WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste repository studies

  1. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)

  2. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the first part of a report of a preliminary study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) underground layout, 2) cost estimates, 3) waste handling, 4) retrievability, decommissioning, sealing and monitoring, and 5) research and design engineering requirements. (author)

  3. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the third part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It summarizes the topics considered in reports AECL-6188-1 and AECL-6188-2 as requirements for an undergpound repository for disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. (author)

  4. Geological study of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Takahiro; Kitano, Koichi

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the stability and the barrier efficiency of the deep underground radioactive waste repositories become a subject of great concern. The purpose of this paper is to gather informations on the geology, engineering geology and hydrogeology in deep galleries in Japan. Conclusion can be summarised as follows: (1) The geological structure of deep underground is complicated. (2) Stress in deep underground is greatly affected by crustal movement. (3) Rock-burst phenomena occur in the deep underground excavations. (4) In spite of deep underground, water occasionally gush out from the fractured zone of rock mass. These conclusion will be useful for feasibility study of underground waste disposal and repositories in Japan. (author)

  5. Waste package/repository impact study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Waste package/repository impact study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs

  7. Study of nuclear waste storage capacity at Yucca mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Apted, M.; Kessler, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain repository is applying license for storing 70000 MTHM nuclear waste including commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The 70000 MTHM is a legal not the technical limit. To study the technical limit, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) carried out a systematic study to explore the potential impact if the repository will accept more waste. This paper describes the model and results for evaluating the spent-fuel disposal capacity for a repository at Yucca Mountain from the thermal and hydrological point of view. Two proposed alternative repository designs are analyzed, both of which would fit into the currently well-characterized site and, therefore, not necessitating any additional site characterization at Yucca Mountain. The two- and three-dimensional models for coupled thermo-hydrological analysis extends from the surface to the water table, covering all the major and subgroup rock layers of the planned repository, as well as formations above and below the repository horizon. A dual-porosity and dual-permeability approach is used to model coupled heat and mass transfer through fracture formations. The waste package heating and ventilation are all assumed to follow those of the current design. The results show that the repository is able to accommodate three times the amount of spent fuel compared to the current design, without extra spatial expansion or exceeding current thermal and hydrological constraints. (authors)

  8. Nuclear waste repository ventilation system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Hensel, E.C.; Leslie, I.H.; Schultheis, T.M.; Walls, J.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Ventilation studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant described in this article were performed by personnel from New Mexico State University in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Westinghouse Corporation. The following research tasks were performed: 1) High-efficiency particulate air filters of the type used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant were loaded with salt aerosol from the site, 2) Filter resistance as a function of salt mass and flow rate was established for later use in computer simulations, 3) Filter efficiency was measured during the loading tests to establish a relation between efficiency and salt loading, 4) The structural strength of the salt-loaded high-efficiency filters was investigated by subjecting the filters to pressure transients of the types expected from fires, explosions and tornados, 5) Computer codes, obtained from Los Alamos National Laboratory, were used to model the ventilation systems and study their response to accident-induced pressure transients and heat fluxes, 6) Partial verification of the computer simulations was obtained by comparing normal operation of the ventilation systems to predicted normal operation, 7) A feasibility study using model-based control of the ventilation systems was initiated and will be completed during the second year of the project. (author) 12 figs., 16 refs

  9. Update on the national low level radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitch, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Activity to establish a national repository for low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in Australia began in the early 1980's. From the early 1990's computer-based geographic information systems had developed sufficiently so that all of Australia could be quickly reviewed using digital data relevant to site selection criteria. A three-phased approach to site selection was commenced which included an iterative process of data collection, interpretation, and public involvement through discussion papers. All of Australia was reviewed using national-scale data, and eight broad regions were identified and reviewed using regional-scale data. A third phase report will be released shortly which includes details on the process for identifying the preferred region of the eight. This region will be the focus for public involvement and for detailed study to identify a site for the national repository

  10. Parametric study of geohydrologic performance characteristics for geologic waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C.E.; Marine, I.W.

    1980-11-01

    One of the major objectives of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program is to identify potential geologic sites for storage and isolation of radioactive waste (and possibly irradiated fuel). Potential sites for the storage and isolation of radioactive waste or spent fuel in a geologic rock unit are being carefully evaluated to ensure that radionuclides from the stored waste or fuel will never appear in the biosphere in amounts that would constitute a hazard to the health and safety of the public. The objective of this report is to quantify and present in graphical form the effects of significant geohydrologic and other performance characteristics that would influence the movement of radionuclides from a storage site in a rock unit to the biosphere. The effort in this study was focused on transport by groundwater because that is the most likely method of radionuclide escape. Graphs of the major performance characteristics that influence the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere by groundwater are presented. The major characteristics addressed are radioactive decay, leach rate, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, groundwater gradient, hydrodynamic dispersion, ion exchange, and distance to the biosphere. These major performance characteristics are combind with each other and with the results of certain other combinations and presented in graphical form to provide the interrelationships of values measured during field studies. The graphical form of presentation should be useful in the screening process of site selection. An appendix illustrates the use of these graphs to assess the suitability of a site

  11. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled ''Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  12. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  13. The study on safety facility criteria for radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Choi, M. H.; Han, S. H. and others

    1992-12-01

    The radioactive waste repository are necessary to install the engineered safety systems to secure the safety for operation of the repository in the event of fire and earthquake. Since the development of safety facility criteria requires a thorough understanding about the characteristics of the engineered safety systems, we should investigate by means of literature survey and visit SKB. In particular, definition, composition of the systems, functional requirement of the systems, engineered safety systems of foreign countries, system design, operation and maintenance requirement should be investigated : fire protection system, ventilation system, drainage system, I and C system, electric system, radiation monitoring system. This proposed criteria consist of purpose, scope of application, ventilation system, fire protection system, drainage system, electric system and this proposed criteria can be applied as a basic reference for the final criteria

  14. Geoprospective study of radioactive waste repositories applied to a paleosite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, C.; Fourniguet, J.; Godefroy, P.; Manigault, B.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this research is to valid the geoprospective approach elaborated previously in the framework of contracts with Commission of European Communities. The geoprospective approach is applied to a ''paleosite'' i.e. to a region the evolution of which can be reconstructed for the last 100.000 years. This work is performed on a part of Parisian Basin near the English Channel coast. It allows to simulate the combined effects of sea and river level variations, and tectonic activity. All these factors taken in a rather severe context, would not have changed significantly, the confining conditions of the geological barrier around a radioactive waste repository

  15. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  16. National radioactive waste repository site selection study. Phase 2. A report on public comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Agreement was reached in principle between State/Territory and the Commonwealth of Australia Governments that a suitable site for a radioactive wastes repository must be found. The discussion papers resulting from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the site selection study were released for public comment. The national repository will be for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive wastes streaming from the medical, research and industrial use of radioisotopes in Australia. The purpose of this report is to summarise and respond in general terms to comment received on the discussion paper -Phase 2 of the study. Forty five submissions were received. Of these: 18 supported the Phase 2 study approach and the concept of a national repository; 13 did not state a clear position but either requested more information or provided constructive comment on the siting process; 7 supported the site selection approach and the repository concept but suggested that the repository should not be sited in a particular area; 3 opposed the siting of the repository in their vicinity but not necessarily the repository concept and site selection approach; 4 opposed the concept of a national repository. This compares with 124 submissions on Phase 1 of the study, of which 57 opposed the national repository concept (52 of these were from letters elicited by Greenpeace) and 48 supported the establishment of a national repository and the site selection approach proposed. 3 figs

  17. Technical conservatisms in NWTS repository conceptual designs. National Waste Terminal Storage Repository No. 1: special study No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Prior studies have developed conceptual designs for National Waste Terminal Storage Repositories 1 and 2. Due to the considerable detail and volume of the documents describing these designs, it is often difficult to identify and comprehend the substantial conservatisms contained within them. This study identifies and explains the major technical conservatisms in these two conceptual designs in a concise and readily understandable format. The areas discussed include thermal loading of the geologic structure, rock mechanics and underground design, waste throughput capacity, hoisting systems, nuclear criticality safety, confinement of radioactive materials, occupational exposure and health physics, environmental effects, and cost estimates. Conservatisms are described in detail, quantified where possible, and compared to appropriate criteria

  18. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); McKinley, I.G. [MCM Consulting, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  19. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.W.; Reijonen, H.M.; McKinley, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  20. General conceptual design study for a high-level radioactive waste repository in a granite formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The object of the general conceptual design study for a high level radioactive wastes repository in a deep lying granite formation is to ensure that technology available in 1980 is suitable for building, operating and finally closing such a repository. It is feasible to build and operate a 1000 m deep repository, located in a granite batholith, receiving 30000 AVM canisters (after 30 years surface cooling), the disposal rate being 1000 canisters per year. Cost of the operation amounts to 1,3% of the corresponding amount of electricity. The building, operating and final closing phases will take 81 years

  1. Central repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (ALMA) conceptual design, siting and safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellbert, N.; Haeggblom, H.; Cederstroem, M.; Lundgren, T.

    1980-07-01

    A generic design, siting and safety study of a proposed repository for low- and intermediate-level waste has been made. Special emphasis has been placed on safety characterostics. The conceptual design and the generic site, on which the study is based, are realistically chosen in accordance with present construction techniques and the existing geohydrological conditions in Sweden. (Auth.)

  2. The waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository: A case study in radioactive waste disposal safety and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological defense-generated transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) repository in the United States was certified on the 13 of May 1998 and opened on the 26 of March 1999. Two sets of safety/performance assessment calculations supporting the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository show that the maximum annual individual committed effective dose will be 32 times lower than the regulatory limit and that the cumulative amount of radionuclide releases will be at least 10 times, more likely at least 20 times, lower than the regulatory limits. Yet, perceptions remain among the public that the WIPP TRUW repository imposes an unacceptable risk.

  3. The waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository: A case study in radioactive waste disposal safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Leif G.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological defense-generated transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) repository in the United States was certified on the 13 of May 1998 and opened on the 26 of March 1999. Two sets of safety/performance assessment calculations supporting the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository show that the maximum annual individual committed effective dose will be 32 times lower than the regulatory limit and that the cumulative amount of radionuclide releases will be at least 10 times, more likely at least 20 times, lower than the regulatory limits. Yet, perceptions remain among the public that the WIPP TRUW repository imposes an unacceptable risk

  4. Synthetic hydrogeological study on Beishan preselected area for high-level radioactive waste repository in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Su Rui; Ji Ruili; Wang Hailong; Liu Shufen; Zong Zihua; Dong Jiannan; Zhang Ming

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of large scale field hydrogeological investigation, synthetic hydrogeological studies related to groundwater system characteristics, permeability of rock bodies, groundwater dynamic, hydrogeochemistry, isotopic hydrology, CFC's of groundwater and groundwater flow field simulation were carried out for Beishan area, Gansu province. According to analysis on a large amount of hydrogeological data, the characteristics of groundwater circulation, groundwater hydrodynamics and hydrgeochemistry were described and the suitability of Beishan area as the potential area of high-level radioactive waste disposal was evaluated in the paper. Through this study, the hydrogeological study and evaluation methods in the siting of China's high level radioactive waste repository were set up. Furthermore, the important hydrogeological scientific evidence was provided for optimal site filtration of China's high-level radioactive waste repository in Beishan area. (authors)

  5. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises two major interrelated tasks, technical assistance and topical studies. The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1989 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. The major task was a study of the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses. In the area of technical assistance, there were a total of 30 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 15 study plans (SP) and participation in 5 SP Review Workshops; in-depth multidisciplinary review of 5 Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) Study Plans and presentation of results to DOE; preparation and revision of a white paper and proposed work statement on preclosure monitoring and performance confirmation as an outgrowth of a request made by DOE to LBL; the hosting of a DOE program review; with DOE's encouragement, preparation of 8 papers for the International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference to be held in April, 1990 in Las Vegas, Nevada; and 5 instances of general technical assistance to DOE

  6. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will be disposed of in a geologic repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characterizations include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. This information has been extracted from primary data sources, evaluated, and assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. The Characteristics Data Base provides a standard set of self-consistent data to the various areas of responsibility including systems integration and waste stream analysis, storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The data will be used for design studies, evaluation of alternatives, and system optimization by OCRWM and supporting contractors. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Chemical risks from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies concerning the chemical risks of nuclear waste are reviewed. The radiological toxicity of the material is of primary concern but the potential nonradiological toxicity should not be overlooked as the chemotoxic substances may reach the biosphere from a nuclear waste repository. In the report is concluded that the possible chemotoxic effects of a repository for nuclear waste should be studied as a part of the formal risk assessment of the disposal concept. (author)

  8. Experimental study of the diffusion of 137Cs in mortars used in nuclear waste repositories medium and low activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cement is a largely used material in radioactive waste repository for conditioning and isolating the waste. In this study, the adequacy of different type of cement to act as barrier to the 1 37Cs migration has been analyzed. 1 37Cs is a very important fission product in low and medium radioactive waste repository. As diffusion is the main transport process in cementitious materials, in this study the diffusion behavior of the radionuclide was especially evaluated.

  9. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J

    2007-01-15

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project.

  10. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project

  11. The preliminary design and feasibility study of the spent fuel and high level waste repository in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valvoda, Z.; Holub, J.; Kucerka, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the year 1993, began the Program of Development of the Spent Fuel and High Level Waste Repository in the Conditions of the Czech Republic. During the first phase, the basic concept and structure of the Program has been developed, and the basic design criteria and requirements were prepared. In the conditions of the Czech Republic, only an underground repository in deep geological formation is acceptable. Expected depth is between 500 to 1000 meters and as host rock will be granites. A preliminary variant design study was realized in 1994, that analyzed the radioactive waste and spent fuel flow from NPPs to the repository, various possibilities of transportation in accordance to the various concepts of spent fuel conditioning and transportation to the underground structures. Conditioning and encapsulation of spent fuel and/or radioactive waste is proposed on the repository site. Underground disposal structures are proposed at one underground floor. The repository will have reserve capacity for radioactive waste from NPPs decommissioning and for waste non acceptable to other repositories. Vertical disposal of unshielded canisters in boreholes and/or horizontal disposal of shielded canisters is studied. As the base term of the start up of the repository operation, the year 2035 has been established. From this date, a preliminary time schedule of the Project has been developed. A method of calculating leveled and discounted costs within the repository lifetime, for each of selected 5 variants, was used for economic calculations. Preliminary expected parametric costs of the repository are about 0,1 Kc ($0.004) per MWh, produced in the Czech NPPs. In 1995, the design and feasibility study has gone in more details to the technical concept of repository construction and proposed technologies, as well as to the operational phase of the repository. Paper will describe results of the 1995 design work and will present the program of the repository development in next period

  12. Long-Term Waste Package Degradation Studies at the Yucca Mountain Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon, K. G.; Bullard, B. E.; Longsine, D. E.; Mehta, S.; Lee, J. H.; Monib, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Site Recommendation (SR) process for the potential repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is underway. Fulfillment of the requirements for substantially complete containment of the radioactive waste emplaced in the potential repository and subsequent slow release of radionuclides from the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) into the geosphere will rely on a robust waste container design, among other EBS components. Part of the SR process involves sensitivity studies aimed at elucidating which model parameters contribute most to the drip shield and waste package degradation characteristics. The model parameters identified included (a) general corrosion rate model parameters (temperature-dependence and uncertainty treatment), and (b) stress corrosion cracking (SCC) model parameters (uncertainty treatment of stress and stress intensity factor profiles in the Alloy 22 waste package outer barrier closure weld regions, the SCC initiation stress threshold, and the fraction of manufacturing flaws oriented favorably for through-wall penetration by SCC). These model parameters were reevaluated and new distributions were generated. Also, early waste package failures due to improper heat treatment were added to the waste package degradation model. The results of these investigations indicate that the waste package failure profiles are governed by the manufacturing flaw orientation model parameters and models used

  13. Background studies: earthquake effects on underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Results of the first stage of a programme of work leading to the development of a seismicity sub-model for the TIME2 simulation code and its successor(s) are presented. Potential future seismic activity levels in Britain are presented, within the context of historic seismicity (the last 800 years), tectonic activity and the effects of glacial advance and retreat. Methodological approaches to the estimation of seismic hazard due to faulting and ground shaking are presented. Seismic effects on rock and soil properties are also reviewed. Finally, recommendations for further studies are made. (author)

  14. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  15. A feasibility study for the design of a simulated radioactive waste repository facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The paper contains the text and references of a feasibility study for the design of a simulated radioactive waste repository facility (final report). The work was commissioned by the Department of the Environment, United Kingdom, as part of its radioactive waste management research programme. The nature of the candidate buffer materials, the factors defining their behaviour, and the nature of a buffer material selection and testing programme, are examined. A description is given of the properties and modelling of host materials. The complex interactions between host materials, and between buffer and host materials, are discussed, along with the instrumentation requirements for measuring the interactions. Finally, the temperature field around a waste package, and modelling a host continuum with a segmental block, are both investigated. (U.K.)

  16. Study of waterproof capabilities of the engineered barrier containing bentonite in near surface radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu Cao Nguyen; Nguyen Ba Tien; Doan Thi Thu Hien; Nguyen Van Chinh; Vuong Huu Anh

    2017-01-01

    In Vietnam, the study of nuclear fuel cycle is in first steps, such as the exploitation and uranium processing. These processes generated large amounts of radioactive waste over-timing. The naturally occurring radioactive material and technologically enhanced radioactive material (NORM/TENORM) waste, which would be large, needs to be managed and disposed reasonably by effective methods. These wastes were used to be disposal in the near surface. It was therefore very important to study the model of radioactive waste repository, where bentonite waterproofing layer would be applied for the engineered barrier. The aim of this study was to obtain the preliminary parameters for low-level radioactive waste disposal site being suitable with the conditions of Vietnam. The investigation of the ratio between soil and bentonite was taken part. The experiments with some layers of waterproofing material with the ratio of soil and bentonite as 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75 were carried out to test the moving of uranium nuclide through these waterproofing material layers. Analyzing the uranium content in each layer (0.1 cm) of pressed soil - bentonite mixture (as a block) to determine the uranium nuclide adsorption from solution into the materials in the different ratios at the different times: 1, 2 and 3 months was carried out. The results showed that the calculated average rate of uranium nuclide migration into the soil - bentonite layer was 5.4x10 -10 , 5.4x10 -10 and 3.85x10 -10 m/s corresponding to the waterproofing layer thickness (for 300 years) 4.86 m, 4.86 m and 3.63 m respectively, which was due on the ratio of soil and bentonite 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 to keep the safety for the repository. (author)

  17. An initial study of the behaviour under repository conditions of inactive components of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.

    1988-02-01

    This review extends the appreciation of repository behaviour to include the inactive components of wastes and their degradation products. These materials include a wide range of metals and organics, sludges and decommissioning wastes. The effect of degradation products on the solubility of long-lived radionuclides and any active daughters and their sorption on surfaces of the repository are assessed. Research requirements are identified that may help to improve significantly the assessment of the effects of inactive materials. Data required to improve the quality of inventory data on nuclear wastes are listed. (author)

  18. Parametric study of the effects of thermal environment on a waste package for a tuff repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J K; Sundberg, W D; Krumhansl, J L [Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM, (USA)

    1982-12-31

    The thermal environment has been modeled in a simple reference waste package in a tuff repository for a variety of variables. The waste package was composed of the waste form, canister, overpack and backfill. The emplacement hole was 122cm dia. Waste forms used in the calculations were commercial high level waste (CHLW) and spent fuel (SF). Canister loadings varied from 50 to 100 kW/acre. Primary attention was focused on the backfill behavior in the thermal and chemical environment. Results are related to the maximum temperature calculated for the backfill. These calculations raise serious concerns about the effectiveness of the backfill within the context of the total waste package.

  19. Sandia studies of high-level waste canisters and overpacks applicable for a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.; Schaefer, D.W.; Glass, R.S.; Ruppen, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop candidate materials for use as high-level waste (HLW) overpacks or canisters in a salt repository has been in progress at Sandia National Laboratories since 1976. The main objective of this program is to provide a waste package barrier having a long lifetime in the chemical and physical environment of a repository. This paper summarizes the recent corrosion and metallurgical study results for the prime overpack material, TiCode-12, in the areas of uniform corrosion (extremely low rate and extent); local attack, e.g., pits and crevices (none were found); stress corrosion cracking susceptibility (no significant changes in macroscopic tensile properties were detected); hydrogen sorption-embrittlement effects; effects of gamma irradiation in solution; and sensitization effects (testing is still in process in the last three areas). Previous candidate screening analyses on other alloys and recent work on alternate overpack alloys are reviewed. All phases of these interrelated laboratory, hot-cell, and field experimental studies are described. 16 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  20. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  1. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 16. Repository preconceptual design studies: BPNL waste forms in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 16, ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt,'' is one of a 23 volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provide a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The waste forms assumed to arrive at the repository were supplied by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL). The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/17, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt.''

  2. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 2. Commercial waste forms, packaging and projections for preconceptual repository design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/2, ''Commercial Waste Forms, Packaging and Projections for Preconceptual Repository Design Studies,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume contains the data base for waste forms, packages, and projections from the commercial waste defined by the Office of Waste Isolation in ''Nuclear Waste Projections and Source Term Data for FY 1977,'' Y/OWI/TM-34. Also, as an alternative data base for repository design and analysis, waste forms, packages, and projections for commercial waste defined by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BPNL) have been included. This data base consists of a reference case for use in the alternative design study and a definition of combustible wastes for use in mine fire and hydrogen generation analyses

  3. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 2. Commercial waste forms, packaging and projections for preconceptual repository design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/2, ''Commercial Waste Forms, Packaging and Projections for Preconceptual Repository Design Studies,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume contains the data base for waste forms, packages, and projections from the commercial waste defined by the Office of Waste Isolation in ''Nuclear Waste Projections and Source Term Data for FY 1977,'' Y/OWI/TM-34. Also, as an alternative data base for repository design and analysis, waste forms, packages, and projections for commercial waste defined by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BPNL) have been included. This data base consists of a reference case for use in the alternative design study and a definition of combustible wastes for use in mine fire and hydrogen generation analyses.

  4. Scientific studies in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Weart, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    The DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application for WIPP in october, 1996. A critical part of this application was a Performance Assessment which predicts the cumulative radioactive release to the accessible environment over a time period of 10,000 years. Comparison of this predicted release to the EPA standard shows a comfortable margin of compliance. The scientific understanding that was critical to developing this assessment spans a broad range of geotechnical disciplines, and required a thorough understanding of the site's geology and hydrology. Evaluation of the geologic processes which are active in the site region establishes that there will be no natural breach of site integrity for millions of years, far longer than the 10,000 year regulatory period. Inadvertent human intrusion is, therefore, the only credible scenario to lead to potential radioactive release to the accessible environment. To substantiate this conclusion and to quantify these potential releases from human intrusion, it has been necessary to develop an understanding of the following processes: salt creep and shaft seal efficacy; gas generation from organic decomposition of waste materials and anoxic corrosion of metals in the waste and waste packages; solubilities for actinides in brine; fluid flow in Salado formation rocks, and hydrologic transport of actinides in the overlying dolomite aquifers. Other issues which had to be evaluated to allow definition of breach scenarios were brine reservoir occurrences and their associated reservoir parameters, consequences of mining over the repository, and drilling for natural resources in the vicinity of the repository. Results of all these studies will be briefly summarized in this paper

  5. Citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.E.; Olsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    The following study presents a proposed strategy for citizen participation during the planning stages of nuclear waste repository siting. It discusses the issue from the general perspective of citizen participation in controversial issues and in community development. Second, rural institutions and attitudes toward energy development as the context for developing a citizen participation program are examined. Third, major citizen participation techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach for resolving public policy issues are evaluated. Fourth, principles of successful citizen participation are presented. Finally, a proposal for stimulating and sustaining effective responsible citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting and management is developed

  6. Microstructural and mineralogical characterization of selected shales in support of nuclear waste repository studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.; Alley, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    Five shales were examined as part of the Sedimentary Rock Program evaluation of this medium as a potential host for a US civilian nuclear waste repository. The units selected for characterization were the Chattanooga Shale from Fentress County, Tennessee; the Pierre Shale from Gregory County, South Dakota; the Green River Formation from Garfield County, Colorado; and the Nolichucky Shale and Pumpkin Valley Shale from Roane County, Tennessee. The micromorphology and structure of the shales were examined by petrographic, scanning electron, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Chemical and mineralogical compositions were studied through the use of energy-dispersive x-ray, neutron activation, atomic absorption, thermal, and x-ray diffraction analysis techniques. 18 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 10. Repository preconceptual design studies: granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 10 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in granite. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/11, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite.''

  8. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 8. Repository preconceptual design studies: salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 8 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/9, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt.''

  9. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories: Annual report, fiscal year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises 11 reports in two major interrelated tasks: The technical assistance part of the project includes reviewing the progress of the major projects in the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive waste Management (OCRWM) Program and advising the Engineering and Geotechnology Division on significant technical issues facing each project; analyzing geotechnical data, reports, tests, surveys and plans for the different projects; reviewing and commenting on major technical reports and other program documents such as Site Characterization Plans (SCP) and Study Plans; and providing scientific and technical input at technical meetings. The topical studies activity comprises studies on scientific and technical ions and issues of significance to in-situ testing, test analysis methods, and site characterization of nuclear waste geologic repositories. The subjects of study were selected based on discussions with DOE staff. One minor topic is a preliminary consideration and planning exercise for postclosure monitoring studies. The major task, with subtasks involving various geoscience disciplines, is a study of the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses

  10. A Study on Establishment of Buffer Zone of Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Park, Joo Wan; Ju, Min Su; Kim, Chang Lak; Park, Jin Baek

    2008-01-01

    A new proposed repository has a final capacity of 800,000 drums radioactive waste. Most of foreign repositories have a general practice of segregating control zones which mainly contributes to classification of degree of control, whether it is called buffer zone or not. Domestic regulatory requirements of establishment of buffer zone in a repository are not much different from those of nuclear power plants for operation period, in which satisfactory design objective or performance objective is the most important factor in determination of the buffer zone. The meaning of buffer zone after closure is a minimum requested area which can prevent inadvertent intruders from leading to non-allowable exposure during institutional control period. Safety assessment with drinking well scenario giving rise to the highest probability of exposure among the intruder's actions can verify fulfillment of the buffer zone which is determined by operational safety of the repository. At present. for the repository to be constructed in a few years, the same procedure and concept as described in this paper are applied that can satisfy regulatory requirements and radiological safety as well. However, the capacity of the repository will be stepwise extended upto 800,000 drums, consequently its layout will be varied too. Timely considerations will be necessary for current boundary of the buffer zone which has been established on the basis of 100,000 drums disposal.

  11. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories: Annual report, Fiscal Year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    The multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises two major interrelated parts: (1) Technical Assistance. This part of the project includes: (a) review of the progress of major projects in the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program and advise the Engineering and Geotechnology Division on significant technical issues facing each project; (b) analyze geotechnical data, reports, tests, surveys and plans for the different projects; (c) review and comment on major technical reports and other program documents such as site characterization plans and area characterization plans and (d) provide scientific and technical input at technical meetings. (2) Topical Studies. This activity comprises studies on scientific and technical topics, and issues of significance to in-situ testing, test analysis methods, and performance assessment of nuclear waste geologic repositories. The subjects of study were selected based on discussions with DOE staff. For fiscal year 1986, one minor and one major area of investigation were undertaken. The minor topic is a preliminary consideration and planning exercise for post-closure monitoring studies. The major topic, with subtasks involving various geoscience disciplines, is on the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses. The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies

  12. Radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.; Barinov, A.; Prozorov, L.

    2000-01-01

    With the purpose to construct a radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety and reliable containment, MosNPO 'Radon' specialists have developed an advanced type repository - large diameter well (LBD) one. A project is started for the development of a technology for LDW repository construction and pilot operation of the new repository for 25-30 years. The 2 LDW repositories constructed at the 'Radon' site and the developed monitoring system are described

  13. Researching radioactive waste disposal. [Underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feates, F; Keen, N [UKAEA Research Group, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1976-02-16

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared.

  14. General conceptual design study for a high level radioactive waste repository in a granite formation. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The object of the general conceptual design study for a repository for disposal of radioactive waste in a granite formation is to ensure that the technology available in 1980 is suitable for the construction of such a repository. The recommended techniques and equipment are suitable for construction of a repository, located at a depth of 1000 metres in a granite batholith, with a capacity of 30,000 AVM canisters, cooled for 30 years on the surface, at a rate of 1,000 canisters per year. The structure consists of six access shafts of 4 and 5 metres diameter, drilled from the surface by the big-hole method, serving a network of 82 parallel galleries, 2,300 metres long, mined by conventional blasting. Shafts 100 metres deep are drilled in the floor of each gallery (74 shafts per gallery), each shaft accommodating five canisters. This represents an aggregate gallery length of 200 kilometres and an aggregate shaft length of 600 kilometres. The cost of the operation is 1.3% of the cost (ex-works) of the energy produced by the power stations generating the waste. Construction, operation and final abandonment will take 81 years. The sensitivity study of the design showed, by varying certain parameters, that location of the repository at a depth of 500 metres is not recommended and that the area covered by the repository of 4 km 2 is halved if the canisters are first cooled for 100 years

  15. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G H; Kang, W J; Kim, T J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  16. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others

    1992-01-01

    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria

  17. Geologic software for nuclear waste repository studies: A quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figuli, S.; English, S.L.

    1987-04-01

    This paper discusses a Quality Assurance (QA) program that Kent State University (KSU) has implemented for the development of geologic software. The software being developed at KSU will be used in the site characterization of nuclear waste repositories and must meet the requirements of federal regulations. This QA program addresses the development of models that will be used in the evaluation of the long-term climatic stability of three sites in the western US

  18. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, ''Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 ''Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work

  19. Investigative study of the underground excavations for a nuclear waste repository in tuff: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.M.

    1987-07-01

    Numerical studies were conducted on the behavior of a tuff rock mass within which emplacement drifts for a nuclear waste repository are excavated. The first study evaluated the effects of rockbolting and excavation-induced damage on the behavior of the rock mass round typical drifts. The second study provided a simple means of assessing the significance of drift shape, drift size, and in-situ state of stress on the deformation and stress in the vicinity of drifts for vertical and horizontal emplacement of waste. Neither study considered the effect of heating of the rock mass after emplacement of the waste so the conclusions pertain only to the conditions immediately after excavation of the underground openings. The results of analyses of the rockbolted excavations indicated that rockbolts do not have a significant influence on the states of deformation or stress within the rock mass, and that the rockbolts are subjected to acceptable levels of stress even if installed as close to the face of the excavation as possible. Accordingly, rockbolts were not considered in the study of drift shape, drift size, and the in-situ state of stress. That study indicated that stable openings of the dimensions investigated can be constructed within a tuff rock mass with the properties assumed. Of the parameters investigated, the in-situ state of stress appeared to be most important. Potentially adverse conditions were predicted if the in-situ horizontal stress is very low, but current indications are that it lies within a range which is consistent with good conditions and a stable roof. 28 refs., 49 figs., 11 tabs

  20. A reliability study on influence of the geosphere thickness over the activity release from a near surface radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Lais Alencar de, E-mail: laguiar@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Damaso, Vinicius Correa, E-mail: vcdamaso@gmail.com [Estado-Maior do Exercito (EME/EB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Infiltration of water into a waste disposal facility and into the waste region is the main factor inducing the release of radionuclides from a disposal facility. Since infiltrating water flow is dependent on the natural percolation at the site and the performance of engineered barriers, its prediction requires modelling of unsaturated water flow through intact or partially/completely failed components of engineered barriers and through the rock layer of the geosphere on which the repository is constructed. The engineered barriers include the cover systems, concrete vault, backfill, waste forms, and overpacks. This paper aims to carry out a performance study regarding a near surface repository in terms of reliability engineering. It is assumed that surface water infiltrates through the barriers reaching the matrix where radionuclides are contained, thus releasing them into the environment. The repository consists of a set of barriers which are considered saturated porous medium. As results, this paper presents the relation between the thickness of the geosphere layer and the radionuclide release rate in terms of activity. Such results represent a useful information for choosing the repository sites in order to keep the released activity in acceptable levels over time. (author)

  1. A reliability study on influence of the geosphere thickness over the activity release from a near surface radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Lais Alencar de; Damaso, Vinicius Correa

    2013-01-01

    Infiltration of water into a waste disposal facility and into the waste region is the main factor inducing the release of radionuclides from a disposal facility. Since infiltrating water flow is dependent on the natural percolation at the site and the performance of engineered barriers, its prediction requires modelling of unsaturated water flow through intact or partially/completely failed components of engineered barriers and through the rock layer of the geosphere on which the repository is constructed. The engineered barriers include the cover systems, concrete vault, backfill, waste forms, and overpacks. This paper aims to carry out a performance study regarding a near surface repository in terms of reliability engineering. It is assumed that surface water infiltrates through the barriers reaching the matrix where radionuclides are contained, thus releasing them into the environment. The repository consists of a set of barriers which are considered saturated porous medium. As results, this paper presents the relation between the thickness of the geosphere layer and the radionuclide release rate in terms of activity. Such results represent a useful information for choosing the repository sites in order to keep the released activity in acceptable levels over time. (author)

  2. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1986-12-01

    This document is the third joint annual report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that are in progress at the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This Government supported mine serves as an underground test facility for research and development (R and D)-work in the field of nuclear waste repository research and simulation experiments. The tests are designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. This document covers the following sections: Issues and test objectives: This section presents issues that are investigated by the Brine Migration Test, and the test objectives derived from these issues; test site: This section describes the test site location and geology in the Asse mine; test description: A description of the test configuration, procedures, equipment, and instrumentation is given in this section; actual test chronology: The actual history of the test, in terms of the dates at which major activities occured, is presented in this section. Test results: This section presents the test results observed to data and the planned future work that is needed to complete the test; conclusions and recommendations: This section summarizes the conclusions derived to date regarding the Brine Migration Test. Additional work that would be useful to resolve the issues is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Restoration of areas disturbed by site studies for a mined commercial radioactive waste repository: The Basalt Waste Isolation Project [BWIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Biehert, R.W.; Newell, R.L.; Page, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) was undertaken to environmentally characterize a portion of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State as a potential host for the nation's first mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Studies were terminated by Congress in 1987. Between 1976 and 1987, 72 areas located across the Hanford Site were disturbed by the BWIP. These areas include borehole pads, a large Exploratory Shaft Facility, and the Near Surface Test Facility. Most boreholes were cleared of vegetation, leveled, and stabilized with a thick layer of compacted pit-run gravel and sand. The Near Surface Test Facility consists of three mined adits, a rock-spoils bench, and numerous support facilities. Restoration began in 1988 with the objective of returning sites to pre-existing conditions using native species. The Hanford Site retains some of the last remnants of the shrub-steppe ecosystem in Washington. The primary constraints to restoring native vegetation at Hanford are low precipitation and the presence of cheatgrass, an extremely capable alien competitor. 5 figs

  4. Aerosol particle transport modeling for preclosure safety studies of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbard, F.

    1989-01-01

    An important concern for preclosure safety analysis of a nuclear waste repository is the potential release to the environment of respirable aerosol particles. Such particles, less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter, may have significant adverse health effects if inhaled. To assess the potential health effects of these particles, it is not sufficient to determine the mass fraction of respirable aerosol. The chemical composition of the particles is also of importance since different radionuclides may pose vastly different health hazards. Thus, models are needed to determine under normal and accident conditions the particle size and the chemical composition distributions of aerosol particles as a function of time and of position in the repository. In this work a multicomponent sectional aerosol model is used to determine the aerosol particle size and composition distributions in the repository. A range of aerosol mass releases with varying mean particle sizes and chemical compositions is used to demonstrate the sensitivities and uncertainties of the model. Decontamination factors for some locations in the repository are presented. 8 refs., 1 tab

  5. Nuclear waste repository design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlke, B.M.; Monsees, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive underground excavation will be required for construction of a mined geologic repository for nuclear waste. Hundreds of thousands of feet of drift will be required based on the conceptual layout design for each candidate nuclear waste repository. Comparison of boring and blasting excavation methods are discussed, as are special design and construction requirements (e.g., quality assurance procedures and performance assessment) for the nuclear waste repository. Comparisons are made between boring and blasting construction methods for the repository designs proposed for salt, volcanic tuff, and basalt

  6. The study of fracture mineralization and relationship with high level radioactive waste of deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Cristina N.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive investigations of the Ordovician, Dinantian and Permo-Triassic rocks of the Sellafield area of northwest England were undertaken by United Kingdom Nirex Ltd. as a possible national site for geological disposal of intermediate and low-level radioactive waste. Very detailed studies of fracture mineralisation at Sellafield were thus put in hand by Nirex Ltd. and the results summarised by the British Geological Survey. Deep (up to 2 km) boreholes were put down with excellent core recovery. It is generally agreed that the most significant pathway for the escape of all but a very few radionuclides is by solution in and advection of groundwater. In this context, rock fracture systems are particularly important because they offer a potentially rapid pathway to the surface and the biosphere. One striking aspect of this work is that the fracture mineralisation seemingly records major and rapid fluctuations in redox conditions -sometimes during apparently continuous precipitation of cements (ferroan and non-ferroan calcites, dolomite). Carbonate cements record variations in Fe 2+ availability. Fe(III) precipitates also as oxide (hematite) and Fe(II) as sulphide (pyrite). This study focuses on these elements and valence states and also on Mn; another element susceptible to redox controls but known to respond differently from Fe. Shallow sub-surface stores or repositories would be more likely to have oxidising or fluctuating redox conditions. The mineralisation sequences documented at Sellafield are potentially promising in this context. Ferroan carbonate cements are sensitive indicators of later movement of oxidising ground waters. (author)

  7. Isotope hydrogeological study of the underground repository for radioactive wastes at Morsleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, R.; Hebert, D.

    1991-01-01

    As a contribution of safety assessment of the underground repository for radioactive wastes (ERA) in Morsleben isotope investigations in the hydrosphere has been carried out. The measured tritium concentrations of brines infiltrating into the mine cannot be interpreted in a conventional way due to contamination of mine air with tritium. However, modelling the isotope exchange allows conclusions regarding the water balance of the dripping brines. A complex interpretation which includes hydrogeochemical data results in a qualitative assessment of the infiltrating brines in regard to their hazard potential. An acute danger cannot be derived from the data available up to the present. The natural input of cosmogenic radionuclides (tritium, radiocarbon) into the aquifers above the salt level permits to study radionuclide migration at the ERA site. Tritium from the nuclear weapon tests is detectable up to a depth of 50 m below groundwater level with a maximum in about 20 m. From these data infiltration velocities of 1.6 m/a at maximum and 0.9 m/a in average are derived. The 14 C measurements of samples from more than 100 m depth yield model ages in the order of 10 4 years. This indicates a significantly reduced groundwater dynamic in the deeper horizons. (orig.) [de

  8. A global nuclear waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wunan

    As a concerned scientist, I think that having a global nuclear waste repository is a reachable goal for human beings. Maybe through this common goal, mankind can begin to treat each other as brothers and sisters. So far, most human activities are framed by national boundaries, which are purely arbitrary. Breaking through these national boundaries will be very beneficial to human beings.Formation of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program in 1986 indicates a growing awareness on the part of scientists regarding Earth as a system. The Apollo missions gave us a chance to look back at Earth from space. That perspective emphasized that our Earth is just one system: our only home. It is in deed a lonely boat in the high sea of dark space. We must take good care of our “boat.”

  9. Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Nazran Harun; Muhammad Fathi Sujan; Karuppiah, T.; Surip, N.; Malik, N.N.A.; Che Musa, R.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

  10. Literature study on the state-of-the-art for the marking of deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buser, M.

    2010-05-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the results of a literature study on the marking of repositories for radioactive wastes. Knowledge gained and ideas discussed in Switzerland on the subject are collated and discussed. Various associated topics such as safety, risk and marking technologies are examined. 28 topics in six thematic blocks are presented and discussed. Not only marking concepts are discussed, but also questions on human and society-related factors, traditionalising information transfer and susceptibility to wrong interpretation are examined. The author is of the opinion that no reusable materials be used either in the repositories themselves or for their marking in order to help prevent future generations coming into contact with the dangerous wastes

  11. Rock support for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, L.W.; Schmidt, B.

    1984-01-01

    The design of rock support for underground nuclear waste repositories requires consideration of special construction and operation requirements, and of the adverse environmental conditions in which some of the support is placed. While repository layouts resemble mines, design, construction and operation are subject to quality assurance and public scrutiny similar to what is experienced for nuclear power plants. Exploration, design, construction and operation go through phases of review and licensing by government agencies as repositories evolve. This paper discusses (1) the various stages of repository development; (2) the environment that supports must be designed for; (3) the environmental effects on support materials; and (4) alternative types of repository rock support

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 12. Repository preconceptual design studies: shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in shale. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/13, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Shale.''

  13. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 14. Repository preconceptual design studies: basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in basalt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/15, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Basalt.''

  14. Waste inventory, waste characteristics and waste repositories in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, K.

    1997-01-01

    There are two types of repositories for the low level radioactive wastes in Japan. One is a trench type repository only for concrete debris generated from the dismantling of the research reactor. According to the safety assurance system, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has disposed of the concrete debris arose from the dismantling of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). The other type is the concreted pit with engineered barriers. Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center has this type of repository mainly for the power plant wastes. Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (JNFL) established by electric power companies is the operator of the LLW disposal project. JNFL began the storage operation in 1992 and buried approximately 60,000 drums there. Two hundred thousand drums of uniformly solidified, waste may be buried ultimately. 4 refs, 3 tabs

  15. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities

  16. Hydrothermal conditions around a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.; Braester, C.

    1981-12-01

    Numerical solutions for the hydrothermal conditions around a hard rock repository for nuclear fuel waste are presented. The objective of the present investigation is to illustrate in principle the effect of heat released from a hypothetical radioactive waste repository with regard to anisotropy in the rock permeability. Permeability and porosity are assumed to be constant or to decrease exponentially with depth. The hypothetical repository is situated below a horizontal ground surface or below the crest of a hill, and it is assumed that the water table follows the topography. Major interest in the analysis is directed towards the influence of anisotropy in the permeability on the flow patterns and travel times for water particles, being traced from the repository to the ground surface. The presented results show that anisotropy in the permeability may have a significant influence on the flow conditions around the repository and subsequently also on the travel times from the repository. (Authors)

  17. Geoprospective study of a nuclear waste repository: salt domes; Bibliographic study of their genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billaux, D.; Robelin, C.

    1985-01-01

    This report appraises, from the results of a bibliographical study, the possibility of beginning of a domal rise from the salt layer in which or above which would have been placed a repository. The physical mecanisms of salt creep are first screened, together with the factors determining their intensity and relative importance. These factors are primarily the temperature and the state of stress. Semi empirical laws are given for some mecanisms. Present knowledge about the state of the salt in the ground are then examined: we are not able to satisfactorily calculate ''in situ'' stresses, or to explain the existence of an important shear stress, that has been pointed out by most of the stress measurements. The retrospective study of the genesis of existing domes brings an insight into their correlation with sedimentary and tectonic phases. Model studies help us to interpret the distances between domes, and to explain the scale of this phenomenon. After recapitulating the various factors of some importance, we find that the probability of a dome rise from a previously static layer is low, in the time lap we are interested in (100 000 years). Such a rise would have to be triggered by important changes in the sedimentation, erosion or tectonic activity on the site

  18. Parametric study of geohydrologic performance characteristics for nuclear-waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C.E.; Marine, I.W.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to present geohydrologic information in graphical form covering a wide range of parameters to aid in determining site specifications based on functional criteria. Graphs of the major performance characteristics that influence the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere by groundwater were developed. The major characteristics addressed are radioactive decay, leach rate, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, groundwater gradient, hydrodynamic dispersion, ion exchange, and distance to the biosphere

  19. Probabilistic modelling of gas generation in nuclear waste repositories under consideration of new studies performed at the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, M.; Wilhelm, S.; Poppei, J.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The inventory of a nuclear waste repository includes significant amounts of metal and organic matter. Under the prevailing conditions in a repository in a salt formation in contact with water, these materials tend to react and transform under significant gas production. This increases the pressure and potentially leads to an enhanced transport of radio nuclides. Therefore, these phenomena need to be understood and characterized in detail for the assessment of the safety of the repository A modelling code, GASGEN, developed by AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd to predict the evolution of gas production by microbial processes and anaerobic corrosion of metal, was applied at two locations of repositories in salt rock in Germany. Therein, the microbial decomposition of organic waste components is modelled by the sub-processes of denitrification, reduction of sulphates, fermentation and methano-genesis. The models differentiate between highly degradable cellulose and materials of lesser degradability, such as polymers. Gas production through anaerobic corrosion of metal is mainly due to the iron content of the waste. In addition, the precipitation of carbonate from alkaline materials in the inventory (e.g. cement) is considered. The inventories of contained waste, which determine the amount of gas that can be produced, are subject to uncertainties. The rates of the various reactions also depend on numerous factors and are therefore variable. In order to cover this variability, gas production is modelled probabilistically. In this way the behaviour of the gas generation can be estimated together with its bandwidth Figure 1. In addition to the produced amounts of gas, the model calculations also consider the potential of acidification of the fluid enclosed in the repository chambers and the effect of a changing pH-level on the rate of corrosion. Based on results, the effect of a pH-dependent corrosion rate is illustrated and the

  20. Some Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Study (The Yucca Mountain Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; P. Pasupathi; N. Brown; K. Mon

    2005-09-19

    The safe disposal of radioactive waste requires that the waste be isolated from the environment until radioactive decay has reduced its toxicity to innocuous levels for plants, animals, and humans. All of the countries currently studying the options for disposing of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) have selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. In U.S.A., the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) designated Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site to be characterized for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) disposal. Long-term containment of waste and subsequent slow release of radionuclides into the geosphere will rely on a system of natural and engineered barriers including a robust waste containment design. The waste package design consists of a highly corrosion resistant Ni-based Alloy 22 cylindrical barrier surrounding a Type 316 stainless steel inner structural vessel. The waste package is covered by a mailbox-shaped drip shield composed primarily of Ti Grade 7 with Ti Grade 24 structural support members. The U.S. Yucca Mountain Project has been studying and modeling the degradation issues of the relevant materials for some 20 years. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes based on the past 20 years studies on Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) materials degradation issues with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the 10,000 years regulatory period. This paper provides an overview of the current understanding of the likely degradation behavior of the waste package and drip shield in the repository after the permanent closure of the facility. The degradation scenario discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced

  1. Some Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Study (The Yucca Mountain Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, F.; Pasupathi, P.; Brown, N.; Mon, K.

