unique, so if we take an average over many concepts and domains these three dimensions (reward, risk, and uncertainty should emerge as the three most important dimensions in the "meaning" of objects. We investigated this possibility by relating the three dimensions of reward to an old, robust and extensively studied factor analytic instrument known as the semantic differential. Across a very wide range of situations, concepts and cultures, factor analysis shows that 50% of the variance in rating scales is accounted for by just three dimensions, with these dimensions being Evaluation, Potency, and Activity [1]. Using a statistical analysis of internet blog entries and a betting experiment, we show that these three factors of the semantic differential are strongly correlated with the reward history associated with a given concept: Evaluation measures relative reward; Potency measures absolute risk; and Activity measures the uncertainty or lack of control associated with a concept. We argue that the 50% of meaning captured by the semantic differential is simply a summary of the reward history that allows decisions to be made between widely different options.

  12. Reward is assessed in three dimensions that correspond to the semantic differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John G; Baddeley, Roland J

    2013-01-01

    If choices are to be made between alternatives like should I go for a walk or grab a coffee, a 'common currency' is needed to compare them. This quantity, often known as reward in psychology and utility in economics, is usually conceptualised as a single dimension. Here we propose that to make a comparison between different options it is important to know not only the average reward, but also both the risk and level of certainty (or control) associated with an option. Almost all objects can be the subject of choice, so if these dimensions are required in order to make a decision, they should be part of the meaning of those objects. We propose that this ubiquity is unique, so if we take an average over many concepts and domains these three dimensions (reward, risk, and uncertainty) should emerge as the three most important dimensions in the "meaning" of objects. We investigated this possibility by relating the three dimensions of reward to an old, robust and extensively studied factor analytic instrument known as the semantic differential. Across a very wide range of situations, concepts and cultures, factor analysis shows that 50% of the variance in rating scales is accounted for by just three dimensions, with these dimensions being Evaluation, Potency, and Activity [1]. Using a statistical analysis of internet blog entries and a betting experiment, we show that these three factors of the semantic differential are strongly correlated with the reward history associated with a given concept: Evaluation measures relative reward; Potency measures absolute risk; and Activity measures the uncertainty or lack of control associated with a concept. We argue that the 50% of meaning captured by the semantic differential is simply a summary of the reward history that allows decisions to be made between widely different options.

  13. Prior fear conditioning and reward learning interact in fear and reward networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eBulganin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to flexibly adapt responses to changes in the environment is important for survival. Previous research in humans separately examined the mechanisms underlying acquisition and extinction of aversive and appetitive conditioned responses. It is yet unclear how aversive and appetitive learning interact on a neural level during counterconditioning in humans. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study investigated the interaction of fear conditioning and subsequent reward learning. In the first phase (fear acquisition, images predicted aversive electric shocks or no aversive outcome. In the second phase (counterconditioning, half of the CS+ and CS- were associated with monetary reward in the absence of electric stimulation. The third phase initiated reinstatement of fear through presentation of electric shocks, followed by CS presentation in the absence of shock or reward. Results indicate that participants were impaired at learning the reward contingencies for stimuli previously associated with shock. In the counterconditioning phase, prior fear association interacted with reward representation in the amygdala, where activation was decreased for rewarded compared to unrewarded CS- trials, while there was no reward-related difference in CS+ trials. In the reinstatement phase, an interaction of previous fear association and previous reward status was observed in a reward network consisting of substantia nigra / ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA, striatum and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, where activation was increased by previous reward association only for CS- but not for CS+ trials. These findings suggest that during counterconditioning, prior fear conditioning interferes with reward learning, subsequently leading to lower activation of the reward network.

  14. A Transportation Risk Assessment Tool for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph Best; T. Winnard; S. Ross; R. Best

    2001-08-17

    The Yucca Mountain Transportation Database was developed as a data management tool for assembling and integrating data from multiple sources to compile the potential transportation impacts presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (DEIS). The database uses the results from existing models and codes such as RADTRAN, RISKIND, INTERLINE, and HIGHWAY to estimate transportation-related impacts of transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial reactors and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to Yucca Mountain. The source tables in the database are compendiums of information from many diverse sources including: radionuclide quantities for each waste type; route and route characteristics for rail, legal-weight truck, heavy haul. truck, and barge transport options; state-specific accident and fatality rates for routes selected for analysis; packaging and shipment data by waste type; unit risk factors; the complex behavior of the packaged waste forms in severe transport accidents; and the effects of exposure to radiation or the isotopic specific effects of radionclides should they be released in severe transportation accidents. The database works together with the codes RADTRAN (Neuhauser, et al, 1994) and RISKlND (Yuan, et al, 1995) to calculate incident-free dose and accident risk. For the incident-free transportation scenario, the database uses RADTRAN and RISKIND-generated data to calculate doses to offlink populations, onlink populations, people at stops, crews, inspectors, workers at intermodal transfer stations, guards at overnight stops, and escorts, as well as non-radioactive pollution health effects. For accident scenarios, the database uses RADTRAN-generated data to calculate dose risks based on ingestion, inhalation, resuspension, immersion (cloudshine), and groundshine as

  15. Decision making in the reward and punishment variants of the iowa gambling task: evidence of "foresight" or "framing"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varsha; Khan, Azizuddin

    2012-01-01

    Surface-level differences in the reward and punishment variants, specifically greater long-term decision making in the punishment variant of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) observed in previous studies led to the present comparison of long-term decision making in the two IGT variants (n = 320, male = 160). It was contended that risk aversion triggered by a positive frame of the reward variant and risk seeking triggered by a negative frame of the punishment variant appears as long-term decision making in the two IGT variants. Apart from the frame of the variant as a within-subjects factor (variant type: reward and punishment), the order in which the frame was triggered (order type: reward-punishment or punishment-reward), and the four types of instructions that delineated motivation toward reward from that of punishment (reward, punishment, reward and punishment, and no-hint) were hypothesized to have an effect on foresighted decision making in the IGT. As expected, long-term decision making differed across the two IGT variants suggesting that the frame of the variant has an effect on long-term decision making in the IGT (p punishment resulted in greater foresight than the commonly used IGT instructions that fail to distinguish between reward and punishment. As observed in previous studies, there were more number of participants (60%) who showed greater foresight in the punishment variant than in the reward variant (p punishment frame in an asymmetric manner, an observation that is aligned with the behavioral decision making framework. Benefits of integrating findings from behavioral studies in decision neuroscience are discussed, and a need to investigate cultural differences in the IGT studies is pointed out.

  16. EuroPlus+ Reward / Alar Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hammer, Alar

    2000-01-01

    EuroPlus+ Reward on mitmes versioonis ilmunud inglise keele õppeprogramm, milles on ühendatud multimeedia võimalused ning distantsõpe ning mis loob täiesti uued võimalused keele omandamiseks arvuti abil

  17. Rewards and Opportunities for Successful Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Justin G.

    1983-01-01

    Among the rewards for entrepreneurs are money, independence, and a satisfying way of life. A variety of opportunities exist for those with the vision, ingenuity, and courage to exploit the potential of the market place. (SK)

  18. Performance insurance: rewarding managers for better service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetland, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities need to improve their performance in ways that are transparent and obvious to customers. David Zetland explains how performance insurance can improve outcomes for customers, ease the workload on regulators, and reward good managers

  19. TOTAL REWARDS MODEL IN ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Sabina HODOR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total Rewards Management is a subject of major importance for companies, because, by using models for this, firms can achieve their objectives of high performance. In order to analyse a validated total rewards model in Romanian Accounting and Consulting Companies, it is used The WorldatWork Total Rewards Model, which depict what contributes to applicant attraction and employee motivation and retention. Thus, the methodology of the previous survey is adjusted to the local context. The conclusions for the methodological aspects illustrate that the present research involves three strategic steps in order to achieve the objectives presented: the analysis of organizational environment of the companies from the sample, checking if Total Rewards Model proposed in the previous research is applicable for the same romanian companies from the previous survey, the analysing of the differences between results, and, if necessary, the adaptation of the model for Romania.

