WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste recycling program

  1. The Fernald Waste Recycling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Recycling is considered a critical component of the waste disposition strategy at the Fernald Plant. It is estimated that 33 million cubic feet of waste will be generated during the Fernald cleanup. Recycling some portion of this waste will not only conserve natural resources and disposal volume but will, even more significantly, support the preservation of existing disposition options such as off-site disposal or on-site storage. Recognizing the strategic implications of recycling, this paper outlines the criteria used at Fernald to make recycle decisions and highlights several of Fernald's current recycling initiatives

  2. Recycling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  3. Industrial waste recycling strategies optimization problem: mixed integer programming model and heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiafu; Liu, Yang; Fung, Richard; Luo, Xinggang

    2008-12-01

    Manufacturers have a legal accountability to deal with industrial waste generated from their production processes in order to avoid pollution. Along with advances in waste recovery techniques, manufacturers may adopt various recycling strategies in dealing with industrial waste. With reuse strategies and technologies, byproducts or wastes will be returned to production processes in the iron and steel industry, and some waste can be recycled back to base material for reuse in other industries. This article focuses on a recovery strategies optimization problem for a typical class of industrial waste recycling process in order to maximize profit. There are multiple strategies for waste recycling available to generate multiple byproducts; these byproducts are then further transformed into several types of chemical products via different production patterns. A mixed integer programming model is developed to determine which recycling strategy and which production pattern should be selected with what quantity of chemical products corresponding to this strategy and pattern in order to yield maximum marginal profits. The sales profits of chemical products and the set-up costs of these strategies, patterns and operation costs of production are considered. A simulated annealing (SA) based heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the problem. Finally, an experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method. By comparing a single strategy to multiple strategies in an example, it is shown that the total sales profit of chemical products can be increased by around 25% through the simultaneous use of multiple strategies. This illustrates the superiority of combinatorial multiple strategies. Furthermore, the effects of the model parameters on profit are discussed to help manufacturers organize their waste recycling network.

  4. The National Shipbuilding Research Program: Solid Waste Segregation and Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    decreasing landfill space, legislated recycling goals are being set, and your institution is expected to comply. The letter indicates that all...Larry Krull, (800) 837-3398, landfill covers, liners, and cap systems Canadian Forest Products, Ltd., New Westminister , BC, Joe Hargitt, (604) 520-9327

  5. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  6. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  7. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  8. Multi-criteria group decision making for evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Santoso; Deng, Hepu

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria group decision making approach for effectively evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs under uncertainty in an organization. Intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are used for adequately representing the subjective and imprecise assessments of the decision makers in evaluating the relative importance of evaluation criteria and the performance of individual e-waste recycling programs with respect to individual criteria in a given situation. An interactive fuzzy multi-criteria decision making algorithm is developed for facilitating consensus building in a group decision making environment to ensure that all the interest of individual decision makers have been appropriately considered in evaluating alternative e-waste recycling programs with respect to their corporate sustainability performance. The developed algorithm is then incorporated into a multi-criteria decision support system for making the overall performance evaluation process effectively and simple to use. Such a multi-criteria decision making system adequately provides organizations with a proactive mechanism for incorporating the concept of corporate sustainability into their regular planning decisions and business practices. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed approach in evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs in organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  10. School Recycling Programs: A Handbook for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brochure describes some of the many recycling program options that schools can implement in their communities. It focuses on implementing actual recycling projects as a way of teaching the importance and benefits of recycling. The text examines the solid waste crisis and why Americans cannot continue to possess a disposable mentality. It…

  11. Recycling and surplus chemical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, T.J.

    1993-05-01

    In 1988, 45 years of defense production came to a close at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The mission of the Hanford Site was formally changed to environmental restoration and remediation. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the management and operations (M ampersand O) contractor leading the cleanup. Within the framework of future Site cleanup, Hanford recycling and surplus chemical programs are making a viable contribution today to waste minimization, diversion of materials from the waste stream, and setting a standard for future operations. This paper focuses on two successful efforts: paper recycling and surplus chemical sales

  12. Recycling And Disposal Of Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ui So

    1987-01-15

    This book introduces sewage disposal sludge including properties of sludge and production amount, stabilization of sludge by anaerobic digestion stabilization of sludge by aerobic digestion, stabilization of sludge by chemical method, and dewatering, water process sludge, human waste and waste fluid of septic tank such as disposal of waste fluid and injection into the land, urban waste like definition of urban waste, collection of urban waste, recycling, properties and generation amount, and disposal method and possibility of injection of industrial waste into the ground.

  13. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed...... and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle waste recycling technology deverlopment - Radioactive metal waste recycling technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Moon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Sang Yoon

    1998-08-01

    With relation to recycling of the radioactive metal wastes which are generated during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the following were described in this report. 1. Analysis of the state of the art on the radioactive metal waste recycling technologies. 2. Economical assessment on the radioactive metal waste recycling. 3. Process development for radioactive metal waste recycling, A. Decontamination technologies for radioactive metal waste recycling. B. Decontamination waste treatment technologies, C. Residual radioactivity evaluation technologies. (author). 238 refs., 60 tabs., 79 figs

  15. Implementing a campus wide recycling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The University of Windsor is currently expanding its recycling program to include all buildings on campus, but faces two challenges: 1) uncertainty about the current waste composition and distribution on campus; and 2) uncertainty about the effectiveness of increased recycling. This project assesses the current waste composition and the attitudes of the students towards recycling, and evaluates the effectiveness of proposed recycling activities. At present, paper is the only material that is collected throughout the entire campus. Except for two buildings, all other potentially recyclable materials within buildings, such as metal, glass, and plastic beverage containers, are discarded. The main focus of this research is on beverage containers as they represent clearly identifiable materials, but other materials were examined as well. To quantify the waste, different buildings on campus were classified according to their function: academic,operational and administrative. The waste composition study indicated that approximately 33% of the campus waste which is landfilled is composed of potentially recyclable material. A survey was then conducted to gauge the campus population's views on recycling issues that could affect the design of a recycling program. Interestingly, 97% of the respondents indicated a high willingness to recycle, but were uncertain as to how and where to recycle on campus. The project is currently assessing potential diversion rates using new, clearly identifiable recycling receptacles placed within selected classrooms for all major materials. There is a significant tradeoff however because the cost for new receptacles is considerable: multiple materials containers are often placed in high pedestrian traffic locations (e.g., hallways) and not always in classrooms,of which there are often many. This project will evaluate the basic benefits and costs of implementing a more comprehensive recycling program, and recommend how other

  16. Waste management considerations in HTGR recycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Shefcik, J.J.; Heath, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Waste management considerations in the recycle of HTGR fuel are different from those encountered in the recycle of LWR fuel. The types of waste associated with HTGR recycle operations are discussed, and treatment methods for some of the wastes are described

  17. plastic waste recycling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    incinerators is increasing around the world. Discarded plastic products ... Agency (EPA) estimated that the amount of plastics throw away is. 50 % greater in the ... The waste plastics were identified using the Society of the Plastic. Industry (SPI) ...

  18. Solid waste characterization and recycling potential for a university campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo de Vega, Carolina; Ojeda Benitez, Sara; Ramirez Barreto, Ma. Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Integrated waste management systems are one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development. For these systems to be successful, the first step is to carry out waste characterization studies. In this paper are reported the results of a waste characterization study performed in the Campus Mexicali I of the Autonomous University of Baja California (UABC). The aim of this study was to set the basis for implementation of a recovery, reduction and recycling waste management program at the campus. It was found that the campus Mexicali I produces 1 ton of solid wastes per day; more than 65% of these wastes are recyclable or potentially recyclable. These results showed that a program for segregation and recycling is feasible on a University Campus. The study also showed that the local market for recyclable waste, under present conditions - number of recycling companies and amounts of recyclables accepted - can absorb all of these wastes. Some alternatives for the potentially recyclables wastes are discussed. Finally some strategies that could be used to reduce waste at the source are discussed as well

  19. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  20. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  1. Recycling waste-paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Edward L.

    1990-01-01

    Perhaps 80 percent of papermaking energy is expended in chemical pulping of vegetable cellulose, a natural polymer. Commercial supplies of wood, bagasse, cotton and flax are valued as renewable resources and bio-mass assets; however, few enterprises will salvage waste-paper and cardboard from their trash. A basic experiment in the Materials Lab uses simple equipment to make crude handsheets. Students learn to classify secondary fibers, identify contraries, and estimate earnings.

  2. Actinide recycle in LMFBRs as a waste management alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A strategy of actinide burnup in fast reactor systems has been investigated as an approach for reducing the long term hazards and storage requirements of the actinide waste elements and their decay daughters. The actinide recycle studies also included plutonium burnup studies in the event that plutonium is no longer required as a fuel. Particular emphasis was placed upon the timing of the recycle program, the requirements for separability of the waste materials, and the impact of the actinides on the reactor operations and performance. It is concluded that actinide recycle and plutonium burnout are attractive alternative waste management concepts. 25 refs., 14 figs., 34 tabs

  3. Analysis of National Solid Waste Recycling Programs and Development of Solid Waste Recycling Cost Functions: A Summary of the Literature (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussion of methodological issues for conducting benefit-cost analysis and provides guidance for selecting and applying the most appropriate and useful mechanisms in benefit-cost analysis of toxic substances, hazardous materials, and solid waste control

  4. Measures for recycling plastic wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossais, J C [Ministere de l' Industrie et de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France). Delegation aux Economies de Matieres Premieres

    1978-05-01

    Raw materials crisis and environmental awareness have lead to the question of intensively dealing with the recycling of plastics. Although plastic wastes (residues) industrially occuring have been recycled for a long time, this is certainly not always the case in the subsequent stages. One must particularly give thought to the considerable quantities of agricultural and municipal wastes. Besides the problem of collecting the waste which can only be satisfactorily solved by separate collection or setting up sorting places, it is necessary for the recycling plastic wastes on a large scale to find or develop sellable products. The product for sale is limited by economical aspects and prejudices against recycled materials. The public have taken to a series of measures in France to simplify recycling plastic wastes. Private industry is also beginning to take interest in this new sources of raw materials.

  5. U.S. Navy Shipboard-Generated Plastic Waste Pilot Recycling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    ship’s stores or vending machines often makes it way into "plastics only" containers located in work and berthing spaces. During the Escambia MRFsort...from Ships, or MARPOL). This legislation, which bans the disposal of plastics into the ocean, resulted from international and national pressures to halt...plastic by weight from a mixed, municipal waste stream produces a good product using the Er-1 extrusion technology. The Er-1 machine is a batch

  6. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... detrimental to their recycling. Finally, a material flow analysis (MFA) approach revealed the potential for accumulation and spreading of contaminants in material recycling, on the example of the European paper cycle. Assessment of potential mitigation measures indicated that prevention of chemical use...

  7. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  8. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  9. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  10. Biogas-centred domestic waste recycling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, C L

    1983-04-01

    In fast developing suburban towns, there is an urgent need for an integrated system for waste recycling and energy and fertiliser supply on a single house basis. This is because even though toilet waste is handled by a septic tank-soak pit arrangement, kitchen and bathroom water and solid organic wastes have to be discharged outside the house. A biogas based domestic waste recycling system has been designed and constructed and has been successfully working. Some salient features of this plant are discussed here.

  11. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  12. Characterization of wastes and their recycling potentials; A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Key words: Solid waste, waste characterization, recycling potentials, waste scavengers. ABSTRACT: Wastes ... Waste management is the collection, transportation, processing ... wastes generated by household, commercial activities or other ...

  13. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  14. Global recycling - waste trafficking in disguise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Bettina; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2007-01-01

    Recycling is used as cover for illegal exporting of hazardous wastes (waste trafficking). This happens in spite of international conventions and codes of good conduct. Additional rules and recommendations are suggested to initiatiate local and national action and compliance with international...

  15. Technology development for recycling of decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Lee, K. W.

    2010-04-01

    The scenarios for recycling or self-disposal of concrete wastes was established according to the regulatory requirements for clearance settled up in overseas countries as well as our country. Through the radiological safety assessment for those scenarios, the exposure rate for the workers and the public was evaluated to come up with the clearance level of radioactive nuclides. On the basis of the results, the necessary condition of the process equipment for a volume reduction and self-disposal was suggested toward recycling in non-nuclear field and limited recycling in nuclear filed. In order to satisfy the clearance level suggested from the assessment of the scenarios for recycling of dismantled concrete wastes, the processes for thermal crushing and mechanical grinding were optimized through the experiments on the characteristics of the thermal and mechanical treatment of concrete wastes generated from the KRR and UCP. As a consequence, the process which can be reduced the radioactive concrete waste volume by about 70% was established. And also, not only the originative integrated thermal crushing equipment in which the concrete wastes were crushed simultaneously with the thermal treatment but also the rotated paddle type impact crushing equipment were developed. An optimized stabilization processes which have the conditions for manufacturing cemented waste form containing the maximum content of fine concrete waste resulting the minimization of increase in volume of cemented waste form was established

  16. STAGE OF TEXTILE RECYCLE WASTE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation on the waste management, have determined the diversification and increasing the number and the capacity of recovery and disposal of waste in Romania. We found the most textile waste in Romania was deposited in deposits onto or into land, in the proportion of 18.51%. This proportion is under the EU average of 34.03%, but is much higher than in other European country. Also, has been an increase in the number of incinerators, in the last years. With all of this, the interest in textile waste management in Romania is far from being to the level of European, where are associations who dealing with the collection and recycling of textiles and is achieved a selective collection of textile waste in the points especially designed for this thing. The information for this paper was gathered from literature, from the EUROSTAT database and INSSE database analysis and by Internet.

  17. Requirements for the recycling of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, M.

    1990-09-01

    The regulatory status of materials destined to be recycled is not always clear. There have been numerous questions from DOE Field Elements regarding the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to certain materials that can be recycled. The Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has responded to questions relating to the RCRA regulations as they apply to materials that are recycled or are destined for recycling. Additional regulatory requirements for these materials may be promulgated upon the reauthorization of RCRA (e.g., regulation of used oil). Additional EH-23 information Briefs will be issued as these regulations develop. The Office of Environment, Safety and Health has convened a workshop to establish DOE's position on a number of issues associated with mixed waste and materials management, several relative to recycling

  18. Management and recycling of electronic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the largest growing waste streams globally. Hence, for a sustainable environment and the economic recovery of valuable material for reuse, the efficient recycling of electronic scrap has been rendered indispensable, and must still be regarded as a major challenge for today’s society. In contrast to the well-established recycling of metallic scrap, it is much more complicated to recycle electronics products which have reached the end of their life as they contain many different types of material types integrated into each other. As illustrated primarily for the recycling of mobile phones, the efficient recycling of WEEE is not only a challenge for the recycling industry; it is also often a question of as-yet insufficient collection infrastructures and poor collection efficiencies, and a considerable lack of the consumer’s awareness for the potential of recycling electronics for the benefit of the environment, as well as for savings in energy and raw materials

  19. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover...

  20. Composition of waste materials and recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona

    involves several steps to prepare the samples mechanically and/or chemically for final analysis. Not all sample preparation methods are equally well suited for specific waste characterization purposes. The correctness of results and practical feasibility of sample preparation was strongly affected...... for future modelling and assessment of waste management systems. The analyzed fractions were selected based on material properties with relevance for potential recycling processes. The physico-chemical analysis revealed chemical differences between residual and source-segregated samples for several fractions....... The results for parameters associated with organic matter confirmed the idea of cross-contaminated recyclables in residual waste, whereas the results for heavy metals and trace elements were more complex. For many fractions rather high metal contents were found to be intrinsic properties of the recyclables...

  1. Municipal solid waste management for total resource recycling: a case study on Haulien County in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Min; Liu, Chien-Chung; Dai, Wen-Chien; Hu, Allen; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Chou, Chieh-Mei

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the enforcement performance of recent Haulien County, Taiwan municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling management programs. These programs include: Mandatory Refuse Sorting and Recycling, Diverse Bulk Waste Reuse, Pay-as-you-Discharge, Total Food Waste Recycling, Restricted Use on Plastic Shopping Bags & Plastic Tableware, Recycling Fund Management, and Ash Reuse. These programs provide incentives to reduce the MSW quantity growth rate. It was found that the recycled material fraction of MSW generated in 2001 was from 6.8%, but was 32.4% in 2010 and will increase stably by 2-5% yearly in the near future. Survey data for the last few years show that only 2.68% (based on total MSW generated) of food waste was collected in 2001. However, food waste was up to 9.7% in 2010 after the Total Food Waste Recycling program was implemented. The reutilization rate of bottom ash was 20% in 2005 and up to 65% in 2010 owing to Ash Reuse Program enforcement. A quantified index, the Total Recycle Index, was proposed to evaluate MSW management program performance. The demonstrated county will move toward a zero waste society in 2015 if the Total Recycle Index approaches 1.00. Exact management with available programs can lead to slow-growing waste volume and recovery of all MSW.

  2. Recycling of solid wastes at kindergartens centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R.M.S.R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to conduct an activity on environmental awareness campaign at a kindergarten center, with the children age 4-6 years old. The activity included identify the various types of waste generated at the kindergarten and to realize the conservation practice by participating in simple waste management strategies and an explanation about recycling, reusing and reducing waste (3R. The activity provided the children more awareness about the importance of minimizing the plastic wastes. The activity had created an interesting experience to the young generation through practice activity and has given a light on the nature conservation along their growing years. It can be concluded that the awareness of environmental issues among children have risen up as noted by looking at students physical expression. Children have understood the potential to conserve nature from a simple action which is recycling. After the activity, children’s were able to identify and divide the rubbish.

  3. 17. Meeting municipal waste Magdeburg. Residual waste - recycling - resource; 17. Tagung Siedlungsabfallwirtschaft Magdeburg. Restabfall - Recycling - Ressource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Hartwig (ed.)

    2012-11-01

    Within the 17th meeting Waste Management at Residential Areas from 12th o 13th September, 2012 in Magdeburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Opening Session - Waste management in Saxony-Anhalt (O. Aeikens); (2) World with future - the eco-social perspective (F.J. Radermacher); (3) Global commodity markets - rare earths and their recycling (I. Fahimi); (4) The further development of nearhousehold capture of recyclable materials (J. Seitel); (5) On the future of the disposal management (J. Balg); (6) Options for action for the future of the municipal waste management (A. Gosten); (7) Current models of the capture of recyclable materials in Germany (M. Kerkhoff); (8) The recycling bin as a pilot test in Hanover (R. Middendorf); (9) Position of BellandVision on the implementation of a unified recycling bin (J. Soelling); (10) What will change with the new Recycle Economy Law according to the material flows and waste treatment capacities? (H. Alwast); (11) Waste management plan Saxony-Anhalt - Current developments (S. Hagel); (12) Wastes from the thermal waste treatment - Risk potential and disposal (G.-R. Behr); (13) Landfill Mining - Contribution of the waste management to the securing of resources (K. Fricke); (14) Logistic process design and system design in the transport of wastes in developing countries using Serbia as an example (Z. Jovanovic); (15) Example of good practices in the subsequent use of landfills - Solar park Cracauer Anger (M. Harnack); (16) Ecoloop - energy efficient gasification in the limestone moving-bed (R. Moeller); (17) Utilization of waste and biomass as a resource? Only by means of an intelligent logistics. (S. Trojahn); (18) Renewable energy resources - Experiences of a network provider (J. Kempmann).

  4. Recycle and biodestruction of hazardous nitrate wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, J.M.; Kosinski, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) owns the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plant is operated for DOE by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. One of the plant's functions involves the purification and recycling of uranium wastes. The uranium recycle operation uses nitric acid in a solvent extraction purification process, and a waste stream containing nitric acid and other impurities is generated. Before 1976 the wastes were discarded into four unlined percolation ponds. In 1976, processes were developed and installed to recycle 50% of the wastes and to biologically decompose the rest of the nitrates. In 1983 process development studies began for in situ treatment of the four percolation ponds, and the ponds were treated and discharged by May 1986. The treatment processes involved neutralization and precipitation to remove metallic impurities, followed by anaerobic denitrification to reduce the 40,000 ug/g nitrate concentration to less than 50 ug/g. The final steps included flocculation and filtration. Approximately 10 million gallons of water in the ponds were treated and discharged

  5. Analysis of efficiency of waste reverse logistics for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Marcelo M

    2013-10-01

    Brazil is an agricultural country with the highest pesticide consumption in the world. Historically, pesticide packaging has not been disposed of properly. A federal law requires the chemical industry to provide proper waste management for pesticide-related products. A reverse logistics program was implemented, which has been hailed a great success. This program was designed to target large rural communities, where economy of scale can take place. Over the last 10 years, the recovery rate has been very poor in most small rural communities. The objective of this study was to analyze the case of this compulsory reverse logistics program for pesticide packaging under the recent Brazilian Waste Management Policy, which enforces recycling as the main waste management solution. This results of this exploratory research indicate that despite its aggregate success, the reverse logistics program is not efficient for small rural communities. It is not possible to use the same logistic strategy for small and large communities. The results also indicate that recycling might not be the optimal solution, especially in developing countries with unsatisfactory recycling infrastructure and large transportation costs. Postponement and speculation strategies could be applied for improving reverse logistics performance. In most compulsory reverse logistics programs, there is no economical solution. Companies should comply with the law by ranking cost-effective alternatives.

  6. Municipal recycling support program. Guide to applicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Municipal Recycling Support Program stems from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment's policies and programs begun in 1980 aimed at encouraging the development of source separation projects in Ontario. To qualify for financial assistance, municipalities must play a central role in the implementation and ongoing development of recycling; applications will be supported only if there is adequate and reasonable commitment from markets for recovered materials; recycling systems must operate within the framework of a complete waste management system in which cost effectiveness is an important factor; multi-material projects are encouraged as much as possible; and the Ministry will share the costs of projects with the municipalities. The Ministry provides grants for up to 5 years per project to cover the net operating cost of a project up to a specified maximum percentage of eligible gross operating expenses. This manual provides guidelines for applying for such funding, including definitions of eligibility for operating and capital costs, the use of household bins, and guidelines for promotion and advertising, education, demonstration, and feasibility studies.

  7. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  9. Recycled lightweight concrete made from footwear industry waste and CDW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Roberto Lopes; Leite, Mônica Batista; Santiago, Ediela Quinteiro Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    In this paper two types of recycled aggregate, originated from construction and demolition waste (CDW) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) waste, were used in the production of concrete. The EVA waste results from cutting off the EVA expanded sheets used to produce insoles and innersoles of shoes in the footwear industry. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of the use of these recycled aggregates as replacements of the natural coarse aggregate, upon density, compressive strength, tensile splitting strength and flexural behavior of recycled concrete. The experimental program was developed with three w/c ratios: 0.49, 0.63 and 0.82. Fifteen mixtures were produced with different aggregate substitution rates (0%, 50% EVA, 50% CDW, 25% CDW-25% EVA and 50% CDW-50% EVA), by volume. The results showed that it is possible to use the EVA waste and CDW to produce lightweight concrete having semi-structural properties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE WASTE RECYCLING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Truptimala Patanaik*; Niharika Patel; Shilpika Panda; Subhasmita Prusty

    2016-01-01

    Construction solid waste has caused serious environmental problems. Reuse, recycling and reduction of construction materials have been advocated for many years, and various methods have been investigated. There may be six type of building materials: plastic, paper, timber, metal, glass and concrete which can be reused and recycled. This paper examines the rate of reusable & recyclable concrete waste. On the other hand, the reuse of construction waste is highly essential ...

  11. Management of PET plastic bottles waste through recycling Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, N. B. I.

    2010-10-01

    This study been carried out to assess the general waste management in Khartoum State and effectively manage the PET plastic bottles by identifying practical means and introducing recycling as cleaner production tool to achieve sustainable development goals. The information data were gathered during the period June-July 2010 through questionnaires, interview, meeting and visits to various sites, in addition to the official information and documents collected from reliable sources, mainly Sudan Central Bank, customs authorities, Ministry of Industry, soft drink and water bottling factories. The data were presented in tables, graphs and charts by applying windows excel program and also applying e view package for the future forecast. Analysis of data shows a rising consumption in PET bottles and the forecasted PET consumption in year 2015 estimated to be 60000 Tons, twice the estimate in the year 2010. This situation will create serious environmental problems that require much more effort to be exerted by all stake holders to book for scientific and practical solutions for the disposal of plastic waste through recycling. Based on the analysis and findings recommendations have been made that ensure on recycling of PET plastic bottles by mechanical method that depends mainly on collection, segregation, cleaning and processing. Further studies and researches on other recycling methods have been recommended in the future. (Author)

  12. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    of the decontaminated Recycle stream may be suitable for the Effluent Treatment Facility, where it could be evaporated and solidified. The contaminated slurry stream containing the absorbents and radionuclides will be preliminarily characterized in this phase of the program to evaluate disposal options, and disposition routes will be tested in the next phase. The testing described herein will aid in selection of the best disposal pathway. Several research tasks have been identified that are needed for this initial phase: Simulant formulation- Concentration of Recycle to reduce storage volume; Blending of concentrated Recycle with tank waste; Sorption of radionuclides; and, Precipitation of radionuclides. After this initial phase of testing, additional tasks are expected to be identified for development. These tasks likely include evaluation and testing of applicable solid-liquid separation technologies, slurry rheology measurements, composition variability testing and evaluations, corrosion and erosion testing, slurry storage and immobilization investigations, and decontaminated Recycle evaporation and solidification. Although there are a number of unknown parameters listed in the technical details of the concepts described here, many of these parameters have precedence and do not generally require fundamental new scientific breakthroughs. Many of the materials and processes described are already used in radioactive applications in the DOE complex, or have been tested previously in comparable conditions. Some of these materials and equipment are already used in High Level Waste applications, which are much more complex and aggressive conditions than the LAW Recycle stream. In some cases, the unknown parameters are simply extensions of already studied conditions, such as tank waste corrosion chemistry. The list of testing needs at first appears daunting, but virtually all have been done before, although there are potential issues with compatibility with this unique

  13. Recycled industrial and construction waste for mutual beneficial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Instead of going to landfills, certain waste materials from industry and building construction can be recycled in transportation infrastructure projects, such as roadway paving. The beneficial use of waste materials in the construction of transportat...

  14. Development for recycle of dismantled metal wastes by decommissioning of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tomohiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Hatakeyama, Mutsuo

    2007-01-01

    For recycle of dismantled metal wastes generated by the decommissioning of nuclear power plant, we examined a melting test for melting characterization of stainless steel scrap, designed the conceptual process to produce the recycle products, and developed a recycle cost evaluation code which is useful to make a rational planning for the waste management program (cost, determination of process, etc.) of these metal wastes. This report gives the summary of these development carried out from 2001 to 2005. This work was performed under the sponsorship of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  15. Compositional data analysis of household waste recycling centres in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, J. A.; Boldrin, Alessio

    of these projects on the recycling rates does not exist. Thus, compositional data analysis technique was applied to analyze consistently waste data. Based on the waste composition obtained from a recycling center in Denmark, we analyzed the composition of waste treatment and disposal options. Zero and non......The Danish government has set a target of 50% recycling rates for household waste by 2022. To achieve this goal, the Danish municipalities should increase the source separation of household waste. While significant knowledge and experiences were locally gained, lessons learnt have not been...

  16. Recycling and treatment of plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation technology, using gamma or electron beams, develops its benefits at highest yield if macromolecular systems are treated. This is valid equally if build-up processes (polymerization, crosslinking) or degradative processes (chain scission, depolymerization) are initiated by radiation. Radiation-induced degradation is applied to convert polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) scrap into powder and low-molecular-weight products used in the production of other perfluoro compounds. The Teflon powder is blended with other materials for use as lubricant, and the perfluorocarboxylic derivatives are employed as surfactants. Radiation treatment of polymers could play a build-up role in the recycling of polymer wastes. The non-selective energy transfer from gamma or electron sources to polymer systems produces many kinds of reactive centers such as free radicals, oxydized and peroxydized active groups, on which further reactions may occur. In presence of monomer-like or oligomer-like reactive additives graft-copolymerization may take place, compatibilizing in this way the originally incompatible polymer components. Such a compatibilization is the key solution to recycling commingled plastic waste or producing composite materials of fibrous natural polymers and synthetic thermoplastics

  17. Frontiers and prospects for recycling Waste Electrical and Electronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the frontlines and projections for the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Nigeria. The paper identified the sources of WEEE, showed chemical characterization of some WEEE components and presented measures to minimize these wastes through recycling opportunities.

  18. Lessons learned from the blue box recycling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Jacques, H. [Informa Market Research Co. Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The success of the Ontario Blue Box recycling program was described. The program, which was initiated by municipalities, is seen as a strong act for the environment which helps connect public behaviour with values. Canada produces the most waste per capita and is the second largest producer of greenhouse gases per capita. The program began in Kitchener, Ontario in 1981 in response to local pressure to take action to reduce waste. By 1998, 3,850,000 of 4,238,000 households in Ontario had access to the program with a participation rate of 90 per cent. In that year alone, 1,841,000 tonnes of household materials were recycled and diverted from the waste stream. The core materials that were initially collected at household curb sides were newsprint, glass containers, steel and aluminium cans. Apartment recycling was introduced as the program evolved but it is still a challenge to achieve recycling efficiencies in multi-unit residential buildings. The success of the program has been attributed to the fact that it was introduced at the right time and tapped into the strong desire to reduce the visible impact of consumerism. It provided a way to do an environmentally good thing with a minimum of inconvenience. Initially, the system was overwhelmed with an excess of recycled material and the closed loop system of the early days was full of gaps. Materials were stockpiled and waiting market development which would finally result in remanufacturing the recycled goods into new products. This part developed more slowly since market values priced virgin materials at lower costs. It was cautioned that this economic reality still applies and will not be corrected until full cost accounting is introduced. 4 tabs.

  19. Workplace Waste Recycling Behaviour: A Meta-Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Oke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase waste recycling, many studies have been conducted to understand factors that may influence waste recycling behaviour. However, these studies have focused on household contexts rather than other waste generation contexts. As a result, this paper seeks to provide a detailed analysis of previous studies on workplace waste recycling behaviour. Drawing from different databases, 51 relevant studies on workplace waste recycling attitudes and behaviour were meta-analysed. Findings showed that the highest percentage of the existing studies were conducted in the USA, focused on a single waste stream, were often conducted within academic contexts, adopted (or modified an existing theoretical framework and were based on questionnaires which elicited self-reported behaviour. Some of the factors identified include demographics, situational variables, past behaviour, incentives, prompts and/or information, attitudes and identity. The findings highlighted the scale of challenges confronting waste management practitioners in understanding the factors that may affect waste recycling behaviour due to the complexity and heterogeneity of human behaviours. However, the results from the reviewed studies in this research suggest that a combination of different factors may be required to influence workplace waste recycling behaviour. This may provide effective incentives to develop a framework that may assist waste management stakeholders when addressing workplace waste management.

  20. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng; Lin, Carol S.K.; Hui, Chi-Wai; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • There is a major environmental issue about the printed circuit boards throughout the world. • Different physical and chemical recycling techniques have been reviewed. • Nonmetallic fraction of PCBs is the unwanted face of this waste stream. • Several applications of the nonmetallic fraction of waste PCBs have been introduced. - Abstract: E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly “recycling” has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined

  1. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Lin, Carol S.K. [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Hui, Chi-Wai [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon, E-mail: kemckayg@ust.hk [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • There is a major environmental issue about the printed circuit boards throughout the world. • Different physical and chemical recycling techniques have been reviewed. • Nonmetallic fraction of PCBs is the unwanted face of this waste stream. • Several applications of the nonmetallic fraction of waste PCBs have been introduced. - Abstract: E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly “recycling” has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined.

  2. Electronic waste and informal recycling in Kathmandu, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Thapa, Khim B.; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of relevant policies and supporting infrastructure, many developing countries are struggling to establish a resource-oriented waste management system. In countries like Nepal, where informal recycling practices are prevalent, the lack of understanding of the existing system hinders...... surveys, and site observations was conducted to understand the local recycling sector, the lifecycle of electronic products, and the relevant stakeholders. E-waste is found to be an integral part of the existing solid waste management chain and, therefore, needs to be addressed collectively. We identify...... any advancement in this sector. We characterize the informal recycling chain in Kathmandu, where a workforce of more than 10,000 people handles the recyclable items in various waste streams, including electronic waste (e-waste). A field study, supported by key informant interviews, questionnaire...

  3. Compositional data analysis of household waste recycling centres in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, J. A.; Boldrin, Alessio

    of these projects on the recycling rates does not exist. Thus, compositional data analysis technique was applied to analyze consistently waste data. Based on the waste composition obtained from a recycling center in Denmark, we analyzed the composition of waste treatment and disposal options. Zero and non......-zero pattern was used to describe historical changes in the definition and components of waste fractions. Variation array was applied to determine the relationship between waste treatment and disposal options. As a result, compositional data analysis technique enables to analyze waste data regardless...

  4. Economic evaluation of municipal solid waste recycling in Yazd:

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami H; Mokhtari M; Eslami Dost Z; Barzegar Khanghah MR; Ranjbar Ezzatabadi M

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: In every urban waste management plan, recycling and reuse is considered as an economic pattern. This study aimed to economic evaluation of municipal solid waste recycling in Yazd by cost-benefit analysis in 2015. Methods: This research is a descriptive–analytic study which in the data about quality and quantity of municipal solid waste in Yazd city were collected through the sampling and physical analysis and the data about total income and costs from the implementatio...

  5. E-waste recycling: where does it go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Schnoor, Jerald L; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-10-16

    E-waste recycling has become a hotly debated global issue. This study, using China as a case study, analyzes the environmental, economic, and social implications of e-waste recycling in the developing world. More practical approaches, taking into account local economic and social conditions and the principles of Extended Producer Responsibility, are recommended to alleviate the increasing environmental disruption from improper e-waste disposal.

  6. Co-Benefits of Household Waste Recycling for Local Community’s Sustainable Waste Management in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornchai Challcharoenwattana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate co-benefits in term of GHG reduction, and avoided landfill costs by implementing a community-based management (CBM program for municipal solid waste (MSW. Two towns of peri-urban settlement in Thailand were investigated in case studies to compare eco-performance between the towns with and without implementation of the CBM program. MSW mass flows together with MSW utilization records were analyzed based on data in year 2013. Climate co-benefits from waste utilization activities were examined. Results from the study indicated that waste banks in the CBM program can effectively divert most of recyclables from entering landfills. The performance of “waste bank—recyclable recovery program” recycling rate from the case study with CBM is 172.20 kg per member per year, which is about 926% higher than average CBMs with MSW recycling in Thailand, and the success of CBM can be attributed to its curbside pickup service and fair-pricing of recyclables. The study also found that if the town decided to divert wastes from landfilling, carbon intensity of the MSW system would be 0.47 tons of CO2-eq per ton of collected MSW. The landfilling cost would be approximately 7.41 USD per ton of MSW as landfilling cost. With CBM programs, current MSW reutilization rate has achieved 9.68% of generated waste, and 16.80% of GHG emission has been avoided, along with a reduction in landfill costs of 11.57%. Two scenarios of waste utilization in Thailand were explored and compared, in terms of which scenarios yielded the highest co-benefits. The study demonstrates that by allowing local mechanism and community involvement programs to develop with operational waste banks, the efficiency of collecting recycling wastes increased. A similar system can be applied to other communities in other countries.

  7. Recycling of consumer waste: A behavioural science approach to environmental protection policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1994-01-01

    Evaluations of programs whose purpose is to increase recycling in Denmark through changing consumer waste handling practices are reviewed on the results discussed in a behavioural science framework Denmark is one of the fastest-moving European cou with regard to policies targeting consumer waste...

  8. Influence of recycling programmes on waste separation behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Katya; Alriksson, Stina

    2017-10-01

    To achieve high rates of waste reuse and recycling, waste separation in households is essential. This study aimed to reveal how recycling programmes in Sweden and Bulgaria influenced inhabitants' participation in separation of household waste. The waste separation behaviour of 111 university students from Kalmar, Sweden and 112 students from Plovdiv, Bulgaria was studied using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. The results showed that a lack of proper conditions for waste separation can prevent individuals from participating in this process, regardless of their positive attitudes. When respondents were satisfied with the local conditions for waste separation their behaviour instead depended on their personal attitudes towards waste separation and recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recyclable Materials (Waste) Management in Enterprise’s Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevskaia-Malevich, E. D.; Demidenko, D. S.

    2017-10-01

    Currently, in view of the increasing garbage crisis, the notion of a “new lease of life” for waste becomes even more relevant. Waste recycling makes it possible not only to solve obvious environmental problems, but also to offer new resource opportunities for industries. Among the obvious economic, social and environmental advantages, however, waste recycling meets various problems. These problems and solutions for them, as well as the problems of economic efficiency improvement and recycling activities’ appeal for industrial companies in Leningrad region, are discussed in the present study.

  10. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recycled agricultural wastes: biochars multifunctional role in agriculture and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid population growth, urbanization and modernization worldwide have resulted in the significant increase of waste generated. Waste production is a major environmental problem in our society. In fact, recycling and using raw materials from the waste we generate are some of the environmental ch...

  13. Recycling of nonferrous metals from waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, A

    1982-02-01

    Recycling of metals was one of the 9 central subjects of the international symposium on 'Materials and Energy from Refuse', held in Antwerpen on October 20 to 22, 1981. Six of 65 poster sessions papers were on metal recycling; four of them discussed the recycling of nonferrous metals.

  14. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    treatment, disposition of the decontaminated Recycle stream may be suitable for the Effluent Treatment Facility, where it could be evaporated and solidified. The contaminated slurry stream containing the absorbents and radionuclides will be preliminarily characterized in this phase of the program to evaluate disposal options, and disposition routes will be tested in the next phase. The testing described herein will aid in selection of the best disposal pathway. Several research tasks have been identified that are needed for this initial phase: imulant formulation- Concentration of Recycle to reduce storage volume; Blending of concentrated Recycle with tank waste; Sorption of radionuclides; Precipitation of radionuclides. After this initial phase of testing, additional tasks are expected to be identified for development. These tasks likely include evaluation and testing of applicable solid-liquid separation technologies, slurry rheology measurements, composition variability testing and evaluations, corrosion and erosion testing, slurry storage and immobilization investigations, and decontaminated Recycle evaporation and solidification. Although there are a number of unknown parameters listed in the technical details of the concepts described here, many of these parameters have precedence and do not generally require fundamental new scientific breakthroughs. Many of the materials and processes described are already used in radioactive applications in the DOE complex, or have been tested previously in comparable conditions. Some of these materials and equipment are already used in High Level Waste applications, which are much more complex and aggressive conditions than the LAW Recycle stream. In some cases, the unknown parameters are simply extensions of already studied conditions, such as tank waste corrosion chemistry. The list of testing needs at first appears daunting, but virtually all have been done before, although there are potential issues with compatibility with this

  15. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troschinetz, Alexis M.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors

  16. Actinide recycling for reactor waste mass and radiotoxicity reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, A.; Maldague, T.; Pilate, S.; Journet, J.; Rome, M.; Harislur, A.; Vergnes, J.

    1994-01-01

    The long-term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste from a Light Water Reactor fuel is analyzed; it can be reduced by multiple recycling of actinides in fast reactors. The capabilities of a first recycling in the light water reactor itself are evaluated with regard to implications on reactor physics and core management. Two main options are compared with their penalties and efficiency

  17. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: Simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xudong; Xi Fengming; Geng Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Urban symbiosis creates compatibility of industrial development and waste management. → Mechanical technology leads to more CO 2 emission reduction. → Energy recovery technology leads to more fossil fuel saving. → Clean energy makes recycling technologies cleaner. → Demand management is crucial for realizing potential environmental gains of recycling. - Abstract: With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO 2 e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kgce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption.

  18. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Julia R.; Boehm, Michael W.; Drummond, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Given a large flow rate of CRT glass ∼10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. ► The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. ► Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. ► Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. ► Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  19. Road Routes for Waste Disposal - MDC_RecyclingRoute

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — This CURBSIDE RECYCLING ROUTES BOUNDARIES LAYER IS A polygon feature class created for the Miami-Dade Department of Solid Waste Management (DSWM). It contains the...

  20. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xudong; Xi, Fengming; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO(2)e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kg ce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Status of electronic waste recycling techniques: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbasir, Sabah M; Hassan, Saad S M; Kamel, Ayman H; El-Nasr, Rania Seif

    2018-05-08

    The increasing use of electrical and electronic equipment leads to a huge generation of electronic waste (e-waste). It is the fastest growing waste stream in the world. Almost all electrical and electronic equipment contain printed circuit boards as an essential part. Improper handling of these electronic wastes could bring serious risk to human health and the environment. On the other hand, proper handling of this waste requires a sound management strategy for awareness, collection, recycling, and reuse. Nowadays, the effective recycling of this type of waste has been considered as a main challenge for any society. Printed circuit boards (PCBs), which are the base of many electronic industries, are rich in valuable heavy metals and toxic halogenated organic substances. In this review, the composition of different PCBs and their harmful effects are discussed. Various techniques in common use for recycling the most important metals from the metallic fractions of e-waste are illustrated. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed, along with alternative uses of non-metallic fraction. The data are explained and compared with the current e-waste management efforts done in Egypt. Future perspectives and challenges facing Egypt for proper e-waste recycling are also discussed.

