WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste materials part

  1. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  3. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 2: SRF produced from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the fraction of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) complicated and economically not feasible to sort out for recycling purposes is used to produce solid recovered fuel (SRF) through mechanical treatment (MT). The paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of this SRF production process. All the process streams (input and output) produced in MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&D waste are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for SRF. Proximate and ultimate analysis of these streams is performed and their composition is determined. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. By mass balance means the overall mass flow of input waste material stream in the various output streams and material balances mean the mass flow of components of input waste material stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. The results from mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 44% was recovered in the form of SRF, 5% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal, and 28% was sorted out as fine fraction, 18% as reject material and 4% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 74% was recovered in the form of SRF, 16% belonged to the reject material and rest 10% belonged to the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. From the material balances of this process, mass fractions of plastic (soft), paper and cardboard, wood and plastic (hard) recovered in the SRF stream were 84%, 82%, 72% and 68% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC) and rubber material was found in the reject material

  4. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non

  5. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  6. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR) may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ce...

  7. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ceramic tiles for the masses and technological parameters of obtaining sintered materials based on the compositions of kaolin fireclay KVMR have been developed.It has been found that the use of the waste of Kaytashskoy tungsten-molybdenum ore (KVMR in the composition of the ceramic material will expand the raw material base of ceramic production, reduce the roasting temperature and the cost of ceramic materials and products.

  8. Materials and Waste Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is developing data and tools to reduce waste, manage risks, reuse and conserve natural materials, and optimize energy recovery. Collaboration with states facilitates assessment and utilization of technologies developed by the private sector.

  9. Construction Material Waste: Recognition and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was motivated by long term observations of the construction industry in the Northern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The observations showed that the construction waste is becoming a serious environmental, economical and safety issue that affects the suburbs of the KSA. The study utilizes Likert scaled responses through a two-part questionnaire distributed to 42 contractors located in the Northern region of KSA. The first part of the questionnaire aims at identifying causes of material waste in building construction projects from the contractors’ viewpoint. The second part seeks to rank the considered materials according to their level of importance from the contractors’ viewpoint. The collected data was analyzed through Minitab statistical software. It was found that the most significant factors causing construction waste are: (1 inaccuracy in quantity surveys leading to over-ordering or under-ordering; (2 the selection of low quality products; (3 detail errors in design and construction; (4 the order of supplies in loose form; (5 and the inefficiency in resource management. The results of this study show that construction material handling and managerial decisions have a critical impact on the cause and effect of the level of construction waste. The study findings demonstrate that the most important benefits for considering construction waste are to know the exact required quantities for a construction project and to plan and prepare an accurate schedule for material arriving supply. The study recommends employing Lean Manufacturing principles to eliminate the construction waste and to enhance the decision making process in construction management in the northern part of KSA.

  10. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) WasteWise Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA??s WasteWise encourages organizations and businesses to achieve sustainability in their practices and reduce select industrial wastes. WasteWise is part of EPA??s sustainable materials management efforts, which promote the use and reuse of materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. All U.S. businesses, governments and nonprofit organizations can join WasteWise as a partner, endorser or both. Current participants range from small local governments and nonprofit organizations to large multinational corporations. Partners demonstrate how they reduce waste, practice environmental stewardship and incorporate sustainable materials management into their waste-handling processes. Endorsers promote enrollment in WasteWise as part of a comprehensive approach to help their stakeholders realize the economic benefits to reducing waste. WasteWise helps organizations reduce their impact on global climate change through waste reduction. Every stage of a product's life cycle??extraction, manufacturing, distribution, use and disposal??indirectly or directly contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere and affects the global climate. WasteWise is part of EPA's larger SMM program (https://www.epa.gov/smm). Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) is a systemic approach to using and reusing materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. It represents a change in how our society thinks about the use of natural resources

  11. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk

  12. Radioactive Waste Material From Tapping Natural Resources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Rocks around oil and gas and mineral deposits may contain natural radioactivity. Drilling through these rocks and bringing them to the surface creates radioactive waste materials. Once desired minerals have been removed from ore, the radionuclides left in the waste are more concentrated. Scientists call this waste Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material or simply TENORM.