  20. Dopamine Signaling in reward-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja-Hyun eBaik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DAmesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural rewards such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specific genetic manipulations have improved our understanding of DA signaling in the reward circuit, and provided a means to identify the neural substrates of complex behaviors such as drug addiction and eating disorders. This review focuses on the role of the DA system in drug addiction and food motivation, with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors.

  1. Reward reveals dissociable aspects of sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Michael; Reagan, Andrew; Liu, Guanyu; Turner, Caroline; DeGutis, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Although reward is known to have a powerful influence on performance, its effects on the ability to continuously sustain performance over time are poorly understood. The current study examines multiple measures of sustained attention (accuracy and variability) and their decrements over time, while introducing reward in the form of a monetary incentive or the promise of early completion. Compared with unrewarded participants, rewarded participants demonstrated greater overall accuracy and lower reaction time variability. However, rewarded and unrewarded participants displayed nearly identical decrements in performance over time, suggesting that these aspects of sustained attention are far less malleable by enhanced effort. This study helps to resolve conflicting models of sustained attention as it reveals that some aspects of performance are due to motivational lapses whereas others are due to the depletion of cognitive resources that cannot be easily overcome.

  2. TOTAL REWARDS MODEL IN ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Sabina HODOR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total Rewards Management is a subject of major importance for companies, because, by using models for this, firms can achieve their objectives of high performance. In order to analyse a validated total rewards model in Romanian Accounting and Consulting Companies, it is used The WorldatWork Total Rewards Model, which depict what contributes to applicant attraction and employee motivation and retention. Thus, the methodology of the previous survey is adjusted to the local context. The conclusions for the methodological aspects illustrate that the present research involves three strategic steps in order to achieve the objectives presented: the analysis of organizational environment of the companies from the sample, checking if Total Rewards Model proposed in the previous research is applicable for the same romanian companies from the previous survey, the analysing of the differences between results, and, if necessary, the adaptation of the model for Romania.

  3. EuroPlus+ Reward / Alar Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hammer, Alar

    2000-01-01

    EuroPlus+ Reward on mitmes versioonis ilmunud inglise keele õppeprogramm, milles on ühendatud multimeedia võimalused ning distantsõpe ning mis loob täiesti uued võimalused keele omandamiseks arvuti abil

  4. Analysis of Bitcoin Pooled Mining Reward Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Meni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the various scoring systems used to calculate rewards of participants in Bitcoin pooled mining, explain the problems each were designed to solve and analyze their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Dopamine signaling in reward-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DA mesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural reward such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specific genetic manipulations have improved our understanding of DA signaling in the reward circuit, and provided a means to identify the neural substrates of complex behaviors such as drug addiction and eating disorders. This review focuses on the role of the DA system in drug addiction and food motivation, with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors.

  6. Motivating interdependent teams: individual rewards, shared rewards, or something in between?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Christian, Michael S; Ellis, Aleksander P J

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose in this study was to extend theory and research regarding the motivational process in teams by examining the effects of hybrid rewards on team performance. Further, to better understand the underlying team level mechanisms, the authors examined whether the hypothesized benefits of hybrid over shared and individual rewards were due to increased information allocation and reduced social loafing. Results from 90 teams working on a command-and-control simulation supported the hypotheses. Hybrid rewards led to higher levels of team performance than did individual and shared rewards; these effects were due to improvements in information allocation and reductions in social loafing. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Individual differences in sensitivity to reward and punishment and neural activity during reward and avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hee; Yoon, HeungSik; Kim, Hackjin; Hamann, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    In this functional neuroimaging study, we investigated neural activations during the process of learning to gain monetary rewards and to avoid monetary loss, and how these activations are modulated by individual differences in reward and punishment sensitivity. Healthy young volunteers performed a reinforcement learning task where they chose one of two fractal stimuli associated with monetary gain (reward trials) or avoidance of monetary loss (avoidance trials). Trait sensitivity to reward and punishment was assessed using the behavioral inhibition/activation scales (BIS/BAS). Functional neuroimaging results showed activation of the striatum during the anticipation and reception periods of reward trials. During avoidance trials, activation of the dorsal striatum and prefrontal regions was found. As expected, individual differences in reward sensitivity were positively associated with activation in the left and right ventral striatum during reward reception. Individual differences in sensitivity to punishment were negatively associated with activation in the left dorsal striatum during avoidance anticipation and also with activation in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex during receiving monetary loss. These results suggest that learning to attain reward and learning to avoid loss are dependent on separable sets of neural regions whose activity is modulated by trait sensitivity to reward or punishment.

  8. Dorsomedial striatum lesions affect adjustment to reward uncertainty, but not to reward devaluation or omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carmen; Glueck, Amanda C; Conrad, Shannon E; Morón, Ignacio; Papini, Mauricio R

    2016-09-22

    The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has been implicated in the acquisition of reward representations, a proposal leading to the hypothesis that it should play a role in situations involving reward loss. We report the results of an experiment in which the effects of DMS excitotoxic lesions were tested in consummatory successive negative contrast (reward devaluation), autoshaping training with partial vs. continuous reinforcement (reward uncertainty), and appetitive extinction (reward omission). Animals with DMS lesions exhibited reduced lever pressing responding, but enhanced goal entries, during partial reinforcement training in autoshaping. However, they showed normal negative contrast, acquisition under continuous reinforcement (CR), appetitive extinction, and response facilitation in early extinction trials. Open-field testing also indicated normal motor behavior. Thus, DMS lesions selectively affected the behavioral adjustment to a situation involving reward uncertainty, producing a behavioral reorganization according to which goal tracking (goal entries) became predominant at the expense of sign tracking (lever pressing). This pattern of results shows that the function of the DMS in situations involving reward loss is not general, but restricted to reward uncertainty. We suggest that a nonassociative, drive-related process induced by reward uncertainty requires normal output from DMS neurons.

  9. The Circadian Clock, Reward, and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Urs eAlbrecht

    2011-01-01

    During our daily activities, we experience variations in our cognitive performance, which is often accompanied by cravings for small rewards, such as consuming coffee or chocolate. This indicates that the time of day, cognitive performance, and reward may be related to one another. This review will summarize data that describe the influence of the circadian clock on addiction and mood-related behavior and put the data into perspective in relation to memory processes.

  10. The circadian clock, reward and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs eAlbrecht

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available During our daily activities, we experience variations in our cognitive performance, which is often accompanied by cravings for small rewards, such as consuming coffee or chocolate. This indicates that the time of day, cognitive performance and reward may be related to one another. This review will summarize data that describes the influence of the circadian clock on addiction and mood-related behavior and put the data into perspective in relation to memory processes.

  11. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  12. Proposal for a questionnaire to assess risk perception concerning a radioactive waste repository; Proposta de um questionario destinado a avaliar a percepcao de risco relativa a um repositorio de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Katia Suemi

    2011-07-01

    One of the key features for public acceptance of nuclear energy is the belief that radioactive waste can be managed safely, in order to protect human beings from its possible harmful effects in present and future generations. In this sense, it is essential to understand how people perceive the risk associated with radioactive waste and which the main factors driving their attitudes toward its disposal are. One of the ways to achieve this understanding is through opinion polls. In this study, a questionnaire focused on the nuclear energy acceptability issue and its association with radioactive waste management was proposed, covering the following aspects: attitudes towards radioactive waste and nuclear power, credibility on institutions and sectors responsible by the nuclear safety, identification of perceived benefits, risk perception of specific technologies and activities, perception of real risk, emotional reaction comprehension and precautionary principle. Results obtained from a pilot questionnaire application are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  13. Multi-function Waste Tank Facility path forward engineering analysis -- Technical Task 3.6, Estimate of operational risk in 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.