    2005-01-01

    The safe disposal of radioactive waste requires that the waste be isolated from the environment until radioactive decay has reduced its toxicity to innocuous levels for plants, animals, and humans. All of the countries currently studying the options for disposing of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) have selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. In U.S.A., the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) designated Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site to be characterized for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) disposal. Long-term containment of waste and subsequent slow release of radionuclides into the geosphere will rely on a system of natural and engineered barriers including a robust waste containment design. The waste package design consists of a highly corrosion resistant Ni-based Alloy 22 cylindrical barrier surrounding a Type 316 stainless steel inner structural vessel. The waste package is covered by a mailbox-shaped drip shield composed primarily of Ti Grade 7 with Ti Grade 24 structural support members. The U.S. Yucca Mountain Project has been studying and modeling the degradation issues of the relevant materials for some 20 years. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes based on the past 20 years studies on Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) materials degradation issues with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the 10,000 years regulatory period. This paper provides an overview of the current understanding of the likely degradation behavior of the waste package and drip shield in the repository after the permanent closure of the facility. The degradation scenario discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced

  2. Hydrogen modelling for vitrified wastes repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinis, S.; Breton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Safety assessments for High Level Wastes (HLW) have led ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs) to study the occurrence of a gas production rate in a repository. This paper deals with the description of an analytical model used for the gas production rate assessment and brings us the first results. The geometry used is restrained to a single borehole associated with a drift in a crystalline formation. Different concepts were studied in this assessment. First results have been obtained. For example, in the case of a permeable plug, the saturation time of the borehole is about 300 years. 5 refs., 5 figs

  3. Management of radioactive waste at Novi Han Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.G.; Mateeva, M.D.; Milanov, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The Novi Han Repository is the only existing repository in Bulgaria for the disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. The repository was constructed in the early sixties according to the existing requirements. It was operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy for more than thirty years without any accident or release of radioactivity to the environment, but without any investment for upgrading. As a consequence, the Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Authority temporarily stopped the operation of the repository in 1994. The measures for upgrading the Novi Han Repository, supported by the IAEA under TC Project BUL/4/005 'Increasing Safety of Novi Han Repository', are presented in this paper. They comprise: assessment of radionuclide inventory and future waste arisings, characterisation of disposal vaults, characterisation of the site, safety assessment, upgrading of the monitoring system, option study for the selection of treatment and conditioning processes and the development of a conceptual design for low and intermediate level waste processing and storage facility, immediate measures for improvement of the existing disposal vaults and infrastructure, construction of above-ground temporary storage structures, and resuming the operation of the Novi Han Repository. The necessary activities for re-licensing of the Novi Han Repository, construction of a waste processing and storage facility and a disposal facility for spent sealed sources are discussed. (author)

  4. Planning the rad waste repository - Croatian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Lokner, V.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in Croatia from various nuclear applications as well as from the Krsko NPP (Slovenian and Croatian joint venture facility). The national programme on radioactive waste management is aimed at straightening existing infrastructure, establishing new (more transparent) system of responsibilities and development of new legislation. The siting of LL/ILW repository is important segments of the whole radioactive waste management cycle. The status and efficiency of the rad waste management infrastructure in the country have the significant influence on all the activities related to the project of repository construction - from the very first phases of preliminary planning and background preparations to advanced phases of the project development. The present status of the Croatian national radioactive waste infrastructure and its influence on the repository project are presented. The role of national legislation and institutional framework are specially discussed. (author)

  5. Feasibility studies for a radioactive waste repository in a deep clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.; Tassoni, E.

    1985-01-01

    This report assesses the feasibility of deep geological disposal of long-lived, heat-emitting radioactive wastes produced from the Italian nuclear power programme. Disposal is envisaged in argillaceous formations of medium plasticity at depths between 200 and 3000 metres. Thermal and geotechnical data, together with information on cost and feasibility of construction techniques are used to devise two conceptual designs (repository or deep borehole disposal) for a facility to contain all the high-level wastes arising from a 10 GWe power programme. Alternative designs and their merits are discussed and assessed. The two reference designs are used to construct a simple model of long-term performance and safety of the proposed disposal system. Recommendations are made for further work required to develop these concepts into an operational facility. It should be borne in mind that since no definite area or site has yet been identified for a disposal facility, all considerations are purely generic. Consequently data on rock properties and geological environment represent average values or best estimates for those likely to be encountered in the regions currently being considered as suitable for deep diposal purposes, and several broad assumptions have had to be made. However, the designs presented could be adapted without difficulty on a site-specific basis when the results of further research become available

  6. Commercial nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; Patricio, J.G.; Heley, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) is an ongoing research and engineering effort being conducted by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell), which is under contract to the US Department of Energy. The objectives of this program are to assess the feasibility of and to provide the technology needed to design and construct a licensed commercial nuclear waste repository in the deep basalt formations underlying the Hanford Site. An extensive preconceptual design effort was undertaken during 1979 to develop a feasible concept that could serve as a reference design for both surface and underground facilities. The preconceptual design utilized existing technology to the greatest extent possible to offer a system design that could be utilized in establishing schedule and cost baseline data, recommend alternatives that require additional study, and develop basic design requirements that would allow evolution of the design process prior to the existence of legislated criteria. This paper provides a description of the concept developed for the subsurface aspects of this nuclear waste repository

  7. Status of siting studies for a near surface repository site for radioactive wastes in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Palattao, M.V.B.; Marcelo, E.A.; Caseria, E.S.; Venida, L.L.; Cruz, J.M. dela

    2002-01-01

    The Philippines, through the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), decided to conduct a study on siting a low level radioactive waste disposal facility. The infrastructure set up for this purpose, the radioactive waste disposal concept, the overall siting process, the methodology applied and preliminary results obtained are described in this paper. (author)

  8. Experimental methodology to study radionuclide sorption and migration in geological formations and engineered barriers of waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo Sanz, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Spain, the waste management options include either the possibility of a final storage in a deep geological repository (DGR) or the centralized temporal surface disposal (CTS). DGRs are based in a multi-barrier concept with the geological barrier and including the vitrified waste, the metal containers and engineered barriers such as compacted bentonite and cement-based materials. On the other hand, CTS mainly considers concrete and cement to confine the metal canisters containing the waste. Radionuclide migration will mainly take place by the existence of chemical concentration gradients being thus diffusion the main transport mechanism or by the existence of hydraulic gradients due to the existence of water-conductive fractures. Radionuclide sorption/retention on the materials composing the natural and engineered barriers is the fundamental process controlling contaminant migration. The evaluation of sorption parameters and the understanding of the different mechanisms leading to radionuclide retention are very important issues. The study of diffusion processes is very relevant as well. This paper describes the main experimental methodologies applied to analyse radionuclide transport in the different barriers of radioactive repositories. Particularly we focused on obtaining of retention parameters as distribution coefficients, kd, or retardation factors, Rf, and diffusion coefficients of radionuclides. (Author) 6 refs.

  9. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    DOE/CH/10140-05 is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, State and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure lists, and a topical index

  10. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This document is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, State and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure lists, and a topical index

  11. Radioactivity studies in the Romanian national repository for radioactive waste - Baita, Bihor region, during 14 years of resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.; Rotarescu, G.; Luca, A.; Peic, T.; Postelnicu, C.; Dragolici, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the study is focused on active surveillance, by periodic measurements of the radioactivity and the possible migration, during the last 14 years, of the radioactive elements stored at the Romanian National Repository for Radioactive Waste-Baita, Bihor region. Hence, water, soil and vegetation samples were collected every three months, from 57 points, chosen in agreement with the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control and with the local Public Health Institutions. After the sample collection, radiometric measurements were made. The main steps of the study were: the collection of the samples, radiometric measurements, radiochemical analysis of the uranium and progeny, processing and the interpretation of the obtained data; detection of any gamma radionuclides using gamma spectrometry; and the processing, interpretation and intercomparison of the results. Throughout the 14 years of surveillance, it was demonstrated that the National Repository for Radioactive Waste activity has had no negative impact on the operator staff, environment and population. Also, no migration of the deposited radionuclides was detected throughout the whole area. (author)

  12. Geologic nuclear waste repository site selection studies in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.H.; Conwell, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    During Phase I regional-level studies, a literature review was conducted to ascertain geologic characteristics pertinent to repository siting factors. On the basis of the regional screening results, four areas in southeastern Utah were selected as being suitable for more detailed study in Phase II: Elk Ridge and Gibson Dome, containing nearly horizontal bedded salt deposits; Salt Valley, containing a diapiric salt anticline; and Lisbon Valley, containing a non-diapiric salt anticline. During current Phase II area studies, the four study areas are being characterized in greater detail than in Phase I. Phase II will culminate in the identification of a potentially suitable location(s), if any, that will be recommended for study in still greater detail in a subsequent phase of work. 5 refs

  13. Modelling gas generation in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agg, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    In a repository containing low- and intermediate-level waste, gas generation will occur principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. This Paper describes a mathematical model design to address gas generation by these mechanisms. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing both aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. Gas concentrations have been measured over a period of three years in large-scale drum experiments designed to simulate repository conditions. Model predictions are confirmed against the experimental measurements, and a prediction is then made of gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of one million years in a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  14. Modelling gas generation in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agg, P.J.

    1992-07-01

    In a repository containing low- and intermediate-level waste, gas generation will occur principally by the coupled processes of metal corrosion and microbial degradation of cellulosic waste. This paper describes a mathematical model designed to address gas generation by these mechanisms. The metal corrosion model incorporates a three-stage process encompassing both aerobic and anaerobic corrosion regimes; the microbial degradation model simulates the activities of eight different microbial populations, which are maintained as functions both of pH and of the concentrations of particular chemical species. Gas concentrations have been measured over a period of three years in large-scale drum experiments designed to simulate repository conditions. Model predictions are confirmed against the experimental measurements, and a prediction is then made of gas concentrations and generation rates over an assessment period of one million years in a radioactive waste repository. (Author)

  15. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the results of the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process with respect to the alternative site selection procedure. Key points of the report are the long-term safety, the alternativity of sites and the concept of one repository. The critique on this report is focussed on the topics site selection and licensing procedures, civil participation, the factor time and the question of cost

  16. Waste handling building design tradeoff studies: Salt Repository Project closeout task report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this closeout study is to capture work done by SRPO contractors and the relevant knowledge and recommendations of Battelle staff regarding design of WHB receiving, storage, hot cell areas, and process logistics. The information and recommendations are based on the latest available studies and prior experience of Battelle personnel at WIPP, INEL, and Hanford facilities. The information is expected to be directly applicable to WHB design work that will be done at Nevada, MRS, or other repository facilities. A perspective showing the various WHB areas and general arrangement is given. This study addresses alternatives associated with the receiving area, the fuel storage areas, the cell arrangements, the failed fuel accommodations, and the process logistics. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Acceptability of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Polic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Siting of a radioactive waste repository, even for the waste of low and intermediate level (LILW) radioactivity, presents a great problem in almost every country that produces such waste. The main problem is not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the acceptability of this kind of repository. In general, people are opposed to any such kind of facility in their vicinity (NIMBY). In this study we try to establish the factors that influence people's behavior regarding the construction of a radioactive waste repository in their local community, with the use of Ajzen's model of planned behavior. Two different scenarios about the construction of a radioactive waste repository in their community, together with a set of questions were presented to participants from different schools. Data from the survey were analysed by multivariate methods, and a model of relevant behaviour was proposed. From the results it can be seen that different approaches to local community participation in site selection process slightly influence people's attitudes towards the LILW repository, while significant differences in answers were found in the responses which depend on participants' knowledge. Therefore the RAO Agency will further intensify preparation of the relevant communication plan and start with its implementation to support LILW repository site selection process, which will also include educational programme. (author)

  18. Waste package for a repository located in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, S.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of the waste package designs for salt repositories. The status of the supporting studies of environment definition, corrosion of containment materials, and leaching of waste forms is also presented. Emphasis is on the results obtained in FY 83 and the planned effort in FY 84. 8 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  19. Radioactive waste disposal: Recommendations for a repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadelli, N.; Orlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a guidebook on recommendations for site selection of radioactive waste repository, based on a consensus in european community. This report describes particularly selection criteria and recommendations for radioactive waste disposal in underground or ground repositories. 14 refs

  20. Modeling transient heat transfer in nuclear waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2009-09-30

    The heat of high-level nuclear waste may be generated and released from a canister at final disposal sites. The waste heat may affect the engineering properties of waste canisters, buffers, and backfill material in the emplacement tunnel and the host rock. This study addresses the problem of the heat generated from the waste canister and analyzes the heat distribution between the buffer and the host rock, which is considered as a radial two-layer heat flux problem. A conceptual model is first constructed for the heat conduction in a nuclear waste repository and then mathematical equations are formulated for modeling heat flow distribution at repository sites. The Laplace transforms are employed to develop a solution for the temperature distributions in the buffer and the host rock in the Laplace domain, which is numerically inverted to the time-domain solution using the modified Crump method. The transient temperature distributions for both the single- and multi-borehole cases are simulated in the hypothetical geological repositories of nuclear waste. The results show that the temperature distributions in the thermal field are significantly affected by the decay heat of the waste canister, the thermal properties of the buffer and the host rock, the disposal spacing, and the thickness of the host rock at a nuclear waste repository.

  1. International perspective on repositories for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Pers, Karin; Almen, Ylva

    2011-12-01

    Nuclear energy production gives rise to different types of radioactive waste. The use of nuclear isotopes within the research, industry and medical sectors also generates radioactive waste. To protect man and the environment from radiation the waste is isolated and contained by deposition in repositories. These repositories may have various designs regarding location, barriers etc depending on the potential danger of the waste. In Sweden, low- and intermediate level waste (LILW) is disposed of in the SFR repository in Forsmark. The repository is located 60 metres down into the bedrock under the bottom of the sea and covered by 6 metres of water. It is planned to extend SFR to accommodate decommissioning waste from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power facilities and also for the additional operation waste caused by the planned prolonged operation time. When planning the extension consultations will be carried out with the host municipality, authorities, organisations and general public. In planning the extension, SKB has performed a worldwide compilation of how other countries have, or plan to, handle the final disposal of similar wastes. The aim of this report is to give a brief description of LILW repositories worldwide; including general brief descriptions of many facilities, descriptions of the waste and the barriers as well as safety assessments for a few chosen repositories which represent different designs. The latter is performed, where possible, to compare certain features against the Swedish SFR. To provide a background and context to this study, international organisations and conventions are also presented along with internationally accepted principles regarding the management of radioactive waste. Similar to SFR, suitable locations for the repositories have, in many countries, been found at sites that already have, or used to have nuclear activities, such as reactor sites. Abandoned and disused mines, such as the salt mines in Germany, also

  2. International perspective on repositories for low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Pers, Karin; Almen, Ylva (SKB International AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    Nuclear energy production gives rise to different types of radioactive waste. The use of nuclear isotopes within the research, industry and medical sectors also generates radioactive waste. To protect man and the environment from radiation the waste is isolated and contained by deposition in repositories. These repositories may have various designs regarding location, barriers etc depending on the potential danger of the waste. In Sweden, low- and intermediate level waste (LILW) is disposed of in the SFR repository in Forsmark. The repository is located 60 metres down into the bedrock under the bottom of the sea and covered by 6 metres of water. It is planned to extend SFR to accommodate decommissioning waste from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power facilities and also for the additional operation waste caused by the planned prolonged operation time. When planning the extension consultations will be carried out with the host municipality, authorities, organisations and general public. In planning the extension, SKB has performed a worldwide compilation of how other countries have, or plan to, handle the final disposal of similar wastes. The aim of this report is to give a brief description of LILW repositories worldwide; including general brief descriptions of many facilities, descriptions of the waste and the barriers as well as safety assessments for a few chosen repositories which represent different designs. The latter is performed, where possible, to compare certain features against the Swedish SFR. To provide a background and context to this study, international organisations and conventions are also presented along with internationally accepted principles regarding the management of radioactive waste. Similar to SFR, suitable locations for the repositories have, in many countries, been found at sites that already have, or used to have nuclear activities, such as reactor sites. Abandoned and disused mines, such as the salt mines in Germany, also

  3. Stream-simulation experiments for waste-repository investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    The potential for radionuclide migration by groundwater flow from a breached-water repository depends on the leaching process and on chemical changes that might occur as the radionuclide moves away from the repository. Therefore, migration involves the interactions of leached species with (1) the waste and canister, (2) the engineered barrier, and (3) the geologic materials surrounding the repository. Rather than attempt to synthesize each species and study it individually, another approach is to integrate all species and interactions using stream-simulation experiments. Interactions identified in these studies can then be investigated in detail in simpler experiments

  4. Environmental issues of repository licensing: an evaluation of a hypothetical high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.L.; McGinnis, J.T.; Harper, C.M.; Battelle Columbus Labs., OH)

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents results of an environmental assessment conducted under the direction of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The study defined a range of potential environmental effects of constructing, operating, decommissioning, and long-term isolation of a nuclear waste repository. The analytical methodology used to determine potential environmental effects required definition of a hypothetical environmental setting and repository. Potentially applicable regulatory requirements were identified and were used as guidelines to evaluate permitting feasibility. The environmental effects of repository development were analyzed for the two major time periods of concern: short term (the period of construction, operation, and decommissioning) and long term (the isolation period after decommissioning). As a result of this analysis, major environmental uncertainties and issues were identified. 11 references, 5 figures

  5. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements - Konrad repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.W.; Warnecke, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, the planned Konrad repository is proposed for the disposal of all types of radioactive wastes whose thermal influence upon the host rock is negligible. The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements (as of April 1990) for this facility. The respective requirements were developed on the basis of the results of site-specific safety assessments. They include general requirements on the waste packages to be disposed of as well as more specific requirements on the waste forms, the packaging and the radionuclide inventory per waste package. In addition, the delivery of waste packages was regulated. An outline of the structure and the elements of the Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements of April 1990 is given including comments on their legal status. (Author)

  6. The function of packing materials in a high-level nuclear waste repository and some candidate materials: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnell, L.R.; Shade, J.W.

    1987-03-01

    Packing materials should be included in waste package design for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. A packing material barrier would increase confidence in the waste package by alleviating possible shortcomings in the present design and prolonging confinement capabilities. Packing materials have been studied for uses in other geologic repositories; appropriately chosen, they would enhance the confinement capabilities of salt repository waste packages in several ways. Benefits of packing materials include retarding or chemically modifying brines to reduce corrosion of the waste package, providing good thermal conductivity between the waste package and host rock, retarding or absorbing radionuclides, and reducing the massiveness of the waste package. These benefits are available at low percentage of total repository cost, if the packing material is properly chosen and used. Several candidate materials are being considered, including oxides, hydroxides, silicates, cement-based mixtures, and clay mixtures. 18 refs

  7. An integrated approach to isotopic study of crystalline rock for a high-level waste repository: Area phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated approach to assessing isotopic systems in crystalline rock is planned for area phase studies. This approach combines radiogenic isotope systems with petrography in order to characterize potential crystalline repository media. The coeval use of selected isotope systems will minimize the limitations of each method and provide intensive parameters yielding data on alteration timing, secondary mineral formation, temperature history, and radionuclide species migration. Isotope systems will be selected in order to measure differences in sensitivity to thermal disturbances and mobility due to fluid interaction. Comparative evaluation of isotope pair behavior may be used in combination with mineral versus whole-rock dates to provide data on heating and mobilization of alkali elements, lanthanides, and gases, caused by future introduction of waste

  8. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM's Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW

  9. The German quality system for waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmerhagen, I.; Berg, H.P.; Brennecke, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS)--Federal Office for Radiation protection--has to guarantee that the requirements resulting from different regulations concerning planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of a waste repository are fulfilled. In addition, the results of the safety assessments lead to nuclear-specific requirements on the design of the plant as well as to requirements on the radioactive waste packages intended to be disposed of. Therefore, the implementation of a quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) system is an essential task in order to ensure that the designed quality is achieved so that the necessary precaution against damage is taken. In this paper, a detailed description of QA and QC to be applied to the planned Konrad repository as well as the basic principles and the present status of the waste package QC are indicated and discussed

  10. Migration case studies and the implications of humic substances for the radiological performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, N.D.; Bernhard, G.; Geipel, G.; Heise, K.H.; Schmeide, K.; Benes, P.

    2005-01-01

    Using the information obtained during the experimental and modelling tasks a series of migration case studies have been performed. These are not full performance assessment studies, but are merely intended to demonstrate the likely impact of humic substances upon the migration of radionuclides in the environment. Three separate sites have been investigated: (i) a shallow waste repository site at Dukovany in the Czech Republic; (ii) the formerly proposed, but now withdrawn, waste repository site at Gorleben in Germany; (iii) a large rock pile, consisting of tailings from a uranium mine, Schlema Alberode, near Dresden, Germany. To provide the maximum information, a variety of 'release scenarios' have been defined: continuous leakage in the Dukovany case study; a short pulsed release at Gorleben, and steady leaching in the case of the rock pile. The effects of the magnitudes of the chemical rate constants have been studied along with the effects of the initial distribution between exchangeable and non-exchangeable. Further, modelling during the HUPA project has shown that in certain lab column experiments the sorption of humic and humic-radionuclide complexes onto mineral surfaces could have an impact upon migration. Therefore, the likely impact of these processes on the field scale was investigated. In each of the three cases, humics are predicted to have a significant impact upon migration. However, whereas for the repository cases, it is the presence of the non-exchangeable fraction that results in migration, and the exchangeable fraction plays no significant part in transport, for the rock pile, the model predicts that the humic should promote migration even with the exchangeable interaction alone. Humic sorption may affect the degree of migration, but even in the case of maximum impact, the net effect of humic substances is still to enhance migration significantly. In fact, the initial distribution of radionuclide upon entry to the far-field is much more

  11. Repository for high level radioactive wastes in Brazil: the importance of geochemical (Micro thermometric) studies and fluid migration in potential host rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Francisco Javier; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Alves, James Vieira; Neves, Jose Marques Correia

    2003-01-01

    A detailed fluid inclusion study of host rocks, is of fundamental importance in the selection of geologically suitable areas for high level nuclear waste repository constructions (HLRW). The LIFM-CDTN is enabled to develop studies that confirm: the presence or not, of corrosive fluid in minerals from host rocks of the repository and the possible presence of micro fractures (and fluid leakage) when these rocks are submitted to high temperatures. These fluid geochemistry studies, with permeability determinations by means of pressurized air injection must be carried out in rocks hosting nuclear waste. Micro fracture determination is of vital importance since many naturally corrosive solutions, present in the mineral rocks, could flow out through these plans affecting the walls of the repository. (author)

  12. Results From an International Simulation Study on Coupled Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Rutqvist; D. Barr; J.T. Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level

  13. Engineering studies: high-level radioactive waste repositories task 3 - review of underground handling and emplacement. 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The report reviews proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high-level radioactive waste in an underground repository with particular reference to: waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially-shielded block; stages of disposal; transport by road/rail to repository site; handling techniques within repository; emplacement in vertical holes or horizontal tunnels; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; conventional and radiological safety; costs; and major areas of uncertainty requiring research or development. In carrying out this programme due attention was given to work already carried out both in the U.K. and overseas and where appropriate comparisons with this work have been made to substantiate and explain the observations made in this report. The examination and use of this previous work however has been confined to those proposals which were considered capable of meeting the basic design criterion for a U.K. based repository, that the maximum temperature achieved by the host rock should not exceed 100/sup 0/C.

  14. Extreme scenarios for nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M J [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Div. of Applied Sciences; Crouch, E [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Energy and Environmental Policy Center

    1982-09-01

    Two extreme scenarios for release of radioactive waste have been constructed. In the first, a volcanic eruption releases 1 km/sup 2/ of an underground nuclear waste repository, while in the second, waste enters the drinking water reservoir of a major city. With pessimistic assumptions, upper bounds on the number of cancers due to radiation are calculated. In the volcano scenario, the effects of the waste are smaller than the effects of natural radioactivity in the volcanic dust if the delay between emplacement and eruption exceeds 2000 yr. The consequences of the waste in drinking water depend on the survival time of the canisters and the rate of leaching of the nuclides from the waste matrix. For a canister life of 400 yr and a leach time of 6300 yr the cancer rate in the affected area would increase by 25%.

  15. Study of the physico-chemical behavior of transuranian elements in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorge, P.; Billon, A.; Dautel, C.; Michau, O.; Quevrin, M.; Delorme, P.; Berthoud, T.; Mauchien, P.

    1986-01-01

    Transuranian chemistry is being studied in the geochemical context of the geological disposal of radioactive waste. The transuranians considered are plutonium, neptunium and americium. The first part, devoted to the chemistry of these elements in aqueous solutions, consists of a critical compilation of literature data with a view to resulting in producing the E h -pH diagrams of transuranians in a complexing environment. The study of the retention by constituents of artificial clay barriers (bentonite and attapulgite) is the subject of the second part. The third part concerns the development of a measurement technique for transuranian elements at trace levels by the thermal lensing method

  16. Buoyancy flow in fractures intersecting a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Tsang, C.F.

    1980-07-01

    The thermally induced buoyancy flow in fractured rocks around a nuclear waste repository is of major concern in the evaluation of the regional, long-term impact of nuclear waste disposal in geological formation. In this study, buoyancy flow and the development of convective cells are calculated in vertical fractures passing through or positioned near a repository. Interaction between buoyancy flow and regional hydraulic gradient is studied as a function of time, and the interference of intersecting fractures with each other is also discussed

  17. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    The BWIP Engineered Barrier Program has been developed to provide an integrated approach to the development of site-specific Engineered Barrier assemblages for a repository located in basalt. The goal of this program is to specify engineered and natural barriers which will ensure that nuclear and non-radioactive hazardous materials emplaced in a repository in basalt do not exceed acceptable rates of release to the biosphere. A wide range of analytical and experimental activities related to the basalt repository environment, waste package environment, waste/barrier/rock interactions, and barrier performance assessment provide the basis for selection of systems capable of meeting licensing requirements. Work has concentrated on specifying and testing natural and man-made materials which can be used to plug boreholes in basalt and which can be used as multiple barriers to surround nuclear waste forms and containers. The Engineered Barriers Program is divided into two major activities: multiple barrier studies and borehole plugging. 8 figures, 4 tables

  18. The Pangea concept for an international radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeme, M.

    1999-01-01

    Pangea Resources Australia Pty. Ltd. is engaged in a study to investigate the feasibility of constructing and operating an international radioactive waste repository in Australia. Western Australia in particular has a unique combination of geology, topography and climate which makes it eminently suitable for a deep geological repository for the safe and permanent disposal of radioactive waste. Australia also has the political, social, legal and financial systems, together with the technical capability to make it acceptable as a host nation for an international repository. This paper reviews the origins of the Pangea concept, describes the high isolation approach to site selection, the Pangea integrated waste management system, together with its potential economic impact on Australia

  19. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, A.

    2005-01-01

    The study group on the selection procedures of radioactive waste final repository sites has presented the report in December 2002. The author dicusses the consequences of this report with respect to the site selection focussing on two topics: the serach for the best possible site and the prevention of prejudices

  20. Radiation doses from the transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark. A model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    The radiation doses modelled for transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark, demonstrates that the risk associated with road and sea transport should not limit the future selection of a location of the repository. From a safety perspective both road and sea transport seem to be feasible modes of transport. Although the modelling in most cases is performed conservatively, the modelled doses suggest that both transport methods can be carried out well within the national dose limits. Additionally, the dose levels associated with the modelled accident scenarios are low and the scenarios are thus found to be acceptable taken the related probabilities into account. (LN)

  1. Radiation doses from the transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark. A model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-05-01

    The radiation doses modelled for transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark, demonstrates that the risk associated with road and sea transport should not limit the future selection of a location of the repository. From a safety perspective both road and sea transport seem to be feasible modes of transport. Although the modelling in most cases is performed conservatively, the modelled doses suggest that both transport methods can be carried out well within the national dose limits. Additionally, the dose levels associated with the modelled accident scenarios are low and the scenarios are thus found to be acceptable taken the related probabilities into account. (LN)

  2. Gabbro as a host rock for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Leijon, B.; Smellie, J.; Liedholm, M.

    1992-09-01

    As an alternative to granitic rocks, gabbro and other basic rock types have been investigated with respect to their suitability to host a nuclear waste repository. The present report summarizes and examines existing geoscientific knowledge of relevance in assessing the potential merits of gabbro as a repository host rock. Implications in terms of site selection, repository construction and post-closure repository performance are also discussed. The objective of the study is to provide a basis for decisions as regards future consideration of the gabbro alternative. It is found that there are rather few gabbro bodies in Sweden, that are potentially of sufficient size to host a repository. Thus, gabbro offers little latitude as regards site selection. In comparison to siting a repository in granitic rocks, this is a major disadvantage, and it may in fact remove gabbro from further consideration. The potential advantages of gabbro refer to repository performance, and include low hydraulic conductivity and a chemical environment promoting efficient radionuclide retardation. However, results from field investigations show that groundwater flow in gabbro bodies is largely controlled by intersecting heterogeneities, in particular granitic dykes, that are significantly more conductive to water than the gabbro. In the far-field scale significant to repository performance, this may reduce or eliminate the potential effects of favourable hydraulic and chemical characteristics of the gabbro itself. In conclusion, there are apparent difficulties associated with siting a repository in gabbro, due to lack of sufficiently large gabbro bodies. On the basis of the present state of knowledge, no decisive differences can be demonstrated when comparing gabbro with granitic rocks, neither with respects to repository construction, nor as regards repository performance. (au)

  3. Repository waste-handling operations, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottam, A.E.; Connell, L.

    1986-04-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Mission Plan and the Generic Requirements for a Mined Geologic Disposal System state that beginning in 1998, commercial spent fuel not exceeding 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, or a quantity of solidified high-level radioactive waste resulting from the reprocessing of such a quantity of spent fuel, will be shipped to a deep geologic repository for permanent storage. The development of a waste-handling system that can process 3000 metric tons of heavy metal annually will require the adoption of a fully automated approach. The safety and minimum exposure of personnel will be the prime goals of the repository waste handling system. A man-out-of-the-loop approach will be used in all operations including the receipt of spent fuel in shipping casks, the inspection and unloading of the spent fuel into automated hot-cell facilities, the disassembly of spent fuel assemblies, the consolidation of fuel rods, and the packaging of fuel rods into heavy-walled site-specific containers. These containers are designed to contain the radionuclides for up to 1000 years. The ability of a repository to handle more than 6000 pressurized water reactor spent-fuel rods per day on a production basis for approximately a 23-year period will require that a systems approach be adopted that combines space-age technology, robotics, and sophisticated automated computerized equipment. New advanced inspection techniques, maintenance by robots, and safety will be key factors in the design, construction, and licensing of a repository waste-handling facility for 1998

  4. Developing of Radioactive Wastes Management Safety at Baldone Repository Radons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.; Abramenkova, G.; Klavins, M.

    2008-01-01

    The near surface radioactive wastes repository Radons near the Baldone city was put in operation in 1962. The safety assessment of repository was performed during 2000-2001 under the PHARE project to evaluate the recommended upgrades of repository. The outline design for new vaults and interim storage for long lived radioactive wastes was elaborated during 2003-2004 years. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for upgrade of Baldone repository was performed during 2004-2005 years. Additional evaluations of radioactive wastes management safety were performed during 2006 year by the experts of ENRESA, Spain. It was shown, that the additional efforts were spent for improving of radioactive wastes cementation in concrete containers. The results of tritium and Cs 137 leaching studies are presented and discussed. It was shown, that additives can significantly reduce the migration of radionuclides in ground water. The leaching coefficients for tritium and Cs 137 were determined to supply with the necessary data the risk assessment calculations for operation of Baldone repository R adons

  5. What comes to mind when you hear the words ''nuclear waste repository?'': A study of 10,000 images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.; Layman, M.; Flynn, J.H.

    1990-09-01

    Attempts by the federal government and the nuclear industry to develop sites for disposal of high-level and low-level radioactive wastes have been stymied by public and political opposition. The record of strenuous protest against nuclear waste repositories, as well as the findings of numerous public opinion surveys, make it clear that public opposition is widespread and deeply felt. It is also clear that there is an immense gap between the perceptions of the pubic and the views of technical experts and nuclear-industry officials. Given the seriousness of nuclear waste as a public issue, it is surprising that there have been only a few attempts to understand the deeper meaning of nuclear fears and opposition to nuclear waste disposal sites, and to provide some insight into the nature and pervasiveness of people's concerns. One step toward a deeper understanding would be to define the origins of these concerns, the emotions and images that underlie them, and their tractability or stability over time. In the present study, the authors recorded 10,000 word-association images from more than 3,300 respondents to four surveys during the period between April, 1988 and January 1, 1990. Each of the 10,000 images was assigned to one of thirteen general or superordinate categories, which expressed the dominant theme of the response. All but one superordinate categories contained subordinate categories. All in all there were 92 distinct categories. The two dominant superordinate categories, (1) negative consequences and (2) negative concepts accounted for more than 56% of the total number of images. Many of the smaller categories and subcategories were also quite negative in tone. The five leading subordinate categories, dangerous toxic, death sickness, environmental damage, bad, and scary, accounted for more than 42% of the total number of images. 27 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Low and intermediate level waste repositories: public involvement aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Fleming, Peter M.; Soares, Wellington A.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear energy acceptance creates several problems, and one of the most important is the disposal of the radioactive waste. International experiences show that not only environmental, radiological and technical questions have to be analyzed, but the public opinion about the project must be considered. The objective of this article is to summarize some public involvement aspects associated with low and intermediate level waste repositories. Experiences from USA, Canada, South Africa, Ukraine and other countries are studied and show the importance of the population in the site selection process for a repository. (author)

  7. Extreme scenarios for nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M J; Crouch, E

    1982-09-01

    Two extreme scenarios for release of radioactive waste have been constructed. In the first, a volcanic eruption releases 1 km2 of an underground nuclear waste repository, while in the second, waste enters the drinking water reservoir of a major city. With pessimistic assumptions, upper bounds on the number of cancers due to radiation are calculated. In the volcano scenario, the effects of the water are smaller than the effects of natural radioactivity in the volcanic dust if the delay between emplacement and eruption exceeds 2000 yr. The consequences of the waste in drinking water depend on the survival time of the canisters and the rate of leaching of the nuclides from the waste matrix. For a canister life of 400 yr and a leach time of 6300 yr the cancer rate in the affected area would increase by 25%.

  8. Licensing information needs for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Greeves, J.T.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The information needs for licensing findings during the development of a repository for high-level waste (HLW) are described. In particular, attention is given to the information and needs to demonstrate, for construction authorization purposes: repository constructibility, waste retrievability, waste containment, and waste isolation

  9. Multi criteria decision analysis on a waste repository in Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, B.

    2005-01-01

    In Belgium, the management of radioactive waste is taken care of by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials. Local partnerships with stakeholders from municipalities in existing nuclear zones were setup to facilitate the dialogue between the repository designers and the local community. Since the establishment of the partnership in Mol, MONA in February 2000, all aspects of a possible near-surface or a deep geological repository are discussed in 4 working groups by around 50 volunteer members. The outcome of the discussions in the partnership can be a shared project, supported by both local stakeholders and ONDRAF/NIRAS, in which the specifications and the conditions needed for establishing a repository in Mol are elaborated. MONA asked the Decision Strategy Research Department of SCK-CEN to organise a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) in the context of the deciding between a surface and a deep repository for low level radioactive waste. The objective of the multi criteria analysis is to support a number of representatives of the various working groups within MONA in their selection between two acceptable options for a repository of low level radioactive waste on the territory of Mol. The options are the surface repository developed by the working groups of MONA, and a deep repository in the clay layers underneath the nuclear site of Mol. This study should facilitate the selection between both options, or in case this appears to be difficult, at least to get a well-structured overview of all factors (criteria) of importance to the judgement, and to get insight into the degree in which the various criteria contribute to the selection

  10. Geoprospective study of a nuclear waste repository. Process of erosion and denudation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laville, P.; Lajoinie, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Within the frame of a contract with the CEC dealing with storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations, the B.R.G.M. has been involved in a research on process of erosion and denudation. The study is based on a literature survey. It shows that the amplitude of relief is the dominant factor to be considered for ranking erosion rates. Extreme figures of 50 and 500mm per 1,000 years are therefore proposed as mean values of erosion rates, respectively for plains-hills and mountains, for indurated rocks and for non-periglacial climates. Coefficients must correct these values when dealing with softer rocks or periglacial climates. All these factors are liable to change as functions of the surface areas of the morphological units considered

  11. Waste repository planned for Bruce Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    2004-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and Kincardine, the municipality nearest the Bruce site, have agreed in principal to the construction of a deep geologic repository for low and medium level radioactive waste on the site. The two parties signed the 'Kincardine Hosting Agreement' on October 13, 2004 to proceed with planning, seek regulatory approval and further public consultation of the proposed project. A construction Licence is not expected before 2013. (author)

  12. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: a design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.S.; Schmidt, B.

    1982-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear waste repository in basalt is described. Nuclear waste packages are placed in holes drilled into the floor of tunnels at a depth of 3700 ft. About 100 miles of tunnels are required to receive 35,000 packages. Five shafts bring waste packages, ventilation air, excavated rock, personnel, material, and services to and from the subsurface. The most important surface facility is the waste handling building, located over the waste handling shaft, where waste is received and packaged for storage. Two independent ventilation systems are provided to avoid potential contamination of spaces that do not contain nuclear waste. Because of the high temperatures at depth, an elaborate air chilling system is provided. Because the waste packages deliver a considerable amount of heat energy to the rock mass, particular attention is paid to heat transfer and thermal stress studies. 3 references, 31 figures, 3 tables

  13. Potential host media for a high-level waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustrulid, W

    1982-01-01

    Earlier studies of burial of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories had concentrated on salt formations for well-publicized reasons. However, under the Carter administration, significant changes were made in the US nuclear waste management program. Changes which were made were: (1) expansion of the number of rock types under consideration; (2) adoption of the multiple-barrier approach to waste containment; (3) additional requirements for waste retrieval; and (4) new criteria proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the isolation of high-level waste in geologic repositories. Results of the studies of different types of rocks as repository sites are summarized herein. It is concluded that each generic rock type has certain advantages and disadvantages when considered from various aspects of the waste disposal problem and that characteristics of rocks are so varied that a most favorable or least favorable rock type cannot be easily identified. This lack of definitive characteristics of rocks makes site selection and good engineering barriers very important for containment of the wastes. (BLM)

  14. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  15. Safety analysis of the proposed Canadian geologic nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Canadian program for development and qualification of a geologic repository for emplacement of high-level and long-lived, alpha-emitting waste from irradiated nuclear fuel has been inititiated and is in its initial development stage. Fieldwork programs to locate candidate sites with suitable geological characteristics have begun. Laboratory studies and development of models for use in safety analysis of the emplaced nuclear waste have been initiated. The immediate objective is to complete a simplified safety analysis of a model geologic repository by mid-1978. This analysis will be progressively updated and will form part of an environmental Assessment Report of a Model Fuel Center which will be issued in mid-1979. The long-term objectives are to develop advanced safety assessment models of a geologic repository which will be available by 1980

  16. Analysis of the geological stability of a hypothetical radioactive waste repository in a bedded salt formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, M.S.; Lusso, F.; Shaw, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    This document reports on the development of mathematical models used in preliminary studies of the long-term safety of radioactive wastes deeply buried in bedded salt formations. Two analytical approaches to estimating the geological stability of a waste repository in bedded salt are described: (a) use of probabilistic models to estimate the a priori likelihoods of release of radionuclides from the repository through certain idealized natural and anthropogenic causes, and (b) a numerical simulation of certain feedback effects of emplacement of waste materials upon ground-water access to the repository's host rocks. These models are applied to an idealized waste repository for the sake of illustration

  17. Analysis on one underground nuclear waste repository rock mass in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Qiuling; Zhang Tiantian

    2012-01-01

    When analyzing the rock mass of a underground nuclear waste repository, the current studies are all based on the loading mechanical condition, and the unloading damage of rock mass is unconsidered. According to the different mechanical condition of actual engineering rock mass of loading and unloading, this paper implements a comprehensive analysis on the rock mass deformation of underground nuclear waste repository through the combination of present loading and unloading rock mass mechanics. It is found that the results of comprehensive analysis and actual measured data on the rock mass deformation of underground nuclear waste repository are basically the same, which provide supporting data for the underground nuclear waste repository. (authors)

  18. Ventilation System Strategy for a Prospective Korean Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki

    2005-01-01

    In the stage of conceptual design for the construction and operation of the geologic repository for radioactive wastes, it is important to consider a repository ventilation system which serves the repository working environment, hygiene and safety of the public at large, and will allow safe maintenance like moisture content elimination in repository for the duration of the repositories life, construction/operation/closure, also allowing safe waste transportation and emplacement. This paper describes the possible ventilation system design criteria and requirements for the prospective Korean radioactive waste repositories with emphasis on the underground rock cavity disposal method in the both cases of low and medium-level and high-level wastes. It was found that the most important concept is separate ventilation systems for the construction (development) and waste emplacement (storage) activities. In addition, ventilation network system modeling, natural ventilation, ventilation monitoring systems and real time ventilation simulation, and fire simulation and emergency system in the repository are briefly discussed.

  19. Mineralogical characterization of selected shales in support of nuclear waste repository studies: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.; Alley, P.D.

    1987-12-01

    Because baseline characterization of shale mineralogy is critical to the interpretation of results from experiments on radionuclide retardation, groundwater-shale interactions, and physicochemical characteristics, a protocol for quantitative mineralogical analyses has been developed by integrating geochemical and instrumental techniques for the investigation of properties related to repository performance. Thermal analyses were used to estimate total organic matter and carbonate mineral contents. Scanning electron microscope backscattering and elemental mapping of polished sectors and particle-size distribution data were used to estimate the amounts of quartz plus feldspar and pyrite in the shales. X-ray diffraction, neutron activation, and size-distribution data were utilized to estimate phyllosilicate mineral contents. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to identify clay mineral components.

  20. Mineralogical characterization of selected shales in support of nuclear waste repository studies: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.; Alley, P.D.

    1987-12-01

    Because baseline characterization of shale mineralogy is critical to the interpretation of results from experiments on radionuclide retardation, groundwater-shale interactions, and physicochemical characteristics, a protocol for quantitative mineralogical analyses has been developed by integrating geochemical and instrumental techniques for the investigation of properties related to repository performance. Thermal analyses were used to estimate total organic matter and carbonate mineral contents. Scanning electron microscope backscattering and elemental mapping of polished sectors and particle-size distribution data were used to estimate the amounts of quartz plus feldspar and pyrite in the shales. X-ray diffraction, neutron activation, and size-distribution data were utilized to estimate phyllosilicate mineral contents. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to identify clay mineral components

  1. Conflict, location, and politics: Siting a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power and the management of high-level radioactive waste is examined with the goal of explaining the forces driving the formulation of the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and a subsequent decision to site a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study draws upon geographic, political, economic, and organizational factors to examine the commitment to dispose of spent fuel in a geologic repository located in Nevada or in Utah, Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana, or at Hanford Washington. Special attention is given to the impact of location, science and technology on the definition of the nuclear waste problem and political agendas, public participation, and the power of the nuclear establishment. The study finds that the choice of a Yucca Mountain Nevada as the preferred site for a repository was based more on technological precedent and political-economic expediency than on the demonstrated superiority of that site's geology. Conflict over a repository location is interpreted as a symptom of more fundamental conflicts concerning: the credibility of nuclear science, the legitimacy of federal authority and administration, and the priorities of environmental protection and a nuclear economy

  2. Geologic environments for nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paleologos Evan K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-level radioactive waste (HLW results from spent reactor fuel and reprocessed nuclear material. Since 1957 the scientific consensus is that deep geologic disposal constitutes the safest means for isolating HLW for long timescales. Nuclear power is becoming significant for the Arab Gulf countries as a way to diversify energy sources and drive economic developments. Hence, it is of interest to the UAE to examine the geologic environments currently considered internationally to guide site selection. Sweden and Finland are proceeding with deep underground repositories mined in bedrock at depths of 500m, and 400m, respectively. Equally, Canada’s proposals are deep burial in the plutonic rock masses of the Canadian Shield. Denmark and Switzerland are considering disposal of their relative small quantities of HLW into crystalline basement rocks through boreholes at depths of 5,000m. In USA, the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada lies at a depth of 300m in unsaturated layers of welded volcanic tuffs. Disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as well as the German HLW repository favour structurally-sound layered salt stata and domes. Our article provides a comprehensive review of the current concepts regarding HLW disposal together with some preliminary analysis of potentially appropriate geologic environments in the UAE.