  13. Ethanol production from waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was designed for ethanol production using corn andother organic waste material containing starch contents andcellulosic material while barely used for diastase and acidicdigestion methods. The effect of temperature, yeast, barely diastaseand various dilutions of acid (sulfuric acids were investigated onethanol production. The result showed that corn yielded highamount of ethanol (445ml as compared to cellulosic material whichproduced 132ml of ethanol from one kg of weight. It was also notedthat with the increase of barely and yeast amount in a proper mannercan increase ethanol production from different starch sources. It wasalso noted that acid dilutions affected cellulose digestion where highyield of reducing sugar was noted at 0.75% of sulfuric acid dilution.It was concluded from the present experiment that economicalsources of starch and various dilutions of acids should be tried oncellulose digestion for bio-fuel production to withstand in thisenergy crisis time.

  14. Methane generation from waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Zohrab A.; Hanson, Adrian T.; Macias-Corral, Maritza

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  15. Absorption properties of waste matrix materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, J.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for studies of the limiting critical concentration of radioactive waste matrix materials. Calculated limiting critical concentration values for some common waste materials are listed. However, for systems containing large quantities of waste materials, differences up to 10% in calculated k{sub eff} values are obtained by changing cross section data sets. Therefore, experimental results are needed to compare with calculation results for resolving these differences and establishing realistic biases.

  16. Study of field assessment methods and worker risks for processing alternatives to support principles for FUSRAP waste materials. Part 1: Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Its purpose was to provide information to the Environmental Management Advisory Board`s FUSRAP Committee for use in its deliberation of guiding principles for FUSRAP sites, in particular the degree to which treatment should be considered in the FUSRAP Committee`s recommendations. Treatment of FUSRAP wastes to remove thorium could be beneficial to management of lands that contain thorium if such treatment were effective and cost efficient. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation. Both types of information should be useful for decisions on whether and how to apply thorium removal methods to FUSRAP waste materials.

  17. Materials in Nuclear Waste Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebak, Raul B.

    2014-03-01

    Commercial nuclear energy has been used for over 6 decades; however, to date, none of the 30+ countries with nuclear power has opened a repository for high-level waste (HLW). All countries with nuclear waste plan to dispose of it in metallic containers located in underground geologically stable repositories. Some countries also have liquid nuclear waste that needs to be reduced and vitrified before disposition. The five articles included in this topic offer a cross section of the importance of alloy selection to handle nuclear waste at the different stages of waste processing and disposal.

  18. Composition of waste materials and recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona

    decisions in waste planning thus require a holistic and systematic assessment of environmental impacts of different waste management options. Such assessment requires reliable information on the physical and chemical waste properties to model the flows of waste materials and substances throughout the entire...... the selection of appropriate acid digestion method for future waste characterization studies and the comparison of data across existing studies. A consistent dataset for 73 physico-chemical parameters in 49 residual and 24 source-segregated Danish household waste fractions was obtained and is now available...... for future modelling and assessment of waste management systems. The analyzed fractions were selected based on material properties with relevance for potential recycling processes. The physico-chemical analysis revealed chemical differences between residual and source-segregated samples for several fractions...

  19. Gasification from waste organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ramírez Rubio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fixed bed biomass gasifier operation designed and built by the Clean Development Mechanisms and Energy Management research group, the gasifier equipment and the measurement system. The experiment involved agro-industrial residues (biomass such wood chips, coconut shell, cocoa and coffee husk; some temperatures along the bed, its pressure, inlet air flow and the percentage of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the syngas composition were measured. The test results showed that a fuel gas was being obtained which was suitable for use with an internal combustion engine for generating electricity because more carbon monoxide than carbon dioxide was being obtained during several parts of the operation. The gasification experimentation revealed that a gasifier having these characteristics should be ideal for bringing energy to areas where it is hard to obtain it (such as many rural sites in Latin-America or other places where large amounts of agro-industrial wastes are produced. Temperatures of around 1,000°C were obtained in the combustion zone, generating a syngas having more than 20% carbon monoxide in its composition, thereby leading to obtaining combustible gas.

