WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste risk perceptions

  1. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  2. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceptions of risk in the management of nuclear wastes: Mapping elite and mass beliefs and attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Espey, J.L.; Rouse, A.A.; Molund, D.H. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Inst. for Public Policy)

    1991-06-01

    This report describes the results of a set of five surveys designed to assess the perceived risks of nuclear waste management policy in Colorado and New Mexico. Within these states, mail surveys of randomly selected samples were taken of members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, members of the Sierra Club, members of business associations, and state legislators. In addition, a telephone sample of randomly selected households was conducted in Colorado and New Mexico. Using these data, the perceptions of the risk of nuclear waste management -- from production of nuclear energy through permanent storage of nuclear wastes -- are compared for each of the five samples. The degree of trust in, and the perceived political influence of, the more prominent policy actors are assessed. Certain cognitive attributes, including degree of subjective certainty regarding beliefs about risks of nuclear wastes, and likelihood of altering perceived risks when confronted with new information, are compared across samples. In addition, the sample scores from rudimentary knowledge tests about the characteristics of radiation are compared. The relationships among the knowledge scores, cognitive attributes and risk perceptions are evaluated. Perceptions of the balance of media coverage are measured, as are the possible direct and indirect roles of media exposure in risk perception. Aggregate models, testing an array of hypotheses about the bases of nuclear waste risk perceptions, are conducted. These tests indicate that risk perceptions are related to a complex set of factors, and that these factors may differ significantly across the different sub-populations. Finally, the relationships between risk perception and political participation -- including registering to vote, political party affiliation, and level of political activism -- are analyzed. 5 figs., 33 tabs.

  4. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities.

  5. Risk perception on management of nuclear high-level and transuranic waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Lawrence A. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    The Department of Energy`s program for disposing of nuclear High-Level Waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of actual risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive waste from the nations military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. In addition, the analysis indicates that even the highly educated technical community is not well informed on the latest technology involved with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. It is not surprising then, that the general public feels uncomfortable with DOE`s management plans for with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. Postponing the permanent geologic repository and use of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. It would also allow time for the public to become better educated if DOE chooses to become proactive.

  6. Public perceptions of low-level waste risks -- Lessons learned in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsife, W.; Serie, P.

    1989-11-01

    People in Pennsylvania are no different than citizens of other eastern states, other states, or any place in the world--they care most deeply about their health, the safety and security of their families, their investments, and their autonomy. How a particular risk is perceived depends on how it is believed to affect those valued possessions. The perception of risk from exposure to the radioactivity contained in low-level radioactive low-level waste disposal facility. The Commonwealth`s program, administered by the Department of Environmental Resources, places high priority on public dialogue on this issue. This paper discusses the Department`s program to develop and promulgate low-level waste regulations, provide a framework for selection of a qualified disposal facility operator, contract with the selected firm, and oversee its activities in siting, licensing, constructing, and operating the facility. This facility will meet the needs of the states of the Appalachian States Compact, including, in addition to Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. The focus of the paper is on the public information and outreach program accomplished to date, and the lessons learned regarding public perceptions of risk.

  7. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  8. Risks from nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljenzin, J.O.; Rydberg, J. [Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The first part of this review discusses the importance of risk. If there is any relation between the emotional and rational risk perceptions (for example, it is believed that increased knowledge will decrease emotions), it will be a desirable goal for society, and the nuclear industry in particular, to improve the understanding by the laymen of the rational risks from nuclear energy. This review surveys various paths to a more common comprehension - perhaps a consensus - of the nuclear waste risks. The second part discusses radioactivity as a risk factor and concludes that it has no relation in itself to risk, but must be connected to exposure leading to a dose risk, i.e. a health detriment, which is commonly expressed in terms of cancer induction rate. Dose-effect relations are discussed in light of recent scientific debate. The third part of the report describes a number of hazard indexes for nuclear waste found in the literature and distinguishes between absolute and relative risk scales. The absolute risks as well as the relative risks have changed over time due to changes in radiological and metabolic data and by changes in the mode of calculation. To judge from the literature, the risk discussion is huge, even when it is limited to nuclear waste. It would be very difficult to make a comprehensive review and extract the essentials from that. Therefore, we have chosen to select some publications, out of the over 100, which we summarize rather comprehensively; in some cases we also include our remarks. 110 refs, 22 figs.

  9. Assessment of public perception of radioactive waste management in Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trone, Janis R.; Cho, SeongKyung (Myongji University, Korea); Whang, Jooho (Kyung Hee University, Korea); Lee, Moo Yul

    2011-11-01

    The essential characteristics of the issue of radioactive waste management can be conceptualized as complex, with a variety of facets and uncertainty. These characteristics tend to cause people to perceive the issue of radioactive waste management as a 'risk'. This study was initiated in response to a desire to understand the perceptions of risk that the Korean public holds towards radioactive waste and the relevant policies and policy-making processes. The study further attempts to identify the factors influencing risk perceptions and the relationships between risk perception and social acceptance.

  10. Residents' perception of solid waste disposal practices in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proper waste disposal is a key to protecting public health. Thus poorly managed and disposed waste encourages breeding of insect vectors and exposed public to increase risk of infection. This study aimed at determining the residents' perception about waste disposal in Sokoto metropolis. This was a descriptive ...

  11. Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research

    2006-09-15

    The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to

  12. Seismic risk perception test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  13. Perception of Product Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides several explanations for consumer risk perception. For frequently repeated behavior that is seemingly under their own control, consumers tend to be overly optimistic. This occurs in spite of the general tendency of consumers to be risk averse. Specific dimensions of different

  14. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Crescimbene, M.; La Longa, F.; R. Camassi; Pino, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Communication of natural hazards and their consequences are among the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years social studies evidenced that risk communication is strongly influenced by risk perception of citizens. A theory of risk perception that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological, cultural, and their interact...

  15. Wind speed perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzgun Agdas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. METHOD: We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk. The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  16. Wind Speed Perception and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D.; Masters, Forrest J.

    2012-01-01

    Background How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human–wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. Method We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Results Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual–perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. Conclusion These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters. PMID:23226230

  17. Illness perceptions, risk perception and worry in SDH mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsteijn, L.T. van; Kaptein, A.A.; Louisse, A.; Biermasz, N.R.; Smit, J.W.; Corssmit, E.P.

    2014-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mutation carriers are predisposed for developing paragangliomas. This study aimed to explore illness perceptions, risk perception and disease-related worry in these individuals. All consecutive SDHB and SDHD mutation carriers followed at the Department of Endocrinology

  18. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    , as a particular branch of food manufacturing, has in the past been able to dodge implication in major risk debates. The latest crisis in a related industry was the temporary banning of several brands of the Coca-Cola Co. in 1999 in Belgium following symptoms of nausea and vomiting amongst people who had consumed...

  19. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Management Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Nitschke, Robert Leon

    2002-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: • Risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other end states) • Risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities • Comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs • Ranking of programs or activities by risk • Ranking of wastes/materials by risk • Evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress • Integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

  20. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, S. A.; Nitschke, R. L.

    2002-02-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other e nd states); risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities; comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs; ranking of programs or activities by risk; ranking of wastes/materials by risk; evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress; and integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

  1. Illness perceptions, risk perception and worry in SDH mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hulsteijn, L T; Kaptein, A A; Louisse, A; Biermasz, N R; Smit, J W A; Corssmit, E P M

    2014-03-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mutation carriers are predisposed for developing paragangliomas. This study aimed to explore illness perceptions, risk perception and disease-related worry in these individuals. All consecutive SDHB and SDHD mutation carriers followed at the Department of Endocrinology of the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), a tertiary referral center, were eligible for inclusion. Illness perceptions were assessed using the validated Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised and compared to reference populations. Risk perception and worry were measured by two items each and associations with illness perceptions explored. Twenty SDHB and 118 SDHD mutation carriers responded. Compared with various reference groups, SDH mutation carriers perceived less controllability of their condition. SDHB mutation carriers considered their condition to be less chronic in nature (p = 0.005) and perceived more personal (p = 0.018) and treatment control (p = 0.001) than SDHD mutation carriers. Mutation carriers with manifest disease reported more negative illness perceptions and a higher risk perception of developing subsequent tumors than asymptomatic mutation carriers. Illness perceptions, risk perception and disease-related worry were strongly correlated. Risk perception and disease-related worry may be assessed through illness perceptions. The development of interventions targeting illness perceptions may provide tools for genetic counseling.

  2. Exploring Risk Perceptions of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    de Zwart, Onno

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about risk perception of infectious diseases, with a special focus on the emerging infections SARS and avian influenza, and explores potential determinants of risk perception and the relation of risk perception with precautionary behaviours. In this first chapter I discuss the context of emerging diseases, the theoretical framework, relevant studies on risk perception and infectious diseases, and the research questions addressed in this thesis.

  3. On the perception and operationalization of risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Ganzach

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare and critique two measures of risk perception. We suggest that a single question --- ``How risky is the situation?'' --- captures the concept of risk perception more accurately than the multiple-item measure used by Sitkin and Weingart (1995. In fact, this latter measure inadvertently captures notions of attractiveness or expected return, rather than risk perception. We further propose that the error underlying the construction of Sitkin and Weingart's measure is explained in terms of a top-down model of risk perception, in which perceived risk and perceived return are consequences, rather than determinants, of attractiveness. Two studies compare the validity of the two alternative measures.

  4. Exploring Risk Perceptions of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. de Zwart (Onno)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about risk perception of infectious diseases, with a special focus on the emerging infections SARS and avian influenza, and explores potential determinants of risk perception and the relation of risk perception with precautionary behaviours. In this first chapter I discuss

  5. Risk perception and credibility of risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L

    1992-10-01

    Experts and the public frequently disagree when it comes to risk assessment. The reasons for such disagreement are discussed, and it is pointed out that disagreement among experts and lack of full understanding of real risks contributes to skepticism among the public. The notion that people are in general reacting in a highly emotional and non-rational, phobic, manner is rejected. The very conditions for risk assessment present to the public, and common-sense cognitive dynamics, are better explanations of risk perception, as are some social psychological concepts. If trust is to be established in a country where it is quite low some kind of politically regulated public influence on decision making and risk monitoring is probably needed, e.g. by means of a publicly elected and responsible ombudsman. 57 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs.

  6. The waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository: A case study in radioactive waste disposal safety and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological defense-generated transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) repository in the United States was certified on the 13 of May 1998 and opened on the 26 of March 1999. Two sets of safety/performance assessment calculations supporting the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository show that the maximum annual individual committed effective dose will be 32 times lower than the regulatory limit and that the cumulative amount of radionuclide releases will be at least 10 times, more likely at least 20 times, lower than the regulatory limits. Yet, perceptions remain among the public that the WIPP TRUW repository imposes an unacceptable risk.

  7. Toxic urban waste's assault on cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. De Rosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A cardiovascular health survey of 1203 persons in households located near the hazardous waste disposal sites and in a reference community, was conducted from 2009 until today to assess whether rates of adverse cardiovascular health outcomes were elevated among persons living near the sites. Data included medical records of reported cardiovascular disease certificates and hospital admission for cardiovascular diseases from hospital database. The study areas appeared similar with respect to mortality, cancer incidence, and pregnancy outcomes. In contrast, rate ratios were greater than 1.5 for 2 of 19 reported diseases, i.e., angina pectoris, and strokes. The apparent broad-based elevation in reported diseases and symptoms may reflect increased perception or recall of conditions by respondents living near the sites. Our study found that cardiovascular risk is associated only with PM2.5 concentrations, derived from uncontrolled burning of municipal solid waste in particular sites of our country. Their analysis demonstrated a relationship between increased levels of eventual fine particulate pollution and higher rates of death and complications from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Management of solid waste releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Future community-based health studies should include medical and psychosocial assessment instruments sufficient to distinguish between changes in health status and effects of resident reporting tendency.

  8. Entrepreneurship, risk perception and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.; Willebrands, Daan

    Risk attitudes of entrepreneurs are well-established drivers of business performance. Most empirical studies in this field only take into account risk propensity, leaving out the complementary concept of risk perception. Using data on 611 entrepreneurs from Tanzania, we show that risk perception is

  9. Domestic waste disposal practice and perceptions of private sector waste management in urban Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoada, Ramatta Massa; Chirawurah, Dennis; Adongo, Philip Baba

    2014-07-08

    Waste poses a threat to public health and the environment if it is not stored, collected, and disposed of properly. The perception of waste as an unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards disposal. This study investigates the domestic waste practices, waste disposal, and perceptions about waste and health in an urban community. The study utilised a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data. A total of 364 household heads were interviewed in the survey and six key informants were interviewed with the in-depth interviews. The results of the study revealed that 93.1% of households disposed of food debris as waste and 77.8% disposed of plastic materials as waste. The study also showed that 61.0% of the households disposed of their waste at community bins or had waste picked up at their homes by private contractors. The remaining 39.0% disposed of their waste in gutters, streets, holes and nearby bushes. Of those who paid for the services of private contractors, 62.9% were not satisfied with the services because of their cost and irregular collection. About 83% of the respondents were aware that improper waste management contributes to disease causation; most of the respondents thought that improper waste management could lead to malaria and diarrhoea. There was a general perception that children should be responsible for transporting waste from the households to dumping sites. Proper education of the public, the provision of more communal trash bins, and the collection of waste by private contractors could help prevent exposing the public in municipalities to diseases.

  10. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders.

  11. The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeken, Koen van; Carle, Benny; Hardeman, Frank [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences.

  12. Wastes and health: representation of sanitary risks linked to wastes and to their processing modes; Dechets et sante: representations des risques sanitaires lies aux dechets et a leurs modes de traitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuilier, D.; Cochin, Y.

    1999-10-01

    This research has for objective the analysis of perception of sanitary risks in relation with wastes and the waste processing facilities. This work in at the intersection of the sociological study and the psychologic one. (N.C.)

  13. Perceptions of waste and recycling. A qualitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative study with four main objectives: A To identify activities and inactivities in private households which influence the volume, composition, and further treatment of solid household waste, B to i dentify factors that influence consumers%27 perceptions ...

  14. Radioactive waste. Risk, reward, space and time dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, I J

    2001-01-01

    to ensure isolation from the biosphere while it remains hazardous. The outcome of this research is applicable to the disposal of all solid hazardous waste. This study considers, in a geographical context, issues arising from the disposal of radioactive waste with particular emphasis on societal perceptions of Risk, Trust, NIMBYand Time. It establishes that the wider community now accepts the concepts of 'user pays' and offsetting compensation to any community that accepts a risk, such risk to be minimised and interruptible as necessary. The underlying causes of NIMBYism have been misjudged by industry and this work establishes that they are as much due to exclusion from the decision making process as they are to direct concerns about the social impact, health and environment. The principal cause of NIMBYism is discussed and a procedure to assist siting approval is suggested. This study establishes that industry, government or specialists working alone in this field engender less trust by society than composit...

  15. Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysing data from the Kenya Diffusion and Ideational Change (KDIC) Project, this paper investigates the determinants of the reported degree of risk perception of getting infected by HIV. In particular, adopting a social interaction approach, we argue that individual risk perception is shaped by social network influences.

  16. Public Perceptions of Environmental Risk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    China, as a ‘double risk’ society, is in urgent need for effective environmental risk management systems. Compared with other risks, man-made environmental risks have not been given due weight. Public awareness and perceptions of environmental risks are crucial in all phases of effective risk

  17. Tank waste remediation system risk management list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    1995-10-31

    The Tank Waste Remedation System (TWRS) Risk Management List and it`s subset of critical risks, the Critical Risk Management List, provide a tool to senior RL and WHC management (Level-1 and -2) to manage programmatic risks that may significantly impact the TWRS program. The programmatic risks include cost, schedule, and performance risks. Performance risk includes technical risk, supportability risk (such as maintainability and availability), and external risk (i.e., beyond program control, for example, changes in regulations). The risk information includes a description, its impacts, as evaluation of the likelihood, consequences and risk value, possible mitigating actions, and responsible RL and WHC managers. The issues that typically form the basis for the risks are presented in a separate table and the affected functions are provided on the management lists.

  18. Risk perception influences athletic pacing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklewright, Dominic; Parry, David; Robinson, Tracy; Deacon, Greg; Renfree, Andrew; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Matthews, William J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine risk taking and risk perception associations with perceived exertion, pacing, and performance in athletes. Two experiments were conducted in which risk perception was assessed using the domain-specific risk taking (DOSPERT) scale in 20 novice cyclists (experiment 1) and 32 experienced ultramarathon runners (experiment 2). In experiment 1, participants predicted their pace and then performed a 5-km maximum effort cycling time trial on a calibrated Kingcycle mounted bicycle. Split times and perceived exertion were recorded every kilometer. In experiment 2, each participant predicted their split times before running a 100-km ultramarathon. Split times and perceived exertion were recorded at seven checkpoints. In both experiments, higher and lower risk perception groups were created using median split of DOSPERT scores. In experiment 1, pace during the first kilometer was faster among lower risk perceivers compared with higher risk perceivers (t(18) = 2.0, P = 0.03) and faster among higher risk takers compared with lower risk takers (t(18) = 2.2, P = 0.02). Actual pace was slower than predicted pace during the first kilometer in both the higher risk perceivers (t(9) = -4.2, P = 0.001) and lower risk perceivers (t(9) = -1.8, P = 0.049). In experiment 2, pace during the first 36 km was faster among lower risk perceivers compared with higher risk perceivers (t(16) = 2.0, P = 0.03). Irrespective of risk perception group, actual pace was slower than predicted pace during the first 18 km (t(16) = 8.9, P perception groups. Initial pace is associated with an individual's perception of risk, with low perceptions of risk being associated with a faster starting pace. Large differences between predicted and actual pace suggest that the performance template lacks accuracy, perhaps indicating greater reliance on momentary pacing decisions rather than preplanned strategy.

  19. Determination of acceptable risk criteria for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1977-10-21

    The initial phase of the work performed during FY 1977 consisted of performing a ''scoping'' study to define issues, determine an optimal methodology for their resolution, and compile a data base for acceptable risk criteria development. The issues, spanning technical, psychological, and ethical dimensions, were categorized in seven major areas: (1) unplanned or accidental events, (2) present vs future risks, (3) institutional controls and retrievability, (4) dose-response mechanism and uncertainty, (5) spatial distribution of exposed populations, (6) different types of nuclear wastes, and (7) public perception. The optimum methodology for developing ARC was determined to be multi-attribute decision analysis encompassing numerous specific techniques for choosing, from among several alternatives, the optimal course of action when the alternatives are constrained to meet specified attributes. The data base developed during the study comprises existing regulations and guidelines, maximum permissible dose, natural geologic hazards, nonradioactive hazardous waste practices, bioethical perspectives, and data from an opinion survey.

  20. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  1. Risk attitudes and risk perceptions in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Bonnie I; Greeke, Emily; LaRussa, Allison; Stuart, Fiona; Rintell, David J; Chitnis, Tanuja; Healy, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about risk attitudes and risk perceptions in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objectives of this paper are to investigate the range of risk attitudes and risk perceptions and examine associations between risk attitudes and risk perceptions and demographic and clinical features of the disease. A total of 223 individuals completed a risk questionnaire. Risk attitude was measured using two rating scales and a standard gamble scenario. Risk perception was measured by asking participants to estimate the likelihood of disease progression and the likelihood of minor and serious side effects associated with common MS therapies. Participants were risk neutral overall and risk averse on issues related to health and safety. There was a significant association between disease duration and risk attitude, with patients with longer disease duration showing greater tolerance for risk. On the standard gamble scenario, males were significantly more likely to take treatments with a likelihood of death of 1:10,000 or 1:100,000 than females. Individuals with higher disability or a progressive disease course were significantly more likely to expect progression at two, five and 10 years. Individuals with MS demonstrate low tolerance for risk. Risk attitudes and perceptions are influenced by some demographic and clinical features of the disease.

  2. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides.

  3. PERSONAL VALUES, BELIEFS, AND ECOLOGICAL RISK PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change...

  4. Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhar, Sara E.; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A.

    2009-01-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the ...

  5. Cultural theory and individual perceptions of environmental risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L; Sievers, [No Value

    Understanding differences in environmental risk perception and risk judgments might facilitate the development of effective environmental risk management strategies, including risk communication. Cultural theory holds that systematic individual differences exist in the perception of environmental

  6. An existential approach to risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Ian H

    2002-02-01

    Existential, or existential-phenomenological philosophical approaches to the social psychology of risk perception provide a novel framework for understanding issues that are common to all humanity, such as fear of death, freedom and responsibility, isolation and meaninglessness, as these anxieties are a function of existing, or being-in-the-world. These fundamental anxieties can be related theoretically to the ways people perceive risks within social and cultural milieus, and can also be used practically within case studies, as demonstrated in the three examples presented, which examine perceptions of climate change, food-related risks, and environmental awareness via a mixture of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The discussion focuses on the possible insights that can be gained from taking an existential perspective on risk perception, and relates notions of contemporary technologically-oriented societies to the existential challenges faced by individuals and societies in the contemporary world.

  7. Knowledge, risk perception and practice regarding tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Window opening during bus transportation is recommended as a tuberculosis prevention strategy.Yet, drivers are affected by lack knowledge and risk perception of passengers and assistants. Boosting knowledge of and notifying the high risk of tuberculosis transmission for every passenger could be too costly.

  8. Perceptions of high risk sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, D M

    1997-10-01

    High risk sports were rated as to risk, appeal, and likelihood of participation by 282 men and 162 women. Ascending order of perceived risk was skiing, scuba diving, bungee jumping, rock climbing, motorcycle racing, hang gliding, cliff jumping, and skydiving. Profile analysis showed stated likelihood of participation to be directly related to appeal and inversely related to perceived risk.

  9. The influence of knowledge on risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Reiko; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Many researches on risk perception have often been concerned with reaction of the public to modern technology. A major concern is the public fear of such new technology as nuclear power and genetic engineering. When the perceived risk was examined using a risk ranking technique, Japanese school teachers, university students and also NIRS staffs (female clerical staffs and researchers) viewed nuclear power to be much riskier than the objective estimation. Many technical experts have believed that this great fear results from an overestimation of risk by the public due to lack of scientific knowledge. So far, several studies reported the results to examine the correlation of the perception of some risk sources with knowledge about them, although their conclusions are inconsistent. When the perceived risk by trainees on a radiation protection course in NIRS was examined, nuclear power was rated as the second and 14th among 30 risk items by those who majored in life sciences in college and by those in physics, chemistry or technology, respectively. The perceived risk of nuclear power did not change among trainees by training offered fundamental knowledge about radiation during the course. On the other hand, the orders of smoking and alcoholic beverages rose considerably. Our results are consistent with the previous reports, i.e., what people learn initially about risk source has more important role in risk perception than what they learn later, and the increase of perceived risk is more easier than its decrease. Knowledge is now recognized as one of the factors which influence on risk perception. However, a special emphasis is now placed on risk communication in order to make partnership between communicators and receivers in the risk management. (author)

  10. Risk perception as a driver for risk management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, María; Mañez, María

    2016-04-01

    Risk is generally defined as the "combination of the probability of the occurrence of an event and its negative consequences" ( UNISDR, 2009). However, the perception of a risk differs among cultures regarding different features such as the context,causes, benefits or damage. Risk perception is the subjective valuation of the probability of an event happening and how concerned individuals or groups are with the consequences (Sjöberg, 2004). Our study is based on an existing framework for risk perception (Rehn and Rohrmann, 2000). We analyse the characteristics of the risk perception regarding extreme events (e.g.droughts) and how the perception of the group drives the action to manage the risk. We do this to achieve an overview of the conditions that let stakeholders join each other to improve risk management especially when governments are not reacting properly. For our research, attention is paid on risk perception of Multi-Sector Partnerships not taking into account the individual level of risk perception. We focus on those factors that make risk management effective and increase resilience. Multi-Sector Partnerships, considered as significant governance structures for risk management, might contribute to reduce vulnerability in prone areas to natural hazards and disasters. The Multi-Sector Partnerships used for our research are existing partnerships identified in the cases studies of the European project ENHANCE. We implement a survey to analyse the perception of risk in the case studies. That survey is based on the Cultural Theory (Douglas and Wildavsky, 1982)and the Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers, 1975). We analyse the results using the Qualitative-Comparative Analysis proposed by Ragin in 1987. The results show the main characteristics of a risk culture that are beneficial to manage a risk. Those characteristics are shaped by the perception of risk of the people involved in the partnership, which in turn shapes their risk management. Nevertheless, we

  11. Seeking Risks: Towards a Quantitative Risk Perception Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Nyre, Åsmund,; Jaatun, Martin,

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Cross-Domain Conference and Workshop on Multidisciplinary Research and Practice for Information Systems (CD-ARES 2013); International audience; Existing instruments for measuring risk perception have focused on an abstract version of the concept, without diving into the the details of what forms the perception of likelihood and impact. However, as information security risks become increasingly complex and difficult for users to understand, this approach may be less feasible. The avera...

  12. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Webster

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Webster1, Emma Heeley21Cardiovascular Division, 2Neurological and Mental Health Division, The George Institute for International Health, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.Keywords: risk perception, cardiovascular disease, cardioprotective lifestyle

  13. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Wiedemann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study’s multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance. Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means

  14. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M; Freudenstein, Frederik; Böhmert, Christoph; Wiart, Joe; Croft, Rodney J

    2017-06-08

    An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study's multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the

  15. Risk perception regarding drug use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widnes, Sofia F; Schjøtt, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Pregnant women, but also physicians, have unrealistically high perceptions of teratogenic drug effects. This may result in suboptimal treatment of disease and even influence decisions of whether to continue pregnancy. To attain more realistic teratogenic risk perceptions, several factors that influence this issue should be considered, and these are further discussed in this Clinical Opinion. Importantly, drug use may have several benefits, both for the pregnant woman's health and to avoid negative fetal effects of untreated maternal disease. A greater focus on this aspect may act to balance risk perceptions. Furthermore, both pregnant women and physicians need access to drug information sources that provide realistic risk estimates to increase confidence in appropriate drug use and prescribing. We suggest that access to decision support and individually tailored information provided by drug information centers may contribute to this goal. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in

  17. Risk communication, risk perception, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakko, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Risk communication is about building trust while deploying an interactive and ongoing communication process in which audience members are active participants. This interactive participation may not solve a public health crisis, but it will help reduce unwarranted fear, anxiety and distrust. Consequently, if a government agency fails to understand how to effectively communicate about health risks, their trustworthiness and credibility may suffer, and a crisis event may go from bad to worse.

  18. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades-Lopez, A. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia (Spain); Martinez-Arias, R.; Diaz-Hidalgo, M. [Faculty of Psychology, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  19. Factors Impacting Food Safety Risk Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    We developed and applied a model of consumer risk perceptions of beef food safety to better understand the underlying drivers of consumer demand for food safety. We show how consumer demographics, country-of-residence, as well as reliance on, and trust in, alternative food safety information sources

  20. Risk Perception, Communication and Food Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an effective communication strategy about different food hazards depends not only on technical risk assessments (for example related to health or the environment) but must also take into account consumer perceptions and preferences. In addition, consumers make decisions about food choices

  1. Social Influence on Risk Perception During Adolescence.

    OpenAIRE

    L. J. Knoll; Magis-Weinberg, L.; speekenbrink, m; Blakemore, S J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before ...

  2. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Ruth; Heeley, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient's risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV) risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.

  3. PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother's consumption of conta...

  4. Aspects of public opinion research in risk perception studies covering the nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: ktanimoto@ipen.b, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A project for site selection and construction of a national radioactive waste repository is underway at the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Public acceptance is determinant to the deployment of an undertaking of this size. A major concern regarding the use of nuclear energy are the problems related to safe management of the radioactive waste. For effective communication between decision makers and the public, a mutual understanding of views, as well as attitudes towards risk, is needed. The use of opinions polls is necessary in order to achieve it. This work aims to point out the major aspects to be approached by an opinion poll for the study of risk perception on the candidate regions for repository construction. A risk perception research model is presented, to be applied to the case of radioactive waste disposal, along with theoretical support to the organization and implementation of its structure. (author)

  5. Farmers' motivations, risk perceptions and risk management strategies in a developing economy: Bangladesh experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquaculture farmers' risk perceptions and risk management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research. Therefore, an exploratory study has been undertaken to provide empirical insight into Bangladeshi coastal shrimp farmers' risk perceptions and risk management respon...

  6. Predictors of children's and adolescents' risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Chandler, C C; Elkin, T David

    2005-01-01

    To test cognitive-developmental, social-cognitive, motivational, and cognitive hypotheses about the psychological mechanisms underlying children's risk perception. Youth (N = 1315) ranging from 9 to 17 years of age completed measures assessing adolescent egocentrism, personal experience with four negative health events, how much they worried about the health events, and their perceived skill for event-related activities. The measures were completed twice, 12 months apart. Lacking personal experience with and worrying less about health threats were significant predictors of more optimistically biased risk perception a year later. The lack of experience with and not worrying about serious health consequences may desensitize children to potential health risks. Clinical applications for health education programs are discussed.

  7. Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rübsamen, Nicole; Castell, Stefanie; Horn, Johannes; Karch, André; Ott, Jördis J.; Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Zoch, Beate; Krause, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred during the past 5 decades, but none has affected European countries like the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. We used an online questionnaire to investigate risk perceptions in Germany during this epidemic peak. Our questionnaire covered risk perceptions, knowledge about transmission routes, media use, reactions to the outbreak, attitudes toward measures to prevent the spread of EVD and vaccination against EVD, and willingness to volunteer for aid missions. Of 974 participants, 29% indicated that they worried about EVD, 4% correctly stated virus transmission routes, and 75% incorrectly rated airborne transmission and transmission by asymptomatic patients as possible. Many indicated that if a patient were flown to Germany for treatment in a nearby hospital, they would adapt preventive behavior. Although most participants were not worried about EVD at the current stage of the epidemic, misperceptions regarding transmission were common and could trigger inappropriate behavior changes. PMID:25989020

  8. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...... utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...... evidence that farmers engage in multiple risk management practices in order to reduce losses from cattle morbidity and mortality. The results suggest that government strategies that aim at reducing farmers’ risk need to be tailored to specific farm and farmer characteristics. Findings from this study have...

  9. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  10. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Webster; Emma Heeley

    2010-01-01

    Ruth Webster1, Emma Heeley21Cardiovascular Division, 2Neurological and Mental Health Division, The George Institute for International Health, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine hea...

  11. Making sense of fishermen's risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Grøn, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we reflect on the possible reasons for the acceptability of risk in sea fishing and the implications they may have for safety actions and interventions. The data presented in the paper were collected during three trips at sea on fishing vessels in connection with a study of slips...... by the need to adopt coping strategies, ie compromises and resilience in an environment marked by uncertainty and unpredictability. The difference between lay and expert knowledge is particularly salient in the case of safety researchers and fishermen. In order to make sense of the fishermen’s risk perception...

  12. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  13. EVALUATION OF RISKS AND WASTE CHARACTERIZATION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSURANIC WASTE EMPLACED IN WIPP DURING 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Channell, J.K.; Walker, B.A.

    2000-05-01

    Specifically this report: 1. Compares requirements of the WAP that are pertinent from a technical viewpoint with the WIPP pre-Permit waste characterization program, 2. Presents the results of a risk analysis of the currently emplaced wastes. Expected and bounding risks from routine operations and possible accidents are evaluated; and 3. Provides conclusions and recommendations.

  14. Climate change and coastal aquaculture farmers’ risk perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of risk perception in relation to climate change threats, comparison of risk perceptions in two different regions, and derives general results of what affect peoples’ level of risk perceptions. Revelation of individual risk perception is essential for local acceptance...... and cooperation. We do this by a comparative study with Bangladesh shrimp farmers and Danish mussel farmers. Since these people live on the edge of subsistence, already small changes in the climate will affect them significantly. Farmers in both developed and developing economies are concerned about global...... climate change but there are significant differences in farmers’ perceptions of the causes of global climate change in developed and developing countries....

  15. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  16. Tank Waste Transport, Pipeline Plugging, and the Prospects for Reducing the Risk of Waste Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2001-09-27

    This report provides an overview of the capabilities and limitations of some current models being applied to the analysis of waste transfers; identifies the modeling capabilities needed to reduce the risk of pipeline plugging during tank waste transfers; and summarizes ongoing, planned, and future work needed to add these capabilities. Development of improved waste transport modeling tools with these capabilities will also help with waste transfer planning and evaluation, process control, and diagnosis of plugging events. Other potential applications include evaluation of waste-mixing scenarios, analysis of waste transfer stability, analysis of waste-unplugging alternatives, minimization of water addition, maximization of system availability, evaluation of risk-reduction strategies, and evaluation of cost-reduction strategies.

  17. What’s the seismic risk perception in Italy?

    OpenAIRE

    Crescimbene, M.; La Longa, F.; R. Camassi; Pino, N. A.; Peruzza, L

    2014-01-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents preliminary results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy. The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 5,000 on-line tests have been compiled from January 23rd till Jul...

  18. Risk Perception is not what it seems: the Psychometric Paradigm Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart [Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm (Sweden). Center for Risk Research

    2003-10-01

    Risk perception has become an important topic to policy makers concerned with technology and the environment, and the psychological analysis of this construct has attracted much interest. Psychological research on risk perception has been dominated by the psychometric paradigm which has been fruitful in bringing up important issues in research. Yet, most of the conclusions reached in the paradigm are not sufficiently well based on empirical data and appropriate analyses. Results are presented here which show the prevalence of risk for energy attitudes, the importance of Tampering with Nature as a new risk dimension accounting for much of the perceived risk of nuclear waste, widely different levels but similar correlational structures of risk perception data for experts and the public, moderately strong correlations between perceived risk and trust (especially specific trust rather than general trust), and demand for risk mitigation being related most strongly to seriousness of consequences of a hazard, not the risk of an accident or the riskiness of the activity. Risk perception is related to conceptions of knowledge which stress the limits of science and different, New Age type, ways of knowing. Finally, interest emerged as an important predictor of demand for risk mitigation. A conceptualization of the risk perceiver, based on these results, is briefly discussed.

  19. Safe cycling: how do risk perceptions compare with observed risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Meghan; Babul, Shelina; Becker, H J E H Jack; Brubacher, Jeffery R; Chipman, Mary; Cripton, Peter; Cusimano, Michael D; Friedman, Steven M; Harris, M Anne; Hunte, Garth; Monro, Melody; Reynolds, Conor C O; Shen, Hui; Teschke, Kay

    2012-07-10

    Safety concerns deter cycling. The Bicyclists' Injuries and the Cycling Environment (BICE) study quantified the injury risk associated with 14 route types, from off-road paths to major streets. However, when it comes to injury risk, there may be discordance between empirical evidence and perceptions. If so, even if protective infrastructure is built people may not feel safe enough to cycle. This paper reports on the relationship between perceived and observed injury risk. The BICE study is a case-crossover study that recruited 690 injured adult cyclists who visited emergency departments in Toronto and Vancouver. Observed risk was calculated by comparing route types at the injury sites with those at randomly selected control sites along the same route. The perceived risk was the mean response of study participants to the question "How safe do you think this site was for cyclists on that trip?", with responses scored from +1 (very safe) to -1 (very dangerous). Perceived risk scores were only calculated for non-injury control sites, to reduce bias by the injury event. The route type with the greatest perceived risk was major streets with shared lanes and no parked cars (mean score = -0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.54-0.11), followed by major streets without bicycle infrastructure (-0.07, CI -0.14-0.00). The safest perceived routes were paved multi-use paths (0.66, CI 0.43-0.89), residential streets (0.44, CI 0.37-0.51), bike paths (0.42, CI 0.25-0.60) and residential streets marked as bike routes with traffic calming (0.41, CI 0.32-0.51). Most route types that were perceived as higher risk were found to be so in our injury study; similarly, most route types perceived as safer were also found to be so. Discrepancies were observed for cycle tracks (perceived as less safe than observed) and for multiuse paths (perceived as safer than observed). Route choices and decisions to cycle are affected by perceptions of safety, and we found that perceptions usually

  20. Space, Identity and Health Risks: a study of domestic waste in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderemi Suleiman Ajala

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Poor waste management has characterized Ibadan’s modern and historical identity.  As a consequence, residents of Ibadan (indigenes hold diverse views about the city's image, while non-indigenes label it "filthy" and "dirty".  These perceptions, spatial and cultural, are deep rooted, intertwining with the political and cultural plane of Nigerian society. A distinction between “self” and “others” is seen to mark a discourse and counter discourse in the perception of health risks associated with domestic waste in the Ibadan.  Through survey and descriptive ethnography, our paper examines the nature and extent of domestic waste in Ibadan, as a physical, community and psychological reality, where we seek to explain how generation and poor waste management  impacts on these spaces and the very mechanics of identity. Different perceptions of health risks are observed as well the vulnerability to diseases associated with domestic waste and poor hygiene, bringing into play the socioeconomic variables and residential patterns which constitute the daily reality of this city.  Our study establishes that the increase in urban population, the low economic status, the indiscriminate setting up of artisans’ shops or outlets and the overall inability of government agencies to monitor the menace of domestic waste and its attendant health risks, are central factors to the problem generically deemed one of “waste”.  

  1. The Perception of the Langkawi Community on Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Khafazilah Abdullah; Zaini Sakawi; Lukman Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The process of disposing solid wastes should be systematic and efficient. Various pollution may occur if solid wastes are not properly disposed. Pollution would not only affect the naturalenvironment but also exposed the community to various diseases. Therefore the community should be given exposure to practice efficient solid waste disposalfor their own benefits.Given the signficance of proper waste disposal issues for tourism locations, this study investigated the management of solid waste ...

  2. Exploring Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks: a photographic approach to risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Börner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks in contaminated urban areas, and to test the environmental photography technique as a research tool for engaging adolescents in community-based health research. The study was conducted with 74 adolescents from two communities in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Participants were provided with disposable cameras and asked to take photographs of elements and situations which they believed affected their personal health both at home and outside their homes. They were also asked to describe each photograph in writing. Photographs and written explanations were analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Risk perception plays a crucial role in the development of Risk Communication Programs (RCPs aimed at the improvement of community health. The photography technique opens up a promising field for environmental health research since it affords a realistic and concise impression of the perceived risks. Adolescents in both communities perceived different environmental health risks as detrimental to their well-being, e.g. waste, air pollution, and lack of hygiene. Yet, some knowledge gaps remain which need to be addressed.

  3. Exploring Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks: a photographic approach to risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Susanne; Albino, Juan Carlos Torrico; Caraveo, Luz María Nieto; Tejeda, Ana Cristina Cubillas

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks in contaminated urban areas, and to test the environmental photography technique as a research tool for engaging adolescents in community-based health research. The study was conducted with 74 adolescents from two communities in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Participants were provided with disposable cameras and asked to take photographs of elements and situations which they believed affected their personal health both at home and outside their homes. They were also asked to describe each photograph in writing. Photographs and written explanations were analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Risk perception plays a crucial role in the development of Risk Communication Programs (RCPs) aimed at the improvement of community health. The photography technique opens up a promising field for environmental health research since it affords a realistic and concise impression of the perceived risks. Adolescents in both communities perceived different environmental health risks as detrimental to their well-being, e.g. waste, air pollution, and lack of hygiene. Yet, some knowledge gaps remain which need to be addressed.

  4. The Psychology of Hazard Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. F.

    2012-12-01

    A critical step in preparing for natural hazards is understanding the risk: what is the hazard, its likelihood and range of impacts, and what are the vulnerabilities of the community? Any hazard forecast naturally includes a degree of uncertainty, and often these uncertainties are expressed in terms of probabilities. There is often a strong understanding of probability among the physical scientists and emergency managers who create hazard forecasts and issue watches, warnings, and evacuation orders, and often such experts expect similar levels of risk fluency among the general public—indeed, the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) states in the introduction to its earthquake rupture forecast maps that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities—from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [1] However, cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [see, e.g., 2-5] that the WGCEP's expectation of probability literacy is inaccurate. People neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probability information, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [6]. Even the most ubiquitous of probabilistic information—weather forecasts—are systematically misinterpreted [7]. So while disaster risk analysis and assessment is undoubtedly a critical step in public preparedness and hazard mitigation plans, it is equally important that scientists and practitioners understand the common psychological barriers to accurate probability perception before they attempt to communicate hazard risks to the public. This paper discusses several common, systematic distortions in probability perception and use, including: the influence of personal experience on use of statistical information; temporal discounting and construal level theory; the effect

  5. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental risk perceptions of child exposure to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Laura; Kostjukovsky, Inessa

    2015-02-06

    Tobacco smoke exposure harms children and adults. Yet, 40% of children worldwide are exposed to tobacco smoke in their homes. Such widespread parental failure to protect children is puzzling, and may be related to risk perceptions. No consensus exists about how to measure parental risk perceptions of tobacco smoke exposure. The objective of this research was to study Parental Risk Perceptions of child Exposure to Tobacco Smoke (PRETS) using various dimensions of risk perceptions: likelihood of harm, susceptibility to harm, and severity of harm. We aimed to estimate PRETS and identify correlates of PRETS, and assess the association between PRETS, parental smoking status, and home smoking behaviors. We conducted 132 face-to-face interviews with parents of infants. Parents who smoked regularly believed that infant tobacco smoke exposure was less dangerous than did other parents (p = .0158). Birthplace of parent was significantly associated with risk perception (p = .0019); parents of Russian origin believed the overall risk to be less than did those born elsewhere. Smoking status, ethnicity, and employment status were associated with smoking in the home. The relationship between smoking behavior in the home and risk perceptions was complex, and may have been modified by ethnicity. Parental risk perceptions concerning child exposure to tobacco smoke are associated with smoking behavior and ethnicity. Understanding how to measure risk perceptions, and identifying risk perception dimensions which differ between families with and without home smoking bans, may contribute to the development of effective interventions to protect children from the harmful effects of tobacco smoke exposure.

  7. Is seeing believing? Perceptions of wildfire risk over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Hannah Brenkert-Smith

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing challenges to understanding how hazard exposure and disaster experiences influence perceived risk lead us to ask: Is seeing believing? We approach risk perception by attending to two components of overall risk perception: perceived probability of an event occurring and perceived consequences if an event occurs. Using a two-period longitudinal data set...

  8. Use of marijuana and changing risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M

    2015-05-01

    To improve understanding of which adolescents were most likely to perceive marijuana as not harmful. Analyses were based on the SHARP survey, conducted in 3 large school districts in Utah in 2009, 2011, and 2013, among students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12. Across school grades, students who viewed marijuana as not harmful were ≥9 times more likely to have used marijuana. The perception that marijuana has no risk was higher in males, Hispanics, youth not living with their mother or father, and increased with school grade and decreased with the education of the student's guardian. Those historically identified as high risk for marijuana use also were most likely to view marijuana as not harmful.

  9. Awareness and risk perception of hepatitis B infection among auxiliary healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Agarwal, Anveeta

    2013-07-01

    Auxiliary healthcare workers (AHCWs) have a higher risk of occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus infection than the general population. Daily handling and exposure to biomedical wastes, blood, and its products make the AHCWs vulnerable to blood borne diseases among which Hepatitis B is one of the world's most common and serious infectious diseases. To evaluate the HBV infection related awareness and occupational risk perception among AHCWs. Survey. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in M. S. Ramaiah Medical and Dental Hospitals among 300 auxiliary health workers which comprised of laboratory technicians, hygienists, laundry workers, and the housekeeping staff. After acquiring ethical clearance and informed written consent, they were explained about the objective of the study and were requested to fill a standard questionnaire. The data was compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. SPSS Software Version 19. Our survey revealed that 90.03% of the respondents were aware of hepatitis B infection (HBI) and 67.2% answered questions correctly on risk perception. Only 37% of the respondents correctly answered questions on biomedical waste management. Overall, an adequate awareness and a moderate occupational risk perception about HBI were found among the study group. However, knowledge regarding hospital waste disposal was found to be insufficient. Our vision aims at a nation committed to combat silent epidemic of viral hepatitis infection.