  3. Results from an International Simulation Study on Couples Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Rutqvist; J.T. Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q.S. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C.Y. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing international code comparison project DECOVALEX, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near underground waste emplacement drifts. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types with open or back-filled repository drifts under higher and lower post-closure temperature, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses are currently being resolved. Good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even with some teams using relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglect complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified (and well-known) process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level. The research teams have now moved on to the second phase of the project, the analysis of THM-induced permanent (irreversible) changes and the impact of those changes on the fluid flow field near an emplacement drift

  4. A study of the properties of concrete, grout and paste containing red mud for use in repositories for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martensson, P.; Tang, L.; Ding, Z.; Peng, X.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study of the properties of concrete, grout and paste containing red mud - a waste product derived from the digestion of bauxite with a versatile mineralogical composition - for use in repositories for nuclear waste. Two types of red mud from China were used in the experiments. Type 1 was taken from Chiping Xinfa Hoayu Alumina Co. LTD, Liaocheng City, Shandong Province, China and type 2 taken from Xianfeng Alumina Co. LTD, Chongqing, China. In the experiments concrete, grout and paste in which 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the mass of the binder was replaced by red mud were prepared for studies of the influence on the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the materials. The results show that the compressive strength for concrete in which 30 % of the mass of the binder had been replaced by red mud was reduced from 47 to 29 MPa after curing for 28 days for red mud type 1 and from 46 to 39 MPa for red mud type 2 compared to specimens without red mud. This is attributed to that red mud type 2 contains a larger amount of CaO which can contribute in the hydration process of the cement as nucleation. The influence on dry shrinkage of concrete containing different proportions of red mud differed between the two types of red mud used in this study. A possible influence from the method used for curing the specimens prior to the measurements was also observed. Addition of red mud in grout significantly increased the water permeability. This was attributed to that increasing amounts of red mud increases the porosity of the specimens and that the red mud mainly acts as an inert filler in the grout. Adsorption tests on crushed hardened cement paste containing red mud showed fluctuating results but tests on the raw materials showed a high sorption capacity for Cs. (authors)

  5. Repository Waste Package Transporter Shielding Weight Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.E. Sanders; Shiaw-Der Su

    2005-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain repository requires the use of a waste package (WP) transporter to transport a WP from a process facility on the surface to the subsurface for underground emplacement. The transporter is a part of the waste emplacement transport systems, which includes a primary locomotive at the front end and a secondary locomotive at the rear end. The overall system with a WP on board weights over 350 metric tons (MT). With the shielding mass constituting approximately one-third of the total system weight, shielding optimization for minimal weight will benefit the overall transport system with reduced axle requirements and improved maneuverability. With a high contact dose rate on the WP external surface and minimal personnel shielding afforded by the WP, the transporter provides radiation shielding to workers during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. This paper presents the design approach and optimization method used in achieving a shielding configuration with minimal weight

  6. Study and development of methodologies for qualification of waste products in repositories according to international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seles, Sandro Rogerio Novaes; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2005-01-01

    One of the processes to treat dangerous wastes is to immobilise them in cement. At CDTN/CNEN some researches are carried out on cementation in order to establish process parameters, materials, and equipment, aiming at the safe disposal of these wastes, protecting of the human being and the environment of possible risks. To establish the compressive strength of cemented products is important because it implies in its suitability for handling, transportation and storage without risks for the human bodies or environment. It is urgent to obtain the certification of the compressive strength test providing reproducible, trustful and suitable results, mainly to assure its traceability. At Cementation Laboratory (LABCIM/CDTN) the certification process of the compressive strength was begun in the year 2000. It was completed the necessary adequacies, the staff training, and the first internal audit. It is previewed for the current year another internal audit, the external audit, and the certification request. (author)

  7. Study of strontium sorption in Brazilian clays for their use as a barrier in repository of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Carolina Braccini; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2008-01-01

    Wastes in general should be properly treated and stored. The the radioactive wastes also require suitable and safe management beginning in their generation until the storage in repository. The objective of this research was to characterize some Brazilian clays in order to evaluate the viability of their use in the backfill layer, one of the radioactive waste repository barriers. The main function of this barrier is to contribute in the delay of the radionuclides movement, and to prevent their release into the environment. Four clays provided by national suppliers were selected for the research: Ca-Bentonite (Dol 01), Na-Bentonite (Dol 02), Kaolinite (Ind 01) and Vermiculite (Ubm 04.) Their physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics were determined, and also their sorption potential of Strontium cation. It was confirmed through theses results a direct relationship among their specific surface (SS), the capacity of cationic exchange (CCE) and pH. The CCE results followed this increasing order: Ind 01, Dol 01, and Dol 02. In accordance with the models of Freundlich (K f ) and Langmuir (M), the clays Dol 01 and Dol 02 were the best sorbers of Sr 2+ . The Gibbs free energy change (ΔG deg) was calculated for the sorption reactions between the clays and the cations, and it was negative for all clays, confirming the sorption reaction spontaneity. (author)

  8. Double Diffusive Natural Convection in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Hao; J. Nitao; T.A. Buscheck; Y. Sun

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we conduct a two-dimensional numerical analysis of double diffusive natural convection in an emplacement drift for a nuclear waste repository. In-drift heat and moisture transport is driven by combined thermal- and compositional-induced buoyancy forces. Numerical results demonstrate buoyancy-driven convective flow patterns and configurations during both repository heat-up and cool-down phases. It is also shown that boundary conditions, particularly on the drip-shield surface, have strong impacts on the in-drift convective flow and transport

  9. A study of uranium and thorium migration at the Koongarra uranium deposit with application to actinide transport from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    One way to gain confidence in modelling possible radionuclide releases is to study natural systems which are similar to components of the multibarrier waste repository. Several such analogues are currently under study and these provide useful data about radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment. One such system is the Koongarra uranium deposit in the Northern Territory. In this dissertation, the migration of actinides, primarily uranium and thorium, has been studied as an analogue for the behaviour of transuranics in the far-field of a waste repository. The major findings of this study are: 1. the main process retarding uranium migration in the dispersion fan at Koongarra is sorption, which suppresses dissolved uranium concentrations well below solubility limits, with ferrihydrite being a major sorbing phase; 2. thorium is extremely immobile, with very low dissolved concentrations and corresponding high distribution ratios for 230 Th. Overall, it is estimated that colloids are relatively unimportant in Koongarra groundwater. Uranium migrates mostly as dissolved species, whereas thorium and actinium are mostly adsorbed to larger, relatively immobile particles and the stationary phase. However, of the small amount of 230 Th that passes through a 1μm filter, a significant proportion is associated with colloidal particles. Actinium appears to be slightly more mobile than thorium and is associated with colloids to a greater extent, although generally present in low concentrations. These results support the possibility of colloidal transport of trivalent and tetravalent actinides in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository. 112 refs., 23 tabs., 32 figs

  10. Exerimental study on the water permeability of a reinforced concrete silo for radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriya, K.; Itoh, Y.; Hosoda, M.; Fujiwara, A.; Tsuji, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A low permeable conrete structure is required in a shallow land disposal system in order to isolate radioactive waste from the biosphere. Two model silos (7.25 m dia., 5.25 m height, 1.50 m wall thickness) will be constructed to demonstrate the performance of the concrete structure constructed by the two concepts. One concept is called the improved grouting method. We intend to inject cementitious material to the defective zone such as a crack after its construction by an ordinary construction method. The other concept is called the improved constructing method. We intend to minimize the defective zone, which influences the permeability, during the construction by an improved constructing method. The permeability of the concrete structure as a whole structure will be assessed by two large-scale-model-silos until 1992. The design, objectives, and preliminary results of this experiment are mainly described in this paper. (orig.)

  11. Study of degenerate parabolic system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a nuclear waste repository

    KAUST Repository

    Caro, Florian; Saad, Bilal Mohammed; Saad, Mazen Naufal B M

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is the mathematical analysis of a two phase (liquid and gas) two components (water and hydrogen) system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a storage site for radioactive waste. We suppose that the water is only in the liquid phase and is incompressible. The hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed compressible and could be dissolved into the water with the Henry law. The flow is described by the conservation of the mass of each components. The model is treated without simplified assumptions on the gas density. This model is degenerated due to vanishing terms. We establish an existence result for the nonlinear degenerate parabolic system based on new energy estimate on pressures.

  12. Study of degenerate parabolic system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a nuclear waste repository

    KAUST Repository

    Caro, Florian

    2013-09-01

    Our goal is the mathematical analysis of a two phase (liquid and gas) two components (water and hydrogen) system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a storage site for radioactive waste. We suppose that the water is only in the liquid phase and is incompressible. The hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed compressible and could be dissolved into the water with the Henry law. The flow is described by the conservation of the mass of each components. The model is treated without simplified assumptions on the gas density. This model is degenerated due to vanishing terms. We establish an existence result for the nonlinear degenerate parabolic system based on new energy estimate on pressures.

  13. Systems study of the feasibility of high-level nuclear waste fractionation for thermal stress control in a geologic repository: appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Elder, H.K.; McCallum, R.F.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Wiles, L.E.

    1983-06-01

    This study assesses the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium (Cs/Sr) components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic-repository thermal stresses in the region of the HLW. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers the prospect of a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or lower costs. Volume II contains appendices for: (1) thermal analysis supplement; (2) fractionation process experimental results supplement; (3) cost analysis supplement; and (4) radiological risk analysis supplement

  14. Reconstruction and modernization of Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, I.; Dralchev, D.; Spasov, P.; Jordanov, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents briefly the most important issues of the study performed by EQE - Bulgaria. The objectives of the study are the development of conceptual solutions for construction of the following facilities in the Novi Han radioactive waste repository: an operational storage for unconditioned high level spent sources; new temporary buildings over the existing radioactive waste storage facilities; a rain-water draining system ect. The study also includes the engineering solutions for conservation of the existing facilities, currently full with high level spent sources. A 'Program for reconstruction and modernization' has been created, including the analysis of some regulation aspects concerning this program implementation. In conclusions the engineering problems of Novi Han repository are clear and appropriate solutions are available. They can be implemented in both cases of 'small' or 'large' reconstruction. The reconstruction project anyway should start with the construction of a new site infrastructure. Reconstruction and modernization of Novi Han radioactive waste repository is the only way to improve the management and safety of radioactive waste from medicine, industry and scientific research in Bulgaria

  15. Geoprospective study of a nuclear waste repository. Climatology: climatic changes and glaciations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbouleix, S.

    1985-01-01

    Within the frame of a contract with the CEC dealing with storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations, the B.R.G.M. has been involved in a research on climatic changes and glaciations. For over three million years, the terrestrial environment has undergone a climate crisis, which causes are still discussed. 700 000 years ago, the paroxysm of this crisis was caracterized by the development of big ice-caps in the northern hemisphere. The last important glacial expansion - the Wurm- begun 70 000 years ago and ended less than 10 000 years ago. Since then, the climate warmed up slightly again with the ''small glacial age'' between the 16th and the 19th centuries. All glaciers regressed during a warmer phase lasting about one century, but, since 1945, the trend is again to a deep in temperature, the climatologists are not able to agree on its causes and its possible develoment. Considering the amplitude and the frequency of the Quaternary climatic changes, it is difficult to think that the glacial crisis is over. Many arguments let suppose the contrary. Therefore, all evidences lead, to the probability of at least one new glaciation wither the next 100 000 years. The problem is to know its importance and when it will occur. If during the present interglacial time, all ices could melt, one can expect a rise sea-levels of about 80 m. On the contrary, in the case of a future glaciation of the same amplitude as the previous one, the stocking of waters by the ice-caps would bring down the sea-level to 120 m which would lead to an important erosion period and a drastic change in landscapes

  16. Geoprospective study of a nuclear waste repository taking seismic activity into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godefroy, P.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the problem of taking seismic activity into account for a prospective safety analysis applied to the containment of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. The first part briefly gives some basic notions of seismicity and specifies the problems and available methods existing to perform predictive analysis related to seismic phenomena. The reliability of the different methods is discussed according to time in consideration: short-term (few centuries to 1 000 y.), mean-term (about 10 000 y.) and long-term (100 000 y. and more). The main features of recent tectonics and seismicity of the European area and France are succinctly exposed in the second part. Qualitative and quantitative data proper to the two selected ''test-zones'' (massif armoricain and south of bassin parisien) are collected and interpreted to outline the usable hypothesis for a prospective analysis. The probabilistic assessment of earthquake occurrence is discussed in the third part. The fourth part deals with nature and magnitude of the effects of earthquake on underground facilities and with the weight of several factors as those related to seismic sources and geological properties of the site, from a literature review. The following data are taken into account: - damages to underground facilities after great earthquakes, - comparison of seismic records of earthquakes and nuclear events at different depths and at ground surface, - theoretical models developed to determine strains and displacement fields induced by earthquakes. Literature data about the effects of great earthquakes on regional hydrogeology are summarized in the fifth part of the report

  17. Study of Cesium and Strontium sorption in Brazilian clays for their use as a barrier in repositories of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Carolina Braccini

    2007-01-01

    Wastes in general should be properly treated and stored. Then the radioactive wastes also require suitable and safe management beginning in their generation until the storage in repository. The main purpose of the radioactive waste management is to preserve the human beings and the environment. The objective of this research was to characterize some Brazilian clays in order to evaluate the viability of their use in the backfill layer, one of the radioactive waste repository barriers. The main function of this barrier is to contribute in the delay of the radionuclides movement, and to prevent their release into the environment. Four clays provided by national suppliers were selected for the research: Ca-Montmorillonite (Dol 01), Na-Montmorillonite (Dol 02), Kaolinite (Ind 01) and Vermiculite (Ubm 04). Their physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics were determined, and also their sorption potential of Cesium and Strontium cations. It was confirmed through these results a direct relationship among their specific surface (SS), the capacity of cationic exchange (CCE) and pH. The CCE results followed this increasing order: Ind 01, Dol 01, and Dol 02. In accordance with the models of Freundlich (KJ) and Langmuir (M), the clays Dol 01 and Dol 02 were the best sorbers of Sr 2+ . The Ind 01 and Ubm 04 were the best ones in the case of Cs + . The Gibbs free energy change (ΔG deg) was calculated for the sorption reactions between the clays and the cations, and it was negative for all clays, confirming the sorption reaction spontaneity. (author)

  18. Salt Repository Project waste emplacement mode decision paper: Revison 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This paper provides a recommendation as to the mode of waste emplacement to be used as the current basis for site characterization activity for the Deaf Smith County, Texas, high level nuclear waste repository site. It also presents a plan for implementing the recommendation so as to provide a high level of confidence in the project's success. Since evaluations of high-level waste disposal in geologic repositories began in the 1950s, most studies emplacement in salt formations employed the vertical orientation for emplacing waste packages in boreholes in the floor of the underground facility. This orientation was used in trials at Project Salt Vault in the 1960s. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has recently settled on a combination of vertical and horizontal modes for various waste types. This paper analyzes the information available and develops a project position upon which to base current site characterization activities. The position recommended is that the SRP should continue to use the vertical waste emplacement mode as the reference design and to carry the horizontal mode as a ''passive'' alternative. This position was developed based upon the conclusions of a decision analysis, risk assessment, and cost/schedule impact assessment. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Safety analysis methodologies for radioactive waste repositories in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report is part of the IAEA Safety Series and is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and/or reviewing safety assessments of shallow ground radioactive waste repositories. It discusses approaches that are applicable for safety analysis of a shallow ground repository. The methodologies, analysis techniques and models described are pertinent to the task of predicting the long-term performance of a shallow ground disposal system. They may be used during the processes of selection, confirmation and licensing of new sites and disposal systems or to evaluate the long-term consequences in the post-sealing phase of existing operating or inactive sites. The analysis may point out need for remedial action, or provide information to be used in deciding on the duration of surveillance. Safety analysis both general in nature and specific to a certain repository, site or design concept, are discussed, with emphasis on deterministic and probabilistic studies

  20. Transferability of geodata from European to Canadian (Ontario) sedimentary rocks to study gas transport from nuclear wastes repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fall, M.; Ghafari, H.; Evgin, E.; Nguyen, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A deep geological repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level waste in southern Ontario is currently proposed, at a depth of approximately 680 m in an argillaceous limestone formation (Cobourg Limestone) overlain by 200 m of low permeability shale (Ordovician Shale). Significant quantities of gas could be generated in the aforementioned DGR from several processes (e.g., degradation of waste forms, corrosion of waste containers). The accumulation and release of such gases from the repository system may affect a number of processes that influence its long-term safety. Consequently, safety assessments of the proposed DGR need to be supported by a solid understanding of the main mechanisms associated with gas generation and migration and the capability to mathematically model those mechanisms. The development of those mathematical models would usually require the consideration of complex coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical- chemical (THMC) processes. A research program is being conducted in the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Ottawa in collaboration with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to model the coupled THMC processes associated with gas migration and their impacts on the safety of DGR in southern Ontario. The development and validation of such model as well as the assessment of the impact of gas migration need the acquisition of sufficient amount of (good quality) data on the geomechanical, geochemical, hydraulic, thermal properties of the sedimentary rocks in Southern Ontario as well as relevant gas transport parameters, such as gas entry pressure, Klinkenberg effect, intrinsic permeability, capillary pressure-water saturation relationship. During the past fifteen years, several laboratory and field investigations have been conducted in several countries to acquire geo-data to study and model the THMC processes associated with gas migration in DGR in sedimentary rocks. However

  1. Barriers to migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.

    1999-01-01

    Natural inorganic sorbents are known as effective barriers that reduce the migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories and contaminated sites. They could be used as buffer, backfill and sealing materials in the repository and their presence in the host rock and the surrounding geological formations increases the retention properties of the strata. Natural occurring minerals from local origin are used in the study - zeolites (clinoptilolite and mordenite), celadonite and loess. Sorption of wide range of radionuclides is studies. Batch capacity is determined. Sorption of radionuclides from simulated natural solution is studied. Distribution coefficients are calculated from sorption isotherms. Desorption in presence of different natural solutions is studied. Sorption properties are compared. It is shown that clinoptilolite acts as effective barrier against migration of radionuclides from repositories. The presence of celadonite in the clinoptilolite rock increases the retention of polyvalent ions. The retention of radionuclides on loess samples fulfils the requirements for host media for repository for low and intermediate level waste. A method for construction of additional barrier to the existing in the country disposal vault for spent sealed sources is proposed

  2. Investigation on design of repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Boming; Zhang Ruixue; Wang Fengying

    2010-01-01

    The scheme design of the repository for radioactive waste is introduced according to the traits of radioactive waste in Jiangsu province, such as the style of the repository, lifting facilities, the step for preventing or controlling flood, the aseismatic measure, the pollution prevention and so on. This ensured the radioactive waste and the waste radioactive sources to be stored in security, the area environment not to be polluted. It can improve the use of nuclear technology in Jiangsu province. (authors)

  3. Dispute resolution in the nuclear waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creighton, J.L.; Shorett, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    During 1987 a seven-person team addressed just that question for the State of Washington, as part of the studies of the socioeconomic impacts of a possible nuclear waste repository site at the Hanford site. The authors were, respectively, the Mitigation/Compensation team leader and the conflict resolution specialist within the team. While the studies were terminated when Congress selected the Nevada site, the conclusions may still have value for the State of Nevada, or for other controversial federal projects

  4. Natural analogues, paradigm for manmade repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelescu, M.; Pavelescu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Natural analogues are given by nature. They show the results of natural processes which have lasted thousands or millions of years. They provide an excellent example of what could happen in an underground site, offering in the same time the opportunity to test by observation and measurement, many of the geochemical processes that are expected to influence in a realistic and appropriate way, the predicted reliability of the radioactive waste repository over long periods of geological time. The natural analogue studies attempt to understand the multiprocessing complexity of the natural system, which contrasts with the limitations of the laboratory experiments and bring arguments to overcome the difficult time scale issue. By this the natural analogues are a useful paradigm for manmade repository for radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the implicit link in the public mind between natural analogues and manmade waste repository with an accent of the positive impact on public acceptance. It is also discussed the decisive qualities of the natural analogues concerning providing valid long term data and increasing the confidence of the public for manmade repositories. The debate is conducting in terms of sustainable development, having at base high-level principles in order to protect humans and their environment, both now and in the future, from potential hazards arising from such wastes. Safe radwaste management involves the application of technology and resources in a regulated manner so that the public, workers and the environment are protected in accordance with the accepted national and international standards. There are at least seven high-level principles which are mentioned in the paper. It is presented the general concept of the deep geological repository, very important for an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste, what is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Further are introduced natural and archaeological (manufactured) analogue

  5. Thermohydromechanical stability analysis upon joint characteristics and depth variations in the region of an underground repository for the study of a disposal concept of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Bae, Dae Suk; Kang, Chul Hyung; Choi, Jong Won

    2003-02-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand a long term(500 years) thermohydromechanical interaction behavior in the vicinity of a repository cavern upon joint location and repository depth variations, and then, to contribute to the development of a disposal concept. The model includes a saturated rock mass, PWR spent fuels in a disposal canister surrounded by compacted bentonite inside a deposition hole, and mixed bentonite backfilled in the rest of the space within a cavern. It is assumed that two joint sets exist within a model. A joint set 1 includes 56 .deg. dip joints, 20m spaced, and a joint set 2 is in the direction perpendicular to a joint set 1 and includes 34 .deg. dip joints, 20m spaced. In order to understand the behavior change upon joint location variations, 5 different models of 500m depth are analyzed, and additional 3 different models of 1km depth are analyzed to understand the effect of a depth variation. The two dimensional distinct element code, UDEC is used for the analysis. To understand the joint behavior adjacent to a repository cavern, Barton-Bandis joint model is used. Effect of the decay heat for PWR spent fuels on a repository model is analyzed, and a steady state algorithm is used for a hydraulic analysis. According to the thermohydromechanical interaction behavior of a repository model upon variations of joint locations and a repository depth, during the period of 500 years from waste emplacement, the effect of a depth variation on the stress and displacement behavior of a model is comparatively smaller than the effect of decay heat from radioactive materials. From the study of the joint location variation effect, it is advisable not to locate an underground opening in the region very close to the joint crossings

  6. Enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, A.

    2007-01-01

    A unified analysis of the enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste (RW) repository RADONS considers the interplay of the existing engineering, safety and infrastructure premises, with the foreseen newly socio-technical features. This enlargement consists in construction of two additional RW disposal vaults and in building a long-term storage facility for spent sealed sources at the RADONS territory. Our approach is based on consecutive analysis of following basic elements: - the origin of enlargement - the RADONS safety analysis and a set of optimal socio-technical solutions of Salaspils research reactor decommissioning waste management; - the enlargement - a keystone of the national RW management concept, including the long-term approach; - the enlargement concept - the result of international co-operation and obligations; - arrangement optimization of new disposal and storage space; - environmental impact assessment for the repository enlargement - the update of socio-technical studies. The study of the public opinion revealed: negative attitude to repository enlargement is caused mainly due to missing information on radiation level and on the RADONS previous operations. These results indicate: basic measures to improve the public attitude to repository enlargement: the safety upgrade, public education and compensation mechanisms. A detailed stakeholders engagement and public education plan is elaborated. (author)

  7. Study on water migration of tunnel surrounding rock in nuclear waste repository based on coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhongming; Zhang Xinmin

    2008-01-01

    Excavation of tunnel changes not only the stresses and deformation of tunnel surrounding rock, but also disturbs the underground water environment in tunnel surrounding rock Water migration happens due to variation of pore water pressure and redistribution. Based on the mechanics of porous media, saturated and unsaturated hydro-mechanical coupling analysis method is employed to study the variation of the stresses, deformation and pore pressure of the surrounding rock. Case study indicates that the excavation of tunnel will induce redistribution of stress and pore water pressure. Redistribution of pore water pressure will seriously affect on evaluation of surrounding rock stability and diffusion of nucleon in the pore water. (authors)

  8. Applications of natural analogue studies to Yucca Mountain as a potential high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The 5-member group convened in Las Vegas, Nov. 11-13, 1991, to clarify the extent to which studies of natural analogues can assist the Yucca Mountain site characterization (SC) project. This document is to provide guidance and recommendations to DOE for the implementation of natural analogue studies in the SC program. Performance assessment, integrity of engineered barriers, and communication to the public and the scientific community are stressed. The reference design being developed by Babcock ampersand Wilcox Fuel Company are reviewed. Guidelines for selecting natural analogues are given. Quality assurance is discussed. Recommendations are given for developing an effective natural analogue program within the SC program

  9. Reconstruction and modernization of Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, I.

    2001-01-01

    The paper is an overview of the Feasibility Study for Reconstruction and Modernisation of Novi Han Radioactive Waste Repository (NHRWR), performed by EQE Bulgaria AD in 2000 for the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Study develops a concept for overall reconstruction and modernisation of NHRWR, including rehabilitation and partial reconstruction of existing facilities and planning of new facilities for conditioning and storage of various radioactive wastes and spent sealed sources. The paper presents the general modernisation concept and outlines the proposed principle technical solutions for the existing and new facilities. (author)

  10. Informing future societies about nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990 a working group of the NKS (the Nordic nuclear safety program) was formed and give the task of established a basis for a common Nordic view of the need for information conservation for nuclear waste repositories. The Group investigated what tipy of information should be conserved; in what form the information should be kept; the quality of the information; and the problems of future retrieval of information, including retrieval after very long periods of time. Topics covered include the following: scientific aspects including social context of scientific solutions; information management; systems for conservation and retrieval of information including the problems of prediction; archives, markers, archives vs. markers, and continuing processes in society; Archive media including paper documents, microfilm, digital media, media lifetimes; and finally conclusions and recommendations

  11. A comparison study of single and double layer repositories for high level radioactive wastes within a saturated and discontinuous granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Choi, Jong Won; Bae, Dae Suk

    2004-02-01

    The present study is to analyze and compare a long term thermohydro mechanical interaction behavior of a single layer and a double layer repository for high level radioactive wastes within a saturated and discontinuous granitic rock mass, and then to contribute this understanding to the development of a Korean disposal concept. The model includes a saturated and discontinuous granitic rock mass, PWR spent nuclear fuel in a disposal canister surrounded by compacted bentonite inside a deposition hole, and mixed bentonite backfilled in the rest of the space within a repository cavern. It is assumed that two joint sets exist within the model. Joint set 1 includes joints of 56 .deg. dip angle, spaced at 20 m, and joint set 2 is in the perpendicular direction to joint set 1 and includes joints of .deg. dip angle, spaced at 20 m. The two dimensional distinct element code, UDEC is used for the analysis. To understand the joint behavior adjacent to the repository cavern, Barton-Bandis joint model is used. Effect of the decay heat from PWR spent fuels on the repository model has been analyzed, and a steady state flow algorithm is used for the hydraulic analysis

  12. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsill J, David; Elkins, Ned Z.; Wu, Chuan-Fu; Mewhinney, James D.; Aamodt, Paul

    2000-01-01

    repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) offers a unique opportunity to serve as an international cooperative test bed for developing and demonstrating technologies and processes in a fully operational repository system setting. To address the substantial national security implications for the US resulting from the lack of integrated, transparent management and disposition of nuclear materials at the back-end of the nuclear fuel and weapons cycles, it is proposed that WIPP be used as a test bed to develop and demonstrate technologies that will enable the transparent and proliferation-resistant geologic isolation of nuclear materials. The objectives of this initiative are to: (1) enhance public confidence in safe, secure geologic isolation of nuclear materials; (2) develop, test, and demonstrate transparency measures and technologies for the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle; and (3) foster international collaborations leading to workable, effective, globally-accepted standards for the transparent monitoring of geological repositories for nuclear materials. Test-bed activities include: development and testing of monitoring measures and technologies; international demonstration experiments; transparency workshops; visiting scientist exchanges; and educational outreach. These activities are proposed to be managed by the Department of Energy/Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) as part of The Center for Applied Repository and Underground Studies (CARUS)

  13. Pre-treatment of bituminized NPP wastes for disposal in near-surface repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Clédola Cássia Oliveira de, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. The Brazilian repository is being planned to be a near-surface one. In Brazil the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are immobilized using cement and bitumen for Angra 1 and Angra 2 NPP, respectively. The main problems due to the disposal of bituminized wastes in repositories are swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling of the bituminized wastes, the drums are filled up to 70 - 90% of their volume, which reduces the structural the repository stability and the disposal availability. Countries, which use bitumen in the solidification of NPP's radioactive waste and have near-surface repositories, need to immobilize this bituminized waste within other drums containing cement pastes or mortars to disposal them. This study aims to find solutions for the storage in surface repository of bituminized radioactive waste products, making them compatible with the acceptance criteria of cemented waste products. It was also performed a modeling with the results obtained in the leaching test using the ALT program and defined the transport model of the cesium leachate element and it was verified that in the early times the leaching was governed by the diffusion model and later by the partition model. The results obtained in this study can be used in the evaluation of performance of repositories. (author)

  14. Pre-treatment of bituminized NPP wastes for disposal in near-surface repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Clédola Cássia Oliveira de

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. The Brazilian repository is being planned to be a near-surface one. In Brazil the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are immobilized using cement and bitumen for Angra 1 and Angra 2 NPP, respectively. The main problems due to the disposal of bituminized wastes in repositories are swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling of the bituminized wastes, the drums are filled up to 70 - 90% of their volume, which reduces the structural the repository stability and the disposal availability. Countries, which use bitumen in the solidification of NPP's radioactive waste and have near-surface repositories, need to immobilize this bituminized waste within other drums containing cement pastes or mortars to disposal them. This study aims to find solutions for the storage in surface repository of bituminized radioactive waste products, making them compatible with the acceptance criteria of cemented waste products. It was also performed a modeling with the results obtained in the leaching test using the ALT program and defined the transport model of the cesium leachate element and it was verified that in the early times the leaching was governed by the diffusion model and later by the partition model. The results obtained in this study can be used in the evaluation of performance of repositories. (author)

  15. Cs sorption to potential host rock of low-level radioactive waste repository in Taiwan: experiments and numerical fitting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Chen, Chin-Lung; Ou, Lu-Yen; Wei, Yuan-Yaw; Chang, Fu-Lin; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2011-09-15

    A reliable performance assessment of radioactive waste repository depends on better knowledge of interactions between nuclides and geological substances. Numerical fitting of acquired experimental results by the surface complexation model enables us to interpret sorption behavior at molecular scale and thus to build a solid basis for simulation study. A lack of consensus on a standard set of assessment criteria (such as determination of sorption site concentration, reaction formula) during numerical fitting, on the other hand, makes lower case comparison between various studies difficult. In this study we explored the sorption of cesium to argillite by conducting experiments under different pH and solid/liquid ratio (s/l) with two specific initial Cs concentrations (100mg/L, 7.5 × 10(-4)mol/L and 0.01 mg/L, 7.5 × 10(-8)mol/L). After this, numerical fitting was performed, focusing on assessment criteria and their consequences. It was found that both ion exchange and electrostatic interactions governed Cs sorption on argillite. At higher initial Cs concentration the Cs sorption showed an increasing dependence on pH as the solid/liquid ratio was lowered. In contrast at trace Cs levels, the Cs sorption was neither s/l dependent nor pH sensitive. It is therefore proposed that ion exchange mechanism dominates Cs sorption when the concentration of surface sorption site exceeds that of Cs, whereas surface complexation is attributed to Cs uptake under alkaline environments. Numerical fitting was conducted using two different strategies to determine concentration of surface sorption sites: the clay model (based on the cation exchange capacity plus surface titration results) and the iron oxide model (where the concentration of sorption sites is proportional to the surface area of argillite). It was found that the clay model led to better fitting than the iron oxide model, which is attributed to more amenable sorption sites (two specific sorption sites along with larger site

  16. Classifying decommissioning wastes for allocation to appropriate final repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, J.C.; Tunaboylu, K.

    1982-01-01

    For the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in different repositories, it is of advantage to classify them in well-defined conditioned categories, appropriate for final disposal. These categories, the so-called waste sorts are characterized by similar radionuclide distribution, similar nuclide-specific activity concentrations and similar waste matrix. A methodology is presented for classifying decommissioning wastes and is applied to the decommissioning wastes arising from a Swiss program of 6 GWe. The amounts and nuclide-specific activity inventories of the decommissioning waste sorts have been estimated. A first allocation into two different repository types has been performed. Such a classification enables one to define the source parameters for repository safety analysis and allows one to allocate the different waste categories into appropriate final repositories. This work presents a first iteration to determine which waste sorts belong to which repository type. The characteristics of waste sorts have to be better defined and the protective strength of the repository barriers has to be optimized. 7 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  17. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities.

  18. Durability of cemented waste in repository and under simulated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.; Nicu, M.; Lungu, L.; Turcanu, C.; Rotarescu, Gh.

    2000-01-01

    The Romanian Radioactive Waste National Repository for low level and intermediate level radioactive waste was built in Baita - Bihor county, in an extinct uranium exploitation. The site is at 840 m above sea level and the host rock is crystalline with a low porosity, a good chemical homogeneity and impermeability, keeping these qualities over a considerable horizontal and vertical spans. To obtain the experimental data necessary for the waste form and package characterization together with the back-filling material behaviour in the repository environment, a medium term research programme (1996 - 2010) was implemented. The purpose of this experimental programme is to obtain a part of the data base necessary for the approach of medium and long term assessment of the safety and performance of Baita - Bihor Repository. The programme will provide: a deeper knowledge of the chemical species and reaction mechanisms, the structure, properties and performances of the final products. For safety reasons the behaviour of waste package, which is a main barrier, must be properly known in terms of long term durability in real repository conditions. Characterization of the behaviour includes many interactions between the waste package itself and the surrounding near field conditions such as mineralogy, hydrogeology and groundwater chemistry. To obtain a more deeper knowledge of the species and physical-chemical reactions participating in the matrix formation, as well as their future behaviour during the disposal period, a thorough XRD study started in 1998. For Romanian Radioactive Waste National Repository (DNDR) Baita - Bihor the following steps are planned for the conditioned waste matrix characterization in simulated and real conditions: - preparation and characterization of normal reference matrices based on different cement formulations; - preparation of reference simulated sludge cemented matrices containing iron hydroxide and iron phosphate; - selection of real and

  19. Testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Menamin, T.

    1989-01-01

    The workshop on testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions was held on 17 to 21 October 1988 in Cadarache, France, and sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA) and the Savannah River Laboratory (US DOE). Participants included representatives from Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, The United Kingdom and the United States. The first part of the conference featured a workshop on in situ testing of simulated nuclear waste forms and proposed package components, with an emphasis on the materials interface interactions tests (MIIT). MIIT is a sevent-part programme that involves field testing of 15 glass and waste form systems supplied by seven countries, along with potential canister and overpack materials as well as geologic samples, in the salt geology at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA. This effort is still in progress and these proceedings document studies and findings obtained thus far. The second part of the meeting emphasized multinational experimental studies and results derived from repository systems simulation tests (RSST), which were performed in granite, clay and salt environments

  20. Earthquake activity in Sweden. Study in connection with a proposed nuclear waste repository in Forsmark or Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedvarsson, Reynir; Lund, Bjoern; Roberts, Roland; Slunga, Ragnar

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this report is to evaluate the risks for future earthquakes in the vicinity of the proposed nuclear waste repository sites at Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Time periods of 100 and 1,000 years will be considered, which implies that the focus of this study is on an evaluation of the current, general situation in the region. Major events on a longer time scale, such as an ice-age, will only be briefly considered. Earthquakes are products of ongoing deformations within the Earth and this report will, therefore, concentrate on the current state of knowledge about deformations in the region. As earthquakes are our most important source of information about deformations at depth in the crust, we will focus on the available seismic data using the Nordic earthquake catalog maintained at the Institute of Seismology, Helsinki University, and the recent data from the new Swedish National Seismic Network. Direct measurements of surface deformation using the Global Positioning System will also be utilized in the analysis. Sweden is a low seismicity area, with most earthquakes being observed in the south-west, around Lake Vaenern, along the north-east coast and in Norrbotten. South-eastern Sweden is on the contrary relatively inactive. Seismicity is also, generally, episodic in time which together with the short period of instrumental observation, approximately 100 years, makes our knowledge about the activity far from complete. Although very large earthquakes (magnitude about 8) have occurred in Sweden, it is generally agreed that these were connected to the late stages of deglaciation at the end of the previous ice-age. At the time scales considered in this report, inferences from current seismicity is of more relevance. This data suggests that we should expect at least one magnitude 5 earthquake in our region every century and one magnitude 6 earthquake every one thousand years. In order to illustrate the effects of static and dynamic deformation from a magnitude 5

  1. Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in basalt. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in basalt. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described

  2. Is Croatia Going to Build a Radioactive Waste Repository?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, Alemka; Levanat, Ivica; Saponja-Milutinovc, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Site selection process for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository in Croatia was ended in 1999, nominating Trgovska gora as the potential macrolocation for the facility. Feasibility of the Trgovska gora disposal project was analyzed in a number of studies prepared by APO Ltd. from the mid-nineties up to 2003. An affirmative, though preliminary and largely generic safety assessment was completed. Specific microlocations were selected and analyzed based on literature data (garnished with low-resolution digital satellite pictures), and the best microlocation was tentatively narrowed down to Pavlovo brdo. After 2003, no further activities related to the repository project were undertaken for nearly ten years, until in its public procurement plan for 2013 the Croatian Fund for financing the NPP Krsko decommissioning and waste disposal dedicated over half a million euro to continuation of the project. In general, safe radioactive waste disposal pre-requires establishment of a complex national framework with appropriate functionality and competence; with such a framework established, decisive first steps towards building a repository are to identify potentially suitable locations and to ensure local community consent and cooperation. The rest should mainly be routine. But in Croatia, both lack of proper framework and the project history of indecisiveness may adversely affect further developments. Trgovska gora was designated as the potential location in the national land use plan only after three other potential locations had been dismissed by political decisions based on the largely assumed adverse attitudes of local communities. Repository project now appears to depend on cooperation of a single local community hosting the only potential site. The site has never been visited by any repository project participants, nor has the local community ever been officially contacted in an open and straightforward way, despite the 20-year old history of the project

  3. Safety assessment methodology for waste repositories in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Lewi, J.; Pradel, J.; Queniart, D.; Raimbault, P.; Assouline, M.

    1986-06-01

    The long term safety of a nuclear waste repository relies on the evaluation of the doses which could be transferred to man in the future. This implies a detailed knowledge of the medium where the waste will be confined, the identification of the basic phenomena which govern the migration of the radionuclides and the investigation of all possible scenarios that may affect the integrity of the barriers between the waste and the biosphere. Inside the Institute of protection and nuclear safety of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/IPSN), the Department of the Safety Analysis (DAS) is currently developing a methodology for assessing the safety of future geological waste repositories, and is in charge of the modelling development, while the Department of Technical Protection (DPT) is in charge of the geological experimental studies. Both aspects of this program are presented. The methodology for risk assessment stresses the needs for coordination between data acquisition and model development which should result in the obtention of an efficient tool for safety evaluation. Progress needs to be made in source and geosphere modelling. Much more sophisticated models could be used than the ones which is described; however sensitivity analysis will determine the level of sophistication which is necessary to implement. Participation to international validation programs are also very important for gaining confidence in the approaches which have been chosen

  4. An analysis of repository waste-handling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, A.W.

    1990-09-01

    This report has been prepared to document the operational analysis of waste-handling facilities at a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. The site currently under investigation for the geologic repository is located at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The repository waste-handling operations have been identified and analyzed for the year 2011, a steady-state year during which the repository receives spent nuclear fuel containing the equivalent of 3000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) and defense high-level waste containing the equivalent of 400 MTU. As a result of this analysis, it has been determined that the waste-handling facilities are adequate to receive, prepare, store, and emplace the projected quantity of waste on an annual basis. In addition, several areas have been identified where additional work is required. The recommendations for future work have been divided into three categories: items that affect the total waste management system, operations within the repository boundary, and the methodology used to perform operational analyses for repository designs. 7 refs., 48 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Tunnel Boring Machine for nuclear waste repository research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzon, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    A description is presented of a Tunnel Boring Machine and its intended use on a research project underway in Sweden for demonstrating and testing methods for rock investigation at a suitable depth for a deep repository for nuclear waste

  6. Waste-rock interactions in the immediate repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.

    1977-01-01

    The high level wastes (HLW's) to be placed underground in rock formations will contain significant amounts of radioactive decay heat for the first hundred-or-so years of isolation. Several physical-chemical changes analogous to natural geochemical processes can occur during this ''thermal period.'' The waste canister can act as a heat source and cause changes in the mineralogy and properties of the surrounding rocks. Geochemically, this is ''contact metamorphism.'' In the event that the canister is corroded and breached, chemical reactions can occur between the HLW, the surrounding rock and possibly the remains of the canister. In a dry repository which has not been backfilled (and thus pressurized) these interactions could be slow at best and with rates decreasing rapidly as the HLW cools. However, significant interactions can occur in years, months or even days under hydrothermal conditions. These conditions could be created by the combination of HLW heat, overburden pressure and water mobilized from the rocks or derived from groundwater intrusion. At the end of the thermal period these interaction products would constitute the actual HLW form (or ''source term'') subject to the low temperature leaching and migration processes under investigation in other laboratories. It is quite possible that these interaction product waste forms will have superior properties compared to the original HLW. Experimental programs initiated at Penn State during the last year aim at determining the nature of any chemical or mineralogical changes in, or interactions between, HLW solids and host rocks under various repository ambients. The accompanying figures describe the simulated HLW forms and the experimental approach and techniques. Studies with basalts as the repository rock are supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations and with shales by the Office of Waste Isolation

  7. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation

  8. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation.

  9. Multibarrier system preventing migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewska Wioleta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety of radioactive waste repositories operation is associated with a multibarrier system designed and constructed to isolate and contain the waste from the biosphere. Each of radioactive waste repositories is equipped with system of barriers, which reduces the possibility of release of radionuclides from the storage site. Safety systems may differ from each other depending on the type of repository. They consist of the natural geological barrier provided by host rocks of the repository and its surroundings, and an engineered barrier system (EBS. The EBS may itself comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as waste forms, canisters, buffers, backfills, seals and plugs. The EBS plays a major role in providing the required disposal system performance. It is assumed that the metal canisters and system of barriers adequately isolate waste from the biosphere. The evaluation of the multibarrier system is carried out after detailed tests to determine its parameters, and after analysis including mathematical modeling of migration of contaminants. To provide an assurance of safety of radioactive waste repository multibarrier system, detailed long term safety assessments are developed. Usually they comprise modeling of EBS stability, corrosion rate and radionuclide migration in near field in geosphere and biosphere. The principal goal of radionuclide migration modeling is assessment of the radionuclides release paths and rate from the repository, radionuclides concentration in geosphere in time and human exposure to ionizing radiation

  10. Post-closure resaturation of a deep radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, I.C.S.; Rodwell, W.R.

    1989-03-01

    The post-closure resaturation of a deep radioactive waste repository has been modelled for a number of generic disposal concepts. A combination of numerical ground water flow simulations and analytical calculations has been used to investigate the variation of repository fluid pressure and degree of water saturation with time, and to determine the factors influencing resaturation times. The host rock permeability was found to be the most important determining factor. For geological environments regarded as likely for a waste repository, resaturation is predicted to be a short term process compared with gas generation and contaminant migration timescales. (author)

  11. Experimental studies on the migration of radionuclides of the elements I, Sr, Cs, Co and Pd in the roof rock of the projected waste repository at Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Lang, H.; Moser, H.

    1985-07-01

    The studies were intended to provide information on the sorptive properties of 15 samples of fine-grain and medium-grain sands with regard to the radionuclides of I, Sr, Cs, Co, and Pd, and on their hydraulic properties. The samples were taken from the geologic formations in the area surrounding the projected waste repository in the Gorleben salt mine, at depth of up to 250 m down from terrain surface, and were analysed by means of column and batch experiments. Further goals were to determine the radionuclide migration as a function of flow velocity of the groundwater, and of sand compactness, as well as the effects of carrier ions and main groundwater contituents. The margins of retardation factors for the various radionuclides are given. One important result of the studies is that it could be expeimentally verified that there is the process of quasi irreversible sorption, i.e. it could be shown that desorption of radionuclides from natural, unconsolidated rock proceeds very much slowlier than sorption, so that this finding is of great significance to the safety assessment of a radioactive waste repository in geologic formations. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Public reactions to nuclear waste: Citizens' views of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents revised and updated papers from a panel of social scientists, at the 1989 AAAS meetings, that examined the public's reactions to nuclear waste disposal and the repository siting process. The papers report the results of original empirical research on citizens' views of nuclear waste repository siting. Topics covered include the following: content analysis of public testimony; sources of public concern about nuclear waste disposal in Texas agricultural communities; local attitudes toward high-level waste repository at Hanford; perceived risk and attitudes toward nuclear wastes; attitudes of Nevada urban residents toward a nuclear waste repository; attitudes of rural community residents toward a nuclear waste respository. An introductory chapter provides background and context, and a concluding chapter summarizes the implications of the reports. Two additional chapters cover important features of high-level waste disposal: long term trends in public attitudes toward nuclear energy and nuclear waste policy and assessment of the effects on the Los Vegas convention business if a high-level nuclear waste depository were sited in Nevada

  13. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-01-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking

  14. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd); Das Verfahren der alternativen Standortsuche im Bericht des Arbeitskreises Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AKEnd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, M. [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The paper discusses the results of the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process with respect to the alternative site selection procedure. Key points of the report are the long-term safety, the alternativity of sites and the concept of one repository. The critique on this report is focussed on the topics site selection and licensing procedures, civil participation, the factor time and the question of cost.

  15. Neotectonic movement feature in preselection area for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianfang; Gao Yang; He Jianguo; Li Jianzhong; Gao Honglei; Xu Guoqing

    2010-01-01

    Neotectonic activity intensity is an important criteria for evaluating high level radioactive waste repository. The guiding ideology, methods and application of neotectonic study are elaborated in the paper. According to comparison research between the south and north part of east Tianshan area, the south part of east Tianshan is regarded as relative stable or relative weak in neotectonic movement in Neogene period and was selected as preselection area for high level radioactive waste repository. (authors)

  16. Experience from developed and licensing an underground repository for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, K.; Richter, D.

    1988-01-01

    In the German Democratic Republic an abandoned salt mine was selected and reconstructed to serve as a central repository for low and intermediate level wastes from nuclear power plants and radioisotope production and application from all over the country. The decision to establish such a repository was based on safety and technical-economic studies performed in the 1960s. The repository is owned by the main waste producer, the nuclear plant utility. It was designed, constructed and commissioned during 1972-1978. The licensing steps included a site licence (1972), a construction licence (1974), a comissioning licence and a continuous operation licence (1979). The paper reviews the overall choice of the disposal option, the responsibilities in radioactive waste management, the licensing and surveillance activities, the methods for transport and disposal, and the waste acceptance criteria established for the repository. (author)

  17. Release consequence analysis for a hypothetical geologic radioactive waste repository in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report makes an evaluation of the long-term behaviour of the wastes placed in a hard rock repository. Impacts were analyzed for the seven reference fuel cycles of WG 7. The reference repository for this study is for granitic rock or gneiss as the host rock. The descriptions of waste packages and repository facilities used in this study represent only one of many possible designs based on the multiple barriers concept. The repository's size is based on a nuclear economy producing 100 gigawatts of electricity per year for 1 year. The objective of the modeling efforts presented in this study is to predict the rate of transport of radioactive contaminants from the repository through the geosphere to the biosphere and thus determine an estimate of the potential dose to humans so that the release consequence impacts of the various fuel cycles can be compared. Currently available hydrologic, leach, transport, and dose models were used in this study

  18. Public concerns and choices regarding nuclear-waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Survey research on nuclear power issues conducted in the late 1970's has determined that nuclear waste management is now considered to be one of the most important nuclear power issues both by the US public and by key leadership groups. The purpose of this research was to determine the importance placed on specific issues associated with high-level waste disposal. In addition, policy option choices were asked regarding the siting of both low-level and high-level nuclear waste repositories. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select six groups of respondents. Averaged across the six respondent groups, the leakage of liquid wastes from storage tanks was seen as the most important high-level waste issue. There was also general agreement that the issue regarding water entering the final repository and carrying radioactive wastes away was second in importance. Overall, the third most important issue was the corrosion of the metal containers used in the high-level waste repository. There was general agreement among groups that the fourth most important issue was reducing safety to cut costs. The fifth most important issue was radioactive waste transportation accidents. Overall, the issues ranked sixth and seventh were, respectively, workers' safety and earthquakes damaging the repository and releasing radioactivity. The eighth most important issue, overall, was regarding explosions in the repository from too much radioactivity, which is something that is not possible. There was general agreement across all six respondent groups that the two least important issues involved people accidentally digging into the site and the issue that the repository might cost too much and would therefore raise electricity bills. These data indicate that the concerns of nuclear waste technologists and other public groups do not always overlap

  19. Old waste products - new requirements. Preparations for the later repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, A.; Merx, H.