  2. Recycle and reduction of waste water in ISL operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zhiming; Liu Naizhong; Su Xuebin; Li Jianhua; Zou Maoqing; Xing Yongguo

    2014-01-01

    Sandstone type uranium resources will be promote the main force of natural uranium production in China. The wastewater produced in the process of in-situ leaching mining need to be studied specially, so as to meet the requirements of green mining and realize the recycling of wastewater and decrement. We have researched and adopted including nature groundwater environmental recycling, liquor of precipitation recycling, optimization of elution process, the transformation waste water reduction, water evaporation reduction and a series of technological measures. The field application results show that the wastewater recycling and reduction in the process of production achieved a good environmental protection effect. (authors)

  3. Development of recycling techniques on decommissioning concrete waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Oguri, Daiichiro; Sukekiyo, Mitsuaki

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has been developing decommissioning techniques, implemented under a contract with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), to verify and improve the performance of the key decommissioning techniques. One of main themes is on concrete recycling techniques, which deals with high quality aggregate retrieval from concrete waste, high efficient usage of the by-product powder to recycling products, and effective usage of radioactive concrete to filling material for waste form. This paper describes progress and accomplishment on the concrete recycling technique development which started in 1996. (author)

  4. Characterization and potential recycling of home building wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; D.P. Hindman; M.F. Winn

    2010-01-01

    Construction waste represents a significant portion of landfill waste, estimated as 17% of the total waste stream. Wood construction waste of a 2000 square foot single family home we found to be 1500-3700 lbs of solid-sawn wood, and 1000-1800 lbs of engineered wood products (EWP). Much of the solid-sawn lumber and EWPs could be recycled into several products. Through a...

  5. Feasibility of Target Material Recycling as Waste Management Alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Henderson, D.; Varuttamaseni, A.

    2004-01-01

    The issue of waste management has been studied simultaneously along with the development of the ARIES heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) concept. Options for waste management include disposal in repositories, recycling, or clearance from regulatory control, following a reasonable cooling period. This paper concerns the feasibility of recycling the heavy-ion-beam targets, in particular the hohlraum wall materials that include, for example, Au/Gd, Au, W, Pb, Hg, Ta, Pb/Ta/Cs, Hg/W/Cs, Pb/Hf, Hf, solid Kr, and solid Xe. The choice between target material disposal and recycling depends on the amount of waste generated relative to the nuclear island, the strategy to solve the recycling problem, and the impact of the additional cost and complexity of the recycling process on the overall machine. A detailed flow diagram for the elements of the recycling process was developed to analyze two extreme activation cases: (a) one-shot use and then disposal in a repository and (b) recycling continuously during plant life without removal of transmutation products. Metrics for comparing the two scenarios included waste level, dose to recycling equipment, additional cost, and design complexity. Comparing the two approaches indicated a preference for the one-shot scenario as it generates 1 m 3 /yr of extremely low-level waste (Class A) and offers attractive design and economics features. Recycling reduces the target waste stream by a factor of 10 or more but introduces additional issues. It may produce high-level waste, requires remote handling, adds radioactive storage facilities, and increases the cost and complexity of the plant. The inventory analysis indicated that the heavy-ion-beam (HIB) target materials represent a very small waste stream compared to that of the nuclear island (<1% of the total waste). This means recycling is not a 'must' requirement for IFE-HIB power plants unless the target materials have cost and/or resource problems (e.g., Au and Gd). In this

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY SAVING IN WASTE RECYCLING USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Oliveira Simonetto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recycling is a topic of great importance in integrated waste management, evidence of this is verified in the National Policy of Solid Waste, decreed in 2010, where it is considered one of the priorities. In this article is presented a computer simulation model, since their development until its validation, which aims to support environmental managers in their decisions regarding the definition and / or maintenance of solid waste policies recycling, as well as evaluating the benefits of process in the environment (in this article we evaluated the energy savings. For the model development was considered: the rate of natural population growth (births and deaths, percentage of solid waste recycled (for each type of material, gravimetric composition of the material in the total waste generated, the amount of waste generated per inhabitant and energy savings caused by each distinct type of material. Through the model results generated, end users (environmental managers thereof may, for example, set incentives to reduce the total generation of solid waste, produce campaigns enhancing reuse and recycling and to assess the relative benefits of energy savings caused by recycling. Model validation was through analysis of future scenarios for a given municipality in southern Brazil. For modeling and system validation was used Vensim from Ventana Systems.

  7. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  8. Recycling Potential of Waste Di-Isobutyl-Ketone (DIBK) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the possibility of using distillation to recover gold contained in the waste generated in Ghana as well as the recycling potential of the distillate (regenerated DIBK). It was established that distillation of the waste DIBK yielded about 92% distillate leaving a residue of tar, which contained all the gold in ...

  9. Reduce--recycle--reuse: guidelines for promoting perioperative waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laustsen, Gary

    2007-04-01

    The perioperative environment generates large amounts of waste, which negatively affects local and global ecosystems. To manage this waste health care facility leaders must focus on identifying correctable issues, work with relevant stakeholders to promote solutions, and adopt systematic procedural changes. Nurses and managers can moderate negative environmental effects by promoting reduction, recycling, and reuse of materials in the perioperative setting.

  10. Global status of recycling waste solar panels: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Li, Jinhui; Tan, Quanyin; Peters, Anesia Lauren; Yang, Congren

    2018-05-01

    With the enormous growth in the development and utilization of solar-energy resources, the proliferation of waste solar panels has become problematic. While current research into solar panels has focused on how to improve the efficiency of the production capacity, the dismantling and recycling of end-of-life (EOL) panels are seldom considered, as can be seen, for instance, in the lack of dedicated solar-panel recycling plants. EOL solar-panel recycling can effectively save natural resources and reduce the cost of production. To address the environmental conservation and resource recycling issues posed by the huge amount of waste solar panels regarding environmental conservation and resource recycling, the status of the management and recycling technologies for waste solar panels are systemically reviewed and discussed in this article. This review can provide a quantitative basis to support the recycling of PV panels, and suggests future directions for public policy makers. At present, from the technical aspect, the research on solar panel recovery is facing many problems, and we need to further develop an economically feasible and non-toxic technology. The research on solar photovoltaic panels' management at the end of life is just beginning in many countries, and there is a need for further improvement and expansion of producer responsibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Waste management, informal recycling, environmental pollution and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Ma, Mingguo; Thompson, Julian R; Flower, Roger J

    2018-03-01

    With rapid population growth, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, the generation of waste is increasing at an unprecedented rate. For example, annual global waste arising from waste electrical and electronic equipment alone will have increased from 33.8 to 49.8 million tonnes between 2010 and 2018. Despite incineration and other waste treatment techniques, landfill still dominates waste disposal in low-income and middle-income countries. There is usually insufficient funding for adequate waste management in these countries and uptake of more advanced waste treatment technologies is poor. Without proper management, many landfills represent serious hazards as typified by the landslide in Shenzhen, China on 20 December 2015. In addition to formal waste recycling systems, approximately 15million people around the world are involved in informal waste recycling, mainly for plastics, metals, glass and paper. This review examines emerging public health challenges, in particular within low-income and middle-income countries, associated with the informal sector. While informal recyclers contribute to waste recycling and reuse, the relatively primitive techniques they employ, combined with improper management of secondary pollutants, exacerbate environmental pollution of air, soil and water. Even worse, insufficient occupational health measures expose informal waste workers to a range of pollutants, injuries, respiratory and dermatological problems, infections and other serious health issues that contribute to low life expectancy. Integration of the informal sector with its formal counterparts could improve waste management while addressing these serious health and livelihood issues. Progress in this direction has already been made notably in several Latin American countries where integrating the informal and formal sectors has had a positive influence on both waste management and poverty alleviation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  12. Development of recycling techniques for nuclear power plant decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Oguri, Daiichiro; Abe, Seiji; Ohnishi, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of concrete and metal waste will provide solution to reduce waste volume, contributing to save the natural resources and to protect the environment. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation has developed techniques of concrete and metal recycling for decommissioning waste of commercial nuclear power plants. A process of radioactive concrete usage for mortar solidification was seen to reduce concrete waste volume by 2/3. A concrete reclamation process for high quality aggregate was confirmed that the reclaimed aggregate concrete is equivalent to ordinary concrete. Its byproduct powder was seen to be utilized various usage. A process of waste metal casting to use radioactive metal as filler could substantially decrease the waste metal volume when thinner containers are applied. A pyro-metallurgical separation process was seen to decrease cobalt concentration by 1/100. Some of these techniques are finished of demonstration tests for future decommissioning activity. (author)

  13. Solid Waste and Recycling Collection Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current collection schedule, including pick-up day and recycling week designation.The Town of Cary collects garbage weekly at the curb on the same...

  14. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  15. Recycling of construction and demolition waste in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartam, N.; Al-Mutairi, N.; Al-Ghusain, I.; Al-Humoud, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' There is an increasing pressure on the construction industry to reduce costs and improve our environment. The fact is that both of these goals can be achieved at the same time. Although construction and demolition (C and D) constitutes a major type of waste in terms of volume and weight, its management and recycling efforts have not seen the light in Kuwait. The goal of this research project is to study methods leading to the minimization of the total C and D waste that is landfilled in Kuwait. This can be achieved by applying the waste management hierarchy in order of importance: 1) reduce, 2) re-use, 3) recycle, 4) incineration (energy recovery), and 5) safe disposal. This paper presents the current C and D waste disposal system in Kuwait and identifies potential problems to the environment, people and economy. Then, it investigates the recycling option to manage and control this major type of waste in an economically efficient and environmentally safe manner. There are significant volumes of potentially valuable and recoverable resources being wasted in the construction industry, and these figures are continuously growing as we are starting the new millennium. C and D waste constitutes 15%-30% of all solid waste entering landfills in various countries [Bossink 1995]; and thus it is a major type of waste. An estimated 2-3 million ton of construction and demolition waste are being only disposed of in Kuwait's landfill sites each year despite the limited available land (Industrial Investment Company, 1990). C and D waste is a target because it is both heavy and bulky, and therefore undesirable for disposal in engineered, lined landfills because of the space it consumes. On the other hand, many C and D materials have high potential for recovery and use. Recovering C and D waste can help communities reach their recycling goals, preserve valuable space in their local landfills, and create better opportunities for handling other kind of waste. Therefore

  16. Waste management in Canadian nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    The objectives of the Canadian radioactive waste management program are described. Recycling actinides through reactors is being studied. Low and medium level waste treatments such as reverse osmosis concentration, immobilization in bitumen and plastics, and incineration are under study. Spent fuel can be stored dry in concrete canisters above ground and ultimate storage of wastes in salt deposits or hard rock is appropriate to Canadian conditions. (E.C.B.)

  17. Concrete Waste Recycling Process for High Quality Aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujii, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    Large amount of concrete waste generates during nuclear power plant (NPP) dismantling. Non-contaminated concrete waste is assumed to be disposed in a landfill site, but that will not be the solution especially in the future, because of decreasing tendency of the site availability and natural resources. Concerning concrete recycling, demand for roadbeds and backfill tends to be less than the amount of dismantled concrete generated in a single rural site, and conventional recycled aggregate is limited of its use to non-structural concrete, because of its inferior quality to ordinary natural aggregate. Therefore, it is vital to develop high quality recycled aggregate for general uses of dismantled concrete. If recycled aggregate is available for high structural concrete, the dismantling concrete is recyclable as aggregate for industry including nuclear field. Authors developed techniques on high quality aggregate reclamation for large amount of concrete generated during NPP decommissioning. Concrete of NPP buildings has good features for recycling aggregate; large quantity of high quality aggregate from same origin, record keeping of the aggregate origin, and little impurities in dismantled concrete such as wood and plastics. The target of recycled aggregate in this development is to meet the quality criteria for NPP concrete as prescribed in JASS 5N 'Specification for Nuclear Power Facility Reinforced Concrete' and JASS 5 'Specification for Reinforced Concrete Work'. The target of recycled aggregate concrete is to be comparable performance with ordinary aggregate concrete. The high quality recycled aggregate production techniques are assumed to apply for recycling for large amount of non-contaminated concrete. These techniques can also be applied for slightly contaminated concrete dismantled from radiological control area (RCA), together with free release survey. In conclusion: a technology on dismantled concrete recycling for high quality aggregate was developed

  18. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities

  19. An efficient method of material recycling of municipal plastic waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortelný, Ivan; Michálková, Danuše; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 9 (2004), s. 975-979 ISSN 0141-3910. [IUPAC Microsymposium on Degradation, Stabilisation and Recycling of Polymers /42./. Prague, 14.07.2003-17.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4050008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : recycling * municipal plastic waste * compatibilisation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2004

  20. Polyethylene recycling: Waste policy scenario analysis for the EU-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, Valeria; Saveyn, Hans G M; Eder, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This paper quantifies the main impacts that the adoption of the best recycling practices together with a reduction in the consumption of single-use plastic bags and the adoption of a kerbside collection system could have on the 27 Member States of the EU. The main consequences in terms of employment, waste management costs, emissions and energy use have been quantified for two scenarios of polyethylene (PE) waste production and recycling. That is to say, a "business as usual scenario", where the 2012 performances of PE waste production and recycling are extrapolated to 2020, is compared to a "best practice scenario", where the best available recycling practices are modelled together with the possible adoption of the amended Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive related to the consumption of single-use plastic bags and the implementation of a kerbside collection system. The main results show that socio-economic and environmental benefits can be generated across the EU by the implementation of the best practice scenario. In particular, estimations show a possible reduction of 4.4 million tonnes of non-recycled PE waste, together with a reduction of around €90 million in waste management costs in 2020 for the best practice scenario versus the business as usual scenario. An additional 35,622 jobs are also expected to be created. In environmental terms, the quantity of CO2 equivalent emissions could be reduced by around 1.46 million tonnes and the net energy requirements are expected to increase by 16.5 million GJ as a consequence of the reduction in the energy produced from waste. The main analysis provided in this paper, together with the data and the model presented, can be useful to identify the possible costs and benefits that the implementation of PE waste policies and Directives could generate for the EU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Waste not - want not. DOE appropriate technology small grants program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The work reported was to look at various alternatives for local solid waste management and develop an implementation strategy for a resource conservation and recovery plan for the community of Berea, Kentucky. A library on recycling and conservation of resources was compiled, and state and local plans were examined. To get a better understanding of how the community would respond to a waste reduction and recycling program, a series of surveys was conducted. A community recycling project plan is proposed. (LEW)

  2. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Oyster Shell Recycling and Bone Waste Treatment Using Plasma Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jae Ou; Knak, S P; Knak, A N; Koo, H J; Ravi, V

    2006-01-01

    Investigations on the recycling of oyster shells and bone waste treatment using the plasma pyrolysis technique are presented in this paper. A arc based plasma torch operated at 25 kW was employed for the experiments. Fresh oyster shells were recycled using the plasma torch to convert them to a useful product such as CaO. Bone waste was treated to remove the infectious organic part and to vitrify the inorganic part. The time required for treatment in both cases was significantly short. Significant reduction in the weight of the samples was observed in both cases

  4. Flotation separation of waste plastics for recycling-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jian-gang; Liu, You-nian

    2015-07-01

    The sharp increase of plastic wastes results in great social and environmental pressures, and recycling, as an effective way currently available to reduce the negative impacts of plastic wastes, represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Froth flotation is a promising method to solve the key problem of recycling process, namely separation of plastic mixtures. This review surveys recent literature on plastics flotation, focusing on specific features compared to ores flotation, strategies, methods and principles, flotation equipments, and current challenges. In terms of separation methods, plastics flotation is divided into gamma flotation, adsorption of reagents, surface modification and physical regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oyster Shell Recycling and Bone Waste Treatment Using Plasma Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Ou Chae; Knak, S. P.; Knak, A. N.; Koo, H. J.; Ravi, V.

    2006-11-01

    Investigations on the recycling of oyster shells and bone waste treatment using the plasma pyrolysis technique are presented in this paper. A arc based plasma torch operated at 25 kW was employed for the experiments. Fresh oyster shells were recycled using the plasma torch to convert them to a useful product such as CaO. Bone waste was treated to remove the infectious organic part and to vitrify the inorganic part. The time required for treatment in both cases was significantly short. Significant reduction in the weight of the samples was observed in both cases.

  6. Evaluation of dry solid waste recycling from municipal solid waste: case of Mashhad city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jorfi, Sahand; Akbari, Hamideh; Ghasemi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The recycling for recovery and reuse of material and energy resources undoubtedly provides a substantial alternative supply of raw materials and reduces the dependence on virgin feedstock. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of dry municipal solid waste recycling in Mashhad city, Iran. Several questionnaires were prepared and distributed among various branches of the municipality, related organizations and people. The total amount of solid waste generated in Mashhad in 2008 was 594, 800  tons with per capita solid waste generation rate of 0.609  kg  person(-1) day(-1). Environmental educational programmes via mass media and direct education of civilians were implemented to publicize the advantages and necessity of recycling. The amount of recycled dry solid waste was increased from 2.42% of total dry solid waste (2588.36  ton  year(-1)) in 1999 to 7.22% (10, 165  ton  year(-1)) in 2008. The most important fractions of recycled dry solid waste in Mashhad included paper and board (51.33%), stale bread (14.59%), glass (9.73%), ferrous metals (9.73%), plastic (9.73%), polyethylene terephthalate (2.62%) and non-ferrous metals (0.97%). It can be concluded that unfortunately the potential of dry solid waste recycling in Mashhad has not been considered properly and there is a great effort to be made in order to achieve the desired conditions of recycling.

  7. Separability studies of construction and demolition waste recycled sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsen, Carina; Kahn, Henrique; Hawlitschek, Gustav; Masini, Eldon A; Angulo, Sérgio C

    2013-03-01

    The quality of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) is strictly related to the content of porous and low strength phases, and specifically to the patches of cement that remain attached to the surface of natural aggregates. This phase increases water absorption and compromises the consistency and strength of concrete made from recycled aggregates. Mineral processing has been applied to CDW recycling to remove the patches of adhered cement paste on coarse recycled aggregates. The recycled fine fraction is usually disregarded due to its high content of porous phases despite representing around 50% of the total waste. This paper focus on laboratory mineral separability studies for removing particles with a high content of cement paste from natural fine aggregate particles (quartz/feldspars). The procedure achieved processing of CDW by tertiary impact crushing to produce sand, followed by sieving and density and magnetic separability studies. The attained results confirmed that both methods were effective in reducing cement paste content and producing significant mass recovery (80% for density concentration and 60% for magnetic separation). The production of recycled sand contributes to the sustainability of the construction environment by reducing both the consumption of raw materials and disposal of CDW, particularly in large Brazilian centers with a low quantity of sand and increasing costs of this material due to long transportation distances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Waste management program at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, P.C.F.; Chan, N.; Hawrelluk, K. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Waste Management Program establishes requirements for waste management activities at AECL sites in Canada. It ensures that activities involving planning for, handling, processing, transporting, storage and long-term management of wastes are performed in a manner that protects the workers, the public, and the environment, and are in compliance with applicable regulatory and licence requirements. The program translates applicable legal requirements into program requirements appropriate for AECL, and assists AECL management in implementing those requirements. The Waste Management Program was formally established at AECL in 2007 as one of the nuclear programs. The activities conducted in the first two years (2007 - 09) were mainly focused on program development. Currently the program is executing the waste management improvement initiatives based on the Waste Management Program Improvement Plan. During the program implementation, close collaboration between the Waste Management Program and other departments resulted in improved waste management performance at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). This included increased segregation of the waste at the source, reduction in waste generation, improved labeling and identification of waste packages, improved recyclables collection and initiating recycling of selected hazardous wastes. In accordance with pollution prevention, the quantities and degree of hazard of wastes requiring long-term management shall be minimized, following the principles of Prevent, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. The annual volume of solid waste generated is one of the key indicators for waste management performance. AECL has been successful in reduction of operational waste and diversion of materials for recycling at CRL. From 2007 to 2010, the annual volume of solid waste, including inactive and radioactive wastes, generated from routine operations at CRL decreased by 26%, and the annual amount of recyclables sent

  9. Waste management program at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.C.F.; Chan, N.; Hawrelluk, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Waste Management Program establishes requirements for waste management activities at AECL sites in Canada. It ensures that activities involving planning for, handling, processing, transporting, storage and long-term management of wastes are performed in a manner that protects the workers, the public, and the environment, and are in compliance with applicable regulatory and licence requirements. The program translates applicable legal requirements into program requirements appropriate for AECL, and assists AECL management in implementing those requirements. The Waste Management Program was formally established at AECL in 2007 as one of the nuclear programs. The activities conducted in the first two years (2007 - 09) were mainly focused on program development. Currently the program is executing the waste management improvement initiatives based on the Waste Management Program Improvement Plan. During the program implementation, close collaboration between the Waste Management Program and other departments resulted in improved waste management performance at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). This included increased segregation of the waste at the source, reduction in waste generation, improved labeling and identification of waste packages, improved recyclables collection and initiating recycling of selected hazardous wastes. In accordance with pollution prevention, the quantities and degree of hazard of wastes requiring long-term management shall be minimized, following the principles of Prevent, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. The annual volume of solid waste generated is one of the key indicators for waste management performance. AECL has been successful in reduction of operational waste and diversion of materials for recycling at CRL. From 2007 to 2010, the annual volume of solid waste, including inactive and radioactive wastes, generated from routine operations at CRL decreased by 26%, and the annual amount of recyclables sent

  10. Acid fractionation for low level liquid waste cleanup and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D. II; McIntyre, C.V.; Mizia, R.E.; Schindler, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    At the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, low level liquid wastes containing small amounts of radionuclides are concentrated via a thermosyphon evaporator for calcination with high level waste, and the evaporator condensates are discharged with other plant wastewater to a percolation pond. Although all existing discharge guidelines are currently met, work has been done to reduce all waste water discharges to an absolute minimum. In this regard, a 15-tray acid fractionation column will be used to distill the mildly acidic evaporator condensates into concentrated nitric acid for recycle in the plant. The innocuous overheads from the fractionator having a pH greater than 2, are superheated and HEPA filtered for atmospheric discharge. Nonvolatile radionuclides are below detection limits. Recycle of the acid not only displaces fresh reagent, but reduces nitrate burden to the environment, and completely eliminates routine discharge of low level liquid wastes to the environment

  11. Dresden 1 plutonium recycle program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnick, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    This is the final report on the Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program. It covers the work performed from July 1, 1978 to completion, which includes in-pool inspection of two fuel assemblies, removal of two fuel rods, and post-irradiation examination (PIE) of six fuel rods. Appendix A describes the inspection and rod removal operations, and Appendix B describes the PIE work

  12. Recycling the construction and demolition waste to produce polymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Mohammad T.; Hameed, Awham M., Dr.

    2018-05-01

    The sustainable management for solid wastes of the construction and demolition waste stimulates searching for safety applications for these wastes. The aim of this research is recycling of construction and demolition waste with some different types of polymeric resins to be used in manufacturing process of polymer mortar or polymer concrete, and studying their mechanical and physical properties, and also Specify how the values of compressive strength and the density are affected via the different parameters. In this research two types of construction and demolition waste were used as aggregates replacement (i.e. waste cement/concrete debris, and the waste blocks) while the two types of polymer resins (i.e. Unsaturated polyester and Epoxy) as cement replacements. The used weight percentages of the resins were changed within (1°, 20, 25 and 30) % to manufacture this polymer concrete.

  13. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new eco-efficient recycling route for post-consumer waste glass was implemented. ► Integrated waste management and industrial production are crucial to green products. ► Most of the waste glass rejects are sent back to the glass industry. ► Recovered co-products give more environmental gains than does avoided landfill. ► Energy intensive recycling must be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled. - Abstract: As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled.

  14. Determinants of recycling common types of plastic product waste in environmental horticulture industry: The case of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ting; Klepacka, Anna M; Florkowski, Wojciech J; Braman, Kristine

    2016-02-01

    Environmental horticulture firms provide a variety of commercial/residential landscape products and services encompassing ornamental plant production, design, installation, and maintenance. The companies generate tons of waste including plastic containers, trays, and greenhouse/field covers, creating the need to reduce and utilize plastic waste. Based on survey data collected in Georgia in 2013, this paper investigates determinants of the environmental horticulture firms' recycling decision (plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly). Our findings indicate that the decision to discard vs. recycle plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly is significantly influenced by firm scope, size, location, and partnership with recycling providers, as well as whether recycling providers offer additional waste pickup services. Insights from this study are of use to local governments and environmental organizations interested in increasing horticultural firm participation in recycling programs and lowering the volume of plastic destined for landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical behavior of recycled lightweight concrete using EVA waste and CDW under moderate temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Q. R. Santiago

    Full Text Available Many benefits can be achieved by using recycled waste as raw material for construction. Some of them are the reduction of the total cost of the construction, the reduction of the consumption of energy and the decrease in the use of natural materials. The construction sector can also incorporate the waste of the other industries, like the waste of the shoes industry, the Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA. EVA aggregate is obtained by cutting off the waste of EVA expanded sheets used to produce insoles and innersoles of the shoes. In this work two types of recycled aggregate were used - construction and demolition waste (CDW and EVA. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the use of these recycled aggregates, as replacement of the natural coarse aggregate, on mechanical behavior of recycled concrete. The experimental program was developed with two w/c ratio: 0.49 and 0.82. Four mixtures with produced with different aggregates substitution rates (0, 50%EVA, 50%CDW and 25%EVA-25%CDW, by volume. Compressive tests were carried out to evaluable the influence of recycled aggregate on strength, elastic modulus and Poisson coefficient. In addition, it was evaluated the effect of the moderate temperatures (50, 70 and 100º C on stress-strain behavior of concretes studied. The results demonstrated that is possible to use the EVA waste and RCD to produces lightweight concrete. The influence of temperature was more significant only on elastic modulus of the recycled concrete with 50%EVA.

  16. Recycling of concrete waste generated from nuclear power plant dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hideo; Nagase, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nawa, Toyoharu

    2012-01-01

    Non-radioactive concrete waste generated from dismantling of a standard large nuclear power plant is estimated to be about 500,000 tons in weight. Using such waste as recycled aggregate within the enclosure of the plant requires a new manufacturing technology that generates a minimal amount of by-product powder. Recycled aggregate has brittle parts with defects such as cracks, pores, and voids in residual paste from original concrete. This study presents a method of selectively removing the defective parts during manufacture to improve the quality of the recycled fine aggregate. With this selective removal method used, the amount of by-product powder can be reduced by half as compared to that by a conventional method. The influences of the characteristics of the recycled fine aggregate on the flowability and strength of the mortar using recycled fine aggregate were evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis. The results clearly showed that the flowability was primarily affected by the filling fraction of recycled fine aggregate, while the compressive strength of mortar was primarily affected by the fraction of defects in the aggregate. It was also found that grains produced by a granulator have more irregularities in the surfaces than those produced by a ball mill, providing an increased mortar strength. Using these findings from this study, efforts are also being made to develop a mechanical technology that enables simultaneous processing of decontamination and recycling. The granulator under consideration is capable of grinding the surfaces of irregularly shaped particles and may be used successfully, under optimal conditions, for the surface decontamination of concrete waste contaminated with radioactive materials. (author)

  17. Recycling Waste Electrical Socket as a Carbon Resource in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    GMJ Vol. 16, No. 1, June, 2016. Recycling Waste Electrical Socket as a Carbon ... Carbon Resource in Ironmaking”, Ghana Mining Journal, Vol. 16, No. ... 2013; Dankwah and Koshy, 2014; Dankwah et al., ..... Chemical Science and Engineering, UNSW, ... of Scientific and Technology Research (IJSTR),. Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp.

  18. The quality study of recycled glass phosphor waste for LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Chin; Chen, Guan-Hao; Yue, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Cin-Fu; Cheng, Wood-Hi

    2017-02-01

    To study the feasibility and quality of recycled glass phosphor waste for LED packaging, the experiments were conducted to compare optical characteristics between fresh color conversion layer and that made of recycled waste. The fresh color conversion layer was fabricated through sintering pristine mixture of Y.A.G. powder [yellow phosphor (Y3AlO12 : Ce3+). Those recycled waste glass phosphor re-melted to form Secondary Molten Glass Phosphor (S.M.G.P.). The experiments on such low melting temperature glass results showed that transmission rates of S.M.G.P. are 9% higher than those of first-sintered glass phosphor, corresponding to 1.25% greater average bubble size and 36% more bubble coverage area in S.M.G.P. In the recent years, high power LED modules and laser projectors have been requiring higher thermal stability by using glass phosphor materials for light mixing. Nevertheless, phosphor and related materials are too expensive to expand their markets. It seems a right trend and research goal that recycling such waste of high thermal stability and quality materials could be preferably one of feasible cost-down solutions. This technical approach could bring out brighter future for solid lighting and light source module industries.

  19. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Granby, Kit; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    ,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile...

  20. Performance of asphalt mixture incorporating recycled waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Nor Baizura; Abdullah, Mohd Ezree; Sanik, Mohd Erwan; Mokhtar, Mardiha; Kaamin, Masiri; Raduan, Rasyidah; Ramli, Mohd Zakwan

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, the amount of premix waste was increased every year, especially at the batching plants. Normally, the waste materials will be discarded without doing any innovative and effective research about those materials. This situation has become one of the global concerns due to the increasing number of premix waste produced every year. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using premix waste on improving asphalt mixture fatigue behaviour. The method used in this study was Superpave mix design method. The sample conducted in this study were 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100% of premix waste respectively. For a binder test, the laboratory test conducted were penetration test, softening test and thin film oven test while for the performance test were resilient modulus test and indirect tensile fatigue test. From the laboratory test, the resilient modulus test was conducted with two different temperature which was 25°C and 40°C. The result from that test was 20% of premix waste had higher resilient modulus at that two different temperatures compared to another samples. From that test also shown that the sample at the lower temperature which was 25°C has higher resilient modulus compared to the temperature of 40°C. Indirect tensile fatigue test showed that the 30% of premix waste sample was suitable for the modified asphalt mixture with referring to the maximum deformation and strain for comparison control, 10%,20%, and 100% of premix waste samples. So, it can be concluded that premix waste inhibits great potential as road construction material and suitable for repeated traffic loading.

  1. Waste management, energy generation, material recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The concept of process pyrolysis according to the system of low-temperature pyrolysis (up to 450 Cel) for the purpose of waste processing is described. This system not only uses the material value (raw materials) but also the processing value (energetic utilization of organic components). Three product groups are mentioned where process pyrolysis can be applied: 1. rubber-metall connecting, coated and non-coated components, 2. Compound materials like pc boards, used electronic devices, films, used cables and batteries, 3. organic waste and residues like foils, insulating material, lubricating, oil and grease, flooring. Importance of waste management is emphasized, economic aspects are illustrated.

  2. Triboelectrostatic separation for granular plastic waste recycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guiqing; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-03-01

    The world's plastic consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, generating more and more plastic waste, which makes it a great public concern. Recycling is the best treatment for plastic waste since it cannot only reduce the waste but also reduce the consumption of oil for producing new virgin plastic. Mechanical recycling is recommended for plastic waste to avoid the loss of its virgin value. As a mechanical separation technology, triboelectrostatic separation utilizes the difference between surface properties of different materials to get them oppositely charged, deflected in the electric field and separately collected. It has advantages such as high efficiency, low cost, no concern of water disposal or secondary pollution and a relatively wide processing range of particle size especially suitable for the granular plastic waste. The process of triboelectrostatic separation for plastic waste is reviewed in this paper. Different devices have been developed and proven to be effective for separation of plastic waste. The influence factors are also discussed. It can be concluded that the triboelectrostatic separation of plastic waste is a promising technology. However, more research is required before it can be widely applied in industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ``Recycling'' Nuclear Power Plant Waste: Technical Difficulties and Proliferation Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Edwin

    2007-04-01

    One of the most vexing problems associated with nuclear energy is the inability to find a technically and politically viable solution for the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. The U.S. plan to develop a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel at Yucca Mountain in Nevada is in jeopardy, as a result of managerial incompetence, political opposition and regulatory standards that may be impossible to meet. As a result, there is growing interest in technologies that are claimed to have the potential to drastically reduce the amount of waste that would require geologic burial and the length of time that the waste would require containment. A scenario for such a vision was presented in the December 2005 Scientific American. While details differ, these technologies share a common approach: they require chemical processing of spent fuel to extract plutonium and other long-lived actinide elements, which would then be ``recycled'' into fresh fuel for advanced reactors and ``transmuted'' into shorter-lived fission products. Such a scheme is the basis for the ``Global Nuclear Energy Partnership,'' a major program unveiled by the Department of Energy (DOE) in early 2006. This concept is not new, but has been studied for decades. Major obstacles include fundamental safety issues, engineering feasibility and cost. Perhaps the most important consideration in the post-9/11 era is that these technologies involve the separation of plutonium and other nuclear weapon-usable materials from highly radioactive fission products, providing opportunities for terrorists seeking to obtain nuclear weapons. While DOE claims that it will only utilize processes that do not produce ``separated plutonium,'' it has offered no evidence that such technologies would effectively deter theft. It is doubtful that DOE's scheme can be implemented without an unacceptable increase in the risk of nuclear terrorism.

  4. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  5. A review of glass-ceramics for the immobilization of nuclear fuel recycle wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report reviews the status of the Canadian, German, U.S., Japanese, U.S.S.R. and Swedish programs for the development of glass-ceramic materials for immobilizing the high-level radioactive wastes arising from the recycling of used nuclear fuel. The progress made in these programs is described, with emphasis on the Canadian program for the development of sphene-based glass-ceramics. The general considerations of product performance and process feasibility for glass-ceramics as a category of waste form material are discussed. 137 refs

  6. Waste paper recycling opportunities for government action. Vol. 4, corrugated waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.; Love, P.

    1978-01-01

    This study analyzes current and expected corrugated waste market conditions in Canada, with the objective of identifying government initiatives which could permanently increase recovery levels. Short-term, practical measures are featured. National and regional demand, generation and recovery levels are examined, along with imports and exports to the USA. Over 70% of corrugated waste is consumed in Ontario and Quebec, and most of this waste is generated in those two provinces. Average recovery rates in most major urban areas are estimated at 30-40%. Future demand, generation, and recovery are estimated, and it is suggested that there will be enough domestic demand to permit reclamation of nearly 35% of Canada's total corrugated wastes. This potential level is not expected to change significantly, and new demand opportunities appear minimal. Examination of the potential for future imports from the USA indicates that availability will tighten over the medium term, necessitating a search for new corrugated waste supply sources. Possible sources include supermakets, retail chains and large assembly manufacturing establishments; one of the most promising of these sources is shopping malls, and a study is appended which examines the feasibility of a corrugated waste source separation program within a hypothetical mall. Possible government actions are outlined to improve reclamation and recycling of corrugated waste in Canada, including the improvement of local recovery capabilities in British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec, and the reduction of freight costs for moving corrugated waste from low-recovery areas to high-demand areas. 26 refs., 9 figs., 31 tabs.

  7. Recycle operations as a methodology for radioactive waste volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The costs for packaging, transportation and burial of low-level radioactive metallic waste have become so expensive that an alternate method of decontamination for volume reduction prior to disposal can now be justified. The operation of a large-scale centralized recycle center for decontamination of selected low level radioactive waste has been proven to be an effective method for waste volume reduction and for retrieving valuable materials for unlimited use. The centralized recycle center concept allows application of state-of-the-art decontamination technology resulting in a reduction in utility disposal costs and a reduction in overall net amount of material being buried. Examples of specific decontamination process activities at the centralized facility will be reviewed along with a discussion of the economic impact of decontamination for recycling and volume reduction. Based on almost two years of operation of a centralized decontamination facility, a demonstrated capability exists. The concept has been cost effective and proves that valuable resources can be recycled

  8. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1984-04-01

    This report, the fifth of a series of annual reports, reviews the progress that has been made in the research and development program for the safe management and disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The report summarizes activities over the past year in the following areas: public interaction; used fuel storage and transportation; immobilization of used fuel and fuel recycle waste; geoscience research related to deep underground disposal; environmental research; and environmental and safety assessment

  9. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E

    2013-06-01

    Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project "LabelAgriWaste" revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process ("Quality I") and another one for plastic profile production process ("Quality II"). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear and toxic waste recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottillo, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes the process for the safe and convenient disposal of nuclear and/or toxic wastes which comprises the steps of (a) collecting nuclear and/or toxic wastes which pose a danger to health; (b) packaging the wastes within containers for the safe containment thereof to provide filled containers having a weight sufficient to sink into the molten lava present within an active volcano; and (c) depositing the filled containers directly into the molten lava present within a volcano containing same to cause the containers to sink therein end to be dissolved or consumed by the heat, whereby the contents thereof are consumed to become a part of the mass of molten lava present within the volcano

  11. A Structural Scale for the Factors of Waste Sensors and Transducers Recycling Based on Consumer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article first introduced the research results of both domestic and foreign scholars on the factors of waste sensors and transducers recycling, and in consideration of the four main bodies in waste sensors and transducers recycling, 14 influencing indicators of waste sensors and transducers recycling are extracted. Then this paper designed a questionnaire according to the 15 indicators of waste home appliance recycling, and put it on a research website. After verification of reliability and validity of the questionnaire, this paper analyzed the influencing factors of waste sensors and transducers recycling by using SPSS 13.0. Finally this article used factor analysis method to identify the representative factors. Two factors are concluded: Factor 1 mainly represents laws and regulations of government, governmental subsidy, governmental technology support, governmental market guidance, governmental monitor and control, recycling knowledge publication by government, social responsibilities of producers and recyclers, technique disposition ability of producers and recyclers, recyclers' service, therefore it could be summarized as government and enterprise disposition capability; while Factor 2 mainly represents consumers' benefit from recycling, convenience of consumers' recycling, mental satisfaction of consumers from recycling, consumers' recycling knowledge, social recycling environment, and thus they could be summarized as consumer incentive factor. This paper would provide some references for the analysis and research on influencing factors of waste sensors and transducers recycling.

  12. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution. • Fixed effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis model with panel data are employed. • The case study is a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during 2009–2012. • The findings support that a negative relationship between air pollution and recycling. - Abstract: This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009–2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM 2.5 ) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000–$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality

  13. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios, E-mail: giovanis95@gmail.com

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution. • Fixed effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis model with panel data are employed. • The case study is a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during 2009–2012. • The findings support that a negative relationship between air pollution and recycling. - Abstract: This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009–2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM{sub 2.5}) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000–$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality.

  14. Waste salt recovery, recycle, and destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    Starting in 1943 and continuing into the 1970s, radioactive wastes resulting from plutonium processing at Hanford were stored underground in 149 single shell tanks. Of these tanks, 66 are known or believedto be leaking, and over a period are believed to have leaked about 750,000 gal into the surrounding soil. The bulk of the aqueous solution has been removed and transferred to double shell tanks, none of which are leaking. The waste consists of 37 million gallons of salt cake and sludge. Most of the salt cake is sodium nitrate and other sodium salts. A substantial fraction of the sludge is sodium nitrate. Small amounts of the radionuclides are present in the sludge as oxides or hydroxides. In addition, some of the tanks contain organic compounds and ferrocyanide complexes, many of which have undergone radiolytic induced chemical changes during the years of storage. As part of the Hanford site remediation effort, the tank wastes must be removed, treated, and the residuals must be immobilized and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Removal methods of the waste from the tanks fall generally into three approaches: dry removal, slurry removal, and solution removed. The latter two methods are likely to result in some additional leakage to the surrounding soil, but that may be acceptable if the tank can be emptied and remediated before the leaked material permeates deeply into the soil. This effort includes three parts: salt splitting, acid separation, and destruction, with initial emphasis on salt splitting

  15. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  16. E-Waste recycling: new algorithm for hyper spectral identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picon-Ruiz, A.; Echazarra-Higuet, J.; Bereciartua-Perez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Waste electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) constitutes 4% of the municipal waste in Europe, being increased by 16-28% every five years. Nowadays, Europe produces 6,5 million tonnes of WEEE per year and currently 90% goes to landfill. WEEE waste is growing 3 times faster than municipal waste and this figure is expected to be increased up to 12 million tones by 2015. Applying a new technology to separate non-ferrous metal Waste from WEEE is the aim of this paper, by identifying multi-and hyper-spectral materials and inserting them in a recycling plant. This technology will overcome the shortcomings passed by current methods, which are unable to separate valuable materials very similar in colour, size or shape. For this reason, it is necessary to develop new algorithms able to distinguish among these materials and to face the timing requirements. (Author). 22 refs.

  17. Chemical recycle of plastics waste; Hai purasuchikku no kemikaru risaikuru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, A. [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Chemical recycling of the wasted plastics contains from regeneration to monomer as a constructing component in the case of single element polymer to conversion to fuel oil through thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics and application to chemical raw material. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) decomposes to methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer with high selection rate at max temperature of 400{+-}50degC. The Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Signed a cooperative development contract on the recycling technique of PMMA The ICI., Ltd., Great Britain. Depolymerization technique of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is already used actually on methanolysis with Coca-Cola Corp. (Hoechst-Celanese Corp.) and glycolysis with Pepsi-Cola Corp. (Goodyear Inc.). The chemical recycle due to thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics is established as a technique of gasification of the mixed wasted plastics to generate methanol in Japan by the Mitsubishi Heavy Ind., Ltd., and is operated in a pilot plant of 2 ton/day. Here was summarized on these trends in and out of Japan. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tab.