  10. Social influence on risk perception during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Lisa J; Magis-Weinberg, Lucía; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-05-01

    Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before rating each situation again. All age groups showed a significant social-influence effect, changing their risk ratings in the direction of the provided ratings; this social-influence effect decreased with age. Most age groups adjusted their ratings more to conform to the ratings of the adult social-influence group than to the ratings of the teenager social-influence group. Only young adolescents were more strongly influenced by the teenager social-influence group than they were by the adult social-influence group, which suggests that to early adolescents, the opinions of other teenagers about risk matter more than the opinions of adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-21

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  13. Risk perception in Western Europe 10 years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L. [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research

    1999-12-01

    What have we learned about risk perception? Let me summarize a few highlights: Perceived risk is at the present highest with regard to acute economic needs, but the environment and nuclear technology are also important. Nuclear technology has a special role in being perceived as very low in 'control', i.e. if you can protect yourself from its hazards. Media do play an important role in risk perception, but it is more subtle than most often believed. Media do affect our beliefs by the information they bring us, but not necessarily by increasing the 'availability of what we already know'. Trust is not the primary factor in risk perception that it often is believed to be - it does play a role at a moderate level of power. It may be that trust is a necessary but not sufficient factor for risk 'acceptance'. In Western Europe, we have noted very large variations among countries both with regard to trust and perceived risk. Inclusion of other societies would probably have meant observation of even greater variation. The RISKPERCOM project serves as a starting point for further work on risk perception and technology. Attitudes and values need to be studied in a broader frame than merely perceived risk, as the project has shown. Future research on such acute topics as nuclear waste is called for; the project has already produced a number of results in that area but space restrictions preclude me from reviewing them here.

  14. PEOPLE'S PERCEPTION ON HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Longe ، O. O. Longe ، E. F. Ukpebor

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The current work examined the structure of household waste management system, collection and disposal within the context of a wider research on integrated solid waste management in households. A sample of 30 households from eleven selected residential areas with a focus group of 60 respondents in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria was used. The selected residential areas were divided into high, middle and low socio-economic strata. The research examined a range of environmental behaviours, attitude and perception of respondents on household solid waste management. The results established waste management behaviours among the respondents on solid waste management system, services, patronage of services and cost recovery methods. Public opinion and perception on solid waste management system is characterized with irregularity and inefficient collection system; with poor monitoring of the private waste service providers by the local authority. Willingness to pay for waste management services provided by the private service providers, the Private Sector Participation operators is higher among the middle and high income socio-economic groups than in the low income group. However, with the application of sustainable environmental education greater success ratio could be achieved. Level of patronage of solid waste management services is high across the three socio-economic groups but patronage is shared among the two operating service providers (formal and informal. The Private Sector Participation has the highest patronage level with 64.6% severity index while the informal sector (Cart pushers have only 48.7% severity index both percentages translate to the agreed and neutral perception opinion ranges respectively. The paper advocates for improved solid waste management system through proper monitoring of the services of the Private Sector Participation operators by the Local Government Area for improved service efficiency. Finally the

  15. Waterborne disease-related risk perceptions in the Sonora River basin, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morua, Agustin Robles; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Mayer, Alex S

    2011-05-01

    Waterborne disease is estimated to cause about 10% of all diseases worldwide. However, related risk perceptions are not well understood, particularly in the developing world where waterborne disease is an enormous problem. We focus on understanding risk perceptions related to these issues in a region within northern Mexico. Our findings show how waterborne disease problems and solutions are understood in eight small communities along a highly contaminated river system. We found major differences in risk perceptions between health professionals, government officials, and lay citizens. Health professionals believed that a high level of human-waste-related risk existed within the region. Few officials and lay citizens shared this belief. In addition, few officials and lay citizens were aware of poor wastewater-management-related disease outbreaks and water contamination. Finally, aside from health professionals, a few interviewees understood the importance of basic hygiene and water treatment measures that could help to prevent disease. Our results add to the literature on environmentally-related risk perceptions in the developing world. We discuss recommendations for improving future human-wastewater-related risk communication within the region. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Risk perception and clinical decision making in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aim to present new knowledge about different perspectives of health care professionals’ risk perceptions and clinical decision making. Furthermore, we intend to discuss differences between professional and personal risk perceptions and the impact on decisions in terms of both short...... and long-term outcomes. Background Insight into healthcare professionals’ perception of risk is a cornerstone for understanding their strategies for practising preventive care. The way people perceive risk can be seen as part of a general personality trait influenced by a mixture of individual...... considerations and the specific context. Most research has been focused on understanding of the concepts of risk. However healthcare professionals’ risk perception and personal attitudes also affect their clinical decision-making and risk communication. The differences between health care professionals’ personal...

  17. Residents' perception of solid waste disposal practices in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veronica Umukoro

    Population growth, increasing urbanization, changes in consumption pattern, and rapid developments in ..... Philippines. J. Environ. Sci. Manage. 12 (2):27-37. Delgado OB, Ojeda-Bínitez S, Márquez-Benavides L (2007). Comparative analysis of hazardous household waste in two. Mexican regions. Int. J. Waste Manage.

  18. Animal Waste Management Practices and Perceptions on Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the respondents (87.9%) were not aware of the existence of legislation governing animal waste management. It can be concluded from the study that the limited knowledge on proper management of animal wastes in the study area as well as lack of enforcement of legislation predisposes the environment and ...

  19. A score for measuring health risk perception in environmental surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang; Rava, Marta; Braggion, Marco; Grassi, Mario; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2015-09-15

    In environmental surveys, risk perception may be a source of bias when information on health outcomes is reported using questionnaires. Using the data from a survey carried out in the largest chipboard industrial district in Italy (Viadana, Mantova), we devised a score of health risk perception and described its determinants in an adult population. In 2006, 3697 parents of children were administered a questionnaire that included ratings on 7 environmental issues. Items dimensionality was studied by factor analysis. After testing equidistance across response options by homogeneity analysis, a risk perception score was devised by summing up item ratings. Factor analysis identified one latent factor, which we interpreted as health risk perception, that explained 65.4% of the variance of five items retained after scaling. The scale (range 0-10, mean ± SD 9.3 ± 1.9) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Most subjects (80.6%) expressed maximum risk perception (score = 10). Italian mothers showed significantly higher risk perception than foreign fathers. Risk perception was higher for parents of young children, and for older parents with a higher education, than for their counterparts. Actual distance to major roads was not associated with the score, while self-reported intense traffic and frequent air refreshing at home predicted higher risk perception. When investigating health effects of environmental hazards using questionnaires, care should be taken to reduce the possibility of awareness bias at the stage of study planning and data analysis. Including appropriate items in study questionnaires can be useful to derive a measure of health risk perception, which can help to identify confounding of association estimates by risk perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power, and Energy Choices Public Preferences, Perceptions, and Trust

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of studies have investigated public perceptions and preferences about nuclear power, waste management, and technology. However there is clear lack of uniformity in the style, aims and methods applied.  Consequently, the body of results is inconsistent and it is difficult to isolate relevant patterns or interpretations. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power and Energy Choices: Public Preferences, Perceptions and Trust presents a theoretical base for public reactions then classifies and reviews the large body of surveys carried out over the past decade.   Particular focus is placed on residents within 50 miles US nuclear waste facilities due to the disproportionate presence of nuclear factors in their lives such as the legacy of nuclear waste disposal and job dependency. The motivations and reasons for their views such as fear, attraction to the economic benefits, trust of site managers and federal agencies, cultural views, personal history, and demographic attributes of the people are also conside...

  2. Risk perception of musculoskeletal injury among critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Jeong; Faucett, Julia; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas; Landry, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    Nursing is known as an occupation with high risk of musculoskeletal injury. Nurses' perceptions about the risk of injury may have a role in preventing such injury. The aim of this study was to investigate how nurses perceived the risk of musculoskeletal injury from work and identify factors associated with their risk perception. In a cross-sectional study using a postal survey, 361 critical care nurses reported on risk perception, physical workload, psychosocial job factors, safety climate, musculoskeletal symptoms, and safe work behavior. Of all critical care nurse respondents, 83% perceived that they were more likely than not to have a musculoskeletal injury within 1 year. On average, nurses perceived the risk of musculoskeletal injury as lower to themselves than to coworkers. This more positive perception of risk to self had stronger correlations with symptom experiences. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that higher risk perception of injury was associated with greater job strain, greater physical workload, lack of availability of lifting devices or lifting teams, and more symptoms. Study findings indicated that most critical care nurses were concerned about their ergonomic job risks. Their risk perceptions about musculoskeletal injury risk were affected by physical work exposures, psychosocial job stressors, and experience with musculoskeletal symptoms, but not by perceived workplace safety climate. The findings underscore the need for management efforts to improve physical and psychosocial working conditions and create a safe work environment.

  3. Risk perception - Issues for flood management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradford, R. A.; O'Sullivan, J. J.; Van Der Craats, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    European countries. The research forms part of two research projects funded under the 2nd ERA-Net CRUE Funding Initiative: URFlood and FREEMAN. Risk perception is conceptualised as a pillar of social resilience, representing an innovative approach to the issue. From this process recommendations......Public perception of flood risk and flood risk information is often overlooked when developing flood risk management plans. As scientists and the public at large perceive risk in very different ways, flood risk management strategies are known to have failed in the past due to this disconnect...... are identified for improving flood risk management plans through public participation....

  4. Knowledge and Risk Perceptions of Occupational Infections Among Health-care Workers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Chidambar Subramanian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Health-care workers are at risk of exposure to occupational infections with subsequent risk of contracting diseases, disability, and even death. A systematic collection of occupational disease data is useful for monitoring current trends in work situations and disease exposures; however, these data are usually limited due to under-reporting. The objective of this study was to review literature related to knowledge, risk perceptions, and practices regarding occupational exposures to infectious diseases in Malaysian health-care settings, in particular regarding blood-borne infections, universal precautions, use of personal protective equipment, and clinical waste management. The data are useful for determining improvements in knowledge and risk perceptions among health-care workers with developments of health policies and essential interventions for prevention and control of occupational diseases.

  5. Risk perception - issues for flood management in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, R. A.; O'Sullivan, J. J.; van der Craats, I. M.; Krywkow, J.; Rotko, P.; Aaltonen, J.; Bonaiuto, M.; De Dominicis, S.; Waylen, K.; Schelfaut, K.

    2012-07-01

    Public perception of flood risk and flood risk information is often overlooked when developing flood risk management plans. As scientists and the public at large perceive risk in very different ways, flood risk management strategies are known to have failed in the past due to this disconnect between authorities and the public. This paper uses a novel approach in exploring the role of public perception in developing flood risk communication strategies in Europe. Results are presented of extensive quantitative research of 1375 questionnaire responses from thirteen communities at risk across six European countries. The research forms part of two research projects funded under the 2nd ERA-Net CRUE Funding Initiative: URFlood and FREEMAN. Risk perception is conceptualised as a pillar of social resilience, representing an innovative approach to the issue. From this process recommendations are identified for improving flood risk management plans through public participation.

  6. Radiation risk perception and public information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boggs-Mayes, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    We as Health Physicists face what, at many times, appears to be a hopeless task. The task simply stated is informing the public about the risks (or lack thereof) of radiation. Unfortunately, the public has perceived radiation risks to be much greater than they actually are. An example of this problem is shown in a paper by Arthur C. Upton. Three groups of people -- the League of Women Voters, students, and Business and Professional Club members -- were asked to rank 30 sources of risk according to their contribution to the number of deaths in the United States. Not surprisingly, they ranked nuclear power much higher and medical x-rays much lower than the actual values. In addition to the perception problem, we are faced with another hurdle: health physicists as communicators. Members of the Health Physics Society (HPS) found that the communication styles of most health physicists appear to be dissimilar to those of the general public. These authors administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to the HPS Baltimore-Washington Chapter. This test, a standardized test for psychological type developed by Isabel Myers, ask questions that provide a quantitative measure of our natural preferences in four areas. Assume that you as a health physicist have the necessary skills to communicate information about radiation to the public. Health physicists do nothing with these tools. Most people involved in radiation protection do not get involved with public information activies. What I will attempt to do is heighten your interest in such activities. I will share information about public information activities in which I have been involved and give you suggestions for sources of information and materials. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Nurses' and students' perception of risk from medical practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Adachi

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Although both nurses and students conceived various risk contents from medical practices, their conceptions still differed. Knowledge of these differences in the structure of risk perception and conceived risk contents of various medical practices between nurses and students could be utilized to improve risk communication in clinical practice.

  8. Risk perception of climate change: Empirical evidence for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Simora, Michael; Frondel, Manuel; Sommer, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The perception of risks associated with climate change appears to be a key factor for the support of climate policy measures. Using a generalized ordered logit approach and drawing on a unique data set originating from two surveys conducted in 2012 and 2014, each among more than 6,000 German households, we analyze the determinants of individual risk perception associated with three kinds of natural hazards: heat waves, storms, and floods. Our focus is on the role of objective risk measures an...

  9. Family history assessment: impact on disease risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Ruffin, Mack T; Nease, Donald E; Gramling, Robert; Acheson, Louise S; O'Neill, Suzanne M; Rubinstein, Wendy S

    2012-10-01

    Family Healthware™, a tool developed by the CDC, is a self-administered web-based family history tool that assesses familial risk for six diseases (coronary heart disease; stroke; diabetes; and colon, breast, and ovarian cancers) and provides personalized prevention messages based on risk. The Family Healthware Impact Trial (FHITr) set out to examine the clinical utility of presenting personalized preventive messages tailored to family history risk for improving health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Family Healthware on modifying disease risk perceptions, particularly among those who initially underestimated their risk for certain diseases. A total of 3786 patients were enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the clinical utility of Family Healthware. Participants were recruited from 41 primary care practices among 13 states between 2005 and 2007. Perceived risk for each disease was assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up using a single-item comparative risk question. Analyses were completed in March 2012. Compared to controls, Family Healthware increased risk perceptions among those who underestimated their risk for heart disease (15% vs 9%, prisk perceptions. Family Healthware was effective at increasing disease risk perceptions, particularly for metabolic conditions, among those who underestimated their risk. Results from this study also demonstrate the relatively resistant nature of risk perceptions. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.govNCT00164658. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. High-risk biodegradable waste processing by alkaline hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalambura, Sanja; Voća, Neven; Krička, Tajana; Sindrak, Zoran; Spehar, Ana; Kalambura, Dejan

    2011-09-01

    Biodegradable waste is by definition degraded by other living organisms. Every day, meat industry produces large amounts of a specific type of biodegradable waste called slaughterhouse waste. Traditionally in Europe, this waste is recycled in rendering plants which produce meat and bone meal and fat. However, feeding animals with meat and bone meal has been banned since the outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). In consequence, new slaughterhouse waste processing technologies have been developed, and animal wastes have now been used for energy production. Certain parts of this waste, such as brains and spinal cord, are deemed high-risk substances, because they may be infected with prions. Their treatment is therefore possible only in strictly controlled conditions. One of the methods which seems to bear acceptable health risk is alkaline hydrolysis. This paper presents the results of an alkaline hydrolysis efficiency study. It also proposes reuse of the obtained material as organic fertiliser, as is suggested by the analytical comparison between meat and bone meal and hydrolysate.

  11. Relative radiological risks derived from different TENORM wastes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, B; Teng, I L; Muhammad Samudi, Y

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes are mainly the product of the oil and gas industry and mineral processing. Among these TENORM wastes are tin tailing, tin slag, gypsum and oil sludge. Mineral processing and oil and gas industries produce large volume of TENORM wastes that has become a radiological concern to the authorities. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk related to workers working at these disposal sites and landfills as well as to the members of the public should these areas be developed for future land use. Radiological risk was assessed based on the magnitude of radiation hazard, effective dose rates and excess cancer risks. Effective dose rates and excess cancer risks were estimated using RESRAD 6.4 computer code. All data on the activity concentrations of NORM in wastes and sludges used in this study were obtained from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board, Malaysia, and they were collected over a period of between 5 and 10 y. Results obtained showed that there was a wide range in the total activity concentrations (TAC) of nuclides in the TENORM wastes. With the exception of tin slag and tin tailing-based TENORM wastes, all other TENORM wastes have TAC values comparable to that of Malaysia's soil. Occupational Effective Dose Rates estimated in all landfill areas were lower than the 20 mSv y(-1) permissible dose limit. The average Excess Cancer Risk Coefficient was estimated to be 2.77×10(-3) risk per mSv. The effective dose rates for residents living on gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes landfills were estimated to be lower than the permissible dose limit for members of the public, and was also comparable to that of the average Malaysia's ordinary soils. The average excess cancer risk coefficient was estimated to be 3.19×10(-3) risk per mSv. Results obtained suggest that gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes should be exempted from any radiological regulatory

  12. Exposure knowledge and risk perception of RF EMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik eFreudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented study is part of the EU Project LEXNET (Low EMF Exposure Future Networks, which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF electro-magnetic fields (EMF exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere.We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception. Therefore we evaluated respondents’ risk perceptions of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF risk perception is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features - except distance - do influence people’s general RF EMF risk perceptions. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF risk perception of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher risk perception, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and risk perception. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries.

  13. Smoking behaviour, risk perception and attitudes toward anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to establish smoking behaviour, perceptions of health risks of smoking and attitudes toward anti-smoking legislation among a sample of South African university students. Undergraduates (225 women and 105 men) completed measures of behaviours, attitudes and perceptions related to smoking. The results showed that ...

  14. Farmers' perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there is an enormous potential for improving adoption of hybrid rice in Bangladesh, it is going through some difficulties in practice. Understanding farmers' perception about difficulties is critical to successful promotion. The present study was conducted to analyze farmers' perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice ...

  15. Nanotechnology Awareness, Opinions and Risk Perceptions among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were elicited…

  16. Teachers' Risk Perception and Needs in Addressing Infectious Disease Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emmy M. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.; Lo, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus has led to numerous precautionary school closures in several countries. No research is available on the school teachers' perceptions as a health protective resource in controlling communicable disease outbreaks. The purposes of this study were to examine the risk perception, the perceived understanding…

  17. Security risks in nuclear waste management: Exceptionalism, opaqueness and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Beken, Tom; Dorn, Nicholas; Van Daele, Stijn

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses some potential security risks, concerning terrorism or more mundane forms of crime, such as fraud, in management of nuclear waste using a PEST scan (of political, economic, social and technical issues) and some insights of criminologists on crime prevention. Nuclear waste arises as spent fuel from ongoing energy generation or other nuclear operations, operational contamination or emissions, and decommissioning of obsolescent facilities. In international and EU political contexts, nuclear waste management is a sensitive issue, regulated specifically as part of the nuclear industry as well as in terms of hazardous waste policies. The industry involves state, commercial and mixed public-private bodies. The social and cultural dimensions--risk, uncertainty, and future generations--resonate more deeply here than in any other aspect of waste management. The paper argues that certain tendencies in regulation of the industry, claimed to be justified on security grounds, are decreasing transparency and veracity of reporting, opening up invisible spaces for management frauds, and in doing allowing a culture of impunity in which more serious criminal or terrorist risks could arise. What is needed is analysis of this 'exceptional' industry in terms of the normal cannons of risk assessment - a task that this paper begins. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Informal Risk Perceptions and Formal Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayford, Jerry [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Economists have argued persuasively that our goals are wider than just risk minimization, and that they include a prudent weighing of costs and benefits. This economic line of thought recognizes that our policy goals are complex. As we widen the range of goals we are willing to entertain, though, we need to check that the methods we customarily employ are appropriate for the tasks to which we customarily apply them. This paper examines some economic methods of risk assessment, in light of the question of what our policy goals are and should be. Once the question of goals is open, more complexities than just cost intrude: what the public wants and why begs to be addressed. This leads us to the controversial issue of public risk perceptions. We have now examined a number of procedures that experts use to make public policy decisions. Behind all these issues is always the question of social welfare: what actions can we take, what policies should we embrace, to make the world a better place? In many cases, the public and the experts disagree about what the right choice is. In the first section, we saw a possible defense of the experts based on democratic theory: the people's participation, and even their will, can be legitimately set aside in the pursuit of their true interests. If this defense is to work, a great deal of weight rests on the question of the people's interests and the competence and integrity of the experts' pursuit of it. But at the same time, social preferences are ill-defined, and so are not good candidates for rational actor theory. Both the prescriptive legitimacy claim and the very workings of formal theory we have seen to depend on informal, qualitative, political judgments. Unfortunately, we have also seen a steady pattern of expert reliance on technical procedures even when they were manifestly unsuited to the task. The experts seem so intent on excluding informal thought that they would prefer even a bad quantitative process to

  19. Risk, its perception and the media: the MMR controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Alison Jane

    2008-07-01

    This article aims to explore how the media contributes to and generates 'risk' and 'risk perception.' The example of parents refusing to have their children immunised with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine following negative media reporting will be discussed. The media appears to have an important influence on the perception of risk. We are living in a society that is increasingly aware of risk, and in which risk is socially constructed. It is important that healthcare professionals provide clear, consistent, evidence-based information to clients, ensuring that any areas of uncertainty are acknowledged. Otherwise, the public's trust in the healthcare professional will be undermined.

  20. Perceived risk and benefit of nuclear waste repositories: four opinion clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Moser, Corinne; Stauffacher, Michael; Krütli, Pius

    2013-06-01

    Local public resistance can block the site-selection process, construction, and operation of nuclear waste repositories. Social science has established that the perception of risks and benefits, trust in authorities, and opinion on nuclear energy play important roles in acceptance. In particular, risk and benefit evaluations seem critical for opinion formation. However, risks and benefits have rarely been studied independently and, most often, the focus has been on the two most salient groups of proponents and opponents. The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the often-neglected majority of people holding ambivalent or indifferent opinions. We used cluster analysis to examine the sample (N = 500, mailed survey in German-speaking Switzerland) in terms of patterns of risk and benefit perception. We reveal four significantly different and plausible clusters: one cluster with high-benefit ratings in favor of a repository and one cluster with high-risk ratings opposing it; a third cluster shows ambivalence, with high ratings on both risk and benefit scales and moderate opposition, whereas a fourth cluster seems indifferent, rating risks and benefits only moderately compared to the ambivalent cluster. We conclude that a closer look at the often neglected but considerable number of people with ambivalent or indifferent opinions is necessary. Although the extreme factions of the public will most probably not change their opinion, we do not yet know how the opinion of the ambivalent and indifferent clusters might develop over time. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bubeck, P.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Suu, L.T.T.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Following the renewed attention for non-structural flood risk reduction measures implemented at the household level, there has been an increased interest in individual flood risk perceptions. The reason for this is the commonly-made assumption that flood risk perceptions drive the motivation of

  2. The globalization of risk and risk perception: why we need a new model of risk communication for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Brocard Paterson, Pauline; Erondu, Ngozi

    2012-11-01

    Risk communication and vaccines is complex and the nature of risk perception is changing, with perceptions converging, evolving and having impacts well beyond specific geographic localities and points in time, especially when amplified through the Internet and other modes of global communication. This article examines the globalization of risk perceptions and their impacts, including the example of measles and the globalization of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine risk perceptions, and calls for a new, more holistic model of risk assessment, risk communication and risk mitigation, embedded in an ongoing process of risk management for vaccines and immunization programmes. It envisions risk communication as an ongoing process that includes trust-building strategies hand-in-hand with operational and policy strategies needed to mitigate and manage vaccine-related risks, as well as perceptions of risk.

  3. Risk and cost tradeoffs for remote retrieval of buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Grienbenow, B.E.; Nickelson, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration is supporting the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially available technologies, form a comprehensive system for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. As a part of the program`s technology development, remote retrieval equipment is being developed and tested for the remediation of buried waste. During remedial planning, several factors are considered when choosing remote versus manual retrieval systems. Time that workers are exposed to radioactivity, chemicals, air particulate, and industrial hazards is one consideration. The generation of secondary waste is also a consideration because it amounts to more waste to treat and some wastes may require special handling or treatment. Cost is also a big factor in determining whether remote or manual operations will be used. Other considerations include implementability, effectiveness, and the number of required personnel. This paper investigates each of these areas to show the risk and cost benefits and limitations for remote versus manual retrieval of buried waste.

  4. Nanotechnology risk perceptions and communication: emerging technologies, emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara; Satterfield, Terre

    2011-11-01

    Nanotechnology involves the fabrication, manipulation, and control of materials at the atomic level and may also bring novel uncertainties and risks. Potential parallels with other controversial technologies mean there is a need to develop a comprehensive understanding of processes of public perception of nanotechnology uncertainties, risks, and benefits, alongside related communication issues. Study of perceptions, at so early a stage in the development trajectory of a technology, is probably unique in the risk perception and communication field. As such it also brings new methodological and conceptual challenges. These include: dealing with the inherent diversity of the nanotechnology field itself; the unfamiliar and intangible nature of the concept, with few analogies to anchor mental models or risk perceptions; and the ethical and value questions underlying many nanotechnology debates. Utilizing the lens of social amplification of risk, and drawing upon the various contributions to this special issue of Risk Analysis on Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication, nanotechnology may at present be an attenuated hazard. The generic idea of "upstream public engagement" for emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is also discussed, alongside its importance for future work with emerging technologies in the risk communication field. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Heart Disease Risk Perception in College Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John S.; Grant, Melinda; Hill, Kathy L.; Brizzolara, Jeff; Belmont, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The authors sought to assess the perception of risks for coronary heart disease (CHD) in college men and women. They surveyed 470 undergraduates from 2 major 4-year institutions who completed a questionnaire that measured perceived risks for heart disease. Sixty-eight percent of the respondents rated their risks as lower or much lower than those…

  6. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerking, S.D.; Khaddaria, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14–22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk,

  7. Perceptions of cardiovascular risk among patients with hypertension or diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijling, B.D.; Lobo, C.M.; Keus, I.M.; Jenks, K.M.; Akkermans, R.P.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Prins, A.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to examine risk perceptions among patients at moderate to high cardiovascular risk. A questionnaire about perceived absolute risk of myocardial infarction and stroke was sent to 2424 patients with hypertension or diabetes. Response rate was 86.3% and 1557 patients without atherosclerotic

  8. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  9. Exposure knowledge and risk perception of RF EMF

    OpenAIRE

    Frederik eFreudenstein; Peter Michael Wiedemann

    2015-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU Project LEXNET (Low EMF Exposure Future Networks), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere.We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception. Therefore we evaluated respondents’ risk p...

  10. Climate change risk perception and communication: addressing a critical moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Climate change is an increasingly salient issue for societies and policy-makers worldwide. It now raises fundamental interdisciplinary issues of risk and uncertainty analysis and communication. The growing scientific consensus over the anthropogenic causes of climate change appears to sit at odds with the increasing use of risk discourses in policy: for example, to aid in climate adaptation decision making. All of this points to a need for a fundamental revision of our conceptualization of what it is to do climate risk communication. This Special Collection comprises seven papers stimulated by a workshop on "Climate Risk Perceptions and Communication" held at Cumberland Lodge Windsor in 2010. Topics addressed include climate uncertainties, images and the media, communication and public engagement, uncertainty transfer in climate communication, the role of emotions, localization of hazard impacts, and longitudinal analyses of climate perceptions. Climate change risk perceptions and communication work is critical for future climate policy and decisions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Environmental risk perception from visual cues: the psychophysics of tornado risk perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, Barry; Fischhoff, Baruch; Davis, Alexander; Broomell, Stephen B.

    2015-12-01

    Lay judgments of environmental risks are central to both immediate decisions (e.g., taking shelter from a storm) and long-term ones (e.g., building in locations subject to storm surges). Using methods from quantitative psychology, we provide a general approach to studying lay perceptions of environmental risks. As a first application of these methods, we investigate a setting where lay decisions have not taken full advantage of advances in natural science understanding: tornado forecasts in the US and Canada. Because official forecasts are imperfect, members of the public must often evaluate the risks on their own, by checking environmental cues (such as cloud formations) before deciding whether to take protective action. We study lay perceptions of cloud formations, demonstrating an approach that could be applied to other environmental judgments. We use signal detection theory to analyse how well people can distinguish tornadic from non-tornadic clouds, and multidimensional scaling to determine how people make these judgments. We find that participants (N = 400 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk) have heuristics that generally serve them well, helping participants to separate tornadic from non-tornadic clouds, but which also lead them to misjudge the tornado risk of certain cloud types. The signal detection task revealed confusion regarding shelf clouds, mammatus clouds, and clouds with upper- and mid-level tornadic features, which the multidimensional scaling task suggested was the result of participants focusing on the darkness of the weather scene and the ease of discerning its features. We recommend procedures for training (e.g., for storm spotters) and communications (e.g., tornado warnings) that will reduce systematic misclassifications of tornadicity arising from observers’ reliance on otherwise useful heuristics.

  12. Impact of place attachment on risk perception: exploring the multidimensionality of risk and the scale of risk

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Fátima

    2013-01-01

    The literature is inconclusive regarding the relationship between place attachment and risk perception. Place attachment relates to reduced risk perception in some contexts and higher levels in others. Furthermore, longitudinal studies have shown that this relationship can change over time. In order to elucidate this relationship, we explored the multidimensionality of risk perception using the Slovic et al. paradigm with three types of risks: environmental, social and economic. A...

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors among college students: Knowledge, perception, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Shurmur, Scott W; Pullen, Carol H; Yates, Bernice C

    2017-04-01

    To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience sampling. College students were knowledgeable about cardiovascular risk factors but did not perceive themselves at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors was correlated with the lifetime risk estimates (ρ = .17, p = .048), and perception of cardiovascular risk was positively associated with 30-year CVD risk estimates (ρ = .16, p = .048). More than 50% of the participants had 1 or more cardiovascular risk factors. High knowledge level of cardiovascular risk factors was not sufficient to lower cardiovascular risks within this study population, but changing perception of cardiovascular risk factors may play a bigger role in reducing long-term cardiovascular risks.

  14. Risques et perceptions des risques. Analyse historique et critique. / Risks and risks perceptions. Historical and critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kermisch, Céline

    2008-01-01

    Etude historique des conditions d’émergence du champ de recherches de la perception des risques ;analyse critique du paradigme psychométrique et de la théorie culturaliste, ainsi que des conceptions du risque qui les sous-tend. /Historical study of the emergence conditions of risk perception as a research field; critical analysis of the psychometric paradigm and cultural theory, as well as of the underlying risk conceptions.

  15. Staff perception on biomedical or health care waste management: a qualitative study in a rural tertiary care hospital in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Diwan, Vishal; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Joshi, Rita; Shah, Harshada; Sharma, Megha; Pathak, Ashish; Macaden, Ragini; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Health care or biomedical waste, if not managed properly, can be of high risk to the hospital staff, the patients, the community, public health and the environment, especially in low and middle income settings where proper disposal norms are often not followed. Our aim was to explore perceptions of staff of an Indian rural tertiary care teaching hospital on hospital waste management. A qualitative study was conducted using 10 focus group discussions (FGDs), with different professional groups, cleaning staff, nurses, medical students, doctors and administrators. The FGD guide included the following topics: (i) role of Health Care Waste Management (HCWM) in prevention of health care associated infections, (ii) awareness of and views about HCWM-related guidelines/legislation, (iii) current HCWM practices, (iv) perception and preparedness related to improvements of the current practices, and (v) proper implementation of the available guidelines/legislation. The FGDs were recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated to English (when conducted in Hindi) and analysed using content analysis. Two themes were identified: Theme (A), 'Challenges in integration of HCWM in organizational practice,' with the categories (I) Awareness and views about HCWM, (II) Organizational practices regarding HCWM, and (III) Challenges in Implementation of HCWM; and Theme (B), 'Interventions to improve HCWM,' with three categories, (I) Educational and motivational interventions, (II) Organizational culture change, and (III) Policy-related interventions. A gap between knowledge and actual practice regarding HCWM was highlighted in the perception of the hospital staff. The participants suggested organizational changes, training and monitoring to address this. The information generated is relevant not merely to the microsystem studied but to other institutions in similar settings.

  16. Staff perception on biomedical or health care waste management: a qualitative study in a rural tertiary care hospital in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Chandra Joshi

    Full Text Available Health care or biomedical waste, if not managed properly, can be of high risk to the hospital staff, the patients, the community, public health and the environment, especially in low and middle income settings where proper disposal norms are often not followed. Our aim was to explore perceptions of staff of an Indian rural tertiary care teaching hospital on hospital waste management.A qualitative study was conducted using 10 focus group discussions (FGDs, with different professional groups, cleaning staff, nurses, medical students, doctors and administrators. The FGD guide included the following topics: (i role of Health Care Waste Management (HCWM in prevention of health care associated infections, (ii awareness of and views about HCWM-related guidelines/legislation, (iii current HCWM practices, (iv perception and preparedness related to improvements of the current practices, and (v proper implementation of the available guidelines/legislation. The FGDs were recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated to English (when conducted in Hindi and analysed using content analysis.Two themes were identified: Theme (A, 'Challenges in integration of HCWM in organizational practice,' with the categories (I Awareness and views about HCWM, (II Organizational practices regarding HCWM, and (III Challenges in Implementation of HCWM; and Theme (B, 'Interventions to improve HCWM,' with three categories, (I Educational and motivational interventions, (II Organizational culture change, and (III Policy-related interventions.A gap between knowledge and actual practice regarding HCWM was highlighted in the perception of the hospital staff. The participants suggested organizational changes, training and monitoring to address this. The information generated is relevant not merely to the microsystem studied but to other institutions in similar settings.

  17. Prior storm experience moderates water surge perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Webster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme water speeds and how does their perception affect perceived risk? Prior research has focused on the characteristics of moving water that can reduce human stability or balance. The current research presents the first experiment on people's perceptions of risk and moving water at different speeds and depths. METHODS: Using a randomized within-person 2 (water depth: 0.45, 0.90 m ×3 (water speed: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 m/s experiment, we immersed 76 people in moving water and asked them to estimate water speed and the risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people increasingly overestimated water speeds as actual water speeds increased or as water depth increased. Water speed perceptions mediated the direct positive relationship between actual water speeds and perceptions of risk; the faster the moving water, the greater the perceived risk. Participants' prior experience with rip currents and tropical cyclones moderated the strength of the actual-perceived water speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced no rip currents or fewer storms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a clearer understanding of water speed and risk perception, which may help communicate the risks associated with anticipated floods and tropical cyclones.

  18. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  19. Risks and safety perception. IPSN barometer october 1999. Synthesis; Perception des risques et de la securite barometre IPSN octobre 1999 synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    An opinion investigation was realized in october 1999 by the IPSN to know the public opinion concerning the risks and safety perception. Five subjects were treated: the public care subjects (social and environment); the science and scientists image; the food risks; the opinion on the nuclear activities (interveners ability and credibility, nuclear controversy, radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents); the french people cares about the risks. The methodology and the analysis of the poll results are detailed. Tables of data investigation are also included. (A.L.B.)

  20. Inhalation pathway risk assessment of hazardous waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; Holton, G.A.; O' Donnell, F.R.; Hetrick, D.M.; Dixon, E.; Harrington, E.S.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this assessment was to determine the relative importance of plant design and waste physicochemical variables on human inhalation exposure and health risk resulting from hazardous waste incineration. A hypothetical waste incineration site in the northern Midwest was chosen as the primary site for analysis. This site has a population of 0.45 x 10/sup 6/ persons, with the closest individuals residing 1500 m from the incineration site. Two facility designs (liquid injection and rotary kiln) of three sizes (1, 10, and 150 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h), each burning three generic wastes, were selected. Three levels of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) were considered (99.0, 99.9 and 99.99% DRE). The three waste groups selected for study, in order of increasing incinerability were: (1) pesticide-related chemicals (chloroform, ethylene dichloride, hexachlorobutadiene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane); (2) API separator sludge chemicals (arsenic, chromium, lead, and phenol) and (3) phenol/acetone distillation chemicals (toluene, pyridine, phthalic anhydride, and methyl styrene). Annual-average ground level air concentrations of representative chemical pollutants were estimated using IEM, an automated inhalation exposure methodology. Air concentrations were estimated for both stack and fugitive emissions using region-specific meteorological and climatological data. Estimates of individual and total population exposure resulting from incineration of hazardous materials were calculated and estimates of risk obtained. 31 references, 36 tables. (ACR)

  1. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  2. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters

    OpenAIRE

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding...

  3. Information needs and risk perception as predictors of risk information seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.F.J.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a theoretical framework that describes the importance of public's information sufficiency, risk perception, and self-efficacy as predictors of intended risk information seeking behaviour. Based on theoretical assumptions, measurement instruments for relevant concepts were

  4. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-15

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  5. Decision-Making Risks Concerning the Construction of the Goiania Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoa, A.S. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rozental, J.J. [Ministry of Environment (Israel); Tranjan Filho, A. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    As it is well known, an accident with a teletherapy source made of {sup 137}CsCl with an initial activity of 59 TBq occurred in Goiania, in September of 1987. This paper will discuss the decision-making process, and the struggle that followed the decision to build the final repository for the remnants of the Goiania accident. The Goiania final repository was built as planned. The two subsurface structures under the grassy artificial hills hold the overall volume of the remnants of the Goiania accident. The near hill holds 5x10{sup 3} m3 of stabilized wastes without radioactivity, or with very low radioactivity. The far hill holds the remaining 6.5x10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of stabilized wastes with low and medium radioactivity. The central part of each subsurface hill has been shielded by wastes with less and less radioactivity. The overall fenced area occupies 1.85x10{sup 5} m{sup 2}. The external radiation levels are similar to the surrounding background, and much lower than those found in the Brazilian areas of high natural radioactivity. The site is permanently monitored by independent institutions, including Brazilian universities, and national and international organizations. As it was mentioned earlier, the final repository was build to last for at least 400 years. Although the initial decision to adopt a too conservative decontamination criterion in the case of the Goiania accident was bound to produce excessive amount of waste; such decision proved, retrospectively, not to be bad because the excess low radioactive waste produced was used as extra shielding material in final repository. The technical decision-maker should not abandon risk estimates, but should be aware that credibility is the main basis to achieve acceptability of a decision by the general public. Risk perception should be regarded as only a first step towards what may be called knowledge, or comprehension of risk estimates, but risk perception by the general public is still an open issue. The

  6. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in general practice: mismatch between cardiovascular risk and patients' risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, T; van Steenkiste, B; Stoffers, H E J H; Timmermans, D R M; Grol, R

    2007-01-01

    Guidelines on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasize identifying high-risk patients for more intensive management, but patients' misconceptions of risk hamper implementation. Insight is needed into the type of patients that general practitioners (GPs) encounter in their cardiovascular prevention activities. How appropriate are the risk perceptions and worries of patients with whom GPs discuss CVD risks? What determines inappropriate risk perception? Cross-sectional study in 34 general practices. The study included patients aged 40 to 70 years with whom CVD risk was discussed during consultation. After the consultation, the GPs completed a registration form, and patients completed a questionnaire. Correlations between patients' actual CVD risk and risk perceptions were analyzed. In total, 490 patients were included. In 17% of the consultations, patients were actually at high risk. Risk was perceived inappropriately by nearly 4 in 5 high-risk patients (incorrect optimism) and by 1 in 5 low-risk patients (incorrect pessimism). Smoking, hypertension, and obesity were determinants of perceiving CVD risk as high, whereas surprisingly, diabetic patients did not report any anxiety about their CVD risk. Men were more likely to perceive their CVD risk inappropriately than women. In communicating CVD risk, GPs must be aware that they mostly encounter low-risk patients and that the perceived risk and worry do not necessarily correspond with the actual risk. Incorrect perceptions of CVD risk among men and patients with diabetes were striking.

  7. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. A. Owca

    2007-06-21

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

  8. Evaluating Risk Perception based on Gender Differences for Mountaineering Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanto Novie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In average 26 death events in mountaineering per year for the time span from 2003 to 2012 is reported. The number of women dying during the mountaineering is significantly smaller than males (3.5 deaths male for one female death. This study aims to analyze the differences of risk perception based on gender and provide recommendations as education basic to prevent accidents in mountaineering. This study utilizes the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Delphi Method. A total of 200 mountaineer respondents (100 males and 100 females participated in this study. The independent variable in this study was gender. The dependent variable was risk perception including perception toward the serious accident, perception toward the probability of accident event as well as anxiety level and perception of efficacy and self-efficacy. The study result showed that the risk perception of women is higher than men with significant difference (p-value = 0.019. The recommendations from Delphi method result are by developing a positive mental attitude, showing about the risks that exist in nature, implementing Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT to raise awareness of the safety of ownself, following the climbing or mountaineer school, and using instructors to give lessons about safety in outdoor activities.

  9. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  10. Conditional risk assessment of adolescents' electronic cigarette perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Gansky, Stuart A; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Couch, Elizabeth T; Essex, Gwen; Walsh, Margaret M

    2015-05-01

    To adapt an established instrument for measuring adolescents' cigarette-related perceptions for new application with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In this exploratory study, 104 male high school students (40% tobacco ever-users) estimated the probability of potential e-cigarette risks (eg, lung cancer) or benefits (eg, look cool). We calculated associations between risk/benefit composite scores, ever-use, and use intention for e-cigarettes, and analogously, for combustible cigarettes. E-cigarette ever-use was associated with lower perceived risks, with adjusted differences versus never-users greater for e-cigarettes than for cigarettes. Risk composite score was inversely associated, and benefit score positively associated, with e-cigarette ever-use and use intention. Conditional risk assessment characterized adolescents' perceived e-cigarette risk/benefit profile, with potential utility for risk-perception measurement in future studies.

  11. GPs' Perceptions of Cardiovascular Risk and Views on Patient Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Paulsen, Maja Skov

    2015-01-01

    Objective. General practitioners' (GPs') perception of risk is a cornerstone of preventive care. The aims of this interview study were to explore GPs' professional and personal attitudes and experiences regarding treatment with lipid-lowering drugs and their views on patient compliance. Methods...... patient compliance, and (3) GPs' own risk management. There were substantial differences in the attitudes concerning all three themes. Conclusions. The substantial differences in the GPs' personal and professional risk perceptions may be a key to understanding why GPs do not always follow cardiovascular...

  12. Affect, risk perception and future optimism after the tsunami disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vastfjall

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental events such as natural disasters may influence the public's affective reactions and decisions. Shortly after the 2004 Tsunami disaster we assessed how affect elicited by thinking about this disaster influenced risk perceptions and future time perspective in Swedish undergraduates not directly affected by the disaster. An experimental manipulation was used to increase the salience of affect associated with the disaster. In Study 1 we found that participants reminded about the tsunami had a sense that their life was more finite and included fewer opportunities than participants in the control condition (not reminded about the tsunami. In Study 2 we found similar effects for risk perceptions. In addition, we showed that manipulations of ease-of-thought influenced the extent to which affect influenced these risk perceptions, with greater ease of thoughts being associated with greater perceived risks.

  13. Adolescents' Perception of Risk and Challenge: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodham, Karen; Brewer, Helen; Mistral, Willm; Stallard, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Concern has been mounting about the increasing numbers of adolescents who engage in risky behaviours. This qualitative study aimed to identify adolescents' perception of risk and explored the factors that adolescents felt influenced their decisions about engaging in risky behaviours. The results indicated that adolescents perceived risk to be…

  14. Traders' Perception of Cooking Smoke as a Risk Factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood pneumonia is the foremost killer of under-fives. Indoor air pollution by smoke from cooking fuel is a major risk factor for childhood pneumonia. The knowledge of caregivers about risk factors can facilitate the practice of appropriate preventive measures. This study set out to evaluate the perception of ...