    2003-01-01

    For more than 30 years now, the Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB, Central Decontamination Department) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has been engaged in the management of radioactive wastes produced by the operation and decommissioning of research reactors and institutes of the Research Center, the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant, the European Institute for Transuranium Elements, and the Baden-Wuerttemberg state collection center. For this purpose, the wastes delivered to HDB have been conditioned at various facilities according to the requirements specified. These conditioning requirements, however, have changed in the course of time. In the past, only minimum declaration and conditioning requirements had to be fulfilled for the ASSE repository storage facility. Since 1994, the KONRAD repository storage conditions have been adopted. They comprise a variety of quality criteria. Judging from today, duration of interim storage until transfer to a repository storage facility will take another 30 years at least. In addition to the documentary qualification of the waste products, it is therefore required to take measures to ensure long-term safety of both the waste packages and their storage. This is why the HDB, in agreement with the supervisory authority, i.e. the Federal Radiation Protection Authority, and its experts, has decided to put the waste products into KONRAD containers in certified compliance with the repository storage conditions and to backfill these containers with concrete in accordance with approved procedures. Thus, waste packages suited for repository storage will be produced and corrosion processes and the possible release of radioactivity will be prevented. (orig.)

  20. Old waste products - new requirements. Preparations for the later repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, A.; Merx, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe

    2003-07-01

    For more than 30 years now, the Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB, Central Decontamination Department) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe has been engaged in the management of radioactive wastes produced by the operation and decommissioning of research reactors and institutes of the Research Center, the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant, the European Institute for Transuranium Elements, and the Baden-Wuerttemberg state collection center. For this purpose, the wastes delivered to HDB have been conditioned at various facilities according to the requirements specified. These conditioning requirements, however, have changed in the course of time. In the past, only minimum declaration and conditioning requirements had to be fulfilled for the ASSE repository storage facility. Since 1994, the KONRAD repository storage conditions have been adopted. They comprise a variety of quality criteria. Judging from today, duration of interim storage until transfer to a repository storage facility will take another 30 years at least. In addition to the documentary qualification of the waste products, it is therefore required to take measures to ensure long-term safety of both the waste packages and their storage. This is why the HDB, in agreement with the supervisory authority, i.e. the Federal Radiation Protection Authority, and its experts, has decided to put the waste products into KONRAD containers in certified compliance with the repository storage conditions and to backfill these containers with concrete in accordance with approved procedures. Thus, waste packages suited for repository storage will be produced and corrosion processes and the possible release of radioactivity will be prevented. (orig.)

  1. Technology development for the design of waste repositories at arid sites: field studies of biointrusion and capillary barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.; Hakonson, T.; Lopez, E.A.

    1986-03-01

    The field research program involving the development of technology for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Results of field testing of biointrusion barriers installed at an active low-level radioactive waste disposal site (Area G) at Los Alamos are presented. A second experiment was designed to test the ability of a capillary barrier to effectively convey water infiltrating a SLB trench around and away from underlying buried wastes. The performance of the capillary barrier was tested in the field for a barrier of known thickness (2 m), slope (10%), and slope length (2 m), and for one combination of porous materials [a crushed tuff-clay (2% w/w) mixture overlying Ottawa sand] subjected to a known water addition rate. The waste management implications of both studies are also discussed

  2. Deep repositories for waste central to uranium debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannegieter, T.

    1991-01-01

    While no deep repositories for high level wastes (HLW) have yet been constructed it is shown that technology to safely entomb the wastes for tens of thousands of years already exists. The borosilicate glass (vitrification) developed in France has been accepted by all countries who are reprocessing. Meanwhile, the Australian Synroc has not yet been put into service. Synroc developers at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization believe it will be the second generation waste form. The advantages and disadvantages of both technologies are briefly discussed as well as some of the regulatory, political, legal and technical conflicts surrounding the issue of HLW repositories. 1 tab., ills

  3. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hun; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Jun; Ham, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Seong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    In the study, GSIS os developed for the maximizing effectiveness of the database system. For this purpose, the spatial relation of data from various fields that are constructed in the database which was developed for the site selection and management of repository for radioactive waste disposal. By constructing the integration system that can link attribute and spatial data, it is possible to evaluate the safety of repository effectively and economically. The suitability of integrating database and GSIS is examined by constructing the database in the test district where the site characteristics are similar to that of repository for radioactive waste disposal.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the environmental aspects of potential radioactive waste repository study areas in the Ohio and New York portions of the Salina Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Various geographical regions and geological media are being evaluated to determine their potential suitability as an underground repository for commercial radioactive wastes. All three areas and the subarea of Ohio and New York have good highway and rail-transport access. More information is needed on the agricultural viability of all areas. Surface and ground-water usage are much greater in the urbanized Ohio area; because of its rural nature, New York Study Area 1 and the Beaver Dams Subarea have the lowest demand for either water source. Of the New York areas, Study Area 1 appears to provide greater possibilities, considering the objective of minimizing environmental impact. The Ohio study area includes a large part that is within the urbanized area surrounding Cleveland. In addition, the entire study area is marked by a high density of other screening factors such as historic and archaeological sites, natural areas and scenic highways. While more detailed study in the Ohio area might reveal subareas relatively lightly developed and sufficient in size for a repository, significant land use conflicts are likely for most of the area of geologic interst. The Ohio area, from a nongeologic standpoint, appears to be the least promising of the areas identified

  5. Kriging analysis for a candidate nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devary, J.L.

    1983-08-01

    An important aspect of ensuring the safety of a geologic nuclear waste repository involves the study of ground-water flow at the proposed site. Geohydrologic site characterization involves the evaluation of potentiometric (head) data from confined aquifers. Geostatistical techniques (kriging) are applied to head measurements from the Permian System, a geologic formation being considered by the Department of Energy for nuclear waste disposal. The kriging analysis investigates the adequacy of the data base, provides methods for data screening, and determines optimal locations for additional data collection. This presentation illustrates the development of a generalized covariance and the production of potentiometric contour maps and error maps. The advantages of kriging over traditional least squares regression analysis are also discussed. 17 references

  6. Bituminous and asphaltic membranes for radioactive waste repositories on land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The aim of the study has been to identify, within generic designs for waste facilities, areas where bituminous materials might be incorporated as a barrier. The report is presented in three sections: Part I - The properties of bitumen are described, with particular reference to the long-term behaviour of the material. The durability of bitumen is discussed, including aspects such as ageing, microbial degradation, chemical resistance and radiation resistance. Part II -The use of bituminous materials in hydraulic engineering is outlined. Much of this section of the report concentrates on the use of bituminous materials in embankment dams and reservoir construction. A review of material technology and construction techniques is presented and a detailed assessment made of the performance of the materials in service. Part III - Generic trench type radioactive waste repository designs incorporating bituminous materials are presented. Material and construction specifications for the designs are detailed, and a performance assessment presented. (author)

  7. Repository design sensitivity study: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary sensitivity study of the salt repository design has been performed to identify critical site and design parameters to help guide future site characterization and design optimization activities. The study considered the SCP-conceptual design at the Deaf Smith County site in Texas with the horizontal waste package emplacement mode as the base case. Relative to this base case, parameter variations were compared. Limited studies were performed which considered the vertical emplacement mode geometry. The report presents the reference data base and design parameters on which the study was based (including the range of parameters that might be expected). Detailed descriptions of the numerical modeling methods and assumptions are included for the thermal, thermomechanical and hydrogeological analyses. The impacts of parameter variations on the sensitivity of the rock mass response are discussed. Recommendations are provided to help guide site characterization activities and advanced conceptual design optimization activities. 47 refs., 119 refs., 22 tabs

  8. Repository-analog experiments of nuclear waste leaching and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for radionuclide migration from a breached nuclear-waste repository depends on the leaching and subsequent interaction of the leached radionuclides with materials in the groundwater flow path. An attempt is made to consider all interactions using experiments that integrate repository materials. Results of a repository-analog experiment using borosilicate glass, fissured granite, and flowing water suggest: (1) plutonium was immobile possibly because of its low solubility; (2) caesium migrated down slowly because of sorption; and (3) neptunium remained oxidized even in water of low oxidation potential. By summing the effects of all interactions, not just sorption, the repository-analog experiment produced radionuclide migration that could be expected from a breached repository. (author)

  9. Monitoring of geological repositories for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Geological repositories for disposal of high level radioactive waste are designed to provide isolation of the waste from human environment for many thousands of years. This report discusses the possible purposes for monitoring geological repositories at the different stages of a repository programme, the use that may be made of the information obtained and the techniques that might be applied. This report focuses on the different objectives that monitoring might have at various stages of a programme, from the initiation of work on a candidate site, to the period after repository closure. Each objective may require somewhat different types of information, or may use the same information in different ways. Having evaluated monitoring requirements, the report concludes with a brief evaluation of available monitoring techniques

  10. Chemical conditions in the repository for low- and intermediate-level reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Uotila, H.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical conditions in the proposed repositories for low- and intermediate-level reactor waste at Haestholmen (IVO) and Olkiluoto (TVO) have been discussed with respect to materials introduced into the repository, their possible long-term changes and interaction with groundwater flowing into the repository. The main possible groundwater-rock interactions have been discussed, as well as the role of micro-organisms, organic acids and colloids in the estimation of the barrier integrity. Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed on the basis of the natural groundwater compositions expected at the repository sites. Main emphasis is put on the chemical parameters which might influence the integrity of the different barriers in the repository as well as on the parameters which might effect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository

  11. The conceptual design of waste repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities containing comparatively high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Naro

    2002-02-01

    Advisory Committee on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy reported the basic approach to the RI and Institute etc. wastes on March 2002. According to it, radioactive waste form medical, industrial and research facilities should be classified by their radioactivity properties and physical and chemical properties, and should be disposed in the appropriate types of repository with that classification. For the radioactive waste containing comparatively high radioactivity generated from reactors, NSC has established the Concentration limit for disposal. NSC is now discussing about the limit for the radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities containing comparatively high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) preliminary studied about the repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities and discussed about the problems for design on H12. This study was started to consider those problems, and to develop the conceptual design of the repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities. Safety assessment for that repository is also performed. The result of this study showed that radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities of high activity should be disposed in the repository that has higher performance of barrier system comparing with the vault type near surface facility. If the conditions of the natural barrier and the engineering barrier are clearer, optimization of the design will be possible. (author)

  12. Comparative simulation study of coupled THM processes near back-filled and open-drift nuclear waste repositories in Task D of the International DECOVALEX Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Quan-Sheng; Oda, Y.; Wang, Wenqing; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near underground waste emplacement drifts. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower post-closure temperature, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses are currently being resolved. Good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was also achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglect complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level

  13. Study on the regional crust stability of Beishan area, Gansu province, NW China-the preselected area for China's high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Xu Guoqing; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Weiming; Guo Yonghai; Yang Tianxiao

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the crust stability of the Beishan area, Gansu province, NW China-the preselected area for China's high level radioactive waste repository. The studies include regional tectonic structure and its evolution, regional geophysical field, crust structure, regional deep-rooted faults, regional seismological activity, regional neo-tectonics, regional modern stress field and its numerical simulation, geological interpretation of TM satellite and its application in the study of crust stability, and the evaluation on crust stability. The research in the past years indicates that the west part of Gansu province (the area we studied) can be divided into 8 parts with different crust stability: (1) Beishan stable area; (2) East Huahai stable area; (3) Huahai sub-stable area; (4) Yumenzheng sub-unstable area; (5) Yumenshi sub-unstable area; (6) Daxueshan sub-unstable area; (7) Jiayuguan unstable area; and (8) Beiqilian unstable area. Among those parts, the Beishan area possess the best conditions, its crust stability accords with the demands on candidate site for HLW repositories, which are described in the International atomic energy agency's safety series No.111-G-4.1 Guidelines. Therefore, the Beishan area is suitable region for further work. (author)

  14. Global nuclear waste repository proposal highlights Australia's nuclear energy vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The Pangea proposal is disscused and considered relevant to Australia. A five-year research program by the company has identified Australia and Argentina as having the appropriate geological, economic and democratic credentials for such a deep repository, with Australia being favoured. A deep repository would be located where the geology has been stable for several hundred million years, so that there need not be total reliance on a robust engineered barrier system to keep the waste securely isolated for thousands of years. It would be a commercial undertaking and would have dedicated port and rail infrastructure. It would take spent fuel and other wastes from commercial reactors, and possibly also waste from weapons disposal programs. Clearly, while the primary ethical and legal principle is that each country is entirely responsible for its own waste, including nuclear waste (polluter pays etc), the big question is whether the concept of an international waste repository is acceptable ethically. Political and economic questions are secondary to this. By taking a fresh look at the reasons for the difficulties which have faced most national repository programs, and discarding the preconception that each country must develop its own disposal facilities, it is possible to define a class of simple, superior high isolation sites which may provide a multi-national basis for solving the nuclear waste disposal problem. The relatively small volumes of high-level wastes or spent fuel which arise from nuclear power production make shared repositories a feasible proposition. For small countries, the economies of scale which can be achieved make the concept attractive. For all countries, objective consideration of the relative merits of national and multi-national solutions is a prudent part of planning the management of long-lived radioactive wastes

  15. Judicial progress in Germany's nuclear waste disposal policy the Konrad repository decisions of 26 march 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhne, G.

    2007-01-01

    Its exists three final repository sites in Germany, an overview of the status of these sites is necessary to understand concretely the situation. Morsleben, is actually the only final repository for low and medium level radioactive waste. Gorleben is the site of a salt dome which is under exploration as an eventual repository for high level radioactive waste but the study is under a decree of exploration moratorium of at least three years, in order to allow for investigation into conceptual and safety issues. The Konrad ore mine is the site under preparation for a final repository for low and medium level radioactive waste. The present article will briefly address three aspects of the court reasoning: the legal character of the plan approval notice (act of discretion or strict execution of laws), the necessity of planning and safety aspects. (N.C.)

  16. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements for the planned Konrad repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.; Brennecke, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements for the planned Konrad repository. These requirements were developed, in accordance with the Safety Criteria of the Reactor Safety Commission, with the help of a site specific safety assessment; they are under the reservation of the plan approval procedure, which is still in progress. In developing waste acceptance requirements, the PTB fulfills one of its duties as the institute responsible for waste disposal and gives guidelines for waste conditioning to waste producers and conditioners. (orig.) [de

  17. Material control and accountability procedures for a waste isolation repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.D.; Allen, E.J.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1978-05-01

    The material control and accountability needs of a waste isolation repository are examined. Three levels of control are discussed: (1) item identification and control, (2) tamper indication, and (3) quantitative material assay. A summary of waste characteristics is presented and, based on these, plus a consideration of the accessibility of the various types of waste, material control by item identification and accountability (where the individual waste container is the basic unit) is recommended. Tamper indicating procedures are also recommended for the intermediate and low level waste categories

  18. Building on existing institutions to perpetuate knowledge of waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzberg, A.

    1982-08-01

    Purpose of this report is to examine the function of several existing institutions and to show how they could be effectively used to transmit information about waste repositories for long times into the future. Scope of this report is limited to a discussion of four institutional approaches to the dissemination and retention of information: Widely distributed maps, the marker system of the National Geodetic Survey, the archiving of documents, and one-call systems designed to protect underground utility installations from inadvertent damage by the public. Each of these approaches is discussed in an independent section that describes the background of the institutional approach, discusses methods for applying it to waste repositories, and assesses its potential value. The sole intent of this report is to present supporting data for future decisions about the kinds of communication measures that should be implemented to advise future generations about the locations and hazards of waste repositories

  19. Monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility and salt repository integration: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This MRS Facility and Salt Repository Integration Study evaluates the impacts of an integrated MRS/Salt Repository Waste Management System on the Salt Repository Surface facilities' design, operations, cost, and schedule. Eight separate cases were studied ranging from a two phase repository design with no MRS facility to a design in which the repository only received package waste from the MRS facility for emplacement. The addition of the MRS facility to the Waste Management System significantly reduced the capital cost of the salt repository. All but one of the cases studied were capable of meeting the waste acceptance data. The reduction in the size and complexity of the Salt Repository waste handling building with the integration of the MRS facility reduces the design and operating staff requirements. 7 refs., 35 figs., 43 tabs

  20. Ventilation planning for a prospective nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, K.G. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to provide for the development of underground repositories for spent nuclear fuel. This development will be managed by the United States Department of Energy. In 1986, the President selected three areas for site characterization to determine their suitability for the development of an underground repository; those sites were: (1) A site in volcanic tuff located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, (2) a site in bedded salt located in Deaf Smith County in Texas, and (3) a site in basalt located in Hanford, Washington. At present conceptual repository designs are being developed for each site. A key element of a repository design is the underground ventilation system required to support construction, nuclear waste emplacement, and potential waste retrieval. This paper describes the preliminary ventilation systems designed for the repository in tuff. The concept provides separate ventilation systems for the construction and waste emplacement activities. The paper further describes the means by which acceptable environmental conditions will be re-established to allow re-entry into previously closed rooms for the purpose of inspection, maintenance or retrieval

  1. Nuclear waste in a repository: amount as a factor in risk duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, E.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between the amount of nuclear waste in a nuclear repository and the safety of the repository is examined. It is shown that the amount of a given hazardous nuclide that is potentially leachable depends on the initial amount of waste in the repository and the time that has elapsed since the repository was put into operation. Nuclear repository safety can be enhanced if repositories are designed as modular units with leach-resistant watertight compartments

  2. GIS for the needs of the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Mikšová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA is a state organisation responsible for the management of activities related to the disposal of all existing and future radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel classed as a waste in Czech Republic. Worldwide, a deep geological repository is considered the highest degree of safety for a nuclear waste disposal. Such a repository has to be built in a stable geological environment ensuring the isolation of the stored radioactive waste from the surrounding environment for a long period of time. The selection of suitable site for the deep geological repository construction is a complicated and long term process. Considering this fact and also in respect to an assumed volume of varied datasets the GIS RAWRA was established to ensure convenient management and availability of data containing spatial information.The system is based on ESRI (ArcInfo including extensions, ArcSDE, ArcIMS, Leica Geosystems (Image Analysis and Microsoft software (MS SQL Server. Resulting datasets from six recommended potentially suitable sites for the location of a geological repository have been incorporated into the geodatabase to date. The necessary analysis was made using ESRI software tools and, in addition, custom applications were developed including the metadata editor, etc. This analysis was carried out with respect to existing geological and non-geological criteria defined for a nuclear waste repository. Finally, all six investigated sites with a total area of 240 km2 were reduced in area, each of them resulting in an area of approximately 10km2 for further detailed characterisation.

  3. Performance of high level waste forms and engineered barriers under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The IAEA initiated in 1977 a co-ordinated research programme on the ''Evaluation of Solidified High-Level Waste Forms'' which was terminated in 1983. As there was a continuing need for international collaboration in research on solidified high-level waste form and spent fuel, the IAEA initiated a new programme in 1984. The new programme, besides including spent fuel and SYNROC, also placed greater emphasis on the effect of the engineered barriers of future repositories on the properties of the waste form. These engineered barriers included containers, overpacks, buffer and backfill materials etc. as components of the ''near-field'' of the repository. The Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Performance of High-Level Waste Forms and Engineered Barriers Under Repository Conditions had the objectives of promoting the exchange of information on the experience gained by different Member States in experimental performance data and technical model evaluation of solidified high level waste forms, components of the waste package and the complete waste management system under conditions relevant to final repository disposal. The programme includes studies on both irradiated spent fuel and glass and ceramic forms as the final solidified waste forms. The following topics were discussed: Leaching of vitrified high-level wastes, modelling of glass behaviour in clay, salt and granite repositories, environmental impacts of radionuclide release, synroc use for high--level waste solidification, leachate-rock interactions, spent fuel disposal in deep geologic repositories and radionuclide release mechanisms from various fuel types, radiolysis and selective leaching correlated with matrix alteration. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Salt Repository Project Waste Package Program Plan: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.A.; Cunnane, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Under the direction of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) created within the DOE by direction of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the mission of the Salt Repository Project (SRP) is to provide for the development of a candidate salt repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent reactor fuel in a manner that fully protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. In consideration of the program needs and requirements discussed above, the SRP has decided to develop and issue this SRP Waste Package Program Plan. This document is intended to outline how the SRP plans to develop the waste package design and to show, with reasonable assurance, that the developed design will satisfy applicable requirements/performance objectives. 44 refs., 16 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m 3 brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs

  6. Radioactive Waste Repositories and Incentives to Local Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.; Medakovic, S.

    2008-01-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste (RW) repository depends on various and often community-specific factors. Although radiological risk from a properly constructed low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository is practically negligible, routine safety considerations will favor low populated areas and therefore probably underdeveloped communities. Repository acceptance in such communities is more likely to be facilitated by prospective benefits to local economy, such as infrastructure development and increased employment, as well as by dedicated financial incentives to the community. Direct financial compensation to the local community for acceptance of the repository has been considered in some documents in countries experienced in RW management, but it has not become a widely accepted practice. In Croatia, a possibility for such compensation is mentioned in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository site. In Slovenia, the government has already specified the annual amount of 2.33 million euro as a compensation for 'limited land use' to be shared by local communities in the vicinity of the planned LILW repository during its operation. Applicability of the Slovenian compensations to the prospective joint Slovenian-Croatian repository is not yet clear, at least in the aspect of joint funding. The joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 did conservatively include the compensations into the repository cost estimates, but that might not be retained in subsequent revisions of the Program. According to the agreement between governments of Slovenia and Croatia on the Nuclear power plant Krsko, Croatian side has no obligations to participate in 'public expenditures' introduced after the agreement, as would be the case of community compensations for LILW repository in Slovenia. Before further decisions on joint NPP Krsko waste management are made, including the issue of LILW

  7. Survey of near-field flow calculations for nuclear waste repositories NMA L21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.N.; Holland, D.H.

    1979-11-01

    A survey of methods and codes which describe the flow of groundwater and the migration of radioactive waste in and about nuclear repositories was performed. A number of laboratories engaged in studies of waste migration and groundwater flow were visited in order to discuss the general problem and obtain reports of work being performed. The results of this survey are discussed

  8. Progress towards developing an international repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeme, M.

    2001-01-01

    Pangea Resources was established to develop and promote the concept of international repositories. The concept was based on repositories located in geologically stable, flat, arid environments meeting the 'high isolation' criteria developed by Pangea Resources. The high isolation concept of Pangea Resources can be applied in various regions of the world, and these have been made public. The pilot project chosen for exploring feasibility was for an international repository in Australia. This study was in preparation for public release, when the existence of the proposal was prematurely revealed to the media. The general media and public reaction to the concept was understandably negative. However, there were also some opinion pieces reported suggesting that the concept of an international repository should be thought about seriously, before it is accepted or rejected. In addition, thoughtful reactions were received from the business and scientific communities. In particular a group of very eminent scientists, the Scientific Review Group, undertook to review independently the quality of the work done. Nevertheless, the reaction from the state and federal governments, was also negative. The Australian Government stated its policy not to permit importation or disposal of foreign nuclear waste. During the last two years Pangea Resources has been developing the technical aspects of the concept and has produced and published several scientific reports on transport, storage and disposal of radioactive materials. All the scientific studies of Pangea Resources have been reviewed by the Scientific Review Group. The work has also been presented in scientific conferences, to the media (including a dedicated television documentary) and to the public. The technical work is generic or is based on diverse potential siting areas around the world and the disposal and storage technologies studied are being broadened beyond the specific high-isolation concept. Most importantly, it has

  9. Project Guarantee 1985. Radioactive wastes: Properties and allocation to final repository types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of waste-specific data, as input into constructional engineering studies and safety analyses of Project Guarantee, is presented which describes the activity inventory of the radioactive waste to be disposed of, classified according to origin, the quantitative spezifications of the waste, the concept of classifying waste into appropriate categories, grouping into major categories and distribution of these between the different repository types, and finally, control measures which ensure observance of the specifications of the waste to be disposed of. It is expedient, for conceptional considerations and for the operational phase of the repository, to split the waste up into several suitably specified waste categories according to the practical aspects of origin and conditioning. This can be done in such a way that the waste within a specific category is sufficiently homogeneous with regard to its radiological properties and chemical composition for the requirements of safety analysis. The present volume contains base-data for around 30 waste types. Two waste types are documented with more detailed data as an example of the practicability of the comprehensive waste characterisation contained in reference report NTB 84-47. It is shown that waste-specific data which go into safety analysis and constructional engineering project studies are available in an appropriate degree of detail. The method of distributing the waste between repositories with differing degrees of protection and procedures for controlling adherence to admission specifications are developed and documented. It can be ensured that no waste with an impermissibly high radiotoxicity level will later be emplaced in a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste

  10. Radioactive waste transport to a Nirex deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.; Appleton, P.R.; Eastman, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Nirex is addressing the transport of radioactive wastes, repository construction materials, personnel and spoil as part of their development of a deep repository. An integrated transport system will be developed for wastes which may involve, road, rail and sea transport. The possible application and the scale of operation of the transport system is described. Environmental impact assessments will be carried out, and the proposed approach to these is described. A methodology for the assessment of transport safety has been established and the results of a preliminary assessment are given. (author)

  11. The design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefonova, I.; Petrov, I.; Navarro, M.; Sanchez, M.; Medinilla, G.

    2012-01-01

    In October 2011 a consortium composed by Westinghouse Engineering Spain SAU, ENRESA and DBE Technology GmbH was awarded a contract for the design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository. The facility, inspired in the spanish centre of El Cabril owned by ENRESA, will consist of a 66 reinforced concrete cells surface repository capable of receiving 18600 already conditioned waste containers of 20 t each, during 60 years, and the related auxiliary facilities and buildings. The project, representing a challenge because of the schedule and required level of detail, goes on fulfilling main milestones and getting customer satisfaction. (Author)

  12. Developing multinational radioactive waste repositories: Infrastructural framework and scenarios of cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    Currently the management of radioactive wastes centres on national strategies for collection, treatment, interim storage and disposal. This tendency to focus exclusively on national strategies reflects the fact that radioactive waste is a sensitive political issue, making cooperation among countries difficult. It is consistent with the accepted principle that a country that enjoys the benefit of nuclear energy, or the utilization of nuclear technology, should also take full responsibility for managing the generated radioactive waste. However, there are countries whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository, and/or countries that do not have the resources or favourable natural conditions for waste disposal to dedicate to a national repository project or would prefer to collaborate in shared initiatives because of their economic advantages. In such cases it may be appropriate for these countries to engage in a multinational collaborative effort to ensure that they have access to a common repository, in order that they can fulfil their responsibilities for their managing wastes safely. In response to requests from several Member States expressing an interest in multinational disposal options, the IAEA produced in 1998 a TECDOC outlining the important factors to be taken into account in the process of realizing such options. These factors include for example, technical (safety), institutional (legal, safeguards), economic (financial) socio-political (public acceptance) and ethical considerations. The present report reviews the work done in the previous study, taking into account developments since its publication as well as current activities in the field of multinational repositories. The report attempts to define the concepts involved in the creation of multinational repositories, to explore the likely scenarios, to examine the conditions for successful implementation, and to point out the benefits and challenges inherent to

  13. Overview of the United States' nuclear waste repository programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surles, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of the future of civilian or defense-based nuclear materials, the United States will be responsible for a vast array of these materials for generations to come. The cornerstone programme for the disposal of waste materials is the Yucca Mountain Programme. Based on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, it has been the United States' policy to develop a geological repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste materials. This presentation will discuss the process and strategy leading to the present and will include the scientific and management activities required to support the recent Viability Assessment. Also to be discussed are the timeline and milestones leading to the opening of the repository. The focus will be on the scientific and engineering studies required for a successful Site Recommendation, and then for a similarly successful License Application. Both of these activities will require considerable management efforts in addressing legal and regulatory issues. Finally, the presentation will discuss projections for the future operation of the facility, including emplacement projections, coupled with the required locations of nuclear materials. Additional scientific research and engineering studies will also be conducted to determine the longer-term viability of the facility, which is designed, by policy, for permanent storage. Retrievability is currently not an option, although access to the facility will be maintained for several decades. The focus of the discussion will be on the scientific and engineering advances made on understanding the natural systems for preventing migration of radionuclides, coupled with new developments in engineered systems in areas such as cask cladding, drip shields, and related materials engineering developments. The coupling of engineered and natural systems is designed to offer safety factors that are several orders of magnitude greater than what is estimated to be necessary

  14. Aspects on the gas generation and migration in repositories for high level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, Andre; Buhmann, Dieter; Meleshyn, Artur; Moenig, Joerg; Spiessl, Sabine

    2013-07-01

    In a deep geological repository for high-level waste, gases may be produced during the post-closure phase by several processes. The generated gases can potentially affect safety relevant features and processes of the repository, like the barrier integrity, the transport of liquids and gases in the repository and the release of gaseous radionuclides from the repository into the biosphere. German long-term safety assessments for repositories for high-level waste in salt which were performed prior 2010 did not explicitly consider gas transport and the consequences from release of volatile radionuclides. Selected aspects of the generation and migration of gases in repositories for high-level waste in a salt formation are studied in this report from the viewpoint of the performance assessment. The knowledge on the availability of water in the repository, in particular the migration of salt rock internal fluids in the temperature field of the radioactive waste repository towards the emplacement drifts, was compiled and the amount of water was roughly estimated. Two other processes studied in this report are on the one hand the release of gaseous radionuclides from the repository and their potential impact in the biosphere and on the other hand the transport of gases along the drifts and shafts of the repository and their interaction with the fluid flow. The results presented show that there is some gas production expected to occur in the repository due to corrosion of container material from water disposed of with the backfill and inflowing from the host rock during the thermal phase. If not dedicated gas storage areas are foreseen in the repository concept, these gases might exceed the storage capacity for gases in the repository. Consequently, an outflow of gases from the repository could occur. If there are failed containers for spent fuel, radioactive gases might be released from the containers into the gas space of the backfill and subsequently transported together

  15. Radiosensitivity of microorganisms isolated from radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazso, Lajos

    2001-01-01

    Bacteria are much more diverse in comparison with plants and animals. Among the huge diversity of bacteria there are microorganisms capable to grow at or adapt to extreme conditions. Some bacteria grow at temperature above 100 deg. C, other thrive in high salinity such as 20-30% NaCl, still others can live at pH lower than 2 or pH higher than 10 or exhibit high radioresistance. Due to accelerated disarmament and nuclear energy activities, large quantities of radioactive waste and nuclear fuel are being placed in storage areas. The awareness the microbial activity could potentially effect the performance of a system for geological disposal of radioactive waste gained acceptance in the early to middle 1980s, and as a result many countries considering developing programmes to study and quantify microbial effects in terms of their own particular disposal concept. A new research programme was launched in 1995, sponsored by the NATO Scientific Affairs Division, for studying microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in radioactive waste repositories and spent fuel storage area. Our programme concerns several major items that may have an influence on the mobility of radionuclides in direct and indirect ways thereby being important for the safety analysis. They are uptake and transport of radionuclides by microorganisms, diversity and distribution of subterranean bacteria in typical repository environments, environmental limitation and bacterial activity, effect of bacterial activity on the mobility of radionuclides, microbial gas production and consumption, bacterial recombination of hydrogen and oxygen from radiolysis, and microbially induced corrosion of waste canister. The Permian Boda Claystone Formation in the Mecsek Hill area is being considered for high level waste disposal. Groundwater, technical water, rock and surface samples were collected aseptically from different depths. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of aerobic and anaerobe isolates were

  16. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for high-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An engineering project study aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of constructing a deep repository for high-level waste (Type C repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set representing typical geological and rock mechanical conditions as found outside the so-called Permocarboniferous basin in the regions under investigation by Nagra in Cantons Aargau, Schaffhausen, Solothurn and Zuerich. The repository is intended for disposal of high-level waste and any intermediate-level waste from re-processing in which the concentration of long-lived alpha-emitters exceeds the permissible limits set for a Type B repository. Final disposal of high-level waste is in subterranean, horizontally mined tunnels and of intermediate-level waste in underground vertical silos. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of around 6'000 HWL-cylinders (gross volume of around 1'200 m3) and around 10'000 m3 of intermediate-level waste. The total excavated volume is around 1'100'000 m3 and a construction time for the whole repository (up to the beginning of emplacement) of around 15 years is expected. For the estimated 50-year emplacement operations, a working team of around 60 people will be needed and a team of around 160 for the simultaneous tunnelling operations and auxiliary work. The project described in the present report permits the conclusion that construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste and, if necessary, spent fuel-rods is feasible with present-day technology

  17. Alternative configurations for the waste-handling building at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    Two alternative configurations of the waste-handling building have been developed for the proposed nuclear waste repository in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. One configuration is based on criteria and assumptions used in Case 2 (no monitored retrievable storage facility, no consolidation), and the other configuration is based on criteria and assumptions used in Case 5 (consolidation at the monitored retrievable storage facility) of the Monitored Retrievable Storage System Study for the Repository. Desirable waste-handling design concepts have been selected and are included in these configurations. For each configuration, general arrangement drawings, plot plans, block flow diagrams, and timeline diagrams are prepared

  18. NF-PRO research on a repository for vitrified waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, A.

    2006-01-01

    NF-PRO is a four-year (2004-2007) Integrated Project supported by funding under the Sixth Research (EURATOM) Programme of the European Commission. NF-PRO is coordinated by SCK C EN and investigates key processes in the near-field of geological repositories for the disposal of high-level vitrified waste and spent nuclear fuel. The near-field of a geological repository consists of the area surrounding the waste packages and is composed of several engineered barriers that enclose and confine the disposed waste. These barriers include the waste form, the waste canisters, backfills, seals, plugs and the part of the host rock that has been modified by the excavation of the repository. In all repository designs under investigation within EU Member States, the near-field plays an important role in ensuring the overall safety of disposal: its principal function is to retain radionuclides over extended periods of time and to minimise their release from the waste to the host rock. The main objective of NF-PRO is to integrate European research on the near field with the aim of enhancing common understanding of the long-term changes taking place in a deep repository. NF-PRO assesses how these changes affect the containment of the disposed radioactive waste. Knowledge generated by the project can be applied in waste management programmes to optimise repository designs and to make barriers functional and resource-efficient. The integration of results from detailed process studies in assessments on the overall near-field system performance is a key objective of NF-PRO. The level of integration envisaged by NF-PRO has not yet been achieved in earlier research projects supported by the European Commission. Accordingly, NF PRO represents a major step forward in the establishing of the scientific and technical basis for geological disposal and the safe management of radioactive wastes

  19. Numerical modeling of the geomechanical response of a rock mass to a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; St John, C.M.; Hocking, G.

    1979-06-01

    Geotechnical numerical models capable of predicting the thermomechanical response and groundwater movements around an underground radioactive waste repository are vital to the success of the nuclear waste disposal program. In the absence of directly related engineering experience, the design, risk assessment, and licensing procedures of a repository will be reliant on predictions made using such models. This paper reviews models being used to assist in repository design and summarizes the results of a recent parametric study of underground disposal in basaltic rocks. On the basis of preliminary site data, it is concluded that the allowable areal density of heat-generating waste will be controlled by the stability of placement rooms and the boreholes in which waste canisters are placed. Regional effects including thermally induced upward groundwater flow, appear to present less severe problems

  20. Natural geochemical analogues of the near field of high-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    United States practice has been to design high-level nuclear waste (HLW) geological repositories with waste densities sufficiently high that repository temperatures surrounding the waste will exceed 100 degrees C and could reach 250 degrees C. Basalt and devitrified vitroclastic tuff are among the host rocks considered for waste emplacement. Near-field repository thermal behavior and chemical alteration in such rocks is expected to be similar to that observed in many geothermal systems. Therefore, the predictive modeling required for performance assessment studies of the near field could be validated and calibrated using geothermal systems as natural analogues. Examples are given which demonstrate the need for refinement of the thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modeling of near-field natural analogues and the extent to which present models can predict conditions in geothermal fields

  1. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed

  2. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed.

  3. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  4. National radioactive waste repository draft EIS. 2 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Most Australians benefit either directly or indirectly from the medical, industrial and scientific use of radioactive materials. This use produces a small amount of radioactive waste, including low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive waste such as lightly contaminated soil, plastic, paper, laboratory equipment, smoke detectors, exit signs and gauges.This waste is temporarily stored at more than 100 urban and rural locations around Australia, much of it in buildings that were neither designed nor located for the long-term storage of radioactive material and that are nearing or have reached capacity. Storage locations include hospitals, research institutions, and industry and government stores. Storing such waste in many locations in non-purpose built facilities potentially poses greater risk to the environment and people than disposing of the material in a national, purpose-built repository where the material can be safely managed and monitored. The objectives of the national repository are to: 1. strengthen Australia's radioactive waste management arrangements by promoting the safe and environmentally sound management of low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive waste 2. provide safe containment of these wastes until the radioactivity has decayed to background levels. To meet these objectives, it is proposed to construct a national near-surface repository at either the preferred site on the Woomera Prohibited Area (WPA) or either of the two nearby alternative sites. The facility is not intended for the disposal of radioactive ores from mining. A national store for long-lived intermediate level waste will not be co-located with the national repository, and would be subject to a separate environmental assessment process.One preferred and two alternative sites have been selected for the national repository, following an extensive site selection process. All three sites are located in northern South Australia in a region known as central

  5. Evaluation of site-generated radioactive waste treatment and disposal methods for the Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Jardine, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This study identifies the sources of radioactive wastes that may be generated at the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, estimates the waste quantities and characteristics, compares technologies available for waste treatment and disposal, and develops recommended concepts for site-generated waste treatment and disposal. The scope of this study is limited to operations during the emplacement phase, in which 70,000 MTU of high-level waste will be received and emplaced at the proposed repository. The evaluations consider all radioactive wastes generated during normal operations in surface and underground facilities. Wastes generated as a result of accidents are not addressed; accidents that could result in large quantities of radioactive waste are expected to occur very infrequently and temporary, portable systems could be used for any necessary cleanup. The results of this study can be used to develop more definitive plans for managing the site-generated wastes and as a basis for the design of associated facilities at the proposed repository

  6. Microbial Influence on the Performance of Subsurface, Salt-Based Radioactive Waste Repositories. An Evaluation Based on Microbial Ecology, Bioenergetics and Projected Repository Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.S.; Reed, D.T.; Cherkouk, A.; Arnold, T.; Meleshyn, A.; Patterson, Russ

    2018-01-01

    For the past several decades, the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club has been supporting and overseeing the characterisation of rock salt as a potential host rock for deep geological repositories. This extensive evaluation of deep geological settings is aimed at determining - through a multidisciplinary approach - whether specific sites are suitable for radioactive waste disposal. Studying the microbiology of granite, basalt, tuff, and clay formations in both Europe and the United States has been an important part of this investigation, and much has been learnt about the potential influence of microorganisms on repository performance, as well as about deep subsurface microbiology in general. Some uncertainty remains, however, around the effects of microorganisms on salt-based repository performance. Using available information on the microbial ecology of hyper-saline environments, the bioenergetics of survival under high ionic strength conditions and studies related to repository microbiology, this report summarises the potential role of microorganisms in salt-based radioactive waste repositories

  7. Reliable predictions of waste performance in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.

    1985-08-01

    Establishing reliable estimates of long-term performance of a waste repository requires emphasis upon valid theories to predict performance. Predicting rates that radionuclides are released from waste packages cannot rest upon empirical extrapolations of laboratory leach data. Reliable predictions can be based on simple bounding theoretical models, such as solubility-limited bulk-flow, if the assumed parameters are reliably known or defensibly conservative. Wherever possible, performance analysis should proceed beyond simple bounding calculations to obtain more realistic - and usually more favorable - estimates of expected performance. Desire for greater realism must be balanced against increasing uncertainties in prediction and loss of reliability. Theoretical predictions of release rate based on mass-transfer analysis are bounding and the theory can be verified. Postulated repository analogues to simulate laboratory leach experiments introduce arbitrary and fictitious repository parameters and are shown not to agree with well-established theory. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Optimization method for dimensioning a geological HLW waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvrier, N.; Chaudon, L.; Malherbe, L.

    1990-01-01

    This method was developed by the CEA to optimize the dimensions of a geological repository by taking account of technical and economic parameters. It involves optimizing radioactive waste storage conditions on the basis of economic criteria with allowance for specified thermal constraints. The results are intended to identify trends and guide the choice from among available options: simple and highly flexible models were therefore used in this study, and only nearfield thermal constraints were taken into consideration. Because of the present uncertainty on the physicochemical properties of the repository environment and on the unit cost figures, this study focused on developing a suitable method rather than on obtaining definitive results. The optimum values found for the two media investigated (granite and salt) show that it is advisable to minimize the interim storage time, implying the containers must be separated by buffer material, whereas vertical spacing may not be required after a 30-year interim storage period. Moreover, the boreholes should be as deep as possible, on a close pitch in widely spaced handling drifts. These results depend to a considerable extent on the assumption of high interim storage costs

  9. Microbial corrosion of metallic materials in a deep nuclear-waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoulil J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study summarises current knowledge on microbial corrosion in a deep nuclear-waste repository. The first part evaluates the general impact of microbial activity on corrosion mechanisms. Especially, the impact of microbial metabolism on the environment and the impact of biofilms on the surface of structure materials were evaluated. The next part focuses on microbial corrosion in a deep nuclear-waste repository. The study aims to suggest the development of the repository environment and in that respect the viability of bacteria, depending on the probable conditions of the environment, such as humidity of bentonite, pressure in compact bentonite, the impact of ionizing radiation, etc. The last part is aimed at possible techniques for microbial corrosion mechanism monitoring in the conditions of a deep repository. Namely, electrochemical and microscopic techniques were discussed.

  10. Instrument reliability for high-level nuclear-waste-repository applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogue, F.; Binnall, E.P.; Armantrout, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation will be needed to evaluate the characteristics of proposed high-level nuclear-wasted-repository sites and to monitor the performance of selected sites during the operational period and into repository closure. A study has been done to assess the reliability of instruments used in Department of Energy (DOE) waste repository related experiments and in other similar geological applications. The study included experiences with geotechnical, hydrological, geochemical, environmental, and radiological instrumentation and associated data acquisition equipment. Though this paper includes some findings on the reliability of instruments in each of these categories, the emphasis is on experiences with geotechnical instrumentation in hostile repository-type environments. We review the failure modes, rates, and mechanisms, along with manufacturers modifications and design changes to enhance and improve instrument performance; and include recommendations on areas where further improvements are needed

  11. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  12. Models and criteria for waste repository performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    A primary objective of the Waste Management Program is to assure that public health is protected. Predictive modeling, to some extent, will play a role in assuring that this objective is met. This paper considers the requirements and limitations of predictive modeling in providing useful inputs to waste management decision making. Criteria development needs and the relation between criteria and models are also discussed

  13. National Waste Terminal Storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Occupational exposure and health physics studies. KE report No. 78-21-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This report includes the Occupational Exposure and Health Physics studies of the National Waste Terminal Storage Repository Number 2 (NWTSR2). Section 1 deals with occupational radiation exposures. The results of dose equivalent and dose commitment calculations are summarized. The man-rem total is a summation of all doses to all personnel throughout a year. It would have to be divided by the number of total personnel involved, to obtain an average annual dose per person. Section 2 presents the occupational exposures due to nonradiological pollutants. The activities of workers and the equipment used during the construction, storage/retrieval and decommissioning of the facility are outlined. Tabulations are presented of the substances (dusts, fumes, gases and vapors) and physical agents (heat, vibration, and nonionizing radiation) to which personnel will be exposed in various surface and underground work areas during construction and decommissioning, and during storage and retrieval operations. Some significant nonradiological occupational exposures are summarized. Section 3 outlines the health physics program for the NWTSR2 facility. It is important to initiate the health physics program one or two years before the facility is placed in operation to establish the radiation background levels at the site and its surrounding area, and to collect environmental samples, both on-site and off-site, prior to waste storage and retrieval operations. The health physics organization consists of 15 persons, including five health physicists

  14. Development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Results of our mining, geological and geotechnical studies provided in support of the development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository are presented. The primary purpose of the work was the identification and development of appropriate geotechnical descriptors and coefficients required for the Site Suitability Repository Model. This model was developed by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) of Reading, Massachusetts and is not described in this report

  15. Development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    Results of our mining, geological and geotechnical studies provided in support of the development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository are presented. The primary purpose of the work was the identification and development of appropriate geotechnical descriptors and coefficients required for the Site Suitability Repository Model. This model was developed by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) of Reading, Massachusetts and is not described in this report.

  16. Micronuclei rate in workers of Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atamasova, P.; Hadjidekova, V.

    2003-01-01

    A cytogenetic study has been carried out by the micronucleus test of lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of 30 workers from the Novi Han radioactive waste repository. The results are compared to the results of a control group of 6 persons from the administrative staff, and to outside group of 39 healthy persons. All persons are questioned through a special questionnaire about their occupational, medical, and social status. The rate of the cells with micronuclei and the total number of the micronuclei are analysed in the peripheral blood lymphocytes using the cytogenesis-block micronucleus test. The comparison of the results does not show an increase of the lymphocytes with micronuclei in the workers

  17. System analysis methods for geological repository of high level radioactive waste in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weiming; Wang Ju; Li Yunfeng; Jin Yuanxin; Zhao Honggang

    2009-01-01

    Taking Beishan granite site as an example, this paper proposes the conceptual and structural design of repository for high level radioactive waste at first. Then the function, structure, environment and evolution of the repository are described by the methodology of system analysis. Based on these designs and descriptions, a calculation model for the repository is developed with software GoldSim. At last, this calculation model is applied to emulate the space-time distribution of repository radiotoxicity, to analyze the sensitivity of parameters in the model, to optimize the design parameters, and to predict and assess the repository performance. The results of this study can provide technical supports for resources allocation and coordination of R and D projects. (authors)

  18. Development of a geophysical methodology from boreholes for the study of radioactive waste repositories in granit formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Masne, D.