  18. Waste cell phone recycling by thermal plasma techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, T.; Kunimoto, N.; Abe, S. [Chuo Univ., Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electrical, Electronics, and Communication Engineering; Li, O.L.; Chang, J.S.; Ruj, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Due to the cost-effective nature of wireless networks, the number of cell phones used around the world has increased significantly. However, a major problem of this technology is the generation of a great deal of complex electronics wastes, such as cell phones. The typical average life of a cell phone is around 2 years. Therefore, inexpensive recycling techniques must be developed for valuable resources such as real metals and plastics used in cell phones. Thermal plasma has been used for many different waste treatments since it has the capability to detoxify waste by-products. This paper presented a preliminary investigation for cell phone recycling by a thermal plasma technology. Recyclable resource material was identified by neutron activation analyses. Then, the cell phone waste was first crashed and treated by Ar twin torch plasmas to remove the majority of organic materials. The paper described the experimental apparatus and results. It was concluded that styrene (C{sub 8}H{sub 8}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}O) may be two major by-products in on-line by-products gas. The molecule becomes a much heavier by-product gas after cooling down. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Properties of backfilling material for solidifying miscellaneous waste using recycled cement from waste concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Atsuo; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Konishi, Masao; Iwamoto, Yoshiaki; Yoshikane, Toru; Koie, Toshio; Nakashima, Yoshio.

    1997-01-01

    A large reduction of total radioactive waste is expected, if recycled cement from the waste concrete of decommissioned nuclear power plants would be able to be used the material for backfilling mortar among the miscellaneous waste. In this paper, we discuss the hydration, strength and consistency of recycled cement compared with normal portland cement. The strength of recycled cement mortar is lower than that of normal portland cement mortar on the same water to cement ratio. It is possible to obtain the required strength to reduce the water to cement ratio by using of high range water-reducing AE agent. According to reducing of water to cement ratio, the P-type funnel time of mortar increase with the increase of its viscosity. However, in new method of self-compactability for backfilling mortar, it became evident that there was no difference between the recycled cement and normal portland cement on the self-compactability. (author)

  20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, T.

    2002-01-01

    Environmentally sound management or ESM has been defined under the Basel Convention as 'taking all practicable steps to ensure that hazardous wastes and other wastes are managed in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such wastes'. An initiative is underway to develop and implement a Canadian Environmentally Sound Management (ESM) regime for both hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials. This ESM regime aims to assure equivalent minimum environmental protection across Canada while respecting regional differences. Cooperation and coordination between the federal government, provinces and territories is essential to the development and implementation of ESM systems since waste management is a shared jurisdiction in Canada. Federally, CEPA 1999 provides an opportunity to improve Environment Canada's ability to ensure that all exports and imports are managed in an environmentally sound manner. CEPA 1999 enabled Environment Canada to establish criteria for environmentally sound management (ESM) that can be applied by importers and exporters in seeking to ensure that wastes and recyclable materials they import or export will be treated in an environmentally sound manner. The ESM regime would include the development of ESM principles, criteria and guidelines relevant to Canada and a procedure for evaluating ESM. It would be developed in full consultation with stakeholders. The timeline for the development and implementation of the ESM regime is anticipated by about 2006. (author)

  1. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  2. Expanding worldwide urban solid waste recycling: The Brazilian social technology in waste pickers inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Jacqueline E; Rutkowski, Emília W

    2015-12-01

    'If an integrated urban waste management system includes the informal recycling sector (IRS), there is a good chance that more solid waste is recycled' is common sense. However, informal integration brings additional social, environmental, and economic benefits, such as reduction of operational costs and environmental impacts of landfilling. Brazil is a global best practice example in terms of waste picker inclusion, and has received international recognition for its recycling levels. In addition to analysing the results of inclusive recycling approaches, this article evaluates a selection of the best Brazilian inclusive recycling practices and summaries and presents the resulting knowledge. The objective is to identify processes that enable the replication of the inclusion of the informal recycling sector model as part of municipal solid waste management. Qualitative and quantitative data have been collected in 25 Brazilian cities that have contracted waste pickers co-operatives for door-to-door selective collection of recyclables. Field data was collected in action research projects that worked with waste pickers co-operatives between 2006 and 2013. The Brazilian informal recycling sector integration model improves municipal solid waste recycling indicators: it shows an increase in the net tonness recycled, from 140 to 208 t month(-1), at a much lower cost per tonne than conventional selective collection systems. Inclusive systems show costs of US$35 per tonne of recyclables collected, well below the national average of US$195.26. This inclusive model improves the quality of collected material and the efficiency of municipal selective collection. It also diminishes the negative impacts of informal recycling, by reducing child labour, and by improving the conditions of work, occupational health and safety, and uncontrolled pollution. Although treating the Brazilian experience as a blueprint for transfer of experience in every case is unrealistic, the results

  3. Blue Box Plus Quinte regional recycling demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Blue Box Plus recycling program was established in September 1990 in the Quinte region of Ontario. The program was intended to develop the necessary operational information so that the existing program could expand to include mixed plastics, corrugated cardboard, and boxboard. Over 33,000 recycling boxes were distributed over an area covering 15 municipalities with a population base of 95,000. The program showed the willingness of the public to participate in recycling, but advertising and promotion of the program were critical for success. Separation of the recycled materials on the collection trucks was found to be a viable approach and more efficient than sorting at the recycling plant. Adding new materials to be recycled could be done efficiently, and operating costs were in line with those for other programs collecting fewer materials. A cooperative market development with industrial players opened up a new and expanding market for boxboard. 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Chrome recycling from leather solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, O.A.; Mohamady, H.S.; El-Sayed, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Leather processing is one of the industrial activities that generate chromium bearing wastes in different forms, one of them is chrome shavings which contributes about 10% of the quantum raw skins /hides, and causes on burning dangerous human hazardous. Hydrolysis processes by different alkalis such as (LiOK KOH, NaOH) have been applied to recover chrome from solid wastes. The extent of hydrolysis was studied as a function of alkalis concentrations, in presence and absence of reducing agents, shaking time and temperature. Hydrolysis process exhibits 99%, 98% and 97%, chrome recovery for LiOH, KOH and NaOH respectively. The recovered chrome has been used in retaining process, examined through visual and mechanical tests of leather samples. The evaluation of the tanning process with recovered chrome gave acceptable results

  5. Energy recycling of plastic and rubber wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2003-01-01

    Major areas for applications of plastics and rubbers are building and construction, packaging, transportation, automobiles, furniture, house wares, appliances, electrical and electronics. Approximately 20% of all the plastics produced are utilized by the building and construction industry/sup (1-3)/. Categories of polymers mostly used in the above industries include poly (vinyl chloride), polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene phenolics, acrylics and urethanes. Tyres and tubes are almost exclusively made up of rubbers. One third of total consumption of plastics finds applications, like films, bottles and packaging, in food-products that have a maximum life-span of two years, after which these find way to waste dumps. As the polymer industry in Pakistan is set to grow very rapidly in the near future the increase in utilization of plastic products in synchronous with the advent of computers and information technology. About 0.60 Kg per capita of waste generated daily in Lahore /(7.14)/ contains considerable quantity of plastics. (AB)

  6. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  7. Waste minimization, recycling and reuse in operations support services fleet maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Government regulations and smart business practices demand that organizations dramatically reduce both the type and volume of waste generated by their operations. This article describes successful waste minimization and recycling programs created by the Fleet Maintenance, Operations Support Services Division, Westinghouse Hanford Company. These comprehensive programs have greatly reduced waste formerly produced in maintaining 3,528 government-owned vehicles and nearly 200 emergency power generators at the Hanford Site. The actions are integral to preventing future contamination of the Site as well as to cleaning up the complexity of wastes from almost 50 years of defense production. The results of the Fleet Maintenance programs are impressive, recording cost savings of $290,000 in fiscal year 1993 and $965,000 since 1988

  8. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). Now legislation at the federal level is being introduced. Passage will result in new EPA regulations and also DOE orders. At the state level the Hazardous Waste Reduction and Management Review Act of 1989 was signed by the Governor. DHS is currently promulgating regulations to implement the new law. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements

  9. 76 FR 53897 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source Reduction Measurement in the U.S. AGENCY... Subjects Environmental protection, municipal solid waste (MSW) characterization, MSW management, recycling, measurement, data, data collection, construction and demolition (C&D) recycling, source reduction, life cycle...

  10. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator to measure recycling performance. Due to a large variation among waste fractions in municipal solid waste (MSW, the recycling rate cannot reflect the actual recycling performance. The ceiling of recycling rate for each waste fraction estimated from the diffusion models is incorporated into a model to calculate recycling performance. The results show that (1 the diffusion effect exists significantly for the recycling of most recyclables but no evidence is found to support the diffusion effect for the recycling of food waste and bulk waste; (2 the recycling performance of waste metal products ranks the top, compared to waste paper, waste glass and other waste fractions; (3 furthermore, an importance-performance analysis (IPA is employed to analyze the priority of recycling programs and thus this paper suggests that the recycling of food waste should be seen as the most priority item to recycle.

  11. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-05-01

    As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recycling of Metal Containing Waste by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Through the years, a large number of liquid-liquid extraction have been proposed for metal waste recovery and recycling(1,2). However, few of them have achieved commercial application. In fact, relatively little information is available on practical operation and economic feasibility. This presentation will give complementary information by describing and comparing three processes, based on the Am MAR hydrometallurgical concept and representing three different modes of operation

  13. Soil reinforcement with recycled carpet wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiassian, Hossein; Poorebrahim, Gholamreza; Gray, Donald H

    2004-04-01

    A root or fibre-reinforced soil behaves as a composite material in which fibres of relatively high tensile strength are embedded in a matrix of relatively plastic soil. Shear stresses in the soil mobilize tensile resistance in the fibres, which in turn impart greater strength to the soil. A research project has been undertaken to study the influence of synthetic fibrous materials for improving the strength characteristics of a fine sandy soil. One of the main objectives of the project is to explore the conversion of fibrous carpet waste into a value-added product for soil reinforcement. Drained triaxial tests were conducted on specimens, which were prepared in a cylindrical mould and compacted at their optimum water contents. The main test variables included the aspect ratio and the weight percentage of the fibrous strips. The results clearly show that fibrous inclusions derived from carpet wastes improve the shear strength of silty sands. A model developed to simulate the effect of the fibrous inclusions accurately predicts the influence of strip content, aspect ratio and confining pressure on the shear strength of reinforced sand.

  14. Melting behaviour of raw materials and recycled stone wool waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Falk, Vickie; Agersted, Karsten; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2018-01-01

    Stone wool is a widely used material for building insulation, to provide thermal comfort along with fire stability and acoustic comfort for all types of buildings. Stone wool waste generated either during production or during renovation or demolition of buildings can be recycled back into the sto...... wool melt production. This study investigates and compares the thermal response and melting behaviour of a conventional stone wool charge and stone wool waste. The study combines differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC reveals...... that the conventional charge and stone wool waste have fundamentally different thermal responses, where the charge experiences gas release, phase transition and melting of the individual raw materials. The stone wool waste experiences glass transition, crystallization and finally melting. Both DSC and HSM measurements...

  15. Expansive development of a decommissioning program 'recycle simulator' in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiuchi, T.; Ozaki, S.; Hironaga, M.

    2004-01-01

    A decommissioning program 'Recycle Simulator' should be put into practice in careful consideration of both recycle of non-radioactive wastes and reduce of radioactive wastes in the coming circulatory social system. Nevertheless current support systems for decommissioning planning mainly deal with decontamination, safety storage and dismantlement, so-called the prior part of the total decommissioning process. Authors emphasize the necessity of total planning of decommissioning including recycle or reuse of a large amount of demolition materials and are propelling the development of the multi expert system named 'Recycle Simulator'. This paper presents an algorithm of the recycling and reusing scenario of demolition materials and a summarized configuration. 'Recycle Simulator' for the demolished concrete was developed in 2000 and presented at a previous International Conference on Nuclear Engineering. Construction of a supporting multi expert system for the totally planning of decommissioning projects is objected by expansive development of the previous version. 3 main conclusions obtained from this paper are the following. (1) The previously developed expert system was advanced in its estimation function toward the satisfaction of decommissioning planners. (2) The applicability of the system was enlarged to all the radioactive and non-radioactive wastes, demolished metal and concrete products, in a corresponding site of decommissioning. (3) Finally decommissioning recycle simulator was completed in a harmonized unification. (authors)

  16. Recycling Mentors: an intergenerational, service-learning program to promote recycling and environmental awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'abundo, Michelle L; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth I; Fiala, Kelly A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of Recycling Mentors was to implement an intergenerational, service-learning program focused on promoting recycling and environmental awareness among students enrolled in Community Health (HEA 301) and Current Issues in Gerontology (GRN 440/540) and adults older than 60 years. Recycling Mentors was conducted in New Hanover County (NHC), North Carolina, where a moderate climate and coastal location attracts many tourists, retirees, and college students. A community like NHC is a good place to implement service-learning that educates both students and older adults about the benefits of recycling to individual health and the environment. During the Fall 2009 semester, undergraduate and graduate students completed institutional review board training and then conducted the program with older adults. The education component of Recycling Mentors included a pre/post survey, brochure, and scheduled visits. Overall, Recycling Mentors was positive service-learning experience with students identifying salient outcomes such as learning about recycling and the environment and working with older adults. In addition, teaching the education component of Recycling Mentors was good practice for students who will be the future health professionals. While service-learning and environmentally themed projects are common, a program that combines the 2 like Recycling Mentors is unique and has the potential to motivate individual change while positively impacting the local community and the environment.

  17. ERDA waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The ERDA commercial waste program is summarized. It consists of three parts: terminal storage, processing, and preparation of the Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Emplacement in geologic formations is the best disposal method for high-level waste; migration would be essentially zero, as it was in the Oklo event. Solidification processes are needed. Relations with the states, etc. are touched upon

  18. Informal electronic waste recycling: a sector review with special focus on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinwen; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Wang, Mark Y L; Reuter, Markus A

    2011-04-01

    Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Informal electronic waste recycling: A sector review with special focus on China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Xinwen; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Wang, Mark Y.L.; Reuter, Markus A.

    2011-01-01

    Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector.

  20. Relationship between e-waste recycling and human health risk in India: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    Informal recycling of waste (including e-waste) is an emerging source of environmental pollution in India. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and heavy metals, among other substances, are a major health concern for workers engaged in waste disposal and processing, and for residents living near these facilities, and are also a detriment to the natural environment. The main objective of this review article was to evaluate the status of these impacts. The review found that, huge quantity of e-waste/waste generated, only a small amount is treated formally; the remainder is processed through the informal sector. We also evaluated the exposure pathways, both direct and indirect, and the human body load markers (e.g., serum, blood, breast milk, urine, and hair), and assessed the evidence for the association between these markers and e-waste exposure. Our results indicated that the open dumping and informal e-waste recycling systems should be replaced by the best available technology and environmental practices, with proper monitoring and regular awareness programs for workers and residents. Further and more detailed investigation in this area is also recommended.

  1. Investigation - Derived Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.; Anderson, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Investigation-Derived Waste Program is a software application that was developed to identify the groundwater monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site that require containerization and treatment for purge water generated during sampling

  2. Technological Proposals for Recycling Industrial Wastes for Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Romero-Hermida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-fold objective is proposed for this research: removing hazardous and unpleasant wastes and mitigating the emissions of green house gasses in the atmosphere. Thus, the first aim of this work is to identify, characterize and recycle industrial wastes with high contents of calcium or sodium. This involves synthesizing materials with the ability for CO2 sequestration as preliminary work for designing industrial processes, which involve a reduction of CO2 emissions. In this regard, phosphogypsum from the fertilizer industry and liquid wastes from the green olive and bauxite industries have been considered as precursors. Following a very simple procedure, Ca-bearing phosphogypsum wastes are mixed with Na-bearing liquid wastes in order to obtain a harmless liquid phase and an active solid phase, which may act as a carbon sequestration agent. In this way, wastes, which are unable to fix CO2 by themselves, can be successfully turned into effective CO2 sinks. The CO2 sequestration efficiency and the CO2 fixation power of the procedure based on these wastes are assessed.

  3. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An illicit economy: scavenging and recycling of medical waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwary, Masum A; O'Hare, William Thomas; Sarker, M H

    2011-11-01

    This paper discusses a significant illicit economy, including black and grey aspects, associated with medical waste scavenging and recycling in a megacity, considering hazards to the specific group involved in scavenging as well as hazards to the general population of city dwellers. Data were collected in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using a variety of techniques based on formal representative sampling for fixed populations (such as recycling operatives) and adaptive sampling for roaming populations (such as scavengers). Extremely hazardous items (including date expired medicines, used syringes, knives, blades and saline bags) were scavenged, repackaged and resold to the community. Some HCE employees were also observed to sell hazardous items directly to scavengers, and both employees and scavengers were observed to supply contaminated items to an informal plastics recycling industry. This trade was made possible by the absence of segregation, secure storage and proper disposal of medical waste. Corruption, a lack of accountability and individual responsibility were also found to be contributors. In most cases the individuals involved with these activities did not understand the risks. Although motivation was often for personal gain or in support of substance abuse, participants sometimes felt that they were providing a useful service to the community. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Attitudes of Preservice Social Studies Teachers towards Solid Wastes and Recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Kadir; Merey, Zihni

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of preservice social studies-teachers towards solid wastes and recycle. This study used the screening model, In order to determine the attitudes of preservice teachers towards solid wastes and recycle, we used the "Scale for the Attitudes of Preservice Teachers towards Solid Wastes and…

  6. The state of the art on the radioactive metal waste recycling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Jin; Moon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Sang Yoon

    1997-09-01

    As the best strategy to manage the radioactive metal wastes which are generated during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the following recycling technologies are investigated. 1. decontamination technologies for radioactive metal waste recycling 2. decontamination waste treatment technologies. 3. residual radioactivity evaluation technologies. (author). 260 refs., 26 tabs., 31 figs

  7. Data collection and analysis to improve the quality and effectiveness of recycling education programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapek, Raymond A [Department of Public Administration, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Although recycling participation rates and the success of recycling programs is determined by a multitude of social, economic and political factors, community participation is paramount in determining if recycling programs will accomplish their objectives. Research has tended to focus on the scientific aspects of waste reduction and management, but new concerns are about cost effectiveness factors. A considerable amount of money has been spent on recycling education/information programs with little or no measurement of the effects or results of these expenditures. This article reports the results of a survey of Florida's 67 counties to determine whether advertising media choices for recycling education/information programs were related to recycling rates. A mathematical model was developed which indicated correlations as well as predictability. Florida's recycling information/education effort is still new and does not yet provide a sufficient historical record of trends. This research provided some trend information through regression analysis techniques, but more importantly, suggests a framework for future analysis. It also revealed the deficiencies in current county and state data collection methods. Some of the lessons learned will permit a more accurate charting of the long-term results of dollar expenditures on media advertising for each county

  8. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recycling of organic wastes by employing Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anoop; Garg, V K

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the recycling of nutrients by vermicomposting of cow dung (CD), poultry droppings (PD) and food industry sludge (FIS) employing earthworms (Eisenia fetida). A total of six vermicomposting units were established and dynamics of chemical and biological parameters has been studied for 13 weeks. The waste mixture containing 50% CD+25% PD+25% FIS had better fertilizer value among studied waste combinations. At the end of experiment, vermicomposts showed decrease in pH and organic C, but increase in EC, total Kjeldhal N, total available P and total K contents. The C:N ratio of final vermicomposts also reduced to 10.7-12.7 from 22.8 to 56 in different waste combinations. The earthworms have good biomass gain and cocoon production in all vermicomposting units but CD alone and 50% CD+25% PD+25% FIS were better than other studied combinations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global reverse supply chain design for solid waste recycling under uncertainties and carbon emission constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhitao; Elomri, Adel; Pokharel, Shaligram; Zhang, Qin; Ming, X G; Liu, Wenjie

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of concerns over environmental protection, resource conservation as well as the development of logistics operations and manufacturing technology has led several countries to implement formal collection and recycling systems of solid waste. Such recycling system has the benefits of reducing environmental pollution, boosting the economy by creating new jobs, and generating income from trading the recyclable materials. This leads to the formation of a global reverse supply chain (GRSC) of solid waste. In this paper, we investigate the design of such a GRSC with a special emphasis on three aspects; (1) uncertainty of waste collection levels, (2) associated carbon emissions, and (3) challenges posed by the supply chain's global aspect, particularly the maritime transportation costs and currency exchange rates. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first attempt to integrate the three above-mentioned important aspects in the design of a GRSC. We have used mixed integer-linear programming method along with robust optimization to develop the model which is validated using a sample case study of e-waste management. Our results show that using a robust model by taking the complex interactions characterizing global reverse supply chain networks into account, we can create a better GRSC. The effect of uncertainties and carbon constraints on decisions to reduce costs and emissions are also shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009-2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM2.5) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000-$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High levels of antimony in dust from e-waste recycling in southeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Zhonggen; Zhuang, Xiaochun; Han, Zhixuan; Yang, Wenlin

    2011-01-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global issue. Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element used in semiconductor components and flame retardants for circuit board within electronic equipment. When e-waste is recycled, Sb is released and contaminates the surrounding environment; however, few studies have characterized the extent of this problem. In this study, we investigated Sb and arsenic (As) distributions in indoor dust from 13 e-waste recycling villages in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, southeastern China. Results revealed significantly elevated concentrations of Sb (6.1-232 mg/kg) in dust within all villages, which were 3.9-147 times higher than those from the non e-waste sites, indicating e-waste recycling was an important source of Sb pollution. On the contrary, As concentrations (5.4-17.7 mg/kg) in e-waste dusts were similar to reference values from the control sites. Therefore, dusts emitted from e-waste recycling may be characterized by high Sb/As ratios, which may help identify the contamination due to the e-waste recycling activities. - Highlights: → Antimony and arsenic concentrations in dust from e-waste recycling were investigated. → E-waste recycling is an important emerging source of Sb pollution. → Sb/As ratios may help identify the e-waste contamination.

  13. High levels of antimony in dust from e-waste recycling in southeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xiangyang, E-mail: bixy@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Zhonggen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Zhuang, Xiaochun [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Zhixuan [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Wenlin [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-11-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global issue. Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element used in semiconductor components and flame retardants for circuit board within electronic equipment. When e-waste is recycled, Sb is released and contaminates the surrounding environment; however, few studies have characterized the extent of this problem. In this study, we investigated Sb and arsenic (As) distributions in indoor dust from 13 e-waste recycling villages in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, southeastern China. Results revealed significantly elevated concentrations of Sb (6.1-232 mg/kg) in dust within all villages, which were 3.9-147 times higher than those from the non e-waste sites, indicating e-waste recycling was an important source of Sb pollution. On the contrary, As concentrations (5.4-17.7 mg/kg) in e-waste dusts were similar to reference values from the control sites. Therefore, dusts emitted from e-waste recycling may be characterized by high Sb/As ratios, which may help identify the contamination due to the e-waste recycling activities. - Highlights: {yields} Antimony and arsenic concentrations in dust from e-waste recycling were investigated. {yields} E-waste recycling is an important emerging source of Sb pollution. {yields} Sb/As ratios may help identify the e-waste contamination.

  14. SILVER RECYCLING FROM PHOTO-PROCESSING WASTE USING ELECTRODEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Feri Hadiyanto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver electrodeposition of photo-processing waste and without addition of KCN 1,0 M has been studied for silver recycling. Photo procesing waste containing silver in form of [Ag(S2O32]3- was electrolysed at constant potential and faradic efficiency was determined at various of electrolysis times. Electrolysis of 100 mL photo processing waste without addition of KCN 1,0 M was carried out at constant potential 1.20 Volt, while electrolysis 100 mL photo procesing waste with addition of 10 mL KCN 1,0 M electrolysis was done at 1.30 Volt.The results showed that for silver electrodeposition from photo processing waste with addition of KCN 1,0 M was more favorable with faradic efficiency respectively were 93,16; 87,02; 74,74 and 78,35% for 30; 60; 90 and 120 minutes of electrolysis.   Keywords: Silver extraction, electrodeposition, photo-processing waste

  15. Contamination by trace elements at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Agusa, Tetsuro; Ramu, Karri; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Murata, Satoko; Bulbule, Keshav A; Parthasaraty, Peethmbaram; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-06-01

    The recycling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing an increasing concern due to its effects on the environment and associated human health risks. To understand the contamination status, we measured trace elements (TEs) in soil, air dust, and human hair collected from e-waste recycling sites (a recycling facility and backyard recycling units) and the reference sites in Bangalore and Chennai in India. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Bi were higher in soil from e-waste recycling sites compared to reference sites. For Cu, Sb, Hg, and Pb in some soils from e-waste sites, the levels exceeded screening values proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, In, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb and Bi in air from the e-waste recycling facility were relatively higher than the levels in Chennai city. High levels of Cu, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Tl, and Pb were observed in hair of male workers from e-waste recycling sites. Our results suggest that e-waste recycling and its disposal may lead to the environmental and human contamination by some TEs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on TE contamination at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

  16. Transuranic waste management program waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Crisler, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    To ensure that all technology necessary for long term management of transuranic (TRU) wastes is available, the Department of Energy has established the Transuranic Waste Management Program. A principal focus of the program is development of waste forms that can accommodate the very diverse TRU waste inventory and meet geologic isolation criteria. The TRU Program is following two approaches. First, decontamination processes are being developed to allow removal of sufficient surface contamination to permit management of some of the waste as low level waste. The other approach is to develop processes which will allow immobilization by encapsulation of the solids or incorporate head end processes which will make the solids compatible with more typical waste form processes. The assessment of available data indicates that dewatered concretes, synthetic basalts, and borosilicate glass waste forms appear to be viable candidates for immobilization of large fractions of the TRU waste inventory in a geologic repository

  17. Preliminary study on recycling of metallic waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plant for cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Koichiro; Kato, Osamu; Saegusa, Toshiari

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary study was made on technology required to recycle of metallic waste from decommissioning for spent fuel storage cask and on quantity of the cask which can be produced by the metallic waste. The technical and institutional issues for the recycling were studied. The metallic waste from decommissioning may be technically used to a certain degree for manufacturing the casks. However, there were some technical issues to be solved. For example, the manufacturing factories should be established. The radioactive waste from the factories with radiation control should be handled and treated carefully. Quality of the cask should be properly controlled. The 'Clearance Levels' which allows to recycle decommissioning waste have been hardly enacted in Japan. Technical and economic evaluation on recycling of metallic waste from decommissioning for spent fuel storage cask should be conducted again after progress in recycling of radioactive waste of which radioactivity is below the 'Clearance Levels' in Japan. (author)

  18. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Granby, K; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2017-11-01

    Flame retardants are chemicals vital for reducing risks of fire and preventing human casualties and property losses. Due to the abundance, low cost and high performance of bromine, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have had a significant share of the market for years. Physical stability on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic product cycles and lead to increased exposure levels, e.g. through use of plastic packaging materials. To provide quantitative and qualitative data on presence of BFRs in plastics, we analysed bromophenols (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), dibromophenols (2,4- and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, up to 26,000,000ngTBBPA/g) and polystyrene (PS, up to 330,000ng∑HBCD/g). Abundancy in low concentrations of some BFRs in plastic samples suggested either unintended addition in plastic products or degradation of higher molecular weight BFRs. The presence of currently restricted flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    OpenAIRE

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450?470??C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, a...

  20. Estimation of residual MSW heating value as a function of waste component recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Semiao, Viriato

    2008-01-01

    Recycling of packaging wastes may be compatible with incineration within integrated waste management systems. To study this, a mathematical model is presented to calculate the fraction composition of residual municipal solid waste (MSW) only as a function of the MSW fraction composition at source and recycling fractions of the different waste materials. The application of the model to the Lisbon region yielded results showing that the residual waste fraction composition depends both on the packaging wastes fraction at source and on the ratio between that fraction and the fraction of the same material, packaging and non-packaging, at source. This behaviour determines the variation of the residual waste LHV. For 100% of paper packaging recycling, LHV reduces 4.2% whereas this reduction is of 14.4% for 100% of packaging plastics recycling. For 100% of food waste recovery, LHV increases 36.8% due to the moisture fraction reduction of the residual waste. Additionally the results evidence that the negative impact of recycling paper and plastic packaging on the LHV may be compensated by recycling food waste and glass and metal packaging. This makes packaging materials recycling and food waste recovery compatible strategies with incineration within integrated waste management systems

  1. Disposing and recycling waste printed circuit boards: disconnecting, resource recovery, and pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-20

    Over the past decades, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered e-waste recycling activities. After a decade of effort, disassembly and raw materials recycling of environmentally friendly e-waste have been realized in specialized companies, in China, and law enforcement for illegal activities of e-waste recycling has also been made more and more strict. So up to now, the e-waste recycling in China should be developed toward more depth and refinement to promote industrial production of e-waste resource recovery. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), which are the most complex, hazardous, and valuable components of e-waste, are selected as one typical example in this article that reviews the status of related regulations and technologies of WPCBs recycling, then optimizes, and integrates the proper approaches in existence, while the bottlenecks in the WPCBs recycling system are analyzed, and some preliminary experiments of pinch technologies are also conducted. Finally, in order to provide directional guidance for future development of WPCBs recycling, some key points in the WPCBs recycling system are proposed to point towards a future trend in the e-waste recycling industry.

  2. Analysis on 3RWB model (Reduce, reuse, recycle, and waste bank) in comprehensive waste management toward community-based zero waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affandy, Nur Azizah; Isnaini, Enik; Laksono, Arif Budi

    2017-06-01

    Waste management becomes a serious issue in Indonesia. Significantly, waste production in Lamongan Regency is increasing in linear with the growth of population and current people activities, creating a gap between waste production and waste management. It is a critical problem that should be solved immediately. As a reaction to the issue, the Government of Lamongan Regency has enacted a new policy regarding waste management through a program named Lamongan Green and Clean (LGC). From the collected data, it showed that the "wet waste" or "organic waste" was approximately 63% of total domestic waste. With such condition, it can be predicted that the trashes will decompose quite quickly. From the observation, it was discovered that the generated waste was approximately 0.25 kg/person/day. Meanwhile, the number of population in Tumenggungan Village, Lamongan (data obtained from Monograph in Lamongan district, 2012) was 4651 people. Thus, it can be estimated the total waste in Lamongan was approximately 0.25 kg/person/day x 4651 characters = 930 kg/day. Within 3RWB Model, several stages have to be conducted. In the planning stage, the promotion of self-awareness among the communities in selecting and managing waste due to their interest in a potential benefit, is done. It indicated that community's awareness of waste management waste grew significantly. Meanwhile in socialization stage, each village staff, environmental expert, and policymaker should bear significant role in disseminating the awareness among the people. In the implementation phase, waste management with 3RWB model is promoted by applying it among of the community, starting from selection, waste management, until recycled products sale through the waste bank. In evaluation stage, the village managers, environmental expert, and waste managers are expected to regularly supervise and evaluate the whole activity of the waste management.

  3. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  4. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Yamatani, Shoich; Watahara, Masashi; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  5. Case study: apparel industry waste management: a focus on recycling in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larney, M; van Aardt, A M

    2010-01-01

    The need for effective apparel waste management is motivated by the increasing cost and decreasing availability of landfill space and the dwindling of natural resources. The aim of this study was to identify the current solid waste disposal and recycling practices of the apparel industry in South Africa and to determine their attitude and willingness towards recycling, their perception of the feasibility thereof, barriers to recycling and marketing strategies that would be appropriate for products made from recycled materials. A structured questionnaire was mailed to apparel manufacturers in South Africa. The results indicated that most apparel manufacturers use landfills to dispose of their waste, while approximately half recycle some of the waste. They are fairly positive towards recycling, with consideration of economical feasibility. Phi-coefficients show no practically significant relationship between company size and the use of recycled materials. The most important barriers to recycling are lack of equipment and technology, lack of material to recycle and lack of consumer awareness. Marketing strategies for recycled products are recommended. It is concluded that consumer awareness and knowledge regarding recycled apparel products should be developed in order to ensure a market and that apparel manufacturers should be encouraged to recycle more extensively, in order to ensure that resources will not be exhausted unnecessarily and the environment will be preserved optimally.

  6. Mixture optimization of cement treated demolition waste with recycled masonry and concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.X.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Shui, Z.H,

    2011-01-01

    Due to environmental reasons and the shortage of natural resources, it is greatly valuable to recycle construction and demolition waste (CDW) as much as possible. One of effective ways to reuse more CDW is to produce a cemented road base material. The recycled CDW however is a mix of recycled

  7. Life Cycle Assessment and Optimization-Based Decision Analysis of Construction Waste Recycling for a LEED-Certified University Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kucukvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current waste management literature lacks a comprehensive LCA of the recycling of construction materials that considers both process and supply chain-related impacts as a whole. Furthermore, an optimization-based decision support framework has not been also addressed in any work, which provides a quantifiable understanding about the potential savings and implications associated with recycling of construction materials from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this research is to present a multi-criteria optimization model, which is developed to propose economically-sound and environmentally-benign construction waste management strategies for a LEED-certified university building. First, an economic input-output-based hybrid life cycle assessment model is built to quantify the total environmental impacts of various waste management options: recycling, conventional landfilling and incineration. After quantifying the net environmental pressures associated with these waste treatment alternatives, a compromise programming model is utilized to determine the optimal recycling strategy considering environmental and economic impacts, simultaneously. The analysis results show that recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals significantly contributed to reductions in the total carbon footprint of waste management. On the other hand, recycling of asphalt and concrete increased the overall carbon footprint due to high fuel consumption and emissions during the crushing process. Based on the multi-criteria optimization results, 100% recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, cardboard, plastic and glass is suggested to maximize the environmental and economic savings, simultaneously. We believe that the results of this research will facilitate better decision making in treating construction and debris waste for LEED-certified green buildings by combining the results of environmental LCA with multi-objective optimization modeling.

  8. A proposal for an international program to develop dry recycle of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinroth, H.

    1999-01-01

    The dry oxidation-reduction process (called OREOX for Oxidation Reduction of Oxide Fuel) being developed by Korea and Canada, in cooperation with IAEA and the US State Department, is limited to recycle of spent LWR fuel into CANDU reactors (DUPIC). When first conceived and demonstrated via irradiation of test elements by Atomics International in 1965, (the process was called AIROX at that time) a wider range of applications was intended, including recycle of spent LWR fuel into LWRs. Studies sponsored by DOE's Idaho Office in 1992 confirmed the applicability of this technology to regions containing LWR's only, and described the potential advantages of such recycle from an environmental, waste management and economic point of view, as compared to the direct disposal option. Recent analyses conducted by the author indicates that such dry recycle may be one of the few acceptable paths remaining for resolution of the US spent fuel storage dilemma that remains consistent with US non-proliferation policy. It is proposed that a new US program be established to develop AIROX dry recycle for use in the US, and this become part of an international cooperative program, including the current Canadian - Korean program, and possibly including participation of other countries wishing to pursue alternatives to the once through cycle, and wet reprocessing. With shared funding of major project elements, such international cooperation would accelerate the demonstration and commercial deployment of dry recycle technology, as compared to separate and independent programs in each country. (author)

  9. Recycling of radioactive mineral waste by activity separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schartmann, F.; Cramer, T.; Meier-Kortwig, J.; Diedenhofen, S.; Wotruba, H.

    2005-01-01

    The AST process is a device for the recycling of building rubble originating from the dismantling of nuclear installations. Due to the activity separation in the process, a major part of rubble which would have otherwise been radioactive waste can now be cleared. The AST process has been developed in the course of the combined research project ''Aufbereitung radioaktiver mineralischer Rueckstaede durch Aktivitaetsseparation (Recycling of radioactive mineral waste by activity separation)'' which was sponsored by the BMBF (Federal Ministry for Education and Research). The first step was to investigate the activity distribution between the various constituents of activated heavy concrete (additions: hematite, magnetite, iron cuttings), of contaminated heavy and normal concrete, as well as of composition floor. Heavy concrete with metal additions showed a selective activation of the various constituents. Contaminated rubble often exhibits a selective enrichment of the activity in the cement in contrast to the aggregate. The AST facility for activity separation was designed on the basis of these results. Trial operation with various types of building rubble was carried out using three methods for sorting, screening according to grain size, magnetic separation and radiometric sorting. The use of these three methods was adapted to the material. (orig.)

  10. A survey of economic indices of plastic wastes recycling industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Hassanpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous small recycling units of plastic wastes have been currently constructed heedless to study of economic indices in Iran. Pay attention to the prominent performance of the industrial sector for economic development and its priority for fortifying other sectors to implement job opportunities, survey of the economic indices beckon the stakeholders and industries owners. The main objective of this study was a survey of economic indices in small recycling unit of plastic wastes. Therefore, the practice of computing the economic indices was performed using empirical equations, professional experiences and observations in site of the industry in terms of sustainability performance. Current study had shown the indices values such as value-added percent, profit, annual income, breakeven point, value-added, output value, data value, variable cost of good unit and production costs were found 62%, $ 366558, $ 364292.6, $ 100.34, $ 423451.25, $ 255335.75, $ 678787, $ 389.65 and $ 314494.4 respectively. The breakeven point about 15.93%, the time of return on investment about 1.12 (13.7 months were represented that this industry slightly needs long time to afford the employed capital and starts making a profit.

  11. Auditing Operating Room Recycling: A Management Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGain, Forbes; Jarosz, Katherine Maria; Nguyen, Martin Ngoc Hoai Huong; Bates, Samantha; O'Shea, Catherine Jane

    2015-08-01

    Much waste arises from operating rooms (ORs). We estimated the practical and financial feasibility of an OR recycling program, weighing all waste from 6 ORs in Melbourne, Australia. Over 1 week, 237 operations produced 1265 kg in total: general waste 570 kg (45%), infectious waste 410 kg (32%), and recyclables 285 kg (23%). The achieved recycling had no infectious contamination. The achieved recycling/potential recycling rate was 285 kg/517 kg (55%). The average waste disposal costs were similar for general waste and recycling. OR recycling rates of 20%-25% total waste were achievable without compromising infection control or financial constraints.

  12. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Present status of recycling waste mobile phones in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingying; Ge, Zhongying; Liang, Changjin; An, Ni

    2017-07-01

    A large number of waste mobile phones have already been generated and are being generated. Various countries around the world have all been positively exploring the way of recycling and reuse when facing such a large amount of waste mobile phones. In some countries, processing waste mobile phones has been forming a complete industrial chain, which can not only recycle waste mobile phones to reduce their negative influence on the environment but also turn waste into treasure to acquire economic benefits dramatically. However, the situation of recycling waste mobile phones in China is not going well. Waste mobile phones are not formally covered by existing regulations and policies for the waste electric and electronic equipment in China. In order to explore an appropriate system to recover waste mobile phones, the mobile phone production and the amount of waste mobile phones are introduced in this paper, and status of waste mobile phones recycling is described; then, the disposal technology of electronic waste that would be most likely to be used for processing of electronic waste in industrial applications in the near future is reviewed. Finally, rationalization proposals are put forward based on the current recovery status of waste mobile phones for the purpose of promoting the development of recycling waste mobile phones in developing countries with a special emphasis on China.