  15. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. ... Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23.0. The level of statistical significance was set at ... Increased media campaign about its risks and preventive measures is urgently needed. Keywords: ...

  16. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Kontogianni, Stamatia; Abu Nabaa, Hendya; Alshami, Ni'meh; Al-Sari', Majed I

    2015-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) piling up is becoming a serious problem in all developing countries (DC) as a result of inequitable waste collection and treatment. Citizens' collaboration is partly based on understanding their views and their active involvement in MSW planning; on the other hand the assessment of the perception of hazardousness related with MSW is considered rather important as well since the identification of the weak points of the applied MWM strategy is eased and the level of required training is determined. Researchers implemented a case study in the West Bank (WB) and Gaza Strip (GS) regions of Palestine, taking into consideration previous researches in other developing countries. They reached to safe and useful conclusions regarding the parameters which mean the greatest in the waste management field as far as DC are concerned. Lack of skilled manpower, irregular collection services, inadequate equipment used for waste collection, inadequate legal provisions, and resource constraints are additional factors that are confirmed to be challenging the waste management scenarios in all DCs today. The research takes those factors under consideration but focuses on the educational gap and the results revealed interesting trends a significant relationship between respondent's educational attainment and their awareness of hazardous waste (hazard perception); the results will indicate the measure taking required to avoid accidents occurred in those regions (burns from toxics, cuts from sharps, etc). National policy and legislation development based on the research outcomes will ensure equitable and accessible services are in place in order to move towards a healthier environment. Specialized health education and training programs on national scale are also needed to enhance awareness on hazardous waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The neural bases underlying social risk perception in purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental

  18. High risk drinking and college students' self-perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Gabriel C; Wong, Eugene H

    2005-12-01

    The present study examined the relationship between high risk drinking and college students' self-perceptions. High risk drinking was defined as the consumption of four or more drinks in a row for women and five or more drinks in a row for men during a single sitting (within the last year). Historical trends regarding college-age drinking indicate that 44% of college students fit the criteria for high risk drinking at least once over the past year. A survey was administered to 210 college students (52 men and 158 women) between 18 and 22 years of age (M = 20.9, SD = 1.3) to assess their use of alcohol and their self-perceptions. Students' self-perceptions were measured with four subscales from the Neemann-Harter Self-perception Profile for College Students. Students either volunteered to participate in this study outside of class or were solicited during class. It was predicted that students' self-perceptions would differ significantly depending upon their alcohol consumption, i.e., 17.1% were Abstainers, 25.2% were Nonproblem Drinkers, and 57.6% were High Risk Drinkers. Analysis gave significant difference on Global Self-worth between students who abstained and those who were High Risk Drinkers. However, students' perceptions of Scholastic Competence, Intellectual Ability, and Social Acceptance did not differ significantly for the alcohol consumption groups. In addition to high risk drinking, a number of other variables were associated with self-perceptions, such as high school alcohol use, low high school GPA, and students' reported academic involvement. These relations are discussed.

  19. Scale Perception Bias in the Valuation of Environmental Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Arana, Jorge E.; León, Carmelo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The valuation of environmental risks is commonly approached with the utilization of stated preference methods such as contingent valuation. In these methods, money is utilized as the scale that reflects the individual?s underlying utility function. However, this scale can vary across individuals due to different perceptions on what are the right or appropriate bounds for willingness to pay. In this paper we test for scale perception bias and propose a correction method bas...

  20. Exposure Knowledge and Risk Perception of RF EMF

    OpenAIRE

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Peter M. Wiedemann; Varsier, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU-Project Low EMF Exposure Future Networks (LEXNET), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere. We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception (RP). Therefore we evaluated respondents’ ...

  1. Stroke Risk Perception in Atrial Fibrillation Patients is not Associated with Clinical Stroke Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournaise, Anders; Skov, Jane; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Leppin, Anja

    2015-11-01

    Clinical risk stratification models, such as the CHA2DS2-VASc, are used to assess stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. No study has yet investigated whether and to which extent these patients have a realistic perception of their personal stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the association between AF patients' stroke risk perception and clinical stroke risk. In an observational cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 178 AF patients with a mean age of 70.6 years (SD 8.3) in stable anticoagulant treatment (65% treatment duration >12 months). Clinical stroke risk was scored through the CHA2DS2-VASc, and patients rated their perceived personal stroke risk on a 7-point Likert scale. There was no significant association between clinical stroke risk assessment and patients' stroke risk perception (rho = .025; P = .741). Approximately 60% of the high-risk patients had an unrealistic perception of their own stroke risk, and there was no significant increase in risk perception from those with a lower compared with a higher risk factor load (χ(2) = .010; P = .522). Considering possible negative implications in terms of lack of motivation for lifestyle behavior change and adequate adherence to the treatment and monitoring of vitamin K antagonist, the apparent underestimation of risk by large subgroups warrants attention and needs further investigation with regard to possible behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlates of overdose risk perception among illicit opioid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Behar, Emily; Coffin, Philip O

    2016-02-01

    Opioid-related mortality continues to increase in the United States. The current study assesses demographic and behavioral predictors of perceived overdose risk among individuals who use opioids illicitly. By examining these correlates in the context of established overdose risk factors, we aim to assess whether characteristics and behaviors that have been associated with actual overdose risk translate to higher perception of risk. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 172 adult illicit opioid users in San Francisco, CA and used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of perception of high risk for opioid overdose. Age (aOR=0.96, 95%CI=0.93-1.00) and number of injection days per month (0.91, 0.86-0.97) were associated with a lower odds of perceived high overdose risk. There was no independent association between use of opioid analgesics, concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines or cocaine, or HIV status and overdose risk perception. Opioid users who injected more frequently and those who were older were less likely to perceive themselves as being at risk of overdose, notwithstanding that those who inject more are at higher risk of overdose and those who are older are at higher risk overdose mortality. In addition, despite being established overdose risk factors, there was no relationship between use of opioid analgesics, concurrent use of opioids and cocaine or benzodiazepines, or self-reported HIV status and overdose risk perception. These findings highlight key populations of opioid users and established risk factors that may merit focused attention as part of education-based overdose prevention and opioid management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bus operator perceptions of safety risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of TriMet bus operators addressing safety risks in their assigned work. Surveyed risk factors : were organized into five categories: vehicle design and condition; route layout; operating conditions; fatigue...

  4. Physical and biological dosimetry for risk perception in radioprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Ademir Amaral

    2005-01-01

    The increase in ionizing radiation (IR) applications, especially nuclear, has been followed by the growth of public concern for the potential associated risks. The public’s perception of such risks is often based on the philosophy that IR is harmful at any exposure level. On the other hand, although radiation workers have knowledge about the nature of IR and its potential health effects, the relationship between absorbed dose and risk is not well understood, principally for low doses. This re...

  5. Solid waste from health services and the environment: perception of the nursing team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilisdayne Thallita Soares da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the perception about the environmental impact of the production process of solid waste from health services of the nursing staff at a hospital in Santa Cruz. Qualitative research conducted in the period March-April 2010. Data were collected through interviews with 17 nurses and analyzed using thematic analysis. The data analysis demonstrated the production of solid wastes, along with the nursing procedures in your workspace. There was also a need for training on the solid waste from health services security-oriented environment, which indicates that knowledge by the nursing staff about this subject is still new, contributing to negative impacts on the environment are generated. Therefore, it is essential to invest in training that involves a process of continuing education, contributing to the consolidation of environmentally responsible values, to promote quality of life associated with sustainability and preservation.

  6. Risk perception and communication in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, Alexander; Hugman, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    In this narrative review, a brief summary of theoretical approaches to risk perception is followed by an analysis of some of the special factors influencing risk perception and risk communication in sub-Saharan Africa. Examples of recent and emergent local medicines and vaccine controversies in several countries are given along with evidence and analysis of how they were managed. These demonstrate, among other things, the extent to which ethnic, religious and cultural issues influence popular perception, and the power of rumour and anecdote in shaping public opinion and official responses to events. Where safety monitoring systems exist, they are in their infancy, with limited capacity for data collection, credible scientific review, effective public communication and robust crisis management. Although increasing democratic freedoms, including less restricted media, and evolving health systems are addressing the challenges and give hope for further progress, there are still deep and intractable issues that inhibit transparent and effective risk communication and stand in the way of African populations comprehending medicines and their risks in safer and more balanced ways. Some proposals for future change and action are offered, including the pursuit of a deeper understanding of local and national values, assumptions and beliefs that drive risk perception; tailoring public health planning and communications to specifically-targeted regions and populations; strengthening of safety surveillance and data-collection systems; giving higher priority to medicines safety issues in healthcare training and public education.

  7. [Spanish adolescents' low perception of risk in alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Relinque, Cristian; Arroyo, Gonzalo Del Moral; Ferrer, Belén Martínez; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu

    2017-08-07

    According to recent studies, Spanish adolescents show low perception of risk in alcohol consumption. The current study aims to analyze the factors that favor this low perception based on the opinion of a group of 32 professional experts on adolescence, family, school, mass media, and local policies. A qualitative methodology was used, based on Grounded Theory, using information from 5 focus groups guided by semi-structured interviews. Twelve factors or subcategories were identified, grouped in 4 general categories: short-term risk, immediacy, and perception of invulnerability ("adolescent thinking" category); benevolent view of alcohol, normalization of consumption, and alcohol-entertainment binomial ("social norms" category); parents' habitual consumption, verbal/non-verbal inconsistency in parental model, risk-free consumption depicted in the mass media, consumption with positive results in the media ("social models" category); and excessive health content, long-term risk ("preventive discourse" category). After discussing the results in the context of the current scientific literature, the article offers various proposals for increasing risk perception in adolescents: stronger impact of contents on short-term risks of alcohol; educational strategies targeted to adolescents to include agents of socialization, especially parents; and policies centered on the substance and reduction of supply.

  8. Channel Contract Behavior: the Role of Risk Attitudes, Risk Perceptions, and Channel Members' Market Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Wansink, B.

    2004-01-01

    By integrating elements of both marketing and finance, we show how risk influences channel contract behavior. We model risk behavior as the interaction between risk attitude and risk perception (IRAP). An analysis of the joint channel decisions of 208 producers, wholesalers, and processors provides

  9. How is the older road users’ perception of risk constructed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Kjær, Marlene Rishøj

    2011-01-01

    in their driving behaviour, but there is no unequivocal proof for this in the research literature. The present study aims to help to understand the risk perception of this group by studying how older persons construct their perceptions about risk and safety. The study uses material from focus groups conducted...... limitations but by perceiving other road users behaving dangerously. While the self-regulation practices adapted by the participants may have been responses to age-related changes, they were constructed as practices based on the driver’s skills, experience and preferences, and presented as responses...

  10. Online versus conventional shopping: consumers' risk perception and regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, Bob M

    2007-10-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a prevention focus. The findings in Study 1 demonstrate these effects by using self-report measures for risk perception and prevention focus. In Study 2, we replicated these findings and demonstrated that the effect of an online shopping environment carries over to behavior in a domain unrelated to shopping.

  11. Customer perceptions of agency risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A; Chen, Y C

    1996-04-01

    A government agency commissioned a baseline study of how its customers view the agency's risk information. The 70% response rate to a mail survey allows analysis by subgroups representing customers' primary interests. Although this agency traditionally has been responsible for ensuring plant and animal health at the farm gate (or where imported), responses emphasized emerging customer concerns about the environment and human health. Customers think many risk communication activities are important, but that the agency is not especially effective in conducting those activities. Customers are moderately satisfied with much of the risk information they receive, although many have little contact from or interaction with the agency. Customers identified other sources they use, which suggest potentially effective channels for this agency's risk messages. The study provides a baseline for measuring change in the agency's risk communication effectiveness. It also can be a model when other organizations plan their own risk communication evaluations.

  12. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A., E-mail: ikhatib@birzeit.edu [Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine (Country Unknown); Kontogianni, Stamatia [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Dpt. of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Abu Nabaa, Hendya; Alshami, Ni’meh [Faculty of Graduate Studies, Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine (Country Unknown); Al-Sari’, Majed I. [The Joint Services Council for Solid Waste Management for Hebron and Bethlehem Governorates JSC-H& B, West Bank (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Contribution to the scientific literature by examining the relationship between concern for the environment and waste disposal in the frame of household waste treatment mechanism specifically in developing countries. • The awareness of the citizens satisfaction level and the local existing capacities in developing countries significantly contribute to decision making on MSW management sustainability in Palestine and other developing countries when applied. • Identification of the differences and similarities among DC resulting to failures or success in WM field. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) piling up is becoming a serious problem in all developing countries (DC) as a result of inequitable waste collection and treatment. Citizens’ collaboration is partly based on understanding their views and their active involvement in MSW planning; on the other hand the assessment of the perception of hazardousness related with MSW is considered rather important as well since the identification of the weak points of the applied MWM strategy is eased and the level of required training is determined. Researchers implemented a case study in the West Bank (WB) and Gaza Strip (GS) regions of Palestine, taking into consideration previous researches in other developing countries. They reached to safe and useful conclusions regarding the parameters which mean the greatest in the waste management field as far as DC are concerned. Lack of skilled manpower, irregular collection services, inadequate equipment used for waste collection, inadequate legal provisions, and resource constraints are additional factors that are confirmed to be challenging the waste management scenarios in all DCs today. The research takes those factors under consideration but focuses on the educational gap and the results revealed interesting trends a significant relationship between respondent’s educational attainment and their awareness of hazardous waste (hazard perception); the

  13. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P

    2017-12-01

    Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p < 0.001). There appears to be a mismatch between injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or

  14. If at first you don't succeed. [Risk assessment in waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risk assessment in waste management is more critical than ever as we move to greater need for beneficial use of residuals like treated municipal sludge. Congress has ordered an end to ocean dumping of sludge by Dec. 31, 1991, and more states are considering bans to landfilling of sludge. Land-based utilization alternatives have always had opponents, with some claiming that all sludges are dirty sludges with disease-laden dangers. The latest flurry of newspaper accounts - citing a report by Cornell University toxicology professor Donald Lisk - warns that significant traces of cancer-causing asbestos from sludge fertilizer may be collected on agricultural lands, golf courses and suburban lawns. Golfers could inhale asbestos while hunting for lost balls, noted Lisk, who says he would recommend incineration of sludge rather than any of the other disposal methods. In a BioCycle interview last year, Dr. Terry Logan, soil scientist at Ohio State University, related the results of a study on the safety of landspreading sludge that was a cooperative research effort with various departments including the school of medicine and veterinary medicine. Their studies indicated the benefits of sludge far outweighed the risks. Disease pathogens were not a problem. Other potentially risky materials, synthetic organic compounds and heavy metals, could be controlled. Perception is not a proper gauge. With spreading sludge on land, the perception of the risks has always been greater than the real risks. It takes great effort to manage and utilize wastes in the public interest. It also requires more sense, than sensationalism, when reporting developments to the public.

  15. The Tripartite Model of Risk Perception (TRIRISK): Distinguishing Deliberative, Affective, and Experiential Components of Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Persoskie, Alexander; Avishai-Yitshak, Aya; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-10-01

    Although risk perception is a key predictor in health behavior theories, current conceptions of risk comprise only one (deliberative) or two (deliberative vs. affective/experiential) dimensions. This research tested a tripartite model that distinguishes among deliberative, affective, and experiential components of risk perception. In two studies, and in relation to three common diseases (cancer, heart disease, diabetes), we used confirmatory factor analyses to examine the factor structure of the tripartite risk perception (TRIRISK) model and compared the fit of the TRIRISK model to dual-factor and single-factor models. In a third study, we assessed concurrent validity by examining the impact of cancer diagnosis on (a) levels of deliberative, affective, and experiential risk perception, and (b) the strength of relations among risk components, and tested predictive validity by assessing relations with behavioral intentions to prevent cancer. The tripartite factor structure was supported, producing better model fit across diseases (studies 1 and 2). Inter-correlations among the components were significantly smaller among participants who had been diagnosed with cancer, suggesting that affected populations make finer-grained distinctions among risk perceptions (study 3). Moreover, all three risk perception components predicted unique variance in intentions to engage in preventive behavior (study 3). The TRIRISK model offers both a novel conceptualization of health-related risk perceptions, and new measures that enhance predictive validity beyond that engendered by unidimensional and bidimensional models. The present findings have implications for the ways in which risk perceptions are targeted in health behavior change interventions, health communications, and decision aids.

  16. PERCEPTION OF DIAGNOSIS ON MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE OF IPAMERI-GO POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Vieira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW generated in households in the cities, has sparked debates and demanded research papers in order to promote and disseminate the handling and packaging suitable for the trash. The way of handling these wastes and their disposal in the city of Ipameri-GO and destination that provides this population has caused serious inconvenience to the community. Therefore, this work aimed, through interviews with residents of different neighborhoods of Ipameri, identify problems related to the management of household waste and diagnose the level of perception of the subject population. It was observed in this study that the handling of the solid waste in Ipameri has proved inefficient further by a lack of public education policy and hence the environment, in which the lack of activity of the population. The population in theoretical and scientific knowledge is lacking, regardless of social and economic class, although empirically this same population, presents itself willing to perform the selective collection and recycling of solid waste. This fact raises larger government incentives and investments in educational policy so that we can develop a policy for Environmental Education (EE, to be fruitful and lasting.

  17. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Adolescent Risk Behavior Participation and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaar, Nicole R.; Williams, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate emotional intelligence as a predictor of adolescent risk participation and risk perception. While research has suggested that certain personality traits relate to adolescent risk behavior and perception, the extent to which emotional intelligence relates to risk behavior participation and perception is…

  18. How investor perceptions drive actual trading and risk-taking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors' perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risk-taking behavior? To answer this

  19. Risk perception, motives and behaviours in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, P; Salamé, J; Waked, M; Barbour, B; Zeidan, N; Baldi, I

    2014-07-03

    Risky behaviours among young people are relatively frequent, with several motives and attitudes lying behind. Our objective was to evaluate the role of risk perception, attractiveness and motives for risk behaviour taking among university students in Lebanon. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students in public and private universities. Items of risk intake and perception scale, attractiveness of risky behaviours, and motives for risky behaviours were assessed, in addition to cigarette and waterpipe smoking and dependence, alcohol problematic consumption and mental distress scale. After verifying the validity of scales and reliability in the university students' population, we found that risk perception was associated with lower risk intake, while risk attractiveness was a driver for it. Moreover, motives differed in their driving of risky behaviour, a particular point was that women indicated more goal achievement objectives, the latter concept was associated with lower risk taking. University students in Lebanon, women in particular, demonstrated wiser behaviour and may benefit from heath education programme to increase their awareness about risky behaviours. Identifying other personal, environmental, social and psychological predictors may also be important to improve effectiveness of these programmes.

  20. Gambler Risk Perception: A Mental Model and Grounded Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how gamblers perceive risk or the role of risk perception in disordered gambling. The purpose of the current study therefore was to obtain data on lay gamblers' beliefs on these variables and their effects on decision-making, behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Fifteen regular lay gamblers (non-problem/low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers) completed a semi-structured interview following mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Gambler interview data was compared to an expert 'map' of risk-perception, to identify comparative gaps or differences associated with harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and themes emerging from the data. The preliminary findings suggested that gambler accounts supported the presence of expert conceptual constructs, and to some degree the role of risk perception in protecting against or increasing vulnerability to harm and disordered gambling. Gambler accounts of causality, meaning, motivation, and strategy were highly idiosyncratic, and often contained content inconsistent with measures of disordered gambling. Disordered gambling appears heavily influenced by relative underestimation of risk and overvaluation of gambling, based on explicit and implicit analysis, and deliberate, innate, contextual, and learned processing evaluations and biases.

  1. Perception of risk and the attribution of responsibility for accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Laura N

    2014-03-01

    Accidents, one often hears, "happen"; we accept, and even expect, that they will be part of daily life. But in situations in which injury or death result, judgments of responsibility become critical. How might our perceptions of risk influence the ways in which we allocate responsibility for an accident? Drawing from attribution and risk perception theory, this study investigates how perceived controllability and desirability of risk, in addition to perceived danger and recreational risk-taking, relate to attributions of responsibility for the cause of unintentional injury in a unique setting: U.S. national parks. Three parks, Mount Rainier, Olympic, and Delaware Water Gap, provide the setting for this survey-based study, which considers how park visitors (N = 447) attribute responsibility for the cause of a hypothetical visitor accident. Results suggest that respondents tended to make more internal (i.e., related to characteristics of the victim), rather than external (i.e., related to characteristics of the park, or park management) attributions. As respondents viewed park-related risk as controllable, they were more likely to attribute the cause of the accident to the victim. Moreover, among other significant variables, having experienced a similar accident predicted lower internal causal attribution. Opportunities for future research linking risk perception and attribution variables, as well as practical implications for the management of public outdoor settings, are presented. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Impact of Risk Perception on Risk Communication and Community Resilience Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, T. G.; Thompson, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Past studies have demonstrated there is a relationship between risk perception, risk tolerance and mitigation planning. When people experience high-risk perception, their risk tolerance is typically lowered causing them to become more likely to support the implementation of mitigation policies including those that are either cost intensive or politically controversial. Understanding stakeholder risk perception could therefore provide information about the likelihood of implementation of various mitigation strategies. Varied risk communication methods are needed to accurately represent community risk so as to better inform decision-making. In response to this need, this research examines the effect of risk perception on community resilience through a case study of Fernan Lake, ID. Researchers conducted a survey of Fernan Lake residents to determine their risk perception of the impact of blue-green algae blooms on community resilience. Survey questions were developed based on traditional risk perception factors like vested interest, social trust, knowledge, possible benefits or losses, relevance to individual and potential for control. The results were used to determine residents' risk perception of the impact of blue green algae blooms on Socio-Ecological System resource availability and future development and growth potential. Focus groups were then conducted to validate the survey results. Research results demonstrate that residents are concerned about the impacts of blue-green algae blooms, but the level of interest in acting on those concerns and their willingness to consider more aggressive mitigation strategies varies across the study area. This research demonstrates the need for varied risk communication approaches, depending upon community mitigation goals.

  3. The predictors of glucose screening: the contribution of risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavielle, Pilar; Wacher, Niels

    2014-06-04

    The prevention of type 2 diabetes is a challenge for health institutions. Periodic blood glucose screening in subjects at risk for developing diabetes may be necessary to implement preventive measures in patients prior to the manifestation of the disease and to efficiently diagnose diabetes. Not only medical aspects, but also psychological and social factors, such as the perception of risk (the individuals' judgment of the likelihood of experiencing an adverse event) influence healthy or preventive behaviors. It is still unknown if risk perception can have an effect on health behaviors aimed at reducing the risk of diabetes (glucose screening). The objective of study was to identify factors that influence glucose screening frequency. Eight hundred randomized interviews, which were stratified by socioeconomic level, were performed in Mexico City. We evaluated the perception of risk of developing diabetes, family history, health status and socioeconomic variables and their association with glucose screening frequency. Of the study participants, 55.6% had not had their glucose levels measured in the last year, whereas 32.8% of the subjects reported having monitored their glucose levels one to three times per year and 11.5% had their levels monitored four or more times per year. Risk perception was significantly associated with the frequency of blood glucose screening. Having a first-degree relative with diabetes, being older than 45 years and belonging to a middle socioeconomic level increased the probability of subjects seeing a doctor for glucose screening. Glucose screening is a complex behavior that involves the subjects' perception of threat, defined as feeling vulnerable to the development of diabetes, which is determined by the subject's environment and his previous experience with diabetes.

  4. Environmental risk: perception and target with local versus global evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury-Bahi, Ghozlane

    2008-02-01

    This research addressed environmental risk perception depending on the target evaluated and on the category of hazard (technological and chemical hazards, climate change, loss of biodiversity). Correlations between environmental risk assessment and pro-environmental behavioural intentions were also tested. In a sample of 113 French adults, 15 different environmental risks were evaluated for four different risk targets (oneself, the inhabitants of the town, the inhabitants of the country, and humanity). As expected, environmental hazards were perceived as a greater risk for larger areas. Moreover, risks difficult to conceptualise, which contain both high uncertainty and long-term consequences (climate change, loss of biodiversity) are perceived as less risk to oneself and to the inhabitants of the town and the country of residence than more concrete and immediate risks (technological and chemical). Only the technological and chemical hazards significantly predict pro-environmental behavioural intentions.

  5. Whose reality counts? Factors affecting the perception of volcanic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Katharine; Barclay, Jenni; Pidgeon, Nick

    2008-05-01

    Understanding how people perceive risk has become increasingly important for improving risk communication and reducing risk associated conflicts. This paper builds upon findings, methodologies and lessons learned from other fields to help understand differences between scientists, authorities and the public. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse underlying attitudes and judgements during an ongoing volcanic crisis on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat. Specific differences between the public, authorities and scientists were found to have been responsible for misunderstandings and misinterpretations of information and roles, resulting in differing perceptions of acceptable risk. Difficulties in the articulation and understanding of uncertainties pertaining to the volcanic risk led to a situation in which the roles of hazard monitoring, risk communication and public protection became confused. In addition, social, economic and political forces were found to have distorted risk messages, leading to a public reliance upon informal information networks. The implications of these findings for volcanic risk management and communication are discussed.

  6. GPs' Perceptions of Cardiovascular Risk and Views on Patient Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Paulsen, Maja Skov

    2015-01-01

    Objective. General practitioners' (GPs') perception of risk is a cornerstone of preventive care. The aims of this interview study were to explore GPs' professional and personal attitudes and experiences regarding treatment with lipid-lowering drugs and their views on patient compliance. Methods. ...

  7. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess the level of awareness of, and perception of risk for, cervical cancer among women attending ... 5Community Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospitals, Osogbo, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Original ... secondary, and tertiary health-care services – located in.

  8. Online versus conventional shopping: Consumers' risk perception and regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kerkhof, P.; Fennis, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a

  9. Online versus Conventional Shopping: Consumers' Risk Perception and Regulatory Focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a

  10. The perception of midwives regarding psychosocial risk assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnant women who lack psychosocial support may experience stress, anxiety and depression that could possibly affect foetal wellbeing. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore and describe the perception of psychosocial risk assessment and psychosocial care by midwives providing antenatal care to ...

  11. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  12. Assessment of Sexual Behaviour, Attitude and Risk Perception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess sexual behaviour, attitudes and risk perception about HIV/AIDS among out-of-school anti-AIDS club member and non-member youths in Mettu and Bedelle towns. The study applied a case control study design. The cases are club members those registered in the out-of-school anti-AIDS clubs and actively ...

  13. Risk Perceptions in Diabetic Patients Who Have Experienced Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Mikkel Lindskov; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Colding-Jørgensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    focused on common and less serious AEs, thus disregarding rare and more serious events. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that experience of AEs, related to either medicines or disease, constitutes an important factor of patient risk perception. We therefore propose that serious adverse experiences should...

  14. Perception of environmental health risks among workers in a food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Workplace safety relies partially on workers' ability to recognize hazards that could result in personal injury. This study aimed to determine the perception of industrial workers to the environmental risks that they are exposed to and their practice of self protection through the use of PPE. Methods: It was a ...

  15. A Research into Evaluation of Basketball Athletes' Risk Perception Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the risk perception levels of Basketball athletes in Turkish League teams according to some variables. In this research the "general screening model," which is one of the descriptive screening methods, was used. While the population of the study consists of athletes actively engaged in the Turkish…

  16. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  17. The role of knowledge in students’ flood-risk perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, A.; Kuiper, W; van der Schee, J.A.; Schoonenboom, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    Until now, flood-risk perception in the Netherlands has been solely studied as it relates to adults. This exploratory study focused on 15-year-old students who have taken geography courses for 3 years. Since geography education focuses on the formation of knowledge and understanding with respect to

  18. The role of knowledge in students’ flood-risk perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, A.; Kuiper, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072937181; van der Schee, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072719575; Schoonenboom, J.

    2013-01-01

    Until now, flood-risk perception in the Netherlands has been solely studied as it relates to adults. This exploratory study focused on 15-year-old students who have taken geography courses for 3 years. Since geography education focuses on the formation of knowledge and understanding with respect to

  19. Students' Risk Perceptions of Nanotechnology Applications: Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant; Jones, Gail; Taylor, Amy; Forrester, Jennifer; Robertson, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Scientific literacy as a goal of a science education reform remains an important discourse in the research literature and is a key component of students' understanding and acceptance of emergent technologies like nanotechnology. This manuscript focuses on undergraduate engineering students' perceptions of the risks and benefits posed by…

  20. A qualitative study of alcohol risk perceptions among drinkers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem drinking status, the availability of alternative substitutes to drinking and, drinking motives together determine alcohol risk perceptions and drinking behavior. Therefore, in order to fully understand drinking behavior, the influences of drinking motives, personal experiences, drinking status, availability of alcohol ...

  1. Knowledge, Risk Perception and Vaccination against Hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    vaccination. HB vaccination among them is very poor as is their perception of their occupational risk for the disease. Continuing education, training and vaccine provision are recommended to address this important healthcare need. Keywords: Hepatitis B; primary healthcare workers;. Nigeria. Correspondence: Dr J.C. ...

  2. Risk Perceptions among Users of Commercial Motorcycles in Cities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the perceptions of the risk associated with the use of motorcycles as public transport among commuters in three cities (Ado-Ekiti, Ile-Ife and Ondo) of south western Nigeria. Data used for the study were collected through stratified sampling techniques from six hundred and sixty-five users of commercial ...

  3. Private forest owners and invasive plants: risk perception and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; Susan. Charnley

    2012-01-01

    We investigated nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners' invasive plant risk perceptions and mitigation practices using statistical analysis of mail survey data and qualitative analysis of interview data collected in Oregon's ponderosa pine zone. We found that 52% of the survey sample was aware of invasive plant species considered problematic by local...

  4. Do we see how they perceive risk? An integrated analysis of risk perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nini; Wang, Xueqing; Griffin, Mark A; Wu, Chunlin; Liu, Bingsheng

    2017-09-01

    While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers' direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers' risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. We are at risk, and so what? Place attachment, environmental risk perceptions and preventive coping behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Fornara, Ferdinando; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta

    2015-01-01

    Place attachment regulates people-environment transactions across various relevant environmental-psychological processes. However, there is no consensus about its role in the relationship between environmental risk perception and coping behaviours. Since place attachment is strongly related to pl...

  6. Risk perception after genetic counseling in patients with increased risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Johanna; Platten, Ulla; Lindgren, Gunilla; Nilsson, Bo; Arver, Brita; Lindblom, Annika; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2009-08-23

    Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices 12.The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling. The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period. Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants.The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations.The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in population. Difference in risk perception for children

  7. Risk perception after genetic counseling in patients with increased risk of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rantala Johanna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices 12. The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling. Methods The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period. Results Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants. The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations. The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in

  8. Risk perception and the economic crisis: a longitudinal study of the trajectory of perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William J; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a longitudinal survey of public response to the economic crisis to understand the trajectory of risk perception amidst an ongoing crisis. A nation-wide panel responded to seven surveys beginning in late September 2008 at the peak of the crisis and concluded in October 2009. At least 600 respondents participated in each survey, with 413 completing all seven surveys. Our online survey focused on perceptions of risk (savings, investments, retirement, job), negative emotions toward the financial crisis (sadness, anxiety, fear, anger, worry, stress), confidence in national leaders to manage the crisis (President Obama, Congress, Treasury Secretary, business leaders), and belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives despite the crisis. We employed latent growth curve modeling to analyze change in risk perception throughout the crisis. Our results suggest that, in general, people's perceptions of risk appear to decrease most rapidly during the initial phase of a crisis and then begin to level off. Negative emotion about the crisis was the most predictive of increased risk perception, supporting the notion of risk as feelings. Belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives was also predictive. Confidence in national leaders, however, was not predictive of perceived risk. Finally, our results demonstrate that groups may experience a crisis differently depending on a combination of personal characteristics such as gender, income, numeracy, and political attitude. Risk management and communication should work in sync with these mechanisms and differences across groups. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Consumers' Risk Perception of Household Cleaning and Washing Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearth, Angela; Miesler, Linda; Siegrist, Michael

    2017-04-01

    A large share of accidental and nonaccidental poisonings are caused by household cleaning and washing products, such as drain cleaner or laundry detergent. The main goal of this article was to investigate consumers' risk perception and misconceptions of a variety of cleaning and washing products in order to inform future risk communication efforts. For this, a sorting task including 33 commonly available household cleaning and washing products was implemented. A total of 60 female consumers were asked to place the cleaning and washing products on a reference line 3 m in length with the poles "dangerous" and "not dangerous." The gathered data were analyzed qualitatively and by means of multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and linear regression. The dimensionality of the sorting data suggests that both analytically (i.e., written and graphical hazard notes and perceived effectiveness) and intuitively driven risk judgments (i.e., eco vs. regular products) were applied by the participants. Furthermore, results suggest the presence of misconceptions, particularly related to consumers' perceptions of eco cleaning products, which were generally regarded as safer than their regular counterparts. Future risk communication should aim at dispelling these misconceptions and promoting accurate risk perceptions of particular household cleaning and washing products. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk. The research model with three hypotheses to explained the relationship and influenced between the constructs that perception of quality perception of risk and purchase decision. In these empirical studied treated 366 respondents from customer of retail supermarkets in West Java - Indonesia. Results of research founded a significant negative relationship between perception of quality and perception of risk. As well as the behavior of perception of quality and the perception of risk has a significant influenced on purchase decision. Retail self-service needs to improve the perception of quality and reduces the risk perception of the consumers if purchasing behavior of consumers want increase on organic products. This studied was useful in raising awareness of self-service retail and consumers for environmentally friendly products.

  11. Lay and expert perceptions of zoonotic risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Lassen, Jesper; Robinson, P.

    2005-01-01

    concepts of risk and hence are bound more or less to talk at cross-purposes. This paper suggests an alternative analysis: In the light of moral theory, the conflicting perspectives can be understood as a genuine moral conflict. When this conflict is conceptualised, a rational dialogue becomes possible....... The paper reports a series of qualitative interviews with lay people and experts on zoonotic food risks. The interviews are used to reconstruct the values underlying some of the dominant perspectives. The conflict between these stylised perspectives is then analysed with the help of moral theory. Finally...

  12. Decision Science, Risk Perception, and Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Marie Zapien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision scientists have revealed and described, through empirical study, the ways in which we tend to make decisions, and in particular, the ways we make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and that involve risk. The findings from these studies demonstrate the heuristics we use in making judgments and ways in which we process information compared with subject matter experts and logical and statistical principles. These findings have been applied to public policy issues and environmental safety, among other areas of social and political import, but have largely not been applied to our understanding of important personal decisions that are also made under uncertainty and risk and which have important personal and sometimes social consequences. This article aims to consider extra-marital affairs as an example of a personal decision that is made under uncertainty and with risk, and to apply decision science models to the decision-making that occurs in these cases. The hope is that decision scientists, psychologists, and clinicians who treat instances of infidelity, as well as the public, can benefit from what is known about how these decisions are made, which so often lead to regret. Theoretical implications for other personal decisions made under uncertainty with risk will be discussed.

  13. DIFFUSION AND PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother’s consumption of...

  14. Risk perception and management in smallholder dairy farming in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, K.; Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies on smallholder dairy farmers' risk perceptions and management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research of developing countries. This study focuses on farmers' risk perception and management strategies of smallholder dairy farms in urban and

  15. Risk perception of medicinal marijuana in medical students from northeast Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Guzman Sandra; Palacios-Ríos Dionicio; Nava-Obregon Teresa A; Arredondo-Mendoza Julio C; Alcalá-Alvarado Olga V; Alonso-Bracho Sofía A; Becerril-Gaitan Daniela A; González-Santiago Omar

    2017-01-01

    This article discribe by the first time the risk perception of medicinal marijuana in medical students. The evaluation was done with a scale of 10 cm, similar to other studies that analyze risk perception to prescription drugs.

  16. [Construction and application of both adolescent multi-domain risk behavior questionnaire and risk perception questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Li; Zhang, Li-jin

    2011-06-01

    According to the Domain Specific Theory (DST) in risk-taking, this study intended to construct adolescent risk-taking behavior questionnaire and risk perception questionnaire inferred many domains for studying the adolescent risk-taking behavior and risk perception. With 422 middle school students in Yinchuan as subjects to develop the questionnaire. 2402 middle school students in Ningxia and Anhui were surveyed using the questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) indicated that both of the questionnaires contain four domains named society, recreation, safe and moral, and 33 items, which could explain 41.25% and 45.5% of the total variance respectively. The split-half reliability were 0.848, 0.890 and the coefficient of internal consistency were 0.900 and 0.938. The fit indices of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were as follows: χ(2)/df = 8.36 and 6.73, RMSEA = 0.066 and 0.054, NFI = 0.97 and 0.97, CFI = 0.97 and 0.97 separately. Gender difference in adolescent risk-taking behavior and risk perception were noticed, with F (1, 2288) = 56.256, P behaviors increased with age, F (2, 2288) = 140.067, P perception decreased with age, F (2, 2288) = 54.900, P behavior and risk perception.

  17. Understanding gaps between the risk perceptions of wildland-urban interface (WUI) residents and wildfire professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Meldrum; Patricia A. Champ; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Travis Warziniack; Christopher M. Barth; Lilia C. Falk

    2015-01-01

    Research across a variety of risk domains finds that the risk perceptions of professionals and the public differ. Such risk perception gaps occur if professionals and the public understand individual risk factors differently or if they aggregate risk factors into overall risk differently. The nature of such divergences, whether based on objective inaccuracies or on...

  18. Parents’ and students’ perceptions of college alcohol risk: The role of parental risk perception in intentions to communicate about alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Napper, Lucy E.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBRIE, JOSEPH W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims to examine discrepancies in parents’ and college students’ perceptions of alcohol risk and the role of perceived risk in predicting parents’ intentions to discuss alcohol with their child. In total, 246 college student-parent dyads (56.1% female students, 77.2% mothers) were recruited from a mid-size university. Participants completed measures of absolute likelihood, comparative likelihood, and severity of alcohol consequences. In comparison to students, parents perceiv...

  19. Risk Perceptions in Diabetic Patients Who Have Experienced Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Mikkel Lindskov; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Colding-Jørgensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasingly, patients are expected to influence decisions previously reserved for regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and healthcare professionals. Individual patients have previously represented their patient population when rare, serious adverse events (AEs) were weighed...... as part of a benefit-risk assessment. However, the degree of heterogeneity of the patient population is critical for how accurately they can be represented by individuals. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore patients' risk perception of rare, serious adverse effects of medicines with regard to blood......, perceptions of the terms rare and serious, and overall levels of risk aversion. A thematic analysis of the interviews, including a consensus discussion, was carried out. RESULTS: Interestingly, respondents rarely made a clear distinction between medicines-induced AEs and complications related to disease...

  20. Perception of risk of HIV and sexual risk behaviors among University students: implication for planning interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Yitayal; Alemu, Abebe; Assefa, Abate; Tesfaye, Berihun; Gibermedhin, Etsegenet; Amare, Misiker

    2014-03-19

    The university environment offers great opportunity for HIV high-risk behaviors, including unsafe sex and multiple partnerships. Despite recently gained decline of the overall incidence of HIV infection, still significant proportion of youth population are at high risk of HIV infection. The aims of this study were to assess the perception of HIV risk and factors associated with risk perception among students at University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted between February and April, 2012 among health science students. A total of 384 students were involved in the study using stratified sampling technique. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were employed. P-value university students.

  1. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  2. Risk Perception and the Public Acceptance of Drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Reece A; Greer, Dominique A; Greer, Duncan G; Mehta, Amisha M

    2015-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft, or drones, are a rapidly emerging sector of the aviation industry. There has been limited substantive research, however, into the public perception and acceptance of drones. This article presents the results from two surveys of the Australian public designed to investigate (1) whether the public perceive drones to be riskier than existing manned aviation, (2) whether the terminology used to describe the technology influences public perception, and (3) what the broader concerns are that may influence public acceptance of the technology. We find that the Australian public currently hold a relatively neutral attitude toward drones. Respondents did not consider the technology to be overly unsafe, risky, beneficial, or threatening. Drones are largely viewed as being of comparable risk to that of existing manned aviation. Furthermore, terminology had a minimal effect on the perception of the risks or acceptability of the technology. The neutral response is likely due to a lack of knowledge about the technology, which was also identified as the most prevalent public concern as opposed to the risks associated with its use. Privacy, military use, and misuse (e.g., terrorism) were also significant public concerns. The results suggest that society is yet to form an opinion of drones. As public knowledge increases, the current position is likely to change. Industry communication and media coverage will likely influence the ultimate position adopted by the public, which can be difficult to change once established. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Risk perceptions, optimism, and natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V Kerry

    2008-12-01

    This article uses the panel survey developed for the Health and Retirement Study to evaluate whether Hurricane Andrew in 1992 altered longevity expectations of respondents who lived in Dade County, Florida, the location experiencing the majority of about 20 billion dollars of damage. Longevity expectations have been used as a proxy measure for both individual subjective risk assessments and dispositional optimism. The panel structure allows comparison of those respondents' longevity assessments when the timing of their survey responses bracket Andrew with those of individuals where it does not. After controlling for health effects, the results indicate a significant reduction in longevity expectations due to the information respondents appear to have associated with the storm.

  4. Psychological aspects of food safety risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    Most consumers are not microbiologists and spend little time worrying about food safety. Evolution and civilisation have provided us with abilities to avoid the more serious risks, and in practice we tend to use these abilities quite well. However, there are certain conditions under which...... problematic food safety behaviours are likely to occur. The presentation will begin with an overview of the relevant psychological mechanisms that regulate approach and avoidance behaviour with respect to potentially hazardous foods. Learned representations of familiarity and reward value act as safety......: pleasure is tied to approach, surprise to orientation, disgust to avoidance. These mechanisms operate permanently and in an almost automatic manner. Problematic food safety behaviours often result when (a) easily detectable cues for spoilage or contamination do not exist, (b) when the diagnosticity...

  5. Weight perceptions of parents with children at risk for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Eva M; Becker, Tara L; Carrel, Aaron L

    2012-01-20

    The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes among African American, Latino American, and Native American children in the United States has led to increasing focus on strategies for prevention. However, little is known about the perceptions toward weight, nutrition, and physical activity among these youth. This pilot study explored the perceptions of body weight among overweight and obese children and their parents. Thirty eight children, ages 8-16 years who were enrolled in a diabetes prevention study were surveyed to assess their perception of their weight. Nearly all (84%) of the children were obese. When asked whether they considered themselves to be overweight, African-American children were less likely to report that they were overweight than other children (33% vs. 80% of other children, p = 0.01). The parents of these children (n = 29) were also surveyed to assess their perception of their child's weight. The parents of two-thirds (65%) of the children reported that the child was overweight, while the rest reported their child was underweight or the right weight. African-American parents were less likely to report that their child's weight was unhealthy compared to other parents (46% vs. 77%, p = 0.069). This study's findings indicate that future intervention efforts should assess children's and parents' awareness of obesity and diabetes risk and these factors should be considered when developing prevention interventions for families with youth at risk for diabetes in underserved communities.