    1995-04-28

    Project W-0236A has been proposed to provide additional waste tank storage in the 200 East and 200 West Areas. This project would construct two new waste tanks in the 200 West Area and four new tanks in the 200 East Area, and a related project (Project W-058) would construct a new cross-site line. These projects are intended to ensure sufficient space and flexibility for continued tank farm operations, including tank waste remediation and management of unforeseen contingencies. The objective of this operational risk assessment is to support determination of the adequacy of the free-volume capacity provided by Projects W-036A and W-058 and to determine related impacts. The scope of the assessment is the 200 West Area only and covers the time period from the present to the year 2005. Two different time periods were analyzed because the new cross-site tie line will not be available until 1999. The following are key insights: success of 200 West Area tank farm operations is highly correlated to the success of the cross-site transfer line and the ability of the 200 East Area to receive waste from 200 West; there is a high likelihood of a leak on a complexed single-shell tank in the next 4 years (sampling pending); there is a strong likelihood, in the next 4 years, that some combination of tank leaks, facility upsets, and cross-site line failure will require more free tank space than is currently available in Tank 241-SY-102; in the next 4 to 10 years, there is a strong likelihood that a combination of a cross-site line failure and the need to accommodate some unscheduled waste volume will require more free tank space than is presently available in Tank 241-SY-102; the inherent uncertainty in volume projections is in the range of 3 million gallons; new million-gallon tanks increase the ability to manage contingencies and unplanned events.

  14. A risk-based focused decision-management approach for justifying characterization of Hanford tank waste. June 1996, Revision 1; April 1997, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colson, S.D.; Gephart, R.E.; Hunter, V.L.; Janata, J.; Morgan, L.G.

    1997-12-31

    This report describes a disciplined, risk-based decision-making approach for determining characterization needs and resolving safety issues during the storage and remediation of radioactive waste stored in Hanford tanks. The strategy recommended uses interactive problem evaluation and decision analysis methods commonly used in industry to solve problems under conditions of uncertainty (i.e., lack of perfect knowledge). It acknowledges that problem resolution comes through both the application of high-quality science and human decisions based upon preferences and sometimes hard-to-compare choices. It recognizes that to firmly resolve a safety problem, the controlling waste characteristics and chemical phenomena must be measurable or estimated to an acceptable level of confidence tailored to the decision being made.

  15. A new scale for measuring reward responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Van Den Berg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several psychological theories assume that there are two basic brain mechanisms that guide behavior: an avoidance or inhibition system, which is responsive to signals of punishment, and an approach or activation system, which is sensitive to signals of reward. Several self-report scales have been developed to assess the sensitivity to punishment and reward, and these instruments have been shown to be useful in research on personality, psychopathology, and underlying biological substrates. However, it is also true that in particular scales for measuring reward responsiveness suffer from various inadequacies. Therefore, a new Reward Responsiveness (RR scale was developed and subjected to an extensive psychometric evaluation. The results show that this scale measures a single factor, reward responsiveness that is clearly independent of punishment sensitivity. Further, the data indicated that the internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity, test-retest reliability, and predictive properties of the new scale were all adequate. It can be concluded that the RR scale is a psychometrically sound instrument that may be useful for researchers with interest in the personality construct of reward responsiveness.

  16. Increases in rewards promote flexible behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y Jeremy; Chun, Marvin M

    2011-04-01

    Offering reward for performance can motivate people to perform a task better, but better preparation for one task usually means decreased flexibility to perform different tasks. In six experiments in which reward varied between low and high levels, we found that reward can encourage people to prepare more flexibly for different tasks, but only as it increased from the level on the previous trial. When the same high rewards were offered continuously trial after trial, people were more inclined to simply stick with doing what had worked previously. We demonstrated such enhancements in flexibility in task switching, a difficult visual search task, and an easier priming of pop-out search task, which shows that this effect generalizes from executive tasks to perceptual processes that require relatively little executive control. These findings suggest that relative, transient changes in reward can exert more potent effects on behavioral flexibility than can the absolute amount of reward, whether it consists of money or points in a social competition.

  17. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Daniels, J; Wegrecki, A

    2007-10-01

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as 'high explosives' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the onsite test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for further handling

  18. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  19. Reward Comparison: The Achilles’ heel and hope for addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Grigson, Patricia Sue

    2008-01-01

    In the words of the late Charles Flaherty, reward comparison is commonplace. Rats and man, it appears, compare all rewards and this capacity likely contributes to our ability to select the most appropriate reward/behavior (food, water, salt, sex), at the most ideal level (e.g., a certain sweetness), at any given time. A second advantage of our predisposition for reward comparison is that the availability of rich alternative rewards can protect against our becoming addicted to any single rewar...

  20. Reward sensitivity for a palatable food reward peaks during pubertal developmental in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M Friemel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Puberty is a critical period for the initiation of drug use and abuse. Because early drug use onset often accounts for a more severe progression of addiction, it is of importance to understand the underlying mechanisms and neurodevelopmental changes during puberty that are contributing to enhanced reward processing in teenagers. The present study investigated the progression of reward sensitivity towards a natural food reward over the whole course of adolescence in male rats (postnatal days 30–90 by monitoring consummatory, motivational behavior and neurobiological correlates of reward. Using a limited-free intake paradigm, consumption of sweetened condensed milk (SCM was measured repeatedly in adolescent and adult rats. Additionally, early- and mid-pubertal animals were tested in Progressive Ratio responding for SCM and c-fos protein expression in reward-associated brain structures was examined after odor-conditioning for SCM. We found a transient increase in SCM consumption and motivational incentive for SCM during puberty. This increased reward sensitivity was most pronounced around mid-puberty. The behavioral findings are paralleled by enhanced c-fos staining in reward-related structures revealing an intensified neuronal response after reward-cue presentation, distinctive for pubertal animals. Taken together, these data indicate an increase in reward sensitivity during adolescence accompanied by enhanced responsiveness of reward associated brain structures to incentive stimuli, and it seems that both is strongly pronounced around mid-puberty. Therefore, higher reward sensitivity during pubertal maturation might contribute to the enhanced vulnerability of teenagers for the initiation of experimental drug use.

  1. The impact of mineralocorticoid receptor ISO/VAL genotype (rs5522) and stress on reward learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, R; Perlis, R H; Fagerness, J; Pizzagalli, D A

    2010-08-01

    Research suggests that stress disrupts reinforcement learning and induces anhedonia. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) determines the sensitivity of the stress response, and the missense iso/val polymorphism (Ile180Val, rs5522) of the MR gene (NR3C2) has been associated with enhanced physiological stress responses, elevated depressive symptoms and reduced cortisol-induced MR gene expression. The goal of these studies was to evaluate whether rs5522 genotype and stress independently and interactively influence reward learning. In study 1, participants (n = 174) completed a probabilistic reward task under baseline (i.e. no-stress) conditions. In study 2, participants (n = 53) completed the task during a stress (threat-of-shock) and no-stress condition. Reward learning, i.e. the ability to modulate behavior as a function of reinforcement history, was the main variable of interest. In study 1, in which participants were evaluated under no-stress conditions, reward learning was enhanced in val carriers. In study 2, participants developed a weaker response bias toward a more frequently rewarded stimulus under the stress relative to no-stress condition. Critically, stress-induced reward learning deficits were largest in val carriers. Although preliminary and in need of replication due to small sample size, findings indicate that psychiatrically healthy individuals carrying the MR val allele, gene, which has been recently linked to depression, showed a reduced ability to modulate behavior as a function of reward when facing an acute, uncontrollable stressor. Future studies are warranted to evaluate whether rs5522 genotype interacts with naturalistic stressors to increase the risk of depression and whether stress-induced anhedonia might moderate such risk.