    1985-01-01

    Within the frame of a 2-year contract with the C.E.C., dealing with storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations the B.R.G.M. has been involved in a research on the detection of fracturation from boreholes by geophysical methods. Various geometrical arrays (mono-hole, cross-hole, hole-to-surface) concerning mainly electrical methods, have been used in the field on granitic rocks, and interpreted according to three dimensional earth-models. Conductive or resistivite parallelepipedic inhomogeneities embedded in stratified or homogeneous half-spaces, have been taken into account in this three dimensional modelling. The influence of the various geometrical and electrical parameters of the inhomogeneities for different electrical arrays has been studied. Advantages and drawbacks of these arrays for the detection of the fracturation from boreholes, can be thus derived. An analysis of the calculation and drawing routines gives way to possible future improvements especially for modelling

  19. Integrated management system for radioactive waste repositories (SGI3R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fabio; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2009-01-01

    The implantation of a repository for radioactive wastes is a multidisciplinary project that needs specialists of different areas of knowledge, interaction with public and private institutions, data and information related to radioactive wastes, geology, technology etc. All the activities must be in accordance with norms, requirements and procedures, including national and international legislation. The maintenance of the waste inventory records is an important regulatory requirement and must be available even after the closure of the repository. CDTN - Center of Nuclear Technology Development - is coordinating the Project for the construction of the national repository to dispose the low -and intermediate-level wastes. In order to consolidate all information that will come from this Project, it is being developed and implanted in CDTN a manager system of database, called Integrated Management System for Radioactive Waste Repositories (SGI3R), which will also manage all data from previous work carried out in Brazil and around the world about this subject. The proposal is to build a structure of modules, having as base eight modules: inventory, site selection, types of repository, technology, partners, legislation, communication and documents. The SGI3R running comprises the data processing (inclusion, update and exclusion), integration, standardization, and consistency among the processes. The SGI3R will give support to the stages of this Project, which will allow the preservation of all the available information, preventing duplication of efforts and additional costs, improving, in this way, the Project planning and execution. Additionally the SGI3R will make possible the information access to all stakeholders. (author)

  20. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. 25-year retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    National Waste Terminal Storage Repository 2 (NWTSR2), in bedded salt, for spent unreprocessed fuel is the subject of a conceptual design project which began in January 1977. In the base conceptual design the spent fuel is to be stored in a retrievable mode for 5 years. This report presents the results of a separate study on 25-year retrievability with open storage rooms. Drawings prepared for 25-year retrievability are only those which differ from the companion 5-year retrievability drawings which comprise Volume II of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR). NWTSR2 capital facilities originally were to be constructed in phases. Phase I was to include those facilities required for the first 5 years of operation, which were hypothesized to be from 1985 through 1990; Phase II was to include facilities required from 1991 until the capacity of the 2000-acre mine was reached. These dates are used as the basis for conceptual design and for Special Study No. 1 but do not represent actual schedule dates for the repository. The terms Phase I and Phase II are used throughout the drawings and test, so they need to be understood. However, it is not now intended to phase the capital construction because of the relatively small effort represented by Phase II surface construction. An optional future expansion of the mine, Phase III, would add 1000 acres on the end of the mine opposite the shaft pillar. The optional Phase III expansion would commence operation upon completion of Phase II operations. The drawings and design comparisons for Phase III mine operations appear only in this report

  1. Underground excavation methods for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshel, J.; Gupta, D.; Nataraja, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on rock excavation methods for a High-Level Waste repository that should be selected to limit the potential for creating preferential pathways for groundwater to travel to the waste packages or for radionuclides to migrate to the accessible environment. The use of water and other foreign substances should be controlled so that the repository performance is not compromised. The excavated openings should remain stable so that operations can be carried out safely and the retrievability option maintained. As per the current conceptual designs presented by the Department of Energy, the exploratory shaft facility becomes a part of the repository if the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for repository development. Therefore, the methods of constructing the underground openings should be compatible with the performance requirements for the repository. Also, the degree of damage to the rock surrounding the openings and the extent of the damage zone should not preclude adequate site characterization. The ESf construction and operation should be compatible with the site data gathering activities, such as geological, thermomechanical, hydrological and geochemical testing

  2. Radioactive waste repositories in hard rock aquifers--hydrodynamic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.; Braester, C.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model for mass and heat flow and a computer program have been developed to demonstrate the effect of heat released from a hypothetical radioactive waste repository on the groundwater flow regime. The model, based on the continuum approach, conceptualizes the fracture pattern and the solid blocks as two overlapping continua and consists of a set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The general form of the model is three-dimensional and can treat the fluid and rock either as two separate media with a quasi-steady exchange of heat between them or as a single equivalent medium with instantaneous thermal equilibrium. Numerical solutions have been obtained by the Galerkin finite element method. Examples have been presented for topographically different locations of the repository: below a horizontal ground surface, below a hill crest, below a hillside, and close to major fractures. The effects of constant permeability and porosity or downward decreasing with depth as well as the effect of anisotropic permeability have been investigated. Solutions include the velocity field, path lines, and traveling times of water particles passing the repository and the temperature distribution. The examples have been worked out for a two-dimensional flow domain, assuming that instantaneous thermal equilibrium takes place. This assumption was found to be justified by the relatively low flow velocities that occurred in the examples. Except for the location close to a major draining fracture, heat released from the radioactive waste repository may have a significant influence on the flow regime around the repository

  3. Science is the first step to siting nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    As Shaw [2014] notes, U.S. research on shale as a repository host was halted before expending anything close to the effort devoted to studying crystalline rock, salt, and - most notably - tuff at Yucca Mountain. The new political reality regarding Yucca Mountain may allow reconsideration of the decision to abandon research on shale as a repository host.

  4. Optimized application of systems engineering to nuclear waste repository projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskimin, P.A.; Shepard, M.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe a fully optimized application of systems engineering methods and philosophy to the management of a large nuclear waste repository project. Knowledge gained from actual experience with the use of the systems approach on two repository projects is incorporated in the material presented. The projects are currently evaluating the isolation performance of different geologic settings and are in different phases of maturity. Systems engineering methods were applied by the principal author at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the form of a functional analysis. At the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), the authors assisted the intergrating contractor with the development and application of systems engineering methods. Based on this experience and that acquired from other waste management projects, an optimized plan for applying systems engineering techniques was developed. The plan encompasses the following aspects: project organization, developing and defining requirements, assigning work responsibilities, evaluating system performance, quality assurance, controlling changes, enhancing licensability, optimizing project performance, and addressing regulatory issues. This information is presented in the form of a roadmap for the practical application of system engineering principles to a nuclear waste repository project

  5. Radiological consequence analysis of a repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Buchheim, B.; Hoop, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    One of the methods under consideration for the disposal of radioactive wastes is emplacement in a repository within deep, continental formations. This paper presents the experience gained in developing a methodology to make an assessment of the radiological consequences both for normal operation and for possible accident situations for a specific repository design in a salt dome at Gorleben in Germany , designed to accommodate all categories of radioactive waste. Radionuclide release scenarios were derived from a systematic analysis of the facility design and proposed operational procedure. Where necessary simple numerical models for such topics as direct radiation exposure from waste containers, release and transport of radionuclides, radiolysis, heat transfer, creep and impact were developed to give a first estimate of the radiological consequences due to radionuclide releases. (author)

  6. Nuclear waste repository research at the micro- to nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, T.; Denecke, M. A.

    2010-04-01

    Micro- and nano-focused synchrotron radiation techniques to investigate determinant processes in contaminant transport in geological media are becoming especially an increasingly used tool in nuclear waste disposal research. There are a number of reasons for this but primarily they are driven by the need to characterize actinide speciation localized in components of heterogeneous natural systems. We summarize some of the recent research conducted by researchers of the Institute of Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology using micro- and nano-focused X-ray beams for characterization of colloids and their interaction with minerals and of elemental and phase distributions in potential repository host rocks and actinide speciation in a repository natural analogues sample. Such investigations are prerequisite to ensuring reliable assessment of the long term radiological safety for proposed nuclear waste disposal sites.

  7. Shale as a radioactive waste repository: the importance of vermiculite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarneni, S; Roy, D M; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park; USA). Materials Research Labs.)

    1979-01-01

    Cesium sorption and fixation properties of thirty shale minerals and shales were investigated in search of a criterion for the suitability of shales for a radioactive waste repository. Shales and illites containing vermiculite fixed the largest proportion of total Cs sorbed (up to 91%) against displacement with 0.1 N KCl. For example, a slate sample fixed 33% of the total Cs sorbed while its weathered counterpart in which chlorite had altered to vermiculite fixed 89% of the total Cs sorbed. Since Cs is one of the most soluble and hazardous radioactive ions, its containment is of great importance in safe radioactive waste disposal. Presence of vermiculite in a shale body may therefore, serve as one criterion in the selection of a suitable shale for radioactive waste disposal if and when shales in geologically stable areas are selected for repositories.

  8. Influence of Groundwater Flow Rate on Nuclide Releases from Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 2000s several template programs for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste repository as well as a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste repository systems have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. Very recently, another template program for a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels has been developed and are to be disposed of by separate disposal strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and 500m depth, believed to be in the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for total system performance assessment which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste package and canister. To quantify a nuclide release and transport through the possible various pathways especially in the near-fields of the A-KRS repository system, some illustrative evaluations have been made through the study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  9. Information base for waste repository design. Volume 3. Waste/rock interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplick, C.M.; Pentz, D.L.; Oston, S.G.; Talbot, R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the important effects resulting from interaction between radioactive waste and the rock in a nuclear waste repository. The state of the art in predicting waste/rock interactions is summarized. Where possible, independent numerical calculations have been performed. Recommendations are made pointing out areas which require additional research

  10. Symposium on the development of nuclear waste policy: Siting the high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) attempted to formulate a viable national policy for managing the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The NWPA authorized the selection of two repository sites: the first to be constructed in the West and a second site developed in the eastern United States. A detailed process for site selection was outlined in the NWPA. In addition, the NWPA authorized open-quotes the development of a waste transportation system; required the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit a proposal to construct a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) after conducting a study of the need for, and feasibility of such a facility; and required the President to evaluate the use of the repositories ... for the disposal of high-level waste resulting from defense activitiesclose quotes (DOE, 1988, p. 1). A series of provisions granting oversight participation to states and Indian tribes, as well as a compensation package for the ultimate host state were also included. Responsibility for implementing the NWPA was assigned to DOE

  11. Selection of the host rock for high level radioactive waste repository in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuanxin; Wang Wenguang; Chen Zhangru

    2001-01-01

    The authors has briefly introduced the experiences of the host rock selection and the host rock types in other countries for high level radioactive waste repository. The potential host rocks in China are investigated. They include granite, tuff, clay, basalt, salt, and loess. The report has expounded the distributions, scale, thickness, mineral and chemical composition, construction, petrogenesis and the ages of the rock. The possibility of these rocks as the host rock has been studied. The six pieces of distribution map of potential rocks have been made up. Through the synthetical study, it is considered that granite as the host rock of high level radioactive waste repository is possible

  12. Microbial processes in radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazso, L.; Farkas-Galgoczi, G.; Diosi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial processes could potentially affect the performance of a radioactive waste disposal system and related factors that could have an influence on the mobility of radionuclides are outlined. Analytical methods, including sampling of water, rock and surface swabs from a potential disposal site, are described and the quantitative as well as qualitative experimental results obtained are given. Although the results contribute to an understanding of the impact of microbial processes on deep geological disposal of nuclear waste, there is not yet sufficient information for a model which will predict the consequences of these processes. (author)

  13. Geographical information system (GIS) suitability analysis of radioactive waste repository site in Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal Azrin Abd Razalim; Noraini Surip; Ahmad Hasnulhadi; Nazran Harun; Nurul Nadia Abd Malek; Roziah Che Musa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project is to identify a suitable site for radioactive waste repository in Pahang using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) technologies. There are ten parameters considered in the analysis, which divided into Selection Criteria and Exclusion Criteria. The Selection Criteria parameters consists of land use, rainfall, lineament, slope, groundwater potential and elevation while Exclusion Criteria parameters consist of urban, protected land and island. Furthermore, all parameters were integrated, given weight age and ranked for site selection evaluation in GIS environment. At the first place, about twelve sites have been identified as suitable sites for radioactive waste repository throughout the study area. These sites were further analysed by ground checking on the physical setting including geological, drainage, and population density in order to finalise three most suitable sites for radioactive waste repository. (author)

  14. Evolution of waste-package design at the potential U.S. geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, H.; Harkins, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the waste-package design at the potential geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. Because the potential repository is the first of its kind, the design of its components must be flexible and capable of evolving in response to continuing scientific study, development efforts, and changes to performance criteria. The team of scientists and engineers at the Yucca Mountain Project has utilized a systematic, scientific approach to design the potential geologic nuclear-waste repository. As a result of continuing development efforts, the design has incorporated a growing base of scientific and engineering information to ensure that regulatory and performance requirements are met. (authors)

  15. Experimental study of the diffusion of {sup 1}37Cs in mortars used in nuclear waste repositories medium and low activity; Estudio experimental de la difusion de {sup 1}37Cs en morteros utilizados en almacenamientos de residuos radiactivos de media y baja actividad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.

    2013-07-01

    Cement is a largely used material in radioactive waste repository for conditioning and isolating the waste. In this study, the adequacy of different type of cement to act as barrier to the {sup 1}37Cs migration has been analyzed. {sup 1}37Cs is a very important fission product in low and medium radioactive waste repository. As diffusion is the main transport process in cementitious materials, in this study the diffusion behavior of the radionuclide was especially evaluated.

  16. Performance Assessments of Generic Nuclear Waste Repositories in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. R.; Sevougian, S. D.; Mariner, P. E.; Hammond, G. E.; Frederick, J.

    2017-12-01

    Simulations of deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste in a generic shale formation showcase Geologic Disposal Safety Assessment (GDSA) Framework, a toolkit for repository performance assessment (PA) whose capabilities include domain discretization (Cubit), multiphysics simulations (PFLOTRAN), uncertainty and sensitivity analysis (Dakota), and visualization (Paraview). GDSA Framework is used to conduct PAs of two generic repositories in shale. The first considers the disposal of 22,000 metric tons heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear fuel. The second considers disposal of defense-related spent nuclear fuel and high level waste. Each PA accounts for the thermal load and radionuclide inventory of applicable waste types, components of the engineered barrier system, and components of the natural barrier system including the host rock shale and underlying and overlying stratigraphic units. Model domains are half-symmetry, gridded with Cubit, and contain between 7 and 22 million grid cells. Grid refinement captures the detail of individual waste packages, emplacement drifts, access drifts, and shafts. Simulations are run in a high performance computing environment on as many as 2048 processes. Equations describing coupled heat and fluid flow and reactive transport are solved with PFLOTRAN, an open-source, massively parallel multiphase flow and reactive transport code. Additional simulated processes include waste package degradation, waste form dissolution, radioactive decay and ingrowth, sorption, solubility, advection, dispersion, and diffusion. Simulations are run to 106 y, and radionuclide concentrations are observed within aquifers at a point approximately 5 km downgradient of the repository. Dakota is used to sample likely ranges of input parameters including waste form and waste package degradation rates and properties of engineered and natural materials to quantify uncertainty in predicted concentrations and sensitivity to input parameters. Sandia National

  17. PRINCIPLE ROCK TYPES FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibila Borojević Šostarić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground geological storage of high- and intermediate/low radioactive waste is aimed to represent a barrier between the surface environment and potentially hazardous radioactive elements. Permeability, behavior against external stresses, chemical reacatibility and absorption are the key geological parameters for the geological storage of radioactive waste. Three principal rock types were discussed and applied to the Dinarides: (1 evaporites in general, (2 shale, and (3 crystalline basement rocks. (1 Within the Dinarides, evaporite formations are located within the central part of a Carbonate platform and are inappropriate for storage. Offshore evaporites are located within diapiric structures of the central and southern part of the Adriatic Sea and are covered by thick Mesozoic to Cenozoic clastic sediment. Under very specific circumstances they can be considered as potential site locations for further investigation for the storage of low/intermediate level radioactive wast e. (2 Thick flysch type formation of shale to phyllite rocks are exposed at the basement units of the Petrova and Trgovska gora regions whereas (3 crystalline magmatic to metamorphic basement is exposed at the Moslavačka Gora and Slavonian Mts. regions. For high-level radioactive waste, basement phyllites and granites may represent the only realistic potential option in the NW Dinarides.

  18. 500 year concrete for a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipose, K.E.

    1988-03-01

    The IRUS (Intrusion resistant underground structure) repository planned at Chalk River for the belowground disposal of low level radioactive waste relies on the durability of concrete for the required 500 year service life. A research program for the IRUS repository to design a durable concrete and also to predict its longevity under the repository environment is in progress. The methodology involves the identification of major degradation agents, and the assessment of the rate of diffusion of corrosive ions and/or the rate of advancement of the reaction front into the concrete. Accelerated test methods are being used on laboratory specimens in conjunction with extrapolation procedures to predict long-term durability from short-term data. The inherent limitations are also examined

  19. Ethical considerations surrounding nuclear waste repository siting and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    The potential long-term health and safety effects of the nuclear materials stored in repositories, the extremely long periods of time over which such materials may be dangerous, and the equity implications of the siting of a repository in any given area are unlike the issues involved in other large-scale projects. They involve major philosophical issues basic to human perspectives on social relationships and on insuring the future of mankind. Safety and permanence are the two basic criteria for determining whether a waste proposal is satisfactory. This chapter takes the approach of public (or micro) ethics, whose task is to 1) articulate and clarify public values relevant to a problem, 2) identify and evaluate public options, and 3) rank alternatives in some order of ethical preferability. It addresses the four major repository-related issues: uncertainty and risks, geographic equity, intergenerational ethics, and implementation ethics

  20. Training courses on integrated safety assessment modelling for waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallants, D.

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface or deep repositories of radioactive waste are being developed and evaluated all over the world. Also, existing repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste often need to be re-evaluated to extend their license or to obtain permission for final closure. The evaluation encompasses both a technical feasibility as well as a safety analysis. The long term safety is usually demonstrated by means of performance or safety assessment. For this purpose computer models are used that calculate the migration of radionuclides from the conditioned radioactive waste, through engineered barriers to the environment (groundwater, surface water, and biosphere). Integrated safety assessment modelling addresses all relevant radionuclide pathways from source to receptor (man), using in combination various computer codes in which the most relevant physical, chemical, mechanical, or even microbiological processes are mathematically described. SCK-CEN organizes training courses in Integrated safety assessment modelling that are intended for individuals who have either a controlling or supervising role within the national radwaste agencies or regulating authorities, or for technical experts that carry out the actual post-closure safety assessment for an existing or new repository. Courses are organised by the Department of Waste and Disposal

  1. Photogeologic study of small-scale linear features near a potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throckmorton, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear features were mapped from 1:2400-scale aerial photographs of the northern half of the potential underground nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain by means of a Kern PG 2 stereoplotter. These features were thought to be the expression of fractures at the ground surface (fracture traces), and were mapped in the caprock, upper lithophysal, undifferentiated lower lithophysal and hackly units of the Tiva Canyon Member of the Miocene Paintbrush Tuff. To determine if the linear features corresponded to fracture traces observed in the field, stations (areas) were selected on the map where the traces were both abundant and located solely within one unit. These areas were visited in the field, where fracture-trace bearings and fracture-trace lengths were recorded. Additional data on fracture-trace length and fracture abundance, obtained from ground-based studies of cleared pavements located within the study area were used to help evaluate data collected for this study. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Nye County, Nevada 1992 nuclear waste repository program: Program overview. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the Nye County FY92 Nuclear Waste Repository Program (Program). Funds to pay for Program costs will come from the Federal Nuclear Waste Fund, which was established under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). In early 1983, the Yucca Mountain was identified as a potentially suitable site for the nation's first geologic repository for spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Later that year, the Nye County Board of County Commissioners (Board) established the capability to monitor the Federal effort to implement the NWPA and evaluate the potential impacts of repository-related activities on Nye County. Over the last eight years, the County's program has grown in complexity and cost in order to address DOE's evolving site characterization studies, and prepare for the potential for facility construction and operation. Changes were necessary as well, in response to Congress's redirection of the repository program specified in the amendments, to the NWPA approved in 1987. In early FY 1991, the County formally established a project office to plan and implement its program of work. The Repository Project Office's (RPO) mission and functions are provided in Section 2.0. The RPO organization structure is described in Section 3.0

  3. Appraisal of hard rock for potential underground repositories of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1977-10-01

    The mechanical safety and stability of such an underground repository depends largely on the virgin state of stress in the rock, groundwater pressures, the strengths of the rocks, heating by the decay of the radioactive wastes, and the layout of the excavations and the disposition of waste cannisters within them. A large body of pertinent data exists in the literature, and each of these factors has been analyzed in the light of this information. The results indicate that there are no fundamental geological nor mechanical reasons why repositories capable of storing radioactive wastes should not be excavated at suitable sites in hard rock. However, specific tests to determine the mechanical and thermal properties of the rocks at a site would be needed to provide the data for the engineering design of a repository. Also, little experience exists of the effects on underground excavations of thermal loads, so that this aspect requires theoretical study and experimental validation. The depths of these potential repositories would lie in the range from 0.5 to 2.0 km below surface, depending upon the strength of the rock. Virgin states of stress have been measured at such depths which would retard the ingress of groundwater and obviate the incidence of faulting. A typical repository comprising three horizons each with a total area of 5 km 2 would have the capacity to store wastes with thermal output of 240 MW

  4. Postclosure risks of alternative SRP nuclear waste forms in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, H.; Edwards, L.; Harvey, T.; Revelli, M.

    1982-05-01

    The postclosure risk of REFERENCE and ALTERNATIVE waste forms for the defense high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) were compared by analyses with a computer code, MISER, written to study the effects of repository features in a probabilistic framework. MISER traces radionuclide flows through a network of stream tubes from the repository to risk-sensitive points. Uncertainties in waste form, package properties, and geotechnical data are accounted for with Monte Carlo techniques. Our results show: (1) for generic layered-salt and basalt repositories, the difference in performance between the two waste forms is insignificant; (2) where the doses are sensitive to uncertainties in leaching rates, the doses are orders of magnitude below background; (3) disruptive events contribute only slightly to the risk of a layered-salt repository; (4) simple design alterations have strong effects on near field doses; (5) great care should be exercised in selecting the location at which repository risks are to be measured, calculated, or regulated

  5. Seismic design of low-level nuclear waste repositories and toxic waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Identification of the elements of typical hazardous waste facilities (HFWs) that are the major contributors to the risk are focussed on as the elements which require additional considerations in the design and construction of low-level nuclear waste management repositories and HWFs. From a recent study of six typical HWFs it was determined that the factors that contribute most to the human and environmental risk fall into four basic categories: geologic and seismological conditions at each HWF; engineered structures at each HWF; environmental conditions at each HWF; and nature of the material being released. In selecting and carrying out the six case studies, three groups of hazardous waste facilities were examined: generator industries which treat or temporarily store their own wastes; generator facilities which dispose of their own hazardous wastes on site; and industries in the waste treatment and disposal business. The case studies have a diversity of geologic setting, nearby settlement patterns, and environments. Two sites are above a regional aquifer, two are near a bay important to regional fishing, one is in rural hills, and one is in a desert, although not isolated from nearby towns and a groundwater/surface-water system. From the results developed in the study, it was concluded that the effect of seismic activity on hazardous facilities poses a significant risk to the population. Fifteen reasons are given for this conclusion

  6. Radionuclide transport behavior in a generic geological radioactive waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Marco; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens T

    2015-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport to study the influence of several factors, including the ambient hydraulic gradient, groundwater pressure anomalies, and the properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ), on the prevailing transport mechanism (i.e., advection or molecular diffusion) in a generic nuclear waste repository within a clay-rich geological formation. By comparing simulation results, we show that the EDZ plays a major role as a preferential flowpath for radionuclide transport. When the EDZ is not taken into account, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in almost the totality of the simulated domain, and transport velocity is about 40% slower. Modeling results also show that a reduction in hydraulic gradient leads to a greater predominance of diffusive transport, slowing down radionuclide transport by about 30% with respect to a scenario assuming a unit gradient. In addition, inward flow caused by negative pressure anomalies in the clay-rich formation further reduces transport velocity, enhancing the ability of the geological barrier to contain the radioactive waste. On the other hand, local high gradients associated with positive pressure anomalies can speed up radionuclide transport with respect to steady-state flow systems having the same regional hydraulic gradients. Transport behavior was also found to be sensitive to both geometrical and hydrogeological parameters of the EDZ. Results from this work can provide useful knowledge toward correctly assessing the post-closure safety of a geological disposal system. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Durable concrete for a waste repository - Measurement of ionic ingress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, R.F.; Beaudoin, J.J.; Philipose, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    A waste repository for the below ground disposal of low level radioactive waste is planned at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. It relies greatly on the durability of concrete for the required 500 year service life. A research program to design durable concrete and predict its service life is in progress. The degradation of the concrete depends to a large extent on the rate of ingress of corrosive agents. Penetration of chloride and sulfate ions are particularly relevant. Twenty mix formulations were developed to create various types and qualities of concrete, and to study their behavior in different site environmental conditions. A total of 1,000 concrete specimens are being exposed at 20C and 45C to 25 different combinations of the corrosive agents including CO 2 . Procedures to measure the ionic profiles and to determine the factors controlling diffusion of the ions in the various concretes have been developed. Results of selected concrete systems exposed to chloride and sulfate solutions for 1 year are presented and discussed in terms of pore structure and permeability parameters of the concrete

  8. Safety Assessment of Radioactive waste Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    It is planned to dispose of high-level radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. To access the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems, mathematical models are used to describe groundwater flow, chemistry and potential radionuclide migration through these formations. Establishing the validity of such models is important in order to obtain the necessary confidence in the safety of the disposal method. The papers in these proceedings of the GEOVAL'90 Symposium describe the current state of knowledge on the validation of geosphere flow and transport models. This symposium, divided into five sessions, contains 65 technical papers: session 1 - Necessity of validation. Session 2 - Progress in validation of flow and transport models in orystalline rock, unsaturated media, salt media or clay. Session 3 - Progress in validation of geochemical models. Session 4 - Progress in validation of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical effects. Session 5 - Validation strategy

  9. Gas and water flow in an excavation-induced fracture network around an underground drift: A case study for a radioactive waste repository in clay rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Vaissière, Rémi; Armand, Gilles; Talandier, Jean

    2015-02-01

    The Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) surrounding a drift, and in particular its evolution, is being studied for the performance assessment of a radioactive waste underground repository. A specific experiment (called CDZ) was designed and implemented in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in France to investigate the EDZ. This experiment is dedicated to study the evolution of the EDZ hydrogeological properties (conductivity and specific storage) of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone under mechanical compression and artificial hydration. Firstly, a loading cycle applied on a drift wall was performed to simulate the compression effect from bentonite swelling in a repository drift (bentonite is a clay material to be used to seal drifts and shafts for repository closure purpose). Gas tests (permeability tests with nitrogen and tracer tests with helium) were conducted during the first phase of the experiment. The results showed that the fracture network within the EDZ was initially interconnected and opened for gas flow (particularly along the drift) and then progressively closed with the increasing mechanical stress applied on the drift wall. Moreover, the evolution of the EDZ after unloading indicated a self-sealing process. Secondly, the remaining fracture network was resaturated to demonstrate the ability to self-seal of the COx claystone without mechanical loading by conducting from 11 to 15 repetitive hydraulic tests with monitoring of the hydraulic parameters. During this hydration process, the EDZ effective transmissivity dropped due to the swelling of the clay materials near the fracture network. The hydraulic conductivity evolution was relatively fast during the first few days. Low conductivities ranging at 10-10 m/s were observed after four months. Conversely, the specific storage showed an erratic evolution during the first phase of hydration (up to 60 days). Some uncertainty remains on this parameter due to volumetric strain during the

  10. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A constructional engineering project study aimed at clarification of the feasibility of a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (type B repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set derived from the geological, rock mechanical and topographical characterictics of one of Nagra's planned exploration areas. Final storage is effected in subterranean rock caverns accessed by horizontal tunnel. The reception area also is sited below the surface. Storage is conceived in such a way that, after closure of the repository, maintenance and supervision can be dispensed with and a guarantee of high long-term safety can nevertheless be provided. The envisaged repository consists of an entry tunnel for road vehicles and a reception area with a series of caverns for receiving waste, for additional technical facilities and for the production of the concrete back-fill material. The connecting tunnel is serviced by a tunnel railway and the actual repository area consists of several storage caverns. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of 200'000 m3 of solidified low- and intermediate-level waste. Valanginian marl is assumed as the host rock, although it would also be basically possible to house the proposed installations in other host rocks. The excavated material will total around 1'000'000 m3. The construction time for the whole installation is estimated as about 7 years and a working team of around 30 people will be required for the estimated 60-year operational duration. The project described in the present report justifies the conclusion that construction of a repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste is feasible with present-day technology. This conclusion takes into consideration quantitative and operational constraints as well as geological and hydrogeological data relevant to constructional engineering. The latter are derived from a model data-set based on a specific locality

  11. The Hidden Risk Decisions in Waste Repository Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishman, Steve

    2001-01-01

    The move toward risk-informed, performance-based regulation of activities involving radioactive materials is becoming wide spread and broadly applied. While this approach may have some merit in specific applications in which there is a considerable body of experience, its strict application in regulation of geologic repositories for highly radioactive wastes may not be appropriate for this unproven and socially controversial technology. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes risk-informed, performance-based regulation as 'an approach in which risk insights, engineering analysis and judgement (eg. defense in depth), and performance history are used to (1) focus attention on the most important activities, (2) establish objective criteria based upon risk insights for evaluating performance, (3) develop measurable or calculable parameters for monitoring system and licensee performance, and (4) focus on the results as the primary basis for regulatory decision-making.' Both the risk-informed and performance-based elements of the approach are problematic when considering regulation of geologic repositories for highly radioactive wastes - an activity yet to be accomplished by any nation. In investigating potential sites for geologic repositories there will always be residual uncertainty in understanding the natural system and the events and processes that affect it. The more complex the natural system, the greater will be the uncertainty in both the data and the models used to describe the characteristics of the site's natural barriers, and the events and processes that could affect repository waste isolation. The engineered barriers also are subject to uncertainties that are important to the repository system. These uncertainties translate themselves into a range of probabilities that certain events or processes, detrimental to waste isolation, will occur. The uncertainties also translate to a range of consequences and magnitudes of consequences, should the

  12. Safety assessment of geologic repositories for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.; Burkholder, H.C.; Winegardner, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration of geologic isolation for final disposition of radioactive wastes has led to the need for evaluation of the safety of the concept. Such evaluations require consideration of factors not encountered in conventional risk analysis: consequences at times and places far removed from the repository site; indirect, complex, and alternative pathways between the waste and the point of potential consequences; a highly limited data base; and limited opportunity for experimental verification of results. R and D programs to provide technical safety evaluations are under way. Three methods are being considered for the probabilistic aspects of the evaluations: fault tree analysis, repository simulation analysis, and system stability analysis. Nuclide transport models, currently in a relatively advanced state of development, are used to evaluate consequences of postulated loss of geologic isolation. This paper outlines the safety assessment methods, unique features of the assessment problem that affect selection of methods and reliability of results, and available results. It also discusses potential directions for future work

  13. The technical challenge of mechanized excavation for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the historical background of the tunnel boring machine and discusses its integration into the design of a nuclear waste repository. It is essential that the designers of a project utilize the productivity of the system to their advantage. An example would be the construction of a pair of small tunnels instead of a single large diameter access ramp. The pair of tunnels would be more effective in use and less expensive to bore than the single all-purpose tunnel. The designers of an underground nuclear waste repository must recognize the capabilities of the Tunnel Boring Machine system and tailor their design to employ the technological advantages which have been made in recent years

  14. Generic performance assessment for a deep repository for low and intermediate level waste in the UK - a case study in assessing radiological impacts on the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.R.; Patton, D.; Copplestone D.; Norris, S.; O'Sullivan, P.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of radionuclides in soil and surface water, taken from a generic performance assessment of a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, assumed to be located in the UK, have been used as the basis for a case study in assessing radiological impacts on the natural environment. Simplified descriptions of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types likely to be impacted have been developed. A scoping assessment has identified 226 Ra, 210 Po, 234 U, 230 Th and 238 U as having the highest potential for impact, with doses from internally incorporated alpha emitters as being potentially of particular importance. These nuclides, together with 36 Cl and 129 I (which have proved to be of importance in radiological risk assessments for humans) were included in a more detailed dose assessment. A basic methodology for dose assessment of ecosystems is described, and has been applied for the defined impacted ecosystems. Paucity of published data on concentration factors prevented a more detailed assessment for terrestrial ecosystems. For the aquatic ecosystem, a more detailed assessment was possible and highest calculated absorbed dose rates (weighted for the likely higher biological effectiveness of alpha radiation were about 6.5 μGy h -1 . We conclude that harm to the impacted ecosystems is unlikely and make the observation that the lack of concentration factor or transfer factor data for a sufficiently wide range of species, ecosystems and nuclides appears to be the principal obstacle to establishing a comprehensive framework for the application of radiological protection to ecosystems

  15. Alternative methods to manage waste salt from repository excavation in the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County locations, Texas: A scoping study: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report describes and qualitatively evaluates eight options for managing the large volumes of salt and salt-laden rock that would result from the excavation of a high-level radioactive waste repository in Deaf Smith County or Swisher County, Texas. The options are: distribution for commercial use; ocean disposal; deep-well injection; disposal in multilevel mines on the site; disposal in abandoned salt mines off the site; disposal off the site in abandoned mines developed for minerals other than salt; disposal in excavated landfills; and surface disposal on alkali flats. The main features of each option are described, as well as the associated environmental and economic impacts, and regulatory constraints. The options are evaluated in terms of 11 factors that jointly constitute a test of relative suitability. The results of the evaluation and implications for further study are indicated. This document does not consider or include the actual numbers, findings, or conclusions contained in the final Deaf Smith County Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986). 43 refs., 8 tabs

  16. Repository documentation rethought. A comprehensive approach from untreated waste to waste packages for final disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthofer, Anton Philipp; Schubert, Johannes [VPC GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The German Act on Reorganization of Responsibility for Nuclear Disposal (Entsorgungsuebergangsgesetz (EntsorgUebG)) adopted in June 2017 provides the energy utilities with the new option of transferring responsibility for their waste packages to the Federal Government. This is conditional on the waste packages being approved for delivery to the Konrad final repository. A comprehensive approach starts with the dismantling of nuclear facilities and extends from waste disposal and packaging planning to final repository documentation. Waste package quality control measures are planned and implemented as early as in the process qualification stage so that the production of waste packages that are suitable for final deposition can be ensured. Optimization of cask and loading configuration can save container and repository volume. Workflow planning also saves time, expenditure and exposure time for personnel at the facilities. VPC has evaluated this experience and developed it into a comprehensive approach.

  17. Melodie: A global risk assessment model for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewi, J.; Assouline, M.; Bareau, J.; Raimbault, P.

    1987-03-01

    The Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN), which is part of the French Atomic Energy Commission (C.E.A.) develops since 1984 in collaboration with different groups inside and outside the C.E.A. a computer model for risk assessment of nuclear waste repositories in deep geological formations. The main characteristics of the submodels, the data processing structure and some examples of applications are presented

  18. Research on high level radioactive waste repository seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Review seismic hazard analysis principle and method in site suitable assessment process of Yucca Mountain Project, and seismic design criteria and seismic design basis in primary design process. Demonstrated spatial character of seismic hazard by calculated regional seismic hazard map. Contrasted different level seismic design basis to show their differences and relation. Discussed seismic design criteria for preclosure phrase of high level waste repository and preference goal under beyond design basis ground motion. (author)

  19. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Conceptual repository design in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Griffin, J.R.; Davies, J.W.; Burton, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper gives an interim report on UK studies on possible designs for a repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. The properties of the waste are described and general technical considerations of consequences of disposal in the rock. As an illustration, two basic designs are described associated with pre-cooling in an intermediate store. Firstly, a 'wet repository' is outlined wherein canisters are sealed up closely in boreholes in the rock in regions of low groundwater movement. Secondly, a 'dry repository' above sea level is described where emplacement in tunnels is followed by a loose backfill containing activity absorbers. A connection to deep permeable strata maintains water levels below emplacement positions. Variants on the two basic schemes (tunnel emplacement in a wet repository and in situ cooling) are also assessed. It is concluded that all designs discussed produce a size of repository feasible for construction in the UK. Further, (1) a working figure of 100 0 C per maximum rock temperature is not exceeded, (2) no insuperable engineering problems have so far been found, though rock mechanics studies are at an early stage; (3) it is not possible to discount the escape of a few long-lived 'man-made' isotopes. A minute increment to natural activity in the biosphere may occur from traces of uranium and its decay chains; (4) at this stage, all the designs are still possible candidates for the construction of a UK repository. (author)

  20. Establishing managerial requirements for low-and intermediate-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C. W.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, H. T.; Park, W. J.; Suk, T. W.; Park, S. H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews basic considerations for establishing managerial requirements on the domestic low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository and presents the corresponding draft requirements. The draft emphasizes their close linking with the related regulations, standards and safety assessment for the repository. It also proposes a desirable direction towards harmonizing together with the existing waste acceptance requirements for the repository

  1. Third report, development of site suitability and design performance data base for a high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    This report presents the results of mining and geotechnical studies provided as support for the development of a technical data base suitable for the generation of a regulatory framework governing high-level nuclear waste disposal: flow path models for basalts, salt domes, and crystalline rocks; simplistic model evaluations; loss of administrative control; repository conceptual designs; repository design considerations; and design performance criteria

  2. Preliminary drift design analyses for nuclear waste repository in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; Brechtel, C.E.; Goodrich, R.R.; Bauer, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The proposed repository will be excavated in the Topopah Spring Member, which is a moderately fractured, unsaturated, welded tuff. Excavation stability will be required during construction, waste emplacement, retrieval (if required), and closure to ensure worker safety. The subsurface excavations will be subject to stress changes resulting from thermal expansion of the rock mass and seismic events associated with regional tectonic activity and underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Analyses of drift stability are required to assess the acceptable waste emplacement density, to design the drift shapes and ground support systems, and to establish schedules and cost of construction. This paper outlines the proposed methodology to assess drift stability and then focuses on an example of its application to the YMP repository drifts based on preliminary site data. Because site characterization activities have not begun, the database currently lacks the extensive site-specific field and laboratory data needed to form conclusions as to the final ground support requirements. This drift design methodology will be applied and refined as more site-specific data are generated and as analytical techniques and methodologies are verified during the site characterization process

  3. Integrity of radioactive waste packages at the Yucca mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.; Biaglow, A.; Huber, M.; Jagmin, C.

    2004-01-01

    Several of the important physical and chemical processes that impact the integrity of the radioactive waste packages planned for disposal at the proposed Repository at Yucca Mountain are examined. These processes are described by the aerodynamic, thermodynamic, and chemical interactions associated with the waste packages. The effects of chemical corrosion, mechanical erosion, temperature distributions throughout the repository environs, interactions of air, water, and solid particles, and radiological and biological influences are addressed. Materials will be exposed to at least 3 conditions threatening the integrity of the waste package: 1) accumulated dust and particles on the package surface and suspended in the air, 2) chemical reactions from deposits on the waste package infrastructure materials and tight contact areas, and crevices, and 3) environmental factors affecting chemical reactions such as moisture, pH, Eh, and radiolysis. All 3 of these conditions can combine and produce damaging impacts upon the thin protective layer on the alloy surface of the waste package. There are certain benefits from the low-temperature operating mode with ambient temperature below 85 Celsius degrees, but the materials could be subjected to a maximum temperature of 180 Celsius degrees which might introduce stress corrosion cracking and high temperature effects

  4. A feasibility study for the design of a simulated radioactive waste repository facility. Volume 1 Text-References

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mott; Hay; Anderson.

    1987-01-01

    The report is in two volumes: Volume 1 contains the main text and the references, and volume 2, all the figures and tables. The great majority of published concepts for the disposal of heat generating radioactive waste envisage the emplacement of waste packages in boreholes backfilled with an engineered material described as the buffer. The need for a full scale experimental programme to investigate buffer placement and performance was identified, and this report describes the first stage in the development of that programme. The nature of candidate buffer materials and the factors defining their behaviour have been reviewed and the nature of a buffer material selection and testing programme have been outlined. The properties of crystalline rocks, saliferous formations and clay host materials have been reviewed and the complex interactions between them have been identified. The difficulty of modelling these properties and the interaction between buffer and host materials has been discussed and the instrumentation requirements for measuring this interaction have been outlined. A limited amount of thermomechanical analysis has been performed to give a preliminary indication of the parameters of major significance in selection of instrumentation and modelling materials. It has been concluded that a complete simulation of host material properties is not presently viable, although it may be attainable for some crystalline rock types. Alternative strategies for assessment of the host/buffer interaction are suggested

  5. Low- and intermediate-level waste repository-induced effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Smith, P. [Safety Assessment Management Ltd, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [Savage Earth Associates Ltd, Bournemouth, Dorset (United Kingdom); Senger, R. [Intera Inc., Ennetbaden (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    This status report aims at describing and assessing the interactions of the radioactive waste emplaced in a low- and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) repository with the engineered materials and the Opalinus Clay host rock. The Opalinus Clay has a thickness of about 100 m in the proposed siting regions. Among other things the results are used to steer the RD and D programme of NAGRA. The repository-induced effects considered in this report are of the following broad types: - Thermal effects: i.e. effects arising principally from the heat generated by the waste and the setting of cement. - Rock-mechanical effects: i.e. effects arising from the mechanical disturbance to the rock caused by the excavation of the emplacement caverns and other underground structures. - Hydraulic and gas-related effects: i.e. the effects of repository resaturation and of gas generation, e.g. due to the corrosion of metals within the repository, on the host rock and engineered barriers. - Chemical effects: i.e. chemical interactions between the waste, the engineered materials and the host rock. Deep geological repositories are designed to avoid or mitigate the impact of potentially detrimental repository-induced effects on long-term safety. For the repository under consideration in the present report, an assessment of those repository-induced effects that remain shows that detrimental chemical and mechanical impacts are largely confined to the rock adjacent to the excavations, thermal impacts are minimal and gas effects can be mitigated by appropriate design measures to reduce gas production and provide pathways for gas transport that limit gas pressure build-up (engineered gas transport system, or EGTS). Specific measures that are part of the current reference design are discussed in relation to their significance with respect to repository-induced effects. The disposal system described in this report provides a system of passive barriers with multiple safety functions. The disposal

  6. Low- and intermediate-level waste repository-induced effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J.; Smith, P.; Savage, D.; Senger, R.

    2016-10-01

    This status report aims at describing and assessing the interactions of the radioactive waste emplaced in a low- and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) repository with the engineered materials and the Opalinus Clay host rock. The Opalinus Clay has a thickness of about 100 m in the proposed siting regions. Among other things the results are used to steer the RD and D programme of NAGRA. The repository-induced effects considered in this report are of the following broad types: - Thermal effects: i.e. effects arising principally from the heat generated by the waste and the setting of cement. - Rock-mechanical effects: i.e. effects arising from the mechanical disturbance to the rock caused by the excavation of the emplacement caverns and other underground structures. - Hydraulic and gas-related effects: i.e. the effects of repository resaturation and of gas generation, e.g. due to the corrosion of metals within the repository, on the host rock and engineered barriers. - Chemical effects: i.e. chemical interactions between the waste, the engineered materials and the host rock. Deep geological repositories are designed to avoid or mitigate the impact of potentially detrimental repository-induced effects on long-term safety. For the repository under consideration in the present report, an assessment of those repository-induced effects that remain shows that detrimental chemical and mechanical impacts are largely confined to the rock adjacent to the excavations, thermal impacts are minimal and gas effects can be mitigated by appropriate design measures to reduce gas production and provide pathways for gas transport that limit gas pressure build-up (engineered gas transport system, or EGTS). Specific measures that are part of the current reference design are discussed in relation to their significance with respect to repository-induced effects. The disposal system described in this report provides a system of passive barriers with multiple safety functions. The disposal

  7. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY'85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  8. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S. [CDA/INCRA Joint Advisory Group, Greenwich, CT (USA)

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Hydrogeological investigation for sitting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Lv Chuanhe

    2005-01-01

    Based on the research experiences of our country and some developed countries in the world, the purpose, process and methods, as well as the function of hydrogeological investigation for sitting disposal repository for high radioactive waste are discussed. Meanwhile, the topic related to the acquisition of hydrogeological parameters is described as well, aiming at providing reference for the future study. (authors)

  10. To trace the water movements in the sites of nuclear waste repositories by chlorine-36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhanxue

    1995-01-01

    Chlorine-36 tracing of the water movements in the potential high-level radioactive waste disposal repository sites has been briefly reviewed. The application of this method to the tracing of precipitation infiltration into the unsaturated zone and the water movement in the saturated zone, to the dating of groundwater and the study of solute migration rates have been discussed

  11. The backfilling and sealing of radioactive waste repositories. V. 2. Figure - Tables - Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The two volumes of this report present a review study about backfilling and sealing of radioactive waste repositories in granites, argillaceous and salt formations. Volume 2 contains all the figures, table and appendices A detailed account of candidate backfill materials is given in a standardized format

  12. Uranium, thorium and trace elements in geologic occurrences as analogues of nuclear waste repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Brookins, D.G.; Cohen, L.H.; Flexser, S.; Abashian, M.; Murphy, M.; Williams, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Contact zones between intrusive rocks and tuff, basalt, salt and granitic rock were investigated as possible analogues of nuclear waste repository conditions. Results of detailed studies of contacts between quartz monzonite of Laramide age, intrusive into Precambrian gneiss, and a Tertiary monzonite-tuff contact zone indicate that uranium, thorium and other trace elements have not migrated significantly from the more radioactive instrusives into the country rock. Similar observations resulted from preliminary investigations of a rhyodacite dike cutting basalt of the Columbia River plateau and a kimberlitic dike cutting bedded salt of the Salina basin. This lack of radionuclide migration occurred in hydrologic and thermal conditions comparable to, or more severe than those expected in nuclear waste repository environments and over time periods of the order of concern for waste repositories. Attention is now directed to investigation of active hydrothermal systems in candidate repository rock types, and in this regard a preliminary set of samples has been obtained from a core hole intersecting basalt underlying the Newberry caldera, Oregon, where temperatures presently range from 100 to 265 0 C. Results of mineralogical and geochemical investigations of this core should indicate the alteration mineralogy and behavior of radioelements in conditions analogous to those in the near field of a repository in basalt

  13. Future extension of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The existing Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR) is licensed for disposal of short-lived waste originated from operation and maintenance of Swedish nuclear power plants. The repository is foreseen to be extended to accommodate short-lived waste from the future decommissioning of the Nuclear Power Plants. Long-lived waste from operation, maintenance and eventually decommissioning will be stored some years before disposal in a geological repository. This repository can be build either as a further extension of the SFR facility or as a separate repository. This paper discusses the strategy of a step-wise extended repository where the extensions are performed during operation of the existing parts of the repository. It describes the process for licensing new parts of the repository (and re-license of the existing parts). (author)

  14. Studies of mechanisms and processes of relevance to the safety of nuclear waste repositories, as carried out prior to, during and after flovelling of the Hope potash salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Studies on the effects of a hypothetical accident involving water or brine intrusion into a waste repository in a salt mine are of special importance within the framework of safety assessments of salt formations as candidate sites for nuclear waste repositories. The measuring activities under review include the following: Physicochemical measurements for determining dissolution and recipitation of salts, transport mechanisms, temperature curves, natural build-up and efficiency of geochemical barriers in the brine. Geochemical measurements for obtaining information on the rock deformation prior to, during, and after flovelling. Geophysical measurements of microseismic behaviour of rock masses prior to, during, and after flovelling. Examination of an artificial barrier structure for the testing and assessment of technical barriers and their efficiency. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance of the waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    The recent successful certification and opening of a first-of-a-kind, deep geological repository for safe disposal of long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, New Mexico, United States of America (USA), embody both long-standing local and wide-spread, gradually achieved, scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance. The related historical background and development are outlined and the main contributors to the successful siting, certification, and acceptance of the WIPP TRUW repository, which may also serve as a model to success for other radioactive waste disposal programs, are described. (author)

  16. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  17. Monte Carlo simulations for generic granite repository studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Joon H [SNL; Wang, Yifeng [SNL

    2010-12-08

    In a collaborative study between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the DOE-NE Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign project, we have conducted preliminary system-level analyses to support the development of a long-term strategy for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. A general modeling framework consisting of a near- and a far-field submodel for a granite GDSE was developed. A representative far-field transport model for a generic granite repository was merged with an integrated systems (GoldSim) near-field model. Integrated Monte Carlo model runs with the combined near- and farfield transport models were performed, and the parameter sensitivities were evaluated for the combined system. In addition, a sub-set of radionuclides that are potentially important to repository performance were identified and evaluated for a series of model runs. The analyses were conducted with different waste inventory scenarios. Analyses were also conducted for different repository radionuelide release scenarios. While the results to date are for a generic granite repository, the work establishes the method to be used in the future to provide guidance on the development of strategy for long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste in a granite repository.