  6. Weight perceptions of parents with children at risk for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Eva M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes among African American, Latino American, and Native American children in the United States has led to increasing focus on strategies for prevention. However, little is known about the perceptions toward weight, nutrition, and physical activity among these youth. This pilot study explored the perceptions of body weight among overweight and obese children and their parents. Results Thirty eight children, ages 8-16 years who were enrolled in a diabetes prevention study were surveyed to assess their perception of their weight. Nearly all (84% of the children were obese. When asked whether they considered themselves to be overweight, African-American children were less likely to report that they were overweight than other children (33% vs. 80% of other children, p = 0.01. The parents of these children (n = 29 were also surveyed to assess their perception of their child's weight. The parents of two-thirds (65% of the children reported that the child was overweight, while the rest reported their child was underweight or the right weight. African-American parents were less likely to report that their child's weight was unhealthy compared to other parents (46% vs. 77%, p = 0.069. Conclusions This study's findings indicate that future intervention efforts should assess children's and parents' awareness of obesity and diabetes risk and these factors should be considered when developing prevention interventions for families with youth at risk for diabetes in underserved communities.

  7. Risk Perception and the Psychology of Natural Hazard Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.; Weber, E. U.

    2014-12-01

    In the preparedness phase of the disaster cycle, willingness to invest resources in prevention and mitigation doesn't depend only on quantitative judgments of the probability of a disaster. People also evaluate the risks of situations in qualitative ways. Psychological studies of risk perception have shown that risk attitudes toward everyday technologies and activities (e.g., electric power, air travel, smoking) can be mapped onto two orthogonal dimensions: how unknown the risks seem, and how dread or severe they feel. Previously, this psychometric approach to risk perception has focused mostly on man-made risks (e.g., Fischhoff et al. 1978, Slovic 1987). In this paper we examine how natural hazards fit into the established unknown/dread risk space. Hazards that are high on the unknown dimension of risk tend to be perceived as having effects that are unknown to science and to the exposed, uncontrollable, and new. Hazards that rank high on the dread/severity dimension are seen as immediate, catastrophic, highly dreaded on a gut level, new, and likely to be fatal. Perceived risk tends to be highest for hazards that are both high on the dread dimension and low on the unknown dimension. We find that weather-related hazards rank lowest on both dimensions: blizzards, heat waves, hailstorms, fog, and ice storms are all feel very known and not particularly dread. The exception for this group is hurricanes and tornadoes, which are viewed as more similar to geophysical hazards and mass movements: high on dread, though not particularly unknown. Two notable outliers are climate change and sea-level rise, which are both considered very unknown (higher than any other natural hazard save sinkholes), and not at all dread (less dread even than fog and dust storms). But when compared with perceptions of technological hazards, nearly every natural hazard ranks as more dread than any technology or activity, including nuclear power. Man-made hazards fall with technologies, rather than

  8. Rural Community Disaster Preparedness and Risk Perception in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Disasters will continue to occur throughout the world and it is the responsibility of the government, health care systems, and communities to adequately prepare for potential catastrophic scenarios. Unfortunately, low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable following a disaster. By understanding disaster preparedness and risk perception, interventions can be developed to improve community preparedness and avoid unnecessary mortality and morbidity following a natural disaster. Problem The purpose of this study was to assess disaster preparedness and risk perception in communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. After designing a novel disaster preparedness and risk perception survey based on guidelines from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC; Geneva, Switzerland), investigators performed a cross-sectional survey of potentially vulnerable communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. Data were entered and analyzed utilizing the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap; Harvard Catalyst; Boston, Massachusetts USA) database. A total of 230 study participants were surveyed, composed of 37% males, 63% females, with ages ranging from 18-85 years old. Those surveyed who had previously experienced a disaster (41%) had a higher perception of future disaster occurrence and potential disaster impact on their community. Overall, the study participants consistently perceived that earthquakes and infection had the highest potential impact of all disasters. Twenty-six percent of participants had an emergency supply of food, 24% had an emergency water plan, 24% had a first aid kit at home, and only 20% of the study participants had an established family evacuation plan. Natural and man-made disasters will remain a threat to the safety and health of communities in all parts of the world, especially within vulnerable communities in LMICs; however, little research has been done to identify disaster perception

  9. The role of risk perception in making flood risk management more effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchecker, M.; Salvini, G.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Semenzin, E.; Maidl, E.; Marcomini, A.

    2013-11-01

    Over the last few decades, Europe has suffered from a number of severe flood events and, as a result, there has been a growing interest in probing alternative approaches to managing flood risk via prevention measures. A literature review reveals that, although in the last decades risk evaluation has been recognized as key element of risk management, and risk assessment methodologies (including risk analysis and evaluation) have been improved by including social, economic, cultural, historical and political conditions, the theoretical schemes are not yet applied in practice. One main reason for this shortcoming is that risk perception literature is mainly of universal and theoretical nature and cannot provide the necessary details to implement a comprehensive risk evaluation. This paper therefore aims to explore a procedure that allows the inclusion of stakeholders' perceptions of prevention measures in risk assessment. It proposes to adopt methods of risk communication (both one-way and two-way communication) in risk assessment with the final aim of making flood risk management more effective. The proposed procedure not only focuses on the effect of discursive risk communication on risk perception, and on achieving a shared assessment of the prevention alternatives, but also considers the effects of the communication process on perceived uncertainties, accepted risk levels, and trust in the managing institutions. The effectiveness of this combined procedure has been studied and illustrated using the example of the participatory flood prevention assessment process on the Sihl River in Zurich, Switzerland. The main findings of the case study suggest that the proposed procedure performed well, but that it needs some adaptations for it to be applicable in different contexts and to allow a (semi-) quantitative estimation of risk perception to be used as an indicator of adaptive capacity.

  10. Yucca Mountain socioeconomic project report on the 1987 risk perception telephone surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunreuther, H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Wharton School of Finance and Commerce; Slovic, P. [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States); Nigg, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Desvousges, W.H. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1987-09-01

    The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples` perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain.

  11. Current features on risk perception and risk communication of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Tomoko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1997-03-01

    Health effects and risks of radiation and radionuclides are being misunderstood by many members of general public. Many peoples have fear and anxieties for radiation. So far, the health effects from radiation at low dose and low dose rate have not been cleared on biological aspects. Then, we have quantitatively estimated health risks of low-dose radiation on the basis of linear dose response relationship without threshold from the viewpoints of radiation protection by using both epidemiological data, such as atomic bomb survivors, and some models and assumptions. It is important for researchers and relevant persons in radiation protection to understand the process of risk estimation of radiation and to communicate an exact knowledge of radiation risks of the public members. (author)

  12. Time will tell: changes in risk perception and the processing of risk information about the Y2K-risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuttschreuter, M.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2004-01-01

    A field study was performed on the perceived risks related to the Y2K-problem. Two cross-sectional surveys were executed to study whether risk perception regarding the Y2K-problem, the perceived societal and personal capabilities to mitigate the risks, the attitude toward computers and the attitude

  13. Pesticide Risk Communication, Risk Perception, and Self-Protective Behaviors among Farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among College Students: Knowledge, Perception, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T.; Zimmerman, Lani M.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Shurmur, Scott W.; Pullen, Carol H.; Yates, Bernice C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. Participants: The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience…

  15. Responding to crises and disasters: the role of risk attitudes and risk perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Grossman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Discussions are taking place both in the United States and in Europe about how governments should respond to both disasters and crises, and how citizens' non-desirable behaviour might be managed with respect to such disasters. Here we examine the role that risk attitudes and risk perceptions play in

  16. Risk Perception for Developing Diabetes among Non-diabetic Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez; José Leonardo Bonilla Romero; Ernesto Vicente Peña; Miriam Costa Cruz; Gisela Zerquera Trujillo

    2016-01-01

    Background: the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased in recent decades and this trend is expected to continue. Objective: to determine the risk perception for developing type 2 diabetes among non-diabetic individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving non-diabetic individuals in the catchment area of the doctor-and-nurse office No.15 of the Manuel Fajardo Polyclinic in Cienfuegos was conducted between May 2013 and June 2014. The universe consisted of 11...

  17. Health Risks Awareness of Electronic Waste Workers in the Informal Sector in Nigeria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohajinwa, Chimere M; Van Bodegom, Peter M; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2017-01-01

    Insight into the health risk awareness levels of e-waste workers is important as it may offer opportunities for better e-waste recycling management strategies to reduce the health effects of informal e-waste recycling. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices associated

  18. Public Perceptions and Practices of Solid Waste Recycling in the City of Laramie in Wyoming, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Upendra B. Bom; Shashidhar Belbase; Reni Bibriven Lila

    2017-01-01

    Managing household solid waste is a growing challenge for many cities. To tackle this problem, cities are turning to recycling, which is an effective tool for solid waste management. This research seeks to understand the public perceptions and practices of recycling in the City of Laramie, Wyoming. Recycling in Laramie began in 1983 with the establishment of the Ark Recycling Center. Laramie officially started its curbside recycling services in September 2011, and in April 2012 the city decla...

  19. Assessing social and economic effects of perceived risk: Workshop summary: Draft: BWIP Repository Project. [Basalt Waste Isolation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Liebow, E.B. (eds.)

    1988-03-01

    The US Department of Energy sponsored a one-day workshop to discuss the complex dimensions of risk judgment formation and the assessment of social and economic effects of risk perceptions related to the permanent underground storage of highly radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power plants. Affected parties have publicly expressed concerns about potentially significant risk-related effects of this approach to waste management. A selective review of relevant literature in psychology, decision analysis, economics, sociology, and anthropology was completed, along with an examination of decision analysis techniques that might assist in developing suitable responses to public risk-related concerns. The workshop was organized as a forum in which a set of distinguished experts could exchange ideas and observations about the problems of characterizing the effects of risk judgments. Out of the exchange emerged the issues or themes of problems with probabilistic risk assessment techniques are evident; differences exist in the way experts and laypersons view risk, and this leads to higher levels of public concern than experts feel are justified; experts, risk managers, and decision-makers sometimes err in assessing risk and in dealing with the public; credibility and trust are important contributing factors in the formation of risk judgments; social and economic consequences of perceived risk should be properly anticipated; improvements can be made in informing the public about risk; the role of the public in risk assessment, risk management and decisions about risk should be reconsidered; and mitigation and compensation are central to resolving conflicts arising from divergent risk judgments. 1 tab.

  20. Adolescents' Perceptions of Health Risks, Social Risks, and Benefits Differ Across Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria; Delucchi, Kevin; Cash, David; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses perceptions of overall harm, short-term health and social risks, long-term health risks, and benefits associated with various tobacco products including conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, chew, and hookah. This study also assesses whether and how perceptions differ by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and previous experience with tobacco. A total of 722 high school students completed an online survey, answering questions about their use and perceptions of a variety of tobacco products. Differences in perceptions across products were assessed using a generalized estimation equation with an exchangeable correlation structure. Adolescents rated the various tobacco products as conferring significantly different levels of risks and benefits. Generally, adolescents rated cigarettes as most risky, followed by cigars and chew, with hookah and e-cigarettes rated as least risky. Adolescents rated hookah followed by cigarettes and e-cigarettes as most likely to make them look cool or fit in and cigars and chew as least likely to confer these benefits. There were interaction effects by age and use, with older adolescents and those with tobacco experience holding lower perceptions of risk. There were no significant interaction effects by race/ethnicity or gender. Given the significant differences in adolescents' perceptions of risks and benefits of using different tobacco products and research showing the predictive relationship between perceptions and behavior, there is a need for comprehensive messaging that discusses risks of all tobacco products, particularly hookah and e-cigarettes. There is also a need to address perceived benefits of tobacco products, especially hookah and e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adolescents’ Perceptions of Health Risks, Social Risks, and Benefits Differ Across Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria; Delucchi, Kevin; Cash, David; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study assesses perceptions of overall harm, short-term health and social risks, long-term health risks, and benefits associated with various tobacco products including conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, chew, and hookah. This study also assesses whether and how perceptions differ by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and previous experience with tobacco. Methods A total of 722 high school students completed an online survey, answering questions about their use and perceptions of a variety of tobacco products. Differences in perceptions across products were assessed using a generalized estimation equation with an exchangeable correlation structure. Results Adolescents rated the various tobacco products as conferring significantly different levels of risks and benefits. Generally, adolescents rated cigarettes as most risky, followed by cigars and chew, with hookah and e-cigarettes rated as least risky. Adolescents rated hookah followed by cigarettes and e-cigarettes as most likely to make them look cool or fit in and cigars and chew as least likely to confer these benefits. There were interaction effects by age and use, with older adolescents and those with tobacco experience holding lower perceptions of risk. There were no significant interaction effects by race/ethnicity or gender. Conclusion Given the significant differences in adolescents’ perceptions of risks and benefits of using different tobacco products and research showing the predictive relationship between perceptions and behavior, there is a need for comprehensive messaging that discusses risks of all tobacco products, particularly hookah and e-cigarettes. There is also a need to address perceived benefits of tobacco products, especially hookah and e-cigarettes. PMID:27107909

  2. Perception of the risk to electromagnetic RF fields in INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Gallastegi; Ana Jiménez-Zabala; Loreto Santa-Marina; Juan-José Aurrekoetxea; Mikel Ayerdi; Aitana Lertxundi; Mikel Basterrechea; Jesús Ibarluzea

    2016-01-01

    Perception of environmental risks to the population is a priority issue for the bodies and administrations responsible for managing them. There are few studies on the perception of the risk to RF, but all of them report high levels of concern. This study describes and analyzes the RF risk perception of mothers belonging to the INMA-Gipuzkoa project.Data on perception were collected by means of two questionnaires given to mothers in two different periods. During pregnancy, 625 mothers chose th...

  3. Empirical analysis of farmers' drought risk perception: objective factors, personal circumstances, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duinen, Rianne van; Filatova, Tatiana; Geurts, Peter; Veen, Anne van der

    2015-04-01

    Drought-induced water shortage and salinization are a global threat to agricultural production. With climate change, drought risk is expected to increase as drought events are assumed to occur more frequently and to become more severe. The agricultural sector's adaptive capacity largely depends on farmers' drought risk perceptions. Understanding the formation of farmers' drought risk perceptions is a prerequisite to designing effective and efficient public drought risk management strategies. Various strands of literature point at different factors shaping individual risk perceptions. Economic theory points at objective risk variables, whereas psychology and sociology identify subjective risk variables. This study investigates and compares the contribution of objective and subjective factors in explaining farmers' drought risk perception by means of survey data analysis. Data on risk perceptions, farm characteristics, and various other personality traits were collected from farmers located in the southwest Netherlands. From comparing the explanatory power of objective and subjective risk factors in separate models and a full model of risk perception, it can be concluded that farmers' risk perceptions are shaped by both rational and emotional factors. In a full risk perception model, being located in an area with external water supply, owning fields with salinization issues, cultivating drought-/salt-sensitive crops, farm revenue, drought risk experience, and perceived control are significant explanatory variables of farmers' drought risk perceptions. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Modeling perceptions of climatic risk in crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmuth, Evelyn; Parker, Phillip; Aurbacher, Joachim; Högy, Petra; Dabbert, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    In agricultural production, land-use decisions are components of economic planning that result in the strategic allocation of fields. Climate variability represents an uncertainty factor in crop production. Considering yield impact, climatic influence is perceived during and evaluated at the end of crop production cycles. In practice, this information is then incorporated into planning for the upcoming season. This process contributes to attitudes toward climate-induced risk in crop production. In the literature, however, the subjective valuation of risk is modeled as a risk attitude toward variations in (monetary) outcomes. Consequently, climatic influence may be obscured by political and market influences so that risk perceptions during the production process are neglected. We present a utility concept that allows the inclusion of annual risk scores based on mid-season risk perceptions that are incorporated into field-planning decisions. This approach is exemplified and implemented for winter wheat production in the Kraichgau, a region in Southwest Germany, using the integrated bio-economic simulation model FarmActor and empirical data from the region. Survey results indicate that a profitability threshold for this crop, the level of "still-good yield" (sgy), is 69 dt ha-1 (regional mean Kraichgau sample) for a given season. This threshold governs the monitoring process and risk estimators. We tested the modeled estimators against simulation results using ten projected future weather time series for winter wheat production. The mid-season estimators generally proved to be effective. This approach can be used to improve the modeling of planning decisions by providing a more comprehensive evaluation of field-crop response to climatic changes from an economic risk point of view. The methodology further provides economic insight in an agrometeorological context where prices for crops or inputs are lacking, but farmer attitudes toward risk should still be included in

  5. Electronic waste recovery in Finland: Consumers' perceptions towards recycling and re-use of mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylä-Mella, Jenni; Keiski, Riitta L; Pongrácz, Eva

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' awareness and perceptions towards mobile phone recycling and re-use. The results are based on a survey conducted in the city of Oulu, Finland, and analysed in the theoretical framework based on the theories of planned behaviour (TPB) and value-belief-norm (VBN). The findings indicate that consumers' awareness of the importance and existence of waste recovery system is high; however, awareness has not translated to recycling behaviour. The survey reveals that 55% of respondents have two or more unused mobile phones at homes. The more phones stored at homes, the more often reasons 'I don't know where to return' and/or 'have not got to do it yet' were mentioned. This indicates that proximity and the convenience of current waste management system are inadequate in promoting the return of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). To facilitate re-use, and the highest level of recovery, consumers will need to be committed to return end-of-use electronics to WEEE collection centres without delays. Further, the supply and demand of refurbished mobile phones do not meet at this moment in Finland due to consumer's storing habits versus expectations of recent features under guarantee and unrealistic low prizes. The study also points out that, in order to change current storing habits of consumers, there is an explicit need for more information and awareness on mobile phone collection in Finland, especially on regarding retailers' take-back. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Affect-laden imagery and risk taking: the mediating role of stress and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traczyk, Jakub; Sobkow, Agata; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process.

  7. RISK PERCEPTION AND DIFFUSION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most recent NHANES data reveals that approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily bec...

  8. Understanding Gaps Between the Risk Perceptions of Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) Residents and Wildfire Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, James R; Champ, Patricia A; Brenkert-Smith, Hannah; Warziniack, Travis; Barth, Christopher M; Falk, Lilia C

    2015-09-01

    Research across a variety of risk domains finds that the risk perceptions of professionals and the public differ. Such risk perception gaps occur if professionals and the public understand individual risk factors differently or if they aggregate risk factors into overall risk differently. The nature of such divergences, whether based on objective inaccuracies or on differing perspectives, is important to understand. However, evidence of risk perception gaps typically pertains to general, overall risk levels; evidence of and details about mismatches between the specific level of risk faced by individuals and their perceptions of that risk is less available. We examine these issues with a paired data set of professional and resident assessments of parcel-level wildfire risk for private property in a wildland-urban interface community located in western Colorado, United States. We find evidence of a gap between the parcel-level risk assessments of a wildfire professional and numerous measures of residents' risk assessments. Overall risk ratings diverge for the majority of properties, as do judgments about many specific property attributes and about the relative contribution of these attributes to a property's overall level of risk. However, overall risk gaps are not well explained by many factors commonly found to relate to risk perceptions. Understanding the nature of these risk perception gaps can facilitate improved communication by wildfire professionals about how risks can be mitigated on private lands. These results also speak to the general nature of individual-level risk perception. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-08-01

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.

  10. Risk and risk perception of knee osteoarthritis in the US: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, G L; Katz, J N; Losina, E

    2016-04-01

    We sought to investigate risk perception among an online cohort of younger US adults compared with calculated risk estimates. We recruited a population-based cohort 25-44 years of age with no history of knee osteoarthritis (OA) using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, an online marketplace used extensively for behavioral research. After collecting demographic and risk factor information, we asked participants to estimate their 10-year and lifetime risk of knee OA. We compared perceived risk with risk derived from the OA risk calculator (OA Risk C), an online tool built on the basis of the validated OA Policy Model. 375 people completed the study. 21% reported having 3+ risk factors for OA, 25% reported two risk factors, and 32% reported one risk factor. Using the OA Risk C, we calculated a mean lifetime OA risk of 25% and 10-year risk of 4% for this sample. Participants overestimated their lifetime and 10-year OA risk at 48% and 26%, respectively. We found that obesity, female sex, family history of OA, history of knee injury, and occupational exposure were all significantly associated with greater perceived lifetime risk of OA. Risk factors are prevalent in this relatively young cohort. Participants consistently overestimated their lifetime risk and showed even greater overestimation of their 10-year risk, suggesting a lack of knowledge about the timing of OA onset. These data offer insights for awareness and risk interventions among younger persons at risk for knee OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cleaning products, environmental awareness and risk perception in Merida, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Magnolia Martínez-Peña

    Full Text Available Cleaning products are associated with many health and environmental problems. Contamination of water resources by cleaning products is more likely to occur with septic tanks as sewage treatment systems especially in karstic terrains. We explored women's ideas about water sources and the risk cleaning products pose to health and sewage in Mérida, a city in the Yucatán peninsula of Mexico. Women were unaware of the city's water management system. We found a positive and statistically significant association between risk perception and environmental awareness, education level and employment status. We suggest developing education and risk communication strategies to inform residents about the hydro-geological features in the Yucatán, the vulnerability of its karstic aquifer and the health and environmental risks associated with cleaning agents.

  12. The evolution of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy--Canadian consumer and producer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this study the dynamics of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) held by Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers were evaluated. Since the first domestic case of BSE in 2003, Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers have needed to make decisions on whether or not their purchasing/production behavior should change. Such changes in their behavior may relate to their levels of risk perceptions about BSE, risk perceptions that may be evolving over time and be affected by BSE media information available. An econometric analysis of the behavior of consumers and cow-calf producers might identify the impacts of evolving BSE risk perceptions. Risk perceptions related to BSE are evaluated through observed market behavior, an approach that differs from traditional stated preference approaches to eliciting risk perceptions at a particular point in time. BSE risk perceptions may be specified following a Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) derived from sociology, psychology, and economics. Based on the SARF, various quality and quantity indices related to BSE media information are used as explanatory variables in risk perception equations. Risk perceptions are approximated using a predictive difference approach as defined by Liu et al. (1998). Results showed that Canadian consumer and cow-calf producer risk perceptions related to BSE have been amplified or attenuated by both quantity and quality of BSE media information. Government policies on risk communications need to address the different roles of BSE information in Canadian consumers' and cow-calf producers' behavior.

  13. A study on the risk perception of light pollution and the process of social amplification of risk in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Choi, Jae Wook; Lee, Eunil; Cho, Yong Min; Ahn, Hyung Rae

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the risk perception level of each light pollution type was analyzed, and the effects of the variables (e.g., psychometric paradigm factor, trust in the government, etc.) on the process of the increase in the risk perception were analyzed. For the sample population (1096 persons) in Korea, the risk perception levels of each light pollution type and other environmental and health risk factors were compared, and the relative magnitude was examined. In addition, to test which variables affect the group with high-risk perception of each light pollution type, a logistic regression analysis was performed. For the group with highest risk perception of light pollution, the odds ratios (OR) of all psychometric paradigms (excluding controllability) increased compared to those of the group with low-risk perception. Additionally, the level showing the acquisition of information from the media and the recollection level of media criticism on each light pollution type showed a statistically significant increase. Especially, the risk perception of light trespass increased as trust in the government decreased. The significance of this study includes the finding that the public's risk perception of light pollution was significantly affected by the psychometric paradigm factors. Moreover, this study analyzed the differences of the variables that affect the increase in the risk perception of each light pollution type and provided a theoretical framework that can practically reflect the strategy for the risk communication of light pollution.

  14. Exposure Knowledge and Risk Perception of RF EMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Varsier, Nadège

    2014-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU-Project Low EMF Exposure Future Networks (LEXNET), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere. We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception (RP). Therefore we evaluated respondents' RP of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF RP is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features - except distance - do influence people's general RF EMF RP. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF RP of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher RP, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and RP. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries.

  15. Risk perception, psychological heuristics and the water fluoridation controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Andrea M L; Kiss, Simon J

    2015-04-29

    Increasingly, support for water fluoridation has come under attack. We seek an explanation, focusing on the case of Waterloo, Ontario, where a 2010 referendum overturned its water fluoridation program. In particular, we test whether individuals perceive the risks of water fluoridation based not on 'hard' scientific evidence but on heuristics and cultural norms. A sample of 376 residents in Waterloo were surveyed in June 2012 using random digit dialing. We use factor analysis, OLS regression, as well as t-tests to evaluate a survey experiment to test the credibility hypothesis. Perceptions of fluoride as a risk are lower among those who perceive fluoride's benefits (B = .473, p < 0.001) and those whose cultural view is 'egalitarian' (B = .156, p < 0.05). The experiment shows a lower level of perception of fluoride's benefits among respondents who are told that water fluoridation is opposed by a national advocacy group (Group A) compared to those who are told that the government and the World Health Organization support fluoridation (Group B) (t = 1.6547, p < 0.05), as well as compared to the control group (t = 1.8913, p < 0.05). There is no difference between Group B and the control, possibly because people's already general support for fluoridation is less prone to change when told that other public organizations also support fluoridation. Public health officials should take into account cultural norms and perceptions when individuals in a community appear to rise up against water fluoridation, with implications for other public health controversies.

  16. Individual Differences in Children's Risk Perception and Appraisals in Outdoor Play Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Child characteristics including age, gender, risk-taking behaviour and sensation seeking are thought to influence children's ability to appraise risks. The present study investigated children's risk perceptions and appraisals in the context of common outdoor physical play activities. Risk perceptions and appraisal of four- and five-year olds were…

  17. Sociodemographic differences in myocardial infarction risk perceptions among people with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Weinman, John; French, David P

    2007-01-01

    This study examines sociodemographic differences in myocardial infarction (MI) risk perceptions among people with coronary heart disease (CHD) (N = 3130). Two variables for comparative risk perceptions were computed: (1) own risk compared to that of an average person; and (2) own risk compared...

  18. Waste Crime – Waste Risks: Gaps in Meeting the Global Waste Challenge : A UNEP Rapid Response Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieva Rucevska; Christian Nelleman; Nancy Isarin; Wanhua Yang; Ning Liu; Kelly Yu; Siv Sandnaes; Katie Olley; Howard McCann; Leila Devia; L.C.J. Bisschop (Lieselot); Denise Soesilo; Tina Schoolmeester; Rune Hendriksen; Rannveig Nilsen; Claire Eamer

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMore than ever, our future depends upon how we manage the future of our waste. As an integrated part of sustainable development, effective waste management can reduce our global footprint. Ignoring or neglecting the challenges of waste, however, can lead to significant health,

  19. THE RISK PERCEPTION OF TRANSPORT–GENERATED AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta GATERSLEBEN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study that is part of a multidisciplinary project examining the relationship between transport, air pollution and health in Guildford, a medium sized town in the UK. Real-time air quality monitoring revealed low levels of air pollution through vehicle emissions. However, the residents of the town claim that there is an air pollution problem, perceptions reinforced by visual and sensory feedback, i.e., people see dust, feel irritations to their eyes, noses and throats and smell exhaust fumes. It is shown that the higher people believe air pollution levels to be the more responsible they feel and the less trust they have in local authorities and technological developments. Beliefs about the health consequences of air pollution are not related to responsibility and trust. The findings support other studies on risk perception that have shown that people find a risk less acceptable when they have a lower trust in risk managers. It is concluded that these findings are of importance for the environmental education of the public generally and risk communication by local authorities in particular.

  20. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-Fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  1. Perceptions of environmental health risks among residents in the "Toxic Doughnut": opportunities for risk screening and community mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brandi M; Hall, Eric S

    2015-12-10

    Surrounded by landfills, and toxic and hazardous facilities, Altgeld Gardens is located in a "toxic doughnut". With high rates of environmentally-related conditions, residents have called for a community-based environmental health assessment to improve overall health in their community. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes and beliefs of environmental health risks of Altgeld's residents which would assist community organizing efforts and provide the groundwork for a community-based environmental health assessment. A questionnaire was designed and administered to 42 Altgeld residents who also participated in focus groups to assess their perceptions of environmental health risks. All participants were Altgeld residents for at least two years and were fairly representative of the broader community. Physical and social hazards were primarily identified as posing risks to participants' family and the broader community. Physical hazards included the dumping of hazardous waste and landfills; social hazards were crime and drugs. These findings have been useful in community organizing efforts and in program planning for local community-based organizations and public health agencies. The results have also been used to prioritize health and environmental risk issues impacting the community.

  2. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah; Ria Yuli Angliawati

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk...

  3. Determinants of Farmers’ Climate Risk Perceptions in Agriculture—A Rural Ghana Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Ndamani; Tsunemi Watanabe

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the socio-economic predictors of farmers’ perceptions about climate risk in agriculture. The levels of risk perception among different farmers’ wealth groups are also investigated. A total of 100 farmers in the Lawra district of Ghana are randomly selected and interviewed. Data is obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. A climate risk perception index (CRPI) is derived and applied to assess the degree of perceived risk among...

  4. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seohyun Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors.

  5. Risk management for outsourcing biomedical waste disposal – Using the failure mode and effects analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Ching-Jong; Ho, Chao Chung, E-mail: ho919@pchome.com.tw

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • This study is based on a real case in hospital in Taiwan. • We use Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) as the evaluation method. • We successfully identify the evaluation factors of bio-medical waste disposal risk. - Abstract: Using the failure mode and effects analysis, this study examined biomedical waste companies through risk assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the supervisors of biomedical waste units in hospitals, and factors relating to the outsourcing risk assessment of biomedical waste in hospitals by referring to waste disposal acts. An expert questionnaire survey was conducted on the personnel involved in waste disposal units in hospitals, in order to identify important factors relating to the outsourcing risk of biomedical waste in hospitals. This study calculated the risk priority number (RPN) and selected items with an RPN value higher than 80 for improvement. These items included “availability of freezing devices”, “availability of containers for sharp items”, “disposal frequency”, “disposal volume”, “disposal method”, “vehicles meeting the regulations”, and “declaration of three lists”. This study also aimed to identify important selection factors of biomedical waste disposal companies by hospitals in terms of risk. These findings can serve as references for hospitals in the selection of outsourcing companies for biomedical waste disposal.

  6. Neural correlates of risk perception during real-life risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmälzle, Ralf; Häcker, Frank; Renner, Britta; Honey, Christopher J; Schupp, Harald T

    2013-06-19

    During global health crises, such as the recent H1N1 pandemic, the mass media provide the public with timely information regarding risk. To obtain new insights into how these messages are received, we measured neural data while participants, who differed in their preexisting H1N1 risk perceptions, viewed a TV report about H1N1. Intersubject correlation (ISC) of neural time courses was used to assess how similarly the brains of viewers responded to the TV report. We found enhanced intersubject correlations among viewers with high-risk perception in the anterior cingulate, a region which classical fMRI studies associated with the appraisal of threatening information. By contrast, neural coupling in sensory-perceptual regions was similar for the high and low H1N1-risk perception groups. These results demonstrate a novel methodology for understanding how real-life health messages are processed in the human brain, with particular emphasis on the role of emotion and differences in risk perceptions.

  7. MANAGING THE RETRIEVAL RISK OF BURIED TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE WITH UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WOJTASEK, R.D.; GADD, R.R.; GREENWELL, R.D.

    2006-01-19

    United States-Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store transuranic (TRU) waste are almost certain to encounter waste packages with characteristics that are so unique as to warrant special precautions for retrieval. At the Hanford Site, a subgroup of stored TRU waste (12 drums) had special considerations due to the radioactive source content of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}), and the potential for high heat generation, pressurization, criticality, and high radiation. These characteristics bear on the approach to safely retrieve, overpack, vent, store, and transport the waste package. Because of the potential risk to personnel, contingency planning for unexpected conditions played an effective role in work planning and in preparing workers for the field inspection activity. As a result, the integrity inspections successfully confirmed waste package configuration and waste confinement without experiencing any perturbations due to unanticipated packaging conditions. This paper discusses the engineering and field approach to managing the risk of retrieving TRU waste with unique characteristics.

  8. Should Associations between HIV-Related Risk Perceptions and Behaviors or Intentions Be Positive or Negative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Hiyi; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Xiang, Weina; Gu, Jing; Wang, Zixin

    2012-01-01

    Risk perceptions are important in HIV research and interventions; mixed results were found between HIV-related perceptions and behaviors. We interviewed 377 sexually active injecting drug users in China, finding mixed associations between HIV-related risk perception assessed by two general measures and two previous risk behaviors (syringe sharing: p.05) – partially supporting the ‘reflective hypothesis’ that reflection on previous behaviors increases risk perceptions. When we use specific measures for risk perceptions (HIV transmission via unprotected sex with specific types of sex partner and via syringe sharing) and use behavioral intention to adopt protective risk behaviors (condom use and avoid syringe sharing totally) as dependent variables, positive significant associations were observed – supporting the motivational hypothesis that risk perceptions motivate one to adopt protective behaviors. The direction and significance of the associations of concern depends on types of measures used. It has important implications on research design, data interpretation and services. PMID:23284896

  9. Recent developments in the application of risk analysis to waste technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, S J T; Smith, R; Longhurst, P J; Eduljee, G H; Hall, D

    2006-12-01

    The European waste sector is undergoing a period of unprecedented change driven by business consolidation, new legislation and heightened public and government scrutiny. One feature is the transition of the sector towards a process industry with increased pre-treatment of wastes prior to the disposal of residues and the co-location of technologies at single sites, often also for resource recovery and residuals management. Waste technologies such as in-vessel composting, the thermal treatment of clinical waste, the stabilisation of hazardous wastes, biomass gasification, sludge combustion and the use of wastes as fuel, present operators and regulators with new challenges as to their safe and environmentally responsible operation. A second feature of recent change is an increased regulatory emphasis on public and ecosystem health and the need for assessments of risk to and from waste installations. Public confidence in waste management, secured in part through enforcement of the planning and permitting regimes and sound operational performance, is central to establishing the infrastructure of new waste technologies. Well-informed risk management plays a critical role. We discuss recent developments in risk analysis within the sector and the future needs of risk analysis that are required to respond to the new waste and resource management agenda.

  10. Risk factor for phlebitis: a questionnaire study of nurses' perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Dragana; Simin, Dragana; Zec, Davor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to assess nurses' perceptions of risk factors for the development of phlebitis, with a special focus on the perception of phlebitic potentials of some infusion medications and solutions. Method: a cross-sectional questionnaire study, which included a sample of 102 nurses. Results: Nurses recognized some factors that may reduce the incidence of phlebitis; however, more than half of the nurses were unaware that the material and diameter of the cannula can affect the incidence rate of phlebitis. Furthermore,underlying disease and high pH of medications or solutions were identified as potential risk factors, whereas low pH and low osmolality were not. Nurses identified Vancomycin and Benzylpenicillin antibiotics with the strongest phlebitic potential. Among other medications and intravenous fluids, Aminophylline, Amiodaronehydrochloride and Potassium chloride 7.4% were identified as potentially causing phlebitis. Conclusion: predisposing factors for phlebitis relating to patients and administered therapy were identified by nurses, while some cannula related risk factors, in particular its physicochemical properties and the time for cannula replacement, were not fully perceived. PMID:26444170

  11. Healthy children's identification and risk perception of medicines in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Ben; Williams, Sian E; Gard, Paul R; MacAdam, Angela B

    2012-01-01

    Children's understanding of medicines has an impact on their behavior toward those medicines, and yet there has been a paucity of studies exploring this area. To assess children's ability to identify and to explore their risk perceptions of medicines. One hundred eighty-two children aged 4 to 11 years at 2 primary schools in England completed a worksheet containing photos of foods and pharmaceutical products. Children were asked to identify what the picture showed and classify it as "good for them," "bad for them," or "sometimes good/sometimes bad for them." Responses were marked as correct if they identified an item without the need for exact identification. Where an item was correctly identified, risk perception was analyzed. Children correctly identified 5 of the 7 pictures as a form of medicine (mean=5.10, standard deviation=1.51), and identification was positively correlated with age (ρ=0.59, Pwhite (71.4% correct, 95% CI=64.9-78) or pink tablets (33.5% correct, 95% CI=26.7-40.4). There was a significant shift with age in the perceptions of the children as they changed from reporting that medicines were good for them to reporting that they were sometimes good and sometimes bad for them. This held for all medicines (χ(2) tests, P<.05) except for the cream and the inhaler. As children get older, they become better at identifying medicines, and they become more likely to see their potential risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding Perceptions and Attitudes to Risk in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Clayton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasingly complex and rapidly-evolving array of risks presents one of the greatest challenges for decision-makers in all sectors, including the transport and tourism industry. The prospects of an international destination can be profoundly damaged in minutes as a result of a major outbreak of infectious disease, a natural disaster or a terrorist incident. It is therefore vital to understand the changing nature of risk and the ways that risks are perceived and understood, especially as people tend to respond to the perception of risks rather than actual risks, which means that their responses are not always rational and can even expose them to more danger. The first part of this paper assesses the understanding of risk, and why social, cultural and psychological factors influence the response to threat, the second part looks at the application of this approach to tourism, and the third part sets out a model that can capture the relevant variables for the tourism industry.

  13. Exploring Students' Ideas about Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Power Using Risk Perception Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Due to increased energy demand, Turkey is continuing to explore the possibilities of introducing nuclear power. Gaining acceptance from local populations, however, may be problematic because nuclear power has a negative image and risk perceptions are complicated by a range of psychological and cultural factors. In this study, we explore the views…

  14. Effects of alternative styles of risk information on EMF risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Elstein, Arthur; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    radiation from mobile phones and masts. The objective was to study whether different types of information were rated as equally useful, informative, comprehensible, and trustworthy. Moreover, an important issue was whether information would influence risk perception and intended behavior. The conclusion...

  15. Risk perceptions, risk attitudes and the formation of consumer acceptance of Genetically Modified (GM) food

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Font, Montserrat; Gil Roig, José María

    2009-01-01

    The influence of risk perception and risk attitudes in the process of accepting genetically modified (GM) food is often ignored, and particularly whether both constructs (latent variables) have a combined effect in explaining consumer acceptance. Similarly, the inclusion of organic product standards juxtaposed to GM food is unknown. This paper attempts to shed some light on this question by examining the decision making process through the use of structural equation modeling (SEM). We use sur...

  16. The 'bankability' of the new waste technologies: an econometric method for risk sharing in private finance waste contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, I; Seaton, R; Chackiath, S; Wagland, S T; Pollard, S J T; Longhurst, P J

    2011-12-01

    The identification of risk and its appropriate allocation to partners in project consortia is essential for minimizing overall project risks, ensuring timely delivery and maximizing benefit for money invested. Risk management guidance available from government bodies, especially in the UK, does not specify methodologies for quantitative risk assessment, nor does it offer a procedure for allocating risk among project partners. Here, a methodology to quantify project risk and potential approaches to allocating risk and their implications are discussed. Construction and operation of a waste management facility through a public-private finance contract are discussed. Public-private partnership contracts are special purpose vehicle (SPV) financing methods promoted by the UK government to boost private sector investment in facilities for public service enhancement. Our findings question the appropriateness of using standard deviation as a measure for project risk and confirm the concept of portfolio theory, suggesting the pooling of risk can reduce total risk and its impact.

  17. Nuclear waste form risk assessment for US defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report fiscal year 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, H.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

    1981-07-01

    Waste form dissolution studies and preliminary performance analyses were carried out to contribute a part of the data needed for the selection of a waste form for the disposal of Savannah River Plant defense waste in a deep geologic repository. The first portion of this work provides descriptions of the chemical interactions between the waste form and the geologic environment. We reviewed critically the dissolution/leaching data for borosilicate glass and SYNROC. Both chemical kinetic and thermodynamic models were developed to describe the dissolution process of these candidate waste forms so as to establish a fundamental basis for interpretation of experimental data and to provide directions for future experiments. The complementary second portion of this work is an assessment of the impacts of alternate waste forms upon the consequences of disposal in various proposed geological media. Employing systems analysis methodology, we began to evaluate the performance of a generic waste form for the case of a high risk scenario for a bedded salt repository. Results of sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity to uncertainty analysis are presented.

  18. Preparing for Local Adaptation: Understanding Flood Risk Perceptions in Pittsburgh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, K.; Wong-Parodi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Pittsburgh experiences numerous floods every year. Aging and insufficient infrastructure contribute to flash floods and to over 20 billion gallons of combined sewer overflows annually, contaminating Pittsburgh's streets, basements, and waterways. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate this problem by causing more intense and more frequent extreme precipitation events in Western Pennsylvania. For a stormwater adaptation plan to be implemented effectively, the City will need informed public support. One way to achieve public understanding and support is through effective communication of the risks, benefits, and uncertainties of local flooding hazards and adaptation methods. In order to develop these communications effectively, the city and its partners will need to know what knowledge and attitudes the residents of Pittsburgh already hold about flood risks. Here we seek to (1) identify Pittsburgh residents' knowledge level, risk perception and attitudes towards flooding and storm water management, and (2) pre-test communications meant to inform and empower Pittsburghers about flood risks and adaptation strategies. We conduct a city-wide survey of 10,000 Pittsburgh renters and homeowners from four life situations: high risk, above poverty; high-risk, below poverty; low risk, above poverty; and low-risk, below poverty. Mixed media recruitment strategies (online and paper-based solicitations guided/organized by community organizations) assist in reaching all subpopulations. Preliminary results suggest participants know what stormwater runoff is, but have a weak understanding of how stormwater interacts with natural and built systems. Furthermore, although participants have a good understanding of the difference between green and gray infrastructure, this does not translate into a change in their willingness to pay for green infrastructure adaptation. This suggests additional communications about flood risks and adaptation strategies.

  19. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  20. Climate Change Perceptions of NY State Farmers: The Role of Risk Perceptions and Adaptive Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno; Burnham, Morey; Terracina-Hartman, Carol; Sopchak, Amanda R.; Selfa, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is expected to severely impact agricultural practices in many important food-producing regions, including the Northeast United States. Changing climate conditions, such as increases in the amount of rainfall, will require farmers to adapt. Yet, little is known with regard to farmers' perceptions and understandings about climate change, especially in the industrialized country context. This paper aims at overcoming this research limitation, as well as determining the existing contextual, cognitive, and psychological barriers that can prevent adoption of sustainable practices of farmers in New York State. The study is framed within the adaptive capacity and risk perception literature, and is based on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with farmers in 21 farms in two counties in Central New York. The results reveal diverging views about the long-term consequences of climate change. Results also reveal that past experience remains as the most important source of information that influences beliefs and perceptions about climate change, confirming previous research.

  1. Climate Change Perceptions of NY State Farmers: The Role of Risk Perceptions and Adaptive Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno; Burnham, Morey; Terracina-Hartman, Carol; Sopchak, Amanda R; Selfa, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is expected to severely impact agricultural practices in many important food-producing regions, including the Northeast United States. Changing climate conditions, such as increases in the amount of rainfall, will require farmers to adapt. Yet, little is known with regard to farmers' perceptions and understandings about climate change, especially in the industrialized country context. This paper aims at overcoming this research limitation, as well as determining the existing contextual, cognitive, and psychological barriers that can prevent adoption of sustainable practices of farmers in New York State. The study is framed within the adaptive capacity and risk perception literature, and is based on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with farmers in 21 farms in two counties in Central New York. The results reveal diverging views about the long-term consequences of climate change. Results also reveal that past experience remains as the most important source of information that influences beliefs and perceptions about climate change, confirming previous research.