  2. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  3. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  4. Assessment of health risk of trace metal pollution in surface soil and road dust from e-waste recycling area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Wu, Yousheng; Kim, Stephani; Reponen, Tiina; Dietrich, Kim N; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-09-01

    Informal recycling of e-waste and the resulting heavy metal pollution has become a serious burden on the ecosystem in Guiyu, China. In this investigation, we evaluated the trace metal concentration of community soil and road dust samples from 11 locations in Guiyu and 5 locations (consisting of residential areas, kindergarten/school, and farm field) in a reference area using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study spanned four seasons, 2012-2013, with a view to assess the risk associated with e-waste recycling in the study area. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Mn were 448.73, 0.71, 63.90, and 806.54 mg/kg in Guiyu soil and 589.74, 1.94, 69.71, and 693.74 mg/kg, in the dust, respectively. Pb and Cd values were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than the reference area, and the mixed model analysis with repeated seasonal measurements revealed soil Pb and Cd levels that were 2.32 and 4.34 times, while the ratios for dust sample were 4.10 and 3.18 times higher than the reference area. Contamination factor, degree of contamination, and pollution load index indicated that all sampling points had a high level of metal contamination except farm land and kindergarten compound. The cumulative hazard index of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Mn for children in exposed area was 0.99 and 1.62 for soil and dust, respectively, suggesting non-cancer health risk potential. The significant accumulation of trace metals in the e-waste recycling area predisposes human life, especially children, to a potentially serious health risk.

  5. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal

  6. Reward processing in the value-driven attention network: reward signals tracking cue identity and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2017-03-01

    Through associative reward learning, arbitrary cues acquire the ability to automatically capture visual attention. Previous studies have examined the neural correlates of value-driven attentional orienting, revealing elevated activity within a network of brain regions encompassing the visual corticostriatal loop [caudate tail, lateral occipital complex (LOC) and early visual cortex] and intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Such attentional priority signals raise a broader question concerning how visual signals are combined with reward signals during learning to create a representation that is sensitive to the confluence of the two. This study examines reward signals during the cued reward training phase commonly used to generate value-driven attentional biases. High, compared with low, reward feedback preferentially activated the value-driven attention network, in addition to regions typically implicated in reward processing. Further examination of these reward signals within the visual system revealed information about the identity of the preceding cue in the caudate tail and LOC, and information about the location of the preceding cue in IPS, while early visual cortex represented both location and identity. The results reveal teaching signals within the value-driven attention network during associative reward learning, and further suggest functional specialization within different regions of this network during the acquisition of an integrated representation of stimulus value. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Anger is associated with reward-related electrocortical activity: Evidence from the reward positivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angus, D.J.; Kemkes, K.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Harmon-Jones, E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the reward positivity (RewP), an electrophysiological correlate of sensitivity and biases towards rewarding stimuli, is modulated by affective and motivational variables. Studies have provided evidence that states and traits associated with negative affect and reduce

  8. Rewards, aversions and affect in adolescence: Emerging convergences across laboratory animal and human data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent transition is associated with increases in reward- and sensation-seeking, peer-directed social interactions, and risk-taking, with exploratory use of alcohol and other drugs often beginning at this time. These age-related behaviors may have biological roots embedded in the evolutionary past, with similar adolescent-typical characteristics evident across a variety of mammalian species. Drawing across human behavioral and fMRI data and studies conducting in laboratory animals, this review examines processing of rewards, aversions, and affect in adolescence. Evidence for both hyper- and hypo-reactivity during adolescence in the processing of rewards is reviewed, along with possible contributors to these differences. Indications of sometimes heightened reward reactivity during adolescence are contrasted with frequent attenuations in adolescent sensitivity to aversive stimuli. At the same time, adolescents appear particularly prone to becoming emotionally aroused, especially in social contexts. Emerging evidence hints that exaggerated adolescent reactivity in reward and affective systems may be promoted in part by unusual strong cross-reactivity between these systems during adolescence. Such age-related propensities may promote adolescent risk taking, especially in social and exciting contexts, and contribute to adolescent-typical propensities to attach greater benefit and less cost to risky behaviors such as alcohol and drug use than individuals at other ages. PMID:21918675

  9. Neural Sensitivity to Absolute and Relative Anticipated Reward in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Jatin G.; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Block, Robert I.; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  10. Qualitative adaptive reward learning with success failure maps: applied to humanoid robot walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassour, John; Hugel, Vincent; Ben Ouezdou, Fethi; Cheng, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    In the human brain, rewards are encoded in a flexible and adaptive way after each novel stimulus. Neurons of the orbitofrontal cortex are the key reward structure of the brain. Neurobiological studies show that the anterior cingulate cortex of the brain is primarily responsible for avoiding repeated mistakes. According to vigilance threshold, which denotes the tolerance to risks, we can differentiate between a learning mechanism that takes risks and one that averts risks. The tolerance to risk plays an important role in such a learning mechanism. Results have shown the differences in learning capacity between risk-taking and risk-avert behaviors. These neurological properties provide promising inspirations for robot learning based on rewards. In this paper, we propose a learning mechanism that is able to learn from negative and positive feedback with reward coding adaptively. It is composed of two phases: evaluation and decision making. In the evaluation phase, we use a Kohonen self-organizing map technique to represent success and failure. Decision making is based on an early warning mechanism that enables avoiding repeating past mistakes. The behavior to risk is modulated in order to gain experiences for success and for failure. Success map is learned with adaptive reward that qualifies the learned task in order to optimize the efficiency. Our approach is presented with an implementation on the NAO humanoid robot, controlled by a bioinspired neural controller based on a central pattern generator. The learning system adapts the oscillation frequency and the motor neuron gain in pitch and roll in order to walk on flat and sloped terrain, and to switch between them.

  11. Anhedonia is associated with blunted reward sensitivity in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-hua; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Wang, Ling-zhi; Zhu, Yu-hua; Huang, Jia; Neumann, David L.; Shum, David H. K.; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Anhedonia is a cardinal feature of major depression and is hypothesized to be driven by low motivation, in particular blunted reward sensitivity. It has been suggested to be a marker that represents a genetic predisposition to this disorder. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heightened risk in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with major depression. We previously demonstrated abnormal reward biases in acutely depressed patients. The present study aimed to examine the development of reward bias in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression. Methods Forty-seven first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (26 females, age 18-52) and 60 healthy controls with no family history of depression (34 females, age 21-48) were recruited. A probabilistically rewarded difficult visual discrimination task, in which participants were instructed about the contingencies, was used to assess blunted reward sensitivity. A response bias towards the more frequently rewarded stimulus (termed “reward bias”) was the primary outcome variable in this study. Participants also completed self-reported measures of anhedonia and depressive symptoms. Results Compared with the control group, relatives of patients with major depression with sub-clinical depressive symptoms displayed a blunted reward bias. Relatives without symptoms displayed largely intact motivational processing on both self-report and experimental measures. The degree of anhedonia was associated with attenuated reward bias in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression, especially in those with sub-clinical symptoms. Limitations The study did not include a depressed patient group, which restricted our ability to interpret the observed group differences. Conclusions Blunted reward sensitivity may be largely manifested in a subgroup of relatives with high levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:26590511

  12. Characterisation and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and plants around e-waste dismantling sites in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; He, Jiexin; Wang, Shaorui; Luo, Chunling; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Gan

    2017-08-08

    Environmental pollution due to primitive e-waste dismantling activities has been intensively investigated over the last decade in the south-eastern coastal region of China. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and plants around e-waste recycling sites in Longtang, Guangdong province, South China. The results indicated that PAH concentrations in rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil were in the range of 133 to 626 ng/g and 60 to 816 ng/g, respectively, while PAH levels in plant tissue were 96 to 388 ng/g in shoots and 143 to 605 ng/g in roots. PAHs were enriched in rhizosphere soils in comparison with non-rhizosphere soils. The concentrations of PAHs in plant tissues varied greatly among plant cultivars, indicating that the uptake of PAHs by plants is species-dependent. Different profiles of PAHs in the soil and the corresponding plant tissue implied that PAH uptake and translocation by plants were selective.The total daily intakes of PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs through vegetables at the e-waste recycling site were estimated to be 99 and 22 ng/kg/day, respectively, suggesting that potential health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated vegetables should not be ignored.