  14. Emergy analysis of the recycling options for construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Shen, Li-yin; Li, Qi-ming

    2011-12-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste is becoming a major contributor to environmental pollution. In Shanghai, China, the quantity of C&D waste is 2.11E+07 t/yr, which accounts for 45% of the total quantity of solid waste. There has been a growing promotion of recycling C&D waste as an effective way to solve this waste problem. However, the evaluation of the efficiency of recycling C&D waste as a potential source of resources is largely based on traditional economic analysis. The economic analysis emphasizes money instead of the harmony between economic benefit and environmental effects. There is a need for a new strategic approach to investigate the efficiency of recycling C&D waste to achieve the integration between economic, social and environmental effects. Emergy theory can be employed to analyze different recycling options for C&D waste. With reference to the Chinese construction industry, this paper demonstrates that the close-loop recycling option is better than the open-loop recycling option for C&D waste in terms of the integration of social, environmental and sustainable aspects. To evaluate different technology solutions for C&D waste recycling, the emergy theory and method is not limited to a cost-benefit balance but can include economic, social, environmental and sustainable effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recycling of wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy and recovery of useful resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie; Xue Jianxin; Chen Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy in China and recovery of useful resources are summarized from the aspects such as recovery of uranium from mine water, reusing of waste water, decontaminating and recycling of radioactivity contaminated metal, backfill of gangues and tailings, and comprehensive recovery and utilization of associated uranium deposits. (authors)

  16. Children with health impairments by heavy metals in an e-waste recycling area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H. Marike; Huo, Xia

    E-waste recycling has become a global environmental health issue. Pernicious chemicals escape into the environment due to informal and nonstandard e-waste recycling activities involving manual dismantling, open burning to recover heavy metals and open dumping of residual fractions. Heavy metals

  17. BPEO/BPM in recycling of low level waste metal in the UK - 16210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, Kevin; Robinson, Joe; Lindberg, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) and Best Practicable Means (BPM) are concepts well established in the nuclear industry to help guide and inform waste management decision making. The recycling of contaminated metal waste in the UK is not well established, with the majority of waste disposed of at the Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) at Drigg. This paper presents an overview of the Strategic BPEO study completed by Studsvik examining the options for low level metal waste management and a subsequent BPM study completed in support of a proposed metals recycling service. The environmental benefits of recycling metals overseas is further examined through the application of life cycle analysis to the metals recycling process. The methodologies used for both studies are discussed and the findings of these studies presented. These indicate that recycling contaminated metal is the preferred option, using overseas facilities until UK facilities are available. The BPM for metals recycling is discussed in detail and indicates that a tool box for processing metal waste is required to ensure BPM is applied on a case by case basis. This is supported by effective management of waste transport and waste acceptance criteria. Whilst the transport of contaminated metal overseas for treatment adds to the environmental burden of metals recycling, this when compared with the production of virgin metal, is shown to remain beneficial. The results of the Studsvik studies demonstrate the benefits of recycling metals, the options available for such a service and challenges that remain. (authors)

  18. A Group Approach in a Community Empowerment: A Case Study of Waste Recycling Group in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiyanti, Puji

    2016-01-01

    This study reviews a group approach in empowering the community through waste recycling activities related to the development of human resources in Jakarta. The specific objectives to be achieved are the wish to understand and find: (1) Conditions of waste recycling empowerment in Jakarta, (2) Mechanisms of a group approach in empowering…

  19. Savannah River Site waste vitrification projects initiated throughout the United States: Disposal and recycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    A vitrification process was developed and successfully implemented by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) to convert high-level liquid nuclear wastes (HLLW) to a solid borosilicate glass for safe long term geologic disposal. Over the last decade, SRS has successfully completed two additional vitrification projects to safely dispose of mixed low level wastes (MLLW) (radioactive and hazardous) at the SRS and at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The SRS, in conjunction with other laboratories, has also demonstrated that vitrification can be used to dispose of a wide variety of MLLW and low-level wastes (LLW) at the SRS, at ORR, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), at Rocky Flats (RF), at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), and at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP). The SRS, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA), have demonstrated that vitrification can also be used to safely dispose of ion-exchange (IEX) resins and sludges from commercial nuclear reactors. In addition, the SRS has successfully demonstrated that numerous wastes declared hazardous by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can be vitrified, e.g. mining industry wastes, contaminated harbor sludges, asbestos containing material (ACM), Pb-paint on army tanks and bridges. Once these EPA hazardous wastes are vitrified, the waste glass is rendered non-hazardous allowing these materials to be recycled as glassphalt (glass impregnated asphalt for roads and runways), roofing shingles, glasscrete (glass used as aggregate in concrete), or other uses. Glass is also being used as a medium to transport SRS americium (Am) and curium (Cm) to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for recycle in the ORR medical source program and use in smoke detectors at an estimated value of $1.5 billion to the general public

  20. Waste Management Operations Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The major function of the Program is to operate the Laboratory's systems and facilities for collecting and disposing of radioactive gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes. This includes collection and shallow land burial of about 2000 m 3 of β-γ contaminated waste and retrievable storage of about 60 m 3 of transuranium contaminated waste annually; ion-exchange treatment and release to the environment of about 450 x 10 3 m 3 of slightly contaminated water; volume reduction by evaporation of about 5000 m 3 of intermediate-level liquid waste followed by hydrofracture injection of the concentrate; and scrubbing and/or filtration of the gases from radioactive operations prior to release to the atmosphere. In addition, this year disposal of about 350,000 gal of radioactive sludge from the old (no longer in service) gunite tanks began. Operations are in conformance with rules and regulations presently applicable to ORNL. This Program is responsible for planning and for development activities for upgrading the facilities, equipment, and procedures for waste disposal to ensure ORNL work incorporates the latest technology. Major (line-item) new facilities are provided as well as substantial (GPP) upgrading of old facilities. These activities as well as the technical and engineering support to handle them are discussed

  1. Industry-led program recycles used oil materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Alberta Used Oil Management Association (AUOMA) is running an industry-led program for recycling used oil filters, containers and used oil. The objective of the program is to help develop an infrastructure that will make recycling simple and convenient for consumers of oil materials. It was estimated that millions of litres of used oil are improperly discarded into the Alberta environment. The program is also aimed at increasing public awareness of the importance of recycling used oil materials, particularly to those consumers who change their own motor oil. By the end of 1997 AUOMA expects to open about 50 recycling centres called EcoCentres. An environmental handling charge (EHC) will be paid to AUOMA by wholesale suppliers on the first sale of oil materials in Alberta. The EHC will be the only funds used to support the program

  2. The use of short rotation willows and poplars for the recycling of saline waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaconette Mirck; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Ioannis Dimitriou; Jill A. Zalesny; Timothy A. Volk; Warren E. Mabee

    2009-01-01

    The production of high-salinity waste waters by landfills and other waste sites causes environmental concerns. This waste water often contains high concentrations of sodium and chloride, which may end up in local ground and surface waters. Vegetation filter systems comprised of willows and poplars can be used for the recycling of saline waste water. These vegetation...

  3. Recycling ceramic industry wastes in sound absorbing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arenas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this investigation is to develop a material mainly composed (80% w/w of ceramic wastes that can be applied in the manufacture of road traffic noise reducing devices. The characterization of the product has been carried out attending to its acoustic, physical and mechanical properties, by measuring the sound absorption coefficient at normal incidence, the open void ratio, density and compressive strength. Since the sound absorbing behavior of a porous material is related to the size of the pores and the thickness of the specimen tested, the influence of the particle grain size of the ceramic waste and the thickness of the samples tested on the properties of the final product has been analyzed. The results obtained have been compared to a porous concrete made of crushed granite aggregate as a reference commercial material traditionally used in similar applications. Compositions with coarse particles showed greater sound absorption properties than compositions made with finer particles, besides presenting better sound absorption behavior than the reference porous concrete. Therefore, a ceramic waste-based porous concrete can be potentially recycled in the highway noise barriers field.

  4. Recycling of some polymeric wastes using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSayed, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of waste polyethylene and worn tires is very important problem due to their huge amount and their negative impact on environment. These two polymers differ from each other in nature, as waste polyethylene is thermoplastic, while waste rubber exists in thermosetting state. Accordingly, their blends should be very interesting. The aim of this work is to modify the physical and chemical properties of their blends at different ratio. Fillers and fibers are playing an important role for polymer reinforcement cost-effective end products. The present wok investigates the impact of gamma radiation doses, up to 150 KGy, on WPE/RWRP in composites of WPE/RWRP, 60/40 with talc, feldspar, glass fiber, and antimony trioxide (fire retardant), fillers over a range of content % up to 20 %. In this context, some physico-mechanical testing, namely TS, elongation at break, elastic modulus, hardness, TGA, DSC, electric conductivity, swelling, LOI and SEM investigations were implemented. It was found that applied fillers revealed expectedly different mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical, swelling and morphological properties appreciably depending critically on the microstructure, i.e. aspect ratio and degree of dispersion of the filler and adhesion at the filler-matrix interface. The latter is largely due to the lamellar nature of the filler, as lamellar filler has high aspect ratio and this increases the wettability of the filler by the matrix.

  5. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b) and...

  6. Resource and waste taxation in the theory of the firm with recycling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, K.

    1999-01-01

    The management of solid waste has become an urgent problem in nations with a great population density. Accordingly, waste reduction through source reduction and recycling has become increasingly important. Our purpose is to show how prevention, recycling and disposal of waste could be part of a theory of the firm. We first derive efficient production functions from production processes with waste as a by-product. Waste obtained as new scrap can partially be recycled by using additional inputs in order to cut back the purchase of virgin material. Waste not completely recyclable will leave the firm as disposal which also entails cost to the firm. We use the dual cost function approach to develop a theory of the firm under solid residual management. Since the producer does not bear the full cost of disposal, there will be a bias toward virgin materials and away from recycling. The goal of the government is to stimulate the firms to recycle with respect to the preservation of exhaustible resources. An incentive to recycle is a tax on resources or on waste. In order to determine the tax levels the government maximizes welfare subject to the dynamic constraint for decumulation of land fill for waste deposits. This gives the user cost and its time profile for taxing waste disposal or virgin material. In a comparative statistics analysis we compare the effect of taxes on waste vs. virgin material on effort to produce in a resource saving manner, on the quantity of recycled material, on output, and on the reduction of waste. Since the impact of environmental regulation on employment is important, our model detects seven effects on labor demand as part of resource conservation policy. We finally carry out a comparative statistics analysis of waste intensive firms operating in different market structures. Of interest is the impact of a resource or waste taxation on market volume, on the number of firms, on resource saving effort, and on profit. 36 refs

  7. The strategic role of recycling centres for environmental performance of waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, Joakim; Eklund, Mats

    2010-05-01

    This paper analyses how different actors influence the sorting quality of waste at recycling centres. Users (i.e. citizens) play an essential role since they conduct the actual sorting. They have difficulties sorting many of their discarded products, leading to decreased performance of the entire waste management system of which recycling centres are a part. Several measures addressing this problem are identified such as product design, improved terminology for labelling waste and increased manning at recycling centres. A fundamental task for managers and employees is to further develop information and guidance for users, both at home and at recycling centres. Several obstacles for improvements are also discussed, including working conditions and the economy of recycling centres, as well as the routines for communication and quality assurance among actors in the recycling business. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Waste collection systems for recyclables: An environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.W.; Merrild, H.; Moller, J.; Christensen, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

  9. Logistics systems for recycling - Efficient collection of household waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahre, M.

    1995-12-31

    This dissertation investigates collection and recycling of household waste with focus on packaging materials. The purpose is how to describe and explain the design of a collection system according to different system environments in order to achieve high logistics performance in terms of low cost and high service. The research approach consists of two main parts. First, data on existing systems are collected and analyzed. Then a model is used to analyze cost consequences from changes in the system and the environment. Four main properties of reverse distribution channels were identified including the number of distribution levels and distribution points, whether the system is bring or kerbside, the degree of separation at source and the degree of co-collection. The study further demonstrates that performance can be measured in a number of ways including service toward end-markets and households, costs, environmental consequences and programme ratios. Finally, two main environmental factors identified were population density and the number of materials being collected in the system. The major conclusion from the study is that systems in areas with low population density should collect and recycle few materials that should be separated at the source and then co-collected. Systems in areas with high population density, on the other hand, may collect many materials, but then centralized separation (i.e. processing in a MRF) should take place. 103 refs, 72 figs, 65 tabs

  10. Economic Feasibility for Recycling of Waste Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative photovoltaic (PV power installed in 2016 was equal to 305 GW. Five countries (China, Japan, Germany, the USA, and Italy shared about 70% of the global power. End-of-life (EoL management of waste PV modules requires alternative strategies than landfill, and recycling is a valid option. Technological solutions are already available in the market and environmental benefits are highlighted by the literature, while economic advantages are not well defined. The aim of this paper is investigating the financial feasibility of crystalline silicon (Si PV module-recycling processes. Two well-known indicators are proposed for a reference 2000 tons plant: net present value (NPV and discounted payback period (DPBT. NPV/size is equal to −0.84 €/kg in a baseline scenario. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, in order to improve the solidity of the obtained results. NPV/size varies from −1.19 €/kg to −0.50 €/kg. The absence of valuable materials plays a key role, and process costs are the main critical variables.

  11. Logistics systems for recycling - Efficient collection of household waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahre, M

    1996-12-31

    This dissertation investigates collection and recycling of household waste with focus on packaging materials. The purpose is how to describe and explain the design of a collection system according to different system environments in order to achieve high logistics performance in terms of low cost and high service. The research approach consists of two main parts. First, data on existing systems are collected and analyzed. Then a model is used to analyze cost consequences from changes in the system and the environment. Four main properties of reverse distribution channels were identified including the number of distribution levels and distribution points, whether the system is bring or kerbside, the degree of separation at source and the degree of co-collection. The study further demonstrates that performance can be measured in a number of ways including service toward end-markets and households, costs, environmental consequences and programme ratios. Finally, two main environmental factors identified were population density and the number of materials being collected in the system. The major conclusion from the study is that systems in areas with low population density should collect and recycle few materials that should be separated at the source and then co-collected. Systems in areas with high population density, on the other hand, may collect many materials, but then centralized separation (i.e. processing in a MRF) should take place. 103 refs, 72 figs, 65 tabs

  12. Chemical Recycling of PET Wastes with Different Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khoonkari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical recycling of polyethylene terephthalate, known as PET, has been the subject of increased interest as a valuable feedstock for different chemical processes. In this work, glycolysis of PET waste granules was carried out using excess ethylene glycol in the presence of different simple chemicals acting as catalysts, which are, namely, categorized in ionic liquids, metal salts, hydrotalcites, and enzymes. From every category, some materials as a sample were used, and the one which is going to bring the best result is noted. The effect of some parameters such as temperature, pressure, amount of sample, material ratio, and stirring rate was investigated. As a result we compared the best of each category with the others and final result is shown.

  13. Gunite and associated tanks remediation project recycling and waste minimization effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Saunders, A.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated clean up of legacy waste resulting from the Manhattan Project. The gunite and associated tanks project has taken an active pollution prevention role by successfully recycling eight tons of scrap metal, reusing contaminated soil in the Area of Contamination, using existing water (supernate) to aid in sludge transfer, and by minimizing and reusing personal protective equipment (PPE) and on-site equipment as much as possible. Total cost savings for Fiscal Year 1997 activities from these efforts are estimated at $4.2 million dollars

  14. On the prevailing construction waste recycling practices: a South East Queensland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye

    2009-03-01

    Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.

  15. Waste reduction and recycling initiatives in Japanese cities: lessons from Yokohama and Kamakura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Yasuhiko; Aoki-Suzuki, Chika

    2014-09-01

    Waste reduction and recycling at the city level will acquire greater significance in the near future due to rising global volumes of waste. This paper seeks to identify policy-relevant drivers for successful promotion of waste reduction and recycling. Factors influencing the success of waste reduction and recycling campaigns are identified. Two case study cities in Japan which depict the successful use of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle) at the municipal level are presented. In these cases, the existence of incinerators, which are generally considered as disincentives for recycling, was not functioning as a disincentive but rather as an incentive for waste reduction. Owing to the high cost of incineration facilities, the movement to close incinerators has become a strong incentive for waste reduction and recycling in these two cities. The study suggests that careful consideration is necessary when making decisions concerning high-cost waste treatment facilities with high installation, maintenance and renewal outlays. In addition, intensive source separation and other municipal recycling initiatives have a high potential for producing positive results. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Assessment of Economic Condition Impact on People's Awareness, Attitudes and Practices Towards Recycling of Solid Wastes, a Case Study in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Baghal Asghari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Waste production is an integral part of human life. Besides reduction in waste production, one of the most important strategies solid waste management is solid waste recycling which has environmental and economic benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of Tabriz citizens to participate in recycling. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study involved 450 samples, in three different regions of Tabriz with high, average and low income levels (150 from each district, selected by systematic sampling. The relevant data were collected by questionnaires and were analyzed in SPSS and Excel software.  Results : The results of this study showed that the majority of Tabriz citizens had acceptable information about waste and recycling. Average knowledge, attitude and practices of the various regions were 86.8%, 75.6% and 59% respectively. There was no significant association in this field in three different regions (p.value > 0.05. Comparing the regions, education and welfare of the residents had no effect on the willingness to participate in recycling programs. : Conclusion: The results of the study reflect the community's readiness to accept the change and management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in the recycling programs. Consequently, recycling would be implemented successfully if organizations (e.g. municipalities, health center, education... have been coordinated and collaborated with citizens. ​

  17. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Elimination of waste actinides by recycling them to nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.A.C.

    1981-01-01

    After a few centuries of radioactive decay the long-lived actinides, the elements of atomic numbers 89-103, may constitute the main potential radiological health hazard in nuclear wastes. This is because all but a very few fission products (principally technetium-99 and iodine-129) have by then decayed to insignificant levels, leaving the actinides as the principal hazardous species remaining. It is therefore at first sight an attractive idea to recycle the actinides in nuclear reactors, so as to eliminate them by nuclear fission. There are good reasons for examining the idea in detail, and studies have been carried out in a number of countries. These have culminated recently in international conferences at the European Joint Research Centre at Ispra in Italy and at Austin, Texas in the USA as well as in the issue of an IAEA Technical Report entitled An Evaluation of Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation, a product of a four-year IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme, on which the present article is based. The term partitioning refers to the separation of the actinides from nuclear fuel cycle wastes, a necessary preliminary step to their introduction into reactors for transmutation by nuclear fission. The complete scheme will be referred to as P-T, i.e. partitioning-transmutation

  19. Sorting and recycling of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O; Ebbehøj, N

    1995-01-01

    In order to reduce the strain on the environment from the deposition of waste in landfills and combustion at incineration plants, several governments throughout the industrialized world have planned greatly increased recycling of domestic waste by the turn of the millennium. To implement the plans......, new waste recycling facilities are to be built and the number of workers involved in waste sorting and recycling will increase steadily during the next decade. Several studies have reinforced the hypothesis that exposure to airborne microorganisms and the toxic products thereof are important factors...... causing a multitude of health problems among workers at waste sorting and recycling plants. Workers at transfer stations, landfills and incineration plants may experience an increased risk of pulmonary disorders and gastrointestinal problems. High concentrations of total airborne dust, bacteria, faecal...

  20. Mechanical properties of concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste as coarse aggregate replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Faisal Sheikh; Azmi, Nurul Bazilah; Sumandi, Khairul Azwa Syafiq Mohd; Mazenan, Puteri Natasya

    2017-10-01

    Many construction and development activities today consume large amounts of concrete. The amount of construction waste is also increasing because of the demolition process. Much of this waste can be recycled to produce new products and increase the sustainability of construction projects. As recyclable construction wastes, concrete and ceramic can replace the natural aggregate in concrete because of their hard and strong physical properties. This research used 25%, 35%, and 45% recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste as coarse aggregate in producing concrete. Several tests, such as concrete cube compression and splitting tensile tests, were also performed to determine and compare the mechanical properties of the recycled concrete with those of the normal concrete that contains 100% natural aggregate. The concrete containing 35% RCA and 35% ceramic waste showed the best properties compared with the normal concrete.

  1. The waste minimization program at the Feed Materials Production Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasdel, J.E.; Crotzer, M.E.; Gardner, R.L.; Kato, T.R.; Spradlin, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    A waste minimization program is being implemented at the Feed Materials Production Center to reduce the generation of uranium-contaminated wastes and to comply with existing and forthcoming regulations. Procedures and plans are described which deal with process and non-process trash, contaminated wood and metals, used metal drums, and major process wastes such as contaminated magnesium fluoride and neutralized raffinate. Waste minimization techniques used include segregation, source reduction, volume reduction, material substitution and waste/product recycle. The importance of training, communication, and incentives is also covered. 5 refs., 11 figs

  2. Households’ Perception of Financial Incentives in Endorsing Sustainable Waste Recycling in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Abila

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recycling is viewed as a central aspect in sustainability and mainly as pro-environmental consumer behavior. The purpose of this study is to examine the perception of households on financial incentives in endorsing sustainable recycling for municipal solid waste in Nigeria. The study was conducted in the Shomolu Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria. The study also covers drivers for household willingness to recycle municipal solid waste on environmental risk, behavioral economics, resource value, economic benefit, convenience, knowledge, legislation, and belief. The result from the study asserts the hypothesis that financial incentives for recycling are vital for reducing and managing municipal solid waste sustainably. The most important driver for household willingness to recycle municipal solid waste is the detrimental environmental impacts. A moderate to positive relationship exists between households’ perception of financial incentives for recycling and drivers for household willingness to recycle municipal solid waste. The study recommends adopting the extended producer responsibility (EPR model, reverse vending options, amongst other approaches, in an effort to promote recycling culture among citizens and residents in Nigeria.

  3. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  4. Influence of Waste Brick Powder in the Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Letelier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brick and concrete are the main materials contributing to demolition and construction waste. Considering this precedent, the effects of using both residuals in medium strength concretes are analyzed. Waste brick powder is used as a cement replacement in three different levels: 5%, 10%, and 15%, and it is tested in concretes with no recycled aggregates and concretes with 30% of recycled coarse aggregates replacing natural ones. The compressive strength, the flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity are calculated and compared to a control concrete with no brick powder and no recycled aggregates. The effects of the simultaneous use of both residuals on the physical properties of the recycled concrete are highlighted. Results show that 15% of cement can be replaced by waste brick powder together with 30% of recycled aggregates without suffering significant losses in the strength of the final material when compared to a control concrete.

  5. Characterization of Airborne Particles in an Electronic Waste Recycling Facility and Their Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improper disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) can lead to release of toxic chemicals into the environment and also may pose health risks. Thus, recycling e-waste, instead of landfilling, is considered to be an effective way to reduce pollutant release and exposure. However, lit...

  6. Japanese Fast Reactor Program for Homogeneous Actinide Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Nagata, Takashi; Kondo, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    In the present report, the homogeneous actinide recycling scenario of Fast Reactor (FR) Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT) is summarized. First, the scenario of nuclear energy policy in Japan are briefly reviewed. Second, the basic plan of Japan to manage all minor actinide (MA) by recycling is summarized objectives of which are the efficiency increase of uranium resources, the environmental burden reduction, and the increase of nuclear non-proliferation potential. Third, recent results of reactor physics study related to MA-loaded FR cores are briefly described. Fourth, typical nuclear design of MA-loaded FR cores in the FaCT project and their main features are demonstrated with the feasibility to recycle all MA in the future FR equilibrium society. Finally, the research and development program to realize the MA recycling in Japan is introduced, including international cooperation projects. (authors)

  7. Determining the success of curbside recycling programs by surveys and direct measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, J.W. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science; Riley, P.C. [Waste Management of Oklahoma, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Curbside collection of recyclable material can be expensive because the inherent costs of curbside collection are high, but also because amounts collected per residence are small compared to the total waste stream, and extra time may be required to carry out additional activities, such as sorting. A better understanding of how households participate in curbside recycling programs may help operators reduce costs. In this paper, a survey and direct observation of set-out behavior are used to increase the understanding of a recycling program in the City of the Village, OK. Specifically, the paper addresses: (1) relationships between set-out amount, set-out frequency, and demographics; and (2) respondent awareness of their own recycling behavior and activity on their street. Analysis of set-out amount, set-out frequency, and household size data indicates that, on average, smaller households set out less recyclables overall, but more per person, compared to larger households. As expected, set-out frequency appears to be related to the amount of recyclables set out for collection; houses storing more recyclables per week set them out more often. However, infrequent participants (one set-out in ten weeks) set out less material per week than other participating households, but in larger amounts. On the rare occasions that they set out material, they set out approximately 25 pounds of materials, whereas the average amount set out by other households is less than 15 pounds per set-out. Variability in set-out frequency and amount, not explained by household size or other demographic variables, indicates that other factors are important. There is hope that program operators can influence participants to minimize set-out frequency, thus increasing the efficiency of collection.

  8. Reduction and resource recycling of high-level radioactive wastes through nuclear transmutation with PHITS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    In the ImPACT program of the Cabinet Office, programs are underway to reduce long-lived fission products (LLFP) contained in high-level radioactive waste through nuclear transmutation, or to recycle/utilize useful nuclear species. This paper outlines this program and describes recent achievements. This program consists of five projects: (1) separation/recovery technology, (2) acquisition of nuclear transmutation data, (3) nuclear reaction theory model and simulation, (4) novel nuclear reaction control and development of elemental technology, and (5) discussions on process concept. The project (1) develops a technology for dissolving vitrified solid, a technology for recovering LLFP from high-level waste liquid, and a technology for separating odd and even lasers. Project (2) acquires the new nuclear reaction data of Pd-107, Zr-93, Se-79, and Cs-135 using RIKEN's RIBF or JAEA's J-PARC. Project (3) improves new nuclear reaction theory and structural model using the nuclear reaction data measured in (2), improves/upgrades nuclear reaction simulation code PHITS, and proposes a promising nuclear transmutation pathway. Project (4) develops an accelerator that realizes the proposed transmutation route and its elemental technology. Project (5) performs the conceptual design of the process to realize (1) to (4), and constructs the scenario of reducing/utilizing high-level radioactive waste to realize this design. (A.O.)

  9. Recycling of post-consumer waste in South Africa: Prospects for growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available and recycling, in response to the increasing complexity of products and related wastes. Figure 4: Comparison of recycling rates between countries. (Adapted from: EUROPEN (2014); USEPA (2010), APC (2011); BMI (2013); Chagas and Neto (2011)) Note: Metal figures...

  10. Solid Waste Educational Resources and Activities: Let's Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This contains games, activities, publications, and resources for students and teachers on how to reduce, reuse, recycle, and properly manage waste. It also contains a screen saver featuring runners-up from the Earth Day 2000 art contest. Activities and games include titles such as "Planet Protectors,""Recycle City,""Trash…

  11. Numerical modelling of the dehydration of waste concrete fines : An attempt to close the recycling loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklay, Abraham; Vahidi, A.; Lotfi, Somayeh; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.; Di Maio, F.; Lotfi, S.; Bakker, M.; Hu, M.; Vahidi, A.

    2017-01-01

    The ever-increasing interest on sustainable raw materials has urged the quest for recycled materials that can be used as a partial or total replacement of fine fractions in the production of concrete. This paper demonstrates a modelling study of recycled concrete waste fines and the possibility of

  12. Assessment of Food Waste Prevention and Recycling Strategies Using a Multilayer Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Helen A; Peverill, M Samantha; Müller, Daniel B; Brattebø, Helge

    2015-12-15

    Food waste (FW) generates large upstream and downstream emissions to the environment and unnecessarily consumes natural resources, potentially affecting future food security. The ecological impacts of FW can be addressed by the upstream strategies of FW prevention or by downstream strategies of FW recycling, including energy and nutrient recovery. While FW recycling is often prioritized in practice, the ecological implications of the two strategies remain poorly understood from a quantitative systems perspective. Here, we develop a multilayer systems framework and scenarios to quantify the implications of food waste strategies on national biomass, energy, and phosphorus (P) cycles, using Norway as a case study. We found that (i) avoidable food waste in Norway accounts for 17% of sold food; (ii) 10% of the avoidable food waste occurs at the consumption stage, while industry and retailers account for only 7%; (iii) the theoretical potential for systems-wide net process energy savings is 16% for FW prevention and 8% for FW recycling; (iv) the theoretical potential for systems-wide P savings is 21% for FW prevention and 9% for FW recycling; (v) while FW recycling results in exclusively domestic nutrient and energy savings, FW prevention leads to domestic and international savings due to large food imports; (vi) most effective is a combination of prevention and recycling, however, FW prevention reduces the potential for FW recycling and therefore needs to be prioritized to avoid potential overcapacities for FW recycling.

  13. A necessity for research in the recycling of concrete waste from the decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ha Na; Whang, Joo Ho

    2009-01-01

    Construction of the I/LLW disposal site is now underway in Gyeongju. When completed it will be able to store 100,000 radioactive waste drums in a geologically deep disposal site; hence, a method for disposing of another 700,000 drums will be discussed. Kori-1 is continuously being safely operated even after passing its 30 years designated life span. However, because 12 more nuclear power plants will operate past their designated life span by 2030, the necessity for research about their decommissioning will increase. Approximately 6,200 tons of radioactive waste will be generated from each decommissioned plant. It will be difficult to store all of the waste in Gyeongju due to cost and efficiency issues. For these reasons it is needed to discuss recycling methods for minimizing radioactive waste during decommissioning. This study suggests a scenario for recycling concrete waste of a decommissioned disposal site as crushed rock and also presents prior research for concrete waste recycling

  14. Recycling in SA – How does the National Domestic Waste Collection Standards affect consumers?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available -packaging materials that are recyclable include: textiles, scrap metal, used oils, tyres, old household appliances, batteries, car bodies, electronic equipment (e.g. computers, cell phones, video games etc.) and construction and demolition waste. Biodegradable...

  15. Properties of Concrete Paving Blocks and Hollow Tiles with Recycled Aggregate from Construction and Demolition Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carlos; Miñano, Isabel; Aguilar, Miguel Ángel; Ortega, José Marcos; Parra, Carlos; Sánchez, Isidro

    2017-11-30

    In recent years there has been an increasing tendency to recycle the wastes generated by building companies in the construction industry, demolition wastes being the most important in terms of volume. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes in the preparation of precast non-structural concretes. To that purpose, two different percentages (15% and 30%) of natural aggregates were substituted by recycled aggregates in the manufacture of paving blocks and hollow tiles. Dosages used by the company have not been changed by the introduction of recycled aggregate. Precast elements have been tested by means of compressive and flexural strength, water absorption, density, abrasion, and slipping resistance. The results obtained show the possibility of using these wastes at an industrial scale, satisfying the requirements of the Spanish standards for these elements.

  16. Properties of Concrete Paving Blocks and Hollow Tiles with Recycled Aggregate from Construction and Demolition Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing tendency to recycle the wastes generated by building companies in the construction industry, demolition wastes being the most important in terms of volume. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes in the preparation of precast non-structural concretes. To that purpose, two different percentages (15% and 30% of natural aggregates were substituted by recycled aggregates in the manufacture of paving blocks and hollow tiles. Dosages used by the company have not been changed by the introduction of recycled aggregate. Precast elements have been tested by means of compressive and flexural strength, water absorption, density, abrasion, and slipping resistance. The results obtained show the possibility of using these wastes at an industrial scale, satisfying the requirements of the Spanish standards for these elements.

  17. The study on the overseas recycling technology of the radioactive metallic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. R.; Jung, Y. S.; Sin, J. I.

    2002-01-01

    It was understood that regulation criteria for material release varied with countries and that international standards were not setup. But, most advanced countries are continuously studying on the recycling of metallic wastes for the purpose of the reuse of resources and disposal cost reduction. Practically, the advanced countries make a lot of cost profits compared with disposal as their metallic wastes are recycled and reused through technology like melting. In our case, the recycle criteria for radioactive waste containing radioactive nuclide with long half-life such as Cs-137(half-life: 30y) and Co-60(half-life: 5.26y) including others, which are generated from the nuclear fission or dismantling of nuclear facilities, are not yet established. Therefore, it is required that the recommendation and legalization of the regulatory criteria be carried out for the recycle and reuse of metallic wastes to be generated from the dismantling of domestic nuclear facilities in the future

  18. The study on the recycle condition for existence of the decommissioning waste in the nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironaga, Michihiko; Ozaki, Sachio; Hirai, Mitsuyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Usui, Tatsuo; Simizu, Yasuo; Ogane, Daisuke

    2000-01-01

    To establish the technique of the recycle for concrete waste, this paper describes the recycle condition for existence of the decommissioning concrete waste in the nuclear power plant and considers the durability of cask yard concrete constructed at about twenty years ago. The authors examine the recycle system of concrete in the power plant. (author)

  19. Recycling behaviour in healthcare: waste handling at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Nunes, Katia R A

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the motivational factors for environmental behaviour in general, presenting a case study on recycling disposable plastics in hospitals. Results show that 90% of over 600 employees from six analysed hospitals in Germany reported that the recycling of disposable plastics on the wards makes sense from an environmental and economic point of view. The case study reports an assessment of recycling attitudes and problems of hospital staff, mainly nurses. Employees in eco-certified hospitals were much more satisfied and reported fewer problems with the recycling system. The gender effect was significant only for saving energy, while age correlated with nearly all reported pro-environmental behaviour at home. At work, the mere introduction of a recycling system was insufficient to achieve good recycling results. Based on the study findings, recommendations are given aimed at improving the safety and sustainability of the recycling system.

  20. Plutonium recycle in PWR reactors (Brazilian Nuclear Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.

    1978-02-01

    An evaluation is made of the material requirements of the nuclear fuel cycle with plutonium recycle. It starts from the calculation of a reference reactor and allows the evaluation of demand under two alternatives of nuclear fuel cycle for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR): without plutonium recycle; and with plutonium recycle. Calculations of the reference reactor have been carried out with the CELL-CORE codes. For plutonium recycle, the concept of uranium and plutonium homogeneous mixture has been adopted, using self-produced plutonium at equilibrium, in order to get minimum neutronic perturbations in the reactor core. The refueling model studied in the reference reactor was the 'out-in' scheme with a constant number of changed fuel elements (approximately 1/3 of the core). Variations in the material requirements were studied considering changes in the installed nuclear capacity of PWR reactors, the capacity factor of these reactors, and the introduction of fast breeders. Recycling plutonium produced inside the system can reach economies of about 5%U 3 O 8 and 6% separative work units if recycle is assumed only after the 5th operation cycle of the thermal reactors. The cumulative amount of fissile plutonium obtained by the Brazilian Nuclear Program of PWR reactors by 1991 should be sufficient for a fast breeder with the same capacity as Angra 2. For the proposed fast breeder programs, the fissile plutonium produced by thermal reactors is sufficient to supply fast breeder initial necessities. Howewer, U 3 O 8 and SWU economy with recycle is not significant when the proposed fast breeder program is considered. (Author) [pt

  1. Recycling of actinides and nuclear waste products. Annual report of the research programme 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Boerrigter, H.; Damen, P.G.M.; Gruppelaar, H.; Huntelaar, M.E.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    The research program on the title subject started in 1994 and is planned to be completed in 1998. In this period several technical and scientific aspects of recycling and transmutation are investigated in different projects. The results of the 1997 projects, carried out in the period July 1997 to June 1998, are summarized and described in this report. The 1997 projects concern (1) transmutation of actinides in inert matrices with the aim to design, test and characterize uranium-free fission materials for the transmutation of actinides, both for single as for multiple recycling strategies; (2) scenario studies for plutonium recycling with the aim to gain insight into the possibilities to reduce plutonium reserves by using plutonium as a fissionable material in reactors; (3) transmutation by means of accelerator-driven systems with the aim to analyze the options for the burning of plutonium in accelerator-driven, thorium-based systems; and (4) separation of actinides and lanthanides by means of Supported Liquid Membranes with the aim to study the possibility to extract americium from nuclear waste materials. refs

  2. Some activities in the United States concerning the physics aspects of actinide waste recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.

    1976-01-01

    This review paper briefly discusses the reactor types being considered in the United States for the purpose of actinide waste recycling. The reactor types include thermal reactors operating on the 3.3% 235 U- 238 U and the 233 U- 232 Th fuel cycles, liquid metal fast breeder reactors, reactors fueled entirely by actinide wastes, gaseous fuel reactors and fusion reactors. This paper also discusses cross section measurements in progress or planned toward providing basic data for testing the recycle concept. (author)

  3. Some activities in the United States concerning the physics aspects of actinide waste recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.

    1975-01-01

    Reactor types being considered in the United States for the purpose of actinide waste recycling are discussed briefly. The reactor types include thermal reactors operating on the 3.3 percent 235 U-- 238 U and the 233 U-- 232 Th fuel cycles, liquid metal fast breeder reactors, reactors fueled entirely by actinide wastes, gaseous fuel reactors, and fusion reactors. Cross section measurements in progress or planned toward providing basic data for testing the recycle concept are also discussed

  4. Recycling industrial waste in brick manufacture. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreola, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing accumulation of industrial waste speaks to the need to seek cost-effective disposal methods. Brick manufacture would appear to be particularly promising in this regard. The present study analyzes the possibility of recycling the sludge generated in porcelain tile polishing, as well as coal, steel and municipal incinerator ash to make a special type of facing brick whose properties readily accommodate a full analysis of all the problems deriving from the incorporation of residue in its manufacture. Physical-chemical, mechanical and structural analyses were performed on bricks made with varying percentages of the different types of waste considered. This first paper reports the results of the physical arid technological characterization of the products; the second part of the research will address their chemical, mechanical and structural properties.

    El continuo aumento de la cantidad de residuos (desechos que se generan en los procesos industriales induce a buscar nuevos métodos alternativos a la disposición final que sean altamente eficientes y a bajo costo. La industria manufac turera de ladrillos resulta muy prometedora desde este punto de vista. En este trabajo ha sido investigada la posibilidad de usar distintos residuos industriales, entre ellos barros de pulido del gres porcelánico. cenizas de carbón, cenizas de acerías y de incinerador municipal para la fabricación de ladrillos de exteriores. Fueron analizados los problemas que podrían derivar al introducir estos residuos en la pasta. En particular, en esta primera parte del trabajo se muestran los resultados derivados de la introducción de los residuos considerados, en distintos porcentajes, sobre las propiedades físicas y tecnológicas del producto final. En la segunda parte se desarrollarán los efectos causados sobre las propiedades químicas, mecánicas y microestructurales.

  5. Poultry feather wastes recycling possibility as soil nutrient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Mézes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poultry feathers are produced in large amounts as a waste in poultry slaughterhouses. Only 60-70% of the poultry slaughterhouse products are edible for human being. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Papadopoulus et al., 1986; Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998. The keratin-content of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pre-treatment are needed in practice, which have to be set according to the utilization method. Feather was enzymatic degraded, and then fermented in separated bioreactors. The anaerobic bioreactor system (4 digesters with 6 litre volume was controlled by ACE SCADA software running on Linux platforms. Pot scale seed germination tests were established to suggest the quantity of digested slurry to be utilized. The chosen test plants were lettuce (Lactuca sativa. In case of reproduction test Student’s t-test was applied to examine significant differences between the root lengths of the control and the treated plant species. In case of pot seed germination variance analysis with Tukey B’s and Duncan test was applied to examine significant differences between the root lengths of plants, grown on different treatments. The effect of treatments on germination ability of the plant species was expressed in the percentage of the controls. According to Student’s t-test significant difference was found between root lengths of different treatments. Based on variance analysis with Tukey B’s and Duncan tests could be detected a significant difference between the treatments. Utilization of the fermented material reduces the use of fertilizers and because of its large moisture content it reduces the watering costs. Recycle of the slaughterhouse feather and different agricultural wastes and by-products can solve three main problems: disposal of harmful materials, producing of renewable energy and soil nutrient, measuring reflectance at the certain spectral range, which can

  6. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450-470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl-KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. •The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept.•This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L.•The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going.

  7. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  8. Recycling of PVC Waste via Environmental Friendly Vapor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Jin, Fangming; Zhang, Guangyi; Duan, Xiaokun

    2010-11-01

    This paper focused on the dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a plastic which is widely used in the human life and thereby is leading to serious "white pollution", via vapor treatment process to recycle PVC wastes. In the process, HCl emitted was captured into water solution to avoid hazardous gas pollution and corruption, and remaining polymers free of chlorine could be thermally degraded for further energy recovery. Optimal conditions for the dechlorination of PVC using vapor treatment was investigated, and economic feasibility of this method was also analyzed based on the experimental data. The results showed that the efficiency of dechlorination increased as the temperature increased from 200° C to 250° C, and the rate of dechlorination up to 100% was obtained at the temperature near 250° C. Meanwhile, about 12% of total organic carbon was detected in water solution, which indicated that PVC was slightly degraded in this process. The main products in solution were identified to be acetone, benzene and toluene. In addition, the effects of alkali catalysis on dechlorination were also studied in this paper, and it showed that alkali could not improve the efficiency of the dechlorination of PVC.

  9. Concept of an integrated waste economy represented on the example of recycling of valuable materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, H

    1980-08-01

    The historical development of waste elimination is discussed, followed by the waste problem in an environmental discussion, the possibilities of recycling within the framework of a waste industry, and the solution of the waste problem from a waste-economy viewpoint, including the definition of 'waste' and the grouping by types of waste, their amounts and increase rates, composition and valuable materials in community wastes with a review of waste technologies under waste-economy viewpoints. This is followed by a discussion of the sales possibilities for valuable components from mechanical sorting facilities, including used paper, old glass, hard substances, metals, plastics, succeeded by a comparative evaluation method, and the national economy aspect of the waste industry, with the savings effect in raw materials for different branches, effects on raw material reserves, the problem of dependence on imports, waste rates and living standard, and the importance of environmental instruments which are discussed in detail.

  10. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...... product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications...

  11. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; waste materials.