  2. Leaching characteristics, ecotoxicity, and risk assessment based management of mine wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.; Hong, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    Mine wastes generated during mining activities in metal mines generally contain high concentrations of metals that may impose toxic effects to surrounding environment. Thus, it is necessary to properly assess the mining-impacted landscapes for management. The study investigated leaching characteristics, potential environmental effects, and human health risk of mine wastes from three different metal mines in South Korea (molybdenum mine, lead-zinc mine, and magnetite mine). The heavy metal concentrations in the leachates obtained by using the Korean Standard Test Method for Solid Wastes (STM), Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) met the Korea Waste Control Act and the USEPA region 3 regulatory levels accordingly, even though the mine wastes contained high concentrations of metals. Assuming that the leachates may get into nearby water sources, the leachate toxicity was tested using Daphnia Magna. The toxic unit (TU) values after 24 h and 48 h exposure of all the mine wastes tested met the Korea Allowable Effluent Water Quality Standards (TUtoxic effects (TU>1 for the eluent at L/S of 30) implying that the long-term effect of mine wastes left in mining areas need to be assessed. Considering reuse of mine wastes as a way of managing mine wastes, the human health risk assessment of reusing the lead-zinc mine waste in industrial areas was carried out using the bioavailable fraction of the heavy metals contained in the mine wastes, which was determined by using the Solubility/Bioavailability Research Consortium method. There may be potential carcinogenic risk (9.7E-05) and non-carcinogenic risk (HI, Hazard Index of 1.0E+00) as CR≧1.0E-05 has carcinogenic risk and HI≧1.0E+00 has non-carcinogenic risk. Overall, this study shows that not only the concentration-based assessment but ecological toxic effect and human health risk based assessments can be utilized for mining-impacted landscapes management.

  3. Risky-Play at School. Facilitating Risk Perception and Competence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrysen, Ann; Bertrands, Els; Leyssen, Leene; Smets, Lieve; Vanderspikken, Anja; De Graef, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Recent research indicates that risk competence and perception can be improved through the learning environment. The project "Riscki" examined how risk perception and risk competence in young children between three and eight years of age can be observed and measured within the classroom and school context. An intensive package of…

  4. Consumer familiarity with foods and the perception of risks and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in familiarity with food products may influence how information about the risks and benefits about foods is used in forming risk and benefit perceptions. In two experimental studies, the risk and benefit perceptions of student participants, for four foods (familiar or unfamiliar) were

  5. Risk Perception of Plastic Pollution: Importance of Stakeholder Involvement and Citizen Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    2017-01-01

    Risk perception has a significant impact on how society reacts to a given risk. There have been cases where a mismatch between the actual risk and the perception of it has led to poor decisions on societal initiatives, such as inappropriate regulatory measures. It is therefore important that the ...

  6. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  7. Perception of flood and landslide risk in Italy: a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salvati, P; C. Bianchi; F. Fiorucci; P. Giostrella; Marchesini, I.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Inundations and landslides are widespread phenomena in Italy, where they cause severe damage and pose a threat to the population. Little is known about the public perception of landslide and flood risk. This is surprising, as an accurate perception is important for the successful implementation of many risk reduction or adaptation strategies. In an attempt to address this gap, we have conducted two national surveys to measure the perception of landslide and flood risk amongs...

  8. General knowledge about climate change, factors influencing risk perception and willingness to insure

    OpenAIRE

    Menny, Claas; Osberghaus, Daniel; Pohl, Max; Werner, Ute

    2011-01-01

    In two empirical surveys in Germany the link between the information respondents have about climate change and their risk perception of the phenomenon was analysed. We found that a better understanding of the effects of climate change might lead to a decrease of the perceived hazard. In contrast, a high self-declared knowledge about climate change might correspond with higher risk perception. Further factors affecting the risk perception of climate change are gender, experience of extreme wea...

  9. Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Hsu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1 the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2 the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3 consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception.

  10. Risk perception and emotional coping: a pathway for behavioural addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Grivel, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes current concepts of the working memory with regard to its role within emotional coping strategies. In particular, it focuses on the fact that the limited capacity of the working memory to process now-relevant information can be turned into an advantage, when the individual is occupied by dealing with unpleasant emotion. Based on a phenomenon known as dual-task interference (DTI), this emotion can be chased by intense arousal due to clearly identifiable external stressors. Thus, risk perception might be used as a 'DTI inductor' that allows avoidance of unpleasant emotion. Successful mastery of risk adds a highly relevant dopaminergic component to the overall experience. The resulting mechanism of implicit learning may contribute to the development of a behavioural addiction. Besides its putative effects in the development of a behavioural addiction, the use of DTI might be of a more general interest for the clinical practice, especially in the field of psychotherapy. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. [Operational aspects of risk perception in the electromagnetic fields exposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennarola, E; Barletta, R; Quarto, E; Pennarola, R

    2007-01-01

    The increase of electromagnetic fields exposition is being associated with the increase of risk perception in the people exposed due to the uncertainty of the biological and sanitary effects. Research is being carried out on the symptomatology shown by the 45 people living near power-lines in the Benevento area and consequently exposed to electromagnetic fields. The measure of the magnetic and electric field was in the normal range while the people showed most symptoms in the subjective and behavioural sphere. The research findings suggest that risk assessement should take into account the subjectivity of the people exposed as shown in the special questionnaires with the aim of reducing the subjective and behavioural symptomatology for developing a new environmental medicine.

  12. Health risks occurring when color is percepted under led lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kaptsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of color perception under LED lighting. We revealed that inadequate perception of a signal color by a driver led to greater risks of transport accidents. We reviewed both Jung-Helmholtz three-color hypothesis and a modern one based on fiber-optical approach to functioning of "Mueller cells and cones" system. We made an attempt to explain a number of effects related to visibility curves and time delays when defining color of light signals. Our research on assessing influence exerted by LED lighting on functional state and working capacity of railway workers during which we applied occupational selection techniques revealed negative changes. We proved there was a decrease in functional resistance to color sense between red and green signals as well as longer response time for complicated sight-motor reaction and significant decrease in readiness to emergency actions (resistance to monotony in examined individuals. The article also contains data on time peculiarities which are characteristic for defining signals color in relation to red signal (650 nm. We showed that when red color LEDs with wave length much shorter than 650 nm were used in signaling devices it caused risks of inadequate color detection, longer reaction to inhibiting signals, and greater possibility of transport accidents and negative events in everyday life. These peculiarities should be taken into account when designing traffic lights and other signaling devices which provide transport safety. We also proved that signaling traffic lights for transport systems should be designed allowing for physiology of color perception by a human visual analyzer; application of LEDs with wave length shorter than 650 nm should be absolutely excluded

  13. Occupational Risks Associated with Solid Waste Management in the Informal Sector of Gweru, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerie, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies and analyses the occupational risks associated with solid waste management practices in the informal enterprises of Gweru. Many concerns have been raised about the potential harm from waste to the environment and the general public, but the risks and consequent costs of occupational hazards in waste management have received little attention in the rush to adopt or adapt technologies such as composting. A multimethods research design that triangulates qualitative and quantitative research paradigms is employed in this study. The quantitative design involves physical characterisation of solid waste through material component separation and measurements as well as a questionnaire survey that investigates the risks associated with waste management. The qualitative component includes interviews, open-ended questionnaires, and field observations. Occupational risks occur at every stage in the waste management process, from the point where workers handle waste in the enterprises for collection or recycling to the point of ultimate disposal. Key findings from the study revealed that solid waste management practices are dominated by manual handling tasks hence the higher incidents of muscular-skeletal disorders. Other safety and health hazards associated with waste management in the informal enterprises of Gweru include incidents of diarrhoea, viral hepatitis, and higher incidents of obstructive and restrictive disorders.

  14. Neural Correlates of Risk Perception: HIV vs. Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eBarth

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on HIV risk perception suggest that people may rely on impressions they have about the safety of their partner. Previous studies show that individuals perceived as 'risky' regarding HIV elicit a differential brain response in both earlier (~200 - 350 ms and later (~350 - 700 ms time windows compared to those perceived as safe. This raises the question whether this ERP response is specific to contagious life-threatening diseases or a general mechanism triggered by life-threatening but non-contagious diseases. In the present study, we recorded dense sensor EEG while participants (N = 36 evaluated photographs of unacquainted individuals for either HIV or leukemia risk. The ERP results replicated previous findings revealing earlier and later differential brain responses towards individuals perceived as high risk for HIV. However, there were no significant ERP differences for high vs. low leukemia risk. Rather than reflecting a generic response to disease, the present findings suggest that intuitive judgments of HIV risk are at least in part specific to sexually transmitted diseases.

  15. Perception of mobile phone and base station risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Earle, Timothy C; Gutscher, Heinz; Keller, Carmen

    2005-10-01

    Perceptions of risks associated with mobile phones, base stations, and other sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF) were examined. Data from a telephone survey conducted in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland are presented (N = 1,015). Participants assessed both risks and benefits associated with nine different sources of EMF. Trust in the authorities regulating these hazards was assessed as well. In addition, participants answered a set of questions related to attitudes toward EMF and toward mobile phone base stations. According to respondents' assessments, high-voltage transmission lines are the most risky source of EMF. Mobile phones and mobile phone base stations received lower risk ratings. Results showed that trust in authorities was positively associated with perceived benefits and negatively associated with perceived risks. People who use their mobile phones frequently perceived lower risks and higher benefits than people who use their mobile phones infrequently. People who believed they lived close to a base station did not significantly differ in their level of risks associated with mobile phone base stations from people who did not believe they lived close to a base station. Regarding risk regulation, a majority of participants were in favor of fixing limiting values based on the worst-case scenario. Correlations suggest that belief in paranormal phenomena is related to level of perceived risks associated with EMF. Furthermore, people who believed that most chemical substances cause cancer also worried more about EMF than people who did not believe that chemical substances are that harmful. Practical implications of the results are discussed.

  16. Do beef risk perceptions or risk attitudes have a greater effect on the beef purchase decisions of Canadian consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is applied in this study to group Canadian households by two characteristics, their risk perceptions and risk attitudes toward beef. There are some similarities in demographic profiles, meat purchases, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) media recall between the cluster that perceives beef to be the most risky and the cluster that has little willingness to accept the risks of eating beef. There are similarities between the medium risk perception cluster and the medium risk attitude cluster, as well as between the cluster that perceives beef to have little risk and the cluster that is most willing to accept the risks of eating beef. Regression analysis shows that risk attitudes have a larger impact on household-level beef purchasing decisions than do risk perceptions for all consumer clusters. This implies that it may be more effective to undertake policies that reduce the risks associated with eating beef, instead of enhancing risk communication to improve risk perceptions. Only for certain clusters with higher willingness to accept the risks of eating beef might enhancing risk communication increase beef consumption significantly. The different role of risk perceptions and risk attitudes in beef consumption needs to be recognized during the design of risk management policies.

  17. Physical and biological dosimetry for risk perception in radioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Amaral

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in ionizing radiation (IR applications, especially nuclear, has been followed by the growth of public concern for the potential associated risks. The public’s perception of such risks is often based on the philosophy that IR is harmful at any exposure level. On the other hand, although radiation workers have knowledge about the nature of IR and its potential health effects, the relationship between absorbed dose and risk is not well understood, principally for low doses. This report presents an overview of physical and biological dosimetry as complementary methodologies, as well as their possible contribution for improving risk perception in radioprotection.O crescente aumento das aplicações das radiações ionizantes, em particular as radiações de origem nuclear, tem sido acompanhado pelo aumento do interesse público em relação aos riscos associados a essas aplicações. A percepção de tais riscos por parte da população é freqüentemente baseada na filosofia que a radiação ionizante é perigosa independentemente dos níveis de exposição. Por outro lado, apesar dos trabalhadores ocupacionalmente expostos terem conhecimento da natureza da IR e seus possíveis efeitos á saúde, a relação entre dose absorvida e risco não é bem entendida por estes, em particular para baixos valores de dose. Este artigo resume aspectos da dosimetria física e biológica como metodologias complementares na melhoria da percepção dos riscos em radioproteção.

  18. Perception of risks by opinion leaders 2011; 2011 Perception des risques par des leaders d'opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The authors report a survey made just after the Fukushima accident on a panel of opinion leaders (belonging to political, economical or media sector) in order to compare their perception of risks with that of the public. The questions addressed the perception of risks, the role of scientific experts, the usefulness and breaks on the diffusion of expertise results, the perception of pluralist bodies, and the Fukushima accident. The answers are analysed and discussed with respect to fifteen hazardous situations, to their opinion of expertise, and to their opinion on safety audit and information

  19. Association between risk perception, subjective knowledge, and depression in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hissei; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Fukutomi, Eriko; Wada, Taizo; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Chen, Wen-Ling; Tanaka, Mire; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fujisawa, Michiko; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2015-05-30

    Risk perception is one of the core factors in theories of health behavior promotion. However, the association between knowledge, risk perception, and depressed mood in depression is unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between subjective knowledge, risk perception, and objective scores of depression in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. A total of 747 elderly participants (mean age: 76.1, female: 59.8%) who completed the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) along with items assessing subjective knowledge and risk perception were included in the analysis. We assessed the correlation between subjective knowledge and risk perception, and then compare GDS-15 scores by level of subjective knowledge and risk perception. Subjective knowledge was weakly associated with risk perception and related to lower GDS-15 scores in a dose-response pattern, which did not change after adjusting for age, gender, basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL, years of education and history of depression. There was no significant association between risk perception and GDS-15 scores. The relationship between knowledge, risk perception, and depressed mood in younger generations is unclear, but warrants examination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Precautionary Principle and Risk Perception: Experimental Studies in the EMF Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter M. Wiedemann; Holger Schütz

    2005-01-01

    .... We present results from two experimental studies that indicate that precautionary measures may trigger concerns, amplify EMF-related risk perceptions, and lower trust in public health protection...

  1. The risk perception paradox--implications for governance and communication of natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachinger, Gisela; Renn, Ortwin; Begg, Chloe; Kuhlicke, Christian

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the main insights from selected literature on risk perception, particularly in connection with natural hazards. It includes numerous case studies on perception and social behavior dealing with floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcano eruptions, wild fires, and landslides. The review reveals that personal experience of a natural hazard and trust--or lack of trust--in authorities and experts have the most substantial impact on risk perception. Cultural and individual factors such as media coverage, age, gender, education, income, social status, and others do not play such an important role but act as mediators or amplifiers of the main causal connections between experience, trust, perception, and preparedness to take protective actions. When analyzing the factors of experience and trust on risk perception and on the likeliness of individuals to take preparedness action, the review found that a risk perception paradox exists in that it is assumed that high risk perception will lead to personal preparedness and, in the next step, to risk mitigation behavior. However, this is not necessarily true. In fact, the opposite can occur if individuals with high risk perception still choose not to personally prepare themselves in the face of a natural hazard. Therefore, based on the results of the review, this article offers three explanations suggesting why this paradox might occur. These findings have implications for future risk governance and communication as well as for the willingness of individuals to invest in risk preparedness or risk mitigation actions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Evaluating the operational risks of biomedical waste using failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Tsai, Pei-Yi

    2017-06-01

    The potential problems and risks of biomedical waste generation have become increasingly apparent in recent years. This study applied a failure mode and effects analysis to evaluate the operational problems and risks of biomedical waste. The microbiological contamination of biomedical waste seldom receives the attention of researchers. In this study, the biomedical waste lifecycle was divided into seven processes: Production, classification, packaging, sterilisation, weighing, storage, and transportation. Twenty main failure modes were identified in these phases and risks were assessed based on their risk priority numbers. The failure modes in the production phase accounted for the highest proportion of the risk priority number score (27.7%). In the packaging phase, the failure mode 'sharp articles not placed in solid containers' had the highest risk priority number score, mainly owing to its high severity rating. The sterilisation process is the main difference in the treatment of infectious and non-infectious biomedical waste. The failure modes in the sterilisation phase were mainly owing to human factors (mostly related to operators). This study increases the understanding of the potential problems and risks associated with biomedical waste, thereby increasing awareness of how to improve the management of biomedical waste to better protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  3. Perception of the risk to electromagnetic RF fields in INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Gallastegi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perception of environmental risks to the population is a priority issue for the bodies and administrations responsible for managing them. There are few studies on the perception of the risk to RF, but all of them report high levels of concern. This study describes and analyzes the RF risk perception of mothers belonging to the INMA-Gipuzkoa project.Data on perception were collected by means of two questionnaires given to mothers in two different periods. During pregnancy, 625 mothers chose the five relevant environmental issues in their place of residence from a list of 16. When their children were 8, 386 mothers rated, on a scale from 0 to 10, their perception of their levels of exposure to RF and the health risk derived from such exposure.During pregnancy, 31.8 % of mothers chose proximity to RF antennas as one of the 5 most important environmental problems. When their children were 8, 98.0 % and 90.3 % of women reported medium or high perception values (between 5 and 10 regarding exposure and health risk, respectively. A moderate correlation was found between exposure perception and risk perception (0.5. There is no association between RF exposure perception and actual levels measured inside homes.Knowing the factors associated with the perception of risks by the population will be useful to manage them properly.

  4. A common vision of energy risk? Energy securitisation and company perceptions of risk in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Stoddard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, energy security is provided by EU institutions, member states and commercial energy companies. However, despite the important role companies play in the provision of European energy security, it is not immediately evident to what extent the interests of the internationally operating energy firms are in line with the energy security preferences held by EU institutions. Analysing this relationship from the perspective of perceptions of energy security and energy business risk, this paper examines the extent to which there is a convergence between the energy securitisation of the European Commission and the observation of business risk as perceived by major European and international energy firms. It finds that while there are some significant areas where Commission securitisation contradicts energy company interests (e.g. climate change and energy prices there is also a high degree of convergence, in particular regarding perceptions of upstream political risk.

  5. Risk perception and public concerns of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Hae-Joon; Song, Dae Jong; Cho, Yong Min; Choi, Jae Wook

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the difference between the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones and the risk perception of other factors such as environment and food was analyzed. The cause of the difference in the psychological and social factors that affect the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves was also analyzed. A questionnaire survey on the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was carried out on 1001 subjects (men and women) over the age of 20. In the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones, women had higher risk perception than men. Logistic regression analysis, where the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves and the group with low risk perception were used as dependent variables, indicated that the risk perception of electromagnetic waves in women was 1.815 times statistically significantly higher than the risk perception of men (95% CI: 1.340-2.457). Also, high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was observed when the subjects considered that they had more personal knowledge (OR: 1.416, 95% CI: 1.216-1.648), that the seriousness of the risk to future generations was high (OR: 1.410, 95% CI: 1.234-1.611), and their outrage for the occurrence of accidents related to electromagnetic waves was high (OR: 1.460, 95% CI: 1.264-1.686). The results of this study need to be sufficiently considered and reflected in designing the risk communication strategies and communication methods for the preventive measures and advice on electromagnetic waves from cellular phones. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Risk management for outsourcing biomedical waste disposal - using the failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ching-Jong; Ho, Chao Chung

    2014-07-01

    Using the failure mode and effects analysis, this study examined biomedical waste companies through risk assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the supervisors of biomedical waste units in hospitals, and factors relating to the outsourcing risk assessment of biomedical waste in hospitals by referring to waste disposal acts. An expert questionnaire survey was conducted on the personnel involved in waste disposal units in hospitals, in order to identify important factors relating to the outsourcing risk of biomedical waste in hospitals. This study calculated the risk priority number (RPN) and selected items with an RPN value higher than 80 for improvement. These items included "availability of freezing devices", "availability of containers for sharp items", "disposal frequency", "disposal volume", "disposal method", "vehicles meeting the regulations", and "declaration of three lists". This study also aimed to identify important selection factors of biomedical waste disposal companies by hospitals in terms of risk. These findings can serve as references for hospitals in the selection of outsourcing companies for biomedical waste disposal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychological Vulnerability and Earthquake Risk Perception in Bucharest/Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Cretu, Zeno; Armas, Iuliana; Stanciugelu, Irina

    2010-05-01

    The importance of studying the relationship with the natural hazard events from a psycho-social perspective is fundamental by the experience with past disasters as much as by the research in the field that proved that the people's psychologic structures may constitute a starting point for risk reduction. People's psycho-behavioural patterns contain conscious or unconscious references to the environmental risk, thus creating certain adjustment strategies and mechanisms, with a certain degree of psychological vulnerability. In modern man's case, the high level of awareness in front of natural dangers, doubled by the perception of the environment's unsafety, experienced as a lack of control, brings to attention nowadays the problematic of the analysis of natural risk perception, as a main factor in the adjustment of human communities' capacity of adapting to the natural environment's dynamics. The major objective of this present work is, based on the development of an efficient evaluation methodology, to identify specific relational patterns to seismic risk in Bucharest, function the characteristics of the urban environment, the social, economical and psychological vulnerability, with results that can be applied for disaster management. For explaining human reactions and the way in which they perceive and evaluate the psychological resources, on a daily basis, but also in risk situations (earthquakes), a multi-modal questionnaire was conceived through qualitative methods (a focus group, along with experts from the Public and Administrative Sciences National School, Risk Communication Center). The questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence, in which were included different type of questions (with single or multiple answers, open questions etc), and also questions using different scaling methods. The items caught cognitive elements (expectations, anticipations and negative or positive judgments regarding risk element), affective (feelings) and behavioral

  8. Risk mitigation by waste-based permeable reactive barriers for groundwater pollution control at e-waste recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Zhang, Weihua; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have proved to be a promising passive treatment to control groundwater contamination and associated human health risks. This study explored the potential use of low-cost adsorbents as PRBs media and assessed their longevity and risk mitigation against leaching of acidic rainfall through an e-waste recycling site, of which Cu, Zn, and Pb were the major contaminants. Batch adsorption experiments suggested a higher adsorption capacity of inorganic industrial by-products [acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) and coal fly ash (CFA)] and carbonaceous recycled products [food waste compost (FWC) and wood-derived biochar] compared to natural inorganic minerals (limestone and apatite). Continuous leaching tests of sand columns with 10 wt% low-cost adsorbents were then conducted to mimic the field situation of acidic rainfall infiltration through e-waste-contaminated soils (collected from Qingyuan, China) by using synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) solution. In general, Zn leached out first, followed by Cu, and finally delayed breakthrough of Pb. In the worst-case scenario (e.g., at initial concentrations equal to 50-fold of average SPLP result), the columns with limestone, apatite, AMDS, or biochar were effective for a relatively short period of about 20-40 pore volumes of leaching, after which Cu breakthrough caused non-cancer risk concern and later-stage Pb leaching considerably increased both non-cancer and lifetime cancer risk associated with portable use of contaminated water. In contrast, the columns with CFA or FWC successfully mitigated overall risks to an acceptable level for a prolonged period of 100-200 pore volumes. Therefore, with proper selection of low-cost adsorbents (or their mixture), waste-based PRBs is a technically feasible and economically viable solution to mitigate human health risk due to contaminated groundwater at e-waste recycling sites.

  9. Perception on the Risk of the Sonora River Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Aragonés

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the “psychometric paradigm” of risk perception to the heavy mineral spill in the Sonora River (Mexico. A total of 241 inhabitants of the polluted area with a mean age of 46.3 years participated in the study, completing an interview questionnaire at the onset of the disaster. The results allow us to establish a profile of the 18 characteristics comprising the model and a multiple regression analysis shows that some characteristics of the dimensions of dread risk and unknown risk explain a percentage of the magnitude of the perceived risk. In addition, the behaviors recommended by the authorities were classified by the participants according to their estimated usefulness. Significant differences were observed. Avoiding contact with the water was considered the most effective, followed by recommendations on the use of the water, with actions related to the environment and how to avoid pollution being considered the least effective. In sum, the strategy deployed allows us to observe how the victims perceive the disaster and organize the behaviors proposed by the authorities.

  10. Sound Levels and Risk Perceptions of Music Students During Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Matilde A; Amorim, Marta; Silva, Manuela V; Neves, Paula; Sousa, Aida; Inácio, Octávio

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that professional musicians are at risk of hearing damage due to the exposure to high sound pressure levels during music playing. However, it is important to recognize that the musicians' exposure may start early in the course of their training as students in the classroom and at home. Studies regarding sound exposure of music students and their hearing disorders are scarce and do not take into account important influencing variables. Therefore, this study aimed to describe sound level exposures of music students at different music styles, classes, and according to the instrument played. Further, this investigation attempted to analyze the perceptions of students in relation to exposure to loud music and consequent health risks, as well as to characterize preventive behaviors. The results showed that music students are exposed to high sound levels in the course of their academic activity. This exposure is potentiated by practice outside the school and other external activities. Differences were found between music style, instruments, and classes. Tinnitus, hyperacusis, diplacusis, and sound distortion were reported by the students. However, students were not entirely aware of the health risks related to exposure to high sound pressure levels. These findings reflect the importance of starting intervention in relation to noise risk reduction at an early stage, when musicians are commencing their activity as students.

  11. Risk assessment and quality improvement of liquid waste management in Taiwan University chemical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chao-Chung; Chen, Ming-Shu

    2018-01-01

    The policy of establishing new universities across Taiwan has led to an increase in the number of universities, and many schools have constructed new laboratories to meet students' academic needs. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of laboratory accidents from the liquid waste in universities. Therefore, how to build a safety system for laboratory liquid waste disposal has become an important issue in the environmental protection, safety, and hygiene of all universities. This study identifies the risk factors of liquid waste disposal and presents an agenda for practices to laboratory managers. An expert questionnaire is adopted to probe into the risk priority procedures of liquid waste disposal; then, the fuzzy theory-based FMEA method and the traditional FMEA method are employed to analyze and improve the procedures for liquid waste disposal. According to the research results, the fuzzy FMEA method is the most effective, and the top 10 potential disabling factors are prioritized for improvement according to the risk priority number (RNP), including "Unclear classification", "Gathering liquid waste without a funnel or a drain pan", "Lack of a clearance and transport contract", "Liquid waste spill during delivery", "Spill over", "Decentralized storage", "Calculating weight in the wrong way", "Compatibility between the container material and the liquid waste", "Lack of dumping and disposal tools", and "Lack of a clear labels for liquid waste containers". After tracking improvements, the overall improvement rate rose to 60.2%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We examine how affect and accessible thoughts following a major natural disaster influence everyday risk perception. A survey was conducted in the months following the 2004 south Asian Tsunami in a representative sample of the Swedish population (N = 733). Respondents rated their experienced affect as well as the perceived risk and benefits of various everyday decision domains. Affect influenced risk and benefit perception in a way that could be predicted from both the affect-congruency and affect heuristic literatures (increased risk perception and stronger risk-benefit correlations). However, in some decision domains, self-regulation goals primed by the natural disaster predicted risk and benefit ratings. Together, these results show that affect, accessible thoughts and motivational states influence perceptions of risks and benefits. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Murakami

    Full Text Available In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249 aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello's guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station, evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on

  14. Risk factors for episodes of enteric disease in cattle wastes handlers in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madoshi, B; Lupindu, A. M.; Mtambo, MMA

    2017-01-01

    This study explored risk factors associated with episodes of enteric disease in animal waste handlers as occupational hazards in Tanzania. A qualitative survey involving 124 animal waste handlers from Morogoro peri-urban and urban areas was carried out. Large number of respondents (84) had experi...

  15. Human health and ecological risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehlman, P.A.; Wollert, D.A.; Phillippi, R.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the methodologies for estimating human health and ecological risks resulting from Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE is currently assessing these activities as part of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM-PEIS).

  16. Which Type of Risk Information to Use for Whom? Moderating Role of Outcome-Relevant Involvement in the Effects of Statistical and Exemplified Risk Information on Risk Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jiyeon; Jeong, Se-Hoon; Hwang, Yoori

    2017-04-01

    The extant empirical research examining the effectiveness of statistical and exemplar-based health information is largely inconsistent. Under the premise that the inconsistency may be due to an unacknowledged moderator (O'Keefe, 2002), this study examined a moderating role of outcome-relevant involvement (Johnson & Eagly, 1989) in the effects of statistical and exemplified risk information on risk perception. Consistent with predictions based on elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984), findings from an experiment (N = 237) concerning alcohol consumption risks showed that statistical risk information predicted risk perceptions of individuals with high, rather than low, involvement, while exemplified risk information predicted risk perceptions of those with low, rather than high, involvement. Moreover, statistical risk information contributed to negative attitude toward drinking via increased risk perception only for highly involved individuals, while exemplified risk information influenced the attitude through the same mechanism only for individuals with low involvement. Theoretical and practical implications for health risk communication are discussed.

  17. Risk perception of tsunami in the community of Arauco, Chile - a contribution of risk perception to disaster risk management at local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, M. Sc. Susanne; Edilia Jaque Castillo, Dra.; Braun, JProf. Andreas Ch., ,, Dr.

    2017-04-01

    The research was carried out in the city center of the coastal community of Arauco, Central Chile. The community of Arauco was one of the most affected communities of the tsunami in Chile, the 27th of February 2010. For the data evaluation, the affected inhabitants of the community have been surveyed via standardized questionnaires. Furthermore experts of different fields, amongst others, Disaster Risk Management (DRM), risk education, urban and regional planning, as well as geology have been consulted in form of expert interviews. The results revealed a high risk perception part of the affected community and a weakness of DRM especially at local level, which opens a gap between the evaluation and treatment of risk by experts and risk perception of the affected community. The risk perception of the affected community, here, is predominantly determined by ecological vulnerability, expressed in direct and indirect experience of a tsunami and by institutional vulnerability, expressed among others by a weakness of DRM at local level and a mistrust in responsible institutions for DRM. Due to the institutional vulnerability and the mistrust in responsible institutions we recommend a Community Based Approach (CBA) to strengthen DRM at local level and to take advantage of the high risk perception and knowledge of the affected community. Involving the community in DRM, we assume to close the gap between risk evaluation of experts and risk perception of the inhabitants and to come up with the unique necessities and conditions at local level. Especially in centralized countries, DRM is less effective, because at the one hand, decisions are made distant from the affected communities, so that measures often do not come up with the unique conditions and necessities at local level, and on the other hand measures often do not find acceptance by the affected community. Furthermore centralized DRM is often not effective and quick in response in case of emergency. Another obstacle

  18. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello’s guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on “cancer risk from

  19. Cigarette graphic warning labels increase both risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Shoben, Abigail B; Meilleur, Louise R; Klein, Elizabeth G; Tompkins, Mary Kate; Tusler, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Cigarette graphic warning labels elicit negative emotion, which increases risk perceptions through multiple processes. We examined whether this emotion simultaneously affects motivated cognitions like smoking myth endorsement (e.g. 'exercise can undo the negative effects of smoking') and perceptions of cigarette danger versus other products. 736 adult and 469 teen smokers/vulnerable smokers viewed one of three warning label types (text-only, low emotion graphic or high emotion graphic) four times over two weeks. Emotional reactions to the warnings were reported during the first and fourth exposures. Participants reported how often they considered the warnings, smoking myth endorsement, risk perceptions and perceptions of cigarette danger relative to smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes. In structural equation models, emotional reactions influenced risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement through two processes. Emotion acted as information about risk, directly increasing smoking risk perceptions and decreasing smoking myth endorsement. Emotion also acted as a spotlight, motivating consideration of the warning information. Warning consideration increased risk perceptions, but also increased smoking myth endorsement. Emotional reactions to warnings decreased perceptions of cigarette danger relative to other products. Emotional reactions to cigarette warnings increase smoking risk perceptions, but also smoking myth endorsement and misperceptions that cigarettes are less dangerous than potentially harm-reducing tobacco products.

  20. Preliminary characterization of risks in the nuclear waste management system based on information in the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Rhoads, R.E.; Van Luick, A.E.; Fecht, B.A.; Nilson, S.A.; Sevigny, N.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Armstrong, G.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hill, D.H.; Rowe, M.; Stern, E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This document presents preliminary information on the radiological and nonradiological risks in the nuclear waste management system. The objective of the study was to (1) review the literature containing information on risks in the nuclear waste management system and (2) use this information to develop preliminary estimates of the potential magnitude of these risks. Information was collected on a broad range of risk categories to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in communicating information about the risks in the waste management systems. The study examined all of the portions of the nuclear waste management system currently expected to be developed by the DOE. The scope of this document includes the potential repository, the integral MRS facility, and the transportation system that supports the potential repository and the MRS facility. Relevant literature was reviewed for several potential repository sites and geologic media. A wide range of ``risk categories`` are addressed in this report: (1) public and occupational risks from accidents that could release radiological materials, (2) public and occupational radiation exposure resulting from routine operations, (3) public and occupational risks from accidents involving hazards other than radioactive materials, and (4) public and occupational risks from exposure to nonradioactive hazardous materials during routine operations. The report is intended to provide a broad spectrum of risk-related information about the waste management system. This information is intended to be helpful for planning future studies.

  1. How are lung cancer risk perceptions and cigarette smoking related?-testing an accuracy hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei-Shih; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Tseng, Tung-Sung; Zhao, Shixi

    2016-10-01

    Subjective risk perception is an important theoretical construct in the field of cancer prevention and control. Although the relationship between subjective risk perception and health behaviors has been widely studied in many health contexts, the causalities and associations between the risk perception of developing lung cancer and cigarette smoking have been inconsistently reported among studies. Such inconsistency may be from discrepancies between study designs (cross-sectional versus longitudinal designs) and the three hypotheses (i.e., the behavior motivation hypothesis, the risk reappraisals hypothesis, and the accuracy hypothesis) testing different underlying associations between risk perception and cigarette-smoking behaviors. To clarify this issue, as an initial step, we examined the association between absolute and relative risk perceptions of developing lung cancer and cigarette-smoking behaviors among a large, national representative sample of 1,680 U.S. adults by testing an accuracy hypothesis (i.e., people who smoke accurately perceived a higher risk of developing lung cancer). Data from the U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed using logistic regression and multivariate linear regression to examine the associations between risk perception and cigarette-smoking behaviors among 1,680 U.S. adults. Findings from this cross-sectional survey suggest that absolute and relative risk perceptions were positively and significantly correlated with having smoked >100 cigarettes during lifetime and the frequency of cigarette smoking. Only absolute risk perception was significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day among current smokers. Because both absolute and relative risk perceptions are positively related to most cigarette-smoking behaviors, this study supports the accuracy hypothesis. Moreover, absolute risk perception might be a more sensitive measurement than relative risk perception for perceived lung

  2. Risks, regulation responsibilities and costs in nuclear waste management: A preliminary survey in the European Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, S.

    The use of nuclear energy produces radioactive waste which may present risks of pollution for man and his environment. Their protection must be ensured by technical or institutional controls. The report examines the second, i.e., the administrative, legal and financial measures, dealing with the management of radioactive waste in existence or under consideration within the Member States of the European Community. The following aspects are studied: laws and regulations, authorities concerned, costs and financing of radioactive waste management, civil liability, national policies, international aspects of radioactive waste management.

  3. Safety Politics and Risk Perceptions in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    Abstract The book deals with the analysis of work hazards and safety in industrial enterprises in Peninsular Malaysia, Southeast Asia. It traces the development of this theme of conflict within the context constituted by state, labour market and labour-management relations in Malaysia. The book...... by the state from Burawoy, Beronius, and Adesina about production politics and social relations in the labour process provides an integrated perspective on individual risk perceptions, safety practices in enterprises, and government regulation. The empirical data were collected during the period 1989...... of the monitoring conducted by the authorities as well as the strategies to counter threats to their legitimacy. The third part of the book deepens the analysis of the enterprise level. Workers' statements about their experience of work hazards are the point of departure for investigating the issue of work hazards...

  4. HIV Risk Perception and Risky Behavior Among People Who Inject Drugs in Kermanshah, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Mehdi; Ahounbar, Elahe; Karimi, Salah Eddin; Ahmadi, Sina; Najafi, Mohammad; Bazrafshan, Ali; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Farhadi, Mohammad Hassan; Higgs, Peter; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Sharhani, Asaad; Armoon, Bahram; Waye, Katherine

    2017-08-01

    Understanding and increasing awareness on individual risk for HIV infection as well as HIV risk perception's effects on different behavioral outcomes for people who inject drugs (PWID) is important for policymaking and planning purposes. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether HIV risk perception was associated with greater injection and sexual risk-taking behaviors among PWIDs. We surveyed 460 PWID in Kermanshah regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, HIV risk perception, and drug-related risk behaviors in the month prior to the study. Three classes of HIV risk perception were identified using ordinal regression to determine factors associated with HIV risk perception. Study participants were categorized as follows: "low" (n = 100, 22%), "moderate" (n = 150, 32%), and "high" (n = 210, 46%) risk perception for becoming infected with HIV. The odds of categorizing as "high" risk for HIV was significantly greater in PWID that reported unprotected sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.4, p value 0.02), receptive syringe sharing (AOR 1.8, p value 0.01), and multiple sex partners (AOR 1.4, p value 0.03). PWID who reported unprotected sex had 2.7 times the odds of "high" risk perception when compared to PWID with "low" risk perception. Findings show that PWID could rate their HIV risk with acceptable accuracy. Additionally, perceived HIV risk was associated with many risk factors for transmission of HIV, emphasizing the importance of developing targeted prevention and harm reduction programs for all domains of risk behaviors, both sexual and drug-related use.

  5. Hendra Virus and Horse Owners – Risk Perception and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Nina; McLaughlin, Amanda; Taylor, Melanie; Moloney, Barbara; Wright, Therese; Field, Hume

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus), commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63%) had seen their state’s Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn’t done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk-management scenarios

  6. Hendra virus and horse owners--risk perception and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kung

    Full Text Available Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus, commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63% had seen their state's Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn't done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk

  7. Hendra virus and horse owners--risk perception and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Nina; McLaughlin, Amanda; Taylor, Melanie; Moloney, Barbara; Wright, Therese; Field, Hume

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic novel paramyxovirus causing sporadic fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Species of fruit-bats (genus Pteropus), commonly known as flying-foxes, are the natural host of the virus. We undertook a survey of horse owners in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia to assess the level of adoption of recommended risk management strategies and to identify impediments to adoption. Survey questionnaires were completed by 1431 respondents from the target states, and from a spectrum of industry sectors. Hendra virus knowledge varied with sector, but was generally limited, with only 13% of respondents rating their level of knowledge as high or very high. The majority of respondents (63%) had seen their state's Hendra virus information for horse owners, and a similar proportion found the information useful. Fifty-six percent of respondents thought it moderately, very or extremely likely that a Hendra virus case could occur in their area, yet only 37% said they would consider Hendra virus if their horse was sick. Only 13% of respondents stabled their horses overnight, although another 24% said it would be easy or very easy to do so, but hadn't done so. Only 13% and 15% of respondents respectively had horse feed bins and water points under solid cover. Responses varied significantly with state, likely reflecting different Hendra virus history. The survey identified inconsistent awareness and/or adoption of available knowledge, confusion in relation to Hendra virus risk perception, with both over-and under-estimation of true risk, and lag in the uptake of recommended risk minimisation strategies, even when these were readily implementable. However, we also identified frustration and potential alienation by horse owners who found the recommended strategies impractical, onerous and prohibitively expensive. The insights gained from this survey have broader application to other complex risk-management scenarios.

  8. Risk Perception for Developing Diabetes among Non-diabetic Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased in recent decades and this trend is expected to continue. Objective: to determine the risk perception for developing type 2 diabetes among non-diabetic individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving non-diabetic individuals in the catchment area of the doctor-and-nurse office No.15 of the Manuel Fajardo Polyclinic in Cienfuegos was conducted between May 2013 and June 2014. The universe consisted of 1145 people, and the sample included 323 individuals of different age groups selected by sex. The variables studied were: age, sex, body mass index, nutritional assessment, and having a perceived risk when they answered 70 % of questions correctly. The arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test, and risk estimation were calculated with a 95 % confidence interval. Results: individuals aged 25 to 34 years and females predominated. Fifty nine point two percent of the study participants knew of their risk. Eighty one point one percent understood that diabetes is preventable and 93.5 % stated that it is their responsibility to prevent its development. Thirty five point two percent of women considered normal-weight/thin fully agreed on the importance of physical activity and diabetes prevention. Eighty point five percent of women and 78.5 % of men answered positively to the question about obesity and diabetes. Conclusions: study participants knew of their risk of developing type 2 diabetes, although a large number of them attributed all responsibility for prevention to the health personnel.

  9. Industrial air pollution in rural Kenya: community awareness, risk perception and associations between risk variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omanga, Eunice; Ulmer, Lisa; Berhane, Zekarias; Gatari, Michael

    2014-04-17

    Developing countries have limited air quality management systems due to inadequate legislation and lack of political will, among other challenges. Maintaining a balance between economic development and sustainable environment is a challenge, hence investments in pollution prevention technologies get sidelined in favor of short-term benefits from increased production and job creation. This lack of air quality management capability translates into lack of air pollution data, hence the false belief that there is no problem. The objectives of the study were to: assess the population's environmental awareness, explore their perception of pollution threat to their health; examine the association between specific health hazards. A cross-sectional study was implemented by gathering quantitative information on demographic, health status, environmental perception and environmental knowledge of residents to understand their view of pollution in their neighborhood. Focus group discussions (FGDs) allowed for corroboration of the quantitative data. Over 80% of respondents perceived industrial pollution as posing a considerable risk to them despite the fact that the economy of the area largely depended on the factory. Respondents also argued that they had not been actively involved in identifying solutions to the environmental challenges. The study revealed a significant association between industrial pollution as a risk and, perception of risk from other familiar health hazards. The most important factors influencing the respondents' pollution risk perception were environmental awareness and family health status. This study avails information to policy makers and researchers concerning public awareness and attitudes towards environmental pollution pertinent to development and implementation of environmental policies for public health.

  10. Adult and Middle School Girls' Perceptions of Risk-Taking Behavior: Implications for School Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Brett Johnson; Garibaldi, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is an overwhelming disconnect between young adolescent girls and adults, in relationship to perceptions of middle schoolgirl risk taking. This mixed-methods study investigates the differences between adult practitioners and middle school girls' perceptions of risk taking, understanding of consequences, and needs among middle school girls.…

  11. A statistical law in the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests that a universal psychophysical law influences the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic. This law states that there will be a tendency to overestimate low probabilities or small quantities, while high probabilities or large quantities may be underestimated....... Studies of the perception of risk and physical quantities in traffic have found a highly consistent pattern....

  12. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  13. Relative risk perception for terrorism: implications for preparedness and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponecchia, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Occupational biological risk knowledge and perception: results from a large survey in Rome, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria De Giusti; Carmela RN Corrao; Alice Mannocci; Caterina Palazzo; Roberta Riccardi; Silvia Lisa Schmidt; Sabrina Sernia; Giuseppe La Torre

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perception of occupational biological risk among workers in several occupations was carried out in the industrial area of Rome. METHODS: The study was carried out in the period of March-April 2010 using a questionnaire with 33 items on the following areas: a) socio-demographic data; b) perception of the biological risks in ordinary occupational activity; c) knowledge about biological risks; d) biological risks in the working environment. T...

  15. Subjective Risk Assessment and Perception in the Greek and English Bakery Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Zafira Kavadi; Giorgos Bakoyannis; Sotiris Papantonopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Several factors influencing risk perception in the area of occupational health and safety are known, but there is still lack of a full understanding of the ways in which people characterize risk. This study aimed to provide an insight of employee risk assessment and perception in the bakery industry. 87 British and 64 Greek employees in two comparable bakery companies were asked to estimate and evaluate hazards at their workplace. The participants' judgments of 12 hazards?according to 7 risk ...

  16. Risk Assessments by Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: Predictors of Risk Perceptions and Comparison to an Actuarial Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor-Smith, Jennifer K.; Henning, Kris; Moore, Stephanie; Holdford, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies support the validity of both structured risk assessment tools and victim perceptions as predictors of risk for repeat intimate partner violence (IPV). Combining structured risk assessments and victim risk assessments leads to better predictions of repeat violence than either alone, suggesting that the two forms of assessment provide…

  17. Impact of knowledge and misconceptions on benefit and risk perception of CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallquist, Lasse; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is assumed to be one of the key technologies in the mitigation of climate change. Public acceptance may have a strong impact on the progress of this technology. Benefit perception and risk perception are known to be important determinants of public acceptance of CCS. In this study, the prevalence and effect of cognitive concepts underlying laypeople's risk perception and benefit perception of CCS were examined in a representative survey (N=654) in Switzerland. Results confirm findings from previous qualitative studies and show a quantification of a variety of widespread intuitive concepts that laypeople hold about storage mechanisms as well as about leakage and socioeconomic issues, which all appeared to influence risk perception and benefit perception. The perception of an overpressurized reservoir and concerns about diffuse impacts furthermore amplified risk perception. Appropriate images about storage mechanisms and climate change awareness were increasing the perception of benefits. Knowledge about CO2 seemed to lower both perceived benefits and perceived risks. Implications for risk communication and management are discussed.