  13. MINIMASI RESIKO DALAM SISTEM PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH MEDIS DI KOTA BANDUNG, INDONESIA DENGAN PENDEKATAN LINEAR PROGRAMMING (Risk Minimization for Medical Waste Management System in Bandung City, Indonesia: A Linear Programming Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Chaerul

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Berbagai macam pelayanan perawatan kesehatan yang disediakan oleh rumah sakit akan berpotensi menghasilkan limbah medis. Walaupun sebagian besar limbah rumah sakit dapat dikelompokkan sebagai limbah yang tidak berbahaya yang memiliki sifat yang sama dengan sampah rumah tangga dan dapat dibuang ke tempat penimbunan sampah, sebagian kecil dari limbah medis harus dikelola dengan tepat untuk meminimasi resiko terhadap kesehatan masyarakat. Model pengelolaan limbah medis yang dikembangkan ditujukan untuk meminimasi resiko terhadap fasilitas umum dan komersial seperti fasilitas ibadah, bank, perkantoran, restoran, hotel, stasiun pengisian bahan bakar, fasilitas pendidikan, mall dan pusat perbelanjaan, taman dan pusat olahraga/kebugaran, akibat pengangkutan limbah medis dan abu hasil pengolahannya. Tingkat resiko dari setiap fasilitas di atas ditentukan menggunakan metode Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Permasalahan diselesaikan dengan mengaplikasikan linear programming menggunakan software optimimasi LINGO®. Output model berupa optimasi alokasi limbah medis dari setiap rumah sakit ke fasilitas pengolahan dan alokasi abu dari fasilitas pengolahan ke tempat penimbunan akhir. Hasil model memperlihatkan bahwa rute terpendek tidak menghasilkan total resiko terkecil karena dipengaruhi oleh jumlah dan tingkat resiko dari setiap fasilitas yang dilalui oleh kemdaraan pengangkut limbah medis dan abu. Perbedaan fasilitas yang berada di sekitar pengolahan limbah medis juga akan menghasilkan total resiko yang berbeda. ABSTRACT A broad range of healthcare services provided by hospital may generate medical waste. Although a large percentage of hospital waste is classified as general waste, which has similar nature as that of municipal solid waste and, therefore, could be disposed in municipal landfill, a small portion of medical waste has to be managed in a proper manner to minimize risk to public health. A medical waste management model is proposed in

  14. Reproductive isolation and pollination success of rewarding Galearis diantha and non-rewarding Ponerorchis chusua (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Qin; Huang, Bao-Qiang; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Kou, Yong; An, De-Jun; Luo, Yi-Bo; Ge, Song

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence challenges the conventional perception that orchids are the most distinct example of floral diversification due to floral or prezygotic isolation. Regarding the relationship between co-flowering plants, rewarding and non-rewarding orchids in particular, few studies have investigated whether non-rewarding plants affect the pollination success of rewarding plants. Here, floral isolation and mutual effects between the rewarding orchid Galearis diantha and the non-rewarding orchid Ponerorchis chusua were investigated. Flowering phenological traits were monitored by noting the opening and wilting dates of the chosen individual plants. The pollinator pool and pollinator behaviour were assessed from field observations. Key morphological traits of the flowers and pollinators were measured directly in the field. Pollinator limitation and interspecific compatibility were evaluated by hand-pollination experiments. Fruit set was surveyed in monospecific and heterospecific plots. The species had overlapping peak flowering periods. Pollinators of both species displayed a certain degree of constancy in visiting each species, but they also visited other flowers before landing on the focal orchids. A substantial difference in spur size between the species resulted in the deposition of pollen on different regions of the body of the shared pollinator. Hand-pollination experiments revealed that fruit set was strongly pollinator-limited in both species. No significant difference in fruit set was found between monospecific plots and heterospecific plots. A combination of mechanical isolation and incomplete ethological isolation eliminates the possibility of pollen transfer between the species. These results do not support either the facilitation or competition hypothesis regarding the effect of nearby rewarding flowers on non-rewarding plants. The absence of a significant effect of non-rewarding P. chusua on rewarding G. diantha can be ascribed to low levels of

  15. Single pulse TMS differentially modulates reward behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Arielle D; Luber, Bruce; Unger, Layla; Cycowicz, Yael M; Malaspina, Dolores; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2013-12-01

    Greater knowledge of cortical brain regions in reward processing may set the stage for using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a treatment in patients with avolition, apathy or other drive-related symptoms. This study examined the effects of single pulse (sp) TMS to two reward circuit targets on drive in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects performed the monetary incentive delay task (MID) while receiving fMRI-guided spTMS to either inferior parietal lobe (IPL) or supplemental motor area (SMA). The study demonstrated decreasing reaction times (RT) for increasing reward. It also showed significant differences in RT modulation for TMS pulses to the IPL versus the SMA. TMS pulses during the delay period produced significantly more RT slowing when targeting the IPL than those to the SMA. This RT slowing carried over into subsequent trials without TMS stimulation, with significantly slower RTs in sessions that had targeted the IPL compared to those targeting SMA. The results of this study suggest that both SMA and IPL are involved in reward processing, with opposite effects on RT in response to TMS stimulation. TMS to these target cortical regions may be useful in modulating reward circuit deficits in psychiatric populations.

  16. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...

  17. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  18. Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Caravanos

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling/disposal site in Accra, Ghana revealed an area with extensive lead contamination in both ambient air and topsoil. Given the urban nature of this site e as well as the large adjacent food distribution market, the potential for human health impact is substantial both to workers and local residents.

  19. Environmental Risk Assessment and Waste Management Strategies in Rural Areas (Case Study: RamjerdVillage 1, Marvdasht city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Hossaini Motlagh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: protecting the environment is one of the important pillars of human rights, so that the maintenance and protection of the environment is one of the main tasks of the present and the future.A major part of the population of rural and natural areas of the country is allocated. One of the most important environmental health problems villages lack basic collection and disposal of waste produced.Waste management rural important action to prevent environmental hazards and one of the most important components of sustainable development is rural. Materials and Methods: In this study, the data collection method is the descriptive survey which aims to provide appropriate waste management strategy in Ramjerdvillage 1, Marvdashtcity done.In this study, using a sample of the population of the area under study, 400 subjects were selected.After analyzing and identifying environmental factors, matrices were made IFE and EFE. Conclusion: the final score 2.458 internal factors and external factors final score was 2.797. According to the final score, the matrix is composed of the situation and of the strategies of the IE model, SWOT, conservative strategies as a strategy QSPM were assigned to the matrix.Finally, with regard to the appeal, the strategy of "education for rural people and rural managers considering taking their training to avoid unseemly sights and informing them about the economic value of waste "as the most important strategy ago and was introduced with the highest rating.

  20. Increased risk of chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk associated with decreased magnesium and increased manganese in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion disease of Rocky Mountain elk in North America. CWD is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in which the prolonged and variable incubation time is controlled in part by the host prion precursor genotype. The mis...