  20. 76 FR 46290 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... and steel scrap, other metals, paper fiber) sustainability; C&D materials; and zero waste. Topic 3... AGENCY EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source... Report called ``Municipal Solid Waste in the United States'' as part of a broader discussion about...

  1. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  2. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J.

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  3. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  4. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 2: Preliminary feasibility screening study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes in concentrations, matrix materials, and containers designed for storage on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Thompson, R. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results are reported of a preliminary feasibility screening study for providing long-term solutions to the problems of handling and managing radioactive wastes by extraterrestrial transportation of the wastes. Matrix materials and containers are discussed along with payloads, costs, and destinations for candidate space vehicles. The conclusions reached are: (1) Matrix material such as spray melt can be used without exceeding temperature limits of the matrix. (2) The cost in mills per kw hr electric, of space disposal of fission products is 4, 5, and 28 mills per kw hr for earth escape, solar orbit, and solar escape, respectively. (3) A major factor effecting cost is the earth storage time. Based on a normal operating condition design for solar escape, a storage time of more than sixty years is required to make the space disposal charge less than 10% of the bus-bar electric cost. (4) Based on a 10 year earth storage without further processing, the number of shuttle launches required would exceed one per day.

  5. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J.; Corrales, L. Rene; Ness, Nancy J.; Williford, Ralph E.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; McGrail, B. Peter; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Song, Jakyoung; Park, Byeongwon; Jiang, Weilin; Begg, Bruce D.; Birtcher, R. B.; Chen, X.; Conradson, Steven D.

    2000-10-02

    Radiation effects from the decay of radionuclides may impact the long-term performance and stability of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. In an effort to address these concerns, the objective of this project was the development of fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, particularly on solid-state radiation effects and their influence on aqueous dissolution kinetics. This study has employed experimental, theoretical and computer simulation methods to obtain new results and insights into radiation damage processes and to initiate the development of predictive models. Consequently, the research that has been performed under this project has significant implications for the High-Level Waste and Nuclear Materials focus areas within the current DOE/EM mission. In the High-Level Waste (HLW) focus area, the results of this research could lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials focus area, the results of this research could lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. Ultimately, this research could result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  6. Recycle of silicate waste into mesoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Minwoo; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2011-04-15

    Template synthesis of porous carbon materials usually requires selective removal of template silica from the carbon/silica composites. It not only involves waste of valuable chemicals, but also poses significant environmental concerns including high waste treatment cost. Recycling of silicates released from such nanocasting methods is successfully performed for the first time to regenerate valuable mesoporous MCM and SBA type silica materials, which will not only help in saving valuable chemicals, but also in decreasing chemical waste, contributing in improvement of our environmental standards. This approach can thus improve cost effectiveness for the mass production of nanostructured carbon and others utilizing silica directed nanocasting method by recycling otherwise silicate waste into highly desirable valuable mesoporous silica.

  7. Today's wastes, tomorrow's materials for environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Macaskie, L.E.; Mikheenko, I.P.; Yong, P.; Deplanche, K; Murray, A J; Paterson-Beedle, M; Coker, V. S.; Pearce, C. I.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Vaughan, D.; Van Der Laan, G; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 30 years the literature has burgeoned with bioremediation approaches to heavy metal removal from wastes. The price of base and precious metals has dramatically increased. With the resurgence of nuclear energy uranium has become a strategic resource. Other 'non-carbon energy' technologies are driven by the need to reduce CO2 emissions. The 'New Biohydrometallurgy' we describe unites these drivers by the concept of conversion of wastes into new materials for environmental applicat...