  18. Geochemical modeling of the nuclear-waste repository system. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, W.J.

    1980-12-01

    The primary objective of the geochemical modeling task is to develop an understanding of the waste-repository geochemical system and provide a valuable tool for estimating future states of that system. There currently exists a variety of computer codes which can be used in geochemical modeling studies. Some available codes contain the framework for simulating a natural chemical system and estimating, within limits, the response of that system to environmental changes. By data-base enhancement and code development, this modeling technique can be even more usefully applied to a nuclear-waste repository. In particular, thermodynamic data on elements not presently in the data base but identified as being of particular hazard in the waste-repository system, need to be incorporated into the code to estimate the near-field as well as the far-field reactions during a hypothetical breach. A reaction-path-simulation code, which estimates the products of specific rock/water reactions, has been tested using basalt and ground water. Results show that the mass-transfer capabilities of the code will be useful in chemical-evolution studies and scenario analyses. The purpose of this report is to explain the status of geochemical modeling as it currently applies to the chemical system of a hypothetical nuclear-waste repository in basalt and to present the plan proposed for further developmet and application

  19. Study of the thermal and mechanical behaviour of granite applied to the nuclear waste repository: conclusions drawn from the Fanay-Augeres experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejeb, A.; Vouille, G.; Gros, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The considerable advances made in nuclear technology in recent years have brought with them a sizeable accumulation of nuclear waste. Leaving aside the low-activity wastes which are stored at ground level, the problem of high-activity wastes still remains. A concerted research effort has been dedicated to perfecting certain methods for waste disposal. At present, this effort has been directed towards evaluating feasibility and the long-term safety of burying these wastes in deep-lying and stable geological repositories. A priori, many types of rocks are suitable for isolating nuclear wastes: clay, salt, granite, schists, basalt and tuff. These wastes are exothermic owing to their radioactive decay which decreases continuously with time. From the geotechnical point of view, storage of these high-activity wastes in a deep-lying geological environment will increase temperature in the host rock accompanied by changes in stresses and strains. Quantifying these changes, by means of a thermomechanical analysis, is of prime importance when the mechanical behaviour of the storage drifts has to be ensured by avoiding major modifications to the characteristics of the geological barrier. This article summarises the present state of knowledge acquired about the thermomechanical behaviour of granite, and presents the results as research requirements for better characterisation in the laboratory and in situ as well as a more realistic model. We also stress the results of research carried out by the Centre de Geotechnique et d'Exploitation du sous-sol (CGES) of the Ecole des Mines de Paris (ENSMP) on the Fanay-Augeres Thermal, Hydraulic and Mechanical experiment organised by the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN) in the context of a shared-costs contract with the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). (authors). 4 figs., 10 refs

  20. Supply-side approach to nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) was signed into law on January 7, 1983. Its purpose was to provide for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, to establish a program of research, development, and demonstration regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and for other purposes. Its goal is to have the first waste repository operational by 1998. It is believed by many that this goal cannot possibly be met. The Act is exceedingly complex with something in it for everybody. There are serious impediments to the program - not the least of which is legislation itself. The process will cost tens of billions of dollars and, even if it does succeed, will take many years to accomplish. This paper proposes a method for getting there in 7 years while saving billions of dollars. It is a summary of a more extensive research effort by the author while attending the Industrial College of the Armed Forces

  1. The study on the conceptual design of uranium waste repository (phase 3). Document prepared by other institute, based on the trust contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shigeyuki; Ikuse, Hiroyuki [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Study on disposal condition of uranium-bearing waste. Possibility of approximately-100m-depth disposal of various uranium-bearing waste (4.5% enrichment and uranium concentration of 1000 Bq/g) has been studied in order to clear the disposal condition. While exposure rate to the public is over 0.01 mSv/y if all of interested parameters are the worst case, it is less than 0.01 mSv/y only if flow rate in the river is not less than 1E9 m3/y, independent of other parameters. In this study, there is no case that exposure rate is less than 0.01 mSv/y for the limit of only one parameter except 1E9 m3/y of flow rate in the river. However, less than 0.01 mSv/y is possibly expected in the following case: one is that both inhalation rate and flow rate in the river take reference values, another is that inhalation rate takes reference value and media have good absorptivity. Study on concentration and flux of natural radioactive elements. A literature survey on natural elemental concentrations has been conducted. The collective state of elemental concentration data in Japan is reported. To construct methodology of the assessment of natural safety indicators (including flux and concentration), studies on natural geological environments and geological processes in Japan were examined. The methodology of natural safety indicators is divided into the following 6 parts; 1) Geological modeling of assessment area, 2) Gathering of concentration (density and radioactivity) data, 3) Research and selection of geological processes (including process rate data), 4) Elemental circulation modelling at assessment area, 5) Research of geological repository system and outlines of safety assessment, 6) Setting up of purpose of natural safety indicators, and presentation of the indicators. The international researches of guidelines and laws concerned with natural safety indicators and the review of researches on the latest natural safety indicators were also examined. (author)

  2. High level nuclear waste repository in salt: Sealing systems status and planning report: Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the initial conceptual design studies for a repository sealing system for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The first step in the initial design studies was to review the current design level, termed schematic designs. This review identified practicality of construction and development of a design methodology as two key issues for the conceptual design. These two issues were then investigated during the initial design studies for seal system materials, seal placement, backfill emplacement, and a testing and monitoring plan. The results of these studies have been used to develop a program plan for completion of the sealing system conceptual design. 60 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs

  3. Thermal Analysis of a Nuclear Waste Repository in Argillite Host Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgu, T.; Gomez, S. P.; Matteo, E. N.

    2017-12-01

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a geological repository requires analysis of heat distribution as a result of decay heat. Such an analysis supports design of repository layout to define repository footprint as well as provide information of importance to overall design. The analysis is also used in the study of potential migration of radionuclides to the accessible environment. In this study, thermal analysis for high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel in a generic repository in argillite host rock is presented. The thermal analysis utilized both semi-analytical and numerical modeling in the near field of a repository. The semi-analytical method looks at heat transport by conduction in the repository and surroundings. The results of the simulation method are temperature histories at selected radial distances from the waste package. A 3-D thermal-hydrologic numerical model was also conducted to study fluid and heat distribution in the near field. The thermal analysis assumed a generic geological repository at 500 m depth. For the semi-analytical method, a backfilled closed repository was assumed with basic design and material properties. For the thermal-hydrologic numerical method, a repository layout with disposal in horizontal boreholes was assumed. The 3-D modeling domain covers a limited portion of the repository footprint to enable a detailed thermal analysis. A highly refined unstructured mesh was used with increased discretization near heat sources and at intersections of different materials. All simulations considered different parameter values for properties of components of the engineered barrier system (i.e. buffer, disturbed rock zone and the host rock), and different surface storage times. Results of the different modeling cases are presented and include temperature and fluid flow profiles in the near field at different simulation times. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and

  4. Deep geological isolation of nuclear waste: numerical modeling of repository scale hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    The Scope of Work undertaken covers three main tasks, described as follows: (Task 1) CDM provided consulting services to the University on modeling aspects of the study having to do with transport processes involving the local groundwater system near the repository and the flow of fluids and vapors through the various porous media making up the repository system. (Task 2) CDM reviewed literature related to repository design, concentrating on effects of the repository geometry, location and other design factors on the flow of fluids within the repository boundaries, drainage from the repository structure, and the eventual transport of radionucldies away from the repository site. (Task 3) CDM, in a joint effort with LLL personnel, identified generic boundary and initial conditions, identified processes to be modeled, and recommended a modeling approach with suggestions for appropriate simplifications and approximations to the problem and identifiying important parameters necessary to model the processes. This report consists of two chapters and an appendix. The first chapter (Chapter III of the LLL report) presents a detailed description and discussion of the modeling approach developed in this project, its merits and weaknesses, and a brief review of the difficulties anticipated in implementing the approach. The second chapter (Chapter IV of the LLL report) presents a summary of a survey of researchers in the field of repository performance analysis and a discussion of that survey in light of the proposed modeling approach. The appendix is a review of the important physical processes involved in the potential hydrologic transport of radionuclides through, around and away from deep geologic nuclear waste repositories

  5. Expected environment for waste packages in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Clark, D.E.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Rai, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses results of recent efforts to define the very near-field (within approximately 2 m) environmental conditions to which waste packages will be exposed in a salt repository. These conditions must be considered in the experimental design for waste package materials testing, which includes corrosion of barrier materials and leaching of waste forms. Site-specific brine compositions have been determined, and standard brine compositions have been selected for testing purposes. Actual brine compositions will vary depending on origin, temperature, irradiation history, and contact with irradiated rock salt. Results of irradiating rock salt, synthetic brines, rock salt/brine mixtures, and reactions of irradiated rock salt with brine solutions are reported. 38 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  6. Monitoring of covering model of the National radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezikova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this rigorous report is justification of cover model building at radioactive waste repository in Mochovce as a very important engineering barrier preventing significant release of radioactive substances into the environment and providing protection against ionizing radiation. This rigorous report includes a theoretical part, which describes radioactive waste characterization, radioactive waste management and summary of the preliminary activities prior to the building cover model, particularly involving the selection of appropriate variables and parameters and creation of monitoring plan during the long term monitoring for evaluation of this barrier in order to ensure minimization of any leak of radioactive substances from RAW. The next part includes evaluation of the values of parameters and variables to build cover model of RAW in Mochovce during 2006-2008 (author)

  7. Summary of four release consequence analyses for hypothetical nuclear waste repositories in salt and granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-12-01

    Release consequence methology developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) program has now been applied to four hypothetical repository sites. This paper summarizes the results of these four studies in order to demonstrate that the far-field methodology developed under the AEGIS program offers a practical approach to the post-closure safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories sited in deep continental geologic formations. The four studies are briefly described and compared according to the following general categories: physical description of the repository (size, inventory, emplacement depth); geologic and hydrologic description of the site and the conceptual hydrologic model for the site; description of release scenario; hydrologic model implementation and results; engineered barriers and leach rate modeling; transport model implementation and results; and dose model implementation and results. These studies indicate the following: numerical modeling is a practical approach to post-closure safety assessment analysis for nuclear waste repositories; near-field modeling capability needs improvement to permit assessment of the consequences of human intrusion and pumping well scenarios; engineered barrier systems can be useful in mitigating consequences for postulated release scenarios that short-circuit the geohydrologic system; geohydrologic systems separating a repository from the natural biosphere discharge sites act to mitigate the consequences of postulated breaches in containment; and engineered barriers of types other than the containment or absorptive type may be useful

  8. Problem trap final repository. Social challenges concerning nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim

    2016-01-01

    How is it possible that there is still no final storage facility in the entire world for highly radioactive waste from nuclear power stations? How is it possible that electricity has been generated by industrial-scale nuclear installations for decades without the issue of the disposal of nuclear waste having been resolved? The events in Chernobyl in 1986 and Fukushima in 2011 have made it blatantly obvious how risky this technology is and how important it is to keep humans and the environment at a safe distance from radioactivity. This anthology examines the technological, political, social and economic dimensions of the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. It provides an insight into the emergence of the problem and the people involved and their interests. It describes and analyses the changes that are taking place in Germany (for instance, in relation to the government's commission on nuclear repositories) and other countries with regard to how they handle nuclear waste. The book deals with both questions related to socio-technical aspects of the permanent disposal of nuclear waste and calls for the democratic need for participation and new ways of doing so, without which the search for a permanent disposal site will not bear fruit. This anthology presents a comprehensive discussion of the disposal of nuclear waste and the search for a permanent repository for it. Not only will students and teachers find it extremely useful, but so will any readers who are interested in its subject matter and wish to gain a more in-depth insight into it.

  9. System description of the Repository-Only System for the FY 1990 systems integration program studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1991-07-01

    This document provides both functional and physical descriptions of a conceptual high-level waste management system defined as a Repository-Only System. Its purpose is to provide a basis for required system computer modeling and system studies initiated in FY 1990 under the Systems Integration Program of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The Repository-Only System is designed to accept 3000 MTU per year of spent fuel and 400 equivalent MTU per year of high-level wastes disposal in the geologic repository. This document contains both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system and physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those processes. These descriptions contain the level of detail needed for the projected systems analysis studies. The Repository-Only System contains all system components, from the waste storage facilities of the waste generators to the underground facilities for final disposal of the wastes. The major facilities in the system are the waste generator waste storage facilities, a repository facility that packages the wastes and than emplaces them in the geologic repository, and the transportation equipment and facilities for transporting the wastes between these major facilities. 18 refs., 39 figs

  10. Geoscience data base handbook for modeling a nuclear waste repository. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1979-12-01

    This handbook contains reference information on parameters that should be considered in analyzing or modeling a proposed nuclear waste repository site. Only those parameters and values that best represent the natural environment are included. Rare extremes are avoided. Where laboratory and field data are inadequate, theoretical treatments and informed engineering judgements are presented. Volume 1 contains a data base on salt as a repository medium. Chapters on the geology of bedded and dome salt, the geomechanics of salt, hydrology, geochemistry, natural and man-made features, and seismology provide compiled data and related information useful for studying a proposed repository in salt. These and other data will be needed to derive generic deep geologic modeling parameters and will also serve as background for the verification of source data that may be presented in licensing applications for nuclear waste repositories. Volume 2 is the result of a scoping study for a data base on the geology, geomechanics, and hydrology of shale, granite, and basalt as alternative repository media. Except for the geomechanics of shale, most of the sections contain relatively complete compilations of the available data, as well as discussions of the properties that are unique to each rock type

  11. Evaluation of iron-base materials for waste package containers in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerman, R.E.; Nelson, J.L.; Kuhn, W.L.; Basham, S.G.; Moak, D.A.; Pitman, S.G.

    1983-11-01

    Design studies for high-level nuclear waste packages for salt repositories have identified low-carbon steel as a candidate material for containers. Among the requirements are strength, corrosion resistance, and fabricability. The studies of the corrosion resistance and structural stability of iron-base materials (particularly low-carbon steel) are treated in this paper. The materials have been exposed in brines that are characteristic of the potential sites for salt repositories. The effects of temperature, radiation level, oxygen level and other parameters are under investigation. The initial development of corrosion models for these environments is presented with discussion of the key mechanisms under consideration. 6 references, 5 figures

  12. Environmental remediation of high-level nuclear waste in geological repository. Modified computer code creates ultimate benchmark in natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Geoffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Isolation of high-level nuclear waste in permanent geological repositories has been a major concern for over 30 years due to the migration of dissolved radio nuclides reaching the water table (10,000-year compliance period) as water moves through the repository and the surrounding area. Repositories based on mathematical models allow for long-term geological phenomena and involve many approximations; however, experimental verification of long-term processes is impossible. Countries must determine if geological disposal is adequate for permanent storage. Many countries have extensively studied different aspects of safely confining the highly radioactive waste in an underground repository based on the unique geological composition at their selected repository location. This paper discusses two computer codes developed by various countries to study the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical process in these environments, and the migration of radionuclide. Further, this paper presents the results of a case study of the Magma-hydrothermal (MH) computer code, modified by the author, applied to nuclear waste repository analysis. The MH code verified by simulating natural systems thus, creating the ultimate benchmark. This approach based on processes similar to those expected near waste repositories currently occurring in natural systems. (author)

  13. Mathematical simulation for safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, A.; Raymond, J.R.; Benson, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical models are being developed as part of the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) for assessing the post-closure safety of nuclear waste storage in geologic formations. The objective of this program is to develop the methods and data necessary to determine potential events that might disrupt the integrity of a waste repository and provide pathways for radionuclides to reach the bioshpere, primarily through groundwater transport. Four categories of mathematical models are being developed to assist in the analysis of potential release scenarios and consequences: (1) release scenario analysis models; (2) groundwater flow models; (3) contaminant transport models; and (4) radiation dose models. The development of the release scenario models is in a preliminary stage; the last three categories of models are fully operational. The release scenario models determine the bounds of potential future hydrogeologic changes, including potentially disruptive events. The groundwater flow and contaminant transport models compute the flowpaths, travel times, and concentrations of radionuclides that might migrate from a repository in the event of a breach and potentially reach the biosphere. The dose models compute the radiation doses to future populations. Reference site analyses are in progress to test the models for application to different geologies, including salt domes, bedded salt, and basalt

  14. Qualifying concrete for a low-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipose, K.E.

    1990-06-01

    A waste repository for the belowground disposal of low-level radioactive waste, labelled IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure), is planned at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. It relies greatly on the durability of concrete for a minimum of 500 years of service life. A research program based on laboratory testing to design a durable concrete and predict its useful engineered service life is in progress. Durability of concrete depends on its resistance of deterioration from both internal and external causes. Since the rate of degradation depends to a major extent on the rate of ingress of aggressive ions into concrete, laboratory testing is in progress to establish the diffusion rates of ions, especially chlorides, sulphate and carbonate ions. A total of 1000 concrete specimens and 500 paste specimens are being exposed at 22 and 45 degrees C to twenty-five different combinations of corrosive agents, including CO 2 . Procedures to measure the ionic profile and to determine the factors controlling diffusion of ions in the various concretes have been developed. The paper presents the initial results from the research program and the longevity predictions to qualify concretes for the IRUS waste repository, based on twelve months of diffusion testing on laboratory specimens

  15. The Poco de Caldas project: Natural analogues of processes in a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; McKinley, I.G.; Shea, M.E.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The safe disposal of radioactive wastes by burial in deep geologic formations requires long-term predictions of the future behavior of the wastes nd their engineered repository. Such predictions can be tested by evaluating processes analogous to those which will occur in a repository, which have been long active in the natural geochemical environment. The title project is a comprehensive study of two ore deposits in Minas Gerais, Brasil, aimed at looking at uranium and thorium series radionuclide and rare earth element mobility, the development and movement of redox fronts, and the nature of natural groundwater colloids. A multidisciplinary team of experts from 27 laboratories carried out a fully integrated study of the geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, hydrochemistry and geomicrobiology of the two sited for nearly four years. This book contains 20 papers covering the detailed findings, with particular emphasis on their significance for radioactive waste disposal, especially on the use of the data in testing models of radionuclide movement

  16. Appraisal of hard rock for potential underground repositories of radioactive wastes. LBL-7004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1978-01-01

    Underground burial of radioactive wastes in hard rock may be an effective and safe means of isolating them from the environment and from man. The mechanical safety and stability of such an underground repository depends largely on the virgin state of stress in the rock, groundwater pressures, the strengths of the rocks, heating by the decay of the radioactive wastes, and the layout of the excavations and the disposition of waste cannisters within them. A large body of pertinent data exists in the literature, and each of these factors has been analyzed in the light of this information. The results indicate that there are no fundamental geological nor mechanical reasons why repositories capable of storing radioactive wastes should not be excavated at suitable sites in hard rock. However, specific tests to determine the mechanical and thermal properties of the rocks at a site would be needed to provide the data for the engineering design of a repository. Also, little experience exists of the effects on underground excavations of thermal loads, so that this aspect requires theoretical study and experimental validation. The depths of these potential repositories would lie in the range from 0.5 km to 2.0 km below surface, depending upon the strength of the rock. Virgin states of stress have been measured at such depths which would retard the ingress of groundwater and obviate the incidence of faulting. A typical repository comprising three horizons each with a total area of 5 km 2 would have the capacity to store wastes with thermal output of 240 MW

  17. Mapping and monitoring nuclear waste repositories with subsurface electrical resistivity arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, T.; Morrison, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    The siting and future integrity of nuclear waste repositories is critically dependent on the local ground water regime. Electrical methods seem particularly promising in mapping and monitoring this regime since the electrical conductivity of rocks depends almost entirely on the fluid saturation, salinity and distribution. The most important recent developments in resistivity include the use of numerical modeling and resistivity mapping using subsurface electrodes. The latter yields far greater accuracy and resolution than can be obtained with surface arrays. To illustrate the power of subsurface-surface arrays the authors studied an idealized two dimensional model of a nuclear repository. Since they are interested in emphasizing the anomaly caused by the repository, or subsequent changes over time in its vicinity, the authors discovered that it is very useful to express the apparent resistivity results as percentage differences from either the background (for surface arrays) or from the apparent resistivities observed at a particular depth of the current source (for subsurface arrays). Percent differencing with respect to data at the repository depth dramatically reduce near-surface and topographic effects that usually confound quantitative interpretation of surface surveys. Thus, dc resistivity appears to have great potential for nuclear waste repository mapping and monitoring

  18. Coupled thermo-mechanical analysis of granite for high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengang; Wang Ju; Zhou Hongwei; Jiang Pengfei; Yang Chunhe

    2008-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes (HLW) repository is a special deep underground engineering, and in the stages of site selection, designing, constructing ,the stability evaluation, lots of important rock mechanics problems need to be resolved. During the decay of nuclear waste, enormous thermal energy was released and temperature variation caused dynamic distribution of stress and deformation field of surrounding rock of repository. BeiShan region of Gansu province was selected to be the repository field in the future, it is of practical significance to do research on granite in this region. Based on the concept model of HLW repository, this thesis calculates temperature field, stress field and deformation field of HLW repository surrounding rock under the condition of TM coupled with applying the finite difference FLAC 3D . From this study, thermo-mechanical characteristic of granite is obtained primarily under given canister heat source and given decay law function. And these results show that the reasonable space between disposal hole is 8 m-12 m, and the peak temperature of the canister surface is 130 ℃, the centerline temperature between pits is about 40 ℃ which is maintained for about hundreds of years under given heating output at -500 m depth. (authors)

  19. Environmental program overview for a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The United States plans to begin operating the first repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste early in the next century. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified Yucca Mountain, in Nevada, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a repository. To determine its suitability, the DOE evaluated the Yucca Mountain site, along with eight other potentially acceptable sites, in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The purpose of the Environmental Program Overview (EPO) for the Yucca Mountain site is to provide an overview of the overall, comprehensive approach being used to satisfy the environmental requirements applicable to sitting a repository at Yucca Mountain. The EPO states how the DOE will address the following environmental areas: aesthetics, air quality, cultural resources (archaeological and Native American components), noise, radiological studies, soils, terrestrial ecosystems, and water resources. This EPO describes the environmental program being developed for the sitting of a repository at Yucca Mountain. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Disruption scenarios for a high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.

    1986-01-01

    A high-level waste repository located in unsaturated welded tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would rely on six different, although not entirely independent, barriers to prevent escape of radioactivity. These barriers are the waste canister, fuel cladding, slow dissolution of the spent fuel itself, and slow movement of released contaminants in three different hydrogeologic units: the unsaturated Topopah Spring welded tuff unit, the unsaturated Calico Hills nonwelded tuff unit, and the saturated tuff aquifer. Fifty-eight processes and events that might affect such a repository were reviewed. Eighty-three different sequences were identified by which these processes and events could lead to failure of one or more barriers. Sequences which had similar consequences were grouped, yielding 17 categories. The repository system has considerable redundancy; most of the more likely disruptions affect only one or a few barriers. Occurrence of more than one disruption is needed before such disruptions would cause release of radioactivity. Future studies of repository performance must assess the likelihood and consequences of multiple-disruption scenarios to evaluate how well the repository meets performance standards

  1. Social impact mitigation and nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of the socioeconomic impacts of siting, constructing, and operating radioactive waste repositories in rural areas are discussed. These include public perceptions of high risk and uncertainty; limited benefits and no incentives; dissociations of costs and benefits; remoteness and inaccessibility of the decision making process for large energy facilities; no institutions to provide protection and accountability for those who may be affected by the siting; the fact that not all risks or impacts are fully mitigable; and constraints on DOE's present ability or authority to mitigate impacts

  2. A performance assessment review tool for the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Sitakanta; Codell, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), with the assistance of the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, has developed a Total-system Performance Assessment (TPA) Code to assist in evaluating the performance of the Yucca Mountain (YM) High-Level Waste Repository in Nevada, proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The proposed YM repository would be built in a thick sequence of partially saturated volcanic tuff above the water table. Among the unique challenges of this environment are (1) the transport of radionuclides would take place partially through highly heterogeneous unsaturated rock; (2) the waste packages (WPs) would be generally exposed to oxidizing conditions, and (3) water either infiltrating from the surface or recirculating because of decay heat may drip onto the WPs. Tools such as the TPA code and embedded techniques for evaluating YM performance are aimed at (1) determining the parameters and key parts of the repository system that have the most influence on repository performance; (2) performing alternative conceptual models studies, especially with bounding models; (3) estimating the relative importance of the physical phenomena that lead to human exposure to radionuclides; and (4) improving NRC staff capabilities in performance assessment and associated license application reviews. This paper presents an overview of the NRC conceptual framework, approach to conducting system-level sensitivity analyses for determining influential parameters, and alternative conceptual model studies to investigate the effect of model uncertainties. (author)

  3. The physical and chemical environment and radionuclide migration in a low level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, J.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-01-01

    The expected physical and chemical environment within the low-level radioactive waste repository to be sited at Chalk River is being studied to establish the rate of radionuclide migration. Chemical conditions in the repository are being assessed for their effect on buffer performance and the degradiation of the concrete structure. Experimental programs include the effect of changes in solution chemistry on radionuclide distribution between buffer/backfill materials and the aqueous phase; the chemical stability of the buffer materials and the determination of the controlling mechanism for radionuclide transport during infiltration

  4. The general situation of clay site for high-level waste geological disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changxuan; Liu Xiaodong; Liu Pinghui

    2008-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety of high-level radiaoactive waste (HLW) geological disposal. Clay, as host media of geological repository of HLW, has received greater attention for its inherent advantages. This paper summarizes IAEA and OECD/NEA's some safety guides on site selection and briefly introduces the process of the site selection, their studies and the characteristics of the clay formations in Switz-erland, France and Belgian. Based on these analyses, some suggestions are made to China's HLW repository clay site selection. (authors)

  5. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository

  6. Radiological consequences of a human intrusion in a nuclear waste repository in a salt formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, P.; Raimbault, P.

    1989-07-01

    The assessment of the consequences of human intrusion scenarios for a repository is very important for salt formations, since this material has an undeniable economic interest. In this work, the scenario considers the solution mining of salt for human consumption: salt is extracted from a cavern; by leaching, this cavern enlarges and uncovers the waste, which falls down into the sump. It was assumed that the intrusion takes place either 500 years or 2500 years after the closing of the repository. High-level vitrified waste or alpha cemented waste were considered. This paper displays the assumptions made and, using a simplified modelling of the phenomena, the estimation of the radiological consequences due to ingestion of contamined sals. A sensitivity/uncertainty analysis is presented which emphasizes several fields where experimental studies have to be pursued or launched [fr

  7. Radiological consequences associated with a human intrusion into a saliferous formation containing a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, P.; Raimbault, P.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of the consequences of human intrusion scenarios for a repository in salt formations is very important, since this material has an undeniable economic value: it is also a propitious medium for the storage of hydrocarbons, gases, etc. In this work the scenario considers solution mining of salt for human consumption: salt is extracted from a cavern by leaching, and this enlarges the cavern and uncovers the waste, which then falls down into the sump. It was assumed that the intrusion would take place at 500 or even 2500 years after closing of the repository. High activity vitrified waste or cement enrobed alpha waste was considered. This paper sets out the assumptions made and, using simplified modelling of the phenomena, makes an estimation of the radiological consequences associated with ingestion of contaminated salt. A sensitivity/uncertainty analysis which is presented emphasises several fields in which experimental studies should be launched or pursued. (author)

  8. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository.

  9. Preliminary research work on building of repositories for burial of NPP radioactive waste in loess beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, G.; Prodanov, Ya.

    1984-02-01

    The choice of a disposal site for burial of intermediate and low-level wastes from the NPS depends on a complex of conditions, requirements and methods resulting from the complex geologo-geographic and demographic conditions in the People's Republic of Bulgaria. The analysis of the geologic conditions shows that the various structures of the rocks, the tectonism, the seismicity in vast regions, the lack of plateau basalts hinder the choice of convenient sites for radioactive waste disposal. In Bulgaria the loess massives are studied and proposals are made to use them as a suitable environment for building of radioactive waste repositories

  10. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preliminary socioeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluett, C.; Bolton, P.A.; Malhotra, S.; McStay, J.R.; Slingsby, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report was prepared as a part of the continuing site characterization activities for a proposed nuclear waste repository in basalt (NWRB) to be located on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The purpose of this study is to assess the social and economic impacts that could be caused by the construction and operation of the proposed NWRB facility. The specific objectives of this study are to describe historical socioeconomic trends in the study area, to describe current conditions, to project future baseline conditions without the NWRB, to project potential impacts due to the proposed NWRB under two alternative regional development scenarios and assess their significance, and to suggest an overall impact management and mitigation strategy. A closely related objective is to assemble a comprehensive socioeconomic data base that can be easily updated for future analyses. This study examines employment, labor supply, population change, housing, local transportation, revenues, and expenditures for public services. This report documents the marked demographic and economic decline that has occurred in the study area since 1981 and concludes that future baseline growth will resume at a relatively slower pace after further expected declines have been experienced through about 1985. The projected socioeconomic impacts of the NWRB development are assessed under two alternative baseline scenarios and are not expected to be significant in either case. With careful planning and attention to impact mitigation, including public participation and interaction with local and regional planning agencies, potential socioeconomic impacts can be anticipated and managed effectively. Recommendations are made for providing frequent updating of the data base and for improving the analysis of socioeconomic impacts. 68 references, 19 figures, 38 tables

  11. Uncertainty management in radioactive waste repository site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.f.; Martin, T.P.; Tocatlidou

    1994-01-01

    The problem of performance assessment of a site to serve as a repository for the final disposal of radioactive waste involves different types of uncertainties. Their main sources include the large temporal and spatial considerations over which safety of the system has to be ensured, our inability to completely understand and describe a very complex structure such as the repository system, lack of precision in the measured information etc. These issues underlie most of the problems faced when rigid probabilistic approaches are used. Nevertheless a framework is needed, that would allow for an optimal aggregation of the available knowledge and an efficient management of the various types of uncertainty involved. In this work a knowledge-based modelling of the repository selection process is proposed that through a consequence analysis, evaluates the potential impact that hypothetical scenarios will have on a candidate site. The model is organised around a hierarchical structure, relating the scenarios with the possible events and processes that characterise them, and the site parameters. The scheme provides for both crisp and fuzzy parameter values and uses fuzzy semantic unification and evidential support logic reference mechanisms. It is implemented using the artificial intelligence language FRIL and the interaction with the user is performed through a windows interface

  12. Computer enhanced release scenario analysis for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Petrie, G.M.; Mullen, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    An interactive (user-oriented) computer tool is being developed at PNL to assist in the analysis of release scenarios for long-term safety assessment of a continental geologic nuclear waste repository. Emphasis is on characterizing the various ways the geologic and hydrologic system surrounding a repository might vary over the 10 6 to 10 7 years subsequent to final closure of the cavern. The potential disruptive phenomena are categorized as natural geologic and man-caused and tend to be synergistic in nature. The computer tool is designed to permit simulation of the system response as a function of the ongoing disruptive phenomena and time. It is designed to be operated in a determinatic manner, i.e., user selection of the desired scenarios and associated rate, magnitude, and lag time data; or in a stochastic mode. The stochastic mode involves establishing distributions for individual phenomena occurrence probabilities, rates, magnitudes, and phase relationships. A Monte-Carlo technique is then employed to generate a multitude of disruptive event scenarios, scan for breaches of the repository isolation, and develop input to the release consequence analysis task. To date, only a simplified one-dimensional version of the code has been completed. Significant modification and development is required to expand its dimensionality and apply the tool to any specific site

  13. Methodology applied in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository under safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbera, L.; Peralta, J.L.; Franklin, R.; Gil, R.; Chales, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The work presents the methodology used in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository safely. This methodology covers both the technical and socio-economic factors, as well as those of design and construction so as to have a safe siting for this kind of repository under Cuba especial condition. Applying this methodology will results in a safe repository

  14. Coupling of Nuclear Waste Form Corrosion and Radionuclide Transports in Presence of Relevant Repository Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, Nathalie A.; Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Assessments of waste form and disposal options start with the degradation of the waste forms and consequent mobilization of radionuclides. Long-term static tests, single-pass flow-through tests, and the pressurized unsaturated flow test are often employed to study the durability of potential waste forms and to help create models that predict their durability throughout the lifespan of the disposal site. These tests involve the corrosion of the material in the presence of various leachants, with different experimental designs yielding desired information about the behavior of the material. Though these tests have proved instrumental in elucidating various mechanisms responsible for material corrosion, the chemical environment to which the material is subject is often not representative of a potential radioactive waste repository where factors such as pH and leachant composition will be controlled by the near-field environment. Near-field materials include, but are not limited to, the original engineered barriers, their resulting corrosion products, backfill materials, and the natural host rock. For an accurate performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository, realistic waste corrosion experimental data ought to be modeled to allow for a better understanding of waste form corrosion mechanisms and the effect of immediate geochemical environment on these mechanisms. Additionally, the migration of radionuclides in the resulting chemical environment during and after waste form corrosion must be quantified and mechanisms responsible for migrations understood. The goal of this research was to understand the mechanisms responsible for waste form corrosion in the presence of relevant repository sediments to allow for accurate radionuclide migration quantifications. The rationale for this work is that a better understanding of waste form corrosion in relevant systems will enable increased reliance on waste form performance in repository environments and potentially

  15. Coupling of Nuclear Waste Form Corrosion and Radionuclide Transports in Presence of Relevant Repository Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Assessments of waste form and disposal options start with the degradation of the waste forms and consequent mobilization of radionuclides. Long-term static tests, single-pass flow-through tests, and the pressurized unsaturated flow test are often employed to study the durability of potential waste forms and to help create models that predict their durability throughout the lifespan of the disposal site. These tests involve the corrosion of the material in the presence of various leachants, with different experimental designs yielding desired information about the behavior of the material. Though these tests have proved instrumental in elucidating various mechanisms responsible for material corrosion, the chemical environment to which the material is subject is often not representative of a potential radioactive waste repository where factors such as pH and leachant composition will be controlled by the near-field environment. Near-field materials include, but are not limited to, the original engineered barriers, their resulting corrosion products, backfill materials, and the natural host rock. For an accurate performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository, realistic waste corrosion experimental data ought to be modeled to allow for a better understanding of waste form corrosion mechanisms and the effect of immediate geochemical environment on these mechanisms. Additionally, the migration of radionuclides in the resulting chemical environment during and after waste form corrosion must be quantified and mechanisms responsible for migrations understood. The goal of this research was to understand the mechanisms responsible for waste form corrosion in the presence of relevant repository sediments to allow for accurate radionuclide migration quantifications. The rationale for this work is that a better understanding of waste form corrosion in relevant systems will enable increased reliance on waste form performance in repository environments and potentially

  16. Stability of a radioactive waste repository in the Canadian shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahtab, M.A.; Ratigan, J.L.; McCreath, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    A nonlinear finite element analysis is presented for a radioactive waste repository room assumed to be located at a depth of 1,000 meters in the Canadian Shield. The loading of the finite element model is both due to in situ stresses which exist prior to excavation and thermomechanical stresses arising from the radiogenic heat dissipation of the waste assumed to have a half life of 30 years and a gross thermal loading of 32 watts/m 2 . The influence of in situ stress, joint cohesion and joint friction angle on the isolation room stability and support requirements is examined for a simulated period of 30 years. For the range of in situ stress conditions, properties of the jointed rock mass, and the thermal loading considered, the extent of the rock failure is within the capability of conventional rock support measures

  17. Low and medium level radioactive waste repository: risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de; Bueno, Lilian de Oliveira; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Fonseca, Edvaldo Roberto Paiva da; Bellintani, Sandra Aparecida

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the risk perception associated to the installation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLRW and ILRW) disposal facilities. The purpose is to give support for the implementation of a repository in Brazil. Public acceptance results from a long term work and trust is vital for the process as it takes long to be conquered but might be shortly lost. Therefore, it is essential to care about the way each step is conducted. The knowledge about the system and the risks, the comprehension about these risks, the commitment with safety, adequate support systems for the project (legislation, involved institutions) and the excellence as a goal to be reached are extremely important parameters. The involvement of all interested parties in the decision-making process is condition for a successful and publicly acceptable implementation of such project. The steps for public acceptance of a repository are summarized as follow: Risk perception: to verify how the local population understand and feel the installation of a repository in the region. Media observatory: to continuously follow the news reaching the region where the repository will be installed, including different media. Local population social/economical/cultural profile identification: to determine the local population social/economical/cultural profile; to conduct a survey to know their expectations, allowing the proposal of compensation and incentives to fully account for their expectations. Finally, the philosophy governing this Project is: on doubt, the public must be heard and only after this public hearing the policies concerning the project shall be formulated. (author)

  18. Low and medium level radioactive waste repository: risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de; Bueno, Lilian de Oliveira; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Fonseca, Edvaldo Roberto Paiva da; Bellintani, Sandra Aparecida [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: araquino@ipen.br, e-mail: lbueno@ipen.br, e-mail: mmvieira@ipen.br, e-mail: efonseca@ipen.br, e-mail: sbellint@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper focuses on the risk perception associated to the installation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLRW and ILRW) disposal facilities. The purpose is to give support for the implementation of a repository in Brazil. Public acceptance results from a long term work and trust is vital for the process as it takes long to be conquered but might be shortly lost. Therefore, it is essential to care about the way each step is conducted. The knowledge about the system and the risks, the comprehension about these risks, the commitment with safety, adequate support systems for the project (legislation, involved institutions) and the excellence as a goal to be reached are extremely important parameters. The involvement of all interested parties in the decision-making process is condition for a successful and publicly acceptable implementation of such project. The steps for public acceptance of a repository are summarized as follow: Risk perception: to verify how the local population understand and feel the installation of a repository in the region. Media observatory: to continuously follow the news reaching the region where the repository will be installed, including different media. Local population social/economical/cultural profile identification: to determine the local population social/economical/cultural profile; to conduct a survey to know their expectations, allowing the proposal of compensation and incentives to fully account for their expectations. Finally, the philosophy governing this Project is: on doubt, the public must be heard and only after this public hearing the policies concerning the project shall be formulated. (author)

  19. Screening methodology for site selection of a nuclear waste repository in shale formations in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoth, P.; Krull, P.; Wirth, H.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive waste disposal policy in the Federal Republic of Germany is based on the principle that all types of radioactive waste must be disposed of in deep geological formations. Because of the favourable properties of rock salt and the existence of thick rock salt formations in Germany, so far most of the research in the field of radioactive waste disposal sites was focused on the study of the use of rock salt. In addition, German research organisations have also conducted generic research and development projects in alternative geological formations (Wanner and Brauer, 2001), but a comprehensive evaluation of their utilisation has been only done for parts of the crystalline rocks in Germany. Research projects on argillaceous rocks started relatively late, so that German experience is mainly connected to German research work with the corresponding European Underground Research Laboratories and the exploration of the former Konrad iron mine as a potential repository site for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. The German Federal Government has signed in 2001 an agreement with national utility companies to end electricity generation by nuclear power. This decision affected the entire German radioactive waste isolation strategy and especially the repository projects. The utility companies agreed upon standstill of exploration at the Gorleben site and the Federal Ministry for the Environment tries to establish a new comprehensive procedure for the selection of a repository site, built upon well-founded criteria incorporating public participation. Step 3 of the planning includes the examination of further sites in Germany and the comparison with existing sites and concepts. Under these circumstances, argillaceous rock (clay and shale) formations are now a special area of interest in Germany and the development of a screening methodology was required for the evaluation of shales as host and barrier rocks for nuclear waste repositories. (author)

  20. Migration of radionuclides through backfill in a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, H.

    1986-01-01

    Four models are analyzed to predict the performance of a backfill layer as part of the waste package emplacement in a nuclear waste repository. The corresponding computer code for each model is also developed. The time-dependent mass transfer analysis on a spherical waste-backfill geometry indicates that the radioactive decay effect can enhance the mass transfer rate from the backfill instead of reducing it. The analysis yields the breakthrough time of the backfill layer, which in turn characterizes the backfill performance. A non-linear (Langmuir) sorption isotherm is used to describe the sorption saturation in the backfill. The steady state mass transport analysis through a prolate spheroidal waste-backfill geometry shows that a simple formula can be used to calculate the individual resistances to mass transport in backfill and in host rock. A general, non-recursive analytical solution is derived for a radioactive decay chain of arbitrary length in either a finite or a semi-infinite medium. Numerical examples are given for different boundary conditions and for different decay chains. The results justify that for a backfill layer made of low permeability material, a zero water velocity can be used in the backfill analysis. It is also shown that under normal repository conditions, the mass transfer rate from the backfill is quite small. For the daughter member with a smaller retardation coefficient than that of the mother nuclide, such as 226 Ra in the 234 U → 230 Th → 226 Ra chain, an interior maximum in the concentration profile appears in the backfill. This phenomenon can be seen only in a chain calculation

  1. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Australian Government is committed to establishing two purpose-built facilities for the management of Australia's radioactive waste; the national repository for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level ('low level') waste, and the national store for storage of long-lived intermediate level ('intermediate level') waste. It is strongly in the interests of public security and safety to secure radioactive waste by disposal or storage in facilities specially designed for this purpose. The current arrangements where waste is stored under ad hoc arrangements at hundreds of sites around Australia does not represent international best practice in radioactive waste management. Environmental approval has been obtained for the national repository to be located at Site 40a, 20 km east of Woomera in South Australia, and licences are currently being sought from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to site, construct and operate the facility. The national repository may be operating in 2004 subject to obtaining the required licences. The national store will be located on Australian Government land and house intermediate level waste produced by Australian Government departments and agencies. The national store will not be located in South Australia. Short-listing of potentially suitable sites is expected to be completed soon

  2. Solute transport in fractured rock - applications to radionuclide waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1990-12-01

    Flow and solute transport in fractured rocks has been intensively studied in the last decade. The increased interest is mainly due to the plans in many countries to site repositories for high level nuclear waste in deep geologic formations. All investigated crystalline rocks have been found to be fractured and most of the water flows in the fractures and fracture zones. The water transports dissolved species and radionuclides. It is thus of interest to be able to understand and to do predictive modelling of the flowrate of water, the flowpaths and the residence times of the water and of the nuclides. The dissolved species including the nuclides will interact with the surrounding rock in different ways and will in many cases be strongly retarded relative to the water velocity. Ionic species may be ion exchanged or sorbed in the mineral surfaces. Charges and neutral species may diffuse into the stagnant waters in the rock matrix and thus be withdrawn from the mobile water. These effects will be strongly dependent on how much rock surface is in contact with the flowing water. It has been found in a set of field experiments and by other observations that not all fractures conduct water. Furthermore it is found that conductive fractures only conduct the water in a small part of the fracture in what is called channels or preferential flowpaths. This report summarizes the present concepts of water flow and solute transport in fractured rocks. The data needs for predictive modelling are discussed and both field and laboratory measurement which have been used to obtain data are described. Several large scale field experiments which have been specially designed to study flow and tracer transport in crystalline rocks are described. In many of the field experients new techniques have been developed and used. (81 refs.) (author)

  3. Operational procedures for receiving, packaging, emplacing, and retrieving high-level and transuranic waste in a geologic repository in TUFF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, A.W.; Mulkin, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, directed by the Nevada Operations Office of the Department of Energy, is currently developing conceptual designs for a commercial nuclear waste repository. In this paper, the preliminary repository operating plans are identified and the proposed repository waste inventory is discussed. The receipt rates for truck and rail car shipments of waste are determined as are the required repository waste emplacement rates

  4. Hydrogeologic effects of natural disruptive events on nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.N.

    1980-06-01

    Some possible hydrogeologic effects of disruptive events that may affect repositories for nuclear waste are described. A very large number of combinations of natural events can be imagined, but only those events which are judged to be most probable are covered. Waste-induced effects are not considered. The disruptive events discussed above are placed into four geologic settings. Although the geology is not specific to given repository sites that have been considered by other agencies, the geology has been generalized from actual field data and is, therefore, considered to be physically reasonable. The geologic settings considered are: (1) interior salt domes of the Gulf Coast, (2) bedded salt of southeastern New Mexico, (3) argillaceous rocks of southern Nevanda, and (4) granitic stocks of the Basin and Range Province. Log-normal distributions of permeabilities of rock units are given for each region. Chapters are devoted to: poresity and permeability of natural materials, regional flow patterns, disruptive events (faulting, dissolution of rock forming minerals, fracturing from various causes, rapid changes of hydraulic regimen); possible hydrologic effects of disruptive events; and hydraulic fracturing

  5. Final repositories for high-level radioactive waste; Endlagerung hochradioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-10-15

    The brochure on final repositories for high-level radioactive waste covers the following issues: What is the origin of radioactive wastes? How large are the waste amounts? What is going to happen with the wastes? What is the solution for the Waste disposal? A new site search is started. Safety requirements for the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Comparison of host rocks. Who is responsible and who will pay? Final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes worldwide. Short summary: History of the search for a final repository for high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  6. Technical conservatism in the design and analysis of a nuclear-waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's National Waste Terminal Storage Program has adopted a policy of technical conservatism to guide the design and analysis of geologic disposal systems for commercial high-level radioactive waste. Technical conservatism serves as the programmatic philosophy for managing uncertainty in the performance of the disposal system. The implementation of technical conservatism as applied to a nuclear waste repository in basalt is discussed. Preliminary assessments of the performance of the waste package, repository, and site subsystems are compared to key proposed regulatory criteria. The comparison shows that there are substantial safety margins in the predicted performance of the nuclear waste repository in basalt

  7. Radionuclide release from high level waste forms under repository conditions in clay or granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, N.; Lanza, F.