  1. Additive effects of oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms on reward circuitry in youth with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L M; Krasileva, K; Green, S A; Sherman, L E; Ponting, C; McCarron, R; Lowe, J K; Geschwind, D H; Bookheimer, S Y; Dapretto, M

    2016-11-15

    Several common alleles in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with altered brain function in reward circuitry in neurotypical adults and may increase risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, it is currently unknown how variation in the OXTR relates to brain functioning in individuals with ASD, and, critically, whether neural endophenotypes vary as a function of aggregate genetic risk. Here, for we believe the first time, we use a multi-locus approach to examine how genetic variation across several OXTR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect functional connectivity of the brain's reward network. Using data from 41 children with ASD and 41 neurotypical children, we examined functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) - a hub of the reward network - focusing on how connectivity varies with OXTR risk-allele dosage. Youth with ASD showed reduced NAcc connectivity with other areas in the reward circuit as a function of increased OXTR risk-allele dosage, as well as a positive association between risk-allele dosage and symptom severity, whereas neurotypical youth showed increased NAcc connectivity with frontal brain regions involved in mentalizing. In addition, we found that increased NAcc-frontal cortex connectivity in typically developing youth was related to better scores on a standardized measure of social functioning. Our results indicate that cumulative genetic variation on the OXTR impacts reward system connectivity in both youth with ASD and neurotypical controls. By showing differential genetic effects on neuroendophenotypes, these pathways elucidate mechanisms of vulnerability versus resilience in carriers of disease-associated risk alleles.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 15 November 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.209.

  2. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFitzgerald

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signalling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behaviour. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings.

  3. Contextual Bandit Learning with Predictable Rewards

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Alekh; Kale, Satyen; Langford, John; Schapire, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Contextual bandit learning is a reinforcement learning problem where the learner repeatedly receives a set of features (context), takes an action and receives a reward based on the action and context. We consider this problem under a realizability assumption: there exists a function in a (known) function class, always capable of predicting the expected reward, given the action and context. Under this assumption, we show three things. We present a new algorithm---Regressor Elimination--- with a regret similar to the agnostic setting (i.e. in the absence of realizability assumption). We prove a new lower bound showing no algorithm can achieve superior performance in the worst case even with the realizability assumption. However, we do show that for any set of policies (mapping contexts to actions), there is a distribution over rewards (given context) such that our new algorithm has constant regret unlike the previous approaches.

  4. VOCs elimination and health risk reduction in e-waste dismantling workshop using integrated techniques of electrostatic precipitation with advanced oxidation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Hu, Yunkun; Li, Yunlu

    2016-01-25

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during the electronic waste dismantling process (EWDP) were treated at a pilot scale, using integrated electrostatic precipitation (EP)-advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs, subsequent photocatalysis (PC) and ozonation). Although no obvious alteration was seen in VOC concentration and composition, EP technology removed 47.2% of total suspended particles, greatly reducing the negative effect of particles on subsequent AOTs. After the AOT treatment, average removal efficiencies of 95.7%, 95.4%, 87.4%, and 97.5% were achieved for aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, as well as nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds, respectively, over 60-day treatment period. Furthermore, high elimination capacities were also seen using hybrid technique of PC with ozonation; this was due to the PC unit's high loading rates and excellent pre-treatment abilities, and the ozonation unit's high elimination capacity. In addition, the non-cancer and cancer risks, as well as the occupational exposure cancer risk, for workers exposed to emitted VOCs in workshop were reduced dramatically after the integrated technique treatment. Results demonstrated that the integrated technique led to highly efficient and stable VOC removal from EWDP emissions at a pilot scale. This study points to an efficient approach for atmospheric purification and improving human health in e-waste recycling regions.

  5. Addiction and Reward-related Genes Show Altered Expression in the Postpartum Nucleus Accumbens

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    Changjiu eZhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood involves a switch in natural rewards, whereby offspring become highly rewarding. Nucleus accumbens (NAC is a key CNS region for natural rewards and addictions, but to date no study has evaluated on a large scale the events in NAC that underlie the maternal change in natural rewards. In this study we utilized microarray and bioinformatics approaches to evaluate postpartum NAC gene expression changes in mice. Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET indicated that postpartum (relative to virgin NAC gene expression profile was significantly enriched for genes related to addiction and reward in 5 of 5 independently curated databases (e.g., Malacards, Phenopedia. Over 100 addiction/reward related genes were identified and these included: Per1, Per2, Arc, Homer2, Creb1, Grm3, Fosb, Gabrb3, Adra2a, Ntrk2, Cry1, Penk, Cartpt, Adcy1, Npy1r, Htr1a, Drd1a, Gria1, and Pdyn. ToppCluster analysis found maternal NAC expression profile to be significantly enriched for genes related to the drug action of nicotine, ketamine, and dronabinol. Pathway analysis indicated postpartum NAC as enriched for RNA processing, CNS development/differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis identified possible networks for transcription factors, including Nr1d1, Per2, Fosb, Egr1, and Nr4a1. The postpartum state involves increased risk for mental health disorders and MSET analysis indicated postpartum NAC to be enriched for genes related to depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Mental health related genes included: Fabp7, Grm3, Penk, and Nr1d1. We confirmed via quantitative PCR Nr1d1, Per2, Grm3, Penk, Drd1a, and Pdyn. This study indicates for the first time that postpartum NAC involves large scale gene expression alterations linked to addiction and reward. Because the postpartum state also involves decreased response to drugs, the findings could provide insights into how to mitigate addictions.

  6. Adolescents, adults and rewards: comparing motivational neurocircuitry recruitment using fMRI.

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    James M Bjork

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent risk-taking, including behaviors resulting in injury or death, has been attributed in part to maturational differences in mesolimbic incentive-motivational neurocircuitry, including ostensible oversensitivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc to rewards. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test whether adolescents showed increased NAcc activation by cues for rewards, or by delivery of rewards, we scanned 24 adolescents (age 12-17 and 24 adults age (22-42 with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a monetary incentive delay (MID task. The MID task was configured to temporally disentangle potential reward or potential loss anticipation-related brain signal from reward or loss notification-related signal. Subjects saw cues signaling opportunities to win or avoid losing $0, $.50, or $5 for responding quickly to a subsequent target. Subjects then viewed feedback of their trial success after a variable interval from cue presentation of between 6 to 17 s. Adolescents showed reduced NAcc recruitment by reward-predictive cues compared to adult controls in a linear contrast with non-incentive cues, and in a volume-of-interest analysis of signal change in the NAcc. In contrast, adolescents showed little difference in striatal and frontocortical responsiveness to reward deliveries compared to adults. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In light of divergent developmental difference findings between neuroimaging incentive paradigms (as well as at different stages within the same task, these data suggest that maturational differences in incentive-motivational neurocircuitry: 1 may be sensitive to nuances of incentive tasks or stimuli, such as behavioral or learning contingencies, and 2 may be specific to the component of the instrumental behavior (such as anticipation versus notification.

  7. Optimization of rewards in single machine scheduling in the rewards-driven systems

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    Abolfazl Gharaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The single machine scheduling problem aims at obtaining the best sequence for a set of jobs in a manufacturing system with a single machine. In this paper, we optimize rewards in single machine scheduling in rewards-driven systems such that total reward is maximized while the constraints contains of limitation in total rewards for earliness and learning, independent of earliness and learning and etc. are satisfied. In mentioned systems as for earliness and learning the bonus is awarded to operators, we consider only rewards in mentioned systems and it will not be penalized under any circumstances. Our objective is to optimize total rewards in mentioned system by taking the rewards in the form of quadratic for both learning and earliness. The recently-developed sequential quadratic programming (SQP, is used by solve the problem. Results show that SQP had satisfactory performance in terms of optimum solutions, number of iterations, infeasibility and optimality error. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the change rate of the objective function obtained based on the change rate of the “amount of earliness for jobs (Ei parameter”.