  8. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  9. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  10. Method for recovering materials from waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, a vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800{degrees}C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1000--1550{degrees}C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  11. WastePD, An Innovative Center on Materials Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, Gerald S.; Vienna, John D.; Lian, Jie

    2017-07-25

    The US Department of Energy recently awarded funds to create the Center for Performance and Design of Nuclear Waste Forms and Containers (WastePD) as part of the Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) program. EFRCs are multi-investigator collaborations of universities, national labs and companies that “conduct fundamental research focusing on one or more “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community.” The major performance parameter of nuclear waste forms is their ability to isolate the radionuclides by withstanding degradation in a repository environment over very long periods of time. So WastePD is at heart a center focused on materials degradation.

  12. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) WasteWise Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA’s WasteWise encourages organizations and businesses to achieve sustainability in their practices and reduce select industrial wastes. WasteWise is part of EPA’s...

  13. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  14. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William j. Weber; Lumin Wang; Jonathan Icenhower

    2004-07-09

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials.

  15. POLYMER COMPOSITES MODIFIED BY WASTE MATERIALS CONTAINING WOOD FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardeta Dębska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the idea of sustainable development has become one of the most important require-ments of civilization. Development of sustainable construction involves the need for the introduction of innovative technologies and solutions that will combine beneficial economic effects with taking care of the health and comfort of users, reducing the negative impact of the materials on the environment. Composites obtained from the use of waste materials are part of these assumptions. These include modified epoxy mortar containing waste wood fibres, described in this article. The modification consists in the substitution of sand by crushed waste boards, previously used as underlays for panels, in quantities of 0%, 10%, 20%, 35% and 50% by weight, respectively. Composites containing up to 20% of the modifier which were characterized by low water absorption, and good mechanical properties, also retained them after the process of cyclic freezing and thawing.

  16. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  17. Sustainable Materials Management: Non-Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed the non-hazardous materials and waste management hierarchy in recognition that no single waste management approach is suitable for managing all materials and waste streams in all circumstances.

  18. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  19. 10 CFR 72.170 - Nonconforming materials, parts, or components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonconforming materials, parts, or components. 72.170 Section 72.170 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  20. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Johnny Bolden; Taher Abu-Lebdeh; Ellie Fini

    2013-01-01

    More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nationâs landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take a...

  1. Biodegradable containers from green waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Luciana; Schettini, Evelia; Pandini, Stefano; Bignotti, Fabio; Vox, Giuliano; D'Amore, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Novel biodegradable polymeric materials based on protein hydrolysate (PH), derived from waste products of the leather industry, and poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG) or epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were obtained and their physico-chemical properties and mechanical behaviour were evaluated. Different processing conditions and the introduction of fillers of natural origin, as saw dust and wood flour, were used to tailor the mechanical properties and the environmental durability of the product. The biodegradable products, which are almost completely manufactured from renewable-based raw materials, look promising for several applications, particularly in agriculture for the additional fertilizing action of PH or in packaging.

  2. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gulghane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different characteristics are created at all the stages of construction. Construction industries have a larger part in contributing environmental problems. The economic and environmental benefits must be gained from construction waste minimization. This paper presents a review on systematically investigation of the management of construction materials and construction waste, material management techniques, control of construction waste and existing situation of construction management and construction waste in the industry.

  3. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  4. Material Recovery and Waste Form Development FY 2014 Accomplishments Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Develop advanced nuclear fuel cycle separation and waste management technologies that improve current fuel cycle performance and enable a sustainable fuel cycle, with minimal processing, waste generation, and potential for material diversion.