    1990-01-01

    The behaviour of both fully active and simulated vitrified high level waste (HLW) has been studied under conditions that are likely to occur in future repositories in clay and granite. The simulated HLW was doped with Cs, Sr, Tc and the actinides and the leaching of these elements from the glass has been measured together with their concentrations in the water of the near-field and their distribution between the various components of the repository. The diffusion coefficients of several elements in Boom clay has also been measured. The results show that the concentrations of Tc and the actinides in the near-field of a repository will be very low and that the actinides will only diffuse very slowly away from the vicinity of the glass. 24 refs., 1 figs., 7 tabs

  8. High-level waste repository-induced effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Smith, P. [Safety Assessment Management Ltd, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Savage, D. [Savage Earth Associates Ltd, Bournemouth, Dorset (United Kingdom); Senger, R. [Intera Inc., Ennetbaden (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    This status report aims at describing and assessing the interactions of the radioactive waste emplaced in a high-level waste (HLW) repository with the engineered materials and the Opalinus Clay host rock. The Opalinus Clay has a thickness of about 100 m in the proposed siting regions. Among other things the results are used to steer the RD and D programme of NAGRA. The repository-induced effects considered in this report are of the following broad types: - Thermal effects: i.e. effects on the host rock and engineered barriers arising principally from the heat generated by the waste. - Rock-mechanical effects: i.e. effects arising from the mechanical disturbance to the rock caused by the excavation of the emplacement rooms and other underground structures. - Hydraulic and gas-related effects: i.e. the effects of repository resaturation and of gas generation, e.g. due to the corrosion of metals within the repository, on the host rock and engineered barriers. - Chemical effects: i.e. chemical interactions between the waste, the engineered materials and the host rock, with a focus on chemical effects of the waste and engineered materials on the host rock. The assessment of the repository-induced effects shows that detrimental chemical and mechanical impacts are largely confined to the rock immediately adjacent to the excavations, thermal impacts are controllable by limiting the heat load and gas effects are limited by ensuring acceptably low gas production rates and by the natural tendency of the gas to escape along the excavations and the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) rather than through the undisturbed rock. Specific measures that are part of the current reference design are discussed in relation to their significance with respect to repository-induced effects. The SF/HLW emplacement rooms (emplacement drifts) are designed, constructed, operated and finally backfilled in such a way that formation of excavation damaged zones is limited. Specifically this is achieved

  9. High-level waste repository-induced effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J.; Smith, P.; Savage, D.; Senger, R.

    2016-10-01

    This status report aims at describing and assessing the interactions of the radioactive waste emplaced in a high-level waste (HLW) repository with the engineered materials and the Opalinus Clay host rock. The Opalinus Clay has a thickness of about 100 m in the proposed siting regions. Among other things the results are used to steer the RD and D programme of NAGRA. The repository-induced effects considered in this report are of the following broad types: - Thermal effects: i.e. effects on the host rock and engineered barriers arising principally from the heat generated by the waste. - Rock-mechanical effects: i.e. effects arising from the mechanical disturbance to the rock caused by the excavation of the emplacement rooms and other underground structures. - Hydraulic and gas-related effects: i.e. the effects of repository resaturation and of gas generation, e.g. due to the corrosion of metals within the repository, on the host rock and engineered barriers. - Chemical effects: i.e. chemical interactions between the waste, the engineered materials and the host rock, with a focus on chemical effects of the waste and engineered materials on the host rock. The assessment of the repository-induced effects shows that detrimental chemical and mechanical impacts are largely confined to the rock immediately adjacent to the excavations, thermal impacts are controllable by limiting the heat load and gas effects are limited by ensuring acceptably low gas production rates and by the natural tendency of the gas to escape along the excavations and the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) rather than through the undisturbed rock. Specific measures that are part of the current reference design are discussed in relation to their significance with respect to repository-induced effects. The SF/HLW emplacement rooms (emplacement drifts) are designed, constructed, operated and finally backfilled in such a way that formation of excavation damaged zones is limited. Specifically this is achieved

  10. Deep geologic repository for low and intermediate radioactive level waste in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianqin; Li Honghui; Sun Qinghong; Yang Zhongtian

    2012-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is undergoing a project for the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste (LILW)-a deep geologic repository (DGR) project for low and intermediate level waste. The waste source term disposed, geologic setting, repository layout and operation, and safety assessment are discussed. It is expected to provide reference for disposal of low and intermediate level waste that contain the higher concentration of long-lived radionuclides in China. (authors)

  11. A radioactive waste repository for Australia: methods for choosing the right site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This study has developed and used an open and objective approach to site selection. A geographic information system was used to assemble continental-scale information. The information was classified according to suitability criteria and processed to show how the most suitable areas for locating Australia's radioactive waste repository can be identified. The test results show that different regions are identified when different selection criteria are used. The results in this discussion paper are indicative only and are intended to provide a focus for more detailed studies at regional and local levels following public comment on the criteria and methodology. The methodology for identifying a suitable site for a national repository for radioactive wastes will be re-applied with more detailed information to areas identified in this study and on the basis of public comments. 6 figs

  12. Stabilities of nuclear waste forms and their geochemical interactions in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    The stabilities of high-level nuclear waste forms in a repository environment are briefly discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such waste forms as borosilicate glass, supercalcine ceramics, and synthetic minerals are presented in context with the different rock types which have been proposed as possible host rocks for repositories. It is concluded that the growing geochemical evidence favors the use of a silicate rock repository because of the effectiveness of aluminosilicate rocks as chemical barriers for most radionuclides

  13. Application of sulfur concrete for solidification of radioactive wastes and building of repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholerzynski, A.; Tomczak, W.; Switalski, J.

    2000-01-01

    The application of sulfur concrete as solidification material for radioactive wastes and as building material used in repositories have been presented. Their high shear strength, low level of leaching, and high radiation resistance decide of positive recommendation of such material for wide use in radioactive waste treatment processes and repositories building

  14. Reinforced concrete in the intermediable-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible for developing the nuclear waste disposal management programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is a near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers and the model foresees a period of 300 years of institutional post-closure control. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of these concrete structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents laboratory investigations performed on the corrosion susceptibility of steel rebars embedded in two different types of high performance reinforced concretes, recently developed by the National Institute of Industrial Technology (Argentine). Concretes were made with cement with Blast Furnace Slag (CAH) and Silica Fume cement (CAH + SF). The aim of this work is to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. Besides, the diffusion coefficients of aggressive species, such as chloride and carbon dioxide, were also determined. On the other hand, data obtained with corrosion sensors embedded in a vault prototype is also included. These sensors allow on-line measurements of several parameters related to the corrosion process such as rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity; chloride concentration and internal concrete temperature. All the information obtained from both, laboratory tests and sensors will be used for the final design of the container in order to achieve a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of

  15. Preliminary post-closure safety assessment of repository concepts for low level radioactive waste at the Bruce Site, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.H.; Penfold, J.S.S.; Egan, M.J.; Leung, H.

    2005-01-01

    The preliminary post-closure safety assessment of permanent repository concepts for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Bruce Site is described. The study considered the disposal of both short and long-lived LLW. Four geotechnically feasible repository concepts were considered (two near-surface and two deep repositories). An approach consistent with best international practice was used to provide a reasoned and comprehensive analysis of post-closure impacts of the repository concepts. The results demonstrated that the deep repository concepts in shale and in limestone, and the surface repository concept on sand should meet radiological protection criteria. For the surface repository concept on glacial till, it appears that increased engineering such as grouting of waste and voids should be considered to meet the relevant dose constraint. Should the project to develop a permanent repository for LLW proceed, it is expected that this preliminary safety assessment would need to be updated to take account of future site-specific investigations and design updates. (author)

  16. Waste Package and Material Testing for the Proposed Yucca Mountain High Level Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, Thomas; Pasupathi, V.

    2002-01-01

    Over the repository lifetime, the waste package containment barriers will perform various functions that will change with time. During the operational period, the barriers will function as vessels for handling, emplacement, and waste retrieval (if necessary). During the years following repository closure, the containment barriers will be relied upon to provide substantially complete containment, through 10,000 years and beyond. Following the substantially complete containment phase, the barriers and the waste package internal structures help minimize release of radionuclides by aqueous- and gaseous-phase transport. These requirements have lead to a defense-in-depth design philosophy. A multi-barrier design will result in a lower breach rate distributed over a longer period of time, thereby ensuring the regulatory requirements are met. The design of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) has evolved. The initial waste package design was a thin walled package, 3/8 inch of stainless steel 304, that had very limited capacity, (3 PWR and 4 BWR assemblies) and performance characteristics, 300 to 1,000 years. This design required over 35,000 waste packages compared to today's design of just over 10,000 waste packages. The waste package designs are now based on a defense-in-depth/multi-barrier philosophy and have a capacity similar to the standard storage and rail transported spent nuclear fuel casks. Concurrent with the development of the design of the waste packages, a comprehensive waste package materials testing program has been undertaken to support the selection of containment barrier materials and to develop predictive models for the long-term behavior of these materials under expected repository conditions. The testing program includes both long-term and short-term tests and the results from these tests combination with the data published in the open literature are being used to develop models for predicting performance of the waste packages

  17. A Probabilistic Consideration on Nuclide Releases from a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Very recently, a GoldSim template program, GSTSPA, for a safety assessment of a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS,' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels, has been developed and is to be disposed of by 'separate disposal' strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: at a 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and at a 500m depth, believed to be the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for a probabilistic total system performance assessment (TSPA) which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of a waste package and canister with associated uncertainty. To quantify the nuclide release and transport through the various possible pathways in the near- and far-fields of the A-KRS repository system under a normal groundwater flow scenario, some illustrative evaluations have been made through this study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  18. A Probabilistic Consideration on Nuclide Releases from a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2012-01-01

    Very recently, a GoldSim template program, GSTSPA, for a safety assessment of a conceptual hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS,' in which two kinds of pyroprocessed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyroprocessing of PWR nuclear spent fuels, has been developed and is to be disposed of by 'separate disposal' strategies. The A-KRS is considered to be constructed at two different depths in geological media: at a 200m depth, at which a possible human intrusion is considered to be limited after closure, for the pyroprocessed metal wastes with lower or no decay heat producing nuclides, and at a 500m depth, believed to be the reducing condition for nuclides with a rather higher radioactivity and heat generation rate. This program is ready for a probabilistic total system performance assessment (TSPA) which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of a waste package and canister with associated uncertainty. To quantify the nuclide release and transport through the various possible pathways in the near- and far-fields of the A-KRS repository system under a normal groundwater flow scenario, some illustrative evaluations have been made through this study. Even though all parameter values associated with the A-KRS were assumed for the time being, the illustrative results should be informative since the evaluation of such releases is very important not only in view of the safety assessment of the repository, but also for design feedback of its performance

  19. Use of virtual reality for the development of a nuclear waste repository for training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avellar, Ricardo Fernandes de; Mól, Antônio Carlos A.; Machado, Daniel Mol; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Legey, Ana Paula

    2017-01-01

    In Brazil the highest amount of waste generated is low and medium level of radiation. Its management and final destination is important for society and the solution, proposed by the government, involves the construction of a National Repository for Radioactive Waste. Using Virtual Reality (VR), this article aims to develop an interactive virtual model of the repository to assist in the study, evaluation, training of personnel and planning of the installation to be implemented. The method was divided into four steps. The first, called 'Requirements Specification and Survey', aimed at acquiring information about the terrain and future buildings of the installation in the real world. The next step, known as 'Modeling the Environment' is the construction of the virtual environment itself according to the specifications of the previous method. The third, called 'Functionality Implementation' consists of inserting functionalities into the system, such as performing some tasks present in the repository. Finally, the last step is the interactive virtual model of the national repository for radioactive waste, with this tool users can study, evaluate and train conditions/situations of the installation. In conclusion, the results have shown that the tool presented in this work is a possible application of the VR for dissemination and training in nuclear installations. Using this tool, users can visualize and plan strategies to be carried out in a repository, without interrupting the operation of the installation. It can be used for training and operations simulations, aiming to improve the processes without exposing the operators to the radiation. (author)

  20. Use of virtual reality for the development of a nuclear waste repository for training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avellar, Ricardo Fernandes de; Mól, Antônio Carlos A.; Machado, Daniel Mol, E-mail: ricardo.arq2017@gmail.com, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, E-mail: machado.mol@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Legey, Ana Paula, E-mail: cotelli.andre@gmail.com [Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In Brazil the highest amount of waste generated is low and medium level of radiation. Its management and final destination is important for society and the solution, proposed by the government, involves the construction of a National Repository for Radioactive Waste. Using Virtual Reality (VR), this article aims to develop an interactive virtual model of the repository to assist in the study, evaluation, training of personnel and planning of the installation to be implemented. The method was divided into four steps. The first, called 'Requirements Specification and Survey', aimed at acquiring information about the terrain and future buildings of the installation in the real world. The next step, known as 'Modeling the Environment' is the construction of the virtual environment itself according to the specifications of the previous method. The third, called 'Functionality Implementation' consists of inserting functionalities into the system, such as performing some tasks present in the repository. Finally, the last step is the interactive virtual model of the national repository for radioactive waste, with this tool users can study, evaluate and train conditions/situations of the installation. In conclusion, the results have shown that the tool presented in this work is a possible application of the VR for dissemination and training in nuclear installations. Using this tool, users can visualize and plan strategies to be carried out in a repository, without interrupting the operation of the installation. It can be used for training and operations simulations, aiming to improve the processes without exposing the operators to the radiation. (author)

  1. Preliminary concepts: materials management in an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenak, C.A.; Whitty, W.J.; Dietz, R.J.

    1979-11-01

    Preliminary concepts of materials accountability are presented for an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository. A hypothetical reference repository that receives nuclear waste for emplacement in a geologic medium serves to illustrate specific safeguards concepts. Nuclear wastes received at the reference repository derive from prior fuel-cycle operations. Alternative safeguards techniques ranging from item accounting to nondestructive assay and waste characteristics that affect the necessary level of safeguards are examined. Downgrading of safeguards prior to shipment to the repository is recommended whenever possible. The point in the waste cycle where international safeguards may be terminate depends on the fissile content, feasibility of separation, and practicable recoverability of the waste: termination may not be possible if spent fuels are declared as waste

  2. Experimental methodology to study radionuclide sorption and migration in geological formations and engineered barriers of waste repositories; Metodologia experimental para estudios de sorcion y migracion de radionucleidos en formaciones geologicas y barreras de almacenamientos de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo Sanz, H.

    2010-07-01

    In Spain, the waste management options include either the possibility of a final storage in a deep geological repository (DGR) or the centralized temporal surface disposal (CTS). DGRs are based in a multi-barrier concept with the geological barrier and including the vitrified waste, the metal containers and engineered barriers such as compacted bentonite and cement-based materials. On the other hand, CTS mainly considers concrete and cement to confine the metal canisters containing the waste. Radionuclide migration will mainly take place by the existence of chemical concentration gradients being thus diffusion the main transport mechanism or by the existence of hydraulic gradients due to the existence of water-conductive fractures. Radionuclide sorption/retention on the materials composing the natural and engineered barriers is the fundamental process controlling contaminant migration. The evaluation of sorption parameters and the understanding of the different mechanisms leading to radionuclide retention are very important issues. The study of diffusion processes is very relevant as well. This paper describes the main experimental methodologies applied to analyse radionuclide transport in the different barriers of radioactive repositories. Particularly we focused on obtaining of retention parameters as distribution coefficients, kd, or retardation factors, Rf, and diffusion coefficients of radionuclides. (Author) 6 refs.

  3. Developments and studies on the (T)HMC processes in a final repository for heat generating radioactive wastes. Synthesis and final report; Entwicklungen und Untersuchungen zu (T)HMC-Prozessen eines Endlagers fuer Waerme entwickelnde radioaktive Abfaelle. Synthese und Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyand, Torben [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Bracke, Guido; Fischer, Heidemarie; Frieling, Gerd; Hansmeier, Christina; Hotzel, Stephan; Kock, Ingo; Seher, Holger

    2014-10-15

    The report on developments and studies on the (T)HMC (thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical) processes in a final repository for heat generating radioactive wastes covers the following topics: description of the projects, applied codes: TOUGH2, FLAC3D, TOUGH2 and FLAC3D, TOUHREACT/PetraSim, MARNIE, PHREEQC, geochemists workbench, SUSA; safety relevant singular processes in the transition phase, uncertainties due to process interactions, coupling of mass transport and geochemical equilibria, further developments and application of numerical simulations in the transition phase.

  4. Environmental program planning for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report was prepared to illustrate the policy and actions that the State of Nevada believe are required to assure that the quality of the environment is adequately considered during the course of the DOE work at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The report describes the DOE environmental program and the studies planned by NWPO to reflect the State's position toward environmental protection. 41 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Siting the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository: Social impacts for Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshansky, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States has been an issue of great controversy, particulary for the states under consideration. In addition to concerns expressed about the geological stability of the proposed sites, numerous social issues have been raised by the general public--most of which have been addressed by the draft environmental impact statements. Among the social impacts raised by the Department of Engery and the general public, those receiving the greatest attention were the potential influence of the repository on local economics, tourism, and the health status of the local residents. The major issues of interest in the present study include 1) the effects of respondent knowledge of nuclear waste disposal issues on opinions of health effects and tourism, particularly as they are affected by visitation patterns, and 2) the effects of occupation and education (in particular) on knowledge of nuclear waste disposal issues and opinions on technical and non-technical aspects of siting the repository. Preliminary results indicate that only about 40 percent of the respondents have visited the national parks in southeastern Utah, but over 70 percent feel they are informed about the issues associated with siting the repository. Over 60 percent of the respondents were very concerned about the possible negative effect the repository could have on jobs, tourism, health effects, and environmental quality. Cross-tabulations indicate that the respondents self rating on knowledge of nuclear disposal issues has a statistically significant influence on responses to socioeconomic issues, yet the same self rating scale is significantly influenced by the frequency with which respondents have visited the national parks in southeastern Utah

  6. Effects of resource activities upon repository siting and waste containment with reference to bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.; Rowe, J.

    1980-02-01

    The primary consideration for the suitability of a nuclear waste repository site is the overall ability of the repository to safely contain radioactive waste. This report is a discussion of the past, present, and future effects of resource activities on waste containment. Past and present resource activities which provide release pathways (i.e., leaky boreholes, adjacent mines) will receive initial evaluation during the early stages of any repository site study. However, other resource activities which may have subtle effects on containment (e.g., long-term pumping causing increased groundwater gradients, invasion of saline water causing lower retardation) and all potential future resource activities must also be considered during the site evaluation process. Resource activities will affect both the siting and the designing of repositories. Ideally, sites should be located in areas of low resource activity and low potential for future activity, and repository design should seek to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of any resource activity. Buffer zones should be created to provide areas in which resource activities that might adversely affect containment can be restricted or curtailed. This could mean removing large areas of land from resource development. The impact of these frozen assets should be assessed in terms of their economic value and of their effect upon resource reserves. This step could require a major effort in data acquisition and analysis followed by extensive numerical modeling of regional fluid flow and mass transport. Numerical models should be used to assess the effects of resource activity upon containment and should include the cumulative effects of different resource activities. Analysis by other methods is probably not possible except for relatively simple cases

  7. 3D numerical modelling of the thermal state of deep geological nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, Yu. N.

    2017-09-01

    One of the important aspects of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in deep geological repositories is ensuring the integrity of the engineered barriers which is, among other phenomena, considerably influenced by the thermal loads. As the HLW produce significant amount of heat, the design of the repository should maintain the balance between the cost-effectiveness of the construction and the sufficiency of the safety margins, including those imposed on the thermal conditions of the barriers. The 3D finite-element computer code FENIA was developed as a tool for simulation of thermal processes in deep geological repositories. Further the models for mechanical phenomena and groundwater hydraulics will be added resulting in a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) solution. The long-term simulations of the thermal state were performed for two possible layouts of the repository. One was based on the proposed project of Russian repository, and another features larger HLW amount within the same space. The obtained results describe the spatial and temporal evolution of the temperature filed inside the repository and in the surrounding rock for 3500 years. These results show that practically all generated heat was ultimately absorbed by the host rock without any significant temperature increase. Still in the short time span even in case of smaller amount of the HLW the temperature maximum exceeds 100 °C, and for larger amount of the HLW the local temperature remains above 100 °C for considerable time. Thus, the substantiation of the long-term stability of the repository would require an extensive study of the materials properties and behaviour in order to remove the excessive conservatism from the simulations and to reduce the uncertainty of the input data.

  8. Efficacy of backfilling and other engineered barriers in a radioactive waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1982-09-01

    In the United States, investigation of potential host geologic formations was expanded in 1975 to include hard rocks. Potential groundwater intrusion is leading to very conservative and expensive waste package designs. Recent studies have concluded that incentives for engineered barriers and 1000-year canisters probably do not exist for reasonable breach scenarios. The assumption that multibarriers will significantly increase the safety margin is also questioned. Use of a bentonite backfill for surrounding a canister of exotic materials was developed in Sweden and is being considered in the US. The expectation that bentonite will remain essentially unchanged for hundreds of years for US repository designs may be unrealistic. In addition, thick bentonite backfills will increase the canister surface temperature and add much more water around the canister. The use of desiccant materials, such as CaO or MgO, for backfilling seems to be a better method of protecting the canister. An argument can also be made for not using backfill material in salt repositories since the 30-cm-thick space will provide for hole closure for many years and will promote heat transfer via natural convection. It is concluded that expensive safety systems are being considered for repository designs that do not necessarily increase the safety margin. It is recommended that the safety systems for waste repositories in different geologic media be addressed individually and that cost-benefit analyses be performed

  9. Limits on the thermal energy release from radioactive wastes in a mined geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The theraml energy release of nuclear wastes is a major factor in the design of geologic repositories. Thermal limits need to be placed on various aspets of the geologic waste disposal system to avoid or retard the degradation of repository performance because of increased temperatures. The thermal limits in current use today are summarized in this report. These limits are placed in a hierarchial structure of thermal criteria consistent with the failure mechanism they are trying to prevent. The thermal criteria hierarchy is used to evaluate the thermal performance of a sample repository design. The design consists of disassembled BWR spent fuel, aged 10 years, close packed in a carbon steel canister with 15 cm of crushed salt backfill. The medium is bedded salt. The most-restrictive temperature for this design is the spent-fuel centerline temperature limit of 300 0 C. A sensitivity study on the effects of additional cooling prior to disposal on repository thermal limits and design is performed

  10. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository

  11. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository.

  12. Identification of key radionuclides in a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Wood, B.J.

    1980-05-01

    Radionuclides were identified which appear to pose the greatest potential hazard to man during long-term storage of nuclear waste in a repository mined in the Columbia Plateau basalt formation. The criteria used to select key radionuclides were as follows: quantity of radionuclide in stored waste; biological toxicity; leach rate of the wastes into groundwater; and transport rate via groundwater flow. The waste forms were assumed to be either unreprocessed spent fuel or borosilicate glass containing reprocessed high-level waste. The nuclear waste composition was assumed to be that from a light water reactor. Radionuclides were ranked according to quantity, toxicity, and release rate from the repository. These rankings were combined to obtain a single list of key radionuclides. The ten most important radionuclides in order of decreasing hazard are: 99 Tc, 129 I, 237 Np, 226 Ra, 107 Pd, 230 Th, 210 Pb, 126 Sn, 79 Se, and 242 Pu. Safety assessment studies and the design of engineered barriers should concentrate on containment of radionuclides in this list

  13. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P., E-mail: godiva@cdtn.br, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  14. Technical, normative and social aspects of the site selection process for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, Otavio E.A.; Rodrigues, Paulo C.H.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Cota, Stela D.S.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Peres, Sueli S.; Hiromoto, Goro

    2009-01-01

    In force since 2001, the Federal Law 10.308 states, in article 37, that the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN should start studies for the implementation of a final radioactive waste repository, 'in the shortest timeframe technically feasible'. Nevertheless, not only technical aspects have to be taken into account to accomplish with this schedule, but, also factors of political, economic and social nature. In this paper, the importance and impact of public acceptance aspects are discussed, as well as the methodology of site selection for radioactive wastes repositories, and proposals to accommodate the emanated criteria from the existing legislation. Additionally, practical results from the international experience in the implementation of such deposits are presented. (author)

  15. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  16. OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste - recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a status report on Canada's first project to build a permanent repository for the long-term management of radioactive waste. Ontario Power Generation has initiated a project to construct a deep geologic repository for low- and intermediate-level waste at the Bruce Nuclear Site, at a depth in the range of 600 to 800 m in an Ordovician-age argillaceous limestone formation. The project is currently undergoing an Environmental Assessment and consulting companies in the areas of environmental assessment, geoscientific site characterization, engineering and safety assessment have been hired and technical studies are underway. Seismic surveys and borehole drilling will be initiated in the fall of 2006. The next major milestone for the project is the submission of the Environmental Assessment report, currently scheduled for December 2008. (author)

  17. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, P.; McKirdy, B.; Askarieh, M.; Bond, A.; Russell, S.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1985 it has been obligatory that facilities in the European Union designed for the permanent storage or disposal of radioactive waste be assessed to determine their effects on the environment. This assessment must be undertaken in advance of any decision by national authorities to give consent for development work to proceed. Member States are given wide discretion on how the above requirements are implemented in practice, e.g. the relevant European Council Directives call for the results of the environmental assessment to be made available to the public before development consent is granted but the detailed arrangements for dissemination of such information and procedures for public consultation are determined by individual Member States. Although the Directives require an assessment of the direct and indirect effects of a project on human beings and on various elements of the natural environment, they are non-specific as to what particular impacts should be addressed, particularly as regards the effects of a project on human beings. Therefore, for example, each Member State may decide whether or not social, health and economic impacts should be included in the assessment. This paper discusses the above issues. It proposes a model approach to environmental impact assessment in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment on the overall decision processes for repository development, the scope and content of the assessment report, and approaches to public involvement

  18. Engineering materials for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhijian

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can arise from a wide range of human activities and have different physical and chemical forms with various radioactivity. The high level radioactive wastes (HLW)are characterized by nuclides of very high initial radioactivity, large thermal emissivity and the long life-term. The HLW disposal is highly concerned by the scientists and the public in the world. At present, the deep geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely dispose high-level radioactive wastes in the world. The conceptual model of HLW geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system that combines an isolating geological environment with an engineering barrier system(EBS). The engineering materials in EBS include the vitrified HLW, canister, overpack, buffer materials and backfill materials. Referring to progress in the world, this paper presents the function, the requirement for material selection and design, and main scientific projects of R and D of engineering materials in HLW repository. (authors)

  19. Office of Geologic Repositories quality assurance plan for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This document sets forth geologic repository program-wide quality assurance program requirements and defines management's quality assurance responsibilities for the Office of Geologic Repositories and its projects. (LM)

  20. Natural sorbents as barriers against migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.; Gradev, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The sorption properties of Bulgarian inorganic sorbents - clinoptilolite, vermiculite, bentonite, glauconite, celadonite and loess, which can be used as buffer, backfill and sealing materials in radwaste repository are studied. Experimental data about sorption and desorption capacities, radiation and thermal stability of sorbents from different Bulgarian deposits are reported and compared. Clinoptilolite from Beli Plast and its sodium variety from Kostino and Moryantsi is recommended as a barrier against radionuclide migration from radwaste repository due to their high sorption capacity of 137 Ce, 90 Sr and 60 Co. The high selectivity of vermiculite for polyvalent ions ( 144 Ce, 59 Fe and 90 Sr) gives grounds to include the sorption on vermiculite as a second step in the ion exchange technology for low level laundry waste decontamination. Bentonite is studied as a proposed buffer, backfill and sealing material. Its selectivity for cesium is lower compared to those of clinoptilolite. Thus a tailored-made mixture of bentonite and clinoptilolite will act as a barrier against radionuclides in different oxidation state. Glauconite can be successfully used as a barrier against migration of 144 Ce, 90 Sr, 54 Mn and 65 Zn. Loess is also included in the study, as the Kozloduy NPP is sited on loess formation and it is a natural potential site for low and intermediate level waste burial. It is concludes that zeolites and clays of Bulgarian deposits can be used effectively against radionuclide migration from radioactive waste repositories. 59 refs., 5 tabs. (author)

  1. Annular air space effects on nuclear waste canister temperatures in a deep geologic waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.E.; Cheung, H.; Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Air spaces in a deep geologic repository for nuclear high level waste will have an important effect on the long-term performance of the waste package. The important temperature effects of an annular air gap surrounding a high level waste canister are determined through 3-D numerical modeling. Air gap properties and parameters specifically analyzed and presented are the air gap size, surfaces emissivity, presence of a sleeve, and initial thermal power generation rate; particular emphasis was placed on determining the effect of these variables have on the canister surface temperature. Finally a discussion based on modeling results is presented which specifically relates the results to NRC regulatory considerations

  2. Thermal characteristics of rocks for high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Kenji; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Okamoto, Masamichi; Kumata, Masahiro; Araki, Kunio; Amano, Hiroshi

    1980-12-01

    Heat released by the radioactive decay of high-level waste in an underground repository causes a long term thermal disturbance in the surrounding rock mass. Several rocks constituting geological formations in Japan were gathered and specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient and compressive strength were measured. Thermal analysis and chemical analysis were also carried out. It was found that volcanic rocks, i.e. Andesite and Basalt had the most favorable thermal characteristics up to around 1000 0 C and plutonic rock, i.e. Granite had also favorable characteristics under 573 0 C, transition temperature of quartz. Other igneous rocks, i.e. Rhyolite and Propylite had a problem of decomposition at around 500 0 C. Sedimentary rocks, i.e. Zeolite, Tuff, Sandstone and Diatomite were less favorable because of their decomposition, low thermal conductivity and large thermal expansion coefficient. (author)

  3. Formulating a low-alkalinity cement for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coumes, C. Cau Dit; Courtois, S.; Leclercq, S.; Bourbon, X.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-annual research program has been launched in January 2003 by CEA, EDF and ANDRA in order to formulate and characterize low-alkalinity and low-heat cements which would be compatible with an underground waste repository environment. Four types of bindings have been investigated: binary blends of Portland cement and silica fume or metakaolin, as well as ternary blends of Portland cement, fly ash and silica fume or metakaolin. Promising results have been obtained with a mixture comprising 37.5% Portland cement, 32.5% silica fume, and 30% fly ash: pH of water in equilibrium with fully hydrated cement is below 11. Moreover, silica fume compensates for the low reactivity of fly ash, while fly ash allows to reduce water demand, heat release, and dimensional variations of cement pastes and mortars. (authors)

  4. Formulating a low-alkalinity cement for radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coumes, C. Cau Dit; Courtois, S.; Leclercq, S.; Bourbon, X

    2004-07-01

    A multi-annual research program has been launched in January 2003 by CEA, EDF and ANDRA in order to formulate and characterize low-alkalinity and low-heat cements which would be compatible with an underground waste repository environment. Four types of bindings have been investigated: binary blends of Portland cement and silica fume or metakaolin, as well as ternary blends of Portland cement, fly ash and silica fume or metakaolin. Promising results have been obtained with a mixture comprising 37.5% Portland cement, 32.5% silica fume, and 30% fly ash: pH of water in equilibrium with fully hydrated cement is below 11. Moreover, silica fume compensates for the low reactivity of fly ash, while fly ash allows to reduce water demand, heat release, and dimensional variations of cement pastes and mortars. (authors)

  5. General guidelines for recommendation of sites for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    These guidelines were developed in accordance with the requirements of Section 112(a) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 for use by the Secretary of Energy in evaluating the suitability of sites for the development of repositories. The guidelines will be used for suitability evaluations and determinations made pursuant to Section 112(b) and any preliminary suitability determinations required by Section 114(f). The guidelines set forth in this Part are intended to complement the requirements set forth in the Act, 10 CFR Part 60, and 40 CFR Part 191. In applying these guidelines, the DOE will resolve any inconsistencies between these guidelines and the above documents in a manner determined by the DOE to most closely agree with the intent of the Act

  6. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as 36 Cl and 93 Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon

  7. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  8. Oxidation-reduction reactions. Overview and implications for repository studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, Michael J.; Arthur, Randolph C.; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a survey and review on oxidation-reduction ('redox') reactions, with particular emphasis on implications for disposal of high-level waste (HLW) in deep geological formations. As an overview, the focus is on basic principles, problems, and proposed research related specifically to the assessment of redox for a HLW repository in Japan. For a more comprehensive treatment of redox and the myriad associated issues, the reader is directed to the cited textbooks used as primary references in this report. Low redox conditions in deep geological formations is a key assumption in the 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan' (hereafter called H12'). The release behavior of multi-valent radioelements (e.g., Tc, Se, U, Pu, Np), as well as daughter radioelements of these radioelements, from a deep geological repository are sensitively related to redox conditions. Furthermore, the performance of certain barrier materials, such as overpack and buffer, may be impacted by redox conditions. Given this importance, this report summarizes some key topics for future technical studies supporting site characterization and repository performance as follows: To fully test the conceptual models for system Eh, it will be necessary to measure and evaluate trace element and isotopic information of both coexisting groundwater and reactive minerals of candidate rocks. Because of importance of volatile species (e.g., O 2 , H 2 etc.) in redox reactions, and given the high total pressure of a repository located 500 to 1000 meter deep, laboratory investigations of redox will necessarily require use of pressurized test devices that can fully simulate repository conditions. The stability (redox capacity) of the repository system with respect to potential changes in redox boundary condition induced by oxidizing waters intrusion should be established experimentally. An overall conceptual model that unifies

  9. 75 FR 8701 - Notice of Settlement Agreement Pertaining to Construction of a Waste Repository on the Settlors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Construction of a Waste Repository on the Settlors' Property Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental... a Settlement Agreement pertaining to Construction of a Waste Repository on Settlor's Property... waste repository on the property by resolving, liability the settling party might otherwise incur under...

  10. Public opposition to the siting of the high-level nuclear waste repository: The importance of trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines several dimensions of public opposition to the proposed siting of the high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. In order to provide a context for the public's views of the repository in metropolitan Clark County, both governmental studies of the repository siting process are analyzed, as well as elements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This analysis suggests that one potentially key component of the public's opposition to the siting, as well as their perceptions of risk of the facility, may be the result of a lack of trust in the Department of Energy. Empirical analysis of survey data collected in Nevada in 1988 confirms the strong relationship between political trust and repository risk perceptions

  11. Radionuclide transport from near-surface repository for radioactive waste - The unsaturated zone approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, V. [Vilnius University (Lithuania); Mazeika, J. [Nature Research Centre (Lithuania); Motiejunas, S. [Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    About 100 000 m{sup 3} of solid conditioned Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW), generated during operation and decommissioning of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (INPP), are to be disposed of in a near-surface repository (NSR) - a 'hill'-type repository with reinforced concrete vaults and with engineered and natural barriers. The northeastern Lithuania and the environment of the INPP in particular were recognized as the areas most suitable for a near-surface repository (Stabatiske Site). The engineered barriers of the repository consist of concrete cells surrounded by clay-based material of low permeability with about the same isolating capacity in all directions. The clay materials must be effectively compactable so that required hydraulic conductivity is reached. The Lithuanian Triassic clay turned out to be sufficiently rich in smectites and was proposed as main candidate for sealing of the repository. When the concrete vaults are filled, the repository cover will be constructed. The surface of the mound will be planted with grass. In this study a computer code FEFLOW 5.0 was applied for simulating the transport of the most mobile radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 94}Nb) with moisture through an unsaturated vault of the near-surface repository in Stabatiske Site. The HYDRUS-1D analysis was used to assess the radionuclide transport in the repository and to estimate initial activity concentrations of radionuclides transported from the cemented waste matrix. Radionuclide release from the vault in the unsaturated conditions after closure of the repository and consequent contaminant plume transport has been assessed taking into account site-specific natural and engineering conditions and based on a normal evolution scenario. The highest peak radionuclide activity concentrations were estimated applying the FEFLOW code. The highest value of {sup 14}C activity concentration(about 1.3x10{sup 8} Bq/m{sup 3}) at the groundwater table

  12. Transport of radioactive wastes to the planned final waste repository Konrad: Radiation exposure resulting from normal transport and radiological risks from transport accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Fett, H.J.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation exposures of members of critical groups of the general population and of transport personnel resulting from normal transport of radioactive wastes to the planned final waste repository Konrad have been evaluated in detail. By applying probabilistic safety assessment techniques radiological risks from transport accidents have been analysed by quantifying potential radiation exposures and contaminations of the biosphere in connection with their expected frequencies of occurrence. The Konrad transport study concentrates on the local region of the waste repository, where all transports converge. (orig.) [de

  13. The role of weapons production and military waste in the repository selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.; Hope, J.; Power, W.; Hunter, T.

    1987-01-01

    The decision to commingle defense waste with commercial waste in the nuclear waste repository program has many impacts on that program. There will be more waste to place in the two repositories authorized under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, more transport miles to get the waste to a repository, and more costs associated with environmental and socio-economic impact mitigation. This paper explores the links between weapons production and military waste, and the repository selection process. The paper first describes the importance of state, tribe and public participation to the acceptance of a repository site selection. The paper then examines the various estimates of amounts of existing and future military nuclear wastes, and how these estimates affect repository siting decisions. The final section addresses the public policy questions which surround this issue. Repository siting may be jeopardized unless there is open public discussion about existing radioactive contamination at military production sites and about future nuclear weapons production. Cost-sharing is considered within this context

  14. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M ampersand O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use)

  15. Application of systems engineering to determine performance requirements for repository waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, E.A.; Stimmell, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The waste package for a nuclear waste repository in salt must contribute substantially to the performance objectives defined by the Salt Repository Project (SRP) general requirements document governing disposal of high-level waste. The waste package is one of the engineered barriers providing containment. In establishing the performance requirements for a project focused on design and fabrication of the waste package, the systems engineering methodology has been used to translate the hierarchy requirements for the repository system to specific performance requirements for design and fabrication of the waste package, a subsystem of the repository. This activity is ongoing and requires a methodology that provides traceability and is capable of iteration as baseline requirements are refined or changed. The purpose of this summary is to describe the methodology being used and the way it can be applied to similar activities in the nuclear industry

  16. Refinancing of the search for a repository and of the repository for heat generating radioactive Waste. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moench, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Part I of this article, which appeared in the preceding issue, described in general terms the background to the search for a disposal site and the result of the exploration to date of the repository, which would appear to be suitable from a mining standpoint according to the present knowledge. According to the rules in effect up to now, the exploration and construction would be financed by advance payments on the contributions of the waste producing companies, in particular the utility companies. The working draft of an 'Act on the search for and selection of a site for a repository for heat generating radioactive waste' (Gesetz zur Suche und Auswahl eines Standortes fuer ein Endlager fuer waermeentwickelnde radioaktive Abfaelle) from autumn 2012 provides for a new version of section 21b Atomic Energy Act, under which the costs for 'carrying out a repository selection procedure pursuant to the Repository Selection Act (Standort-auswahlgesetz)' would be allocated to the future users of the repository who are obliged to make contributions as a 'necessary expense'. Part II evaluates this provision of the working draft on the basis of the financial constitutional law. A comparison of sites is not a measure that could be allocated to the future users of the repository who are obliged to make contributions as a 'necessary expense'. Moreover, there is a lack of responsibility for the financing and of a legally relevant advantage that would be conferred by a cumulative alternative repository search for the later users of the repository who are obliged to provide the pre-financing. The costs can therefore not be allocated to the later users as either a contribution or a special charge, not even by way of an association with mandatory membership (Zwangsverband). They must be borne by the state. Consequently, the allocation stipulated by provision would constitute an impermissible charge under financial constitutional law. (orig.)

  17. The thermo-mechanical behaviour of a salt dome with a heat-generating waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, L.G.J.; Prij, J.; Kevenaar, J.W.A.M.; Jong, C.J.T.; Klok, J.; Beemsterboer, C.

    1984-01-01

    This report reviews the analytical work on the disposal of radioactive waste in salt domes performed at ECN in the period 1 January 1980 to 31 December 1982. Chapter 4 in the main report covers the global temperature and deformation analyses of the salt dome and the surrounding rocks. The attached three topical reports cover self-contained parts of the study. The computer program TASTE developed to analyse, at acceptable cost and with, for engineering purposes, sufficient accuracies, the temperature rises in the salt dome due to the stored heat-generating waste is described in Annex 1. Annex 2 gives a description of the extended finite element program GOLIA. The program has been extended to make it suitable for the creep analysis of salt domes with repositories of heat-generating waste. The study on the closing and sealing of boreholes wit heat-generating waste is reported in Annex 3

  18. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 3. Waste retrieval from backfilled regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Methods and costs were studied for delayed canister retrieval from rooms that had been backfilled immediately after canister storage. The effects of this method of storage on mine geometry, thermal and rock mechanics environments, mine development and operations, mine ventilation, time schedule, retrieval machinery and safety were investigated. Salt and air temperatures were determined. Pillar width, number of rooms, extraction ratio, tonnages of mined salt, and salt handling and hoisting requirements were calculated. The required changes in mining equipment were established. Salt handling and elapsed time schedules were developed. Ventilation requirements - size and number of shafts, size the arrangement of airways, number of stacks, and size and number of fans were then calculated. The development sequence of these facilities was established. Canister retrieval problems were analyzed for canisters stuck in the hole as well as free. Retrieval methods and machinery were studied and are described. Safety with respect to both radiation and room collapse was studied and compared with CDR safety conditions. The effects of a reduced themal loading of 30 KW/acre on temperatures, room closure, mine layout, ventilation and ground control were studied and reported. A cost estimate was prepared, giving cost differentials between the base CDR costs and Special Study No. 3. Two appendices are included. The first contains nine Heat Transfer memoranda that state the thermal basis of this study. The second appendix provides a detailed operating time analysis of the retrieval machinery

  19. Surface-type repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Zarkovic, V.; Subasic, D.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level intermediate-level (LL/IL) radioactive waste repository siting and construction project is one of the activities related to establishing the rad waste management system in the Republic of Croatia. The repository project design is one in an array of project activities which also include the site selection procedure and public attitude issues. The prepared design documentation gives technical, safety and financial background relevant for making a final decision on the waste disposal type, and it includes the technological, mechanical, civil and financial documentation on the preliminary/basic design level. During the last few years, the preliminary design has been prepared and safety assessment conducted for the tunnel-type LL/IL rad waste repository. As the surface-type repository is one of alternatives for final disposal the design documentation for that repository type was prepared during 1994. (author)

  20. High level radioactive waste repositories. Task 3. Review of underground handling and emplacement. 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high-level radioactive waste in an underground repository appropriate to the U.K. context, with particular reference to waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially-shielded block; stages of disposal; transport by road/rail to repository site; handling techniques within repository; emplacement in vertical holes or horizontal tunnels; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; conventional and radiological safety; costs; and major areas of uncertainty requiring research or development.

  1. Nuclear waste repository siting and locational conflict analysis: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murauskas, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    This study develops and evaluates an alternative framework that is based on contextual variables. The premise is that differences in attitudes and perceptions regarding the local siting of nuclear wastes and differences in attitudes regarding siting decision-making procedures are influenced by local political, economic, and cultural variables. This framework articulates the nature of conflict in terms of the incongruence between the use-value individuals ascribe to their present situation and the anticipated exchange-value individuals associate with the local siting of a nuclear waste repository. In order to evaluate this conceptual framework a survey was conducted of residents in four communities representing distinct societal contexts: Richton, Mississippi; Peterborough, New Hampshire; Richland, Washington; and Antigo/Waupaca, Wisconsin. Data analyses indicate substantial differences in economic expectations associated with the local siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository and in perception regarding the impacts such a repository might have on the environment, local agriculture, personal health and safety, and the quality of life

  2. Groundwater-stream-simulation experiments for the evaluation of the safety of proposed nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    A bench-scale experimental design which integrates repository components to simulate a groundwater stream infiltrating a breached repository is described in this paper. An experiment performed with a nuclear waste solid and one rock core is briefly summarized. The nuclear waste solid consists of borosilicate glass containing formulated nuclear waste and is the source of the leached radionuclides. The rock core used is of granite and serves as the adsorption medium for the leached radionuclides

  3. The Microbiology of Subsurface, Salt-Based Nuclear Waste Repositories: Using Microbial Ecology, Bioenergetics, and Projected Conditions to Help Predict Microbial Effects on Repository Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, Juliet S.; Cherkouk, Andrea; Arnold, Thuro; Meleshyn, Artur; Reed, Donald T.

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the potential role of microorganisms in salt-based nuclear waste repositories using available information on the microbial ecology of hypersaline environments, the bioenergetics of survival under high ionic strength conditions, and ''repository microbiology'' related studies. In areas where microbial activity is in question, there may be a need to shift the research focus toward feasibility studies rather than studies that generate actual input for performance assessments. In areas where activity is not necessary to affect performance (e.g., biocolloid transport), repository-relevant data should be generated. Both approaches will lend a realistic perspective to a safety case/performance scenario that will most likely underscore the conservative value of that case.

  4. The Microbiology of Subsurface, Salt-Based Nuclear Waste Repositories: Using Microbial Ecology, Bioenergetics, and Projected Conditions to Help Predict Microbial Effects on Repository Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Juliet S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Rossendorf (Germany); Arnold, Thuro [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Rossendorf (Germany); Meleshyn, Artur [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit, Braunschweig (Germany); Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    This report summarizes the potential role of microorganisms in salt-based nuclear waste repositories using available information on the microbial ecology of hypersaline environments, the bioenergetics of survival under high ionic strength conditions, and “repository microbiology” related studies. In areas where microbial activity is in question, there may be a need to shift the research focus toward feasibility studies rather than studies that generate actual input for performance assessments. In areas where activity is not necessary to affect performance (e.g., biocolloid transport), repository-relevant data should be generated. Both approaches will lend a realistic perspective to a safety case/performance scenario that will most likely underscore the conservative value of that case.