  12. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  13. Structural recycled concrete: utilization of recycled aggregate from construction and demolition wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaejos Gutierrez, P.; Sanchez de Juan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to present the main results of CEDEX research works concerning the use of recycled aggregates for structural concretes. By way of conclusion, recommendations on the requirements of the recycled aggregates have been established, providing information about the influence of these aggregates on the properties of structural concrete. (Author)

  14. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  15. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Managing a mixed waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    IT Corporation operates an analytical laboratory in St. Louis capable of analyzing environmental samples that are contaminated with both chemical and radioactive materials. Wastes generated during these analyses are hazardous in nature; some are listed wastes others exhibit characteristic hazards. When the original samples contain significant quantities of radioactive material, the waste must be treated as a mixed waste. A plan was written to document the waste management program describing the management of hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes. This presentation summarizes the methods employed by the St. Louis facility to reduce personnel exposures to the hazardous materials, minimize the volume of mixed waste and treat the materials prior to disposal. The procedures that are used and the effectiveness of each procedure will also be discussed. Some of the lessons that have been learned while dealing with mixed wastes will be presented as well as the solutions that were applied. This program has been effective in reducing the volume of mixed waste that is generated. The management program also serves as a method to manage the costs of the waste disposal program by effectively segregating the different wastes that are generated

  17. Beyond case studies: Quantitative effects of recycling, incentive, and diversion program choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skumatz, L.A. [Skumatz Economic Research Associates, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Communities, facing tight budgets, volatile markets, and the recycling backlash are turning their attention to making their programs more efficient and effective. Unfortunately, communities have very little quantitative information available to help them improve their programs. This is despite the fact that the majority of recycling programs have been running for over 6 years. Further, the author found that there are many thousands of curbside and dropoff recycling programs across the nation, as well as thousands of yard waste and variable rate programs. Still, with all these years of operating experience across the nation, at conferences, when planners ask about the likely impacts of possible program improvements, the answers usually begin, ``well, the City of [fill in the blank] made that change and found...``. Answers like this are seldom transferable to other communities. Similarly, most published information also relies on one or a few (less than ten) case studies, and published case studies usually describe programs that are outstanding in some way, making the information even less transferable. This type of information is wholly inadequate to derive information that is transferable to any other community. Can one really expect information from the City of San Jose, California, to transfer directly to the Village of Hartland, Wisconsin? That is the level of information that has been available thus far to planners. This study uses specially collected data from over 500 communities across North America as the basis for a statistical analysis of those programmatic and socio-demographic factors that contribute most to higher levels of recycling diversion. The work is unique in that it provides the first reliable quantitative information for use by community program planners in analyzing impacts of alternative programs and their cost-effectiveness to design sustainable, appropriate programs to improve diversion.

  18. Research on Recycling and Utilization of Solid Waste in Civil Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Jianping; Yi, Wei

    2018-05-01

    The aviation industry is embracing unprecedented prosperity together with the economic development. Building green airports resource-saving, environment-friendly and sustainable has become the inevitability of the times. The operation of airport will generate the large amount of waste every day, which certainly exposes airports and surrounding regions to waste disposal and ecological environment pressure. Waste disposal directly affects the surrounding environment of airports, which can be effectively mitigated by disposing waste into resources, i.e., sorting and recycling them into renewable materials. The development of green airport can also be promoted in this process. The article elaborates on the current methods of waste disposal adopted by airports. According to the principle of waste reduction, harmlessness, and resource recycling, a set of solid waste recycling and utilization methods suitable for airports are proposed, which can reduce the costs of waste transported to other places and landfilled. Various environmental pollution caused by landfill and other disposal methods can also be contained effectively. At the same time, resources can be fully recycled, converting waste into useful resources in an efficient and environmental-friendly way.

  19. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jiuyong; Guo Jie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-09-15

    The major economic driving force for recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs) of PCBs. The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up almost 70 wt% of waste PCBs, were treated by combustion or land filling in the past. However, combustion of the NMFs will cause the formation of highly toxic polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) while land filling of the NMFs will lead to secondary pollution caused by heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leaching to the groundwater. Therefore, recycling of the NMFs from waste PCBs is drawing more and more attention from the public and the governments. Currently, how to recycle the NMFs environmental soundly has become a significant topic in recycling of waste PCBs. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the NMFs, the compositions and characteristics of the NMFs, methods and outcomes of recycling the NMFs from waste PCBs and analysis and treatment for the hazardous substances contained in the NMFs were reviewed in this paper. Thermosetting resin matrix composites, thermoplastic matrix composites, concrete and viscoelastic materials are main applications for physical recycling of the NMFs. Chemical recycling methods consisting of pyrolysis, gasification, supercritical fluids depolymerization and hydrogenolytic degradation can be used to convert the NMFs to chemical feedstocks and fuels. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) can be used to determine the toxicity characteristic (TC) of the NMFs and to evaluate the environmental safety of products made from the recycled NMFs. It is believed that physical recycling of the NMFs has been a promising recycling method. Much more work should be done to develop comprehensive and industrialized usage of the NMFs recycled by physical methods. Chemical recycling methods have the advantages in eliminating hazardous substances

  20. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jiuyong; Guo Jie; Xu Zhenming

    2009-01-01

    The major economic driving force for recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs) of PCBs. The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up almost 70 wt% of waste PCBs, were treated by combustion or land filling in the past. However, combustion of the NMFs will cause the formation of highly toxic polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) while land filling of the NMFs will lead to secondary pollution caused by heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leaching to the groundwater. Therefore, recycling of the NMFs from waste PCBs is drawing more and more attention from the public and the governments. Currently, how to recycle the NMFs environmental soundly has become a significant topic in recycling of waste PCBs. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the NMFs, the compositions and characteristics of the NMFs, methods and outcomes of recycling the NMFs from waste PCBs and analysis and treatment for the hazardous substances contained in the NMFs were reviewed in this paper. Thermosetting resin matrix composites, thermoplastic matrix composites, concrete and viscoelastic materials are main applications for physical recycling of the NMFs. Chemical recycling methods consisting of pyrolysis, gasification, supercritical fluids depolymerization and hydrogenolytic degradation can be used to convert the NMFs to chemical feedstocks and fuels. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) can be used to determine the toxicity characteristic (TC) of the NMFs and to evaluate the environmental safety of products made from the recycled NMFs. It is believed that physical recycling of the NMFs has been a promising recycling method. Much more work should be done to develop comprehensive and industrialized usage of the NMFs recycled by physical methods. Chemical recycling methods have the advantages in eliminating hazardous substances

  1. New recycling approaches for thermoset polymeric composite wastes – an experimental study on polyester based concrete materials filled with fibre reinforced plastic recyclates

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, M. C. S.; Fiúza, António; Meira Castro, A C; Dinis, M. L.; Silva, Francisco J. G.; Meixedo, João Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a new waste management solution for thermoset glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) based products was assessed. Mechanical recycling approach, with reduction of GFRP waste to powdered and fibrous materials was applied, and the prospective added-value of obtained recyclates was experimentally investigated as raw material for polyester based mortars. Different GFRP waste admixed mortar formulations were analyzed varying the content, between 4% up to 12% in we...

  2. Postwar City: Importance of Recycling Construction and Demolition Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaraghuli, Hanan; Alsayed, Yaman; Almoghazy, Ali

    2017-10-01

    Wars and armed conflicts have heavy tolls on the built environment when they take place in cities. It is not only restricted to the actually fighting which destroys or damages buildings and infrastructure, but the damage and destruction inflicts its impacts way beyond the cessation of military actions. They can even have another impact through physical segregation of city quarters through walls and checkpoints that complicates, or even terminates, mobility of citizens, goods, and services in the post-war scenario. The accumulation of debris in the streets often impedes the processes of rescue, distribution of aid and services, and other forms of city life as well. Also, the amount of effort and energy needed to remove those residual materials to their final dumping sites divert a lot of urgently needed resources. In this paper, the components of construction and demolition waste found in post-war cities are to be discussed, relating each one to its origins and potential reuses. Then the issues related to the management of construction waste and demolition debris resulting from military actions are to be discussed. First, an outlook is to be given on the historical example of Berlin and how the city was severely damaged during World War II, and how the reconstruction of the city was aided in part by the reuse of demolition debris. Then two more recent examples will be given, the cities of Baghdad in Iraq, and Homs in Syria. In Baghdad, though major military actions have ceased but not all rubble is cleared out, some security structures in the form of concrete walls separate the cities into quarters and impede city life and lie around as poorly allocated resource needed for reconstruction. While in the case of Homs, and the wider Syrian context, major military operations are still raging, making more pressure on the resources needed for reconstruction. This recycling of demolition debris can bring economic and social stability through the conservation of resources

  3. Solid waste composition analysis and recycling evaluation: Zaatari Syrian Refugees Camp, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidan, Motasem N; Drais, Ammar Abu; Al-Manaseer, Ehab

    2017-03-01

    There is a need for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) stream characterization and composition analysis to allow for an accurate estimation of its recycling potential and for effective management of the entire system. Recycling provides employment and a livelihood for vulnerable social groups such as refugees. The aim of this paper is to determine the composition of MSW in Zaatari Syrian Refugee Camp, where approximately 430,000 Syrian refugees have passed through the camp. The representative waste samples and analysis included household waste and commercial waste produced by the refugees in the selected districts in Zaatari. The waste sampling was performed in 2015 over two seasons to ensure that the seasonal fluctuations in the composition of the waste stream are taken into consideration. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the categories and subcategories. The organic waste represents the main waste category with 53% of the total MSW, while plastics, textile, and paper and cardboard are 12.85%, 10.22% and 9%, respectively. Moreover, the MSW composition percentage in Zaatari Camp is similar to that in municipalities in Jordan with slight disparity. The potential recyclable materials market has been investigated in this study. Plastics and paper and cardboard have significant potential to be separated and collected for recycling purposes. Financial revenues of potential recyclables have been analyzed based on local prices. Recycling model in the camp is also proposed based on the present study findings. Consequently, these results should be taken as a baseline for all Syrian refugees camps in the Middle East, as well as, in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. AECL's mixed waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peori, R.; Hulley, V.

    2006-01-01

    Every nuclear facility has it, they wish that they didn't but they have generated and do possess m ixed waste , and until now there has been no permanent disposition option; it has been for the most been simply maintained in interim storage. The nuclear industry has been responsibly developing permanent solutions for solid radioactive waste for over fifty years and for non-radioactive, chemically hazardous waste, for the last twenty years. Mixed waste (radioactive and chemically hazardous waste) however, because of its special, duo-hazard nature, has been a continuing challenge. The Hazardous Waste and Segregation Program (HW and SP) at AECL's CRL has, over the past ten years, been developing solutions to deal with their own in-house mixed waste and, as a result, have developed solutions that they would like to share with other generators within the nuclear industry. The main aim of this paper is to document and describe the early development of the solutions for both aqueous and organic liquid wastes and to advertise to other generators of this waste type how these solutions can be implemented to solve their mixed waste problems. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and in particular, CRL has been satisfactorily disposing of mixed waste for the last seven years. CRL has developed a program that not only disposes of mixed waste, but offers a full service mixed waste management program to customers within Canada (that could eventually include U.S. sites as well) that has developed the experience and expertise to evaluate and optimize current practices, dispose of legacy inventories, and set up an efficient segregation system to reduce and effectively manage, both the volumes and expense of, the ongoing generation of mixed waste for all generators of mixed waste. (author)

  5. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  6. A study on engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using filler with recycled waste lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung Do, Hwang; Hee Mun, Park; Suk keun, Rhee

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on determining the engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using mineral fillers with recycled waste lime, which is a by-product of the production of soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)). The materials tested in this study were made using a 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% mixing ratio based on the conventional mineral filler ratio to analyze the possibility of using recycled waste lime. The asphalt concretes, made of recycled waste lime, hydrated lime, and conventional asphalt concrete, were evaluated through their fundamental engineering properties such as Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, resilient modulus, permanent deformation characteristics, moisture susceptibility, and fatigue resistance. The results indicate that the application of recycled waste lime as mineral filler improves the permanent deformation characteristics, stiffness and fatigue endurance of asphalt concrete at the wide range of temperatures. It was also determined that the mixtures with recycled waste lime showed higher resistance against stripping than conventional asphalt concrete. It was concluded from various test results that a waste lime can be used as mineral filler and, especially, can greatly improve the resistance of asphalt concrete to permanent deformation at high temperatures.

  7. State-of-the-art of recycling e-wastes by vacuum metallurgy separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-12-16

    In recent era, more and more electric and electronic equipment wastes (e-wastes) are generated that contain both toxic and valuable materials in them. Most studies focus on the extraction of valuable metals like Au, Ag from e-wastes. However, the recycling of metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, and organics has not attracted enough attentions. Vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) processes can reduce pollution significantly using vacuum technique. It can effectively recycle heavy metals and organics from e-wastes in an environmentally friendly way, which is beneficial for both preventing the heavy metal contaminations and the sustainable development of resources. VMS can be classified into several methods, such as vacuum evaporation, vacuum carbon reduction and vacuum pyrolysis. This paper respectively reviews the state-of-art of these methods applied to recycling heavy metals and organics from several kinds of e-wastes. The method principle, equipment used, separating process, optimized operating parameters and recycling mechanism of each case are illustrated in details. The perspectives on the further development of e-wastes recycling by VMS are also presented.

  8. Towards sustainable consumption: A socio-economic analysis of household waste recycling outcomes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Alex Y; Liu, Shuwen

    2018-05-15

    Many high-density cities struggle to find space for disposing municipal solid waste. Hong Kong is one of these cities, seeking to scale up waste recovery efforts as an alternative to disposal. However, territory-wide recovery initiatives do not account for socio-economic variations across place, leading to mixed outcomes among diverse communities. This study aims to investigate socio-economic effects on recycling behavior in a sample of subsidized rental housing estates. It constitutes an improvement from previous studies by using the entire estate as a unit of analysis and analyzing actual recycling outcomes, which have received limited attention from researchers. The analysis focused on the volume of recyclables collected from 158 public housing estates in Hong Kong, with an average population of 12,285. Results suggest that recycling outcomes vary with a limited set of socio-economic factors. Housing estates managed by a private property management company and populated by better off households collected more recyclables from their residents. Measures of absolute and relative recycling intensity achieved similar results. The findings will be useful for identifying residential communities requiring additional support for promoting waste separation and recycling. Differentiated policies for economically disadvantaged communities are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantifying solid waste and recycling employment in Florida, USA: Trends in public and private sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunjoo; Yi, Hongtao; Feiock, Richard C

    2015-12-01

    Measuring and tracking the numbers of jobs in solid waste management and recycling industries over time provide basic data to inform decision makers about the important role played by this sector in a state or region's 'green economy'. This study estimates the number of people employed in the solid waste and recycling industry from 1989 through 2011 in the state of Florida (USA), applying a classification scheme based on the Standard Industrial Code (SIC) and utilizing the National Establishment Time Series (NETS) database. The results indicate that solid waste and recycling jobs in the private sector steadily increased from 1989 to 2011, whereas government employment for solid waste management fluctuated over the same period. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Development of an innovative PWR for low cost fuel recycle and waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagawa, Takashi; Onoue, Masaaki

    2001-01-01

    In order to bear long-term and stable energy supply, it is important for nuclear power generation to realize establishment of energy security controlling dependence on natural resources and reduction of long-life radioactive wastes such as minor actinide elements (MA) and so on. For this, establishment of fast breeder reproducible on its fuel and of fuel recycling is essential and construction of the fuel recycling capable of repeatedly recycling of plutonium (Pu) and MA with low cost is required. Here were proposed a fuel recycling system combining recycling type PWR with advanced recycling system under development for Na cooling fast breeder reactor as a candidate filling such conditions, to show its characteristics and effects after its introduction. By this system, some facilities to realize flexible and low cost fuel recycling, to reduce longer-life radioactive wastes due to recycling burning of Pu and MA, and to realize an electric power supplying system independent on natural resources due to fuel breeding feature, were shown. (G.K.)

  11. Factors influencing the recycling rate under the volume-based waste fee system in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seejeen

    2018-04-01

    Since the early 2000s, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) has maintained its top-rank status for its municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling rate among OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) member countries. The volume-based waste fee system (VWF) has been considered to be the major factor contributing to the high recycling performance, and extant research has verified the positive relationship between VWF adoption and the MSW recycling rate. Nevertheless, there exists a gap in the literature, as past research has focused more on testing the positive effects of VWF rather than on investigating the determinants of recycling rates after the adoption of VWF. The current study seeks to address this gap by investigating the various factors that affect recycling rates under the VWF system. More specifically, using data from 16 regions in South Korea over a period of 11 years, this study empirically tests the effects of VWF pricing, the citizen cost burden ratio for the VWF system, and pro-environmental behavior related to VWF on the recycling rate. The findings indicate that economic incentives such as cost savings on VWF plastic bag purchases and reduced burden from paying VWF expenses result in higher recycling rates. The findings also demonstrate that pro-environmental behavior in the VWF context positively affects the recycling rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recycling potential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbo, Helena; Poliakova, Valeria; Mylläri, Ville; Sahimaa, Olli; Anderson, Reetta

    2018-01-01

    Recycling of plastics is urged by the need for closing material loops to maintain our natural resources when striving towards circular economy, but also by the concern raced by observations of plastic scrap in oceans and lakes. Packaging industry is the sector using the largest share of plastics, hence packaging dominates in the plastic waste flow. The aim of this paper was to sum up the recycling potential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland. This potential was evaluated based on the quantity, composition and mechanical quality of the plastic packaging waste generated by consumers and collected as a source-separated fraction, within the mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) or within energy waste. Based on the assessment 86,000-117,000 tons (18 kg/person/a) of post-consumer plastic packaging waste was generated in Finland in 2014. The majority, 84% of the waste was in the mixed MSW flow in 2014. Due to the launching of new sorting facilities and separate collections for post-consumer plastic packaging in 2016, almost 40% of the post-consumer plastic packaging could become available for recycling. However, a 50% recycling rate for post-consumer plastic packaging (other than PET bottles) would be needed to increase the overall MSW recycling rate from the current 41% by around two percentage points. The share of monotype plastics in the overall MSW plastics fraction was 80%, hence by volume the recycling potential of MSW plastics is high. Polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) were the most common plastic types present in mixed MSW, followed by polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). If all the Finnish plastic packaging waste collected through the three collection types would be available for recycling, then 19,000-25,000 tons of recycled PP and 6000-8000 tons of recycled HDPE would be available on the local market. However, this assessment includes uncertainties due to performing the

  13. The market-incentive recycling system for waste packaging containers in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor Yunchang, Jeffrey; Chien, Y.-L.; Hsu, Esher

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new market-incentive (MI) system to recycle waste-packaging containers in Taiwan. Since most used packaging containers have no or insufficient market value, the government imposes a combined product charge and subsidy policy to provide enough economic incentive for recycling various kinds of packaging containers, such as iron, aluminum, paper, glass and plastic. Empirical results show that the new MI approach has stimulated and established the recycling market for waste-packaging containers. The new recycling system has provided 18,356 employment opportunities and generated NT$ 6.97 billion in real-production value and NT$ 3.18 billion in real GDP during the 1998 survey year. Cost-effectiveness analysis constitutes the theoretical foundation of the new scheme, whereas data used to compute empirical product charge are from two sources: marketing surveys of internal conventional costs of solid-waste collection, disposal and recycling in Taiwan, and benefit transfer of external environmental costs in the United States. The new recycling policy designed by the authors provides a reasonable solution for solid-waste management in a country with limited land resources such as Taiwan

  14. Recycle and reuse of materials and components from waste streams of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    All nuclear fuel cycle processes utilize a wide range of equipment and materials to produce the final products they are designed for. However, as at any other industrial facility, during operation of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, apart from the main products some byproducts, spent materials and waste are generated. A lot of these materials, byproducts or some components of waste have a potential value and may be recycled within the original process or reused outside either directly or after appropriate treatment. The issue of recycle and reuse of valuable material is important for all industries including the nuclear fuel cycle. The level of different materials involvement and opportunities for their recycle and reuse in nuclear industry are different at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle activity, generally increasing from the front end to the back end processes and decommissioning. Minimization of waste arisings and the practice of recycle and reuse can improve process economics and can minimize the potential environmental impact. Recognizing the importance of this subject, the International Atomic Energy Agency initiated the preparation of this report aiming to review and summarize the information on the existing recycling and reuse practice for both radioactive and non-radioactive components of waste streams at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in recycle and reuse in nuclear industry

  15. Social awareness programmes in waste management and recycling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available .csir.co.zaSlide 21 • Clean-up campaigns do not succeed in changing human behaviour • Main message must be “do not litter” and “Reduce, re-use and recycle” • Incentives associated with clean-up campaigns often reward bad behaviour • Payment for clean-ups must... to emotion • If people feel guilty if they don’t recycle, they are likely to start recycling • Create simple “Prompts” • Sticky notes on garbage bins to remind people to recycle • Use social pressure • Share peer behaviour • Incentives • Make behaviour public...

  16. Design of an innovative, ecological portable waste compressor for in-house recycling of paper, plastic and metal packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xevgenos, D; Athanasopoulos, N; Kostazos, P K; Manolakos, D E; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Loizidou, M

    2015-05-01

    Waste management in Greece relies heavily on unsustainable waste practices (mainly landfills and in certain cases uncontrolled dumping of untreated waste). Even though major improvements have been achieved in the recycling of municipal solid waste during recent years, there are some barriers that hinder the achievement of high recycling rates. Source separation of municipal solid waste has been recognised as a promising solution to produce high-quality recycled materials that can be easily directed to secondary materials markets. This article presents an innovative miniature waste separator/compressor that has been designed and developed for the source separation of municipal solid waste at a household level. The design of the system is in line with the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), since it allows for the separate collection (and compression) of municipal solid waste, namely: plastic (polyethylene terephthalate and high-density polyethylene), paper (cardboard and Tetrapak) and metal (aluminium and tin cans). It has been designed through the use of suitable software tools (LS-DYNA, INVENTROR and COMSOL). The results from the simulations, as well as the whole design process and philosophy, are discussed in this article. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. USE OF RECYCLED POLYMERS FOR ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE, HAZARDOUS AND MIXED WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAGERRAAEN, P.R.; KALB, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Polyethylene encapsulation is a waste treatment technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory using thermoplastic polymers to safely and effectively solidify hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes for disposal. Over 13 years of development and demonstration with surrogate wastes as well as actual waste streams on both bench and full scale have shown this to be a viable and robust technology with wide application. Process development efforts have previously focused on the use of virgin polymer feedstocks. In order to potentially improve process economics and serve to lessen the municipal waste burden, recycled polymers were investigated for use as encapsulating agents. Recycled plastics included low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene and polypropylene, and were used as a direct substitute for or blended together with virgin resin. Impacts on processing and final waste form performance were examined

  18. Recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Pil-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Qureshi, T.I.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities of recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater were investigated. In order to get the highest growth of microorganism for increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system, different compositions of waste bread and skim milk with and without adding Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) were tested. Mixed waste bread compositions with added PAC showed relatively higher number of microorganisms than the compositions without added PAC. A composition of 40% mixed waste bread and 60% skim milk produced highest number of microorganisms with subsequent increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system. 'Contrast' alone showed lower contaminants' removal efficiency than mixed bread compositions. Use of waste bread in the composition of skim milk reduced cost of using foreign source of nutrients in biological treatment of wastewater and also facilitated waste bread management through recycling. (author)

  19. Monsanto Mound Laboratory tritium waste control technology development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixel, J.C.; Kershner, C.J.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1975-01-01

    Over the past four years, implementation of tritium waste control programs has resulted in a 30-fold reduction in the gaseous tritium effluents from Mound Laboratory. However, to reduce tritium waste levels to the ''as low as practicable'' guideline poses problems that are beyond ready solution with state-of-the-art tritium control technology. To meet this advanced technology need, a tritium waste control technology program was initiated. Although the initial thrust of the work under this program was oriented toward development of gaseous effluent treatment systems, its natural evolution has been toward the liquid waste problem. It is thought that, of all the possible approaches to disposal of tritiated liquid wastes, recovery offers the greatest advantages. End products of the recovery processes would be water detritiated to a level below the Radioactivity Concentration Guide (RCG) or detritiated to a level that would permit safe recycle in a closed loop operation and enriched tritium. The detritiated water effluent could be either recycled in a closed loop operation such as in a fuel reprocessing plant or safely released to the biosphere, and the recovered tritium could be recycled for use in fusion reactor studies or other applications

  20. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input–output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou’s urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. ► Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. ► Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. ► Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. ► Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input–output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  1. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Ming; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation about the ecotown-enterprise for establishing recycling system of non-radioactive waste arising from power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironaga, Michihiko; Nishiuchi, Tatsuo; Ozaki, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kimio

    2004-01-01

    About 95% of demolition wastes generated by decommissioning nuclear power plants are below the clearance level, i.e., the wastes can be dealt with as industrial wastes. On that case, rational processing, disposal, and reuse are expectable. However, even if the demolition waste is below a clearance level, it seems to be difficult to be immediately accepted in general society with the demolition wastes. Therefore, it is important to establish the technology for an effective recycle system of demolition wastes, and to reuse demolition wastes as much as possible, resulting in recognition of the value by the society. On the other hand, as for recycling of industrial waste, the recycling enterprise is promoted in the domestic self-governing body in response to the 'eco-town enterprise' which is recommended by the government. This report investigates the system and subjects of a 'eco-town enterprise' for recycling demolition wastes. (author)

  3. Nuclear Waste Disposal Program 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the many important steps in the management of radioactive waste that have already been implemented in Switzerland. The handling and packaging of waste, its characterisation and inventorying, as well as its interim storage and transport are examined. The many important steps in Swiss management of radioactive waste already implemented and wide experience gained in carrying out the associated activities are discussed. The legal framework and organisational measures that will allow the selection of repository sites are looked at. The various aspects examined include the origin, type and volume of radioactive wastes, along with concepts and designs for deep geological repositories and the types of waste to be stored therein. Also, an implementation plan for the deep geological repositories, the required capacities and the financing of waste management activities are discussed as is NAGRA’s information concept. Several diagrams and tables illustrate the program

  4. The policy of household waste management in lithuania: how we could recycle more responsibly?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaištaraitė, Ieva

    2016-01-01

    The Policy of Household Waste Management in Lithuania: How We Could Recycle More Responsibly? The main purpose of these bachelor thesis is evaluate the impact of Lithuanian policy of household waste management for habitants’ behaviour. In this work the author aims to find out the behaviour changes caused by implementing policy and give the recommendations for the more effective policy of household waste management. The issue raised in this work – although there is creating sorting infrastruct...

  5. The study on recycle scheme of the metallic radioactive wastes (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. I.; Park, J. H.; Jung, K. J.

    2003-01-01

    It was understood that regulation criteria for material release varied with countries and that international standards were not setup. But, most advanced countries are continuously studying on the recycling of metallic wastes for the purpose of the reuse of resources and disposal cost reduction. Practically, the advanced countries make a lot of cost profits compared with disposal as their metallic wastes are recycled and reused through technology like melting. The reasonable international standards are also expected to be set in the near future because of the aggressive cooperation between international agencies such as IAEA and NEA toward recycling these wastes. In our case, the recycle criteria for radioactive waste containing radioactive nuclide with long half-life such as Cs-137(half-life: 30y) and Co-60(half-life: 5.26y) including others, which are generated from the nuclear fission or dismantling of nuclear facilities, are not yet established. Therefore, it is required that the recommendation and legalization of the regulatory criteria be carried out for the recycle and reuse of metallic wastes to be generated from the dismantling of domestic nuclear facilities in the future

  6. Nutrient recycling of lipid-extracted waste in the production of an oleaginous thraustochytrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Brooks, Marianne S; Armenta, Roberto E

    2016-05-01

    Improving the economics of microalgae production for the recovery of microbial oil requires a comprehensive exploration of the measures needed to improve productivity as well as to reduce the overall processing costs. One avenue for cost reduction involves recycling the effluent waste water remaining after lipid extraction. This study investigates the feasibility of recycling those wastes for growing thraustochytrid biomass, a heterotrophic microalgae, where wastes were generated from the enzymatic extraction of the lipids from the cell biomass. It was demonstrated that secondary cultures of the tested thraustochytrid grown in the recycled wastes performed favorably in terms of cell and oil production (20.48 g cells L(-1) and 40.9 % (w/w) lipid) compared to the control (13.63 g cells L(-1) and 56.8 % (w/w) lipid). Further, the significant uptake of solubilized cell material (in the form of amino acids) demonstrated that the recycled waste has the potential for offsetting the need for fresh medium components. These results indicate that the implementation of a nutrient recycling strategy for industrial microalgae production could be possible, with significant added benefits such as conserving water resources, improving production efficiency, and decreasing material inputs.

  7. The analysis on the current status of the overseas recycle technology of the metallic radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae In; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Jung, Kee Jung

    2002-05-01

    It was understood that regulation criteria for material release varied with countries and that international standards were not setup. But, most advanced countries are continuously studying on the recycling of metallic wastes for the purpose of the reuse of resources and disposal cost reduction. Practically, the advanced countries make a lot of cost profits compared with disposal as their metallic wastes are recycled and reused through technology like melting. The reasonable international standards are also expected to be set in the near future because of the aggressive cooperation between international agencies such as IAEA and NEA toward recycling these wastes. In our case, the recycle criteria for radioactive waste containing radioactive nuclide with long half-life such as Cs-137(half-life: 30y) and Co-60(half-life: 5.26y) including others, which are generated from the nuclear fission or dismantling of nuclear facilities, are not yet established. Therefore, it is required that the recommendation and legalization of the regulatory criteria be carried out for the recycle and reuse of metallic wastes to be generated from the dismantling of domestic nuclear facilities in the future

  8. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE AND RECYCLABLE ORIGIN OF HOUSEHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Raquel da Silva Sottoriva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As the sustainable development that the society aims is based on economic, social and environmental factors, it can be said that the environmental crisis has as the component factors: natural resources, population and pollution. To reduce the pressure that human activities have on the environment, it is necessary to know the production process, inputs and outputs, to reduce potential problems such as waste and facilitate opportunities for system optimization. In this context it was investigated the life cycle of waste and household hazardous recyclable items to identify possibilities for reducing impact on supply chains. As a result it was found that the raw material most used by the paper industry is pine and eucalyptus plantations and some industries also use sugar cane. From the growing process until the paper is industrialized, there is a large demand of time. The cutting of eucalyptus should be done between 5 and 7 years, since the pine requires 10 to 12 years. After used, the papers can and should be recycled. When recycling 1 ton of paper 29.2 m3 of water can be saved, 3.51 MWh of electricity 76 and 22 trees when compared to traditional production processes. The cultivation of trees also contributes to carbon capture and sequestration. The eucalyptus ages 2, 4, 6, 8 years fixing concentrations of 11.12, 18.55, 80.91 and 97.86 t / ha, respectively. The paper can also be designed to compost due to biodegradability. The metal, glass and plastics are not biodegradable and inorganic nature needing to be recycled or reused. Recycling 1 ton of plastic is no economy of 5.3 MWh and 500 kg of oil. Even with the gains of environmental, social and economic impacts of recycling compared to traditional processes, in Brazil, the percentage of recycling paper and glass and PET bottles are less than 60%. The recycling of aluminum cans and steel exceeds 90%. Lamps and batteries are materials that are inadequately provide for contamination to the

  9. Survey of attitudes and perceptions of urine-diverting toilets and human waste recycling in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamichhane, Krishna M.; Babcock, Roger W.

    2013-01-01

    Urine constitutes only about 1% of domestic sewage but contains 50% or more of the excreted nutrients and chemicals like hormones and pharmaceutical residues. Urine diverting toilet (UDT) systems can be considered a more sustainable alternative to wastewater management because they allow nutrient recycling, reduce water use, and allow source-separation of hormones and chemicals that can harm the environment. An online survey was conducted to determine whether UDTs are acceptable to the general public in Hawaii and if attitudes and perceptions towards it and human waste (HW) recycling vary with age, sex, level of education, religious affiliation, ethnicity, and employment status. The survey was also intended to detect possible drivers and barriers for the UDTs. Variations on variables were tested at 5% significance (p = 0.05) level (Chi-squared test or ANOVA) and considered significantly different if the p-value was less than 0.05. The results were encouraging as more than 60% are willing to pay extra for the UDT, while only 22% knew that such systems existed. No statistically significant difference was found between males and females on all survey questions at the 5% level. However, females had higher willingness to pay (WTP) than males and WTP increased with age and income. The WTP of Caucasians was higher than Asians and differed significantly. Some respondents expressed concern about the legal provisions for recycling of HW. The survey results indicate that with a public education program, it is possible that most people would be willing to adopt UDTs and HW recycling with incurred societal benefits of reduced water and fertilizer use, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and collection of micropollutants at the source to prevent their entry into waterways. Because of the small sample size (N = 132, 13% response rate) the survey is not representative but may be indicative of the general attitude of Hawaiian people. - Highlights: ► Urine diverting toilets (UDTs

  10. Survey of attitudes and perceptions of urine-diverting toilets and human waste recycling in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamichhane, Krishna M., E-mail: lamichha@hawaii.edu [University of Hawaii, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2540 Dole Street, Holmes Hall 283, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Babcock, Roger W., E-mail: rbabcock@hawaii.edu [University of Hawaii, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Holmes Hall 383, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Urine constitutes only about 1% of domestic sewage but contains 50% or more of the excreted nutrients and chemicals like hormones and pharmaceutical residues. Urine diverting toilet (UDT) systems can be considered a more sustainable alternative to wastewater management because they allow nutrient recycling, reduce water use, and allow source-separation of hormones and chemicals that can harm the environment. An online survey was conducted to determine whether UDTs are acceptable to the general public in Hawaii and if attitudes and perceptions towards it and human waste (HW) recycling vary with age, sex, level of education, religious affiliation, ethnicity, and employment status. The survey was also intended to detect possible drivers and barriers for the UDTs. Variations on variables were tested at 5% significance (p = 0.05) level (Chi-squared test or ANOVA) and considered significantly different if the p-value was less than 0.05. The results were encouraging as more than 60% are willing to pay extra for the UDT, while only 22% knew that such systems existed. No statistically significant difference was found between males and females on all survey questions at the 5% level. However, females had higher willingness to pay (WTP) than males and WTP increased with age and income. The WTP of Caucasians was higher than Asians and differed significantly. Some respondents expressed concern about the legal provisions for recycling of HW. The survey results indicate that with a public education program, it is possible that most people would be willing to adopt UDTs and HW recycling with incurred societal benefits of reduced water and fertilizer use, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and collection of micropollutants at the source to prevent their entry into waterways. Because of the small sample size (N = 132, 13% response rate) the survey is not representative but may be indicative of the general attitude of Hawaiian people. - Highlights: ► Urine diverting toilets (UDTs

  11. Effect of Radiation Processing as an Integral Part of Safe Recycling Kitchen Waste for Poultry Feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.; Diaa El-Din, H.

    2004-01-01

    Kitchen wastes are relevant as a source of organic matter (i.e. protein, carbohydrate, minerals, and vitamins). Several microorganisms break down organic matter into methane, carbon dioxide, and other organic compounds containing sulfur and halogens. Kitchen wastes are valuable whereas they are too hazardous to be rejected into the environment without any attempt to recover and recycle them in a valuable form. Recycling kitchen waste as a feedstuff could have a considerable effect on reducing costs and solving some disposal problems. Treated such wastes with ionizing radiation can make an important contribution to minimize the risk of pathogens and the emission of greenhouse gases. The study was undertaken with two hundred and thirty kitchen waste samples collected from different restaurants in Cairo, Egypt. Effect of radiation treatment at 10 kGy on crude protein, amino acids profile, available lysine and the in-vitro digestibility of kitchen waste protein have been studied. The results suggest that radiation pasteurization of dried kitchen waste has a beneficial effect on recycling of such waste and permits waste to be included in poultry ration without any health hazard and nutritional problem. (author)

  12. Recovery and recycling practices in municipal solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofoworola, O.F.

    2007-01-01

    The population of Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, increased seven times from 1950 to 1980 with a current population of over 10 million inhabitants. The majority of the city's residents are poor. The residents make a heavy demand on resources and, at the same time, generate large quantities of solid waste. Approximately 4 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually in the city, including approximately 0.5 million of untreated industrial waste. This is approximately 1.1 kg/cap/day. Efforts by the various waste management agencies set up by the state government to keep its streets and neighborhoods clean have achieved only minimal success. This is because more than half of these wastes are left uncollected from the streets and the various locations due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of the waste management system. Whilst the benefits of proper solid waste management (SWM), such as increased revenues for municipal bodies, higher productivity rate, improved sanitation standards and better health conditions, cannot be overemphasized, it is important that there is a reduction in the quantity of recoverable materials in residential and commercial waste streams to minimize the problem of MSW disposal. This paper examines the status of recovery and recycling in current waste management practice in Lagos, Nigeria. Existing recovery and recycling patterns, recovery and recycling technologies, approaches to materials recycling, and the types of materials recovered from MSW are reviewed. Based on these, strategies for improving recovery and recycling practices in the management of MSW in Lagos, Nigeria are suggested

  13. Multi-material classification of dry recyclables from municipal solid waste based on thermal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundupalli, Sathish Paulraj; Hait, Subrata; Thakur, Atul

    2017-12-01

    There has been a significant rise in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the last few decades due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. Due to the lack of source segregation practice, a need for automated segregation of recyclables from MSW exists in the developing countries. This paper reports a thermal imaging based system for classifying useful recyclables from simulated MSW sample. Experimental results have demonstrated the possibility to use thermal imaging technique for classification and a robotic system for sorting of recyclables in a single process step. The reported classification system yields an accuracy in the range of 85-96% and is comparable with the existing single-material recyclable classification techniques. We believe that the reported thermal imaging based system can emerge as a viable and inexpensive large-scale classification-cum-sorting technology in recycling plants for processing MSW in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in China-legislative and market responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, C.; Dietmar, R.; Eugster, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of new legislation on collection, recycling and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as well as the scaling-up and privatisation of the WEEE processing industry, are indications of major changes for WEEE management in China. However, China's attempts to regulate the industry and establish a financially viable, environmentally benign and safe WEEE management system are facing significant challenges. The existence of an extensive informal sector, combined with a lack of environmental awareness among WEEE collectors, recyclers and consumers, are contributing to China's difficulties in developing a financially and environmentally sound recycling and disposal system. This paper discusses the current status of WEEE recycling and disposal in China, and its impacts on the environment, human health, and the economy. It also examines the legislative and market responses to the WEEE issue, and how these will be affected by Chinese attitudes and practices towards WEEE recycling

  15. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  16. National Waste Terminal Storage Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerby, C.D.

    1976-01-01

    Objective of this program is to provide facilities (Federal repositories) in various deep geologic formations at several locations in USA for the safe disposal of commercial radioactive waste from power reactors. The four types of containerized waste are described. The steps for developing the repositories are outlined

  17. Historical review of waste management and recycling in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available this instrument was never utilised. Limited waste policy and regulation emerged between 1989 and 2007. With the publishing of the 1st National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) [3] and the White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management (IP&WM) [4..., classification and disposal of waste, was developed with funding and technical support from the Danish Cooperation for Environment and Development (DANCED). The Minimum Requirements were replaced by “National Norms and Standards for the Assessment of Waste...

  18. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large...... recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...

  19. Cooperative urban mining in Brazil: Collective practices in selective household waste collection and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutberlet, J

    2015-11-01

    Solid waste is a major urban challenge worldwide and reclaiming the resources embedded in waste streams, involving organized recyclers, is a smart response to it. Informal and organized recyclers, mostly in the global south, already act as important urban miners in resource recovery. The paper describes the complex operations of recycling cooperatives and draws attention to their economic, environmental, and social contributions. A detailed discussion based on empirical data from the recycling network COOPCENT-ABC in metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, contextualizes this form of urban mining. The analysis is situated within Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) and Ecological Economy (EE) theory. Current challenges related to planning, public policy, and the implementation of cooperative recycling are analysed on the level of individual recyclers, cooperatives, municipalities and internationally. There are still many hurdles for the informal, organized recycling sector to become recognized as a key player in efficient material separation and to up-scale these activities for an effective contribution to the SSE and EE. Policies need to be in place to guarantee fair and safe work relations. There is a win-win situation where communities and the environment will benefit from organized urban mining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Study of the Closed-Loop Supply Chain Coordination on Waste Glass Bottles Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxue Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of waste products can sharply save manufacturing cost and improve the economic efficiency and corporate-reputation. It also has a great effect on the environment and resources protection. In the management of the closed-loop supply chain, the recycling of waste products and decision-making on pricing often directly affect the supply and demand of products and the operation efficiency of supply chain. Therefore, first we take waste glass bottles as an example and establish a mathematical model to solve the profit of manufacturers and retailers solely. Then, we analyzed whole supply chain profit under a dual-channel recycling condition which is directly recycled by consumers or by retailers. Finally, we concluded that no matter what product’s price, quality, profit, or operational efficiency of supply chain is, the overall recycling is better than the single node recycling model. Based on the analysis, we developed a new model to coordinate the profit of manufacturers and retailers in the supply chain with revenue-sharing contract. A numerical study shows that this approach is applicable and effective.

  1. Waste water purification using new porous ceramics prepared by recycling waste glass and bamboo charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Tetsuaki; Morimoto, Akane; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Kubuki, Shiro

    2017-12-01

    New porous ceramics (PC) prepared by recycling waste glass bottle of soft drinks (80 mass%) and bamboo charcoal (20 mass%) without any binder was applied to the waste water purification under aeration at 25 °C. Artificial waste water (15 L) containing 10 mL of milk was examined by combining 15 mL of activated sludge and 750 g of PC. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) showed a marked decrease from 178 to 4.0 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 5 days and to 2.0 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 7 days, which was equal to the Environmental Standard for the river water (class A) in Japan. Similarly, chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from 158 to 3.6 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 5 days and to 2.2 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 9 days, which was less than the Environmental Standard for the Seawater (class B) in Japan: 3.0 mg L-1. These results prove the high water purification ability of the PC, which will be effectively utilized for the purification of drinking water, fish preserve water, fish farm water, etc.