  5. RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamela R. Cunningham

    1992-07-01

    This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

  6. Design of ceramic microstructures based on waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rekecki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The progressive changes in ceramic raw materials during firing processes are a complex area. This is partly due to the large number of raw material characteristics, primarily mineral composition, and partly to the relatively inadequate particle distribution in the unfired clay body. The most important starting point is always the optimal raw material composition which should give appropriate physical and mechanical characteristics to the final products after firing processes and should provide an efficient and economical production. The paper analyzes the influence of some additives (fly ashes and waste glass materials on the development of the ceramic roofing tile microstructure during the thermal treatment. The analyzed raw material mixtures were: the standard raw material mixture (from Kanjiza, Northern part of Serbia and the modified one, i.e. the mixture of the standard raw material and corresponding additive. The silica phase obtained during the thermal collapse of the clay minerals in the presence of the glass additive bounded better CaO and MgO components released from the carbonates. The crystalline phases like plagioclases were performed in a considerable quantity and the products with new physical characteristics were formed.

  7. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, W.C.

    1981-06-01

    At low temperatures, graphites are chemically inert to all but the strongest oxidizing agents. The raw materials from which artificial graphites are produced are plentiful and inexpensive. Morover, the physical properties of artificial graphites can be varied over a very wide range by the choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphite matrix for the waste forms. The approach, recommended herein, involves the low-temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior to the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package. Various methods for increasing the strength, and for decreasing the permeability of the matrix, are reviewed and discussed in the sections in Incorporation of Other Materials and Elimination of Porosity. However, it would be premature to recommend a particular process until the overall multi-barrier design is better defined. It is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on further development of the low-temperature compacted graphite matrix concept.

  8. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO2, TiO2, SiO2) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 - 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm.

  9. Use of waste materials for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitiello, R.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Napoli Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Chimiche; Buonerba, A.; Grassi, A. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Waste raw materials obtained by several sources of both food and agro industries could be considered for biofuel production. In the last years, this topic has growing in interest. At this purpose, our research, has been focused on the development of new technologies to obtain biodiesel from the mentioned wastes feedstock. In particular from oleins, that are mixtures of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides. Therefore, we are studying the way to produce biodiesel in two steps: an esterification reaction of FFAs with glycerol and a transesterification with methanol of the whole mixture. The esterification of FFAs with glycerol has the advantage of using a relatively high temperature favouring the stripping of water formed during the esterification. In this way esterification equilibrium is shifted to the right. Then, the mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides, obtained by esterification with glycerol, can be submitted to transesterification with methanol, in the usual way, to produce biodiesel Catalysts promoting esterification, normally, are mineral acids or heterogeneous Bronsted acid catalysts. At this purpose, the classical sulphonated polystyrene acid resins cannot be used at temperature greater than 120 C. Therefore, a new class of sulfonated polymers, with enhanced temperature resistance, has been developed by selective and quantitative sulfonation of olefinic butadiene units in multiblock copolymers syndiotactic polystyrene-co-1,4-cis-polybutadiene. This catalytic system has been successfully tested in the above mentioned esterification reaction and compared to classic commercial strong acid catalysts like Amberlyst {sup registered}, Nafion {sup registered} and sulfuric acid. (orig.)

  10. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  11. Waste materials - catalytic opportunities: an overview of the application of large scale waste materials as resources for catalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Batra, V.S.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Pulford, I.D. [TERI University, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy & Environment

    2011-01-15

    In this overview, we present examples of the use of high volume waste materials in catalysis or for catalyst synthesis. Waste materials derived from both industrial and biological sources have attracted interest and this is briefly summarized. The materials described include red mud, aluminium dross, fly ash, blast furnace slag, rice husk and various kinds of shell.

  12. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Bolden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nation’s landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take advantage of the benefits of using waste and recycled materials. Studies have investigated the use of acceptable waste, recycled and reusable materials and methods. The use of swine manure, animal fat, silica fume, roofing shingles, empty palm fruit bunch, citrus peels, cement kiln dust, fly ash, foundry sand, slag, glass, plastic, carpet, tire scraps, asphalt pavement and concrete aggregate in construction is becoming increasingly popular due to the shortage and increasing cost of raw materials. In this study a questionnaire survey targeting experts from construction industry was conducted in order to investigate the current practices of the uses of waste and recycled materials in the construction industry. This study presents an initial understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the practice intended to support construction industry in developing effective policies regarding uses of waste and recycled materials as construction materials.