  5. Geophysical survey aimed at selecting the radioactive waste repository site (Czech republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Dostál

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available G IMPULS Praha has been executing a set of geophysical measurements for the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority of the Czech Republic from 2001 (the work continues to be carried out. The measurements are aimed at studying the behaviour of the rock massif, focusing on the Excavation Damaged or Disturbed Zone (EDZ and on selecting an appropriate area for the radioactive material repository site. The geophysical studies use a complex of methods as follows: Airborne geophysical measurement (regional studies, Seismic measurement (detailed studies, G.P.R. (detailed studies, Resistivity tomography (detailed studies, Geoelectric measurement and magnetic survey (stray earth currents. The paper informs about first results and conclusions. The airborne work was executed as a part of the complex study of „GEOBARIERA“ the group and the geophysical measurements of EDZ were executed in co-operation with the Czech Geological Survey.

  6. Long-Term Safety Analysis of Baldone Radioactive Waste Repository and Updating of Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The main objective of the project was to provide advice to the Latvian authorities on the safety enhancements and waste acceptance criteria for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities of the Baldone repository. The project included the following main activities: Analysis of the current status of the management of radioactive waste in Latvia in general and, at the Baldone repository in particular Development of the short and long-term safety analysis of the Baldone repository, including: the planned increasing of capacity for disposal and long term storage, the radiological analysis for the post-closure period Development of the Environment Impact Statement, for the new foreseen installations, considering the non radiological components Proposal of recommendations for future updating of radioactive waste acceptance criteria Proposal of recommendations for safety upgrades to the facility. The work programme has been developed in phases and main tasks as follows. Phase 0: Project inception, Phase 1: Establishment of current status, plans and practices (Legislation, regulation and standards, Radioactive waste management, Waste acceptance criteria), Phase 2: Development of future strategies for long-term safety management and recommendations for safety enhancements. The project team found the general approach use at the installation, the basic design and the operating practices appropriate to international standards. Nevertheless, a number of items subject to potential improvements were also identified. These upgrading recommendations deal with general aspects of the management (mainly storage versus disposal of long-lived sources), site and environmental surveillance, packaging (qualification of containers, waste characterization requirements), the design of an engineered cap and strategies for capping. (author)

  7. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs

  9. The role of waste package specifications as a forerunner to ILW repository conditions for acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, S.V.; Palmer, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    In the absence of a finalized repository site, design or associated safety case, Nirex is not in a position to issue conditions for acceptance. Nirex has therefore developed a strategy which facilitates packaging of intermediate level waste by providing guidance through waste package specifications, supported by the formal assessment of specific packaging proposals on a case-by-case basis. The waste package specifications are comprehensive and cover all aspects of the waste package including dimensions and other key features, performance standards, wasteform, quality assurance, and data recording requirements. The waste package specifications will be subject to periodic review as repository design and safety cases are finalized and will progressively become site- and design-specific. The waste package specifications will eventually form the basis for conditions for acceptance. The strategy described in this paper has been successfully followed by Nirex and customers for the past ten years and has permitted wastes to be packaged for a deep repository with confidence in the absence of a finalized site and safety cases for the repository. Because the process has its basis in a generic repository concept, it remains robust, despite the increased uncertainty following the March 1997 Secretary of State's decision, as to the siting and time-scale of a deep waste repository, and continues to be an important component of the UK's waste management strategy. (author)

  10. Performance analysis of conceptual waste package designs in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, G. Jr.; Raines, G.E.; Kircher, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A performance analysis of commercial high-level waste and spent fuel conceptual package designs in reference repositories in three salt formations was conducted with the WAPPA waste package code. Expected conditions for temperature, stress, brine composition, radiation level, and brine flow rate were used as boundary conditions to compute expected corrosion of a thick-walled overpack of 1025 wrought steel. In all salt formations corrosion by low Mg salt-dissolution brines typical of intrusion scenarios was too slow to cause the package to fail for thousands of years after burial. In high Mg brines judged typical of thermally migrating brines in bedded salt formations, corrosion rates which would otherwise have caused the packages to fail within a few hundred years were limited by brine availability. All of the brine reaching the package was consumed by reaction with the iron in the overpack, thus preventing further corrosion. Uniform brine distribution over the package surface was an important factor in predicting long package lifetimes for the high Mg brines. 14 references, 15 figures

  11. Types of safety assessments of near surface repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to presents the classification of different types safety assessments of near surface repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste substantiated with results of safety assessments generated in Bulgaria. The different approach of safety assessments applied for old existing repository as well as for site selection for construction new repository is outlined. The regulatory requirements in Bulgaria define three main types of assessments: Safety assessment; Technical substation of repository safety; Assessment of repository influence on environment that is in form of report prepared from the Ministry of environment and waters on the base of results obtained in two first types of assessments. Additionally first type is subdivided in three categories - preliminary safety assessment, safety assessment and post closure safety assessment, which are generated using deterministic approach. The technical substation of repository safety is generated using probabilistic approach. Safety assessment results that are presented here are based on evaluation of existing old repository type 'Radon' in Novi Han and real site selection procedure for new near surface repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear power station in Kozloduy. The important role of safety assessment for improvement the repository safety as well as for repository licensing, correct site selection and right choice of engineer barriers and repository design is discussed using generated results. (author)

  12. Safety analysis of the transportation of radioactive waste to the Konrad final repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentuc, F.N.; Bruecher, W.

    2010-01-01

    A transport risk assessment study has been conducted for transport of radioactive waste with negligible heat-generation to the German final repository Konrad. This study is a revision of the former Konrad Transport Study performed by GRS in 1991 implementing updated waste data among other improved methods and assumptions for the purpose of a more realistic approach to risk assessment. The first part of the transport risk assessment study concerns the radiological consequences from normal (accident-free) transportation of radioactive material, i.e. the radiation exposure of transport personnel and the public. Based on the assessed detailed information on transport arrangements and on the average number and radiological characteristics of waste packages the maximum annual effective doses for the representative persons were estimated. The risk associated with transport incidents and accidents has been quantified for the area within a radius of 25 km around the repository site. The probabilistic method adopted in this study considers parameters as the frequency and severity of railway or road accidents, characteristics of radioactive waste and transport packagings and the frequency of atmospheric dispersion conditions. From a large set of parameter combinations the spectrum of potential radiological consequences and of the associated probability of occurrence was assessed. (orig.)

  13. Effects of post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel, high-level waste and long-lived intermediate level waste sited in opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Marschall, P.; Zuidema, P.; Gribi, P.

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel and highly radioactive wastes in Opalinus clay strata. This study provides a comprehensive treatment of the issue of gas generation in a repository for spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW), sited in the Opalinus clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland. The issue of how gas generation in and transport from waste repositories may influence disposal system performance has been under study for many years, both at Nagra and internationally. The report consists of three main parts: (i) A synthesis of basic information on the host rock and on details of repository construction; (ii) A discussion on gas transport characteristics of the engineered barrier system and the geosphere; (iii) A discussion on the effects of gas on system performance, based on the available information on gas generation, gas transport properties and gas pathways provided in the previous parts of the report. Simplified model calculations based on a mass balance approach for the gas generated within the repository are presented and discussed

  14. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate level radioactive wastes: Safety report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Storage of radioactive waste must delay the return of radionuclides to the biosphere for a long period of time and must maintain the release rates at a sufficiently low level for all time. This is achieved with the aid of a series of safety barriers which consist, on the one hand, of technical barriers in the repository and, on the other hand , of natural geological barriers as they occur at the repository location. In order to assess the efficiency of the barriers, the working methods of the technical barriers and the host rock must be understood. This understanding is transferred into quantitative models in order to calculate the safety of the repository. The individual barriers and the methods used to modelling their functions were described in volume NGB 85-07 of the Project Guarantee 1985 report series and the data necessary for modelling were given. The models and data are used in the safety analysis, the results of which are contained in the present report. Safety considerations show that models are available in Switzerland which allow, in principle, an assessment of the long-term behaviour of a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste. The evaluation of earlier studies and experimental work, suitable laboratory measurements and results from field research enable compilation of a representative data-set so that the requirements for quantitative statements on safety of final disposal are met from this side also. The safety calculations show that the radiation doses calculated for a base case scenario with realistic/conservative parameter values are negligibly low. Also, radiation doses which are clearly under the protection standard of 10 mrem per year result for conservative values and the cumulation of several conservative assumptions. Even assuming exposure of the repository by erosion, a radiotoxicity of the soil formed results which is under natural values

  15. Fault Frictional Stability in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Felipe; Violay, Marie; Scuderi, Marco; Collettini, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    Exploitation of underground resources induces hydro-mechanical and chemical perturbations in the rock mass. In response to such disturbances, seismic events might occur, affecting the safety of the whole engineering system. The Mont Terri Rock Laboratory is an underground infrastructure devoted to the study of geological disposal of nuclear waste in Switzerland. At the site, it is intersected by large fault zones of about 0.8 - 3 m in thickness and the host rock formation is a shale rock named Opalinus Clay (OPA). The mineralogy of OPA includes a high content of phyllosilicates (50%), quartz (25%), calcite (15%), and smaller proportions of siderite and pyrite. OPA is a stiff, low permeable rock (2×10-18 m2), and its mechanical behaviour is strongly affected by the anisotropy induced by bedding planes. The evaluation of fault stability and associated fault slip behaviour (i.e. seismic vs. aseismic) is a major issue in order to ensure the long-term safety and operation of the repository. Consequently, experiments devoted to understand the frictional behaviour of OPA have been performed in the biaxial apparatus "BRAVA", recently developed at INGV. Simulated fault gouge obtained from intact OPA samples, were deformed at different normal stresses (from 4 to 30 MPa), under dry and fluid-saturated conditions. To estimate the frictional stability, the velocity-dependence of friction was evaluated during velocity steps tests (1-300 μm/s). Slide-hold-slide tests were performed (1-3000 s) to measure the amount of frictional healing. The collected data were subsequently modelled with the Ruina's slip dependent formulation of the rate and state friction constitutive equations. To understand the deformation mechanism, the microstructures of the sheared gouge were analysed. At 7 MPa normal stress and under dry conditions, the friction coefficient decreased from a peak value of μpeak,dry = 0.57 to μss,dry = 0.50. Under fluid-saturated conditions and same normal stress, the

  16. Aspects of potential magmatic disruption of a high-level radioactive waste repository in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Self, S.; Vaniman, D.; Amos, R.; Perry, F.

    1983-01-01

    Volcanic hazard studies, combining standard techniques of hazard appraisal and risk assessment are being undertaken with respect to storage of high-level, radioactive waste in southern Nevada. Consequence studies, the emphasis of this work, are evaluated by tracing the steps of ascent of basaltic magma including intersection and disruption of a repository followed by surface eruption. Theoretical considerations suggest basalt magma ascends rapidly from mantle depth (10's of cm/sec in the bubble-free regime) but may be trapped temporarily and fractionate at the mantle/crust interface. Basalt centers are fed from narrow linear dikes. Local sheet-like intrusions formed at depths of 200 to 300 m probably due to a combination of extensional faulting during emplacement and trapping within low-density tuff country rock, aided in part by a low magma-volatile content. Incorporation of radioactive waste in basalt magma is controlled by the dimensions of basalt dikes at repository depths and the depth of magma fragmentation. Dispersal pathways of waste should follow the pyroclastic component of a Strombolian eruption. The maximum volume of waste deposited with basaltic tephra can be traced approximately by assuming waste material is dispersed in the same patterns as country rock lithic fragments. Based on a basalt magma cycle that is similar to typical Strombolian centers, 180 m 3 of a repository inventory will be deposited in a scoria cone (of which approx. 1 m 3 will be exposed to the surface in a 10,000-year period), 320 to 900 m 3 will be deposited in a scoria-fall sheet (up to 12-km dispersal), and 21 m 3 will be dispersed regionally with a fine-grained particle component. 62 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  17. Application of GIS in siting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xia; Wang Ju; Huang Shutao

    2010-01-01

    High level radioactive waste geo-disposal is directly related to environment protection and Sustainable Utilization of nuclear energy. To ensure both success and long-term safe disposal of the high level-radioactive waste, finding suitable sites is an important step in the research. Meanwhile, siting and evaluation the geo-disposal repository for high level-radioactive waste need a wide range of relevant information, including geology and geophysical surveys data, geochemistry data and other geoscience data in the field. At the same time, some of the data has its spatial property. Geographic information system (GIS) have a role to play in all geographic and spatial aspects of the development and management of the siting disposal repository. GIS has greatly enhanced our ability to store, analyze and communicate accounts of the information. This study was conducted to compare the more suitable sites for the repository using GIS -based on the data which belongs to the preselected area in BeiShan, Gansu Province, China. First, the data of the pre-selected site is captured by GIS and stored in the geoscience database. Then, according to the relevant guide line in the field, the analysis models based on GIS are build. There are some thematic layers of the sites character grouped into two basic type, namely social factors(town, traffic and nuclear plant) and natural factors (water, land and animals and plants).In the paper, a series of GIS models was developed to compare the pre-selected areas in order to make optimal decision. This study shows that with appropriate and enough information GIS used in modeling is a powerful tool for site selection for disposal repository. (authors)

  18. A logistic and cost model for the transport of radioactive waste to a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.L.; Gray, I.L.S.; Manville, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is planning a deep repository for intermediate level radioactive waste, and also some low level waste. Part of this work is to develop a transport system to bring the packaged waste to the repository from nuclear industry sites across the United Kingdom. To assess the logistics and costs of this transport system and to provide inputs to the repository specification and design, Nirex has commissioned the development of a flexible computer model which can be used on a desktop PC. The requirements for the LOGCOST model are explained, and the solutions adopted, and then examples shown of the graphical and tabular outputs that LOGCOST can provide. (Author)

  19. The duration of the institutional controls on the low and intermediate level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Li Yang; Liu Yafang; Lian Bing; Zhao Yangjun; Chen Hailong; Gu Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate institutional controls are put in place prior to repository closure. Such controls can guarantee the long term safety of the repository. Today there is no clear standard on how to determine the institutional control period. This paper tries to give possible factors and activities of the institutional controls on the low and intermediate level waste repositories, and makes some suggestions on the institutional controls in our country. (authors)

  20. Environmental monitoring and radiation protection programs of Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoskova, M.; Kostova, M.; Sheherov, L.; Bekiarov, P.; Iovtchev, M.

    2000-01-01

    The system for monitoring and control as an important part of the safety management of the Novi Han Radioactive Waste Repository contains two independent programs: environmental monitoring of the site (controlled area), the restricted access area and the surveillance area (supervised area) of the repository and radiation protection program including personal dosimetric control and indoor dosimetric control of workplaces in the buildings of the repository. The main activities related to the programs implementation are presented

  1. Development and application of a quality assurance system for waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmerhagen, I.; Berg, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    A large set of requirements are developed for the structures, systems and components of a waste repository. These requirements cover different regulations concerning planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning of a waste repository as well as nuclear-specific requirements on the design of the plant. The implementation of a quality assurance (QA) system is an essential task in order to ensure that the requirements are fulfilled by systematic means. The QA system for the German repositories for radioactive waste is built up as a hierarchic system and described in more detail in particular covering aspects like maintenance of QA relevant systems, structures and components as well as the procedure in case of changes. For the operational phase of a repository a separate site-specific manual had to be developed. Such a manual has been elaborated for the operation of the Morsleben repository; main topics of this manual are presented

  2. Thermal analysis of a heat generating waste repository on the seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, M.J.; Butler, T.P.; Firmin, G.H.

    1987-02-01

    The time dependent thermal behaviour of a repository containing heat generating waste has been investigated during loading, transport, and subsequent emplacement on the seabed. Variations of less than 1 0 C in the sealed repository water temperature were calculated to be sufficient to create adequate water circulation. Conservative 1-D analyses were used to estimate a maximum repository water temperature of 256 0 C, occuring about 3 years after emplacement. The temperature distributions within the heat generating waste canisters and grouted titanium tubes have been calculated using 2-D axisymmetric finite element models. Peak temperatures at the waste centre-line were found to be approx. 40 0 C above the repository water temperature. The sensitivity of the results to assumed thermal parameters and to the effect of sediment accumulation have been considered. The possibility and consequences of steam formation within a vented repository have been discussed. (author)

  3. Scientific basis for long-term prediction of waste-form performance under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1982-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the fundamental principles involved in predicting long-term performance of waste forms by the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable approach. Repository conditions which make up the waste-form environment, the aging of the waste form, the important radionuclides in the waste form, the chemistry of repository fluids, and multicomponent interactions testing were considered in order to describe these principles. The need for confidence limits on the prediction of waste-form performance and ways of achieving a definition of the confidence limits are discussed

  4. Siting of repositories for high level nuclear waste geological and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahagen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Two studies have been conducted in Sweden under contract from SKN-National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The responsibilities of SKN has been transferred to SKI as of July 1, 1992. The first study is related to a compilation of experience and lessons learned from siting of nuclear waste repositories and other controversial facilities in seven countries. The second study is aimed at compiling examples of the state of knowledge related to the regional geological information with relevance to siting of a repository in Sweden. This paper is drawing the general combined conclusions from both these studies. The first study reviewed programs for siting of nuclear and hazardous waste disposal facilities in Canada, Finland, France, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and USA. The main topics reviewed are related to a/ The use of technical screening, b/ Legal framework and local veto, c/ Public involvement, d/ Interim storage and schedule flexibility, e/ Sequential vs. parallel characterization. The second study focused on the regional geological information available for Sweden and if this information allows for a ''grouping'' of tectonic regions in Sweden with significant differences in history and characteristics. Factors studied as potentially important for siting are bedrock properties, mineralizations, ground water conditions and available volume for a repository. The experience gained from these studies is aimed to be used as background information in the review of the program conducted for the Swedish nuclear utilities by SKB. SKB will according to current plans initiate siting for a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden during 1993. (author). 2 refs

  5. Structural considerations in the design of a repository to store radioactive waste in basalt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.; Board, M.P.; Gephart, R.E.; Myers, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Columbia River Basalt is being studied as a potential site for a spent fuel repository for the United States of America. To accomplish this end, a design study and environmental feasibility studies are being conducted to assess the feasibility of building tunnels at depths of approximately 1,000 meters to store the spent fuel. Of prime consideration is the design of the tunnels in such a way that the overall underground structure can withstand the thermal loading effect resulting from dissipation of heat released from the spent fuel canisters as the radioactive material decays. This paper discusses structural design considerations needed to construct such a repository subject to the loading conditions and safety considerations that must be applied to guaranteeing that the waste emplaced in these tunnels will remain isolated from mankind for long geologic periods of time

  6. Key radionuclides and parameters that determine performance of geologic repositories for high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joonhong Ahn; Atsuyuki Suzuki

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents results of a mathematical analysis for performance of the engineered barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories. The main body of the mathematical model developed in this study is mass transport of actinides in a bentonite region. In an analysis of actinide transport, radioactive decay chain and effects of low solubilities must be taken into account. In many previous models for mass transport in engineered barriers including radioactive decay chain, however, boundary conditions at the interface between the waste form and the bentonite region cannot be determined flexibly. In some models, solubility-limited boundary condition is assumed for all the members in a chain. In order to investigate what are key radionuclides and parameters that control performance of engineered barriers of a geologic repository, we must evaluate mass transport with the source boundary condition determined by a detailed analysis on mass transfer at the boundary. In this study, we developed a mathematical model, which can determine whether the inner boundary condition is solubility-limited or congruent release, based on a mathematical analysis for mass transfer at the glass dissolution location, and how long the solubility-limited boundary condition applies. Based on the mathematical model, we point out radionuclides and parameters that have primary influences on the performance of a repository, and investigate a reasonable strategy for coupling geologic disposal and partitioning of those key radionuclides from the standpoint of reducing hazard of geologic disposal. (authors). 4 tabs., 2 figs., 8 refs

  7. Application of geostatistical methods to long-term safety analyses for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehlig, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Long-term safety analyses are an important part of the design and optimisation process as well as of the licensing procedure for final repositories for radioactive waste in deep geological formations. For selected scenarios describing possible evolutions of the repository system in the post-closure phase, quantitative consequence analyses are performed. Due to the complexity of the phenomena of concern and the large timeframes under consideration, several types of uncertainties have to be taken into account. The modelling work for the far-field (geosphere) surrounding or overlaying the repository is based on model calculations concerning the groundwater movement and the resulting migration of radionuclides which possibly will be released from the repository. In contrast to engineered systems, the geosphere shows a strong spatial variability of facies, materials and material properties. The paper presented here describes the first steps towards a quantitative approach for an uncertainty assessment taking into account this variability. Due to the availability of a large amount of data and information of several types, the Gorleben site (Germany) has been used for a case study in order to demonstrate the method. (orig.)

  8. Albedo Neutron Dosimetry in a Deep Geological Disposal Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Becker, Frank

    2017-04-28

    Albedo neutron dosemeter is the German official personal neutron dosemeter in mixed radiation fields where neutrons contribute to personal dose. In deep geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste, where neutrons can dominate the radiation field, it is of interest to investigate the performance of albedo neutron dosemeter in such facilities. In this study, the deep geological repository is represented by a shielding cask loaded with spent nuclear fuel placed inside a rock salt emplacement drift. Due to the backscattering of neutrons in the drift, issues concerning calibration of the dosemeter arise. Field-specific calibration of the albedo neutron dosemeter was hence performed with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to assess the applicability of the albedo neutron dosemeter in a deep geological repository over a long time scale, spent nuclear fuel with different ages of 50, 100 and 500 years were investigated. It was found out, that the neutron radiation field in a deep geological repository can be assigned to the application area 'N1' of the albedo neutron dosemeter, which is typical in reactors and accelerators with heavy shielding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Monitoring a repository for high-level radioactive waste in Germany. Possibilities and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobmann, M.; Haverkamp, B.; Eilers, G.

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the new BMU safety requirements of September 2010 imposed upon the final storage of radioactive waste generating heat, the operator of a repository in Germany must establish a monitoring program which furnishes relevant measured information during the operations phase and for a defined period of time after closure of the repository. Within the framework of a feasibility study, an assessment basis was established to show in what format information about the status of a closed repository mine could be obtained technically without impairing the safety of barriers, for instance, by cable ducts. As a conceptual design basis, processes and measured quantities relevant to monitoring were attributed to the components of the current safety demonstration concept. For one model variant, monitoring possibilities of these processes were shown on the basis of monitoring modules. Some first experiments are being carried out in European underground laboratories about the use of wireless transmission systems in the repository area. On the basis of those activities, experiments could also be designed in the German exploratory mine of Gorleben in order to examine to what extent information obtained by monitoring could be transmitted in a wireless mode in rock salt formations. As far as the autonomous supply of electricity to measurement systems is concerned, which must be guaranteed on a long-term basis, there is now a possibility of using thermoelectric isotope generators or betavoltaic batteries. (orig.)

  10. A performance goal-based seismic design philosophy for waste repository facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Q.A.

    1994-02-01

    A performance goal-based seismic design philosophy, compatible with DOE's present natural phenomena hazards mitigation and ''graded approach'' philosophy, has been proposed for high level nuclear waste repository facilities. The rationale, evolution, and the desirable features of this method have been described. Why and how the method should and can be applied to the design of a repository facility are also discussed

  11. Sugeno integral ranking of release scenarios in a low and intermediate waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. Ho; Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, a multi criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem of ranking of important radionuclide release scenarios in a low and intermediate radioactive waste repository is to treat on the basis of λ-fuzzy measures and Sugeno integral. Ranking of important scenarios can lead to the provision of more effective safety measure in a design stage of the repository. The ranking is determined by a relative degree of appropriateness of scenario alternatives. To demonstrate a validation of the proposed approach to ranking of release scenarios, results of the previous AHP study are used and compared with them of the present SIAHP approach. Since the AHP approach uses importance weight based on additive probability measures, the interaction among criteria is ignored. The comparison of scenarios ranking obtained from these two approaches enables us to figure out the effect of different models for interaction among criteria

  12. Hydrogeological characteristics of Beishan preselected area, Gansu province for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Yang Tianxiao; Liu Shufen

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater is the major carrier for radionuclide migration in the high-level radioactive waste disposal. For this reason the hydrogeological study is one of the main contents in repository siting. According to the field investigation which has been carried out during the last few years and some data from the previous study, the author describes the general hydrogeological situation and groundwater circulation, as well as chemical characteristics of groundwater in Beishan preselected area, Gansu province. The research shows that main hydrogeological characteristics of the Beishan area is water-bearing character, low permeability and slow water movement while the major chemical feature of groundwater is high mineralization. This recognition will provide an important basis for repository siting in the site area

  13. Review on technical issues influencing the performance of chemical barriers of TRU waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomonari; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Tsukamoto, Masaki; Yokoyama, Hayaichi

    1997-01-01

    Studies of technical issues influencing the performance assessment of TRU waste disposal which is occurred from the nuclear fuel reprocessing were reviewed in related to the development of safety analysis method. Especially, the chemical containment was investigated as a key barrier to radionuclide migration. TRU waste including long-lived radionuclides need long-term performance assessment which could be assumed only by the chemical barrier. The description of technical issues concerned with the performance of TRU waste repository has been divided into the following categories: long-term degradation of cementitious materials as engineered barrier for radionuclide migration, effect of colloids, organic macromolecules and organic degradation products on chemical behavior of radionuclides, gas generation by corrosion of metallic wastes, and effects of microbial activity. Preliminary performance assessment indicated that important factors affecting performance of chemical barriers in near-field were the distribution coefficient and the solubility of radionuclides in near-field groundwater. Therefore, it was identified that key issues associated with performance of chemical barrier were evaluation of (a) the long-term change of distribution coefficient of cementitious material through the degradation under repository condition and (b) chemical speciation change of radionuclides such as increase of solubility by the presence of colloidal-size materials. (author)

  14. Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Shappert, L.B.; Boyle, J.W.

    1984-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel and requires the Secretary of Energy to evaluate five potential repository sites. One factor that is to be examined is transportation of radioactive materials to such a repository and whether transportation might be affected by shipments to a defense-only repository, or to one that accepts both defense and commercial waste. In response to this requirement, The Department of Energy has undertaken an evaluation of the cost and risk associated with the potential shipments. Two waste-flow scenarios are considered which are related to the total quantity of defense high-level waste which will be placed in a repository. The low-flow case is based on a total of 6700 canisters being transported from one site, while the high-flow case assumes that a total of 20,000 canisters will be transported from three sites. For the scenarios considered, the estimated shipping costs range from $105 million to $257 million depending upon the mode of transport and the repository location. The total risks associated with shipping defense high-level waste to a repository are estimated to be significantly smaller than predicted for other transportation activities. In addition, the cost of shipping defense high-level waste to a repository does not depend on whether the site is a defense-only or a commercial repository. Therefore, the transportation considerations are not a basis for the selection of one of the two disposal options

  15. Technical, institutional and economic factors important for developing a multinational radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Countries planning and implementing nuclear energy programmes should assume responsibility for the safe management and final disposal of radioactive waste from their programmes. However, there are countries whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository, and/or countries which do not have the resources or favorable natural conditions for waste disposal to dedicate to a national repository project. These countries would benefit from multinational co-operation for the disposal. Interest in the concept of a multinational repository for radioactive waste has been expressed by several Member States and the waste management community in the light of the potential benefit to the partner countries from the safety, technical and economic standpoints. However, such an approach involves many political and public acceptance issues and therefore a consensus among countries or regions concerned is a prerequisite. In this context, it was deemed appropriate that the IAEA access the technical, institutional, ethical and economic factors to be taken into account in the process of such consensus building. This report is intended to provide an assessment which can serve as a general basis for establishing a waste management policy and/or further assessing specific issues such as ownership and liability, institutional aspects and problems related to long term commitments. This report is divided into five sections where the first section gives background, objectives, scope and structure of the report. Section 2 discusses multinational repository concept in terms of needs and the role of a multinational repository, interaction between host and partner countries and formulation of a multinational repository. Section 3 identifies basic issues to be considered for establishing a multinational repository, and some specific issues relating to specific waste categories. Section 4 analyses potential benefits and challenges to be addresses in establishing a

  16. Assessment of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing processes in a nuclear waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    For a nuclear waste repository in salt, two aspects of salt behavior are expected to contribute to favorable conditions for waste isolation. First, consolidation of crushed salt backfill due to creep closure of the underground openings may result in a backfill barrier with low permeability. Second, fractures created in the salt by excavation may heal under the influence of stress and temperature following sealing. This report reviews the status of knowledge regarding crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing, provides analyses which predict the rates at which the processes will occur under repository conditions, and develops requirements for future study. Analyses of the rate at which crushed salt will consolidate are found to be uncertain because of unexplained wide variation in the creep properties of crushed salt obtained from laboratory testing, and because of uncertainties in predictions of long term closure rates of openings in salt. This uncertainty could be resolved to a large degree by additional laboratory testing of crushed salt. Similarly, additional testing of fracture healing processes is required to confirm that healing will be effective under repository conditions. Extensive references, 27 figures, 5 tables

  17. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J.

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent 'chaotic' processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: 'to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study'. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  18. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent `chaotic` processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: `to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study`. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  19. The aeration period of a model nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharland, S.M.; Tasker, P.W.

    1987-02-01

    We have constructed a model of the evolution of oxygen in a cement backfill which includes both its depletion through the canister corrosion reactions and its migration in the cement pores. The results indicate that the duration in which mild steel waste canisters may be subject to localised corrosion is very much shorter than the intended lifetime of the repository components, provided there is no external source of oxygen. For canisters spaced 1.2m apart, the model predicts a maximum aeration period of approximately 65 years, assuming high oxygen content and diffusivity in the backfill and low leakage current on the canisters (0.01 μA cm -2 ). In such a case a reducing environment is established throughout the backfill within this period. Under conditions of more restricted oxygen transport, reducing conditions are still established within a relatively short time in the immediate vicinity of the canisters, but the oxidation potential elsewhere in the backfill is then controlled by the uniform corrosion rate of the canisters. (author)

  20. Evolution of the groundwater chemistry around a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, A.; Sharland, S.M.; Tasker, P.W.; Tweed, C.J.

    1987-12-01

    Some of the necessary techniques to construct a research model of the evolution of the groundwater under the influence of the backfill material in a nuclear waste repository are developed. These involve various extensions to the coupled ionic migration and chemical equilibria code, CHEQMATE. These extensions have been used in the first stages of a model of the chemical environment within the host rock. In this preliminary model we have considered a concrete backfill material embedded in a clay geology. However, the model is sufficiently flexible that other backfill materials and host rocks may be considered if a good thermodynamical description is available. The preliminary results from the model suggest that over timescales of about a thousand years the natural buffering action of the clay against changes in pH has a significant effect on the scale of perturbation by the ingress of highly alkaline porewater. It seems likely therefore that this type of modelling will have considerable relevance to the safety assessment models. (author)

  1. Mega-conflict project and social complexity - Illustrated by the decision-making on locating a radioactive waste repository in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Lyhne, Ivar; Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2018-01-01

    . The process was formally initiated in 2003 when the Danish Parliament gave consent for the government to start preparing a basis for deciding a final repository for Denmark’s low- and intermediate level radioactive waste. After preliminary studies, proposal for a plan for a final repository – and later also...

  2. Risk analysis of radioactive waste repository based on the time dependent hazard rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.H.; Cho, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    For the probabilistic risk analysis of the radioactive high level waste repository, the simplified method based on the time dependent hazard rate is proposed. The obtained results are compared with those from the time independent hazard rate. The estimation of the failure probability of the waste repository through this method gives more conservative results, especially when the half-life of nuclide is larger and retardation factors of nuclide is smaller. (Auth.)

  3. Study of basic concrete formulations for use in repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Carlos Eduardo de O.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O. de; Gomes, Abdias M.

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Program predicts the increased use of nuclear power to generate electricity, with the construction of new nuclear power plants in the country. Given this scenario, associated to the growth of the application of radioactive materials in different areas, deserving attention from the responsible governmental institution especially in the steps related to safety and security. The management of the radioactive waste generated in these activities, including its final storage, is part of this responsibility. A repository, or final deposit, is the licensed deposit for storage of radioactive wastes, without the intention of removing, in accordance with the criteria of the competent authorities. Normally a repository for low and intermediate- level radioactive wastes is operated for many decades and, after its closure, it should be surveyed for 300 years. So the goals of this research are to study, develop and select formulations of concrete, in order to meet safety and performance criteria for the installation, once they should have sufficient durability to isolate the waste from the environment, during the radioactivity decays. (author)

  4. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few years, significant progress has been made towards siting national, purpose-built facilities for Australian radioactive waste. In 2001, after an eight year search, a preferred site and two alternatives were identified in central-north South Australia for a near-surface repository for Australian low level (low level and short-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste. Site 52a at Everts Field West on the Woomera Prohibited Area was selected as the preferred site as it performs best against the selection criteria, particularly with respect to geology, ground water, transport and security. Two alternative sites, Site 45a and Site 40a, east of the Woomera-Roxby Downs Road, were also found to be highly suitable for the siting of the national repository. A project has commenced to site a national store for intermediate (long-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste on Commonwealth land for waste produced by Commonwealth agencies. Public input has been sought on relevant selection criteria

  5. Seismotectonic investigations for Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository: Rationale for defining scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.C.; Blackford, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The geologic, seismic, and engineering characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site and its environs need to be investigated in sufficient scope and detail to provide reasonable assurance that they are sufficiently well understood to permit an adequate evaluation of the proposed site for the development of a high-level waste repository. The paper examines the extent of seismotectonic investigations needed for proper evaluation of the geologic setting. At the Yucca Mountain site, a thorough understanding of tectonic phenomena such as seismicity and faulting is critical to the identification of potentially disqualifying conditions. Study of the tectonic movement, stress, or co-tectonic effects that could affect the performance of the waste-handling facilities, waste package, underground openings, shaft and borehole seals, and long-term alteration of geohydrology would be necessary. In addition, the uncertainties involved in evaluating the effect of seismotectonics on the radionuclide transport mechanism need to be thoroughly investigated. 8 refs., 1 fig

  6. A Rock Mechanics and Coupled Hydro mechanical Analysis of Geological Repository of High Level Nuclear Waste in Fractured Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kibok

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a few case studies on fractured hard rock based on geological data from Sweden, Korea is one of a few countries where crystalline rock is the most promising rock formation as a candidate site of geological repository of high level nuclear waste. Despite the progress made in the area of rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanics, extensive site specific study on multiple candidate sites is essential in order to choose the optimal site. For many countries concerned about the safe isolation of nuclear wastes from the biosphere, disposal in a deep geological formation is considered an attractive option. In geological repository, thermal loading continuously disturbs the repository system in addition to disturbances a recent development in rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanical study using DFN(Discrete Fracture Network) - DEM(Discrete Element Method) approach mainly applied in hard, crystalline rock containing numerous fracture which are main sources of deformation and groundwater flow

  7. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes

  8. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes.

  9. Redox processes in the safety case of deep geological repositories of radioactive wastes. Contribution of the European RECOSY Collaborative Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, L.; Bruno, J.; Grivé, M.; Montoya, V.; Kienzler, B.; Altmaier, M.; Buckau, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The RECOSY project produced results relevant for the Safety Case of nuclear disposal. • We classify the safety related features where RECOSY has contributed. • Redox processes effect the retention of radionuclides in all repository subsystems. - Abstract: Redox processes influence key geochemical characteristics controlling radionuclide behaviour in the near and far field of a nuclear waste repository. A sound understanding of redox related processes is therefore of high importance for developing a Safety Case, the collection of scientific, technical, administrative and managerial arguments and evidence in support of the safety of a disposal facility. This manuscript presents the contribution of the specific research on redox processes achieved within the EURATOM Collaborative Project RECOSY (REdox phenomena COntrolling SYstems) to the Safety Case of nuclear waste disposal facilities. Main objectives of RECOSY were related to the improved understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release or retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal and providing tools to apply the results to Performance Assessment and the Safety Case. The research developed during the project covered aspects of the near-field and the far-field aspects of the repository, including studies relevant for the rock formations considered in Europe as suitable for hosting an underground repository for radioactive wastes. It is the intention of this paper to highlight in which way the results obtained from RECOSY can feed the scientific process understanding needed for the stepwise development of the Safety Case associated with deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

  10. The use of uranium fluxes as safety indicators of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.M.; Hooker, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Natural analogues based on uranium deposits are commonly used to represent the long-term behaviour of radioactive waste repositories or the processes that influence their radioactive contents. The geochemical dispersion of naturally occurring uranium can also be used to model natural radioactivity fluxes in the vicinity of a planned repository. These fluxes can be estimated for erosional and groundwater discharge processes and compared with calculated future fluxes of radioactivity that would be released from a repository. The methodology is outlined and the benefits of the approach for supporting the derivation of a safety case for a repository are indicated. (author)

  11. Acceptance of waste for disposal in the potential United States repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, D.; Svinicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the process for the acceptance of waste into the waste management system (WMS) with a focus on the detailed requirements identified from the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document. Also described is the recent dialogue between OCRWM and the Office of Environmental Management to resolve issues, including the appropriate interpretation and application of regulatory and system requirements to DOE-owned spent fuel. Some information is provided on the design of the repository system to aid the reader in understanding how waste that is accepted into the WMS is received and emplaced in the repository

  12. Waste package transfer, emplacement and retrievability in the French deep geological repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, Alain; Delort, Daniel; Herve, Jean Francois; Bosgiraud, Jean Michel; Guenin, Jean Jacques [Technical Department ANDRA (France)

    2009-06-15

    Safe, reliable and reversible handling of waste is a significant issue related to the design and safety assessment of deep geological repository in France. The first step taken was to study various waste handling solutions. ANDRA also decided to fabricate and demonstrate industrial scale handling equipment for HLW (since 2003) and for ILW-LL wastes (since 2008). We will review the main equipment developed for the transfer process in the repository, for both types of waste, and underline the benefits of developing industrial demonstrators within the framework of international cooperation agreements. Waste retrieval capability will be simultaneously examined. Two types of waste have to be handled underground in Andra's repository. The HLW disposal package for vitrified waste is a 2 ton carbon steel cylindrical canister with a diameter of 600 mm. The weight of ILW-LL concrete disposal packages range from a minimum of 6 tonnes to over 20 tonnes, and their volume from approximately 5 to 10 m3. The underground transfer to the disposal drift requires moving the disposal package within a shielded transfer cask placed on a trailer. Transfer cask design has evolved since 2005, due to optimisation studies and as a result of industrial feedback from SKB. For HLW handling equipment two design options have been studied. In the first solution (Andra's Dossier 2005), the waste package are emplaced, one at a time, in the disposal drift by a pushing robot. Successive steps in design and proto-typing have lead to improve the design of the equipment and to gain confidence. Recently a fully integrated process has been successfully demonstrated, at full scale, (in a 100 m long mock up drift) as part of the EC funded ESDRED Project. This demonstrator is now on display in Andra's Technology Centre at Saudron, near the Bure Underground Laboratory. The second disposal option which has been investigated is based on a concept of utilising an external apparatus to push a row of

  13. Characterization of Discharge Areas of Radionuclides Originating From Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, L.; Xu, S.; Worman, A.

    2009-05-01

    If leakages in nuclear waste repositories located in crystalline bedrock arise, radionuclides will reach the biosphere and cause a risk of radiological impact. The extent of the radiological impact depends on in which landscape elements the radionuclides emerge. In this study, we investigate if there are certain landscape elements that generally will act as discharge areas for radionuclides leaking from subsurface deposits. We also characterize the typical properties that distinguish these areas from others. In humid regions, landscape topography is the most important driving force for groundwater flow. Because groundwater is the main transporting agent for migrating radionuclides, the topography will determine the flowpaths of leaking radionuclides. How topography and heterogeneities in the subsurface affect the discharge distribution of the radionuclides is therefore an important scope of this study. To address these issues, we developed a 3-D transport model. Our analyses are based on site-specific data from two different areas in Sweden, Forsmark, Uppland, and Oskarshamn, Småland. The Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company (SKB) has selected these two areas as candidate areas for a deep repository of nuclear waste and the areas are currently subject to site investigations. Our results suggest that there are hot-spots in the landscape i.e. areas with high probability of receiving large amounts of radionuclides from a leaking repository of nuclear waste. The hot-spots concentrate in the sea, streams, lakes and wetlands. All these elements are found at lower elevations in the landscape. This pattern is mostly determined by the landscape topography and the locations of fracture zones. There is a relationship between fracture zones and topography, and therefore the importance of the topography for the discharge area distribution is not contradicted by the heterogeneity in the bedrock. The varieties of landscape elements which have potential for receiving

  14. Planning and Design Considerations for Geological Repository Programmes of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    Disposal in a geological repository is the generally accepted solution for the long term management of high level and/or long lived radioactive wastes, in line with the general principles defined in the IAEA Safety Fundamentals. This publication presents practical information on the way a geological repository programme for radioactive waste could be defined and planned, with special attention to all aspects having an impact on the timing. Country specific examples for repository development phases are provided, based on actual experiences from Member States

  15. A review of construction techniques available for surface and underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, D.G.; Davies, I.L.; MacKenzie, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    In terms of engineering requirements the construction of surface or indeed underground radioactive waste repositories is not unduly difficult. The civil engineering techniques likely to be required have generally been carried out previously, albeit not in the context of radioactive waste repositories in this country. The emphasis will have to be very much on the quality of construction. This paper emphasises the need for quality construction and describes the techniques likely to be used in the construction of repositories. Reference is made to the materials likely to be used in the construction of repositories and also to the need for being able to convince the designers, regulating authorities and the general public that the materials used will indeed last for the required time. Brief reference is made at the end of the paper to the civil engineering parameters requiring consideration in the location of repository siting. (author)

  16. Research project for the determination of the suitability of the mine ''Konrad'' as a final repository for radioactive waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A feasibility study of the Konrad mine for its use as a final repository for radioactive waste products was performed in 1978, 1979 and 1980. The report summarizes the most important results gained in the fields of geosciences and technical aspects of disposal operations

  17. Use of Groundwater Lifetime Expectancy for the Performance Assessment of Deep Geologic Radioactive Waste Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaton, F.; Park, Y.; Normani, S.; Sudicky, E.; Sykes, J.

    2005-12-01

    Long-term solutions for the disposal of toxic wastes usually involve isolation of the wastes in a deep subsurface geologic environment. In the case of spent nuclear fuel, the safety of the host repository depends on two main barriers: the engineered barrier and the natural geological barrier. If radionuclide leakage occurs from the engineered barrier, the geological medium represents the ultimate barrier that is relied upon to ensure safety. Consequently, an evaluation of radionuclide travel times from the repository to the biosphere is critically important in a performance assessment analysis. In this study, we develop a travel time framework based on the concept of groundwater lifetime expectancy as a safety indicator. Lifetime expectancy characterizes the time radionuclides will spend in the subsurface after their release from the repository and prior to discharging into the biosphere. The probability density function of lifetime expectancy is computed throughout the host rock by solving the backward-in-time solute transport equation subject to a properly posed set of boundary conditions. It can then be used to define optimal repository locations. In a second step, the risk associated with selected sites can be evaluated by simulating an appropriate contaminant release history. The proposed methodology is applied in the context of a typical Canadian Shield environment. Based on a statistically-generated three-dimension network of fracture zones embedded in the granitic host rock, the sensitivity and the uncertainty of lifetime expectancy to the hydraulic and dispersive properties of the fracture network, including the impact of conditioning via their surface expressions, is computed in order to demonstrate the utility of the methodology.

  18. Numerical study of the THM effects on the near-field safety of a hypothetical nuclear waste repository - BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project. Part 1: conceptualization and characterization of the problems and summary of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, M.; Nguyen, T.S.; Jing, L.; De Jonge, J.; Kohlmeier, M.; Millard, A.; Rejeb, A.; Rutqvist, J.; Souley, M.; Sugita, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Geological disposal of the spent nuclear fuel uses often the concept of multiple barrier systems. In order to predict the performance of these barriers, mathematical models have been developed, verified and validated against analytical solutions, laboratory tests and field experiments within the international DECOVALEX III project. These models in general consider the full coupling of thermal (T), hydraulic (H) and mechanical (M) processes that would prevail in the geological media around the repository. For Bench Mark Test no. 1 (BMT1) of the DECOVALEX III project, seven multinational research teams studied the implications of coupled THM processes on the safety of a hypothetical nuclear waste repository at the near-field and are presented in three accompany papers in this issue. This paper is the first of the three companion papers, which provides the conceptualization and characterization of the BMT1 as well as some general conclusions based on the findings of the numerical studies. It also shows the process of building confidence in the mathematical models by calibration with a reference T-H-M experiment with realistic rock mass conditions and bentonite properties and measured outputs of thermal, hydraulic and mechanical variables

  19. Preliminary site characterization at Beishan northwest China-A potential site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Su Rui; Xue Weiming; Zheng Hualing

    2004-01-01

    Chinese nuclear power plants,radioactive waste and radioactive waste disposal are introduced. Beishan region (Gansu province,Northwest China)for high-level radioactive waste repository and preliminary site characterization are also introduced. (Zhang chao)

  20. Influence of convective-energy transfer on calculated temperature distributions in proposed hard-rock nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, R R; Reda, D C [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1982-06-01

    This study assesses the relative influence of convective-energy transfer on predicted temperature distributions for a nuclear-waste repository located in water-saturated rock. Using results for energy transfer by conduction only (no water motion) as a basis of comparison, it is shown that a considerable amount of energy can be removed from the repository by pumping out water that migrates into the drift from regions adjacent to the buried waste canisters. Furthermore, the results show that the influence of convective-energy transfer on mine drift cooling requirements can be significant for cases where the in-situ permeability of the rock is greater than one millidarcy (a regime potentially encountered in repository scenarios).

  1. Investigative study of standards for digital repositories and related services

    CERN Document Server

    Foulonneau, Muriel; Badolato, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applications in the domain of digital repositories. Special attention is being paid to the interoperability of repositories to enhance the exchange of data in repositories. It aims to stimulate discussion about these topics and supports initiatives for the integration of and, where needed, development of

  2. Operational experience from SFR - Final repository for low- and intermediate level waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogsberg, Marie; Ingvarsson, Roger

    2006-01-01

    SFR, the Swedish Final Repository for Radioactive Waste, has been in operation since April 1988. It was designed for short lived LLW/ILW from the operation and maintenance of all Swedish Nuclear Power Plants. The first stage was constructed for 63 000 m 3 which was assumed to give a margin and flexibility for the preliminary operational period. Today this volume represents the whole prediction of operational waste. Until the end of 2005 SFR has received 30 930 m 3 waste. In average it has been 2-3 derivations per year at the repository. The most derivations happened in the years 1993-1995, and that was also the years when the repository received the most volume of waste. The most of the derivations those years was related to the waste packages. The dose rate to the personal has always been very low in the latest years the collective dose has been under 0,1 mmanSv/year. (author)