  18. Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: a cross-national study with European emergency survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2014-07-01

    Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. [Perception of environmental risks: qualitative study done in the affected by the Aznalcóllar toxic spill area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé Arqués, R; Cruz Piqueras, M T

    2000-01-01

    This paper is based on a qualitative study undertaken between July and August 1998 among the residents of the area close the mining waste spill that occurred the 25th of April 1998 in Aznalcóllar, Seville, Spain. To contribute to the identification of some clues about risk perceptions among the population living at the vicinity of the toxic spill, focusing especially on the perceived health risks, the sources of information, their credibility, and the expectations for the future. Combined qualitative research methodologies were used, including interviews and focal groups. The findings show the existence of a perception of the economic consequences of the spill. In a second level possible the consequences for the health status were relevant. Perceived health risks referred to long term effects, such as malformations and cancer. No changes in habits and behaviour are expressed. The information comes from the media, even if mistrust and perplexity are associated with the information received. There is low of credibility towards the administration, ecologist groups and the media. The role of the health system appears poorly defined. The perceived absence of an adequate information to the audience is noted, and there is a demand from the affected population for an informed participation in the process of management of environmental risks. The findings of this work stress the importance of an adequate communication process in the management of health risks associated with environmental hazards. Moreover, it also highlights the need to improve the knowledge about environmental risk perceptions in our country through both quantitative and qualitative research, in the context of the modern risk management and the growing relevance of environmental topics in the social agenda.

  20. Decision-makers' Risk Perception in the Internationalisation of Small and Medium-Sized Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardsen, Jonas Strømfeldt; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the risk perception of decision-makers in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and the factors underlying these perceptions in the process of internationalization of their firms. While risk perception has been identified as a potential predictor variable...... in internationalisation research, very little work has been done exploring the factors and processes that shape decision-makers’ perception of risk. A qualitative interview-based approach was adopted by collecting data from thirty-two Danish SMEs operating in four different industries. Findings suggest that while risk...... awareness exists, decision-makers do not perceive internationalisation as risky behaviour. Findings highlight the importance of decision-makers’ background, including cognitive and psychological characteristics, such as self-efficacy and locus of control, and their experiences in explaining risk perceptions...

  1. [Method for estimating the population risk attributable to a transfer station of municipal solid waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Burgoa, C; Rojas-Bracho, L; Barrera-Romero, N; Ongay-Delhumeau, E; Escamilla-Cejudo, J A

    1992-01-01

    Due to the great volume of municipal solid waste that is produced daily in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City a sound management has been an impossible task. This is why during the past few years solid waste transfer stations have been constructed in the City, allowing a more efficient solid waste collection. The attributable risk to the population's health for the operation of such stations needs to be assessed in order to have them working within the urbanized areas without posing a potential risk to the health of the inhabitants of the inhabitants of the surrounding areas.

  2. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: Awareness, risk compensation, and risk perceptions among South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth; Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira; Eaton, Lisa A; Nkoko, Koena

    2018-01-25

    Medical male circumcision (MMC) is a proven method of HIV risk reduction for men in southern Africa. MMC promotion campaigns and scale-up programmes are widely implemented throughout the Republic of South Africa. However, the impact of promoting MMC on women's awareness, beliefs, and behaviours has been understudied. We conducted a self-administered anonymous survey of 279 women receiving health services in an impoverished township located in Cape Town, South Africa. Results showed that two in three women were unaware that male circumcision partially protects men from contracting HIV. Women who were aware of MMC for HIV prevention also endorsed beliefs that male circumcision reduces the need for men to worry about HIV and reduces the need for men to use condoms. Male circumcision awareness was also related to reduced perceptions of HIV risk among women. Multivariable models showed that women's MMC awareness, circumcision risk compensation beliefs, and risk perceptions were associated with decreased condom use and higher HIV risk index scores defined as number of condomless vaginal intercourse X number of sex partners. These results suggest a need for MMC education efforts tailored for women living in communities with high-HIV prevalence where men are targeted for MMC.

  3. Health Risks Awareness of Electronic Waste Workers in the Informal Sector in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bodegom, Peter M.; Vijver, Martina G.

    2017-01-01

    Insight into the health risk awareness levels of e-waste workers is important as it may offer opportunities for better e-waste recycling management strategies to reduce the health effects of informal e-waste recycling. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices associated with occupational health risk awareness of e-waste workers compared with a control group (butchers) in the informal sector in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was used to assess health risk awareness of 279 e-waste workers (repairers and dismantlers) and 221 butchers from the informal sector in three locations in Nigeria in 2015. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic backgrounds, occupational history, knowledge, attitude, and work practices. The data was analysed using Analysis of Variance. The three job designations had significantly different knowledge, attitude, and practice mean scores (p = 0.000), with butchers consistently having the highest mean scores. Only 43% of e-waste workers could mention one or more Personal Protective Equipment needed for their job compared with 70% of the butchers. The health risk awareness level of the e-waste workers was significantly lower compared with their counterparts in the same informal sector. A positive correlation existed between the workers’ knowledge and their attitude and practice. Therefore, increasing the workers’ knowledge may decrease risky practices. PMID:28805712

  4. Cultural theory and risk perception: validity and utility explored in the French context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Mays, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    Explaining perceived risk can draw upon factors related to the person (e.g. demographics, personality, social/professional status, political orientation), or to the risk source (e.g. health impacts, economic effects). According to Cultural Theory risk perceptions are culturally biased. Wildavsky and Dake operationalised the Cultural Theory with questionnaire scales and found that resulting `cultural profiles` best predict individual differences in risk perception. A French version of their questionnaire was inserted into a representative national risk opinion survey of May 1993; 1022 adults (age 18 and over) were interviewed. Major results are presented. The four cultural scales (hierarchy, egalitarianism, fatalism and individualism) show high correlations with political orientation as expected, but also with, for example, age, gender, income and education level. However, scale relationships to perception of risk situations (twenty, mainly technological) are not as strong as expected. Sjoeberg found similar results in Sweden. The utility of the existing operationalisation of Cultural Theory for risk perception analysis is discussed. (author).

  5. The association between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perception of risk for infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndugwa Kabwama, Steven; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review tries to elucidate the association between what people know about HIV/AIDS and how they perceive their risk of infection. The initial search for articles yielded 1,595 abstracts, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a positive correlation, four reported...... a negative correlation and seven found no association between knowledge and risk perception. It was found that the existing psychometrically sound measure of HIV/AIDS risk perception had not been used in any of the studies. The context in which the risk is assessed is pivotal to whether an association...... between knowledge and the perceived risk is found. Biases in judgement such as optimistic bias, psychological distancing, anchoring bias and overconfidence also explain how knowledge may fail to predict risk perception. It was concluded that the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception...

  6. Parents' and students' perceptions of college alcohol risk: the role of parental risk perception in intentions to communicate about alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Lucy E; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2015-03-01

    The current study aims to examine discrepancies in parents' and college students' perceptions of alcohol risk and the role of perceived risk in predicting parents' intentions to discuss alcohol with their child. In total, 246 college student-parent dyads (56.1% female students, 77.2% mothers) were recruited from a mid-size university. Participants completed measures of absolute likelihood, comparative likelihood, and severity of alcohol consequences. In comparison to students, parents perceived the risks of alcohol poisoning (palcohol consequences (e.g., passing out, regrettable sexual situation, throwing up) as more severe than students (all psalcohol consequences. After controlling for demographics and past alcohol communication, greater absolute likelihood (β=.20, p=.016) and less confidence in knowledge of student behavior (β=.20, p=.013) predicted greater intentions to discuss alcohol. Providing parents of college students with information about college drinking norms and the likelihood of alcohol consequences may help prompt alcohol-related communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Gun Carrying on Perceptions of Risk Among Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Thomas A; Reid, Joan A; Collins, Megan Eileen; Mulvey, Edward P

    2016-02-01

    We observed how perceptions of risks, costs, crime rewards, and violence exposure change as individual gun-carrying behavior changes among high-risk adolescents. We analyzed a longitudinal study (2000-2010) of serious juvenile offenders in Maricopa County, Arizona, or Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, assessing within-person changes in risk and reward perceptions, and violence exposure as individuals initiated or ceased gun carrying. Despite being associated with heightened exposure to violence, gun carrying was linked to lower perceptions of risks and costs and higher perceived rewards of offending. Gun carrying was not time-stable, as certain individuals both started and stopped carrying during the study. Within-person changes in carrying guns were associated with shifting perceptions of risks, costs, and rewards of crime, and changes in exposure to violence in expected directions. Gun carrying reduces perceptions of risks associated with offending while increasing actual risk of violence exposure. This suggests that there is an important disconnect between perceptions and objective levels of safety among high-risk youths. Gun-carrying decisions may not only be influenced by factors of protection and self-defense, but also by perceptions of risks and reward associated with engaging in crime more generally.

  8. Formulation and Presentation of Risk Assessments to Address Risk Targets for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    The Swedish regulators have been active in the field of performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities for many years and have developed sophisticated approaches to the development of scenarios and other aspects of assessments. These assessments have generally used dose as the assessment end-point. Regulations recently established in Sweden (SSI FS 1998:1) have introduced a risk criterion for radioactive waste disposal: the annual risk of harmful effects after closure of a disposal facility should not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. This report evaluates different approaches to the definition and use of probabilities in the context of risk assessments, and examines the presentation of the results of risk assessments in safety cases to meet risk targets. The report illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different possible approaches to risk assessment by reference to assessments in other countries, and provides suggestions for future activity and development in this area by the Swedish regulators. The review of experience in other countries has led to a number of key observations relevant to the conduct of regulatory work on risk assessments and preparations for review. These highlight the importance of developing a protocol for conducting calculations, and linking such a protocol to the requirements of risk assessment calculations and to existing code and model capabilities. There are a number of decisions and assumptions required in developing a risk assessment methodology that could potentially affect the calculated results. These assumptions are independent of the analysis of performance, and relate to issues such as the expectation value of risk, risk dilution, the definition of probability density functions and achieving convergence. A review of a proponent's risk assessment should address these issues in determining the appropriateness and validity of the results presented

  9. Preliminary risk analysis applied to the handling of health-care waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho S.M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 75% and 90% of the waste produced by health-care providers no risk or is "general" health-care waste, comparable to domestic waste. The remaining 10-25% of health-care waste is regarded as hazardous due to one or more of the following characteristics: it may contain infectious agents, sharps, toxic or hazardous chemicals or it may be radioactive. Infectious health-care waste, particularly sharps, has been responsible for most of the accidents reported in the literature. In this work the preliminary risks analysis (PRA technique was used to evaluate practices in the handling of infectious health-care waste. Currently the PRA technique is being used to identify and to evaluate the potential for hazard of the activities, products, and services from facilities and industries. The system studied was a health-care establishment which has handling practices for infectious waste. Thirty-six procedures related to segregation, containment, internal collection, and storage operation were analyzed. The severity of the consequences of the failure (risk that can occur from careless management of infectious health-care waste was classified into four categories: negligible, marginal, critical, and catastrophic. The results obtained in this study showed that events with critics consequences, about 80%, may occur during the implementation of the containment operation, suggesting the need to prioritize this operation. As a result of the methodology applied in this work, a flowchart the risk series was also obtained. In the flowchart the events that can occur as a consequence of a improper handling of infectious health-care waste, which can cause critical risks such as injuries from sharps and contamination (infection from pathogenic microorganisms, are shown.

  10. Perception of risk of musculoskeletal disorders among Brazilian dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso; Presoto, Cristina Dupim; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mean scores of perceived risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders in dental students presently pursuing work/study, according to gender, course series, and the presence of pain/discomfort. The participants were 348 students from the undergraduate course in dentistry at a Brazilian public university. The instrument on work-related factors that could contribute to osteomuscular symptoms and part of the Nordic questionnaire were used. The psychometric properties of the first instrument were estimated. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that the instrument had a tri-factorial structure (s(2) retained: 62.72 percent). The retained factors were repetitiveness, work posture, and external factors. The internal consistency and reproducibility were adequate (α=0.746 to 0.873; p=0.729 to 0.940). Lower mean scores of perceived external factors were observed for the male participants, as well as lower scores in the three dimensions of the instrument for first-year students of the course and for those who did not report pain/discomfort in the neck, feet, and ankles. The authors concluded that the perception of risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders reported in the work/study environment of dental students was significantly related to gender, the course series, and the presence of pain/discomfort.

  11. An empirical study of the toxic capsule crisis in China: risk perceptions and behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianjun; Keller, L Robin; Wu, Ping; Xu, Yifan

    2014-04-01

    The outbreak of the toxic capsule crisis during April 2012 aroused widespread public concern about the risk of chromium-contaminated capsules and drug safety in China. In this article, we develop a conceptual model to investigate risk perceptions of the pharmaceutical drug capsules and behavioral responses to the toxic capsule crisis and the relationship between associated factors and these two variables. An online survey was conducted to test the model, including questions on the measures of perceived efficacy of the countermeasures, trust in the State FDA (Food and Drug Administration), trust in the pharmaceutical companies, trust in the pharmaceutical capsule producers, risk perception, concern, need for information, information seeking, and risk avoidance. In general, participants reported higher levels of risk perception, concern, and risk avoidance, and lower levels of trust in the three different stakeholders. The results from the structural equation modeling procedure suggest that perceived efficacy of the countermeasures is a predictor of each of the three trust variables; however, only trust in the State FDA has a dampening impact on risk perception. Both risk perception and information seeking are significant determinants of risk avoidance. Risk perception is also positively related to concern. Information seeking is positively related to both concern and need for information. The theoretical and policy implications are also discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Brown, Tim W C

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  13. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Freudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one’s own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  14. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M.; Brown, Tim W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  15. Understanding and acknowledging the ice throw hazard - consequences for regulatory frameworks, risk perception and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, R. E.; Drapalik, M.; Butt, B.

    2017-11-01

    This study attempts to provide the necessary framework required to make sufficiently informed decisions regarding the safety implications of ice throw. The framework elaborates on how to cope with uncertainties, and how to describe results in a meaningful and useful manner to decision makers. Moreover, it points out the moral, judicial and economical obligations of wind turbine owners such that they are able to minimize risk of ice throws as much as possible. Building on the strength of knowledge as well as accounting for uncertainty are also essential in enabling clear communication with stakeholders on the most important/critical/vital issues. With increasing empirical evidence, one can assign a higher confidence level on the expert opinions on safety. Findings regarding key uncertainties of ice risk assessments are presented here to support the ongoing IEA Wind Task 19's work on creating the international guidelines on ice risk assessment due in 2018 (Krenn et al. 2017)[1-6]. In addition the study also incorporates the findings of a Norwegian information project, which focuses on the ice throw hazard for the public (Bredesen, Flage, Butt, Winterwind 2018)[7-9]. This includes measures to reduce damage and hazard from wind turbines for the general public. Recent theory of risk assessment questions the use of risk criteria for achieving optimum risk reduction and favours the use of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. Given the several practical problems associated with the ALARA approach (e.g. judicial realization), a joint approach, which uses a minimum set of criteria as well as the obligation to meet ALARA is suggested (associated with acceptable cost). The actual decision about acceptance criteria or obligations is a societal one, thus suggestions can be made at best. Risk acceptance, risk perception and risk communication are inextricably linked and should thus never be considered separately. Risk communication can shape risk perception

  16. Nuclear waste-form risk assessment for US defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report FY, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, H.; Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F.

    1982-08-09

    A network model was developed to simulate the hydrological flow and the transport of radionuclides from a deep geological repository to the biosphere subsequent to closure. By means of very efficient computational methods for solving the fundamental differential equations, a code was developed to treat in great detail the effects of waste form characteristics and of repository designs on the repository risks. It is possible to examine near field effects heretofore not attempted. Without sacrificing the essential details of description, the code can also be applied to perform probabilistic risk analyses to high confidence levels. Analytical results showed: (1) for waste form release rates greater than approximately 5 x 10/sup -7//yr, dose to man is insensitive to release rate and release rate uncertainty; (2) significant reduction in dose can be achieved through simple design modifications; (3) a basalt repository generally does not perform as well as a salt repository; and (4) disruptive events are relatively unimportant for repository safety. 82 references.

  17. Chemical and radiological risk factors associated with waste from energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Benestad, C.

    1992-01-01

    We have tried to estimate the toxic potential of waste from nuclear power plants and from power plants burning fossil fuels. The potential risks have been expressed as 'risk potentials' or 'person equivalents'. These are purely theoretical units and represent only an attempt to quantify the poten......We have tried to estimate the toxic potential of waste from nuclear power plants and from power plants burning fossil fuels. The potential risks have been expressed as 'risk potentials' or 'person equivalents'. These are purely theoretical units and represent only an attempt to quantify...... and one has to accept a certain small risk by accepting the concentration limit. This is in line with the establishment of limits for radiation. Waste products from coal combustion have the highest potential risk among the fossil fuel alternatives. The highest risk is caused by metals, and the fly ash...... represents the effluent stream giving the largest contribution to the potential risk. The waste from nuclear power production has a lower potential risk than coal if today's limit values are used. If one adjusts the limits for radiation dose and the concentration limit values so that a similar risk...

  18. Climate Change Risk Perception in Taiwan: Correlation with Individual and Societal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Han, Ziqiang

    2018-01-08

    This study differentiates the risk perception and influencing factors of climate change along the dimensions of global severity and personal threat. Using the 2013 Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSGS) data (N = 2001) as a representative sample of adults from Taiwan, we investigated the influencing factors of the risk perceptions of climate change in these two dimensions (global severity and personal threat). Logistic regression models were used to examine the correlations of individual factors (gender, age, education, climate-related disaster experience and risk awareness, marital status, employment status, household income, and perceived social status) and societal factors (religion, organizational embeddedness, and political affiliations) with the above two dimensions. The results demonstrate that climate-related disaster experience has no significant impact on either the perception of global severity or the perception of personal impact. However, climate-related risk awareness (regarding typhoons, in particular) is positively associated with both dimensions of the perceived risks of climate change. With higher education, individuals are more concerned about global severity than personal threat. Regarding societal factors, the supporters of political parties have higher risk perceptions of climate change than people who have no party affiliation. Religious believers have higher risk perceptions of personal threat than non-religious people. This paper ends with a discussion about the effectiveness of efforts to enhance risk perception of climate change with regard to global severity and personal threat.

  19. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Alves Bonow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%, chemical (96.2%, physiological (88.8%, and biological (62.9%. The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices’ ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning.

  20. Risk perceptions in a resource community and communication implications: emotion, stigma, and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara; Sinclair, Janas

    2012-03-01

    Communication targeting resource communities, sites of potentially damaging industries such as forestry, mining, and logging, requires an understanding of risk perceptions among residents living within these communities. Among concerns facing these communities is social stigmatization, an actual or feared negative psychological experience associated with living in a community with an undesirable industry. This study of a coal-mining resource community was conducted with the purpose of exploring a range of perceptions associated with ongoing exposure to a resource industry, including the experience of social stigma. This study used focus group interviews with stakeholders to highlight the personal voices of the resource community experience. A model of stakeholders' perceptions of industry risks and benefits is introduced, and important distinctions between hypothetical risk perceptions and perceptions of resource community stakeholders are explored. Implications for communicating with resource communities are also discussed. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Experience-Induced Change of Alcohol-Related Risk Perception in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepper, Sarah; Odenwald, Michael; Rösner, Susanne; Senn, Smeralda; Menning, Hans; Pereyra-Kröll, Devi; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    The role of alcohol-related risk perception for effective treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUD) is still unclear. The present study on 101 alcohol-dependent patients undergoing a 10-week AUD treatment protocol investigated the relationship between alcohol-related risk perception and alcohol use with the hypotheses that (1) risk perception changes across treatment, (2) changes vary with treatment-related experiences of abstinence/relapse indicating 'risk reappraisal,' and (3) adjustment of perceived own vulnerability according to 'risk reappraisal hypothesis' predicts abstinence during follow-up. Abstinence during treatment was related to a decrease, and relapse during treatment to a slight increase in perceived own risks. Abstinence during the 3-month follow-up varied with experience-induced risk reappraisal. The results show an impact of risk reappraisal on alcohol use and hence advocate a focus on risk reappraisal in AUD treatment.

  2. The influence of outrage and technical detail on the perception of environmental health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochems D; Bruggen M van; IMD; GGD Rotterdam

    2004-01-01

    Differences in risk perception between a professional assessing a risk and a concerned community affected by this risk have been shown to be important obstacles in the communication of environmental health risks. The study reported here aimed at gaining insight into factors that influence people's

  3. An assessment of change in risk perception and optimistic bias for hurricanes among Gulf Coast residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig; Meyer, Michelle A; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on levels of concern for hurricanes among individuals living along the Gulf Coast during the quiescent two-year period following the exceptionally destructive 2005 hurricane season. A small study of risk perception and optimistic bias was conducted immediately following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Two years later, a follow-up was done in which respondents were recontacted. This provided an opportunity to examine changes, and potential causal ordering, in risk perception and optimistic bias. The analysis uses 201 panel respondents who were matched across the two mail surveys. Measures included hurricane risk perception, optimistic bias for hurricane evacuation, past hurricane experience, and a small set of demographic variables (age, sex, income, and education). Paired t-tests were used to compare scores across time. Hurricane risk perception declined and optimistic bias increased. Cross-lagged correlations were used to test the potential causal ordering between risk perception and optimistic bias, with a weak effect suggesting the former affects the latter. Additional cross-lagged analysis using structural equation modeling was used to look more closely at the components of optimistic bias (risk to self vs. risk to others). A significant and stronger potentially causal effect from risk perception to optimistic bias was found. Analysis of the experience and demographic variables' effects on risk perception and optimistic bias, and their change, provided mixed results. The lessening of risk perception and increase in optimistic bias over the period of quiescence suggest that risk communicators and emergency managers should direct attention toward reversing these trends to increase disaster preparedness. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. [Current status on storage, processing and risk communication of medical radioactive waste in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Maehara, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Atsuko; Koizumi, Mitsue; Kimura, Yumi; Horitsugi, Genki

    2013-03-01

    Decay-in-storage for radioactive waste including that of nuclear medicine has not been implemented in Japan. Therefore, all medical radioactive waste is collected and stored at the Japan Radioisotope Association Takizawa laboratory, even if the radioactivity has already decayed out. To clarify the current situation between Takizawa village and Takizawa laboratory, we investigated the radiation management status and risk communication activities at the laboratory via a questionnaire and site visiting survey in June 2010. Takizawa laboratory continues to maintain an interactive relationship with local residents. As a result, Takizawa village permitted the acceptance of new medical radioactive waste containing Sr-89 and Y-90. However, the village did not accept any non-medical radioactive waste such as waste from research laboratories. To implement decay-in-storage in Japan, it is important to obtain agreement with all stakeholders. We must continue to exert sincere efforts to acquire the trust of all stakeholders.

  5. Structural Relation Pattern between Deviant Personality Traits, Risk Perception and Treatment Motivation in People with Substance Dependency: The Mediating Role of Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Basharpoor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current study was conducted to investigate the pattern of structural relations between deviant personality traits, risk perception and treatment motivation in people with substance dependency. Method: A descriptive- correlational method was used in this study. All the drug addicts referring to Ardabil centers of addiction treatment in second half of 2014 constituted the statistical population of this study. The number of 140 individuals from this population was selected via cluster sampling and responded to stages of change readiness and treatment eagerness scale, personality deviance scale, and cognitive appraisal of risky events (CARE questionnaire. Results: The results showed that risk perception and three components of treatment motivation are negatively correlated with hostile thoughts, denigration of others, low self-confidence, dependency, submissiveness; however, risk perception was positively associated with the three components of treatment motivation. The results of regression analyses also revealed that 53% variance of recognition, 44 % variance of ambivalence, and 47 % of variance of step taking were explained by deviant personality traits. Model fitness indexed confirmed the path of deviant personality traits to treatment motivation via the mediating role of risk perception. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that low risk perception is one of the explanatory pathways for the relationship between deviant personality traits and treatment motivation.

  6. Survey of attitudes and perceptions of urine-diverting toilets and human waste recycling in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Krishna M; Babcock, Roger W

    2013-01-15

    Urine constitutes only about 1% of domestic sewage but contains 50% or more of the excreted nutrients and chemicals like hormones and pharmaceutical residues. Urine diverting toilet (UDT) systems can be considered a more sustainable alternative to wastewater management because they allow nutrient recycling, reduce water use, and allow source-separation of hormones and chemicals that can harm the environment. An online survey was conducted to determine whether UDTs are acceptable to the general public in Hawaii and if attitudes and perceptions towards it and human waste (HW) recycling vary with age, sex, level of education, religious affiliation, ethnicity, and employment status. The survey was also intended to detect possible drivers and barriers for the UDTs. Variations on variables were tested at 5% significance (p=0.05) level (Chi-squared test or ANOVA) and considered significantly different if the p-value was less than 0.05. The results were encouraging as more than 60% are willing to pay extra for the UDT, while only 22% knew that such systems existed. No statistically significant difference was found between males and females on all survey questions at the 5% level. However, females had higher willingness to pay (WTP) than males and WTP increased with age and income. The WTP of Caucasians was higher than Asians and differed significantly. Some respondents expressed concern about the legal provisions for recycling of HW. The survey results indicate that with a public education program, it is possible that most people would be willing to adopt UDTs and HW recycling with incurred societal benefits of reduced water and fertilizer use, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and collection of micropollutants at the source to prevent their entry into waterways. Because of the small sample size (N=132, 13% response rate) the survey is not representative but may be indicative of the general attitude of Hawaiian people. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors associated with women's involvement in waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women constitute the bulk of the workface engaged in the collection, conveyance and disposal of waste in Abia State. While performing this important assignment, these workers, some whom are young and economically-active, get in constant touch with materials that, threaten their health As well as the entire family well ...

  8. Design of risk communication strategies based on risk perception among farmers exposed to pesticides in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Frederico; Rodrigues, Karla Meneses; da Silva Peixoto Belo, Mariana Soares; Moreira, Josino Costa; Claudio, Luz

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess pesticide exposure risk perception among farmers from three rural areas of Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 66 adults and participatory workshops with 27 teenagers and analyzed through content analysis techniques. Systematized results were discussed at local meetings, and two risk communication initiatives were devised. Study results demonstrated the use of defensive strategies by men and a diminished risk perception among women. Teenagers relied on parents to develop their own work practices. These findings supported the importance of cultural and social determinants of farmers' understandings of risk and of the relevance of different pesticide exposure pathways. Risk perceptions and work practices are strongly influenced by local cultural patterns and, therefore, must be taken into account when developing effective intervention strategies, including risk communication initiatives. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Hospital workers' perceptions of waste: a qualitative study involving photo-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Sarah L; Kleppel, Reva; Lindenauer, Peter K; Rothberg, Michael B

    2013-10-01

    To elicit sources of waste as viewed by hospital workers. Qualitative study using photo-elicitation, an ethnographic technique for prompting in-depth discussion. U.S. academic tertiary care hospital. Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrative support personnel, administrators and respiratory therapists. A purposive sample of personnel at an academic tertiary care hospital was invited to take up to 10 photos of waste. Participants discussed their selections using photos as prompts during in-depth interviews. Transcripts were analysed in an iterative process using grounded theory; open and axial coding was performed, followed by selective and thematic coding to develop major themes and subthemes. Twenty-one participants (nine women, average number of years in field=19.3) took 159 photos. Major themes included types of waste and recommendations to reduce waste. Types of waste comprised four major categories: Time, Materials, Energy and Talent. Participants emphasised time wastage (50% of photos) over other types of waste such as excess utilisation (2.5%). Energy and Talent were novel categories of waste. Recommendations to reduce waste included interventions at the micro-level (eg, individual/ward), meso-level (eg, institution) and macro-level (eg, payor/public policy). The waste hospital workers identified differed from previously described waste both in the types of waste described and the emphasis placed on wasted time. The findings of this study represent a possible need for education of hospital workers about known types of waste, an opportunity to assess the impact of novel types of waste described and an opportunity to intervene to reduce the waste identified.

  10. Modifiable risk factors of ecstasy use: risk perception, current dependence, perceived control, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kit Sang; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Copeland, Jan; Cottler, Linda B

    2010-03-01

    Risk perception, perceived behavioral control of obtaining ecstasy (PBC-obtaining), current ecstasy dependence, and recent depression have been associated with past ecstasy use, however, their utility in predicting ecstasy use has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to determine whether these four modifiable risk factors could predict ecstasy use after controlling for socio-demographic covariates and recent polydrug use. Data from 601 ecstasy users in the National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded TriCity Study of Club Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Participants were interviewed twice within a 2-week period using standardized instruments. Thirteen percent (n = 80) of the participants reported using ecstasy between the two interviews. Low risk perception, high PBC-obtaining (an estimated ecstasy procurement time depression was not a significant predictor. Despite not being a target predictor, recent polydrug use was also statistically associated with ecstasy use. The present findings may inform the development of interventions targeting ecstasy users. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perception of Suicide Risk in Mental Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Tim M; Hawley, Christopher J; Butler, John; Morton, Adrian; Singhal, Ankush

    2016-01-01

    This study employed an independent-groups design (4 conditions) to investigate possible biases in the suicide risk perception of mental health professionals. Four hundred participants comprising doctors, nurses and social workers viewed a vignette describing a fictitious patient with a long-term mental illness. The case was presented as being drawn from a sample of twenty similar clinical case reports, of which 10 were associated with an outcome of suicide. The participant tasks were (i) to decide whether the presented vignette was one of those cases or not, and (ii) to provide an assessment of confidence in that decision. The 4 conditions were used to investigate whether the presence of an associated face, and the nature of the emotional state expressed by that face, affected the response profile. In fact, there were no significant differences between conditions, but there was a significant bias across all conditions towards associating the vignette with suicide, despite the base rate being pre-determined at 50%. The bias was more pronounced in doctors and in male respondents. Moreover, many participants indicated substantial confidence in their decisions. The results are discussed in terms of availability bias and over-confidence bias.

  12. Perception of Suicide Risk in Mental Health Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M Gale

    Full Text Available This study employed an independent-groups design (4 conditions to investigate possible biases in the suicide risk perception of mental health professionals. Four hundred participants comprising doctors, nurses and social workers viewed a vignette describing a fictitious patient with a long-term mental illness. The case was presented as being drawn from a sample of twenty similar clinical case reports, of which 10 were associated with an outcome of suicide. The participant tasks were (i to decide whether the presented vignette was one of those cases or not, and (ii to provide an assessment of confidence in that decision. The 4 conditions were used to investigate whether the presence of an associated face, and the nature of the emotional state expressed by that face, affected the response profile. In fact, there were no significant differences between conditions, but there was a significant bias across all conditions towards associating the vignette with suicide, despite the base rate being pre-determined at 50%. The bias was more pronounced in doctors and in male respondents. Moreover, many participants indicated substantial confidence in their decisions. The results are discussed in terms of availability bias and over-confidence bias.

  13. [FAMILY EATING HABITS AND PERCEPTION OF RISK IN EATING DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Lazo, María; Hernández Camacho, Juan Diego; Bolaños Ríos, Patricia; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    factors related to food, shape, weight and exercise, transmitted from parents to children, and media sociocultural factors, such as social networks, also influence the development of Eating Disorders (ED). to analyse the influence of family eating habits and the parents perception about the influence of social networks on the development and maintenance of ED. 30 parents of ED patients participated voluntarily in this study fulfilling a series of questionnaires, as well as reporting their weight and height. it is observed an underestimation of weight in the case of overweight (33.33%) and obesity (35%) without considering the fact of going on diet in the future (χ2 = 11.31; p habits seem to be more relevant (e.g. snacking, intake of a single dish) (p eating habits of ED patients' families improve by means of the nutrition education included in the treatment. Relatives do not perceive adequately the risk of the social networks in their children, which might contribute to the maintenance and future relapses of ED. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptions of Alcohol Advertising Among High Risk Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas F

    2018-01-03

    Individuals who are particularly vulnerable to the influence of alcohol advertising, such as youth, need special protections, yet little research has been done to determine if other vulnerable groups exist. Secondary data analysis was conducted to determine if perceptions of alcohol advertising differ between groups based on their alcohol use and whether the definition of "vulnerable" should be expanded beyond demographic categories. Students (n = 326) from 2 U.S. colleges viewed 5 alcohol ads and rated them using a scale designed to detect violations of the alcohol industry's self-regulated marketing codes. Individuals with a history of excessive alcohol use, as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), were considered potentially vulnerable to alcohol advertising and were compared against individuals without a history of excessive alcohol use. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine between-group differences in 4 dependent variables (ad appeal, perceived alcohol consumption, perceived excessive drinking, and perceived responsible drinking). All models were adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, sex, and parental alcohol use. AUDIT risk categories were positively associated with ad appeal (p definition for binge drinking, to be responsible. Stricter regulations may be needed to protect heavy alcohol users from the effects of alcohol advertising.

  15. A new way to ask the experts: Rating radioactive waste risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1996-11-08

    The possible risks of a proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain include the dozen or more young volcanos near by. Now some earth scientists have a new approach to evaluating hazards accounting for uncertainty at every step - `expert elicitation.` This pulls together a panel of experts, carefully assesses the uncertainties of each of their views then mathematically combines their risk estimates along with the accompanying uncertainties. The article goes on to describe just such a panel which considered seismic hazards to Yucca Mountain, how they came to their conclusions, the arguments about the conclusions, and the future of expert elicitation in evaluating the risks of nuclear waste disposal.

  16. Perception of flood and landslide risk in Italy: a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salvati, P; C. Bianchi; F. Fiorucci; P. Giostrella; Marchesini, I.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Inundations and landslides are widespread phenomena in Italy, where they cause severe damage and pose a threat to the population. Little is known on the perception of the population of landslides and floods. This is surprising, as an accurate perception is important for the successful implementation of many risk reduction or adaptation strategies. In an attempt to fill this gap, we have conducted two national surveys to measure the perception of landslide an...

  17. Public Perceptions and Practices of Solid Waste Recycling in the City of Laramie in Wyoming, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B. Bom

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Managing household solid waste is a growing challenge for many cities. To tackle this problem, cities are turning to recycling, which is an effective tool for solid waste management. This research seeks to understand the public perceptions and practices of recycling in the City of Laramie, Wyoming. Recycling in Laramie began in 1983 with the establishment of the Ark Recycling Center. Laramie officially started its curbside recycling services in September 2011, and in April 2012 the city declared its long-term goal to achieve a 40% diversion rate by 2030. The study involved a mail-back survey to understand the public participation landscape and the factors affecting recycling behaviors and attitudes of residents in Laramie. The quantitative results of the survey responses were used to create a civic engagement score, a recycling importance score, and recycling satisfaction and recycling behavior scores to measure residents’ perceptions of the recycling program. In addition, three key informant interviews were conducted to explore the efforts of the city, the University of Wyoming, and Ark Regional Services. The results show that more than 80% of the survey respondents indicated that environmental concern was the major motivation to recycle, which was related to a high level of recycling importance and satisfaction. The study further indicated that Laramie should develop an aggressive educational policy, incentive policies, and a Master Plan to encourage stronger public participation to meet its 40% waste diversion rate by 2030 goal.

  18. How does HPV vaccination status relate to risk perceptions and intention to participate in cervical screening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    will not attend screening because they falsely think that the vaccine has eliminated their cervical cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPV vaccination status and perceptions of cervical cancer risk; perceptions of vaccine effect; and intention to participate in cervical...... screening. Furthermore, to investigate associations between perceptions of cervical cancer risk and intention to participate in cervical screening. Methods: A random sample of Danish women from the birth cohorts 1993–1995 was invited to complete a web-based questionnaire concerning risk perceptions...... and intentions to participate in cervical screening. Main outcomes were: perceived lifetime-risk of cervical cancer; perceived HPV vaccine effect; and intention to participate in cervical screening. Results: HPV vaccinated women more often than unvaccinated women intended to participate in screening: adjusted...

  19. Determinants and stability over time of perception of health risks related to mobile phone base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria

    2012-01-01

    about other environmental and health risks, is associated with psychological strain, and is stable on the individual level over time. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires filled in by 3,253 persons aged 15-69 years in 2004 and 2006 in Germany. RESULTS: Risk perception of MPBS was strongly...... in 2004 expressed these concerns again 2 years later, the corresponding figure for attribution of health complaints to MPBS was 31.3%. CONCLUSION: Risk perception of MPBS is strongly associated with general concern, anxiety, depression, and stress, and rather instable over time.......OBJECTIVE: Perception of possible health risks related to mobile phone base stations (MPBS) is an important factor in citizens' opposition against MPBS and is associated with health complaints. The aim of the present study is to assess whether risk perception of MPBS is associated with concerns...

  20. Vulnerability assessment and risk perception: the case of the Arieş River Middle Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozunu, Al.; Botezan, C.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment is influenced by a number of factors, including risk perception. This paper investigates the vulnerability of people living in the middle basin of the Aries river region, a former mining area, to natural and technologic hazards. The mining industry lead to significant environmental changes, which combined with the social problems caused by its decline (high unemployment rate, low income and old age) raised the level of the vulnerability in the area. This case study is unique, as it includes an evaluation of risk perception and its influence on the social vulnerability and resilience of local communities to disasters. Key words: vulnerability assessment, natural hazards, social vulnerability, risk perception

  1. Polo pony injuries: player-owner reported risk, perception, mitigation and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inness, C M; Morgan, K L

    2015-07-01

    Polo, one of the world's oldest sports, is unique in merging human skill and balance with animal agility and performance in a contact sport. These modern-day 'centaurs' offer medical, dental and veterinary scientists an unrivalled, if quirky, opportunity to collaborate. Collection of epidemiological data on injuries to UK polo riders and ponies is the first step. To measure the reported risk and risk factors for injuries to UK polo ponies, their perception and mitigation by player-owners. A retrospective cohort design and telephone interviews were used. Data on equine injuries, preseason training and risk perception were collected from a random sample of player-owners using a structured questionnaire. Injuries were defined as requiring veterinary treatment. Frequencies were represented as percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Risk factors for injuries were identified by univariable and multivariable analyses. The cumulative incidence of player-owner-reported injury was 10.6% (95% CI 8.4-12.7). Tendon injuries were most common (4.3%; 95% CI 2.9-5.7), followed by wounds and splints. The only risk factor was stabling all season (odds ratio 4.79; 95% CI 1.46-15.73). Tendon injuries were perceived as the major risk and hard ground the most important risk factor. Risk mitigation practices were bandaging before exercise (45.7%; 95% CI 34.8-56.5), checking tendons (84.0%; 95% CI 76.0-91.9), cold hosing (40.7%; 95% CI 30.0-51.4), bandaging (38.3%; 95% CI 27.7-48.9) and using clays and coolants after exercise (24.7%; 15.3-34.1). Cuts and wounds were considered most frequent by only 2.5% (95% CI 0.0-3.6) of players but were the second most common injury, accounting for 21.6% of veterinary treatments. Splints accounted for 12.5% of injuries. The risk of injury to polo ponies is similar to that in the general horse population; musculoskeletal injuries, particularly tendon injuries, are most common, followed by wounds and splints. The association between stabling and

  2. Middle East respiratory syndrome risk perception among students at a university in South Korea, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seongwoo; Cho, Sung-Il

    2017-06-01

    The 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in South Korea was a serious threat to public health, and was exacerbated by the inappropriate responses of major institutions and the public. This study examined the sources of confusion during the MERS outbreak and identified the factors that can affect people's behavior. An online survey of the risk perception of university students in South Korea was performed after the epidemic had peaked. The questionnaire addressed the major social determinants in South Korea during the MERS epidemic. The analysis included data from 1,470 subjects who provided complete answers. The students had 53.5% of the essential knowledge about MERS. Women showed higher risk perception than men, and trust in the media was positively associated with risk perception (P perception was positively associated with overreaction by the public (odds ratio, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-3.60; P perception of MERS risk and that perception of a high level of risk led to overreaction. Risk perception was associated with most of the social factors examined and overreaction by the public. Therefore, providing accurate information and data to the public, establishing trust, and facilitating the development of an attitude will all be important in future crises. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Law enforcement officers’ risk perceptions toward on-duty motor-vehicle events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Heick, Rebecca J.; Konda, Srinivas; Hendricks, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Motor-vehicle-related events (MVEs) are the leading cause of on-duty death for law enforcement officers, yet little is known about how officers view this significant job hazard. The purpose of this paper is to explore officers’ motor-vehicle risk perception and examine how prior on-duty MVEs and the death or injury of a fellow officer influences this perception. Design/methodology/approach A state-wide random sample of 136 law enforcement agencies was drawn using publically accessible databases, stratified on type and size of agency. In total, 60 agencies agreed to participate and a cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to 1,466 officers. Using six-point Likert scales, composite scores for motor-vehicle and intentional violence risk perception were derived. A linear regression multivariable model was used to examine factors affecting motor-vehicle risk perception. Findings Motor-vehicle risk perception scores were significantly higher than intentional violence scores. A prior on-duty motor-vehicle crash, prior roadside incident, or knowledge of fellow officer’s injury or death from a MVE significantly increased motor-vehicle risk perception scores. After controlling for potential confounders though, only prior on-duty crashes and roadside incidents impacted motor-vehicle risk perception. Research limitations/implications The study comprised primarily small, rural agencies and generalizability may be limited. Also, although the data were collected anonymously, reporting and response biases may affect these findings. Originality/value This study involved a large and diverse cohort of officers and explored motor-vehicle risk perception. A better understanding of officers’ risk perceptions will assist in the development and implementation of occupational injury prevention programs, training, and policy. PMID:26380563

  4. Effects of alternative styles of risk information on EMF risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Elstein, Arthur; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Risk scenarios characterized by exposures to new technologies with unknown health effects, together with limited appreciation of benefits pose a challenge to risk communication. The present report illustrates this situation through a study of the perceived risk from mobile phones and mobile masts in residential areas. Good information should objectively convey the current state of knowledge. The research question is then how to inform lay people so that they trust and understand the information. We used an Internet-based survey with 1687 Danish participants randomized to three types of information about radiation from mobile phones and masts. The objective was to study whether different types of information were rated as equally useful, informative, comprehensible, and trustworthy. Moreover, an important issue was whether information would influence risk perception and intended behavior. The conclusion is that lay people rate information about risks associated with a new and largely unknown technology more useful and trustworthy when provided with brief statements about how to handle the risk, rather than more lengthy technical information about why the technology may or may not entail health hazards. Further, the results demonstrate that information may increase concern among a large proportion of the population, and that discrepancies exist between expressed concern and intended behavior.