  2. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  3. Packaging waste recycling in Europe: Is the industry paying for it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira da Cruz, Nuno, E-mail: nunocruz@ist.utl.pt; Ferreira, Sandra; Cabral, Marta; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We study the recycling schemes of France, Germany, Portugal, Romania and the UK. • The costs and benefits of recycling are compared for France, Portugal and Romania. • The balance of costs and benefits depend on the perspective (strictly financial/economic). • Financial supports to local authorities ought to promote cost-efficiency. - Abstract: This paper describes and examines the schemes established in five EU countries for the recycling of packaging waste. The changes in packaging waste management were mainly implemented since the Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste entered into force. The analysis of the five systems allowed the authors to identify very different approaches to cope with the same problem: meet the recovery and recycling targets imposed by EU law. Packaging waste is a responsibility of the industry. However, local governments are generally in charge of waste management, particularly in countries with Green Dot schemes or similar extended producer responsibility systems. This leads to the need of establishing a system of financial transfers between the industry and the local governments (particularly regarding the extra costs involved with selective collection and sorting). Using the same methodological approach, the authors also compare the costs and benefits of recycling from the perspective of local public authorities for France, Portugal and Romania. Since the purpose of the current paper is to take note of who is paying for the incremental costs of recycling and whether the industry (i.e. the consumer) is paying for the net financial costs of packaging waste management, environmental impacts are not included in the analysis. The work carried out in this paper highlights some aspects that are prone to be improved and raises several questions that will require further research. In the three countries analyzed more closely in this paper the industry is not paying the net financial cost of packaging waste

  4. Packaging waste recycling in Europe: Is the industry paying for it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira da Cruz, Nuno; Ferreira, Sandra; Cabral, Marta; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the recycling schemes of France, Germany, Portugal, Romania and the UK. • The costs and benefits of recycling are compared for France, Portugal and Romania. • The balance of costs and benefits depend on the perspective (strictly financial/economic). • Financial supports to local authorities ought to promote cost-efficiency. - Abstract: This paper describes and examines the schemes established in five EU countries for the recycling of packaging waste. The changes in packaging waste management were mainly implemented since the Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste entered into force. The analysis of the five systems allowed the authors to identify very different approaches to cope with the same problem: meet the recovery and recycling targets imposed by EU law. Packaging waste is a responsibility of the industry. However, local governments are generally in charge of waste management, particularly in countries with Green Dot schemes or similar extended producer responsibility systems. This leads to the need of establishing a system of financial transfers between the industry and the local governments (particularly regarding the extra costs involved with selective collection and sorting). Using the same methodological approach, the authors also compare the costs and benefits of recycling from the perspective of local public authorities for France, Portugal and Romania. Since the purpose of the current paper is to take note of who is paying for the incremental costs of recycling and whether the industry (i.e. the consumer) is paying for the net financial costs of packaging waste management, environmental impacts are not included in the analysis. The work carried out in this paper highlights some aspects that are prone to be improved and raises several questions that will require further research. In the three countries analyzed more closely in this paper the industry is not paying the net financial cost of packaging waste

  5. Recycling of quarry waste as part of sustainable aggregate production: Norwegian and Italian point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Chiappino, Claudia; Primavori, Piero; Engelsen, Christian John

    2016-04-01

    Resource preservation is one of the main challenges in Europe, together with waste management and recycling; recently several researchers are interested in the recovering of critical raw materials and secondary raw materials from landfill. Aggregate supply, even if it is not "critical" sensus stricto (s.s.), is one of the European priorities (low value but high volume needs). On the other side, the management of quarry waste , mainly from dimension stones, but also as fines from aggregate crushing, is still a matter of concern. Such materials are managed in different ways both locally and nationwide, and often they are landfilled, because of an unclear legislation and a general lack of data. Most of time the local authorities adopt the maximum precaution principle or the enterprises find it little profitable to recover them, so that the sustainable recycling of such material is not valued. Several studies have shown, depending on the material specific characteristics, the viability of recycling quarry waste into new raw materials used in glass and ceramic industries, precast concrete production, infrastructures etc. (Loudes et al. 2012, Dino&Marian 2015, Bozzola et al 2012, Dino et al. 2012, etc.). Thus, aggregate production may be one of the profitable ways to use quarry waste and is falling under the priority of EU (aggregate supply). Positive economic and environmental effects are likely to be achieved by systematic recycling of quarry waste planned by industries (industrial planning) and public authorities (national and local planning of aggregate exploitation). Today, the recycling level varies to a great extent and systematic recovery is not common among European Countries. In Italy and Norway no significant incentives on recycling or systematic approaches for local aggregate exploitation exist. The environmental consequences can be overexploitation of the natural resources, land take for the landfills, environmental contamination and landscape alteration by

  6. Estimating the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers: The case of Bantar Gebang in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shunsuke; Araki, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    This article presents informal recycling contributions made by scavengers in the surrounding area of Bantar Gebang final disposal site for municipal solid waste generated in Jakarta. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted through daily conversations with scavengers to identify recycling actors at the site, and then quantitative field surveys were conducted twice. The first survey (n = 504 households) covered 33% of all households in the area, and the second survey (n = 69 households) was conducted to quantify transactions of recyclables among scavengers. Mathematical equations were formulated with assumptions made to estimate the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers. Slightly over 60% of all respondents were involved in informal recycling and over 80% of heads of households were waste pickers, normally referred to as live-in waste pickers and live-out waste pickers at the site. The largest percentage of their spouses were family workers, followed by waste pickers and housewives. Over 95% of all households of respondents had at least one waste picker or one small boss who has a coequal status of a waste picker. Average weight of recyclables collected by waste pickers at the site was estimated to be approximately 100 kg day(-1) per household on the net weight basis. The recycling rate of solid wastes collected by all scavengers at the site was estimated to be in the range of 2.8-7.5% of all solid wastes transported to the site. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling? A review of existing life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    comparisons of different management options for waste paper.\\ Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover...

  8. Electronic waste: chemical characterization glasses of tubes cathode rays with viability for recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Norma Maria O.; Morais, Crislene R. Silva; Lima, Lenilde Mergia Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Electronic waste, or e-waste, often makes incorrect destinations, which causes serious environmental problems. The aim of this study was to analyze the X-ray fluorescence to study the recycling technology for the glass of Cathode Ray Tubes or, popularly, 'picture tubes', identified by the acronym CRT (Cathode Ray Tubes), which integrate computer monitors. It was observed that the glass screen and funnel analyzed have different chemical compositions. As the silicon oxide (SiO2), the largest component of these glasses percentage 59.89% and 48.63% respectively for the screen and funnel this oxide is responsible for forming the vitreous network. The study of recycling of computer monitors it is important, since about 45% of existing materials on a monitor are made of glass, since it is 100% recyclable and can be reused, thus reducing the amount of waste deposited in the environment. (author)

  9. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Ming; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. - Highlights: ► We recommended to ban uses of deca-BDE in addition to penta- and octa-BDEs. ► We suggested to replace PVC in electronic products with non-chlorinated polymers. ► Spend less time on debating responsibilities and definition of e-waste and recycling. ► Proposed to work more on eliminating sources and potentials of toxic substances

  10. Persistent toxic substances released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling and actions for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Ming [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Naidu, Ravi [Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments (CRC CARE), University of South Australia (Australia); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong)

    2013-10-01

    The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on March 22, 1989 and enforced on May 5, 1992. Since then, the USA, one of the world's largest e-waste producers, has not ratified this Convention or the Basel Ban Amendment. Communities are still debating the legal loophole, which permits the export of whole products to other countries provided it is not for recycling. In January 2011, China's WEEE Directive was implemented, providing stricter control over e-waste imports to China, including Hong Kong, while emphasizing that e-waste recycling is the producers' responsibility. China is expected to supersede the USA as the principal e-waste producer, by 2020, according to the UNEP. Uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities generate and release heavy metals and POPs into the environment, which may be re-distributed, bioaccumulated and biomagnified, with potentially adverse human health effects. Greater efforts and scientific approaches are needed for future e-product designs of minimal toxic metal and compound use, reaping greater benefits than debating the definition and handling responsibilities of e-waste recycling. - Highlights: ► We recommended to ban uses of deca-BDE in addition to penta- and octa-BDEs. ► We suggested to replace PVC in electronic products with non-chlorinated polymers. ► Spend less time on debating responsibilities and definition of e-waste and recycling. ► Proposed to work more on eliminating sources and potentials of toxic substances.

  11. Residents' behaviors, attitudes, and willingness to pay for recycling e-waste in Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2012-09-15

    Large quantities of e-waste are presently being generated in Macau, but since recycling facilities and laws on e-waste still need to be developed, most e-waste cannot currently be properly treated. Moreover, little is known about residents' behaviors, attitudes, and their willingness to pay (WTP) for recycling e-waste. These issues are discussed in this study, based on a questionnaire survey on household electronic product usage. In 2010, "Life span completed" was the primary reason respondents abandoned their electronic products, accounting for about 37.97% of responses; the main disposal methods of e-waste in Macau were "Retailers retrieve from consumer" and "Sale to a recycling corporation." While having little understanding of e-waste disposal issues, most residents were still willing to hand their e-waste into the government for centralized collection. In addition, the respondents gave "telephone reservation" as their preferred collection method. Finally, the residents' WTP in Macau was estimated by the logistic regression method. It was found that education level, age and household income were the significant factors affecting residents' WTP. The monthly mean WTP was 20.03MOP (2.50 US dollar) per household, and the annual WTP was approximately 40,185,067 MOP (5,023,133 US dollar) for all of Macau. The results of our study can help managers develop more effective environmental management policies for e-waste disposal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marpaung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS, due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle

  13. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marpaung, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle (author)

  14. Application to refrigerator plastics by mechanical recycling from polypropylene in waste-appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyung Ho; Kim, Moon Saeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Polypropylene is mechanically recycled from waste-appliances. → Recycled polypropylene (RPP) is impact enhanced polypropylene with ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR). → Performance evaluation shows that RPP is applicable to refrigerator plastics. -- Abstract: For the application to refrigerator plastics by mechanical recycling from polypropylene (PP) in waste-appliances, it needs to identify the degradation and heterogeneity of recycled polypropylene (RPP). It is applicable the thermal analysis such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), spectroscopic analysis such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and morphological analysis such as scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The analysis results show that RPP from waste-appliances is the polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) copolymer enhanced impact property (Impact-PP) and it is possible to apply refrigerator plastics with good impact property at low temperature. Finally, the performance evaluation of RPP is estimated by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analysis and is performed by the various mechanical and physical testing methods. It shows that RPP has relatively high molecular weight and balanced properties with strength and toughness. It is expected that RPP by the mechanical recycling from waste-appliances will have about 50% cost-merit.

  15. Integrating recycling, renewable energy and agriculture for commercial waste to wealth businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Khai Chung; Angeline Pang

    2010-01-01

    Recycling organic material to produce renewable energy and organic fertilizer is an attractive business model in waste to wealth business proposition. Azed Bina Sdn Bhd has developed an integrated recycling facility to recycle solid organic materials into energy and organic fertilizer, a project partially funded by MOSTI TechnoFund in 2008. The novel and innovative aspect is the water disassociation technology which separates the water into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas economically using thermal heat from the burning of biomass which is a waste material. This system is modular, scalable, economical and environmental friendly. It has many applications in the field of, Environment and Solid Waste Management - recycling organic waste into energy and organic fertilizer rather than disposal at the landfill, hence preserving our environment. Green technology - economical biogas production consists of 50% hydrogen gas which is a clean and renewable energy source. The biogas has many applications in the food industry, manufacturing industry and agriculture sector. Agro-based industry - production of clean heat energy is useful for the drying of agriculture crops. Agriculture Sector - production of ash can be used to produce organic fertilizer by incorporating effective microbes. Reduce the dependence on chemical fertilizer which is bad for the environment Rural Development - developing rural area by integrating small scale industries, agro based industry, agriculture and rural area. The company commercial applications of recycling organic materials to produce energy for companies such as laundry business, agro based food drying and waste management recycling. The next project is to provide chilled water using organic waste. (author)

  16. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  17. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-09-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer-GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties.

  18. Facts and Figures about Materials, Waste and Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The area will transform MSW info included in our Advancing SMM report to better serve our audience’s needs and will also hold data on certain industrial wastes, related job creation, and in the future, hazardous waste.

  19. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matter, Anne; Ahsan, Mehedi; Marbach, Michelle; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bangladesh’s industry and population are growing rapidly, producing more urban waste. • Recycling reduces the solid waste management burden of Municipalities. • A wide array of informal and formal actors is involved in collection and recycling. • Demand for recycled materials and renewable energy creates market incentives. • Policy incentives exist, but they only reach the formal industry. - Abstract: Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents’ living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization

  20. Physical and thermal behavior of cement composites reinforced with recycled waste paper fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarova, Viola; Stevulova, Nadezda; Vaclavik, Vojtech; Dvorsky, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    In this study, three types of recycled waste paper fibers were used to manufacture cement composites reinforced with recycled cellulosic fibers. Waste cellulosic fibers in quantity of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 wt.% were added to cement mixtures. Physical properties such as density, water capillarity, water absorbability and thermal conductivity of fiber cement composites were studied after 28 days of hardening. However, durability of composites was tested after their water storage up to 90 days. Final results of tested properties of fiber cement composites were compared with cement reference sample without cellulosic fibers.

  1. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matter, Anne [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec), Überlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Swisscontact: Swiss Foundation for Technical Cooperation, South Asian Regional Office, House No. 19, Road No. 11, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Ahsan, Mehedi [KfW: Development Bank for Germany, Bangladesh Office, House 10/C, Road 90, Gulshan 2, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Marbach, Michelle [NADEL: Center for Development and Cooperation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 37, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Zurbrügg, Christian [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec), Überlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Bangladesh’s industry and population are growing rapidly, producing more urban waste. • Recycling reduces the solid waste management burden of Municipalities. • A wide array of informal and formal actors is involved in collection and recycling. • Demand for recycled materials and renewable energy creates market incentives. • Policy incentives exist, but they only reach the formal industry. - Abstract: Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents’ living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization

  2. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... routed to incineration. Emission factors ranged from 27 to 40kg CO2/GJ. The results appeared most sensitive towards variations in waste composition and water content. Recycling rates and lower heating values could not be used as simple indicators of the resulting emission factors for residual household...... different studies and when using the values for environmental assessment purposes....

  3. Metal Radioactive Waste Recycling from the Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajt, B.; Prah, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the dismantling process of nuclear power plants a large amount of metal residues are generated. The residues of interest are stainless steel, copper and aluminium and can be reprocessed either for restricted or unrestricted use. Although there are many questions about the further use of these materials it should be convenient to recycle them. This paper discusses the complexity of the management of these metals. The radiation protection requirements are the most important principles. For these purposes great efforts in the decontamination have to be made. Regulatory aspects, clearance levels as well as characteristic of steel recycling industry, radiological impact and new developments are discussed. (author)

  4. On the effectiveness of a license scheme for E-waste recycling: The challenge of China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinkuma, Takayoshi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that China and India have been recycling centers of WEEE, especially printed circuit boards, and that serious environmental pollution in these countries has been generated by improper recycling methods. After the governments of China and India banned improper recycling by the informal sector, improper recycling activities spread to other places. Then, these governments changed their policies to one of promoting proper recycling by introducing a scheme, under which E-waste recycling requires a license issued by the government. In this paper, the effectiveness of that license scheme is examined by means of an economic model. It can be shown that the license scheme can work effectively only if disposers of E-waste have a responsibility to sell E-waste to license holders. Our results run counter to the idea that international E-waste trade should be banned and provide an alternative solution to the problem.

  5. Recycling of waste polymeric materials using ionizing radiation techniques for possible applications and practical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khozemy, E.E.Z.

    2007-01-01

    recycling of waste polypropylene (WPP) and waste rubber (WR) originated from rejected worn-out tires present very important problem due to their huge amount and their negative impact on environment. many communities in the world are struggling with this problem of how to manage waste disposal, in order to eliminate or reduce waste rubber from the environment and to reduce costs of some rubber and polypropylene articles. trials to reuse waste rubber and waste polypropylene, have encountered some difficulties.such two substrate polymers differ from each other in nature, since waste polypropylene is thermoplastic while waste rubber exists in thermosetting state. accordingly, the study and use of their mixtures should be very interesting.the aim of this work is to modify the physical and chemical properties of WR and WPP each in the form of powder (120,80 mech size), through a trial to graft some vinyl comonomers onto their surfaces using gamma radiation

  6. Status of the Japan's regulatory policy on radioactive waste management. Cleanup and recycling issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Daiji

    1995-01-01

    Wastes from nuclear facilities are very diversified concerning that have different levels of radioactivity and include different kinds of radioactive materials. Besides some of those waste is not assumed as radioactive waste. The basic policy of the radioactive waste management is taking that diversity into full account for appropriate separate management of different types of radioactive waste and treatment and disposal of each type in a rational manner, including recycling. From the point, the disposal methods are considered or under consideration to that waste, (1) from nuclear reactor facility, (2) from nuclear fuel cycle facility--HLW, waste contaminated TRU nuclides, or contaminated uranium, (3) from RI utilization or research institute, and (4) from decommissioning of nuclear facility. Now in Japan, regulation framework for some kind of LLW from reactor facility, including waste from decommissioning of reactor is established. (J.P.N.)

  7. Toward zero waste: Composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottle, Troy A.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Landis, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Venues have billions of customers per year contributing to waste generation. • Waste audits of four university baseball games were conducted to assess venue waste. • Seven scenarios including composting were modeled using EPA’s WARM. • Findings demonstrate tradeoffs between emissions, energy, and landfill avoidance. • Sustainability of handling depends on efficacy of collection and treatment impacts. - Abstract: This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO 2 equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO 2 eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO 2 eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night (with the

  8. Toward zero waste: Composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hottle, Troy A., E-mail: troy.hottle@asu.edu [Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, 370 Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building 4 (ISTB4), 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004 (United States); Bilec, Melissa M., E-mail: mbilec@pitt.edu [University of Pittsburgh, Civil and Environmental Engineering, 153 Benedum Hall, 3700 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261-3949 (United States); Brown, Nicholas R., E-mail: nick.brown@asu.edu [Arizona State University, University Sustainability Practices, 1130 East University Drive, Suite 206, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Landis, Amy E., E-mail: amy.landis@asu.edu [Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, 375 Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building 4 (ISTB4), 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Venues have billions of customers per year contributing to waste generation. • Waste audits of four university baseball games were conducted to assess venue waste. • Seven scenarios including composting were modeled using EPA’s WARM. • Findings demonstrate tradeoffs between emissions, energy, and landfill avoidance. • Sustainability of handling depends on efficacy of collection and treatment impacts. - Abstract: This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO{sub 2} eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO{sub 2} eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night

  9. Recycling polyethylene terephthalate wastes as short fibers in Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyi; Yu, Jing; Li, Hedong; Lam, Jeffery Y K; Shih, Kaimin; Sham, Ivan M L; Leung, Christopher K Y

    2018-05-26

    As an important portion of the total plastic waste bulk but lack of reuse and recycling, the enormous amounts of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) solid wastes have led to serious environmental issues. This study explores the feasibility of recycling PET solid wastes as short fibers in Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCCs), which exhibit strain-hardening and multiple cracking under tension, and therefore have clear advantages over conventional concrete for many construction applications. Based on micromechanical modeling, fiber dispersion and alkali resistance, the size of recycled PET fibers was first determined. Then the hydrophobic PET surface was treated with NaOH solution followed by a silane coupling agent to achieve the dual purpose of improving the fiber/matrix interfacial frictional bond (from 0.64 MPa to 0.80 MPa) and enhancing the alkali resistance for applications in alkaline cementitious environment. With surface treatment, recycling PET wastes as fibers in SHCCs is a promising approach to significantly reduce the material cost of SHCCs while disposing hazardous PET wastes in construction industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the environmental impact of recycling and incineration of household waste. ► Recycling of paper, glass, steel and aluminium is better than incineration. ► Recycling and incineration of cardboard and plastic can be equally good alternatives. ► Recyclables can be transported long distances and still have environmental benefits. ► Paper has a higher environmental benefit than recyclables found in smaller amounts. - Abstract: Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  11. Greening the Department of Energy through waste prevention, recycling, and Federal acquisition. Strategic plan to implement Executive Order 13101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-11-01

    This Plan provides strategies and milestones to implement Executive Order 13101, Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, and to achieve the new Secretarial goals for 2005 and 2010. It serves as the principal Secretarial guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Field Offices, and laboratory and contractor staff to improve sanitary waste prevention, recycling, and the purchase and use of recycled content and environmentally preferable products and services in the DOE.

  12. A model for a national low level waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenhorn, James A.

    2009-01-01

    A national program for the management of low level waste is essential to the success of environmental clean-up, decontamination and decommissioning, current operations and future missions. The value of a national program is recognized through procedural consistency and a shared set of resources. A national program requires a clear waste definition and an understanding of waste characteristics matched against available and proposed disposal options. A national program requires the development and implementation of standards and procedures for implementing the waste hierarchy, with a specitic emphasis on waste avoidance, minimization and recycling. It requires a common set of objectives for waste characterization based on the disposal facility's waste acceptance criteria, regulatory and license requirements and performance assessments. Finally, a national waste certification program is required to ensure compliance. To facilitate and enhance the national program, a centralized generator services organization, tasked with providing technical services to the generators on behalf of the national program, is necessary. These subject matter experts are the interface between the generating sites and the disposal facility(s). They provide an invaluable service to the generating organizations through their involvement in waste planning prior to waste generation and through championing implementation of the waste hierarchy. Through their interface, national treatment and transportation services are optimized and new business opportunities are identified. This national model is based on extensive experience in the development and on-going management of a national transuranic waste program and management of the national repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The Low Level Program at the Savannah River Site also successfully developed and implemented the waste hierarchy, waste certification and waste generator services concepts presented below. The Savannah River Site

  13. Radiation exposure estimates on production and utilization of recycled items using dismantling waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hisashi; Nakashima, Mikio

    2002-03-01

    Radiation exposure was estimated on production and utilization of recycled items using dismantling wastes by assuming that their usage are restricted to nuclear facilities. The radiation exposure attributed to production of a steel-plate cast iron waste container, a receptacle for slag, and a drum reinforcement was calculated to be in the range of several μSv to several tens of μSv even in recycling contaminated metal waste of which radioactivity concentration of Co-60 is higher than the clearance level by a factor of two figures. It is also elucidated that casting of a multiple casting waste package meets the standards of dose equivalent rate for the transport of a radioactive package and the weight of the package will be able to kept around 20 tons for the convenience of the handling, in case of disposal of metal waste less than 37 MBq/g with the steel-plate cast iron waste container. As the results, from the radiological exposure's point of view, it should be possible to use slightly contaminated metal for recycled items in waste management. (author)

  14. Informal E-waste recycling in developing countries: review of metal(loid)s pollution, environmental impacts and transport pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackah, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Crude or primitive recycling practices are often adopted in material resource recovery from E-waste in developing nations. Significant human health and environmental impacts may occur because of such practices. Literature on metal(loid)s pollution during E-waste processing is fragmented. Here, I review the health and environmental impacts of E-waste recycling operations and transport pathways of metal(loid)s, dispersed during operations. This paper is organised into five sections. Section 1 relates to the background of global E-waste generation and legal/illegal trade, citing specific cases from Ghana and other developing nations. Section 2 provides a brief information on sources of metal(loid)s in E-waste. Section 3 describes characteristics of informal E-waste recycling operations in developing nations. Section 4 examines the health and environmental impacts in E-waste recycling while section 5 evaluates major transport pathways of metal(loid)s contaminants.

  15. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O'Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)

  16. Disposal of radwastes and recycling of wastes and structural materials -fundamental principles, concepts, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, G.; Arens, G.; Brennecke, P.; Goertz, R.; Poschner, J.; Thieme, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the German concept for the disposal of radioactive waste, and the re-use or recycling of contaminated materials. All radioactive waste can be disposed of in deep geological formations (practised at ERAM disposal site, planned for Konrad disposal site). Radioactively contaminated material below clearance levels can proceed for disposal at waste disposal sites and incineration plants, or for re-use and recycling, especially where the material consists of contaminated steel and of buildings. The basic principles (dose limits and model structures for deriving recommendations), reference values, or limits are described. The latest concepts are described in greater detail. Waste management in Germany is compared with international concepts. (orig.) [de

  17. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics

  18. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang1968@163.com; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L{sub 9} (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  19. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70°C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China’s paper industry based on physical input–output life-cycle assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu; Xu Yijian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. ► Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. ► Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. ► Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input–output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China’s paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

  2. Polyolephine waste recycling as source of power energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisovski Štefan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyolephine waste (polyetilene, polypropilene is the main source of environmental pollution. Depolymerization of waste in reactor under atmospheric pressure yields hydrocarbon mixture C1-C34. In turn, combustion of C1-C7 fraction provides reactor temperature regime. The plant is automated and energetically highly efficient. Small electric power is required for operating the plant. The waste originating from depolymerazation does not pollute the environment. Fraction C7-C34 not only serves for commercial purposes but also as a power energy provider within the waste deploymerization plant.

  3. Waste removal systems and recycling participation in residential environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2002-01-01

    Systems for the removal of waste are important although often overlooked elements of any residential environment. It is an old insight that when these systems are ineffective (and this is globally and historically the rule rather than the exception), human living conditions and often even human...... health are severely impaired (Pieters, 1989). More recently, resource waste and environmental hazards from waste have given rise to public and political concern as well, even when disposal systems are well managed. This concern has led to efforts to divert solid waste away from disposal and towards some...

  4. Recycling of mixed wastes using Quantum-CEP{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameski, B.

    1997-02-01

    The author describes the process that M4 Environmental Management, Inc., is commercializing for the treatment of mixed wastes. He summarizes the types of wastes which the process can be applied to, the products which come out of the process, and examples of various waste streams which have been processed. The process is presently licensed to treat mixed wastes and the company has in place contracts for such services. The process uses a molten metal bath to catalyze reactions which break the incoming products down to an atomic level, and allow different process steams to be tapped at the output end.

  5. Novel recycle technology for recovering rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Lu; Xia, Fafa; Ye, Qiuyu; Xiang, Xishu; Xie, Bing, E-mail: bxie@des.ecnu.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Rare metals (Ga, In) are separated and recycled from waste light-emitting diodes. • Pyrolysis, physical disaggregation and vacuum metallurgy separation are proposed. • There is no hazardous materials produced in this process. - Abstract: This work develops a novel process of recycling rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes using the combination of pyrolysis, physical disaggregation methods and vacuum metallurgy separation. Firstly, the pure chips containing InGaN/GaN are adopted to study the vacuum separation behavior of rare metals, which aims to provide the theoretical foundation for recycling gallium and indium from waste light-emitting diodes. In order to extract the rare-metal-rich particles from waste light-emitting diodes, pyrolysis and physical disaggregation methods (crushing, screening, grinding and secondly screening) are studied respectively, and the operating parameters are optimized. With low boiling points and high saturation vapor pressures under vacuum, gallium and indium are separated from rare-metal-rich particles by the process of evaporation and condensation. By reference to the separating parameters of pure chips, gallium and indium in waste light-emitting diodes are recycled with the recovery efficiencies of 93.48% and 95.67% under the conditions as follows: heating temperature of 1373 K, vacuum pressure of 0.01–0.1 Pa, and holding time of 60 min. There are no secondary hazardous materials generated in the whole processes. This work provides an efficient and environmentally friendly process for recycling rare metals from waste light-emitting diodes.

  6. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Anne; Ahsan, Mehedi; Marbach, Michelle; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents' living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization. Comparatively, the organic waste recycling sector is less driven by market mechanisms. Competition from chemical fertilizers and fossil fuels is fierce and hinders the development of market opportunities for compost and renewable energy. Nevertheless commercial production of compost and biogas from organic municipal waste is formalized and benefiting from policy incentives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental pollution of electronic waste recycling in India: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the production of electrical and electronic products has meant an equally rapid growth in the amount of electronic waste (e-waste), much of which is illegally imported to India, for disposal presenting a serious environmental challenge. The environmental impact during e-waste recycling was investigated and metal as well as other pollutants [e.g. polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] were found in excessive levels in soil, water and other habitats. The most e-waste is dealt with as general or crudely often by open burning, acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As resulted of these process; dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released and harmful to the surrounding environment, engaged workers, and also residents inhabiting near the sites. The informal e-waste sectors are growing rapidly in the developing countries over than in the developed countries because of cheapest labor cost and week legislations systems. It has been confirmed that contaminates are moving through the food chain via root plant translocation system, to the human body thereby threatening human health. We have suggested some possible solution toward in which plants and microbes combine to remediate highly contaminated sites. - Highlights: • It systematically reviewed Environmental deterioration through e-waste recycling in India. • We found heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd and Cr) potentially serious concern at recycling site. • The heavy metals can entered human body through the direct and indirect exposure. • Regular monitoring required to examine the possibility of risk through e-waste mismanagement. • Further phytoremedial approach can be use as one of the possible solution for contaminated soil and improve the land quality. - The e-waste recycling sites are highly contaminated with heavy metals as well as other pollutants (e.g. PBDEs, PCBs) in excessive levels.

  8. Innovative technologies of waste recycling with production of high performance products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmanshin, R; Azimov, Yu I; Gilmanshina, S I; Ferenets, A V; Galeeva, A I

    2015-01-01

    The innovative ways of recycling wastes as a tool for sustainable development are presented in the article. The technology of the production of a composite material based on the rubber fiber composite waste tire industry is presented. The results of experimental use of the products in the real conditions. The comparative characteristics of the composite material rubber fiber composite are given. The production technology of construction and repairing materials on the basis of foamed glass is presented. (paper)

  9. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, T

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed ...

  10. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  11. Fires at storage sites of organic materials, waste fuels and recyclables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim; Alriksson, Stina; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William

    2013-09-01

    During the last decade, the European Union has enforced the diversion of organic wastes and recyclables to waste management companies operating incineration plants, composting plants and recycling units instead of landfills. The temporary storage sites have been established as a buffer against fluctuations in energy demand throughout the year. Materials also need to be stored at temporary storage sites before recovery and recycling. However, regulations governing waste fuel storage and handling have not yet been developed, and, as a result, companies have engaged in risky practices that have resulted in a high number of fire incidents. In this study, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 249 of the 400 members of Avfall Sverige (Swedish Waste Management Association), which represents the waste management of 95% of the Swedish population. Information regarding 122 storage facilities owned by 69 companies was obtained; these facilities were responsible for the storage of 47% of the total treated waste (incineration + digestion + composting) in 2010 in Sweden. To identify factors related to fire frequency, the questionnaire covered the amounts of material handled and burnt per year, financial losses due to fires, storage duration, storage method and types of waste. The results show that 217 fire incidents corresponded to 170 kilotonnes of material burnt and cumulative losses of 49 million SEK (€4.3 million). Fire frequency and amount of material burnt per fire was found to be dependent upon type of management group (waste operator). Moreover, a correlation was found between fire frequency and material recycled during past years. Further investigations of financial aspects and externalities of fire incidents are recommended.

  12. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO 2 e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO 2 e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO 2 e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard

  13. Innovative technologies of waste recycling with production of high performance products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, R.; Ferenets, A. V.; Azimov, Yu I.; Galeeva, A. I.; Gilmanshina, S. I.

    2015-06-01

    The innovative ways of recycling wastes as a tool for sustainable development are presented in the article. The technology of the production of a composite material based on the rubber fiber composite waste tire industry is presented. The results of experimental use of the products in the real conditions. The comparative characteristics of the composite material rubber fiber composite are given. The production technology of construction and repairing materials on the basis of foamed glass is presented.

  14. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Pilot-based assessment of the economics of recycling construction demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, Issam M; Chehab, Ghassan R; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Tamraz, Sandy

    2013-11-01

    The significant amount of waste generated from construction demolition has become a chronic problem in many developing countries. Using data obtained from demolition contractors and various other sources, this paper proposes a framework for proper handling of construction demolition waste (CDW) to serve as a decision support tool in countries suffering from the lack of national CDW management guidelines. The framework is then demonstrated through a case study in the city of Beirut, Lebanon, and a sensitivity analysis is carried out to examine the economic feasibility of developing a recycling facility. The analysis showed that in order for a facility to be feasible, a gate fee should be charged in the presence of a market for recycled aggregates. The results confirm the significance of instigating and implementing legislation to control illegal dumping, constructing, and managing engineered landfills, and establishing markets for recycled CDW.

  16. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  17. Waste isolation safety assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.

    1979-05-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Among the analyses required for isolation system evaluation is the detailed assessment of the post-closure performance of nuclear waste repositories in geologic formations. This assessment is essential, since it is concerned with aspects of the nuclear power program which previously have not been addressed. Specifically, the nature of the isolation systems (e.g., involving breach scenarios and transport through the geosphere), and the time-scales necessary for isolation, dictate the development, demonstration and application of novel assessment capabilities. The assessment methodology needs to be thorough, flexible, objective, and scientifically defensible. Further, the data utilized must be accurate, documented, reproducible, and based on sound scientific principles

  18. The effects of recycling loops in food waste management in Japan: based on the environmental and economic evaluation of food recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Miki; Fukushima, Kazuyo; Kino-Kimata, Noriko; Nagao, Norio; Niwa, Chiaki; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-08-15

    In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a "recycling loop" that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of -126 and -49 kg-CO(2)/t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of -15,648 and -18,955 yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic effectiveness. This

  19. The effects of recycling loops in food waste management in Japan: Based on the environmental and economic evaluation of food recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Miki; Fukushima, Kazuyo; Kino-Kimata, Noriko; Nagao, Norio; Niwa, Chiaki; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a “recycling loop” that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of − 126 and − 49 kg-CO 2 /t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of − 15,648 and − 18,955 yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic

  20. The effects of recycling loops in food waste management in Japan: Based on the environmental and economic evaluation of food recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Miki [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Fukushima, Kazuyo [Watanabe Oyster Laboratory Co., Ltd, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0154 (Japan); Kino-Kimata, Noriko [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Nagao, Norio [Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Niwa, Chiaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Toda, Tatsuki, E-mail: toda@soka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    In Japan, a revised Food Recycling Law went into effect in 2007 to promote a 'recycling loop' that requires food industries to purchase farm products that are grown using food waste-derived compost/animal feed. To realize and expand food recycling, it is necessary to evaluate how the recycling facilities work in the recycling loop. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental and economic efficiency of the food recycling facilities that are involved in the recycling loop, which are also known as looped facilities. The global warming potential and running cost of five looped facilities were evaluated by LCA (life cycle assessment) and LCC (life cycle cost) approaches: machine integrated compost, windrow compost, liquid feed, dry feed, and bio-gasification. The LCA results showed low total GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of - 126 and - 49 kg-CO{sub 2}/t-waste, respectively, for dry feed and bio-gasification facilities, due to a high substitution effect. The LCC study showed a low running cost for composting facilities of - 15,648 and - 18,955 yen/t-waste, respectively, due to high revenue from the food waste collection. It was found that the mandatory reporting of food waste emitters to the government increased collection fees; however, the collection fee in animal feed facilities was relatively low because food waste was collected at a low price or nutritious food waste was purchased to produce quality feed. In the characterisation survey of various treatment methods, the composting facilities showed a relatively low environmental impact and a high economic efficiency. Animal feed facilities had a wide distribution of the total GHG emissions, depending on both the energy usage during the drying process and the substitution effect, which were related to the water content of the food waste and the number of recycled products. In comparison with incineration, the majority of the food recycling facilities showed low GHG emissions and economic

  1. Nuclear wastes: research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The management of long-living and high level radioactive wastes in France belongs to the framework of the December 30, 1991 law which defines three ways of research: the separation and transmutation of radionuclides, their reversible storage or disposal in deep geologic formations, and their processing and surface storage during long duration. Research works are done in partnership between public research and industrial organizations in many French and foreign laboratories. Twelve years after its enforcement, the impact of this law has overstepped the simple research framework and has led to a deep reflection of the society about the use of nuclear energy. This short paper presents the main results obtained so far in the three research ways, the general energy policy of the French government, the industrial progresses made in the framework of the 1991 law and the international context of the management of nuclear wastes. (J.S.)

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor air during waste TV recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jie; Lin, Kuangfei; Deng, Jingjing; Fu, Xiaoxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Air in the workshops was seriously contaminated by TV recycling activities. • PBDEs profiles and levels varied with particulate matters and different workshops. • Equilibrium between gas-particle partitioning was disrupted by recycling process. • The highest occupational exposure concentrations occurred during heating process. - Abstract: Recycling process for waste TV sets mainly consists of dismantling, printed wiring board (PWB) heating, PWB recycling, and plastic crushing in formal recycling plant. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contained in waste TV sets are released to indoor air. Air samples at 4 different workshops were collected to measure the PBDEs concentrations in both gaseous and particulate phases. The mean concentrations of ∑PBDEs in indoor air were in the range of 6780–2,280,000 pg/m 3 . The highest concentration in gaseous phase (291,000 pg/m 3 ) was detected in the PWB heating workshop. The ∑ 12 PBDEs concentrations in PM 2.5 and PM 10 at the 4 workshops ranged in 6.8–6670 μg/g and 32.6–6790 μg/g, respectively. The gas-particle partitioning of PBDEs was disrupted as PBDEs were continuously released during the recycling processes. Occupational exposure assessment showed that only the exposure concentration of BDE-47 (0.118 μg/kg/day) through inhalation in the PWB heating workshop for workers without facemask exceeded the reference dose (0.1 μg/kg/day), posing a health hazard to workers. All the results demonstrated that recycling of TV sets was an important source of PBDEs emission, and PBDEs emission pollution was related to the composition of TV sets, interior dust, and recycling process

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor air during waste TV recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lin, Kuangfei; Deng, Jingjing; Fu, Xiaoxu [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Air in the workshops was seriously contaminated by TV recycling activities. • PBDEs profiles and levels varied with particulate matters and different workshops. • Equilibrium between gas-particle partitioning was disrupted by recycling process. • The highest occupational exposure concentrations occurred during heating process. - Abstract: Recycling process for waste TV sets mainly consists of dismantling, printed wiring board (PWB) heating, PWB recycling, and plastic crushing in formal recycling plant. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contained in waste TV sets are released to indoor air. Air samples at 4 different workshops were collected to measure the PBDEs concentrations in both gaseous and particulate phases. The mean concentrations of ∑PBDEs in indoor air were in the range of 6780–2,280,000 pg/m{sup 3}. The highest concentration in gaseous phase (291,000 pg/m{sup 3}) was detected in the PWB heating workshop. The ∑{sub 12}PBDEs concentrations in PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} at the 4 workshops ranged in 6.8–6670 μg/g and 32.6–6790 μg/g, respectively. The gas-particle partitioning of PBDEs was disrupted as PBDEs were continuously released during the recycling processes. Occupational exposure assessment showed that only the exposure concentration of BDE-47 (0.118 μg/kg/day) through inhalation in the PWB heating workshop for workers without facemask exceeded the reference dose (0.1 μg/kg/day), posing a health hazard to workers. All the results demonstrated that recycling of TV sets was an important source of PBDEs emission, and PBDEs emission pollution was related to the composition of TV sets, interior dust, and recycling process.

  4. Recycling of canteen waste water for irrigation purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recycling of wastewater of a canteen was done at Attock refinery Limited, Rawalpindi during 2002. The wastewater of the refinery canteen was recycled after a long process and was reused for irrigation of nearby garden and other landscape plants. The average outflow of the wastewater from the canteen was calculated as 4000 liters/day. Laboratory analysis for the quality of wastewater was conducted and it was found that suspended solid. Chemical Oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the wastewater were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) limits. Treatment system employed was composed of screening and settling tank for removing the suspended solids and aeration for decreasing the COD and BOD. It was a low cost system in which the materials used were mostly taken from the redundant stock. Air was given for aeration with the help of a compressor. The treated water was tested in the laboratory for the priority parameters i.e. temperature, pH, BOD, COD, Total suspended solids (TSS), Total dissolved (TDS), oil and grease and Phenols. These parameters were compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Treated water was used for irrigation of the nearby garden and landscape. The recycling process was successfully conducted and a huge quantity of 4000 liters water/day (1000 G water/day) was processes was successfully conducted and a huge quantity of 4000 liters water/day (1000 G water/day) was recycled with a daily saving of Rs.100 at the rate of Rs.1/10 G water that was taken from market survey. (author)

  5. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, S.; Cabral, M.; Cruz, N.F. da; Simões, P.; Marques, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled a real packaging waste recycling system. • The analysis was performed using the life cycle assessment methodology. • The 2010 situation was compared with scenarios where the materials were not recycled. • The “Baseline” scenario seems to be more beneficial to the environment. - Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called “Baseline” scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called “Incineration” scenario) or to landfill (“Landfill” scenario). Overall, the results show that the “Baseline” scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios

  6. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, S.; Cabral, M. [CEG-IST, ULisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Cruz, N.F. da, E-mail: nunocruz@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [IST, ULisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Simões, P. [IST, ULisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Marques, R.C. [CESUR, IST, ULisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We modeled a real packaging waste recycling system. • The analysis was performed using the life cycle assessment methodology. • The 2010 situation was compared with scenarios where the materials were not recycled. • The “Baseline” scenario seems to be more beneficial to the environment. - Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called “Baseline” scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called “Incineration” scenario) or to landfill (“Landfill” scenario). Overall, the results show that the “Baseline” scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios.