  13. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear Waste Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Cau-di-Coumes, Céline; Frizon, Fabien; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As the re-emergence of nuclear power as an acceptable energy source on an international basis continues, the need for safe and reliable ways to dispose of radioactive waste becomes ever more critical. The ultimate goal for designing a predisposal waste-management system depends on producing waste containers suitable for storage, transportation and permanent disposal. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear-Waste Storage provides a roadmap for the use of cementation as an applied technique for the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes.Coverage includes, but is not limited to, a comparison of cementation with other solidification techniques, advantages of calcium-silicate cements over other materials and a discussion of the long-term suitability and safety of waste packages as well as cement barriers. This book also: Discusses the formulation and production of cement waste forms for storing radioactive material Assesses the potential of emerging binders to improve the conditioning of problemati...

  14. Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhao-shu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

  15. Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhao-shu; XIA Ju-pei; ZHU Xiao-qin; LIU Fan; HE Mao-yun

    2006-01-01

    The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

  16. Microbial Effects on Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J; Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Lian, T

    2005-07-22

    Microorganisms may enhance corrosion of components of planned engineered barriers within the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Corrosion could occur either directly, through processes collectively known as Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC), or indirectly, by adversely affecting the composition of water or brines that come into direct contact with engineered barrier surfaces. Microorganisms of potential concern (bacteria, archea, and fungi) include both those indigenous to Yucca Mountain and those that infiltrate during repository construction and after waste emplacement. Specific aims of the experimental program to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to affect damage to engineered barrier materials include the following: Indirect Effects--(1) Determine the limiting factors to microbial growth and activity presently in the YM environment. (2) Assess these limiting factors to aid in determining the conditions and time during repository evolution when MIC might become operant. (3) Evaluate present bacterial densities, the composition of the YM microbial community, and determining bacterial densities if limiting factors are overcome. During a major portion of the regulatory period, environmental conditions that are presently extant become reestablished. Therefore, these studies ascertain whether biomass is sufficient to cause MIC during this period and provide a baseline for determining the types of bacterial activities that may be expected. (4) Assess biogenic environmental effects, including pH, alterations to nitrate concentration in groundwater, the generation of organic acids, and metal dissolution. These factors have been shown to be those most relevant to corrosion of engineered barriers. Direct Effects--(1) Characterize and quantify microbiological effects on candidate containment materials. These studies were carried out in a number of different approaches, using whole YM microbiological communities, a subset of YM

  17. Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of Nigerian sweet orange ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... of orange peels with a view to establishing their raw material potentials.

  18. Youth Solid Waste Educational Materials List, November 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This guide provides a brief description and ordering information for approximately 300 educational materials for grades K-12 on the subject of solid waste. The materials cover a variety of environmental issues and actions related to solid waste management. Entries are divided into five sections including audiovisual programs, books, magazines,…

  19. ZeroWaste BYG: Redesigning construction materials towards zero waste society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The ZeroWaste research group (www.zerowaste.byg.dtu.dk) at the Department of Civil Engineering was established in 2012 and covers the broad range of expertise required for turning waste materials into attractive, new materials. Members of the group have developed methods for removal of heavy metals...... and phosphorous from waste incineration, sewage sludge and other bio ashes [1], providing the basis to make these ash types an attractive, new material for the building sector.The amount of waste increases and it is both difficult and expensive to handle many waste types as e.g.different ashes. At the same time...... there are fewer natural resources and the general consumption increases. We wish to utilize alternative and new ash types as raw material in concrete, similarly to what was previously seen with fly ash from coal combustion and microsilica, which were both transformed from problematic waste to valuable raw...