  5. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: consumer perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Ø; Gunnlaugsdottir, H; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Benefit and risk perception with respect to food consumption, have been a part of human daily life from beginning of time. In today's society the food chain is long with many different types of actors and low degree of transparency. Making informed food choices where knowledge of benefits and risks is part of the decision making process are therefore complicated for consumers. Thus, to understand how consumers perceive benefits and risks of foods, their importance in relation to quality evaluations are aspects that need to be addressed. The objective of this paper is to discuss state of the art in understanding consumer perceptions of benefits and risks of foods in order to improve understanding of consumer behaviour in the food domain. Risks may be associated with both acute and long term consequences, some of which may have serious effects. Perceived risks are connected to morbidity and mortality along two dimensions relating to unknown risk, and to which extent the risk is dreaded by the consumer. Unfamiliar, uncertain, unknown, uncontrollable, and severe consequences are some factors associated with risk perception. Novel food processing techniques, for instance, score high on several of these parameters and are consequently regarded with suspicion and perceived as risky by consumers. On a daily basis, benefits of foods and food consumption are more important in most consumers' minds than risks. Benefits are often associated with food's ability to assuage hunger, and to provide pleasure through eating and socialising. In addition, two main categories of benefits that are important for acceptance of product innovations are health and environmental benefits. Benefit and risk perception of foods seem to be inversely correlated, so when something is perceived as being highly beneficial, it is correspondingly perceived as having low risk. However, slightly different paths are used in the formation of these perceptions; benefit perception is based on heuristics and

  6. Perceptions of risk and barriers to cervical cancer screening at Moi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Affordable screening cervical cancer methods using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and with Lugol's iodine (VILI) are being developed. Scaling up of screening services requires an understanding of the user perceptions about screening. Objectives: Determine the perceptions of risk and barriers to ...

  7. Nanotechnology in Dutch science cafés: Public risk perceptions contextualised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Anne M.; Critchley, Christine R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding public perceptions of and attitudes to nanotechnology is important in order to understand and facilitate processes of dialogue and public participation. This research quantitatively analysed risk perceptions and attitudes of Dutch science café participants (n = 233) and compared these

  8. Consumer perceptions of the effectiveness of food risk management practices: A cross-cultural study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houghton, J.R.; Kleef, van E.; Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Consumer perceptions of food hazards and how the associated risks are managed are likely to be an important determinant of consumer confidence in food safety. While there is a body of research that examines public perceptions of various types of food hazards, less attention has been directed to

  9. Determinants of Farmers’ Climate Risk Perceptions in Agriculture—A Rural Ghana Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ndamani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic predictors of farmers’ perceptions about climate risk in agriculture. The levels of risk perception among different farmers’ wealth groups are also investigated. A total of 100 farmers in the Lawra district of Ghana are randomly selected and interviewed. Data is obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. A climate risk perception index (CRPI is derived and applied to assess the degree of perceived risk among different wealth groups of farmers. The linear regression model is also used to analyze the data. The results showed that 93% of farmers have perceived climate risk while 7% are not sure if they have perceived it. Results of the CRPI showed that resource-poor farmers are concerned about climate risk on agricultural production, while resource-moderate and resource-rich farmers are concerned about risk impacts on climatic variables, and health and socio-economy, respectively. Results of the regression model showed that education, age, a perceived increase in human disease and mortality, and a decrease in food security and incomes are predictors of risk perception. The policy implication of this study is that predictors of farmers’ climate risk perception should be factored into climate change risk communication in order to boost awareness and adaptation to climate change.

  10. IRSN 2011 opinion survey. The perception of risks and safety by French people. Global results; 2011 Barometre IRSN. La perception des risques et de la securite par les Francais. Resultats d'ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Like every year, this report presents and comments the results of an opinion survey on risks, and more particularly on nuclear and radiological risks. The first part addresses the current concerns of French people (the main concerns in the present society and with respect to the environment, how science is considered). The second part addresses the opinion on expertise (who should control a hazardous installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist bodies). The third part examines the reaction of people in front of 33 different hazardous situations (risks to which people feel being exposed, confidence in authorities, confidence in information on hazards, hierarchy of 33 situations and relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses the nuclear issue (nuclear risk, ability and credibility of nuclear actors, the Chernobyl accident, radioactive wastes, demand of information on the nuclear risk).

  11. Perception of cardiovascular risk following a percutaneous coronary intervention: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Patricia M; Salamonson, Yenna; Rolley, John; Everett, Bronwyn; Fernandez, Ritin; Andrew, Sharon; Newton, Phillip J; Frost, Steve; Denniss, Robert

    2011-08-01

    An individual's perception of the risk of, and their susceptibility to, future cardiovascular events is crucial in engaging in effective secondary prevention. To investigate the perception of a cardiovascular event by examining the level of agreement between individuals with CHD views of their actual and perceived risk. This study examined the individual's perception of the risk of a subsequent cardiac event among 220 patients hospitalised for a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at a metropolitan, tertiary referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. Baseline clinical and demographic characteristics were collected, and actual risk (Personal Risk Score) calculated based on the presence or absence of nine cardiovascular risk factors: diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, previous history of CHD, family history of CHD, depression, overweight or obesity, and physical inactivity. Perception of risk was determined using an investigator-developed 4-item, 11-point Likert scale instrument (Perceived Heart Risk Questionnaire--PHRQ) which measured two dimensions of health threat: perceived seriousness, and perceived susceptibility. The correlation between the Personal Risk Score and the PHRQ was assessed using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. The calculated mean Personal Risk Score was 4.63±1.71 and the PHRQ was 25.5±7.04. The correlation between the Personal Risk Score (actual risk) and the PHRQ (perceived risk) was r=0.26 (pperception, and facilitate tailoring of behaviour change strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of sleep debt on risk perception, risk attraction and betting behavior during a blackjack style gambling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    Gamblers often gamble while experiencing fatigue due to sleep deprivation or cumulative sleep debt. Such fatigue has been shown to make decision makers behave more riskily. The present study aimed to test the role of two cognitive processes, risk perception and risk attraction, in this effect. Two hundred and two participants played twelve hands of a black-jack style card game while either fatigued or reasonably alert. Findings showed that both fatigued and alert participants rated higher risk bets as more risky than lower risk bets, suggesting risk perception was unaffected by fatigue. However, fatigued participants did not rate higher risk bets as less attractive than lower risk bets, and reduced the size of their wager to a lesser extent when objective risk increased. These findings are discussed in relation to the effects of fatigue on motivated tasks and the need for gamblers to be aware of the effects of fatigue.

  13. Exploring Students' Ideas About Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Power Using Risk Perception Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Ahmet; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Due to increased energy demand, Turkey is continuing to explore the possibilities of introducing nuclear power. Gaining acceptance from local populations, however, may be problematic because nuclear power has a negative image and risk perceptions are complicated by a range of psychological and cultural factors. In this study, we explore the views about nuclear power of school students from three locations in Turkey, two of which have been proposed as sites suitable for nuclear power plants. About half of the student cohort believed that nuclear power can supply continuous and sufficient electricity, but approximately three quarters thought that nuclear power stations could harm organisms, including humans, living nearby. Rather few students realized that adoption of nuclear power would help to reduce global warming and thereby limit climate change; indeed, three quarters thought that nuclear power would make global warming worse. There was a tendency for more students from the location most likely to have a nuclear power plant to believe negative characteristics of nuclear power, and for fewer students to believe positive characteristics. Exploration of the possible nuclear power programmes by Turkey offers an educational opportunity to understand the risk perceptions of students that affect their decision-making processes.

  14. Feelings and intervention judgments as mediators in the risk perception-intention relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soureti, Anastasia; Hurling, Robert; Cobain, Mark R; van Mechelen, Willem; Chinapaw, Mai

    2013-07-01

    To explore the mediating role of measures of persuasion in the relationship between risk perceptions and intentions. The first study included 413 obese subjects (mean age = 45.3 years); the second study, 781 overweight subjects (mean age = 46.6 years). All measures were assessed by self-report. Feelings and intervention judgments were mediators in the relationship between risk perceptions and intention to eat healthier, do more physical activity (study 1) and intention to reduce saturated fat (study 2). Feelings was the only mediator in the relationship between risk perceptions and intention to stop smoking (study 1). Future interventions targeting risk perceptions to increase intentions are likely to be more effective if subjects find the information emotionally impactful, credible, and engaging.

  15. State Estimates of Adolescent Cigarette Use and Perceptions of Risk of Smoking: 2012 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Report May 18, 2015 STATE ESTIMATES OF ADOLESCENT CIGARETTE USE AND PERCEPTIONS OF RISK OF SMOKING: 2012 ... D., and Arthur Hughes, M.S. In Brief INTRODUCTION Cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke causes more ...

  16. What do lay people want to know about the disposal of nuclear waste? A mental model approach to the design and development of an online risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlatidou, A; Cheng, T; Haklay, M

    2012-09-01

    Public participation requires the involvement of lay people in the decision-making processes of issues that concern them. It is currently practiced in a variety of domains, such as transport and environmental planning. Communicating risks can be a complex task, as there may be significant differences between the risk perceptions of experts and those of lay people. Among the plethora of problems that require public involvement is the site selection of a nuclear waste disposal site in the United Kingdom, which is discussed in this article. Previous ineffective attempts to locate a site provide evidence that the problem has a strong social dimension, and studies ascribe public opposition to a loss of public trust in governmental agencies and decisionmakers, and to a lack of public understanding of nuclear waste issues. Although the mental models approach has been successfully used in the effective communication of such risks as climate change, no attempt has been made to follow a prescriptive mental model approach to develop risk communication messages that inform lay people about nuclear waste disposal. After interviewing 20 lay people and 5 experts, we construct and compare their corresponding mental models to reveal any gaps and misconceptions. The mental models approach is further applied here to identify lay people's requirements regarding what they want to know about nuclear waste, and how this information should be presented so that it is easily understood. This article further describes how the mental models approach was used in the subsequent development of an online information system for the site selection of a nuclear waste repository in the United Kingdom, which is considered essential for the improvement of public understanding and the reestablishment of trust. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Risk Perceptions for Chronic Diseases in Younger and Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of disease risk play an important role in motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors. However, little is known about psychosocial factors that influence women’s perceived risk for developing disease. The present study investigated the extent to which individual traits, social influences, objective risk factors, and demographic characteristics were associated with women’s risk perceptions for cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Using structural equation modeling, we examined hypothesized associations among 452 younger (ages 18-25 years) and 167 middle-aged (ages 40-64 years) women. A greater number and variety of factors were associated with middle-aged women’s risk perceptions compared to younger women. For both groups, some objective risk factors were associated with risk perceptions; yet, associations also existed between multiple psychosocial variables (optimism, health locus of control, social exposure to disease, perceived stigma) and risk perceptions. Results suggested that women may base their risk estimates on factors beyond those considered important by healthcare providers. PMID:26110993

  18. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Maldonado, Alejandra

    2017-01-25

    This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA-a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  19. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayajit Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA—a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  20. Subjective Risk Assessment and Perception in the Greek and English Bakery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos C. Alexopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influencing risk perception in the area of occupational health and safety are known, but there is still lack of a full understanding of the ways in which people characterize risk. This study aimed to provide an insight of employee risk assessment and perception in the bakery industry. 87 British and 64 Greek employees in two comparable bakery companies were asked to estimate and evaluate hazards at their workplace. The participants' judgments of 12 hazards—according to 7 risk aspects—were collected and analyzed. Subjective assessment on important occupational hazards included handling heavy loads, repetitiveness, high temperatures, high rate of work, stressful deadlines, and noise. Although limited in the population involved, our findings revealed strong cross-national differences in employee risk perception of specific groups of hazards in the bakery industry. Additional interviews revealed evidence that Greek employees' risk perception depends mostly on work experience while British employees were aware of risks due to company health and safety policy, recognizing that safety is the responsibility of both the management and the worker. Cross-national (cultural factors that influence workforce risk perception and attitudes towards safety have to be taken into account by technical experts and policy makers in the designing of prevention strategies and risk communication.

  1. Subjective risk assessment and perception in the Greek and English bakery industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Kavadi, Zafira; Bakoyannis, Giorgos; Papantonopoulos, Sotiris

    2009-01-01

    Several factors influencing risk perception in the area of occupational health and safety are known, but there is still lack of a full understanding of the ways in which people characterize risk. This study aimed to provide an insight of employee risk assessment and perception in the bakery industry. 87 British and 64 Greek employees in two comparable bakery companies were asked to estimate and evaluate hazards at their workplace. The participants' judgments of 12 hazards-according to 7 risk aspects-were collected and analyzed. Subjective assessment on important occupational hazards included handling heavy loads, repetitiveness, high temperatures, high rate of work, stressful deadlines, and noise. Although limited in the population involved, our findings revealed strong cross-national differences in employee risk perception of specific groups of hazards in the bakery industry. Additional interviews revealed evidence that Greek employees' risk perception depends mostly on work experience while British employees were aware of risks due to company health and safety policy, recognizing that safety is the responsibility of both the management and the worker. Cross-national (cultural) factors that influence workforce risk perception and attitudes towards safety have to be taken into account by technical experts and policy makers in the designing of prevention strategies and risk communication.

  2. Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk Perception: The Role of Polyps and Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jennifer Rider; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Costanza, Mary E.; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    It is unclear how objective risk factors influence the factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk perception. The goals of this study were to investigate factors associated with perceived risk of CRC and to explore how these relationships were modified by personal history of polyps or family history of CRC. The study involved a mailed…

  3. Harnessing farmers' knowledge and perceptions for health-risk reduction in wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Seidu, Razak

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses the importance of understanding farmers' knowledge and perceptions on health-risk and risk-reduction measures for the development of mutually acceptable risk-management strategies. Drawing on studies from different countries, the chapter shows that it is not realistic to ex...

  4. Harnessing Farmers' knowledge and perceptions for health-risk reduction in wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernhard; Drechsel, Pay; Seidu, Razak

    2010-01-01

    This chapter addresses the importance of understanding farmers’ knowledge and perceptions on health-risk and risk-reduction measures for the development of mutually acceptable risk-management strategies. Drawing on studies from different countries, the chapter shows that it is not realistic to ex...

  5. Flood risk perceptions and spatial multi-criteria analysis: an exploratory research for hazard mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Raaijmakers, Ruud; Krywkow, Jorg; van der Veen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The conventional method of risk analysis (with risk as a product of probability and consequences) does not allow for a pluralistic approach that includes the various risk perceptions of stakeholders or lay people within a given social system. This article introduces a methodology that combines the

  6. Facial emotion perception differs in young persons at genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Christian G; Richard, Jan A; Brensinger, Colleen M; Borgmann-Winter, Karin E; Conroy, Catherine G; Moberg, Paul J; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Calkins, Monica E

    2014-05-15

    A large body of literature has documented facial emotion perception impairments in schizophrenia. More recently, emotion perception has been investigated in persons at genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis. This study compared emotion perception abilities in groups of young persons with schizophrenia, clinical high-risk, genetic risk and healthy controls. Groups, ages 13-25, included 24 persons at clinical high-risk, 52 first-degree relatives at genetic risk, 91 persons with schizophrenia and 90 low risk persons who completed computerized testing of emotion recognition and differentiation. Groups differed by overall emotion recognition abilities and recognition of happy, sad, anger and fear expressions. Pairwise comparisons revealed comparable impairments in recognition of happy, angry, and fearful expressions for persons at clinical high-risk and schizophrenia, while genetic risk participants were less impaired, showing reduced recognition of fearful expressions. Groups also differed for differentiation of happy and sad expressions, but differences were mainly between schizophrenia and control groups. Emotion perception impairments are observable in young persons at-risk for psychosis. Preliminary results with clinical high-risk participants, when considered along findings in genetic risk relatives, suggest social cognition abilities to reflect pathophysiological processes involved in risk of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumer Food Safety Risk Attitudes and Perceptions Over Time: The Case of BSE Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Ittersum, van K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that by decoupling the risk response behaviour of consumers into the separate components of risk perception and risk attitude, a more robust conceptualization and prediction of consumers’ reactions to food safety issues is possible. Furthermore, it has been argued that the

  8. Assessment of occupational safety risks in Floridian solid waste systems using Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastani, Mehrad; Celik, Nurcin

    2015-10-01

    Safety risks embedded within solid waste management systems continue to be a significant issue and are prevalent at every step in the solid waste management process. To recognise and address these occupational hazards, it is necessary to discover the potential safety concerns that cause them, as well as their direct and/or indirect impacts on the different types of solid waste workers. In this research, our goal is to statistically assess occupational safety risks to solid waste workers in the state of Florida. Here, we first review the related standard industrial codes to major solid waste management methods including recycling, incineration, landfilling, and composting. Then, a quantitative assessment of major risks is conducted based on the data collected using a Bayesian data analysis and predictive methods. The risks estimated in this study for the period of 2005-2012 are then compared with historical statistics (1993-1997) from previous assessment studies. The results have shown that the injury rates among refuse collectors in both musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have decreased from 88 and 15 to 16 and three injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. However, a contrasting trend is observed for the injury rates among recycling workers, for whom musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have increased from 13 and four injuries to 14 and six injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. Lastly, a linear regression model has been proposed to identify major elements of the high number of musculoskeletal and dermal injuries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Waste management programmatic environmental impact statement methodology for estimating human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergenback, B. [Midwest Technical, Inc. (United States); Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has produced large quantities of radioactive and hazardous waste during years of nuclear weapons production. As a result, a large number of sites across the DOE Complex have become chemically and/or radiologically contaminated. In 1990, the Secretary of Energy charged the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM) with the task of preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS should identify and assess the potential environmental impacts of implementing several integrated Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) alternatives. The determination and integration of appropriate remediation activities and sound waste management practices is vital for ensuring the diminution of adverse human health impacts during site cleanup and waste management programs. This report documents the PEIS risk assessment methodology used to evaluate human health risks posed by WM activities. The methodology presents a programmatic cradle to grave risk assessment for EM program activities. A unit dose approach is used to estimate risks posed by WM activities and is the subject of this document.

  10. Structured identification of response options to address environmental health risks at the Agbogbloshie electronic waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazabon, Danielle; Fobil, Julius N; Essegbey, George; Basu, Niladri

    2017-11-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing problem across low- and middle-income countries. Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana) is among the world's largest and most notorious e-waste sites, with an increasing number of studies documenting a range of environmental health risks. The present study aimed to provide national, regional, and international stakeholders with a summary of expert opinion on the most pressing problems arising from e-waste activities at Agbogbloshie, as well as suggested solutions to address these problems. Structured interviews were performed between April and September 2015 that used a Logical Framework Approach as a scoping exercise to gauge problems and benefits of e-waste recycling, and the Delphi methodology to identify response options. Stakeholders (n = 19) from 15 institutions were interviewed with 2 rounds of a Delphi Poll: open-ended interviews followed by an electronic questionnaire in which experts ranked various proposed response options based on health, environmental, social, and economic benefit and feasibility. The goal was to prioritize potential interventions that would address identified problems at Agbogbloshie. Experts identified the most beneficial and feasible options in decreasing rank order as follows and prefaced by the statement "it is recommended that": 1) there be further research on the health effects; 2) e-waste workers be given appropriate personal protective equipment; 3) the Ministry of the Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation re-visit Ghana's Hazardous Waste Bill; 4) e-waste workers be involved in the planning process of interventions and are be kept informed of any results; and 5) there be increased education and sensitization on hazards related to e-waste for both workers and the general public. These solutions are discussed in relation to ongoing dialogue at the international level concerning e-waste recycling interventions, with strengths and weaknesses examined for the Ghanaian context. Integr

  11. Women's perception of risks of adverse fetal pregnancy outcomes: a large-scale multinational survey

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Irene; Mccrea, Rachel; Lupattelli, Angela; Nordeng, Hedvig Marie Egeland

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine pregnant women and new mothers? perception of risks in pregnancy. Design, settings and participants This was a large-scale multinational survey including 9113 pregnant women and new mothers from 18 countries in Europe, North America and Australia. Main outcomes Risk perception scores (0?10) for harmful effects to the fetus were derived for: (1) medicines (over-the-counter medicine and prescribed medicine), (2) food substances (eggs and blue veined cheese), (3) herbal su...

  12. Thematic elements underlying risk perception amongst small and medium enterprise owner-managers

    OpenAIRE

    Udechukwu Ojiako; Maxwell Chipulu; Alasdair Marshall; Poonam Baboolall

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: The article discusses the parameters that underlie the perception of risk amongst SME owner-managers.Research purpose: This article draws on research suggesting that interactions between industry-sector (situational) differences and cognitive biases may often be decisive in moulding risk perceptions.Motivation for the study: Literature suggests that one of the most significant challenges facing entrepreneurs is the development of a clear understanding of what it means to experie...

  13. Public perception of climate risk and adaptation in the UK: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrea L.; Dessai, Suraje; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2014-01-01

    Like other countries, the United Kingdom faces the unavoidable challenge of adapting to a changing climate. However, public perceptions of the risk posed by climate change and support for adaptation policies vary between countries. This article provides a UK-specific review of climate change beliefs, risk perceptions regarding potential climate change impacts, and attitudes towards climate change adaptation. We report on differences between expert and public conceptualisations of climate chan...

  14. The association between risk perception and behavior. Results of structural equation modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundmo, T.; Hestad, H. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: there are at least four hypotheses about the association between risk perception and behaviour. The first one is that perceived risk caused by risk exposure may awake a person's 'attention' towards the potentially-hazardous risk source, and hence cause safer behaviour. The second hypothesis is that the affective reactions may be seen as reactions to stress, i.e. a strain factor, which may reduce a person's ability to cope with risk and therefore cause enhanced risk behaviour. The third hypothesis is that risk judgements and risk behaviours are both dependent variables which do not affect each other. Consequently, a positive correlation between perceived risk and behaviour may be caused by the fact that perception and behaviour both are affected by the same predictor variables. Risk perception contain a rational as well as an emotional 'component'. The fourth hypothesis is that rational judgements of risk and emotional reactions to risk may be related differently to risk behaviour. In the present study the rational judgements and the affective reactions are split and different measures are aimed at determining both the components. The core aim of this paper is to determine whether or not they are differently related to risk behaviour. The results are based on a self-completion questionnaire survey which was carried out among employees (n=814) at 14 plants within the industrial company Norsk Hydro in 1997 and 1998. The plants belonged to several divisions within the company. The results showed that the rational and emotional components of risk perception were related differently to risk behaviour. The rational risk judgements had a moderate direct as well as an indirect effect on risk behaviour. The affective reactions to risk were caused by the probability judgements and did not affect risk behaviour. (authors)

  15. Perception of the risk of adverse reactions to analgesics: differences between medical students and residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Castillo-Guzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medications are not exempt from adverse drug reactions (ADR and how the physician perceives the risk of prescription drugs could influence their availability to report ADR and their prescription behavior. Methods. We assess the perception of risk and the perception of ADR associated with COX2-Inbitors, paracetamol, NSAIDs, and morphine in medical students and residents of northeast of Mexico. Results. The analgesic with the highest risk perception in both group of students was morphine, while the drug with the least risk perceived was paracetamol. Addiction and gastrointestinal bleeding were the ADR with the highest score for morphine and NSAIDs respectively. Discussion. Our findings show that medical students give higher risk scores than residents toward risk due to analgesics. Continuing training and informing physicians about ADRs is necessary since the lack of training is known to induce inadequate use of drugs.

  16. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  17. Heart attack risk perception biases among hypertension patients: the role of educational level and worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurel M; Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Volpp, Kevin G; Kimmel, Stephen E

    2012-01-01

    Risk biases such as comparative optimism (thinking one is better off than similar others) and risk inaccuracy (misestimating one's risk compared to one's calculated risk) for health outcomes are common. Little research has investigated racial or socioeconomic differences in these risk biases. Results from a survey of individuals with poorly controlled hypertension (N=813) indicated that participants showed (1) comparative optimism for heart attack risk by underestimating their heart attack risk compared to similar others, and (2) risk inaccuracy by overestimating their heart attack risk compared to their calculated heart attack risk. More highly educated participants were more comparatively optimistic because they rated their personal risk as lower; education was not related to risk inaccuracy. Neither race nor the federal poverty level was related to risk biases. Worry partially mediated the relationship between education and personal risk. Results are discussed as they relate to the existing literature on risk perception.

  18. Risk and climate change: perceptions of key policy actors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Richard C; Davidson, Debra J; Wellstead, Adam

    2004-10-01

    This article examines factors that predict perceptions of risk associated with global climate change. The research focuses on the perceptions of those associated with climate change policy making in the prairie region of Canada. The data are from an online survey (n=851) of those policy actors. The analysis integrates several dominant approaches to the study of risk perception: psychometric approaches that examine the effects of cognitive structure; demographic assessments that examine, for example, differences in perception based on gender or family status; and political approaches that suggest that one's position in the policy process may affect his or her perceived risk. Attitudes toward climate change are to a degree predicted by all of these factors, but only when indirect effects are observed. Sociodemographic characteristics have little direct effect on perceived risk, but do affect general beliefs that affect risk perceptions. Perceived risk is related more strongly to these general beliefs or world views than to more specific beliefs about the effects of climate change on weather patterns. Position within the policy process also contributes to our understanding of perceptions, with industry and governmental actors demonstrating similar attitudes, which contrast with environmental groups and university researchers.

  19. On the relationship between personal experience, affect and risk perception: The case of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Sander

    2014-08-01

    Examining the conceptual relationship between personal experience, affect, and risk perception is crucial in improving our understanding of how emotional and cognitive process mechanisms shape public perceptions of climate change. This study is the first to investigate the interrelated nature of these variables by contrasting three prominent social-psychological theories. In the first model, affect is viewed as a fast and associative information processing heuristic that guides perceptions of risk. In the second model, affect is seen as flowing from cognitive appraisals (i.e., affect is thought of as a post-cognitive process). Lastly, a third, dual-process model is advanced that integrates aspects from both theoretical perspectives. Four structural equation models were tested on a national sample (N = 808) of British respondents. Results initially provide support for the "cognitive" model, where personal experience with extreme weather is best conceptualized as a predictor of climate change risk perception and, in turn, risk perception a predictor of affect. Yet, closer examination strongly indicates that at the same time, risk perception and affect reciprocally influence each other in a stable feedback system. It is therefore concluded that both theoretical claims are valid and that a dual-process perspective provides a superior fit to the data. Implications for theory and risk communication are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk perception of future cardiovascular disease in women diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, Jessica; Chandrasekaran, Suchitra; Limaye, Meghana; Srinivas, Sindhu; Durnwald, Celeste P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a woman's risk perception for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) after being diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. A prospective cohort of women diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) was studied. Each woman completed two surveys, one prior to hospital discharge and one 2 weeks later, designed to assess knowledge of and risk perception for future CVD based on their recent diagnosis of a HDP. Rates of postpartum depression were also assessed. Of the 146 subjects included, 28% were diagnosed with preeclampsia with severe features, 52.1% with preeclampsia with mild features, and 19.9% had chronic hypertension. Women with severe features and those delivering preterm were more likely to report a perception of increased risk of both recurrent HDP in a future pregnancy (p = 0.004 and 0.005, respectively) and hypertension later in life (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Women delivering preterm were more likely to report an accurate perception of increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke compared to those delivering at term (p = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively). Disease severity and preterm delivery were associated with a higher likelihood of the perception of an increased risk for both recurrent HDP and hypertension in the future. Only preterm delivery was associated with a higher risk perception for stroke and myocardial infarction. Interventions targeted at improved health awareness in women diagnosed with HDP are warranted.

  2. The Role of Categorical Speech Perception and Phonological Processing in Familial Risk Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Britt; de Bree, Elise; van der Leij, Aryan; Maassen, Ben; van Setten, Ellie; Maurits, Natasha; van Zuijen, Titia L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed whether a categorical speech perception (CP) deficit is associated with dyslexia or familial risk for dyslexia, by exploring a possible cascading relation from speech perception to phonology to reading and by identifying whether speech perception distinguishes familial risk (FR) children with dyslexia (FRD) from those…

  3. Survey of attitudes and perceptions of urine-diverting toilets and human waste recycling in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamichhane, Krishna M., E-mail: lamichha@hawaii.edu [University of Hawaii, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2540 Dole Street, Holmes Hall 283, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Babcock, Roger W., E-mail: rbabcock@hawaii.edu [University of Hawaii, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Holmes Hall 383, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Urine constitutes only about 1% of domestic sewage but contains 50% or more of the excreted nutrients and chemicals like hormones and pharmaceutical residues. Urine diverting toilet (UDT) systems can be considered a more sustainable alternative to wastewater management because they allow nutrient recycling, reduce water use, and allow source-separation of hormones and chemicals that can harm the environment. An online survey was conducted to determine whether UDTs are acceptable to the general public in Hawaii and if attitudes and perceptions towards it and human waste (HW) recycling vary with age, sex, level of education, religious affiliation, ethnicity, and employment status. The survey was also intended to detect possible drivers and barriers for the UDTs. Variations on variables were tested at 5% significance (p = 0.05) level (Chi-squared test or ANOVA) and considered significantly different if the p-value was less than 0.05. The results were encouraging as more than 60% are willing to pay extra for the UDT, while only 22% knew that such systems existed. No statistically significant difference was found between males and females on all survey questions at the 5% level. However, females had higher willingness to pay (WTP) than males and WTP increased with age and income. The WTP of Caucasians was higher than Asians and differed significantly. Some respondents expressed concern about the legal provisions for recycling of HW. The survey results indicate that with a public education program, it is possible that most people would be willing to adopt UDTs and HW recycling with incurred societal benefits of reduced water and fertilizer use, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and collection of micropollutants at the source to prevent their entry into waterways. Because of the small sample size (N = 132, 13% response rate) the survey is not representative but may be indicative of the general attitude of Hawaiian people. - Highlights: ► Urine diverting toilets (UDTs

  4. Perceptions of health risks of cigarette smoking: A new measure reveals widespread misunderstanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosnick, Jon A; Malhotra, Neil; Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung; Bruera, Eduardo F; Chang, LinChiat; Pasek, Josh; Thomas, Randall K

    2017-01-01

    Most Americans recognize that smoking causes serious diseases, yet many Americans continue to smoke. One possible explanation for this paradox is that perhaps Americans do not accurately perceive the extent to which smoking increases the probability of adverse health outcomes. This paper examines the accuracy of Americans' perceptions of the absolute risk, attributable risk, and relative risk of lung cancer, and assesses which of these beliefs drive Americans' smoking behavior. Using data from three national surveys, statistical analyses were performed by comparing means, medians, and distributions, and by employing Generalized Additive Models. Perceptions of relative risk were associated as expected with smoking onset and smoking cessation, whereas perceptions of absolute risk and attributable risk were not. Additionally, the relation of relative risk with smoking status was stronger among people who held their risk perceptions with more certainty. Most current smokers, former smokers, and never-smokers considerably underestimated the relative risk of smoking. If, as this paper suggests, people naturally think about the health consequences of smoking in terms of relative risk, smoking rates might be reduced if public understanding of the relative risks of smoking were more accurate and people held those beliefs with more confidence.

  5. Volcanic risk perception in the Campi Flegrei area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, T.; Barberi, F.; Davis, M. S.; Isaia, R.; Nave, R.

    2013-03-01

    The Campi Flegrei which includes part of the city of Naples, is an active volcanic system; its last eruption occurred in 1538 AD. More recently two significant crises occurred between 1969 and 72 and 1982-84 and were accompanied by ground movements (bradyseism) and seismic activity, forcing people of the town of Pozzuoli to be evacuated. Since 1984 development of a volcanic emergency plan has been underway. In 2000 Civil Protection published a risk map which defined the Red Zone, an area highly at risk from pyroclastic flows, which would need to be evacuated before an eruption. The first study to evaluate the volcanic risk perceptions of the people living within the Campi Flegrei area was completed in spring 2006, resulting in the largest sample ever studied on this topic except for one on Vesuvio area residents by Barberi et al. (2008). A 46 item questionnaire was distributed to 2000 of the approximately 300,000 residents of the Campi Flegrei Red Zone, which includes three towns and four neighborhoods within the city of Naples. A total of 1161 questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 58%. Surveys were distributed to junior high and high school students, as well as to adult members of the general population. Results indicated that unlike issues such as crime, traffic, trash, and unemployment, volcanic hazards are not spontaneously mentioned as a major problem facing their community. However, when asked specific questions about volcanic risks, respondents believe that an eruption is likely and could have serious consequences for themselves and their communities and they are quite worried about the threat. Considering the events of 1969-72 and 1982-84, it was not surprising that respondents indicated earthquakes and ground deformations as more serious threats than eruptive phenomena. Of significant importance is that only 17% of the sample knows about the existence of the Emergency Plan, announced in 2001, and 65% said that they have not received

  6. Differences in head and neck cancer risk perception between smoking and nonsmoking NASCAR attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura J; Chin-Quee, Anthony L; Berg, Carla J; Wise, Justin C; Hapner, Edie R

    2012-07-01

    Although research has documented a difference in cancer risk perception between smokers and nonsmokers, this has not been specifically documented for head and neck cancer. The aim of this study was to determine differences in risk perception for head and neck cancer between smokers and nonsmokers in an at-risk population. A cross-sectional survey was administered. Community-based head and neck cancer screenings. Participants completed a 28-item questionnaire assessing sociodemographic information, smoking status, and risk perception of head and neck cancer. In total, 507 participants completed the questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANCOVA) using dependent variables related to risk perception of head and neck cancer evidenced a significant main effect that smokers (mean [SD], 1.10 [0.07]) worried about head and neck cancer significantly more than nonsmokers (0.64 [0.06]), F(1, 459) = 26.97, P < .001, η(2) = .06, and nonsmokers (2.70 [0.05]) believed head and neck cancer was significantly more dangerous than did smokers (2.53 [0.06]), F(1, 459) = 5.90, P = .015, η(2) = .01. Findings indicated differences in perception of risk for head and neck cancer between smokers and nonsmokers. By gaining a better understanding of the psychosocial factors related to perceived risk of head and neck cancer, otolaryngologists and health care providers may better tailor interventions aimed at increasing awareness of cancer risk and promoting cessation.

  7. Flood risk management: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and layperson perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew; Kovacs, Daniel; Bostrom, Ann; Bridges, Todd; Linkov, Igor

    2012-08-01

    Recent severe storm experiences in the U.S. Gulf Coast illustrate the importance of an integrated approach to flood preparedness planning that harmonizes stakeholder and agency efforts. Risk management decisions that are informed by and address decision maker and stakeholder risk perceptions and behavior are essential for effective risk management policy. A literature review and two expert models/mental models studies were undertaken to identify areas of importance in the flood risk management process for layperson, non-USACE-expert, and two USACE-expert groups. In characterizing and mapping stakeholder beliefs about risks in the literature onto current risk management practice, recommendations for accommodating and changing stakeholder perceptions of flood risks and their management are identified. Needs of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) flood preparedness and response program are discussed in the context of flood risk mental models. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Perceptions of convenience, risk and enjoyment in online shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Asunmaa, Roosa

    2015-01-01

    As online shopping is getting more common all the time and competition over customers increases, companies should draw attention to the customer perception of online shopping. Therefore, the present study aims to describe and understand the customer online shopping perception in every stage of the online shopping process. Online shopping has been studied earlier from the viewpoints of the ease of use and the usefulness but as the quickness and easiness of shopping have been ...

  9. Weight perceptions of parents with children at risk for diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian, Eva M; Becker, Tara L; Carrel, Aaron L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes among African American, Latino American, and Native American children in the United States has led to increasing focus on strategies for prevention. However, little is known about the perceptions toward weight, nutrition, and physical activity among these youth. This pilot study explored the perceptions of body weight among overweight and obese children and their parents. Results Thirty eight children, ages 8-16 years who were e...

  10. Hazardous waste transportation risk assessment for the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement -- human health endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Lazaro, M.A.

    1994-03-01

    In this presentation, a quantitative methodology for assessing the risk associated with the transportation of hazardous waste (HW) is proposed. The focus is on identifying air concentrations of HW that correspond to specific human health endpoints.

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Risk-Taking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jeanette; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed 440 high and low sports and danger risk-taking adolescents. Sports risk takers reported more danger-related risk taking, more drug use, and higher self-esteem than non-risk takers. Danger risk takers reported greater sports-related risk taking, more drug use, less intimacy with their mothers, less family responsibility taking, and less…

  12. Visual and auditory perception in preschool children at risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rosario; Estévez, Adelina; Muñetón, Mercedes; Domínguez, Carolina

    2014-11-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in perceptive problems of dyslexics. A polemic research issue in this area has been the nature of the perception deficit. Another issue is the causal role of this deficit in dyslexia. Most studies have been carried out in adult and child literates; consequently, the observed deficits may be the result rather than the cause of dyslexia. This study addresses these issues by examining visual and auditory perception in children at risk for dyslexia. We compared children from preschool with and without risk for dyslexia in auditory and visual temporal order judgment tasks and same-different discrimination tasks. Identical visual and auditory, linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli were presented in both tasks. The results revealed that the visual as well as the auditory perception of children at risk for dyslexia is impaired. The comparison between groups in auditory and visual perception shows that the achievement of children at risk was lower than children without risk for dyslexia in the temporal tasks. There were no differences between groups in auditory discrimination tasks. The difficulties of children at risk in visual and auditory perceptive processing affected both linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. Our conclusions are that children at risk for dyslexia show auditory and visual perceptive deficits for linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. The auditory impairment may be explained by temporal processing problems and these problems are more serious for processing language than for processing other auditory stimuli. These visual and auditory perceptive deficits are not the consequence of failing to learn to read, thus, these findings support the theory of temporal processing deficit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hazard proximity and risk perception of tsunamis in coastal cities: Are people able to identify their risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Juan Pablo; Bronfman, Nicolás C; Cisternas, Pamela C; Repetto, Paula B

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have previously reported that hazard proximity can influence risk perception among individuals exposed to potential hazards. Understanding this relationship among coastline communities at risk of flood events caused by storms and/or tsunamis, is important because hazard proximity, should be recognized when planning and implementing preparation and mitigation actions against these events. Yet, we are not aware of studies that have examined this relationship among coastline inhabitants facing the risk of a tsunami. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hazard proximity and perceived risk from tsunamis among coastline inhabitants. Participants were 487 residents of the coastal city of Iquique, Chile. They completed a survey during the spring of 2013 that assessed their perceived risk from several natural and non-natural hazards. We found that hazard proximity maintains a negative relationship with the perception of tsunami risk among coastline inhabitants. While this result confirms the general trend obtained in previous studies, this one is conclusive and significant. In contradiction with previous findings, we found that participants from the highest socioeconomic status reported the highest levels of risk perception. This finding can be explained by the fact that most participants from the highest socioeconomic status live closer to the coastline areas, so their risk perception reflects the place where they live, that is in a tsunami inundation zone. Once again, hazard proximity proved to be a determinant factor of risk perception. Our findings have important implications for the development of plans and programs for tsunami preparedness and mitigation. These indicate that individuals do use environmental cues to evaluate their own risk and can potentially make correct choices when having or not to evacuate. Also suggest that preparedness should incorporate how hazard proximity is recognized by individuals and

  14. Hazard proximity and risk perception of tsunamis in coastal cities: Are people able to identify their risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Juan Pablo; Bronfman, Nicolás C.; Cisternas, Pamela C.; Repetto, Paula B.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have previously reported that hazard proximity can influence risk perception among individuals exposed to potential hazards. Understanding this relationship among coastline communities at risk of flood events caused by storms and/or tsunamis, is important because hazard proximity, should be recognized when planning and implementing preparation and mitigation actions against these events. Yet, we are not aware of studies that have examined this relationship among coastline inhabitants facing the risk of a tsunami. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hazard proximity and perceived risk from tsunamis among coastline inhabitants. Participants were 487 residents of the coastal city of Iquique, Chile. They completed a survey during the spring of 2013 that assessed their perceived risk from several natural and non-natural hazards. We found that hazard proximity maintains a negative relationship with the perception of tsunami risk among coastline inhabitants. While this result confirms the general trend obtained in previous studies, this one is conclusive and significant. In contradiction with previous findings, we found that participants from the highest socioeconomic status reported the highest levels of risk perception. This finding can be explained by the fact that most participants from the highest socioeconomic status live closer to the coastline areas, so their risk perception reflects the place where they live, that is in a tsunami inundation zone. Once again, hazard proximity proved to be a determinant factor of risk perception. Our findings have important implications for the development of plans and programs for tsunami preparedness and mitigation. These indicate that individuals do use environmental cues to evaluate their own risk and can potentially make correct choices when having or not to evacuate. Also suggest that preparedness should incorporate how hazard proximity is recognized by individuals and

  15. Fuel poverty increases risk of mould contamination, regardless of adult risk perception & ventilation in social housing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard A; Thornton, Christopher R; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J

    2015-06-01

    Fuel poverty affects 2.4 million UK homes leading to poor hygrothermal conditions and risk of mould and house dust mite contaminations, which in turn increases risk of asthma exacerbation. For the first time we assess how fuel poverty, occupants' risk perception and use of mechanical ventilation mediate the risk of mould contamination in social housing. Postal questionnaires were sent to 3867 social housing properties to collect adult risk perception, and demographic and environmental information on occupants. Participant details were linked to data pertaining to the individual properties. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals while allowing for clustering of individuals coming from the same housing estate. We used Structured Equation Modelling and Goodness of Fit analysis in mediation analyses to examine the role of fuel poverty, risk perception, use of ventilation and energy efficiency. Eighteen percent of our target social housing populations (671 households) were included into our study. High risk perception (score of 8-10) was associated with reduced risk of mould contamination in the bedrooms of children (OR 0.5 95% CI; 0.3-0.9) and adults (OR 0.4 95% CI; 0.3-0.7). High risk perception of living with inadequate heating and ventilation reduced the risk of mould contamination (OR 0.5 95% CI; 0.3-0.8 and OR 0.5 95% CI; 0.3-0.7, respectively). Participants living with inadequate heating and not heating due to the cost of fuel had an increased risk of mould contamination (OR 3.4 95% CI; 2.0-5.8 and OR 2.2 95% CI; 1.5-3.2, respectively). Increased risk perception and use of extractor fans did not mediate the association between fuel poverty behaviours and increased risk of mould contamination. Fuel poverty behaviours increased the risk of mould contamination, which corresponds with existing literature. For the first time we used mediation analysis to assess how this association maybe modified by occupant behaviours

  16. Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Ming; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Howe, Peter D.; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a threat to human societies and natural ecosystems, yet public opinion research finds that public awareness and concern vary greatly. Here, using an unprecedented survey of 119 countries, we determine the relative influence of socio-demographic characteristics, geography, perceived well-being, and beliefs on public climate change awareness and risk perceptions at national scales. Worldwide, educational attainment is the single strongest predictor of climate change awareness. Understanding the anthropogenic cause of climate change is the strongest predictor of climate change risk perceptions, particularly in Latin America and Europe, whereas perception of local temperature change is the strongest predictor in many African and Asian countries. However, other key factors associated with public awareness and risk perceptions highlight the need to develop tailored climate communication strategies for individual nations. The results suggest that improving basic education, climate literacy, and public understanding of the local dimensions of climate change are vital to public engagement and support for climate action.

  17. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...... not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information......Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...

  18. Network information analysis reveals risk perception transmission in a behaviour-influenza dynamics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C-M; You, S-H; Cheng, Y-H

    2015-01-01

    Influenza poses a significant public health burden worldwide. Understanding how and to what extent people would change their behaviour in response to influenza outbreaks is critical for formulating public health policies. We incorporated the information-theoretic framework into a behaviour-influenza (BI) transmission dynamics system in order to understand the effects of individual behavioural change on influenza epidemics. We showed that information transmission of risk perception played a crucial role in the spread of health-seeking behaviour throughout influenza epidemics. Here a network BI model provides a new approach for understanding the risk perception spread and human behavioural change during disease outbreaks. Our study allows simultaneous consideration of epidemiological, psychological, and social factors as predictors of individual perception rates in behaviour-disease transmission systems. We suggest that a monitoring system with precise information on risk perception should be constructed to effectively promote health behaviours in preparation for emerging disease outbreaks.