  8. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  9. Non-reward neural mechanisms in the orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    Single neurons in the primate orbitofrontal cortex respond when an expected reward is not obtained, and behaviour must change. The human lateral orbitofrontal cortex is activated when non-reward, or loss occurs. The neuronal computation of this negative reward prediction error is fundamental for the emotional changes associated with non-reward, and with changing behaviour. Little is known about the neuronal mechanism. Here we propose a mechanism, which we formalize into a neuronal network model, which is simulated to enable the operation of the mechanism to be investigated. A single attractor network has a reward population (or pool) of neurons that is activated by expected reward, and maintain their firing until, after a time, synaptic depression reduces the firing rate in this neuronal population. If a reward outcome is not received, the decreasing firing in the reward neurons releases the inhibition implemented by inhibitory neurons, and this results in a second population of non-reward neurons to start and continue firing encouraged by the spiking-related noise in the network. If a reward outcome is received, this keeps the reward attractor active, and this through the inhibitory neurons prevents the non-reward attractor neurons from being activated. If an expected reward has been signalled, and the reward attractor neurons are active, their firing can be directly inhibited by a non-reward outcome, and the non-reward neurons become activated because the inhibition on them is released. The neuronal mechanisms in the orbitofrontal cortex for computing negative reward prediction error are important, for this system may be over-reactive in depression, under-reactive in impulsive behaviour, and may influence the dopaminergic 'prediction error' neurons.

  10. Impaired learning of social compared to monetary rewards in autism

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    Alice eLin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A leading hypothesis to explain the social dysfunction in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD is that they exhibit a deficit in reward processing and motivation specific to social stimuli.  However, there have been few direct tests of this hypothesis to date.  Here we used an instrumental reward learning task that contrasted learning with social rewards (pictures of positive and negative faces against learning with monetary reward (winning and losing money. The two tasks were structurally identical except for the type of reward, permitting direct comparisons.  We tested ten high-functioning people with ASD (7M, 3F and ten healthy controls who were matched on gender, age and education.  We found no significant differences between the two groups in terms of overall ability behaviorally to discriminate positive from negative slot machines, reaction-times, and valence ratings,  However, there was a specific impairment in the ASD group in learning to choose social rewards, compared to monetary rewards: they had a significantly lower cumulative number of choices of the most rewarding social slot machine, and had a significantly slower initial learning rate for the socially rewarding slot machine, compared to the controls.  The findings show a deficit in reward learning in ASD that is greater for social rewards than for monetary rewards, and support the hypothesis of a disproportionate impairment in social reward processing in ASD.

  11. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome

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    Kenneth Blum

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth Blum1,6,7,8,9,10, Amanda Lih-Chuan Chen2, Eric R Braverman3,9, David E Comings4, Thomas JH Chen5, Vanessa Arcuri9, Seth H Blum6, Bernard W Downs7,8, Roger L Waite7, Alison Notaro9, Joel Lubar10, Lonna Williams7, Thomas J Prihoda11, Tomas Palomo12, Marlene Oscar-Berman131Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; 2Department of Engineering and Management of Advanced Technology, Chang Jung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Weill College of Medicine, New York, NY; 4Department of Medical Genetics, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA; 5Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chang Jung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Department of Psychoneurogenetics, Synapatamine, Inc., San Antonio, TX; 7LifeGen, Inc., La Jolla, CA; 8Allied Nutraceutical Research, Lederach, PA; 9PATH Research Foundation, New York, NY; 10Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; 11Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX; 12Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; 13Boston University School of Medicine, and Boston VA Healthcare System, Boston, MAParts of this manuscript have been published in Theor Biol Med Model (Comings et al 2005, which is an open access journalAbstract: Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes that may mediate susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” especially in the dopamine system, causing a low or hypo-dopaminergic trait, the brain may require dopamine for individuals to avoid unpleasant feelings. This high-risk genetic trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behaviors, because the drugs activate release of dopamine, which can diminish abnormal cravings. Moreover, this genetic trait is due in part to a

  12. The relationship between personality types and reward preferences

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    R. Nienaber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research has shown that total rewards models structured according to individual preferences, positively influence efforts to attract, retain and motivate key employees. Yet, this is seldom done. Structuring total rewards models according to the preferences of employee segments is a viable alternative to accommodate individual preferences. Research purpose: The primary aim of the study was to determine the relationship between personality types and reward preferences. The secondary aim was to determine the reward preferences for different demographic groups. Motivation for the study: An enhanced understanding of reward preferences for different employee segments will enable employers to offer more competitive reward options to their employees. This may, in turn, have a positive impact on retention. Research design, approach and method: Two measuring instruments, the MBTI® Form GRV and the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire, were distributed electronically to 5 000 potential respondents. The results from 589 sets of questionnaires were used in the data analyses. Primary and secondary factor analyses were done on the items in the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire. Main findings/results: The study confirmed that individuals with certain personality types and personality preferences, have different preferences for certain reward categories. There was a stronger relationship between reward preferences and personality preferences than for reward preferences and personality types. Preferences for reward categories by different demographic groups were confirmed. The significant difference in reward preferences between Black and White respondents in particular was noteworthy, with Black respondents indicating significantly higher mean scores for all reward categories than White respondents. Finally, a total rewards framework influenced by the most prominent preferences for reward categories, was designed. Practical/Managerial implications

  13. Using stochastic risk assessment in setting information priorities for managing dioxin impact from a municipal waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hwong-wen

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess site-specific carcinogenic risk of incinerator-emitted dioxins in a manner reflecting pollutant transfer across multimedia and multi-pathways. The study used site-specific environmental and exposure information and combined the Monte Carlo method with multimedia modeling to produce probability distributions of risk estimates. The risk estimates were further categorized by contaminated environmental media and exposure pathways that are experienced by human receptors in order to pinpoint significant sources of risk. Rank correlation coefficients were also calculated along with the Monte Carlo sampling to identify key factors that influenced estimation of risk. The results showed that ingestion accounted for more than 90% of the total risk and that risk control on ingestion of eggs, aboveground vegetables, and poultry should receive priority. It was also found that variation of parameters with variability accounted for around 35% of the total risk variance, while uncertainty contributed to the remaining 65%. Intake rates of aboveground vegetables, eggs, and poultry were the key parameters with the largest contribution to variance. In addition, sufficient sampling and analysis of dioxin contents in eggs, aboveground vegetables, poultry, soil, and fruit should be performed to improve risk estimation because the variation in concentrations in these media accounted for the largest overall risk variance. Finally, focus should be placed on reduction of uncertainty associated with the risk estimation through ingestion of aboveground vegetables, eggs, poultry, fruit, and soil because the risk estimates associated with these exposure pathways had the largest variance.

  14. Distinct effects of ASD and ADHD symptoms on reward anticipation in participants with ADHD, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Eelco V; von Rhein, Daniel; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina A; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits are continuously distributed throughout the population, and ASD symptoms are also frequently observed in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both ASD and ADHD have been linked to alterations in reward-related neural processing. However, whether both symptom domains interact and/or have distinct effects on reward processing in healthy and ADHD populations is currently unknown. We examined how variance in ASD and ADHD symptoms in individuals with ADHD and healthy participants was related to the behavioural and neural response to reward during a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Participants (mean age: 17.7 years, range: 10-28 years) from the NeuroIMAGE study with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD (n = 136), their unaffected siblings (n = 83), as well as healthy controls (n = 105) performed an MID task in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. ASD and ADHD symptom scores were used as predictors of the neural response to reward anticipation and reward receipt. Behavioural responses were modeled using linear mixed models; neural responses were analysed using FMRIB's Software Library (FSL) proprietary mixed effects analysis (FLAMEO). ASD and ADHD symptoms were associated with alterations in BOLD activity during reward anticipation, but not reward receipt. Specifically, ASD scores were related to increased insular activity during reward anticipation across the sample. No interaction was found between this effect and the presence of ADHD, suggesting that ASD symptoms had no differential effect in ADHD and healthy populations. ADHD symptom scores were associated with reduced dorsolateral prefrontal activity during reward anticipation. No interactions were found between the effects of ASD and ADHD symptoms on reward processing. Variance in ASD and ADHD symptoms separately influence neural processing during reward anticipation in both individuals with (an increased risk of) ADHD and healthy