  7. Performance estimation for concretes made with recycled aggregates of construction and demolition waste of some Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo Bezerra Cabral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to verify the influence of composition variability of recycled aggregates (RA of construction and demolition wastes (CDW on the performance of concretes. Performance was evaluated building mathematical models for compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage. To obtain such models, an experimental program comprising 50 concrete mixtures was carried out. Specimens were casted, tested and results for compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage were statistically analyzed. Models inputs are CDW composition observed at seven Brazilian cities. Results confirm that using RA from CDW for concrete building is quite feasible, independently of its composition, once compressive strength and modulus of elasticity still reached considerable values. We concluded the variability presented by recycled aggregates of CDW does not compromise their use for concrete building. However, this information must be used with caution, and experimental tests should always be performed to certify concrete properties.

  8. Assessment of the recycling potential of fresh concrete waste using a factorial design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, S L; Souza, F L; Dienstmann, G; Segadães, A M

    2009-11-01

    Recycling of industrial wastes and by-products can help reduce the cost of waste treatment prior to disposal and eventually preserve natural resources and energy. To assess the recycling potential of a given waste, it is important to select a tool capable of giving clear indications either way, with the least time and work consumption, as is the case of modelling the system properties using the results obtained from statistical design of experiments. In this work, the aggregate reclaimed from the mud that results from washout and cleaning operations of fresh concrete mixer trucks (fresh concrete waste, FCW) was recycled into new concrete with various water/cement ratios, as replacement of natural fine aggregates. A 3(2) factorial design of experiments was used to model fresh concrete consistency index and hardened concrete water absorption and 7- and 28-day compressive strength, as functions of FCW content and water/cement ratio, and the resulting regression equations and contour plots were validated with confirmation experiments. The results showed that the fresh concrete workability worsened with the increase in FCW content but the water absorption (5-10 wt.%), 7-day compressive strength (26-36 MPa) and 28-day compressive strength (32-44 MPa) remained within the specified ranges, thus demonstrating that the aggregate reclaimed from FCW can be recycled into new concrete mixtures with lower natural aggregate content.

  9. HIERARCHIAL DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF PROCESSES TO GENERATE WASTE-RECYCLED FEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierarchical Design and Evaluation of Processes to Generate Waste-Recycled FeedsRaymond L. SmithU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyOffice of Research and DevelopmentNational Risk Management Research Laboratory26 W. Martin Luther King DriveCincinna...

  10. Construction and demolition waste as a source of PVC for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Sabrina Moretto Darbello; Mancini, Sandro Donnini; Rodolfo, Antonio; Keiroglo, Raquel Carramillo

    2012-02-01

    Construction and demolition waste can contain considerable amounts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). This paper describes a study of the recycling of PVC pipes collected from such waste materials. In a sorting facility for the specific disposal of construction and demolition waste, PVC was found to represent one-third of the plastics separated by workers. Pipes were sorted carefully to preclude any possible contamination by poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) found in the waste. The material was ground into two distinct particle sizes (final mesh of 12.7 and 8 mm), washed, dried and recycled. The average formulation of the pipes was determined based on ash content tests and used in the fabrication of a similar compound made mainly of virgin PVC. Samples of recycled pipes and of compound based on virgin material were subjected to tensile and impact tests and provided very similar results. These results are a good indication of the application potential of the recycled material and of the fact that longer grinding to obtain finer particles is not necessarily beneficial.

  11. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students' Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic and Plastic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…

  12. Solid waste management and recycling : actors, partnerships and policies in Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Baud, I.S.A.; Furedy, C.

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management and recycling : actors, partnerships and policies in Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya / ed. by Isa Baud, Johan Post and Christine Furedy Author: Isabelle Suzanne Antoinette Baud; Johan Post Year: cop. 2004 Publisher: Dordrecht [etc.] : Kluwer Academic Publishers Series: The

  13. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, L.; Barany, T.; Czvikovszky, T.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. One of the principal problems of common recycling of technical polymers is the thermodynamical incompatibility. The change of the Gibbs 'free energy' during the mixing - determined by the changes of enthalpy and entropy - should be directed towards the miscibility. In most of cases, even between closely related polymers, the compatibility is on low level which leads to phase separation and weak adhesion between the phases. Radiation treatment may help in this problem making the polymers more compatible by creating covalent bonds between the polymer phases. Such problem arises at the recycling of ground tire rubbers (GTR). The rubber properties of GTR could be utilized by mixing the GTR with thermoplastic olefins. With the aid of radiation treatment the rubber-like properties of these types of thermoplastic elastomers can be increased. In this study polyethylene (PE) (50-70 wt%) as thermoplastic olefin, 30 wt% of GTR and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) (0-20 wt%) as rubber-like compatibilizing material were used for preparation of a recycled rubber containing blend, processable by thermoplastic processes. The melt-mixing of the samples was made by extrusion and then the test specimens were injection molded. The injection molded samples were than treated by high energy electron beam. On the specimens tensile tests, hysteresis, falling weight impact tests, hardness measurements, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA) were carried out. The results proved the benefit of the electron beam treatment.

  14. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer–GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties. - Highlights: ► In this study ground tire rubber was incorporated into polyethylene (LDPE) matrix. ► Compatibilizing effects of irradiation and ethylene-vinyl acetate were investigated. ► The samples were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion and injection molding. ► Both compatibilizing methods improved the rubber-like properties of the blends. ► This improvement was especially significant when they were applied together.

  15. Qualification of a Vitrified High Level Waste Product to Support Used Nuclear Fuel Recycling in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, P.; Bailly, F.; Strachan, D.; Senentz, G.; Veyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), AREVA formed the International Nuclear Recycling Alliance (INRA) consisting of recognized world-leading companies in the area of used nuclear fuel (UNF) recycling,. The INRA team, consisting of AREVA, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd (JNFL), Batelle Memorial Institute (BMI), URS Washington Division and Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), prepared a pre-conceptual design for an upgradable engineering-scale recycling plant with a nominal through put of 800 tHM/y. The pre-conceptual design of this leading-edge facility was based upon the extensive experience of the INRA team in recycling plant design and real world 'lessons learned' from actually building, commissioning, and operating recycling facilities in both France and Japan. The conceptual flowsheet, based upon the COEX TM separations process, separates the useful products for recycling into new fuel and sentences all the remaining fission products and minor actinides (MA) to the high level waste, (HLW) for vitrification. The proposed vitrified waste product will be similar to that currently produced in recycling plants in France. This wasteform has been qualified in France by conducting extensive studies and demonstrations. In the US, the qualification of vitrified glass products has been conducted by the US National Laboratories for the Defence Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP), and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The vitrified waste product produced by recycling is sufficiently different from these current waste forms to warrant additional trials and studies. In this paper we review the differences in the vitrified waste forms previously qualified in the US with that produced from recycling of UNF in France. The lessons learned from qualifying a vitrified waste form in Europe is compared to the current US process for vitrified waste qualification including waste

  16. Environmental/Economic Analysis and Recycling of Wastes from Air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and economic analysis was performed on the wastes from Air Liquid Nigeria Ltd. The company's waste water, spent oil, noise and air pollutants were examined. Results show no serious adverse impact on the ambient air quality. There was serious noise pollution problem around the factory hall and generator ...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION AND RECYCLING OF WASTE WATER FROM GUAYULE LATEX EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule commercialization for latex production to be used in medical products and other applications is now a reality. Currently, waste water following latex extraction is discharged into evaporation ponds. As commercialization reaches full scale, the liquid waste stream from latex extraction will b...

  18. Demolition wastes recycling; Reciclado de residuos de construccion y demolicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, A.; Monge, G. [INGURU Constructore, S.A. (Spain)

    1995-06-01

    This paper wants to show the up-to-date situation of demolition wastes from an international point of view. On the one hand it describes the different type of demolition wastes; on the other hand it explains the kind of treatment that is more adequate to each one. (Author)

  19. PARALLEL MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS FOR WASTE SOLVENT RECYCLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste solvents are of great concern to the chemical process industries and to the public, and many technologies have been suggested and implemented in the chemical process industries to reduce waste and associated environmental impacts. In this article we have developed a novel p...

  20. Possibilities and limits of pyrolysis for recycling plastic rich waste streams rejected from phones recycling plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, B M; de Marco, I; Adrados, A; López-Urionabarrenechea, A; Solar, J; Gastelu, N

    2016-11-01

    The possibilities and limits of pyrolysis as a means of recycling plastic rich fractions derived from discarded phones have been studied. Two plastic rich samples (⩾80wt% plastics) derived from landline and mobile phones provided by a Spanish recycling company, have been pyrolysed under N 2 in a 3.5dm 3 reactor at 500°C for 30min. The landline and mobile phones yielded 58 and 54.5wt% liquids, 16.7 and 12.6wt% gases and 28.3 and 32.4wt% solids respectively. The liquids were a complex mixture of organic products containing valuable chemicals (toluene, styrene, ethyl-benzene, etc.) and with high HHVs (34-38MJkg -1 ). The solids were composed of metals (mainly Cu, Zn, and Al) and char (≈50wt%). The gases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons and some CO, CO 2 and H 2 . The halogens (Cl, Br) of the original samples were mainly distributed between the gases and solids. The metals and char can be easily separated and the formers may be recycled, but the uses of the char will be restricted due to its Cl/Br content. The gases may provide the energy requirements of the processing plant, but HBr and HCl must be firstly eliminated. The liquids could have a potential use as energy or chemicals source, but the practical implementation of these applications will be no exempt of great problems that may become insurmountable (difficulty of economically recovering pure chemicals, contamination by volatile metals, etc.). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Packaging waste recycling in Europe: is the industry paying for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Nuno Ferreira; Ferreira, Sandra; Cabral, Marta; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes and examines the schemes established in five EU countries for the recycling of packaging waste. The changes in packaging waste management were mainly implemented since the Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste entered into force. The analysis of the five systems allowed the authors to identify very different approaches to cope with the same problem: meet the recovery and recycling targets imposed by EU law. Packaging waste is a responsibility of the industry. However, local governments are generally in charge of waste management, particularly in countries with Green Dot schemes or similar extended producer responsibility systems. This leads to the need of establishing a system of financial transfers between the industry and the local governments (particularly regarding the extra costs involved with selective collection and sorting). Using the same methodological approach, the authors also compare the costs and benefits of recycling from the perspective of local public authorities for France, Portugal and Romania. Since the purpose of the current paper is to take note of who is paying for the incremental costs of recycling and whether the industry (i.e. the consumer) is paying for the net financial costs of packaging waste management, environmental impacts are not included in the analysis. The work carried out in this paper highlights some aspects that are prone to be improved and raises several questions that will require further research. In the three countries analyzed more closely in this paper the industry is not paying the net financial cost of packaging waste management. In fact, if the savings attained by diverting packaging waste from other treatment (e.g. landfilling) and the public subsidies to the investment on the "recycling system" are not considered, it seems that the industry should increase the financial support to local authorities (by 125% in France, 50% in Portugal and 170% in Romania). However, in France and

  2. Quality control by HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) in solid waste recycling: logics, algorithms and procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    In secondary raw materials and recycling sectors, the products quality represents, more and more, the key issue to pursuit in order to be competitive in a more and more demanding market, where quality standards and products certification play a preheminent role. These goals assume particular importance when recycling actions are applied. Recovered products, resulting from waste materials, and/or dismissed products processing, are, in fact, always seen with a certain suspect. An adequate response of the industry to the market can only be given through the utilization of equipment and procedures ensuring pure, high-quality production, and efficient work and cost. All these goals can be reached adopting not only more efficient equipment and layouts, but also introducing new processing logics able to realize a full control of the handled material flow streams fulfilling, at the same time, i) an easy management of the procedures, ii) an efficient use of the energy, iii) the definition and set up of reliable and robust procedures, iv) the possibility to implement network connectivity capabilities finalized to a remote monitoring and control of the processes and v) a full data storage, analysis and retrieving. Furthermore the ongoing legislation and regulation require the implementation of recycling infrastructure characterised by high resources efficiency and low environmental impacts, both aspects being strongly linked to the waste materials and/or dismissed products original characteristics. For these reasons an optimal recycling infrastructure design primarily requires a full knowledge of the characteristics of the input waste. What previously outlined requires the introduction of a new important concept to apply in solid waste recycling, the recycling-oriented characterization, that is the set of actions addressed to strategically determine selected attributes, in order to get goaloriented data on waste for the development, implementation or improvement of recycling

  3. Business Models for Social Innovation of Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Companies: Comparison of Two Business Cases in Thailand and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase of municipal solid wastes (e.g., food disposals, biomedical wastes, recyclable materials, etc. is a very important environmental issue around the world. Waste recycling, reduction, and reuse are not only methods to solve environmental problems, but also directions for social innovation for business to create potential social value. This study investigates the business models of two waste recycling companies in Thailand and Taiwan. First, the basic micro and macro environmental factors were analyzed, including the period of firm’s business operations, location of the firm, space for separating and storing recyclable waste and various types of recyclable waste purchasing affecting the firms’ performance in these two economies. Second, different recyclable waste materials, volumes and price strategies between the case companies were compared. Third, this study also investigates the impacts of factors regarding resource characteristics, a firm’s capabilities and an entrepreneur’s abilities to improve a firm’s performance all compose a critical business model. The results showed that there were an increasing number of owners of waste recycling businesses developing and adapting to new business models. Detailed comparisons are reported and discussed in the article to shed light on managerial and policy implications.

  4. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  5. FY 1999 report on the development of technology to recycle architectural waste materials, glass, etc. Development of technology to recycle architectural waste materials; 1999 nendo kenchiku haizai glass nado recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kenchiku haizai recycle gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    Waste wood materials in the materials discharged from architectural disassembly were regarded as a potential wood resource, and the R and D of the technology to recycle these were conducted. Studies were made on the technology to finely grind waste wood materials, technology to compress/form waste wood materials and ground wood powder, verification of strength characteristics/dimension stability of the formed wood materials, etc. As to the wood materials which were badly degraded under ultra violet rays, they were coloring-processed by the steam treatment, and a possibility of coating substitution was confirmed. In relation to the technology to produce compressed wood materials, the optimization of heat treatment conditions was experimentally conducted. About the technology to give dimensional stability, dimensional stability was improved as a result of the improvement of chemicals feeding and the development of chemically processed drugs. In the development of light formed products, the board was successfully formed which is light in weight using lignocelluloses/inorganic hydrates and has the bending strength higher than that of the plaster board. In the development of interior materials, the technology was developed in which ground wood powder and thermo-plastic resin are mixed for die molding, and the OA floor using this was commercialized. (NEDO)

  6. A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha-Khetriwal, Deepali; Kraeuchi, Philipp; Schwaninger, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Electronic waste, commonly known as e-waste, is comprised of discarded computers, television sets, microwave ovens and other such appliances that are past their useful lives. As managing e-waste becomes a priority, countries are being forced to develop new models for the collection and environmentally sound disposal of this waste. Switzerland is one of the very few countries with over a decade of experience in managing e-waste. India, on the other hand, is only now experiencing the problems that e-waste poses. The paper aims to give the reader insight into the disposal of end-of-life appliances in both countries, including appliance collection and the financing of recycling systems as well as the social and environmental aspects of the current practices

  7. Recycling Mixed Plastics Waste as Reductant in Ironmaking*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Keywords: Reduction, Metallurgical coke, Mixed plastics waste, Extent of reduction. 1 Introduction. Globally .... reactions in a custom-made horizontal resistance .... emissions arising out of the electrical energy that was used to ...

  8. TRU waste-sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1985-08-01

    As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of 238 Pu- and 239 Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with 239 Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of 238 Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min"−"1 and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  10. Recycled construction and demolition concrete waste as aggregate for structural concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Wagih

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In major Egyptian cities there is a surge in construction and demolition waste (CDW quantities causing an adverse effect on the environment. The use of such waste as recycled aggregate in concrete can be useful for both environmental and economical aspects in the construction industry. This study discusses the possibility to replace natural coarse aggregate (NA with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA in structural concrete. An investigation into the properties of RCA is made using crushing and grading of concrete rubble collected from different demolition sites and landfill locations around Cairo. Aggregates used in the study were: natural sand, dolomite and crushed concretes obtained from different sources. A total of 50 concrete mixes forming eight groups were cast. Groups were designed to study the effect of recycled coarse aggregates quality/content, cement dosage, use of superplasticizer and silica fume. Tests were carried out for: compressive strength, splitting strength and elastic modulus. The results showed that the concrete rubble could be transformed into useful recycled aggregate and used in concrete production with properties suitable for most structural concrete applications in Egypt. A significant reduction in the properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC made of 100% RCA was seen when compared to natural aggregate concrete (NAC, while the properties of RAC made of a blend of 75% NA and 25% RCA showed no significant change in concrete properties.

  11. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  12. Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-11-01

    Paper product manufacturing involves a variety of chemicals used either directly in paper and pulp production or in the conversion processes (i.e. printing, gluing) that follow. Due to economic and environmental initiatives, paper recycling rates continue to rise. In Europe, recycling has increased by nearly 20% within the last decade or so, reaching a level of almost 72% in 2012. With increasing recycling rates, lower quality paper fractions may be included. This may potentially lead to accumulation or un-intended spreading of chemical substances contained in paper, e.g. by introducing chemicals contained in waste paper into the recycling loop. This study provides an overview of chemicals potentially present in paper and applies a sequential hazard screening procedure based on the intrinsic hazard, physical-chemical and biodegradability characteristics of the substances. Based on the results, 51 substances were identified as potentially critical (selected mineral oils, phthalates, phenols, parabens, as well as other groups of chemicals) in relation to paper recycling. It is recommended that these substances receive more attention in waste paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring household waste recycling centres performance using mean bin weight analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Sarah; Cherrett, Tom; Waterson, Ben

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a modelling approach used to investigate the significance of key factors (vehicle type, compaction type, site design, temporal effects) in influencing the variability in observed nett amenity bin weights produced by household waste recycling centres (HWRCs). This new method can help to quickly identify sites that are producing significantly lighter bins, enabling detailed back-end analyses to be efficiently targeted and best practice in HWRC operation identified. Tested on weigh ticket data from nine HWRCs across West Sussex, UK, the model suggests that compaction technique, vehicle type, month and site design explained 76% of the variability in the observed nett amenity weights. For each factor, a weighting coefficient was calculated to generate a predicted nett weight for each bin transaction and three sites were subsequently identified as having similar characteristics but returned significantly different mean nett bin weights. Waste and site audits were then conducted at the three sites to try and determine the possible sources of the remaining variability. Significant differences were identified in the proportions of contained waste (bagged), wood, and dry recyclables entering the amenity waste stream, particularly at one site where significantly less contaminated waste and dry recyclables were observed.

  14. EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  15. Waste paper recycling opportunities for government action. Vol. 1 summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J; Love, P

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of analyses of the current and expected waste paper market conditions in Canada with the objective of identifying government initiatives which could permanently increase recovery levels. Emphasis has been placed upon defining short-term, practical measures which take into account the variations in market conditions for each of the major types of secondary fiber: newsprint, fine paper, and corrugated cardboard. Demand, generation and recovery are analyzed for each of these types on a national and regional basis. The opportunities for increased recycling in each region are identified and recommendations are made regarding appropriate government actions. The principal benefits of increased waste paper reclamation and recycling are perceived as: reducing waste management costs, creating new industries, promoting the conserver ethic, conserving forest and energy resources, and reducing pollution. Includes glossary. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. Comminution and sizing processes of concrete block waste as recycled aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P C C; Ulsen, C; Pereira, F A; Quattrone, M; Angulo, S C

    2015-11-01

    Due to the environmental impact of construction and demolition waste (CDW), recycling is mandatory. It is also important that recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) are used in concrete to meet market demands. In the literature, the influence of RCAs on concrete has been investigated, but very limited studies have been conducted on how the origin of concrete waste and comminution processes influence RCA characteristics. This paper aims to investigate the influence of three different comminution and sizing processes (simple screening, crushing and grinding) on the composition, shape and porosity characteristics of RCA obtained from concrete block waste. Crushing and grinding implies a reduction of RCA porosity. However, due to the presence of coarse quartz rounded river pebbles in the original concrete block mixtures, the shape characteristics deteriorated. A large amount of powder (<0.15 mm) without detectable anhydrous cement was also generated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrostatic separation for recycling conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Yan, Guoqing; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-10-02

    Electrostatic separation has been widely used to separate conductors and nonconductors for recycling e-waste. However, the components of e-waste are complex, which can be classified as conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors according to their conducting properties. In this work, we made a novel attempt to recover the mixtures containing conductors (copper), semiconductors (extrinsic silicon), and nonconductors (woven glass reinforced resin) by electrostatic separation. The results of binary mixtures separation show that the separation of conductor and nonconductor, semiconductor and nonconductor need a higher voltage level while the separation of conductor and semiconductor needs a higher roll speed. Furthermore, the semiconductor separation efficiency is more sensitive to the high voltage level and the roll speed than the conductor separation efficiency. An integrated process was proposed for the multiple mixtures separation. The separation efficiency of conductors and semiconductors can reach 82.5% and 88%, respectively. This study contributes to the efficient recycling of valuable resources from e-waste.

  18. Recycling of construction and demolition waste: case study in the Port of Antwerp

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmans, Jef; Broos, Kris; Nielsen, Peter; Dierckx, Philippe; Brijsse, Yvan; Jacobs, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) represents one of the EU’s largest waste streams. According to the Directive 2008/98/EC on waste, at least 70 percent (by weight) of non-hazardous C&DW must be recuperated by 2020. Eurostat estimates an annual C&DW generation of 970 Mton in EU-27, representing an average value of almost 2.0 ton per inhabitant, with an average recovery rate of 47%. A case study in the Port of Antwerp (PoA) demonstrated new high grade recycling options for purified mater...

  19. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 'Away' is a place: The impact of electronic waste recycling on blood lead levels in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaa, Ebenezer Forkuo; Adovor Tsikudo, Kwame A; Bowman, Jay A

    2017-12-01

    E-waste recycling remains a major source of livelihood for many urban poor in developing countries, but this economic activity is fraught with significant environmental health risk. Yet, human exposure to the toxic elements associated with e-waste activities remains understudied and not evidently understood. This study investigates the impact of informal e-waste processing on the blood lead levels (BLLs) of e-waste workers and non-e-waste workers (mainly females working in activities that serve the Agbogbloshie e-waste site), and relates their lead exposure to socio-demographic and occupational characteristics. A total of 128 blood samples were analysed for lead levels. Surprisingly, the mean BLL (3.54μg/dL) of non-e-waste workers was slightly higher than that of e-waste workers (3.49μg/dL), although higher BLLs ranges were found among e-waste workers (0.50-18.80μg/dL) than non-e-waste workers (0.30-8.20μg/dL). Workers who engaged in e-waste burning tended to have the highest BLLs. In general, the BLLs are within the ABLES/US CDC reference level of 5μg/dL, although 12.3% of the workers have elevated BLLs, i.e. BLL ≥5μg/dL. The study concludes that the impact of e-waste recycling is not limited to workers alone. Traders and residents within the Agbogbloshie enclave are equally at risk through a range of environmental vectors. This calls for increased public awareness about the effects of human exposure to lead and other toxic elements from e-waste recycling. A key contribution is that government and stakeholder projects for safe e-waste infrastructure should disaggregate the e-waste value chain, recognize differential risk and resist one-size-fits-all strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Using vacuum pyrolysis and mechanical processing for recycling waste printed circuit boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Laishou; Sun Shuiyu; Zhong Sheng; Dai Wencan; Liu Jingyong; Song Weifeng

    2010-01-01

    The constant growth in generation of waste printed circuit boards (WPCB) poses a huge disposal problem because they consist of a heterogeneous mixture of organic and metallic chemicals as well as glass fiber. Also the presence of heavy metals, such as Pb and Cd turns this scrap into hazardous waste. Therefore, recycling of WPCB is an important subject not only from the recovery of valuable materials but also from the treatment of waste. The aim of this study was to present a recycling process without negative impact to the environment as an alternative for recycling WPCB. In this work, a process technology containing vacuum pyrolysis and mechanical processing was employed to recycle WPCB. At the first stage of this work, the WPCB was pyrolyzed under vacuum in a self-made batch pilot-scale fixed bed reactor to recycle organic resins contained in the WPCB. By vacuum pyrolysis the organic matter was decomposed to gases and liquids which could be used as fuels or chemical material resources, however, the inorganic WPCB matter was left unaltered as solid residues. At the second stage, the residues obtained at the first stage were investigated to separate and recover the copper through mechanical processing such as crushing, screening, and gravity separation. The copper grade of 99.50% with recovery of 99.86% based on the whole WPCB was obtained. And the glass fiber could be obtained by calcinations in a muffle furnace at 600 deg. C for 10 min. This study had demonstrated the feasibility of vacuum pyrolysis and mechanical processing for recycling WPCB.

  2. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling? A review of existing life cycle assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, A.; Wenzel, H.

    2007-01-01

    A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type. Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made, to discuss whether it is at all valid to use the LCA methodology in its current development state to guide policy decisions on paper waste. A total of nine LCA studies containing altogether 73 scenarios were selected from a thorough, international literature search. The selected studies are LCAs including comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover the three paper cycle system areas: raw materials and forestry, paper production, and disposal/recovery. It was found that the outcome of the individual LCA studies largely depended on the choices made in some of these assumptions, most specifically the ones concerning energy use and generation, and forestry

  3. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  4. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina N. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA and community (70 dBA noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001. A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01 even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  5. Recycled tetrahedron-like CuCl from waste Cu scraps for lithium ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongying; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Song; Duan, Jixiang; Liao, Qishu; Yu, Chengyi; Li, Dongdong; Dai, Zhipeng

    2017-07-01

    The wide applications of metal Cu inevitably resulted in a large quantity of waste Cu materials. In order to recover the useful Cu under the mild conditions and reduce the environmental emission, waste Cu scraps were recycled in the form of CuCl powders with high economic value added (EVA) via the facile hydrothermal route. The recycled CuCl powders were characterized in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results suggested that the recycled CuCl powders consisted of many regular tetrahedron-like micro-particles. Furthermore, in order to reduce the cost of lithium ion battery (LIB) anode and build the connection of waste Cu scraps and LIB, the recycled CuCl powders were evaluated as the anode active material of LIB. As expected, the reversible discharge capacity was about 171.8mAh/g at 2.0C even after 50 cycles, implying the satisfactory cycle stability. Clearly, the satisfactory results may open a new avenue to develop the circular economy and the sustainable energy industry, which would be very important in terms of both the resource recovery and the environmental protection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A State of the Art on the Technology for Recycling and Reuse of the Decommissioning Concrete Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chung Hun; Choi, Wang Kyu; Min, Byung Youn; Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kun Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    This report describes the reduction and recycling technology of decommissioning concrete waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) becomes one of the most important nuclear markets especially in the developed countries including USA, UK and France where lots of the retired nuclear facilities have been waiting for decommissioning. In our country the KAERI has been carrying out the decommissioning of the retired TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors and an uranium conversion plant as the first national decommissioning project since 1998. One of the most important areas of the decommissioning is a management of a huge amount of a decommissioning waste the cost of which is more than half of the total decommissioning cost. Therefore reduction in decommissioning waste by a reuse or a recycle is an important subject of decommissioning technology development in the world. Recently much countries pay attention to recycle the large amount of concrete dismantling waste resulted from both a nuclear and a non nuclear industries. In our country, much attention was taken in a recycle of concrete dismantling waste as a concrete aggregate, but a little success has been resulted due to the disadvantages such as a weakness of hardness and surface mortar contamination. A recycle in nuclear industry and a self disposal of the radioactively contaminated concrete wastes are main directions of concrete wastes resulted from a nuclear facility decommissioning. In this report it was reviewed the state of art of the related technologies for a reduction and a recycle of concrete wastes from a nuclear decommissioning in the country and abroad. Prior to recycle and reuse in the nuclear sector, however, the regulatory criteria for the recycle and reuse of concrete waste should be established in parallel with the development of the recycling technology.

  7. A State of the Art on the Technology for Recycling and Reuse of the Decommissioning Concrete Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chung Hun; Choi, Wang Kyu; Min, Byung Youn; Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kun Woo

    2008-02-01

    This report describes the reduction and recycling technology of decommissioning concrete waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) becomes one of the most important nuclear markets especially in the developed countries including USA, UK and France where lots of the retired nuclear facilities have been waiting for decommissioning. In our country the KAERI has been carrying out the decommissioning of the retired TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors and an uranium conversion plant as the first national decommissioning project since 1998. One of the most important areas of the decommissioning is a management of a huge amount of a decommissioning waste the cost of which is more than half of the total decommissioning cost. Therefore reduction in decommissioning waste by a reuse or a recycle is an important subject of decommissioning technology development in the world. Recently much countries pay attention to recycle the large amount of concrete dismantling waste resulted from both a nuclear and a non nuclear industries. In our country, much attention was taken in a recycle of concrete dismantling waste as a concrete aggregate, but a little success has been resulted due to the disadvantages such as a weakness of hardness and surface mortar contamination. A recycle in nuclear industry and a self disposal of the radioactively contaminated concrete wastes are main directions of concrete wastes resulted from a nuclear facility decommissioning. In this report it was reviewed the state of art of the related technologies for a reduction and a recycle of concrete wastes from a nuclear decommissioning in the country and abroad. Prior to recycle and reuse in the nuclear sector, however, the regulatory criteria for the recycle and reuse of concrete waste should be established in parallel with the development of the recycling technology

  8. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  9. Chemical recycling of mixed waste plastics by selective pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumoto, K.; Meglen, R.; Evans, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The goal of this work is to use selective pyrolysis to produce high-value chemicals from waste plastics mixtures. Selectivity is achieved by exploiting differences in reaction rates, catalysis, and coreactants. Target wastes are molecular mixtures such as; blends or composites, or mixtures from manufactured products such as; carpets and post-consumer mixed-plastic wastes. The experimental approach has been to use small-scale experiments using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), which provides rapid analysis of reaction products and permits rapid screening of process parameters. Rapid screening experiments permit exploration of many potential waste stream applications for the selective pyrolysis process. After initial screening, small-scale, fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors are used to provide products for conventional chemical analysis, to determine material balances, and to test the concept under conditions that will be used at a larger scale. Computer assisted data interpretation and intelligent chemical processing are used to extract process-relevant information from these experiments. An important element of this project employs technoeconomic assessments and market analyses of durables, the availability of other wastes, and end-product uses to identify target applications that have the potential for economic success.

  10. Valorization of winery waste vs. the costs of not recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devesa-Rey, R.; Vecino, X.; Varela-Alende, J.L.; Barral, M.T.; Cruz, J.M.; Moldes, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → Lactic acid, biosurfactants, xylitol or ethanol may be obtained from wine residues. → By-products valorization turns wine wastes into products with industrial applications. → The costs of waste disposal enhances the search of economically viable solutions for valorizing residues. - Abstract: Wine production generates huge amounts of waste. Before the 1990s, the most economical option for waste removal was the payment of a disposal fee usually being of around 3000 Euros. However, in recent years the disposal fee and fines for unauthorized discharges have increased considerably, often reaching 30,000-40,000 Euros, and a prison sentence is sometimes also imposed. Some environmental friendly technologies have been proposed for the valorization of winery waste products. Fermentation of grape marc, trimming vine shoot or vinification lees has been reported to produce lactic acid, biosurfactants, xylitol, ethanol and other compounds. Furthermore, grape marc and seeds are rich in phenolic compounds, which have antioxidants properties, and vinasse contains tartaric acid that can be extracted and commercialized. Companies must therefore invest in new technologies to decrease the impact of agro-industrial residues on the environment and to establish new processes that will provide additional sources of income.

  11. Study on safety evaluation for unrestricted recycling criteria of radioactive waste from dismantling operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimori, Michiro; Ohkoshi, Minoru; Abe, Masayoshi

    1995-01-01

    The study on safety evaluation was done, under contracting with the Science and Technology Agency, for recycling scrap metal arising from dismantling of reactor facilities. An object of this study is to contribute to the examination of establishing criteria and safety regulation for unrestricted recycling steel scrap. To define amount of market flow of iron material in Japan and the amount of radioactive waste generated from dismantling of reactor facilities, investigation had been carried out. On basis of these investigation results and data in several literature, individual doses to workers and to the members of the public have been calculated as well as collective doses. (author)

  12. Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    by nearly 20% within the last decade or so, reaching a level of almost 72% in 2012. With increasing recycling rates, lower quality paper fractions may be included. This may potentially lead to accumulation or un-intended spreading of chemical substances contained in paper, e.g. by introducing chemicals...... contained in waste paper into the recycling loop. This study provides an overview of chemicals potentially present in paper and applies a sequential hazard screening procedure based on the intrinsic hazard, physical-chemical and biodegradability characteristics of the substances. Based on the results, 51...

  13. Waste management analysis for the nuclear fuel cycle. II. Recycle preparation for wastewater streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.M.; Navratil, J.D.; Plock, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    Recycle preparation methods were evaluated for secondary aqueous waste streams likely to be produced during reactor fuel fabrication and reprocessing. Adsorption, reverse osmosis, and ozonization methods were evaluated on a laboratory scale for their application to the treatment of wastewater. Activated carbon, macroreticular resins, and polyurethanes were tested to determine their relative capabilities for removing detergents and corrosive anions from wastewater. Conceptual flow sheets were constructed for purifying wastewater by reverse osmosis. In addition, the application of ozonization techniques for water recycle preparation was examined briefly

  14. A comprehensive approach to solid waste and recycling at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.G.

    1997-01-01

    The abrupt closure of a nearby, and historically utilized, Kirtland Air Force Base landfill imposed a multitude of solid waste management problems for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL) research and development facilities operated by Lockheed Martin Company. Due to the close proximity of KAFB, SNL historically used KAFB's landfill for disposal of solid waste. Under this arrangement SNL paid little or no cost for disposal of its solid waste stream. The disadvantage was that KAFB personnel did not track waste volumes entering the landfill from SNL. On August 1, 1994 this all came to an end. KAFB, without advance notice, closed the sanitary waste and asbestos cells of the landfill. The rapid resolution of unique regulatory issues; the aggressive accomplishment of reviewing options and implementing transport, screening, recycling and disposal procedures; and the construction and operation of a model, on-site Solid Waste Transfer Facility (SWTF) can serve as a case study for servicing DOE solid waste management and recycling needs in a safe, compliant, and timely manor

  15. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling; Skal husholdningernes madaffald braendes eller genanvendes? Samfundsoekonomisk analyse af oeget genanvendelse af organisk dagrenovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  16. Environmental Impacts Assessment of Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania

    .e. soil and stones, concrete, asphalt and masonry, and as such it has the potential to be used as aggregate in the construction sector. A typical application is in an unbound state as filler in road structures. This practice offers evident benefits in terms of resource savings, however it might lead......Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) is waste derived from the construction, demolition and renovation of buildings and civil infrastructure. With 900 million tons generated every year in Europe, it is the largest waste stream on the continent. C&DW is mainly constituted of mineral fractions, i...... be evaluated critically.Owing to its high toxicity and significant mobility, especially at high pH levels, Cr(VI) is one of the elements of concern found in C&DW leachates. Its fate in the sub-soil below road applications was assessed experimentally, and its vertical migration was then predicted through...

  17. Valorization of winery waste vs. the costs of not recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa-Rey, R; Vecino, X; Varela-Alende, J L; Barral, M T; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2011-11-01

    Wine production generates huge amounts of waste. Before the 1990s, the most economical option for waste removal was the payment of a disposal fee usually being of around 3000 Euros. However, in recent years the disposal fee and fines for unauthorized discharges have increased considerably, often reaching 30,000-40,000 Euros, and a prison sentence is sometimes also imposed. Some environmental friendly technologies have been proposed for the valorization of winery waste products. Fermentation of grape marc, trimming vine shoot or vinification lees has been reported to produce lactic acid, biosurfactants, xylitol, ethanol and other compounds. Furthermore, grape marc and seeds are rich in phenolic compounds, which have antioxidants properties, and vinasse contains tartaric acid that can be extracted and commercialized. Companies must therefore invest in new technologies to decrease the impact of agro-industrial residues on the environment and to establish new processes that will provide additional sources of income. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  19. Recycling and recovery routes of plastic solid waste (PSW): A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salem, S.M.; Lettieri, P.; Baeyens, J.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic solid waste (PSW) presents challenges and opportunities to societies regardless of their sustainability awareness and technological advances. In this paper, recent progress in the recycling and recovery of PSW is reviewed. A special emphasis is paid on waste generated from polyolefinic sources, which makes up a great percentage of our daily single-life cycle plastic products. The four routes of PSW treatment are detailed and discussed covering primary (re-extrusion), secondary (mechanical), tertiary (chemical) and quaternary (energy recovery) schemes and technologies. Primary recycling, which involves the re-introduction of clean scrap of single polymer to the extrusion cycle in order to produce products of the similar material, is commonly applied in the processing line itself but rarely applied among recyclers, as recycling materials rarely possess the required quality. The various waste products, consisting of either end-of-life or production (scrap) waste, are the feedstock of secondary techniques, thereby generally reduced in size to a more desirable shape and form, such as pellets, flakes or powders, depending on the source, shape and usability. Tertiary treatment schemes have contributed greatly to the recycling status of PSW in recent years. Advanced thermo-chemical treatment methods cover a wide range of technologies and produce either fuels or petrochemical feedstock. Nowadays, non-catalytic thermal cracking (thermolysis) is receiving renewed attention, due to the fact of added value on a crude oil barrel and its very valuable yielded products. But a fact remains that advanced thermo-chemical recycling of PSW (namely polyolefins) still lacks the proper design and kinetic background to target certain desired products and/or chemicals. Energy recovery was found to be an attainable solution to PSW in general and municipal solid waste (MSW) in particular. The amount of energy produced in kilns and reactors applied in this route is sufficiently

  20. Simple Processing Method for Recycling Poultry Waste into Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry wastes (PW) namely broiler litter (BL), caged-‐layer droppings (CLD) and layer litter (LL) were evaluated for nutrient composition and microbial loads in order to select the most suitable for use as a feedstuff. Broiler litter had the highest amount of crude protein (16.8%) and a phosphorus content of 0.49%. There were ...

  1. Prospects for Recycling of Waste PET Bottles in Mauritius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    However, the main snag of PET containers is its subsequent proper disposal after use where the ... 20% of the waste stream and is mainly linked to the high standard of living. In a broader-spectrum, it ..... availability of the material. The main ...

  2. Focus Cities : Waste Recycling and Agro-Enterprise in Kampala ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to turn these environmental burdens into benefits through conservation-based agriculture, alternative agro-enterprise, nutrient reuse, and sustainable and profitable solid waste management. A multidisciplinary ... Alimentation, santé et adaptation aux changements climatiques en Ouganda. Des régions ...

  3. Implementing small, and medium enterprises (SME) waste and recycling programmes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muswema, Aubrey P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available participating in waste service delivery and recycling” (DEA, 2011: 6) by 2016. This challenge rests on the shoulders of local government for implementation. This paper is based on research work the CSIR (which the author and colleagues) conducted for the DBSA...

  4. Life cycle assessment of waste management and recycled paper systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghinea, Cristina; Petraru, Madalina; Simion, Isabela Maria; Sobariu, Dana; Bressers, Johannes Th.A.; Gavrilescu, Maria

    Municipal solid waste management is a matter experienced by the entire world, mostly encountered in urban areas as a result of population growth and increased income per capita. This issue always posed threats to environmental quality and human health, and continues to be one of the major

  5. Recycling Waste Polyurethane as a Carbon Resource in Ironmaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, major avenues available for dealing with waste Poly-Urethane (PU) are disposal at landfill sites and incineration. However, PU contains high levels of carbon and hydrogen that can be recovered for use as reductant in metal extraction processes. In this work the use of post-consumer PU as reductant for the ...

  6. Reuse of materials from recyclable-waste collection for road building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.; Ticali, D.