  20. Chemical composition of material fractions in Danish household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The chemical composition of Danish household waste was determined by two approaches: a direct method where the chemical composition (61 substances) of 48 material fractions was determined after hand sorting of about 20 tonnes of waste collected from 2200 households; and an indirect method where...... batches of 80-1200 tonnes of unsorted household waste was incinerated and the content of the waste determined from the content of the outputs from the incinerator. The indirect method is believed to better represent the small but highly contaminated material fractions (e,g., batteries) than the direct...... method, because of the larger quantities included and the more homogenous material to sample from. Differences between the direct and the direct methods led to corrections in the of heavy metal concentration of a few fractions. The majority of the energy content of the waste originates from organic waste...

  1. Incentivizing secondary raw material markets for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Maximilian; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Notwithstanding several policy initiatives in many countries over a number of years, there remains a general sense that too much municipal solid waste is generated and that too much of the waste that is generated is landfilled. There is an emerging consensus that a sustainable approach to waste management requires further development of secondary raw material markets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical economic model that focuses upon this stage of a sustainable waste management program and explores policy options that could motivate efficiency in secondary raw material markets. In particular, we show how firm profit and social welfare optimizing objectives can be reconciled in a two-product market of waste management processes: landfilling and material reclamation. Our results provide theoretical support for building out recent Circular Economy initiatives as well as for the relatively recent emergence of landfill mining as a means for procuring secondary raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of waste material in cultivation substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Salaš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardeners' practical experience and experimental work prove the affirmation that the used substrate is a very important base for the production of quality nursery products. It is important to emphasis the complexity and synergy of all factors influencing the ecosystem and there mutual relations. Physical, chemical and biological properties do not separately affect the growth and development of plants. In addition, the relations are not statical but differ in relation with other factors changes. This article is dealing with the possibility to use waste material from timber processing in cultivation substrates. The large scale use of such substrates would enable people to reach a relative independence from peat substrates, of which the global reserve is gradually decreasing.Our research activities focus on the use of bark. The basic problems of a bark substrate are easy dehydration and unbalanced nutrition of trees and shrubs. The suggested and experimented cultivation technology solves these problems. It is based on the cultivation of woody species in bark substrates, using modern irrigation systems, slow release fertilisers (Silvamix Forte and special soil conditioners (TerraCottem. This technology was tested on the following species of trees and shrubs: Malus and Buxus.

  3. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  4. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  5. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  6. Municipal Solid Waste - Sustainable Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The MSW DST was initially developed in the 1990s and has evolved over the years to better account for changes in waste management practices, waste composition, and improvements in decision support tool design and functionality. The most recent version of the tool is publicly ava...

  7. Reuse of Woody Biomass Ash Waste in Cementitious Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ukrainczyk, N.; Vrbos, N.; Koenders, E.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increased interest in the reuse of ash waste from biomass combustion, being a sustainable source of energy. This paper investigates the partial replacement of cement and sand in building materials with fly ash waste generated from combustion of woody biomass waste. The results show that the ash widens the particle size distribution of cement and has minerals complementary to portland cement, thus justifying its application as cement replacement, but with a relatively high amoun...

  8. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art environmental assessment of waste management systems rely on data for the physico-chemical composition of individual material fractions comprising the waste in question. To derive the necessary inventory data for different scopes and systems, literature data from different sources...... and backgrounds are consulted and combined. This study provides an overview of physico-chemical waste characterisation data for individual waste material fractions available in literature and thereby aims to support the selection of data fitting to a specific scope and the selection of uncertainty ranges related...... to the data selection from literature. Overall, 97 publications were reviewed with respect to employed characterisation method, regional origin of the waste, number of investigated parameters and material fractions and other qualitative aspects. Descriptive statistical analysis of the reported physico...

  9. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  10. Ultraviolet reflector materials for solar detoxification of hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Govindarajan, R.