  19. Farmer perceptions of climate change risk and associated on-farm management strategies in Vermont, northeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rachel E. Schattman; David Conner; V. Ernesto Méndez

    2016-01-01

    .... Two years following Tropical Storm Irene, our team interviewed 15 farmers in order to investigate their perceptions of climate-related risk and how their decision-making was influenced by these perceptions...

  20. Parenting behaviors, perceptions, and psychosocial risk: impacts on young children's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances Page; Leew, Shirley

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this study was to assess which parenting behaviors, perceptions, and risk factors were associated with optimal versus delayed development. A total of 382 families from the national Brigance Infant and Toddler Screens standardization and validation study participated. Data sources included parent questionnaires, child testing, and examiner observations of parent-child interactions. Parenting styles research was operationalized with the Brigance Parent-Child Interactions Scale, a brief measure of parenting behaviors and perceptions. Six positive parenting behaviors and perceptions predicted average to above-average development on the Brigance screens. Conversely, parenting behaviors and negative perceptions of children indicated child performance nearly 2 SDs below the mean on Brigance screens. Psychosocial risk factors associated with fewer positive parenting behaviors and with negative perceptions included >3 children in the home, multiple moves, limited English, and parental depression. A dearth of positive parenting behaviors plus negative perceptions of children, with or without psychosocial risk factors, negatively affect child development, which is apparent as early as 6 months of age. The older the child is, the greater the performance gaps are. Language development is particularly at risk when parenting is problematic. Findings underscore the importance of early development promotion with parents, focusing on their talking, playing, and reading with children, and the need for interventions regarding psychosocial risk factors.

  1. [Do we know what we eat?: Perceptions regarding food risks in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra Aparici, Eva; Muñoz García, Araceli; Larrea-Killinger, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes social perceptions regarding food risks in Catalonia (Spain). In particular it uses the narratives of informants to determine which foods are perceived as dangerous and how, when, where and why this perception of risk develops. Through a qualitative research study, we explored how lay discourses are constructed and managed, creating diverse imaginaries regarding food risk that do not always coincide with the biomedical view. It is highlighted that food risk is not always associated with the dangers of progress or industrialization, nor is it necessarily focused on the dichotomous debate of "industrially produced food" versus "natural food"; rather food risk perceptions revolve around a series of possibilities that are also related to the production, distribution, preparation and/or consumption of food.

  2. Public perception of climate risk and adaptation in the UK: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other countries, the United Kingdom faces the unavoidable challenge of adapting to a changing climate. However, public perceptions of the risk posed by climate change and support for adaptation policies vary between countries. This article provides a UK-specific review of climate change beliefs, risk perceptions regarding potential climate change impacts, and attitudes towards climate change adaptation. We report on differences between expert and public conceptualisations of climate change risks. We also examine the effects of psychological distancing, climate change awareness, and hazard experience on both concerns about climate change and perceptions of the weather-related risks posed by climate change. Additionally, we review the effects of emotion, agency, perceived responsibility, place attachment, personal values and uncertainty on the willingness of UK residents to support and engage with climate change adaptation. We outline the implications of these factors for climate risk communication and highlight key areas for future research.

  3. Making sense of perceptions of risk of diseases and vaccinations: a qualitative study combining models of health beliefs, decision-making and risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bond Lyndal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining high levels of childhood vaccinations is important for public health. Success requires better understanding of parents' perceptions of diseases and consequent decisions about vaccinations, however few studies have considered this from the theoretical perspectives of risk perception and decision-making under uncertainty. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of subjective risk perception and decision-making theories to provide a better understanding of the differences between immunisers' and non-immunisers' health beliefs and behaviours. Methods In a qualitative study we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 45 Australian parents exploring their experiences and perceptions of disease severity and susceptibility. Using scenarios about 'a new strain of flu' we explored how risk information was interpreted. Results We found that concepts of dread, unfamiliarity, and uncontrollability from the subjective perception of risk and ambiguity, optimistic control and omission bias from explanatory theories of decision-making under uncertainty were useful in understanding why immunisers, incomplete immunisers and non-immunisers interpreted severity and susceptibility to diseases and vaccine risk differently. Immunisers dreaded unfamiliar diseases whilst non-immunisers dreaded unknown, long term side effects of vaccines. Participants believed that the risks of diseases and complications from diseases are not equally spread throughout the community, therefore, when listening to reports of epidemics, it is not the number of people who are affected but the familiarity or unfamiliarity of the disease and the characteristics of those who have had the disease that prompts them to take preventive action. Almost all believed they themselves would not be at serious risk of the 'new strain of flu' but were less willing to take risks with their children's health. Conclusion This study has found that health messages

  4. Long-term impacts of bovine spongiform encephalopathy on beef risk perceptions and risk attitudes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muringai, Violet; Goddard, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the objective was to examine whether or not changes in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) concerns exert an effect on people's risk perceptions and risk attitudes regarding consuming beef in Canada, 8 years after finding the first domestic animal with BSE. Data were collected from two surveys (2071 respondents) conducted with the same respondents in 2008 and 2011 in Canada. Data on meat consumption for the same households were also available from the Nielsen Homescan panel over the period 2002 to 2009. Based on census data, the current sample is generally not representative of the Canadian population, but the sample is unique in that the same individuals responded to two surveys and there is an ability to track their evolving household purchases of beef before the first survey and between the two surveys. In essence, alterations in beef risk perceptions are significantly influenced by changes in concerns regarding (1) feed given to livestock, (2) animal diseases and BSE, (3) trust in manufacturers, the government, and farmers, and (4) demographic characteristics. There were significant differences in beef purchases across households, with alterations to their risk perceptions and risk attitudes. In conclusion, although the first domestic incident of BSE was in 2003, concerns regarding BSE are still contributing to consumers' risk perceptions but not to their risk attitudes with respect to consumption of beef in 2011.

  5. HIV sexual risk behaviors and perception of risk among college students: implications for planning interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogun Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The college environment offers great opportunity for HIV high-risk behaviors, including unsafe sex and multiple partnerships. While the overall incidence of HIV infection has seen some decline in recent years, rates of HIV infection among young adults have not seen a proportionate decline. As in the general population, African American young adults have been disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study examined the sexual risk behaviors and perception of HIV risk of students in a predominantly African American commuter urban university in the Midwest. Methods Students enrolled in randomly selected general education courses completed a paper and pencil survey. Data were collected in Fall 2007, and univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows v.16. Results The sample included 390 students, the majority (83% of whom were never married and 87% were sexually experienced. Among males reporting male partnerships those who used marijuana (OR = 17.5, p = 0.01 and those who used alcohol along with illegal drugs (OR = 8.8, p = 0.03 were significantly more likely to report multiple partnerships. Among females reporting male partnerships, those 30 years and older were significantly less likely (OR = 0.09, p = 0.03 to report having multiple male partners. There were significant differences in condom use last sex (p = 0.01 and consistent condom use (p = 0.002 among the different age groups. Older students were less likely to report condom use. Females age 30 years and older (OR = 3.74, p = 0.05 and respondents age 20–29 years (OR = 2.41, p = 0.03 were more likely to report inconsistent condom use than those below 20 years. Marijuana use was correlated with inconsistent condom use (p = 0.02 and alcohol with not using condom last sex among females. Perception of HIV risk was generally poor with 54% of those age 30 years and older, 48.1% of 20–29 year olds, and 57.9% of those

  6. Recommendations for malaria prevention in moderate to low risk areas: travellers' choice and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Rachel; Berthod, Delphine; Rambaud-Althaus, Clotilde; D'Acremont, Valérie; Genton, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    The considerable malaria decline in several countries challenges the strategy of chemoprophylaxis for travellers visiting moderate- to low-risk areas. An international consensus on the best strategy is lacking. It is essential to include travellers' opinions in the decision process. The preference of travellers regarding malaria prevention for moderate- to low-risk areas, related to their risk perception, as well as the reasons for their choices were investigated. Prior to pre-travel consultation in the Travel Clinic, a self-administered questionnaire was given to travellers visiting moderate- to low-risk malaria areas. Four preventive options were proposed to the traveller, i.e., bite prevention only, chemoprophylaxis, stand-by emergency treatment alone, and stand-by emergency treatment with rapid diagnostic test. The information was accompanied by a risk scale for incidence of malaria, anti-malarial adverse drug reactions and other travel-related risks, inspired by Paling palettes from the Risk Communication Institute. A total of 391 travellers were included from December 2012 to December 2013. Fifty-nine (15%) opted for chemoprophylaxis, 116 (30%) for stand-by emergency treatment, 112 (29%) for stand-by emergency treatment with rapid diagnostic test, 100 (26%) for bite prevention only, and four (1%) for other choices. Travellers choosing chemoprophylaxis justified their choice for security reasons (42%), better preventive action (29%), higher efficacy (15%) and easiness (15%). The reasons for choosing stand-by treatment or bite prevention only were less medication consumed (29%), less adverse drug reactions (23%) and lower price (9%). Those who chose chemoprophylaxis were more likely to have used it in the past (OR = 3.0 (CI 1.7-5.44)), but were not different in terms of demographic, travel characteristics or risk behaviour. When travelling to moderate- to low-risk malaria areas, 85% of interviewees chose not to take chemoprophylaxis as malaria prevention

  7. Knowledge and Risk Perception Regarding HPV Among Latino Alternative School Students in Houston, Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Markham, Christine M.; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Addy, Robert C.; Lewis, Holly; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common STI among youth in the U.S. As alternative school students are at higher risk of acquiring STIs compared to regular high school students, this study examined HPV knowledge and risk perception among Latino youth attending 9 alternative high schools in Houston, Texas. HPV knowledge measures assessed prevalence, health consequences, symptoms, transmission, and risk reduction strategies. Three measures assessed perceived risk. The sample included 414 ...

  8. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Environmental risk assessment of the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture is considered a way of maintaining or restoring the quality of soils, enlarging the slow cycling soil organic carbon pool. However, a wide variety of undesired substances, such as potentially trace elements and organic contaminants, can have adverse effects on the environment. That fact was highlighted by the Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive, which recognized that "soil degradation or soil improvements have a major impact on other areas, (…) such as surface waters and groundwater, human health, climate change, protection of nature and biodiversity, and food safety". Taking that into account, the research project "ResOrgRisk" aims to assess the environmental risk involved in the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments, evidencing their benefits and constraints, and defining the most suitable tests to reach such assessment. The organic wastes selected for this purpose were: sewage sludge, limed, not limed, and co-composted with agricultural wastes, agro-industrial sludge, mixed municipal solid waste compost, compost produced from organic farming residues, and pig slurry digestate. Whereas threshold values for heavy metals in sludge used for agriculture have been set by the European Commission, actually there is no definitive European legislation for organic contaminants. Guide values for some organic contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs) have been adopted at national level by many European countries, such as Portugal. These values should be taken into account when assessing the risk involved in the use of organic wastes as soil amendments. However, chemical analysis of organic waste often gives scarce information because it does not include possible interactions between chemicals. Furthermore, an exhaustive identification and quantification of all substances is impractical. In this study, ecotoxicological tests (comprising solid and aquatic phases

  10. A value message is worth a thousand words: Impact of management framework on public perceptions of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, C. [Inst. SYMLOG, Cachan (France)

    1999-12-01

    Until recent years, those involved in the design, operation and regulation of nuclear power systems devoted more resources to forward movement than to the back end of the fuel cycle. Now, though, concerted thought and international cooperation have been devoted to the question of nuclear waste management. The expert consensus is that sufficient knowledge exists to make e.g. disposal decisions with an acceptable level of confidence. In the first phases of research, decision processes were adapted to the tasks at hand. However, at some point in each nuclearized country, there came a time when waste management implied finding repository sites. At that time management abruptly entered the social sphere - where unfortunate experience has shown time and time again that classical decision processes are not adapted to facilitating societal acceptance of management solutions. This paper recounts the various management frameworks that have been tested in a number of countries in the goal of siting underground repositories or laboratories. Mechanisms of public perception are examined in an effort to understand the context in which such management attempts take place. In particular, the value messages sent - consciously or inadvertently - to the public by waste managers are graphically illustrated and evaluated. A humorous tone and sympathy for the various stakeholders inside and outside industry are shown in this presentation.

  11. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Elizalde, Luciana; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-05-25

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.; Elizalde, Luciana; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. PMID:27226469

  13. Risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P

    2004-07-17

    Uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the Animal By-Products Regulations. This paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. The factors controlling the level of risk are the separation of the meat at source, the efficiency of the composting process, and the decay and dilution of the pathogens in soil. The net pathogen destruction by the composting process is determined largely by the degree of bypass, and to accommodate the possibility of large joints or even whole carcases being discarded uncooked to catering waste, a time/temperature condition of 60 degrees C for two days is recommended. Where data are lacking, worst-case assumptions have been applied. According to the model, classical swine fever virus constitutes the highest risk, but the assessment shows that a two-barrier composting approach, together with a two-month grazing ban, reduces the risk to one infection in pigs every 190 years in England and Wales. This work defined the operational conditions for the composting of catering waste as set out in the Animal By-Products Regulations 2003 (SI 1482).

  14. Analysis of the Relationship between Risk Perception and Willingness to Pay for Nuclear Power Plant Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirae Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of new technologies, more risk is introduced into modern society. Important decisions about new technologies tend to be made by specialists, which can lead to a mismatch of risk perception between citizens and specialists, resulting in high social cost. Using contingent valuation methods, this paper analyzes the relationship between willingness to pay (WTP and the factors expressed through people’s image of nuclear power plants (NPP, their perception of NPP safety, and how these can be affected by their scientific background level. Results indicate that groups with a high scientific background level tend to have low risk perception level, represented through their image and safety levels. Further, the results show that mean WTP is dependent on scientific background and image levels. It is believed that these results could help decision makers address the mismatch of trust between the public and specialists in terms of new policy.

  15. Social norms and risk perception: predictors of distracted driving behavior among novice adolescent drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Patrick M; Bingham, C Raymond; Zakrajsek, Jennifer S; Shope, Jean T; Sayer, Tina B

    2014-05-01

    Adolescent drivers are at elevated crash risk due to distracted driving behavior (DDB). Understanding parental and peer influences on adolescent DDB may aid future efforts to decrease crash risk. We examined the influence of risk perception, sensation seeking, as well as descriptive and injunctive social norms on adolescent DDB using the theory of normative social behavior. 403 adolescents (aged 16-18 years) and their parents were surveyed by telephone. Survey instruments measured self-reported sociodemographics, DDB, sensation seeking, risk perception, descriptive norms (perceived parent DDB, parent self-reported DDB, and perceived peer DDB), and injunctive norms (parent approval of DDB and peer approval of DDB). Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to predict the influence of descriptive and injunctive social norms, risk perception, and sensation seeking on adolescent DDB. 92% of adolescents reported regularly engaging in DDB. Adolescents perceived that their parents and peers participated in DDB more frequently than themselves. Adolescent risk perception, parent DDB, perceived parent DDB, and perceived peer DDB were predictive of adolescent DDB in the regression model, but parent approval and peer approval of DDB were not predictive. Risk perception and parental DDB were stronger predictors among males, whereas perceived parental DDB was stronger for female adolescents. Adolescent risk perception and descriptive norms are important predictors of adolescent distracted driving. More study is needed to understand the role of injunctive normative influences on adolescent DDB. Effective public health interventions should address parental role modeling, parental monitoring of adolescent driving, and social marketing techniques that correct misconceptions of norms related to around driver distraction and crash risk. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anxious and depressive symptoms in the French Asbestos-Related Diseases Cohort: risk factors and self-perception of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounchetrou Njoya, Ibrahim; Paris, Christophe; Dinet, Jerome; Luc, Amandine; Lighezzolo-Alnot, Joelle; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Thaon, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    Asbestos is known to be an independent risk factor for lung and pleural cancers. However, to date, little attention has been paid to the psychological effects of asbestos exposure among exposed subjects. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anxious and depressive symptoms among >2000 French participants of the Asbestos-Related Diseases Cohort (ARDCO), 6 years after their inclusion, to identify the risk factors associated with those anxious and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the impact of the asbestos-risk perception. The ARDCO was constituted in four regions of France between October 2003 and December 2005, by including former asbestos workers. Between 2011 and 2012, participants of the ARDCO program were invited to undergo another chest CT scan 6 years after the previous scan. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires including asbestos exposure assessment, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), asbestos-risk perception and self-perception of asbestos-related diseases. Among the 2225 participants, 2210 fully completed questionnaires were collected and analyzed. The prevalence of symptoms of probable anxiety and probable depression was 19.7% and 9.9%, respectively. The risk of anxious and depressive symptoms was independently associated with self-perception of the intensity of asbestos exposure, asbestos-risk perception and self-perception of asbestos-related diseases. The results obtained in this large study confirm that previously asbestos-exposed subjects are likely to develop anxious and depressive symptoms. Finally, implications related to the prevention of anxiety and depression among asbestos-exposed workers is discussed.

  17. Environmental risks of HBCDD from construction and demolition waste: a contemporary and future issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Ziliang; Fang, Yanyan; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Xingrun; Die, Qingqi; Gao, Xingbao; Zhang, Fengsong; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2015-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), as one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is of great concern globally because of its persistence in the environment and negative impacts on humans and animals. HBCDD has been mainly used in flame-retarded expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for insulation in the construction industry. Most of these products will become a part of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste at the end of their life cycle (30-50 years) which is typically disposed of into landfills or incineration. However, the recycling of this material takes quite a low share compared with landfill and incineration. Consequently, high environmental risks will exist in these disposal approaches due to the HBCDD in C&D waste. Currently, XPS or EPS products containing HBCDD in the construction industry have not reached the end of their life cycle in most countries. Relatively little attention has been paid to this emergency issue by either the government or public. Furthermore, C&D waste is most likely disposed of by direct dumping, simple stacking, or open burning in developing countries. Therefore, this paper highlights the global environmental risks of HBCDD from C&D waste. Areas of research for key problems of HBCDD contained in C&D waste are suggested to help control and finally eliminate the impact.

  18. Risk perception and risk attitudes in Tokyo: A report of the first administration of DOSPERT+M in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Schwartz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Domain-Specific Risk Taking scale (DOSPERT has been used to measure risk perceptions and attitudes in several nations and cultures. Takahashi translated DOSPERT to Japanese but DOSPERT responses from Japan have never been reported. Butler et al. (2012 developed an additional medical risk domain subscale to be added to DOSPERT to form DOSPERT+M. Objective: To describe the translation of the medical risk domain subscale to Japanese and to characterize domain-specific risk attitudes in Tokyo. Methods: Members of a probability-weighted online panel representative of the Tokyo metro area were randomized to complete pairs of DOSPERT+M tasks (risk attitude, risk perception, benefit perception. We explored relationships among domains through correlational and factor analysis; we tested the hypothesis that the medical risk domain and DOSPERT's health/safety domains were uncorrelated. Participants: One hundred eighty panelists. Results: Six of the original DOSPERT items (two each in the ethics, health/safety, and financial domains are not useable in Japan according to the Japanese Marketing Research Association code because they ask about participation in illegal activities; we thus used abbreviated versions of those domains leaving out these items. The DOSPERT+M items generally did not cluster cleanly into the expected domains, although items within the same domain usually were intercorrelated. Participants demonstrated domain-specific conventional risk attitudes, although nearly half of those assessed were perceived-risk neutral in all domains. Unlike our recently reported findings in the U.S. population, DOSPERT+M medical domain scores were associated with health/safety domain scores, although they were often more strongly associated with scores in other domains, such as recreational activities. Conclusion: The DOSPERT (and DOSPERT+M instruments are problematic in Japan but Japanese citizens may also differ from those of other nations

  19. The effect of emotions on risk perception: Experimental evaluation of the affective tendencies framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drače Saša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the role of specific emotions on risk perception providing a more stringent experimental test of the Appraisal Tendencies Framework (ATF. Consistent with expectations, angry and happy participants made more optimistic risk estimates than participants who were made sad. As hypothesized by ATF, happiness and anger also led people to somewhat higher certainty appraisals than sadness. However, this change in perception did not mediate the impact of emotions on risk estimates. Taken together, our results provide the evidence for causal role of specific emotions in risk perception and contribute to literature showing that the effects of emotion on judgment are not solely due to the valence of the experienced emotion. However, they also suggest that the processes underlying emotion effects remain in need for further specifications.

  20. Family history of diabetes: exploring perceptions of people at risk in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, M.; Henneman, L.; Claassen, E.A.M.; Detmar, S.B.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of causes, risk, and control with regard to diabetes and the role of family history among people at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted among people aged 57 to 72 years with (n = 9)

  1. Risk and Benefit Perceptions of Mobile Phone and Base Station Technology in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Khan, M.; Frewer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research in developed countries showed that many citizens perceive that radio signals transmitted by mobile phones and base stations represent potential health risks. Less research has been conducted in developing countries focused on citizen perceptions of risks and benefits, despite the recent and

  2. The Perception, Management and Performance of Risk Amongst Forest School Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark; Haughton, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how risk perception amongst teachers within an outdoor educational initiative, Forest School, both shape and are shaped by their understandings of childhood, pedagogy and their own professional identity. Drawing on a social constructionist perspective in theorising risk and childhood, the article argues that contemporary,…

  3. Perception and Management of Risk in Internet-Based Peer-to-Peer Milk-Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D.

    2014-01-01

    The perception and management of the risks of peer-to-peer milk sharing was explored via a written questionnaire administered to 97 peer milk donors and 41 peer milk recipients who were recruited via Facebook. All recipients' respondents were aware that there were risks associated with using peer-shared milk and took action to mitigate these…

  4. Earth, wind, and fire: Wildfire risk perceptions in a hurricane-prone environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soren M. Newman; Matthew S. Carroll; Pamela J. Jakes; Daniel R. Williams; Lorie L. Higgins

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is one of several potential disturbances that could have extraordinary impacts on individuals and communities in fire-prone areas. In this article we describe disturbance risk perceptions from interviews with residents in three Florida communities that face significant wildfire and hurricane risk. Although they live in areas characterized by emergency managers...

  5. Assessment of Environmental Attitudes and Risk Perceptions among University Students in Mersin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, Gulcin; Ögenler, Oya; Kurt, Ahmet Öner; Koçaş, Fazıl; Şaşmaz, Tayyar

    2017-01-01

    Environmental destruction is one of the most important problems in this century. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental attitudes and perceived risks associated with environmental factors of the students. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 faculties of Mersin University. The research data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, the "Environmental Attitudes Scale," and the "Environmental Risk Perception Scale." 774 students who filled out questionnaires were evaluated. The sample included 55.8% females. Environmental Attitudes Scale mean scores of students were identified as 81.1 ± 11.3. The highest perceived risk was release of radioactive materials associated with nuclear power generation. The environmental attitudes and risk perception scores were higher in Health Sciences than in the other faculties. Females were more positive towards the environment and had higher risk perceptions than the men. There is a negative correlation between age and resource depletion risk and global environmental risk score. Students had a positive attitude to the environment and had moderate-level risk perception about the environment. Environmental awareness of students, especially those studying in the Social Sciences, should be increased. The environmental education curriculum should be revised throughout all the courses.

  6. Civil protection and climate change impacts in the Netherlands: Local risk perceptions and actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Maya Marieke; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Being a delta, one third of the Dutch territory consists of flood-prone areas. This article discusses how the local civil protection system in the Netherlands responds to increasing climate change-induced flooding risks in terms of risk perception and action. Case studies on three Safety Regions are

  7. Assessment of Environmental Attitudes and Risk Perceptions among University Students in Mersin, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Yapici

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Environmental destruction is one of the most important problems in this century. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental attitudes and perceived risks associated with environmental factors of the students. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 faculties of Mersin University. The research data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, the “Environmental Attitudes Scale,” and the “Environmental Risk Perception Scale.” 774 students who filled out questionnaires were evaluated. Results. The sample included 55.8% females. Environmental Attitudes Scale mean scores of students were identified as 81.1±11.3. The highest perceived risk was release of radioactive materials associated with nuclear power generation. The environmental attitudes and risk perception scores were higher in Health Sciences than in the other faculties. Females were more positive towards the environment and had higher risk perceptions than the men. There is a negative correlation between age and resource depletion risk and global environmental risk score. Conclusion. Students had a positive attitude to the environment and had moderate-level risk perception about the environment. Environmental awareness of students, especially those studying in the Social Sciences, should be increased. The environmental education curriculum should be revised throughout all the courses.

  8. Risk perception: The social construction of spatial knowledge around climate change-related scenarios in Lima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sara, L.; Jameson, S.; Pfeffer, K.; Baud, I.

    2016-01-01

    Lima's environmental sustainability is threatened by increasing water scarcity, heavy rain events and limited attention for water vulnerability and climate change scenarios. In this paper we examine how knowledge construction and risk perception on water-related disaster risks and vulnerabilities

  9. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders: Results from a cross-European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Frewer, L.J.; Chryssochoidis, G.M.; Houghton, J.R.; Korzen-Bohr, S.; Krystallis, T.; Lassen, J.; Pfenning, U.; Rowe, G.

    2006-01-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management. The objective of this study is to identify similarities and differences in perceptions of, and attitudes

  10. Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

    2011-01-01

    The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men's labor migration affects their non-migrating wives' perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men's migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and…

  11. "System Destroys Trust?"--Regulatory Institutions and Public Perceptions of Food Risks in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kuei-tien; Liou, Hwa-meei

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to explore public perceptions of global food risk issues and public attitudes towards government capacity to respond to concerns with technological and health uncertainties in an era of rapid economic development in newly industrialized countries. From cross-national comparative research on global food risk issues in the EU, UK,…

  12. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Frewer, Lynn J.; Chryssochoidis, George M.

    2006-01-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management.......In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management....

  13. Liver Damage Risk Assessment Study in Workers Occupationally Exposed to E-waste in Benin City, South-South Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Osaretin God Igaro Igaro; John I. Anetor; Oladele O. Osibanjo Osibanjo; Humphrey Benedo Osadolor; Festus A. Idomeh; Wiliams Osazee Igiewe; Ogochukwu Uzoma Kalikwu

    2015-01-01

       Large volumes of mostly irreparable electronic waste (e-waste) are shipped to Africa on a monthly basis, of which Nigeria receives the largest share. E-waste management practices in Nigeria have remained completely primitive until date; and e-waste workers have little or no occupational safety knowledge and devices. The thousands of chemicals in e-waste have been reported to be toxic to human health in any degree of exposure. The present study has assessed the risk of liver damage in worke...

  14. Health literacy and the perception of risk in a breast cancer family history clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, E J; Kelly, J; Lehane, E A; Livingstone, V; Cotter, B; Butt, A; O'Sullivan, M J; O Connell, F; Redmond, H P; Corrigan, M A

    2016-11-28

    Informed consent is an essential component of medical practice, and especially so in procedural based specialties which entail varying degrees of risk. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women, and as such is the focus of extensive research and significant media attention. Despite this, considerable misperception exists regarding the risk of developing breast cancer. This study aims to examine the accuracy of risk perception of women attending a breast cancer family history clinic, and to explore the relationship between risk perception accuracy and health literacy. A cross-sectional study of women attending a breast cancer family history clinic (n = 86) was carried out, consisting of a patient survey and a validated health literacy assessment. Patients' perception of personal and population breast cancer risk was compared to actual risk as calculated by a validated risk assessment tool. Significant discordance between real and perceived risks was observed. The majority (83.7%) of women overestimated their personal lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, as well as that of other women of the same age (89.5%). Health literacy was considered potentially inadequate in 37.2% of patients; there was a correlation between low health literacy and increased risk perception inaccuracy across both personal ten-year (rs = 0.224, p = 0.039) and general ten-year population estimations. (rs = 0.267, p = 0.013). Inaccuracy in risk perception is highly prevalent in women attending a breast cancer family history clinic. Health literacy inadequacy is significantly associated with this inaccuracy. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An exploration of student perceptions of the risks and protective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) and incest have been identified as increasing social problems in South Africa. Despite thousands of children being affected annually, the majority of cases remain unreported. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore the knowledge-based perceptions of senior university students from ...

  16. How to Shape Climate Risk Policies After the Paris Agreement? The Importance of Perceptions as a Driver for Climate Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máñez Costa, María.; Shreve, Cheney; Carmona, María.

    2017-10-01

    ABSTRACTRisk perception research has played an influential role in supporting risk management and risk communication policy. Risk perception studies are popular across a range of disciplines in the social and natural sciences for a wide range of hazard types. Their results have helped to articulate the complex individual, relational, structural, and environmental factors influencing people's behavior. Connections between individual and collective behaviors and norms impacting global climate change, and consequently, local disaster risk, however, are infrequently included in disaster risk management. This paper presents results from two diverse and complementary European risk perception studies examining both natural and anthropogenic hazards. Research gaps and recommendations for developing more comprehensive risk management strategies are presented.

  17. Understanding public perceptions of benefits and risks of childhood vaccinations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geoboo

    2014-03-01

    In the face of a growing public health concern accompanying the reemerging threat of preventable diseases, this research seeks mainly to explain variations in the perceived benefits and risks of vaccinations among the general public in the United States. As Mary Douglas and Aaron Wildavsky's grid-group cultural theory of risk perception claims, the analytical results based upon original data from a nationwide Internet survey of 1,213 American adults conducted in 2010 suggest that individuals' cultural predispositions contribute to the formation of their perceptions pertaining to vaccine benefits and risks at both societal and individual levels, in conjunction with other factors suggested by previous risk perception literature, such as perceived prevalence of diseases, trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics. Those with a strong hierarch orientation tend to envision greater benefits and lesser risks and conceive of a relatively high ratio of benefit to risk when compared to other cultural types. By contrast, those with a strong fatalist tendency are inclined to emphasize risks and downplay benefits while conceiving of a low vaccination benefit-risk ratio. Situated between hierarchs and fatalists, strong egalitarians are prone to perceive greater benefits, smaller risks, and a more positive benefit-risk ratio than strong individualists. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Some recent research findings on the social dynamics of environmental risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlick-Jones, T. [Surrey Univ., Centre for Environnement Strategy, Guildford (United Kingdom); Marchi, B. de; Del Zotto, M.; Pellizzoni, L.; Ungaro, D. [Institute for International Sociology, Gorizia (Italy); Prades Lopez, A.; Diaz Hidalgo, M. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia (Spain); Pidgeon, N. [School of Psychology, University of Wales at Bangor (United Kingdom); Sime, J. [Jonathan-Sime Associates, Godalming, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: key themes: social dynamics of public risk perception; trust, tolerability, and risk management; discourses of environmental risk; implications for risk communication and environmental valuation; application of mixed qualitative/quantitative methods in risk perception research. This paper presents some of the key findings of a two-year comparative European study (the PRISP Project) on public perception of risks associated with industrial sites in the UK, Italy and Spain. The project utilised a mixed-method approach (comprising community ethnography, semi-structured interviews, questionnaire survey and focus groups), within a Grounded Theory framework, to examine the social dynamics of risk comprehension, tolerability and politics in settings adjacent to a range of industrial facilities. These often complex industrial zones present a portfolio of 'acute' and 'chronic' risks including hazards associated with sites regulated by the European Union COMAH Directive. Our findings have important implications for the regulation of both major accident hazard and pollution risks, risk communication programmes, industrial risk management practices and for the methodological basis of health and safety and environmental valuation techniques. (authors)

  19. Risk Factors Associated with Parasitic Infection Among Municipality Solid-Waste Workers in an Egyptian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassa, Safaa M; El-Wahab, Ekram W Abd; Lotfi, Sameh E; El Masry, Sanaa A; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2016-04-01

    Solid-waste management is associated with several health hazards, particularly parasitic infection. The objective of the study was to determine the association between risk factors and the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections (potentially pathogenic) among municipal waste collectors in Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the main municipality company in Alexandria. A total of 346 municipality solid-waste workers (MSWWs) was interviewed using an in-depth questionnaire. The type of parasitic infections among waste handlers was determined using formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. About half of the workers were infected with parasites. The profile of parasitic infection revealed 12 parasitic species. These were comprised of the following helminths: Schistosoma mansoni (13.3%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%), and Hymenolepis nana ova (0.6%). Among protozoa were pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica (3.2%), Giardia intestinalis (2.9%), nonpathogenic protozoa such as Entamoeba coli (1.7%), and potentially pathogenic or opportunistic ones as Cryptosporidium (23.4%), Microsporidia (20.25%), Cyclospora (2.0%), Blastocystis hominis (1.7%), and Cystoisospora belli (1.2%). About 1.4% of MSWWs have pediculosis and phthiriasis in their scalp and eyelashes respectively. Risk factors for infection were associated with direct exposure to solid fecal waste (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.0) and occupational activities that allowed for direct exposure to solid fecal waste (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.4-4.0). Logistic regression model has revealed that educational level and residence were the factors that contribute to parasitic infection among MSWWs (P risk of acquiring parasitic infections. Data of the present study highlighted the need for greater biomonitoring of MSWWs and the improvement of environmental conditions and health care in such marginalized communities to prevent

  20. Skin cancer risk perceptions: a comparison across ethnicity, age, education, gender, and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, Kesha J; You, Zhiying; Fouad, Mona; Elmets, Craig

    2012-05-01

    Studies of noncutaneous and cutaneous malignancies support the hypothesis that poor risk-perception status contributes to health disparity. We evaluated skin cancer (SC) risk perceptions across race and other demographic markers using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) and compared them to discover differences in perception that may contribute to the disparities in SC diagnosis and treatment. Respondents with no history of SC were randomly selected to answer questions assessing perceived risk and knowledge of preventive strategies of SC. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations between perceptions of SC and demographic variables including self-described race, age, sex, education, income, and health insurance status. Blacks, the elderly, and people with less education perceived themselves as at lower risk of developing SC. They, along with Hispanics, were also more likely to believe that one cannot lower their SC risk and that there are so many different recommendations on how to prevent SC that it makes it difficult to know which ones to follow. Lower education also correlated with greater reluctance to have a skin examination. HINTS is a cross-sectional instrument, thus it only provides a snapshot of SC perceptions. Uncertainty and altered perceptions are more common in the SC risk perceptions of ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those with less education. These are the same groups that are subject to disparities in SC outcomes. Educational programs directed at these demographic groups may help to reduce the SC-related health disparities. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants and mapping of collective perceptions of technological risk: the case of the second nuclear power plant in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Wang, Tzu-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear power is a highly controversial and salient example of environmental risk. The siting or operating of a nuclear power plant often faces widespread public opposition. Although studies of public perceptions of nuclear power date back to 1970s, little research attempts to explain the spatial heterogeneity of risk attitude toward nuclear power among individuals or communities. This article intends to improve the knowledge about the major factors contributing to nuclear power plant risk perceptions by mapping the geographical patterns of local risk perception and examining the determinants in forming the nature and distribution of the perceived risk among potentially affected population. The analysis was conducted by a case study of the Second Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) in Taiwan by using a novel methodology that incorporates a comprehensive risk perception (CRP) model into an ethnographic approach called risk perception mapping (RPM). First, we examined the determinants of local nuclear power risk perceptions through the CRP model and multivariate regression analysis. Second, the results were integrated with the RPM approach to map and explain the spatial pattern of risk perceptions. The findings demonstrate that the respondents regard the nuclear power plant as an extremely high-risk facility, causing them to oppose the SNPP and reject the compensation payment to accept its continuing operation. Results also indicate that perceptions of nuclear power risk were mainly influenced by social trust, psychological and socioeconomic attributes, proximity, and the perceived effects of the SNPP on the quality of everyday life. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Message Formats, Numeracy, Risk Perceptions of Alcohol-Attributable Cancer, and Intentions for Binge Drinking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Yang, Z. Janet

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an experiment to examine whether risk perceptions of alcohol-attributable cancer influence college students' binge-drinking intention and to explore how message formats (text, table, and graph) and numeracy influence risk perceptions of alcohol-attributable cancer. We found that a majority of participants (87%) perceive some risks of…

  3. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-03-02

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.

  4. Analysis of the formation, expression, and economic impacts of risk perceptions associated with nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Hunter, S.; Calzonetti, F.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report investigates how communities hosting nuclear facilities form and express perceptions of risk and how these risk perceptions affect local economic development. Information was collected from site visits and interviews with plant personnel, officials of local and state agencies, and community activists in the hosting communities. Six commercial nuclear fuel production facilities and five nuclear facilities operated for the US Department of Energy by private contractors were chosen for analysis. The results presented in the report indicate that the nature of risk perceptions depends on a number of factors. These factors are (1) level of communication by plant officials within the local community, (2) track record of the facility. operator, (3) process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, (4) level of economic links each plant has with the local community, and (15) physical characteristics of the facility itself. This report finds that in the communities studied, adverse ask perceptions have not affected business location decisions, employment levels in the local community, tourism, or agricultural development. On the basis of case-study findings, this report recommends that nuclear facility siting programs take the following observations into account when addressing perceptions of risk. First, the quality of a facility`s participation with community activists, interest groups, and state agencies helps to determine the level of perceived risk within a community. Second, the development of strong economic links between nuclear facilities and their host communities will produce a higher level of acceptance of the nuclear facilities.

  5. Risk assessment of particle dispersion and trace element contamination from mine-waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; Martín, José María; Vázquez, María Auxiliadora; Ortiz, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a model to delimit risk zones influenced by atmospheric particle dispersion from mine-waste dumps is developed to assess their influence on the soil and the population according to the concentration of trace elements in the waste. The model is applied to the Riotinto Mine (in SW Spain), which has a long history of mining and heavy land contamination. The waste materials are separated into three clusters according to the mapping, mineralogy, and geochemical classification using cluster analysis. Two of the clusters are composed of slag, fresh pyrite, and roasted pyrite ashes, which may contain high concentrations of trace elements (e.g., >1 % As or >4 % Pb). The average pollution load index (PLI) calculated for As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Tl, and Zn versus the baseline of the regional soil is 19. The other cluster is primarily composed of sterile rocks and ochreous tailings, and the average PLI is 3. The combination of particle dispersion calculated by a Gaussian model, the PLI, the surface area of each waste and the wind direction is used to develop a risk-assessment model with Geographic Information System GIS software. The zone of high risk can affect the agricultural soil and the population in the study area, particularly if mining activity is restarted in the near future. This model can be applied to spatial planning and environmental protection if the information is complemented with atmospheric particulate matter studies.

  6. Risk Perceptions, Sexual Attitudes, and Sexual Behavior after HPV Vaccination in 11–12 Year-Old Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Tanya L. Kowalczyk; Widdice, Lea E.; Rosenthal, Susan L.; Zimet, Gregory D.; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Among 11–12 year-old girls who received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, we explored, over the subsequent 30 months: 1) trajectories of knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccines and vaccine-related risk perceptions; 2) whether knowledge and risk perceptions impacted sexual attitudes and sexual experience; and 3) whether mothers, clinicians, and media influenced girls’ risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavior. Methods Girls and mothers (n=25 dyads) completed separate, semi-structured interviews within 2 days of, and 6, 18, and 30 months after, their first HPV vaccine dose. Knowledge, risk perceptions related to HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and attitudes about sexual behaviors were assessed. Sexual experience was assessed at girls’ 30 month interviews. Clinicians completed interviews at baseline. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using framework analysis. Results Girls’ baseline knowledge was poor but often improved with time. Most girls (n=18) developed accurate risk perceptions about HPV but only half (n=12) developed accurate risk perceptions about other STIs by 30 months. The vast majority of girls thought that safer sex was still important, regardless of knowledge, risk perceptions, or sexual experience. Girls whose HPV knowledge was high at baseline or increased over time tended to articulate accurate risk perceptions; those who were able to articulate accurate risk perceptions tended to report not having initiated sexual activity. Girls whose mothers demonstrated higher knowledge and/or communication about HPV vaccination tended to articulate accurate risk perceptions, whereas clinicians and media exposure did not appear to influence risk perceptions. Conclusions Higher knowledge about HPV vaccines among mothers and girls was linked with more accurate risk perceptions among girls. Clinicians may play an important role in providing education about HPV vaccines to mothers and girls. PMID:26116249

  7. Risk perceptions, sexual attitudes, and sexual behavior after HPV vaccination in 11-12 year-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Tanya L Kowalczyk; Widdice, Lea E; Rosenthal, Susan L; Zimet, Gregory D; Kahn, Jessica A

    2015-07-31

    Among 11-12 year-old girls who received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, we explored, over the subsequent 30 months: (1) trajectories of knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccines and vaccine-related risk perceptions; (2) whether knowledge and risk perceptions impacted sexual attitudes and sexual experience; (3) whether mothers, clinicians, and media influenced girls' risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavior. Girls and mothers (n=25dyads) completed separate, semi-structured interviews within 2 days of, and 6, 18, and 30 months after, their first HPV vaccine dose. Knowledge, risk perceptions related to HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and attitudes about sexual behaviors were assessed. Sexual experience was assessed at girls' 30 month interviews. Clinicians completed interviews at baseline. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using framework analysis. Girls' baseline knowledge was poor but often improved with time. Most girls (n=18) developed accurate risk perceptions about HPV but only half (n=12) developed accurate risk perceptions about other STIs by 30 months. The vast majority of girls thought that safer sex was still important, regardless of knowledge, risk perceptions, or sexual experience. Girls whose HPV knowledge was high at baseline or increased over time tended to articulate accurate risk perceptions; those who were able to articulate accurate risk perceptions tended to report not having initiated sexual activity. Girls whose mothers demonstrated higher knowledge and/or communication about HPV vaccination tended to articulate accurate risk perceptions, whereas clinicians and media exposure did not appear to influence risk perceptions. Higher knowledge about HPV vaccines among mothers and girls was linked with more accurate risk perceptions among girls. Clinicians may play an important role in providing education about HPV vaccines to mothers and girls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Options for improving hazardous waste cleanups using risk-based criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1995-06-01

    This paper explores how risk- and technology-based criteria are currently used in the RCRA and CERCLA cleanup programs. It identifies ways in which risk could be further incorporated into RCRA and CERCLA cleanup requirements and the implications of risk-based approaches. The more universal use of risk assessment as embodied in the risk communication and risk improvement bills before Congress is not addressed. Incorporating risk into the laws and regulations governing hazardous waste cleanup, will allow the use of the best scientific information available to further the goal of environmental protection in the United States while containing costs. and may help set an example for other countries that may be developing cleanup programs, thereby contributing to enhanced global environmental management.

  9. Natural hazard risk perception of Italian population: case studies along national territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Teresita; Tupputi Schinosa, Francesca De Luca; Zuddas, Isabella; Preto, Mattia; Marengo, Angelo; Esposito, Alessandro; Figliozzi, Emanuele; Rapinatore, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Risk perception is judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of risks, in last few years risk perception studies focused on provide cognitive elements to communication experts responsible in order to design citizenship information and awareness appropriate strategies. Several authors in order to determine natural hazards risk (Seismic, landslides, cyclones, flood, Volcanic) perception used questionnaires as tool for providing reliable quantitative data and permitting comparison the results with those of similar surveys. In Italy, risk perception studies based on surveys, were also carried out in order to investigate on national importance Natural risk, in particular on Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean Fields volcanic Risks, but lacked risk perception studies on local situation distributed on whole national territory. National importance natural hazard were frequently reported by national mass media and there were debate about emergencies civil protection plans, otherwise could be difficult to obtain information on bonded and regional nature natural hazard which were diffuses along National territory. In fact, Italian peninsula was a younger geological area subjected to endogenous phenomena (volcanoes, earthquake) and exogenous phenomena which determine land evolution and natural hazard (landslide, coastal erosion, hydrogeological instability, sinkhole) for population. For this reason we decided to investigate on natural risks perception in different Italian place were natural hazard were taken place but not reported from mass media, as were only local relevant or historical event. We carried out surveys in different Italian place interested by different types o