  15. Effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on choice between small certain rewards and large uncertain rewards in rats

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    Howes Nathan J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals must frequently make choices between alternative courses of action, seeking to maximize the benefit obtained. They must therefore evaluate the magnitude and the likelihood of the available outcomes. Little is known of the neural basis of this process, or what might predispose individuals to be overly conservative or to take risks excessively (avoiding or preferring uncertainty, respectively. The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC is known to contribute to rats' ability to choose large, delayed rewards over small, immediate rewards; AcbC lesions cause impulsive choice and an impairment in learning with delayed reinforcement. However, it is not known how the AcbC contributes to choice involving probabilistic reinforcement, such as between a large, uncertain reward and a small, certain reward. We examined the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the AcbC on probabilistic choice in rats. Results Rats chose between a single food pellet delivered with certainty (p = 1 and four food pellets delivered with varying degrees of uncertainty (p = 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, and 0.0625 in a discrete-trial task, with the large-reinforcer probability decreasing or increasing across the session. Subjects were trained on this task and then received excitotoxic or sham lesions of the AcbC before being retested. After a transient period during which AcbC-lesioned rats exhibited relative indifference between the two alternatives compared to controls, AcbC-lesioned rats came to exhibit risk-averse choice, choosing the large reinforcer less often than controls when it was uncertain, to the extent that they obtained less food as a result. Rats behaved as if indifferent between a single certain pellet and four pellets at p = 0.32 (sham-operated or at p = 0.70 (AcbC-lesioned by the end of testing. When the probabilities did not vary across the session, AcbC-lesioned rats and controls strongly preferred the large reinforcer when it was certain, and strongly

  16. Potential Environment and Public Health Risk Due to Contamination of Heavy Metals from Industrial Waste Water in Lam Thao, Phu Tho, Vietnam

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    Nguyen C. Vinh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Vietnam, rice cultivation plays an important role in national economic development and food security. However, rice production is facing many problems associated with rapid industrialization and urbanization in the country. Resultant emissions of solid and liquid wastes are often untreated and discharged directly to agricultural land. These practices have potential impacts on the environment and human health. Approach: The research was carried out within the frame of the collaborative research project “Towards the mitigation of environment and public health risks due to heavy metal contamination in irrigated rice-based systems of Vietnam” in 2006-2010. The study was implemented in the Lam Thao district, Phu Tho province with the aim to assess the effects of wastewater and other contamination sources on the environment and public health. Results: Surface water and soil in the field showed signs of significant contamination by wastewater from the industrial zones. Bio-indicators (DO, COD, BOD5 in the surface water were also strongly affected by waste. Paddy fields around the industrial zones had an elevated risk of heavy metal contamination (Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb, with concentrations exceeding Vietnamese Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MACs for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Soil contamination with heavy metals was resulting in elevated concentrations in rice grain. Where consumption of locally-produced food was high, exposure of individuals to heavy metals could present a public health risk. The partial Hazard Quotient (HQ; a ratio derived from comparing estimated exposure to heavy metals, i.e., Cd, (with toxicologically-derived„ safe’ daily doses for rice and vegetables (water spinach and the integrated Hazard Quotient of rice and vegetables (HQi was consistently greater in areas with soil contamination than in the reference area using Red River water for irrigation. The HQi for Cd was particularly high for children below the

  17. Characterization and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals found in fly ashes from waste filter bags obtained from a Chinese steel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Ning, Xun-an; Liao, Xikai; Lin, Meiqing; Liu, Jingyong; Wang, Jianghui

    2013-09-01

    The environmental risk of exposure to six heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd) found in fly ashes from waste filter bags obtained from a steel plant was estimated based on the mineralogical compositions, total concentrations and speciation of the metals in the fly ashes. The results indicated that the fly ashes mainly consisted of hematite, magnetite, cyanite, spinel, coesite and amorphous materials. The concentrations of Zn and Pb were much higher than that of other materials. After Zn and Pb, Ni was present in the highest concentration, followed by Cu, Cr and Cd. Each heavy metal was distributed differently in fly ashes. The levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in the active fraction were very high, and ranged from 64.83 to 81.96%, 34.48 to 82.4% and 6.92 to 79.65% respectively, while Cu, Cr and Ni were mainly present in the residual fraction. The risk assessment code (RAC) values of fly ashes showed that the Zn and Cd present in the H3 sample presented a very high risk, with RAC values greater than 50%. The Cu present in the H3 sample, Cd in the H2 sample and Zn in the H4 and H5 samples presented a high risk. The Pb present in the H2 sample, Cd in the H4 sample, Ni in the H1 and H5 samples, and Zn in the H1 sample presented a medium risk. A low risk was presented by the Cu present in the H1, H2, H4 and H5 samples, the Pb in the H1, H3 and H5 samples, the Cd in the H1 and H5 samples, and the Ni in the H2 sample. No risk was presented by Cr in any sample.

  18. Diminishing striatal activation across adolescent development during reward anticipation in offspring of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Matthijs; de Leeuw, Max; Pouwels, Ruby; van den Munkhof, Hanna E; Kahn, René S; Hillegers, Manon

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with impaired fronto-striatal functioning. Similar deficits are observed in unaffected siblings of patients, indicating that these deficits are linked to a familial risk for the disorder. Fronto-striatal deficits may arise during adolescence and precede clinical manifestation of the disorder. However, the development of the fronto-striatal network in adolescents at increased familial risk for schizophrenia is still poorly understood. In this cross-sectional study, we investigate the impact of familial risk on fronto-striatal functioning across age related to reward anticipation and receipt in 25 adolescent offspring of schizophrenia patients (SZ offspring) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (range 10-19years). Subjects performed a reward task while being scanned with functional MRI. Overall response times and the amount of money won did not differ between the groups. Striatal activation during reward anticipation decreased across age in the SZ offspring, while it did not in the healthy controls. Activation in the orbitofrontal cortex during reward receipt did not differ between the groups. These results, taken together with data from adult schizophrenia patients and their siblings, indicate that the diminishing striatal activation across adolescence may signify a familial vulnerability for schizophrenia.

  19. Reviewing the effort-reward imbalance model: drawing up the balance of 45 empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vegchel, Natasja; de Jonge, Jan; Bosma, Hans; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2005-03-01

    The present paper provides a review of 45 studies on the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model published from 1986 to 2003 (inclusive). In 1986, the ERI Model was introduced by Siegrist et al. (Biological and Psychological Factors in Cardiovascular Disease, Springer, Berlin, 1986, pp. 104-126; Social Science & Medicine 22 (1986) 247). The central tenet of the ERI Model is that an imbalance between (high) efforts and (low) rewards leads to (sustained) strain reactions. Besides efforts and rewards, overcommitment (i.e., a personality characteristic) is a crucial aspect of the model. Essentially, the ERI Model contains three main assumptions, which could be labeled as (1) the extrinsic ERI hypothesis: high efforts in combination with low rewards increase the risk of poor health, (2) the intrinsic overcommitment hypothesis: a high level of overcommitment may increase the risk of poor health, and (3) the interaction hypothesis: employees reporting an extrinsic ERI and a high level of overcommitment have an even higher risk of poor health. The review showed that the extrinsic ERI hypothesis has gained considerable empirical support. Results for overcommitment remain inconsistent and the moderating effect of overcommitment on the relation between ERI and employee health has been scarcely examined. Based on these review results suggestions for future research are proposed.

  20. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  1. Modelling and analysis of Markov reward automata (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guck, Dennis; Timmer, Mark; Hatefi, Hassan; Ruijters, Enno; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2014-01-01

    Costs and rewards are important ingredients for cyberphysical systems, modelling critical aspects like energy consumption, task completion, repair costs, and memory usage. This paper introduces Markov reward automata, an extension of Markov automata that allows the modelling of systems incorporating