    2006-01-01

    A right policy of waste management should look to nature: in fact in nature nothing of produced is lost; everything could be considered food to energy resource for another subject. A diffusion of right policy of waste reuse is the leit motive of this study. Heavy problem of pollution and the protection of the natural environment, is the one of the most important problem of this society, and so to think waste to reuse for civil engineering research has a double aim: a) to reduce quantity to send to dump; b) to reuse good materials for civil engineering building, as substitute of natural aggregate. It look very innovative and actual to think to possibility of reuse glass from recyclable-waste collection for road building, and so we could consider road as a valid substitute to dump. The aim is to consider waste as an element with high energetic power and value added [it

  7. Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) was initiated in 1993 as a result of US congressional concern over the disposal of nuclear materials by the former Soviet Union into the Arctic marine environment. The program is comprised of appr. 70 different projects. To date appr. ten percent of the funds has gone to Russian institutions for research and logistical support. The collaboration also include the IAEA International Arctic Seas Assessment Program. The major conclusion from the research to date is that the largest signals for region-wide radionuclide contamination in the Arctic marine environment appear to arise from the following: 1) atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, a practice that has been discontinued; 2) nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes carried in the Arctic from reprocessing facilities in Western Europe, and 3) accidents such as Chernobyl and the 1957 explosion at Chelyabinsk-65

  8. Recycled blocks with improved sound and fire insulation containing construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Marrero, Madelyn; García Arenas, Celia

    2013-03-01

    The environmental problem posed by construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is derived not only from the high volume produced, but also from its treatment and disposal. Treatment plants receive C&D waste which is then transformed into a recycled mixed aggregate. The byproduct is mainly used for low-value-added applications such as land escape restoration, despite the high quality of the aggregate. In the present work, the chemical composition properties and grading curve properties of these aggregates are defined. Furthermore, the resulting recycled concrete with a high proportion of recycled composition, from 20% to 100% replacement of fine and coarse aggregate, is characterized physically and mechanically. An environmental study of the new construction material when all aggregates are substituted by C&D waste shows a low toxicity level, similar to that of other construction materials. The new material also has improved properties with respect to standard concrete such as high fire resistance, good heat insulation, and acoustic insulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interval linear programming model for long-term planning of vehicle recycling in the Republic of Serbia under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Vladimir; Dimitrijevic, Branka

    2015-02-01

    An interval linear programming approach is used to formulate and comprehensively test a model for optimal long-term planning of vehicle recycling in the Republic of Serbia. The proposed model is applied to a numerical case study: a 4-year planning horizon (2013-2016) is considered, three legislative cases and three scrap metal price trends are analysed, availability of final destinations for sorted waste flows is explored. Potential and applicability of the developed model are fully illustrated. Detailed insights on profitability and eco-efficiency of the projected contemporary equipped vehicle recycling factory are presented. The influences of the ordinance on the management of end-of-life vehicles in the Republic of Serbia on the vehicle hulks procuring, sorting generated material fractions, sorted waste allocation and sorted metals allocation decisions are thoroughly examined. The validity of the waste management strategy for the period 2010-2019 is tested. The formulated model can create optimal plans for procuring vehicle hulks, sorting generated material fractions, allocating sorted waste flows and allocating sorted metals. Obtained results are valuable for supporting the construction and/or modernisation process of a vehicle recycling system in the Republic of Serbia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment

  11. Assessment of municipal solid waste generation and recyclable materials potential in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mohamed Osman; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Mujeebu, M Abdul

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a forecasting study of municipal solid waste generation (MSWG) rate and potential of its recyclable components in Kuala Lumpur (KL), the capital city of Malaysia. The generation rates and composition of solid wastes of various classes such as street cleansing, landscape and garden, industrial and constructional, institutional, residential and commercial are analyzed. The past and present trends are studied and extrapolated for the coming years using Microsoft office 2003 Excel spreadsheet assuming a linear behavior. The study shows that increased solid waste generation of KL is alarming. For instance, the amount of daily residential SWG is found to be about 1.62 kg/capita; with the national average at 0.8-0.9 kg/capita and is expected to be increasing linearly, reaching to 2.23 kg/capita by 2024. This figure seems reasonable for an urban developing area like KL city. It is also found that, food (organic) waste is the major recyclable component followed by mix paper and mix plastics. Along with estimated population growth and their business activities, it has been observed that the city is still lacking in terms of efficient waste treatment technology, sufficient fund, public awareness, maintaining the established norms of industrial waste treatment etc. Hence it is recommended that the concerned authority (DBKL) shall view this issue seriously.

  12. Recycling and recovery of post-consumer plastic solid waste in a European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewil Raf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of waste plastics has become a major worldwide environmental problem. The USA, Europe and Japan generate annually about 50 million tons of post-consumer plastic waste, previously landfilled, generally considered as a non-sustainable and environmentally questionable option. Landfill sites and their capacity are, moreover, decreasing rapidly, and legislation is stringent. Several European Directives and US legislation concern plastic wastes and the required management. They are briefly discussed in this paper. New processes have emerged, i.e., advanced mechanical recycling of plastic waste as virgin or second grade plastic feedstock, and thermal treatments to recycle the waste as virgin monomer, as synthetic fuel gas, or as heat source (incineration with energy recovery. These processes avoid land filling, where the non-biodegradable plastics remain a lasting environmental burden. The paper reviews these alternative options through mostly thermal processing (pyrolysis, gasification and waste-to-energy. Additional research is, however, still needed to confirm the potential on pilot and commercial scale. [Acknowledgments. The research was partly funded by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities RC1101 (PR China and partly funded by Project KP/09/005 (SCORES4CHEM Knowledge Platform of the Industrial Research Council of the KU Leuven (Belgium.

  13. Disposal of waste computer hard disk drive: data destruction and resources recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guoqing; Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-06-01

    An increasing quantity of discarded computers is accompanied by a sharp increase in the number of hard disk drives to be eliminated. A waste hard disk drive is a special form of waste electrical and electronic equipment because it holds large amounts of information that is closely connected with its user. Therefore, the treatment of waste hard disk drives is an urgent issue in terms of data security, environmental protection and sustainable development. In the present study the degaussing method was adopted to destroy the residual data on the waste hard disk drives and the housing of the disks was used as an example to explore the coating removal process, which is the most important pretreatment for aluminium alloy recycling. The key operation points of the degaussing determined were: (1) keep the platter plate parallel with the magnetic field direction; and (2) the enlargement of magnetic field intensity B and action time t can lead to a significant upgrade in the degaussing effect. The coating removal experiment indicated that heating the waste hard disk drives housing at a temperature of 400 °C for 24 min was the optimum condition. A novel integrated technique for the treatment of waste hard disk drives is proposed herein. This technique offers the possibility of destroying residual data, recycling the recovered resources and disposing of the disks in an environmentally friendly manner.

  14. Clearance and recycling - how can radiation protection and application of the waste hierarchy be optimised?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efraimsson, Henrik; Wiebert, Anders; Carroll, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the principles behind the current Swedish regulations for clearance of materials and for application of the waste hierarchy on radioactive waste are described and discussed. As a background, the applicable legislation for radiation protection and nuclear safety is briefly described and compared with the environmental legislation for waste management. The possibilities for a simultaneous optimisation of radiation protection, waste management and sustainability are analysed. As part of this, different factors to be considered in the optimisation of waste management in the context of clearance and recycling are presented and discussed. Examples of such factors are: possibilities of waste segregation, availability and acceptability of routes for recycling or disposal, availability of methods for radiological characterisation, predicted or potential radiation doses to members of the public, predicted or potential spread of radioactive substances in the environment, costs and material value. As an illustration, some examples on the use of the clearance option in the Swedish nuclear industry are presented, both from operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Concluding remarks are made from a radiation protection regulatory perspective. (authors)

  15. Recycling of actinides and nuclear waste products. Annual report from the research programme 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Dodd, D.H.; Gruppelaar, H.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    1997-07-01

    The research program on the title subject started in 1994 and is planned to be completed in 1998. In this period several technical and scientific aspects of recycling and transmutation are investigated in different projects. The results of the 1996 projects are summarized and described in this report. The 1996 projects concern (1) the chemistry of actinides and inert matrices to test and characterize the matrices and actinide compounds in order to develop uranium-free fissionable materials for the transmutation of actinides; (2) the transmutation of plutonium in light water reactors (LWR) to assess and increase the burnup of plutonium and to assess the safety of plutonium transmutation in LWRs; (3) the radiological consequences of different nuclear fuel cycles; (4) and a reactor physics analysis of new thorium-based reactor systems to study the possibility to reduce the amount of long-living radioactive waste materials by means of the use of thorium-based compounds in a high-temperature reactor (HTR) or accelerators. 15 figs., 6 tabs., 23 refs

  16. High levels of PAH-metabolites in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldt, Torsten, E-mail: feldt@bni-hamburg.de [Clinical Research Unit, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht Str. 74, 20359 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Fobil, Julius N., E-mail: jfobil@ug.edu.gh [Department of Biological, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG13, Legon (Ghana); Wittsiepe, Jürgen [Department of Hygiene, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Wilhelm, Michael, E-mail: wilhelm@hygiene.rub.de [Department of Hygiene, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Till, Holger, E-mail: holger.till@giz.de [GIZ — Regional Coordination Unit for HIV and TB (GiZ-ReCHT), 32 Cantonment Crescent, Cantonments, Accra (Ghana); Zoufaly, Alexander [Department of Medicine, Section Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Burchard, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.burchard@bni-hamburg.de [Clinical Research Unit, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht Str. 74, 20359 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Medicine, Section Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Göen, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.goeen@ipasum.med.uni-erlangen.de [Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schillerstr. 25/29, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The informal recycling of electronic waste (e-waste) is an emerging source of environmental pollution in Africa. Among other toxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major health concern for exposed individuals. In a cross-sectional study, the levels of PAH metabolites in the urine of individuals working on one of the largest e-waste recycling sites of Africa, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to e-waste recycling activities, were investigated. Socioeconomic data, basic health data and urine samples were collected from 72 exposed individuals and 40 controls. In the urine samples, concentrations of the hydroxylate PAH metabolites (OH-PAH) 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OH-phenanthrene), the sum of 2- and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (2-/9-OH-phenanthrene), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-phenanthrene), 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (4-OH-phenanthrene) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-pyrene), as well as cotinine and creatinine, were determined. In the exposed group, median urinary concentrations were 0.85 μg/g creatinine for 1-OH-phenanthrene, 0.54 μg/g creatinine for 2-/9-OH-phenanthrene, 0.99 μg/g creatinine for 3-OH-phenanthrene, 0.22 μg/g creatinine for 4-OH-phenanthrene, and 1.33 μg/g creatinine for 1-OH-pyrene, all being significantly higher compared to the control group (0.55, 0.37, 0.63, 0.11 and 0.54 μg/g creatinine, respectively). Using a multivariate linear regression analysis including sex, cotinine and tobacco smoking as covariates, exposure to e-waste recycling activities was the most important determinant for PAH exposure. On physical examination, pathological findings were rare, but about two thirds of exposed individuals complained about cough, and one quarter about chest pain. In conclusion, we observed significantly higher urinary PAH metabolite concentrations in individuals who were exposed to e-waste recycling compared to controls who were not exposed to e-waste recycling activities. The impact of e-waste recycling on exposure to

  17. High levels of PAH-metabolites in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, Torsten; Fobil, Julius N.; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael; Till, Holger; Zoufaly, Alexander; Burchard, Gerd; Göen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The informal recycling of electronic waste (e-waste) is an emerging source of environmental pollution in Africa. Among other toxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major health concern for exposed individuals. In a cross-sectional study, the levels of PAH metabolites in the urine of individuals working on one of the largest e-waste recycling sites of Africa, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to e-waste recycling activities, were investigated. Socioeconomic data, basic health data and urine samples were collected from 72 exposed individuals and 40 controls. In the urine samples, concentrations of the hydroxylate PAH metabolites (OH-PAH) 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OH-phenanthrene), the sum of 2- and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (2-/9-OH-phenanthrene), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-phenanthrene), 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (4-OH-phenanthrene) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-pyrene), as well as cotinine and creatinine, were determined. In the exposed group, median urinary concentrations were 0.85 μg/g creatinine for 1-OH-phenanthrene, 0.54 μg/g creatinine for 2-/9-OH-phenanthrene, 0.99 μg/g creatinine for 3-OH-phenanthrene, 0.22 μg/g creatinine for 4-OH-phenanthrene, and 1.33 μg/g creatinine for 1-OH-pyrene, all being significantly higher compared to the control group (0.55, 0.37, 0.63, 0.11 and 0.54 μg/g creatinine, respectively). Using a multivariate linear regression analysis including sex, cotinine and tobacco smoking as covariates, exposure to e-waste recycling activities was the most important determinant for PAH exposure. On physical examination, pathological findings were rare, but about two thirds of exposed individuals complained about cough, and one quarter about chest pain. In conclusion, we observed significantly higher urinary PAH metabolite concentrations in individuals who were exposed to e-waste recycling compared to controls who were not exposed to e-waste recycling activities. The impact of e-waste recycling on exposure to

  18. Sustainable development: characterisation and recycling in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinet, Ph.

    2008-01-01

    A string of radioactive waste treatments has been built in the past decades that followed the installation of nuclear industry. They are the response for public health, protection of populations, environmental concerns and radioprotection of workers. After hesitant beginnings and groped steps, new regulations have been put in place together with the industrial infrastructure Everyday actuality shows us the rise of collective awareness for Sustainable Development, of which the nuclear industry is a powerful actor. Besides, new regulations make more dynamic the steps of management of nuclear waste. Finally, new needs are rising up with the advent of industrial age of dismantling. At crossroads of these trends, there are still some lanes for evolution after experimentation. (author)

  19. National plan for the radioactive and recyclable wastes management of the national inventory of the radioactive and recyclable wastes to an account and a prospective outlook of the pathways of long dated management of radioactive wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The introduction recalls the context of the development of the national plan of radioactive and recyclable wastes management (PNGDR-MV), its objectives and its position in the today studies on radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to the description of existing radioactive wastes management solutions, or engaged by today activities. The second part concerns the radioactive materials of the nuclear industry, which are not considered as wastes, but which can be recyclable because of their high energy potential as fuels for reactors of the future. The third part examines the pathways coherence. The last part is a synthesis of the evaluation, with more attention on the identifies problems. (A.L.B.)

  20. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Waste Form Qualification Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randklev, E.H.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has created a waste acceptance process to help guide the overall program for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a federal repository. This Waste Form Qualification Program Plan describes the hierarchy of strategies used by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project to satisfy the waste form qualification obligations of that waste acceptance process. A description of the functional relationship of the participants contributing to completing this objective is provided. The major activities, products, providers, and associated scheduling for implementing the strategies also are presented

  1. Recycling of Different Available Organic Wastes through Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karmakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of organic wastes has been increased in an unprecedented rate in India with rapid population expansion, leading to disposal problems. These organic wastes can be converted into valuable wealth by applying vermicomposting technology. Vermicompost which provides macro and micro nutrients to the plants, also reduces pollution by providing a valuable substitute for chemical fertilizers. Present paper deals with vermicomposting of organic wastes from seven different sources and evaluation of nutrient in those vermicomposts following chemical analyses. These seven sources include coconut coir, water hyacinth, mixed materials, cabbage, banana pseudostem, cow dung, and rice husk. Three composting species of earthworms e.g. Eisenia. fetida, Eudrilus. eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus were chosen for the experiment. Chemical analysis of vermicomposts under study clearly showed that the vermicompost from water hyacinth contained maximum amount of organic C, total N, and total K though the phosphorous content was maximum in vermicompost from mixed materials. Lowest nutrient content was observed in vermicompost of coconut coir. Vermicomposts from mixed materials, cabbage, banana pseudostem were at per in their chemical properties. It can be concluded that among the seven sources, vermicompost from water hyacinth is best for its nutrient value.

  2. Applications of exemption principles to low-level waste disposal and recycle of wastes from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E.; Hemming, C.R.; O'Donnell, F.R.; Linsley, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    The IAEA and other international groups for the past several years have been investigating the possibility of exempting from regulatory control certain radiation sources and practices, initially under the general heading of de minimis. IAEA work has been conducted by Advisory Groups on two interrelated levels : to establish principles for exemption, and to apply the principles to various areas of waste management. This paper describes the IAEA's assessment methodology and presents the generic results expressed in terms of the limiting activity concentrations in municipal waste and in low-activity materials for recycle and reuse

  3. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies

  4. Recycling-oriented characterization of small waste electrical and electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chancerel, Perrine; Rotter, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the continuous change in the design and function of consumer electrical and electronic products, the mechanical and material properties of the obsolete products, called waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), are highly variable. The variability within WEEE is explained by the number of different appliances, and the heterogeneity in composition of any given appliance. This paper reports on an extended investigation of the properties of WEEE, in particular small appliances. The investigation focuses on the analysis of the composition of about 700 single appliances. Firstly, analytical methods to characterize the waste equipment are described. The results of the experimental analyses show that the mechanical properties, the material composition, the polymer composition and the chemical composition of WEEE vary not only between equipment types with different functions, but also between single appliances within one equipment type. Data on hazardous and valuable substances in selected equipment types are presented. Using detailed data on the composition of individual appliances to calculate rates of recovery for assumed recycling processes demonstrates that the performance of recycling processes depends strongly on the composition of WEEE. Recycling-oriented characterization is, therefore, a systematic approach to support the design and the operation of recycling processes.

  5. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  6. Recycling Waste Bakelite As A Carbon Resource In Ironmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ransford Dankwah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bakelite is a 3-dimensional cross-linked network structured thermosetting polymer which is difficult to recycle after use. However it contains high levels of carbon and CaCO3 that can be recovered for use as reductant and fluxing agent in ironmaking. In this work we report the use of post-consumer bakelite as reductant for the production of metallic iron from iron oxide in a horizontal tube furnace through the composite pellet approach.Gas emission studies were conducted by pyrolysing raw bakelite at different temperatures within the temperature range 1200-1600 C in a horizontal tube furnace. Following thiscomposite pellets were then formed from mixtures of iron oxide and post-consumer bakelite.The iron oxide-bakelite composites were heated from room temperature to 1200 C and then between 1200-1600 C in a continuous stream of pure argon and the off gas was analysed continuously using an infrared IR gas analyser. Elemental analyses of samples of the reduced metal were performed chemically for its oxygen content using a LECO oxygennitrogen analyser. The extent of reduction after ten minutes was determined from the oxygen content. Gas emission studies revealed the emission of large volumes of the reductant gases CO and CH4along with CO2.It is further demonstrated that post-consumer bakelite is effective at reducing iron oxide to produce metallic iron.

  7. Limitations of actinide recycle and waste disposal consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetsle, L.H.; Raedt, C. de

    1994-01-01

    The paper emphasizes the impact of Light Water Reactor - Mixed Oxides introduction on the subsequent actinide management and fate of reprocessed and depleted uranium. The spent fuel from LWR-MOX contains in principle 75% of the initially produced plutonium. This new source term has to be considered together with the minor actinides from the conventional reprocessing. Subsequent LWR-MOX reprocessing in the first step in a very long term Pu + minor actinides management. Recycling of Pu + minor actinides in fast reactors to significantly reduce the Pu and minor actinides inventory (e.g. a factor of 10) is a very slow process which requires the development and operation of a large park of actinide burner reactors during an extended period of time. The overall feasibility of the P and T option will greatly depend on the massive introduction during the next century of fast neutron reactors as a replacement to the present LWR generation of nuclear power plants. (authors). 11 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among recyclable waste collectors in Central-West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Thaís Augusto; Lopes, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Reis, Nádia Rúbia Silva; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; de Andrade, Andreia Alves; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a population of recyclable waste collectors (n = 431) was assessed using a cross-sectional survey in all 15 cooperatives in the city of Goiânia, Central-West Brazil. The HCV prevalence was 1.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.6-3.6) and a history of sexually transmitted infections was independently associated with this infection. HCV RNA (corresponding to genotype 1; subtypes 1a and 1b) was detected in five/seven anti-HCV-positive samples. Although the study population reported a high rate (47.3%) of sharps and needle accidents, HCV infection was not more frequent in recyclable waste collectors than in the general Brazilian population.

  9. The mechanical properties of brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste as sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Bazilah Azmi, Nurul; Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Shahidan, Shahiron; Ali, Noorwirdawati

    2018-03-01

    This research focuses on the performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate. This study aims to determine the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption of composite brick containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand, they were then replaced by RCA at 25%, 50% and 75% with proportions of PET consists of 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% by weight of natural sand. Based on the results of compressive strength, only RCA 25% with 0.5% PET achieve lower strength than normal bricks while others showed a high strength. However, all design mix reaches strength more than 7N/mm2 as expected. Besides that, the most favorable mix design that achieves high compressive strength is 75% of RCA with 0.5% PET.

  10. Characterization of Iron and Steel Industry Slags to be Recycled under Ecological Aspects as a Recycling Concept for Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, T.K.; Aly, H.F.; Bossert, J.

    1999-01-01

    The recycling and final disposal of different types of industrial waste play an important role in decreasing environmental pollution all over the world. Three different solid waste slags from steel industries situated in the Helwan area (Cairo-Egypt), namely blast furnace slags, oxygen converter slags arc furnace slags were studied. The morphology of the collected slag powders was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface characteristics of the slag powders were measured through nitrogen gas adsorption and application of the BET equation at 77 K. The thermal behaviour of the slag powders was studied with the help of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry(TG)> Due to the presence of some changes in the DTA base lines, possibly as a result of phase transformations, X-ray diffraction was applied to identify these phases. The sintering behaviour of the compact slag powders after isostatic pressing was evaluated using dilatometry. The sintering and melting temperature of the studied samples were determined using heating microscopy. The effect of changing sintering temperature and of applying different isostatic pressures on the density and porosity of the slag powder compacts was investigated

  11. Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Recycling of waste glass as a partial replacement for fine aggregate in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zainab Z; Al-Hashmi, Enas A

    2009-02-01

    Waste glass creates serious environmental problems, mainly due to the inconsistency of waste glass streams. With increasing environmental pressure to reduce solid waste and to recycle as much as possible, the concrete industry has adopted a number of methods to achieve this goal. The properties of concretes containing waste glass as fine aggregate were investigated in this study. The strength properties and ASR expansion were analyzed in terms of waste glass content. An overall quantity of 80 kg of crushed waste glass was used as a partial replacement for sand at 10%, 15%, and 20% with 900 kg of concrete mixes. The results proved 80% pozzolanic strength activity given by waste glass after 28 days. The flexural strength and compressive strength of specimens with 20% waste glass content were 10.99% and 4.23%, respectively, higher than those of the control specimen at 28 days. The mortar bar tests demonstrated that the finely crushed waste glass helped reduce expansion by 66% as compared with the control mix.

  13. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling. It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Results Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Conclusions Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants.

  14. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laryea-Goldsmith, René; Oakey, John; Simms, Nigel J

    2011-02-01

    Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal) upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics) and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling). It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants.

  15. Urinary metabolites of phosphate flame retardants in workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Meihuan; Zheng, Jing; Xu, Rongfa; Zhuang, Xi; Lin, Ying; Ren, Mingzhong

    2018-06-01

    Urinary metabolites of phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were determined in workers from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site and an incineration plant, in order to assess the PFR exposure risks of workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration. Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) were the most frequently detected chemicals (82-93%). The median concentrations of BCEP, BDCIPP, and DPHP were 1.77, 0.23, and 0.70 ng/mL, and 1.44, 0.22, and 0.11 ng/mL in samples from the e-waste site and the incineration plant, respectively. Dibutyl phosphate (DBP) was detected in all samples from the incineration plant, with a median level of 0.30 ng/mL. The concentrations of BDCIPP (r = -0.31, p waste site. Negative and significant correlations were also observed between the concentrations of BCEP (r = -0.42, p incineration plant. No gender differences were observed in levels of PFR metabolites in urine samples (p > 0.05). Concentrations of BDCIPP in female were significantly correlated with occupational exposure time (r = -0.507, p  0.05). Overall, the workers with occupational exposure to PFRs had different profiles of urinary PFR metabolites. The age, occupational exposure time, and gender seemed not to be main factors mediating the exposure to PFRs for workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  17. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  18. Feasibility studies of actinide recycle in LMFBRs as a waste management alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, S.L.; Aitken, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A strategy of actinide burnup in LMFBRs is being investigated as a waste management alternative to long term storage of high level nuclear waste. This strategy is being evaluated because many of the actinides in the waste from spent-fuel reprocessing have half-lives of thousands of years and an alternative to geological storage may be desired. From a radiological viewpoint, the actinides and their daughters dominate the waste hazard for decay times beyond about 400 years. Actinide burnup in LMFBRs may be an attractive alternative to geological storage because the actinides can be effectively transmuted to fission products which have significantly shorter half-lives. Actinide burnup in LMFBRs rather than LWRs is preferred because the ratio of fission reaction rate to capture reaction rate for the actinides is higher in an LMFBR, and an LMFBR is not so sensitive to the addition of the actinide isotopes. An actinide target assembly recycle scheme is evaluated to determine the effects of the actinides on the LMFBR performance, including local power peaking, breeding ratio, and fissile material requirements. Several schemes are evaluated to identify any major problems associated with reprocessing and fabrication of recycle actinide-containing assemblies. The overall efficiency of actinide burnout in LMFBRs is evaluated, and equilibrium cycle conditions are determined. It is concluded that actinide recycle in LMFBRs offers an attractive alternative to long term storage of the actinides, and does not significantly affect the performance of the host LMFBR. Assuming a 0.1 percent or less actinide loss during reprocessing, a 0.1 percent loss of less during fabrication, and proper recycle schemes, virtually all of the actinides produced by a fission reactor economy could be transmuted in fast reactors

  19. Recycling of Organic Wastes to Achieve the Clean Agriculture Approach with Aid of Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, A.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Objective of this current work is to study Organic matter decomposition under clean agriculture system in sandy soil using nuclear technique. This desirtatation has the following targets: - Amendment and improving sandy soil properties - Utilization of farm wastes (Recycling) in safe mode -Benefits form organic matter decomposition. - Follow up the fate of same nutrients (Nitrogen) released in soil media after organic matter (O.M) decomposition and Impact on plant nutrition status.-saving the environment on short and long run.

  20. Japan, the European Union, and Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment Recycling: Key Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Fumikazu; Yoshida, Haruyo

    2010-01-01

    This article considers how Japan and the EU manage the recycling of consumer appliances and PCs/cellular phones through a review of their current collection and treatment systems for WEEE (waste electronic and electrical equipment), and on the basis of its findings offers recommendations for the improvement of these systems. We hope thereby to provide information that will be helpful for the better management of WEEE in developed countries as well as in our own. On the basis of our findings, ...

  1. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker’s cooperatives: An alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina, E-mail: magda@pep.ufrj.br [Program of Production Engineering, School and Research in Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz, E-mail: fabio@pep.ufrj.br [Program of Production Engineering, School and Research in Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► In the marketing of recyclable materials, the waste-pickers are the least wins. ► It is proposed creating a network of recycling cooperatives to achieve viability. ► The waste-pickers contribute to waste management to the city. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city’s main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers’ cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  2. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker’s cooperatives: An alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In the marketing of recyclable materials, the waste-pickers are the least wins. ► It is proposed creating a network of recycling cooperatives to achieve viability. ► The waste-pickers contribute to waste management to the city. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city’s main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers’ cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro

  3. Perceptions of waste and recycling. A qualitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    characteristics were controlled for: L ife-cycle stage, gender, income, housing conditions, and waste removal system. The last three variables were used as break variables while the first two were controlled for by controlling the composition of the sample Knodel, 1993. Particip ants were selected on the basis...... to four combinations of the income above vs. below average family income and housing flat vs. single family house characteristics and mixed with regard to life cycle stages and gender. In the paper, general impressions from the interviews and results of a more formal content analysis are reported....

  4. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  5. Comparison of soil heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities and traditional industrial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kailing; Sun, Zehang; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-04-01

    The traditional industrial operations are well recognized as an important source of heavy metal pollution, while that caused by the e-waste recycling activities, which have sprouted in some developing countries, is often overlooked. This study was carried out to compare the status of soil heavy metal pollution caused by the traditional industrial operations and the e-waste recycling activities in the Pearl River Delta, and assess whether greater attention should be paid to control the pollution arising from e-waste recycling activities. Both the total contents and the chemical fractionation of major heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in 50 surface soil samples collected from the e-waste recycling areas and 20 soil samples from the traditional industrial zones were determined. The results show that the soils in the e-waste recycling areas were mainly polluted by Cu, Zn, As, and Cd, while Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were the major heavy metals in the soils from the traditional industrial zones. Statistical analyses consistently show that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils from both types of sites were contributed mostly by human activities, while As, Cr, and Ni in the soils were dominated by natural background. No clear distinction was found on the pollution characteristic of heavy metals in the surface soils between the e-waste recycling areas and traditional industrial zones. The potential ecological risk posed by heavy metals in the surface soils from both types of sites, which was dominated by that from Cd, ranged from low to moderate. Given the much shorter development history of e-waste recycling and its largely unregulated nature, significant efforts should be made to crack down on illegal e-waste recycling and strengthen pollution control for related activities.

  6. Proceedings of the Department of Energy Defense Programs hazardous and mixed waste minimization workshop: Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The first workshop on hazardous and mixed waste minimization was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, on July 26--28, 1988. The objective of this workshop was to establish an interchange between DOE headquarters (DOE-HQ) DP, Operations Offices, and contractors of waste minimization strategies and successes. The first day of the workshop began with presentations stressing the importance of establishing a waste minimization program at each site as required by RCRA, the land ban restrictions, and the decrease in potential liabilities associated with waste disposal. Discussions were also centered on pending legislation which would create an Office of Waste Reduction in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Waste Minimization and Avoidance Study was initiated by DOE as an addition to the long-term productivity study to address the issues of evolving requirements facing RCRA waste management activities at the DP sites, to determine how major operations will be affected by these requirements, and to determine the available strategies and options for waste minimization and avoidance. Waste minimization was defined in this study as source reduction and recycling

  7. A Research Needs Assessment for waste plastics recycling: Volume 1, Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This first volume provides a summary of the entire project. The study utilized the talents of a large number of participants, including a significant number of peer reviewers from industrial companies, government agencies, and research institutes. in addition, an extensive analysis of relevant literature was carried out. In considering the attractiveness of recycling technologies that are alternatives to waste-to-energy combustion units, a systems approach was utilized. Collection of waste streams containing plastics, sortation, and reclamation of plastics and plastic mixtures, reprocessing or chemical conversion of the reclaimed polymers, and the applicability of the products to specific market segments have been analyzed in the study.

  8. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest

  9. Is it possible to recycle nuclear wastes? Costs, risks and stakes of the plutonium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document, published by the French association 'Sortir du nucleaire' (Get out of nuclear), gives some information on the chain reaction from uranium to plutonium, the difference between reprocessing (which does not reduce waste volumes but multiply waste types) and recycling, the high risks associated with plutonium transport, La Hague as the most dangerous nuclear site in France, reprocessing as the alibi for the French nuclear industry, Areva as an expert in propaganda, reprocessing as an absurd world strategy, plutonium as a fuel for proliferation, the myth of unlimited energy with the breeder reactors, and so on

  10. The recycling of wastes in Japan; Le recyclage des dechets au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgel, O.

    2004-04-01

    The Japan economic growth of the second half of the 20. century and the increase of the internal consumption, led to the continuous increase of the wastes volume. The government took into account this problem only during the years 1990 because of the landfills saturation, and decided large legislative measures. Hopeful the japanese industry voluntarism, results have reach beyond the limits and rate fixed by the law. After a presentation of the wastes recycling policy in Japan, this report described the new techniques applied and the tendencies in the research development. Then the treatment of specific products are presented. (A.L.B.)

  11. The BATENUS process for recycling mixed battery waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Siegmund; Sewing, Dirk

    The first large-scale battery recycling facility implementing the hydrometallurgical BATENUS technology is expected to go into operation by 1996. The plant will be situated in Schönebeck/Sachsen-Anhalt, and has a projected maximum capacity of 7500 tons of spent batteries per year. The engineering is being carried out by Keramchemie GmbH and the plant will be operated by Batterierecycling Schönebeck GmbH. The BATENUS process was developed by Pira GmbH, a research institute in Stühlingen, Germany, during a period of five years. This new process combines hydrometallurgical operations in a nearly closed reagent cycle that involves electrochemical and membrane techniques. Effluent emissions are minimized to the greatest possible extent. Process validity has been proven in a series of pilot plant testings. After mechanical separation of the casing materials like ferrous and nonferrous metals, paper and plastics, the subsequent hydrometallurgical recovery yields zinc, copper, nickel and cadmium. The other products are manganese carbonate and a mixture of manganese oxide with carbon black. Mercury is immobilized by absorption on a selective ion-exchange resin. The BATENUS process is a master process for the hydrometallurgical reclamation of metals from secondary raw materials. It has found its first application in the treatment of spent consumer batteries (i.e., mixtures of zinc-carbon, alkaline manganese, lithium, nickel-cadmium cells, etc.). As a result of its modular process design, the individual steps can be modified easily and adapted to accommodate variations in the contents of the secondary raw materials. Further applications of this highly flexible technology are planned for the future.

  12. Recycling and reuse of waste from electricity distribution networks as reinforcement agents in polymeric composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matheus V G; Zattera, Ademir J

    2013-07-01

    Of the waste generated from electricity distribution networks, wooden posts treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and ceramic insulators make up the majority of the materials for which no effective recycling scheme has been developed. This study aims to recycle and reuse this waste as reinforcement elements in polymer composites and hybrid composites, promoting an ecologically and economically viable alternative for the disposal of this waste. The CCA wooden posts were cut, crushed and recycled via acid leaching using 0.2 and 0.4N H2SO4 in triplicate at 70°C and then washed and dried. The ceramic insulators were fragmented in a hydraulic press and separated by particle size using a vibrating sieve. The composites were mixed in a twin-screw extruder and injected into the test specimens, which were subjected to physical, mechanical, thermal and morphological characterization. The results indicate that the acid treatment most effective for removing heavy metals in the wood utilizes 0.4NH2SO4. However, the composites made from wood treated with 0.2NH2SO4 exhibited the highest mechanical properties of the composites, whereas the use of a ceramic insulator produces composites with better thermal stability and impact strength. This study is part of the research and development project of ANEEL (Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica) and funded by CPFL (Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrothermal modification and recycling of nonmetallic particles from waste print circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuehua; Li, Qisheng; Qiu, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Nonmetallic particles recycled from waste print circuit boards (NPRPs) were modified by a hydrothermal treatment method and the catalysts, solvents, temperature and time were investigated, which affected the modification effect of NPRPs. The mild hydrothermal treatment method does not need high temperature, and would not cause secondary pollution. Further, the modified NPRPs were used as the raw materials for the epoxy resin and glass fibers/epoxy resin composites, which were prepared by pouring and hot-pressing method. The mechanical properties and morphology of the composites were discussed. The results showed that relative intensity of the hydroxyl bonds on the surface of NPRPs increased 58.9% after modification. The mechanical tests revealed that both flexural and impact properties of the composites can be significantly improved by adding the modified NPRPs. Particularly, the maximum increment of flexural strength, flexural modulus and impact strength of the epoxy matrix composites with 30% modified NPRPs is 40.1%, 80.0% and 79.0%, respectively. Hydrothermal treatment can modify surface of NPRPs successfully and modified NPRPs can not only improve the properties of the composites, but also reduce the production cost of the composites and environmental pollution. Thus, we develop a new way to recycle nonmetallic materials of waste print circuit boards and the highest level of waste material recycling with the raw materials-products-raw materials closed cycle can be realized through the hydrothermal modification and reuse of NPRPs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Recycled Waste Polymers, Natural Bitumen and HVS Cut on the Properties of Vacuum Bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Rasoulzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The neat bitumen, an oil refining by-product, has its own inherent weakness under long-time loading at low and high temperatures. These performance limitations of neat bitumen have led researchers to modify its physical andmechanical properties. According to several studies, polymers can be used to modify the properties of bitumen. Due to much lower production costs and aiming to reduce environmental impacts, recycled waste polymers are preferred as compared with virgin polymers. In this study, the effect of recycled waste polymers including crumb rubber modifier (CRM, polyethylene and latex and non-polymeric materials such as natural bitumen (NB and heavy vacuum slops (HVS cut on physical and mechanical properties of vacuum bottom residue (VB of crude oil distillation was investigat-ed. Based on the results, recycled waste polyethylene and NB can improve the performance grade of VB at high temperatures and CRM, latex and HVS can improve the performance grade of VB at low temperatures. Thus, by designing various blends of these additives with VB, different modified bitumens can be directly obtained from VB without any need to air-blowing process.

  15. Molecular Monte Carlo Simulations Using Graphics Processing Units: To Waste Recycle or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihan; Rodgers, Jocelyn M; Athènes, Manuel; Smit, Berend

    2011-10-11

    In the waste recycling Monte Carlo (WRMC) algorithm, (1) multiple trial states may be simultaneously generated and utilized during Monte Carlo moves to improve the statistical accuracy of the simulations, suggesting that such an algorithm may be well posed for implementation in parallel on graphics processing units (GPUs). In this paper, we implement two waste recycling Monte Carlo algorithms in CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) using uniformly distributed random trial states and trial states based on displacement random-walk steps, and we test the methods on a methane-zeolite MFI framework system to evaluate their utility. We discuss the specific implementation details of the waste recycling GPU algorithm and compare the methods to other parallel algorithms optimized for the framework system. We analyze the relationship between the statistical accuracy of our simulations and the CUDA block size to determine the efficient allocation of the GPU hardware resources. We make comparisons between the GPU and the serial CPU Monte Carlo implementations to assess speedup over conventional microprocessors. Finally, we apply our optimized GPU algorithms to the important problem of determining free energy landscapes, in this case for molecular motion through the zeolite LTA.

  16. Pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis as a recycling method of waste CDs originating from polycarbonate and HIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonakou, E.V. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalogiannis, K.G.; Stephanidis, S.D. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Triantafyllidis, K.S. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Lappas, A.A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Achilias, D.S., E-mail: axilias@chem.auth.gr [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis is a powerful method for recycling of WEEEs. • Liquid products obtained from the pyrolysis of PC or HIPS found in waste CDs are very different. • Mainly phenols are obtained from pyrolysis PC based wastes while aromatics from HIPS. • Use of MgO catalyst increases the amount of phenols from CD recycling compared to ZSM-5. • Use of MgO or ZSM-5 catalysts reduces the amount of styrene recovered from HIPS. - Abstract: Pyrolysis appears to be a promising recycling process since it could convert the disposed polymers to hydrocarbon based fuels or various useful chemicals. In the current study, two model polymers found in WEEEs, namely polycarbonate (PC) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and their counterparts found in waste commercial Compact Discs (CDs) were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor. Both, thermal pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of two catalytic materials (basic MgO and acidic ZSM-5 zeolite) was performed for all four types of polymers. Results have shown significant recovery of the monomers and valuable chemicals (phenols in the case of PC and aromatic hydrocarbons in the case of HIPS), while catalysts seem to decrease the selectivity towards the monomers and enhance the selectivity towards other desirable compounds.

  17. A new recycling technique for the waste tires reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Zahra; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Faramarzian, Mohammad; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-10-01

    In this series of laboratory experiments, the feasibility of using fixed bed biofilm carriers (FBBC) manufactured from existing reclaimed waste tires (RWTs) for wastewater treatment was evaluated. To assess polyamide yarn waste tires as a media, the fixed bed sequence batch reactor (FBSBR) was evaluated under different organic loading rate (OLRs). An experimental model was used to study the kinetics of substrate consumption in biofilm. Removal efficiency of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) ranged by 76-98% for the FBSBR compared to 71-96% in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Removal efficiency of FBBC was significantly increased by inoculating these RWTs carriers. The results revealed that the sludge production yield (Y obs ) was significantly less in the FBSBR compared to the SBR (p 99%) in a FBSBR. Results from this study suggest that RWTs to support biological activity for a variety of wastewater treatment applications as a biofilm carrier have high potential that better performance as COD and TSS removal and sludge settling properties and effluent quality supported these findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Recycling of radioactive oil sludge waste into pavement brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Hishamuddin Hussein; Choo Thye Foo; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin; MAsliana MUslimin; Wilfred Sylvester Paulus

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia produces about 1450 tons of radioactive oil sludge waste per year and there is an urgent need to find a permanent solution to the storage and disposal of this radioactive waste problem. Several treatment methods such bacteria farming, ultracentrifuge, steam reforming and incineration are currently being used but the core issue of the radioactive material in the oil sludge had not been solved. The paper relates a study on utilizing the radioactive component of the oil sludge and turning them into pavement brick. Characteristic study of this radioactive component by XRD and XRF show that it mainly comprised of quartz and anorthite minerals. While the radioactivity analysis by gamma technique shows that more than 90 % of this radioactivity comes from this soil component with Ra-226 and Ra-228 as the main radionuclides. A vitrified brick was then produced from this sediment by mixing it with low radioactive local red clay. The result also shows that the formation of the vitrified layer may be due high content of K in the red clay. Tensile test on the brick shows that it has more than four times the strength of commercial clay brick. Long duration leaching test on the brick also shows that there is no dissolution of radionuclide from the brick. (author)

  19. Radioactive Waste Management Program Activities in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of radioactive waste management in Croatia comprises three major areas: management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW), spent fuel management and decommissioning. All the work regarding radioactive waste management program is coordinated by Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) and Croatian Power Utility (HEP) in cooperation with other relevant institutions. Since the majority of work has been done in developing low and intermediate level radioactive waste management program, the paper will focus on this part of radioactive waste management, mainly on issues of site selection and characterization, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance. A short description of national radioactive waste management infrastructure will also be presented. (author)

  20. Converting Simulated Sodium-bearing Waste into a Single Solid Waste Form by Evaporation: Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale Test Results on Recycling Evaporator Overheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, D.; D. L. Griffith; R. J. Kirkham; L. G. Olson; S. J. Losinski

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radioactive sodium-bearing waste into a single solid waste form by evaporation was demonstrated in both flask-scale and pilot-scale agitated thin film evaporator tests. A sodium-bearing waste simulant was adjusted to represent an evaporator feed in which the acid from the distillate is concentrated, neutralized, and recycled back through the evaporator. The advantage to this flowsheet is that a single remote-handled transuranic waste form is produced in the evaporator bottoms without the generation of any low-level mixed secondary waste. However, use of a recycle flowsheet in sodium-bearing waste evaporation results in a 50% increase in remote-handled transuranic volume in comparison to a non-recycle flowsheet.