    1991-07-01

    Organic waste detoxification requires cleavage of carbon bonds. Such reactions can be photo-driven by light that is energetic enough to disrupt such bonds. Alternately, light can be used to activate catalyst materials, which in turn can break organic bonds. In either case, photons with wavelengths less than 400 nm are required. Because the terrestrial solar resource below 400 nm is so small (roughly 3% of the available spectrum), highly efficient optical concentrators are needed that can withstand outdoor service conditions. In the past, optical elements for solar application have been designed to prevent ultraviolet (uv) radiation from reaching the reflective layer to avoid the potentially harmful effects of such light on the collector materials themselves. This effectively forfeits the uv part of the spectrum in return for some measure of protection against optical degradation. To optimize the cost/performance benefit of photochemical reaction systems, optical materials must be developed that are not only highly efficient but also inherently stable against the radiation they are designed to concentrate. The requirements of uv optical elements in terms of appropriate spectral bands and level of reflectance are established based upon the needs of photochemical applications. Relevant literature on uv reflector materials is reviewed which, along with discussions with industrial contacts, allows the establishment of a data base of currently available materials. Although a number of related technologies exist that require uv reflectors, to date little attention has been paid to achieving outdoor durability required for solar applications. 49 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  12. Particle passage kinetics and neutral detergent fiber degradability of silage of pineapple waste (aerial parts) under different packing densities

    OpenAIRE

    Graciele Araújo de Oliveira Caetano; Severino Delmar Junqueira Villela; Margarida Maria Nascimento Figueiredo de Oliveira; Fernando de Paula Leonel; Wagner Pessanha Tamy

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of in situ degradability parameters of the dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and the passage of materials originating from the ensilage of the waste from pineapple cultivation (aerial parts). The four treatments utilized were silage of pineapple waste compacted at 600, 700, 900 and 1000 kg/m³. After ensiling the material from the pineapple cultivation, the particle-transit and rumen-degradation kinetics were analyzed. F...

  13. The contributions of construction material waste to project cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management, Faculty ... management of materials and waste leads to an increase in the total cost of building ... cost, quality and sustainability, as well as on the success of projects. (Nagapan ..... Moving beyond optimism bias and strategic ...

  14. Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Marija D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has demonstrated the valorization of inexpensive and readily available restaurant waste containing most consumed food and beverage residues as adsorbents for methylene blue dye. Coffee, tea, lettuce and citrus waste have been utilized without any pre-treatment, thus the adsorption capacities and dye removal efficiency were determined. Coffee waste showed highest adsorbent capacity, followed by tea, lettuce and citrus waste. The dye removal was more effective as dye concentration increases from 5 up to 60 mg/L. The favorable results obtained for lettuce waste have been especially encouraged, as this material has not been commonly employed for sorption purposes. Equilibrium data fitted very well in a Freundlich isotherm model, whereas pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes the process behavior. Restaurant waste performed rapid dye removal at no cost, so it can be adopted and widely used in industries for contaminated water treatment.

  15. PURIFIED WASTE FCC CATALYST AS A CEMENT REPLACEMENT MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danute Vaiciukyniene

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are commonly used in the fluid catalytic cracking process. Zeolite polluted with oil products and became waste after some time used. The quantity of this waste inevitably rises by expanding rapidly oil industry. The composition of these catalysts depends on the manufacturer and on the process that is going to be used. The main factors retarding hydration process of cement systems and modifying them strength are organic compounds impurities in the waste FCC catalyst. The present paper shows the results of using purified waste FCC catalyst (pFCC from Lithuania oil refinery, as Portland cement replacement material. For this purpose, the purification of waste FCC catalyst (FCC samples was treated with hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers known. By acting of waste with H2O2 it can eliminate the aforementioned waste deficiency, and the obtained product becomes one of the most promising ingredients, in new advanced building materials. Hardened cement paste samples with FCC or pFCC were formed. It was observed that the pFCC blended cements developed higher strength, after 28 days, compared to the samples with FCC or reference samples. Typical content of Portland cement substituting does not exceed 30 % of mass of Portland cement in samples. Reducing the consumption of Portland cement with utilizing waste materials is preferred for reasons of environmental protection.

  16. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  17. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  18. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-01

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site`s suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling.

  19. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test.

  20. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  1. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  2. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 2: Materials and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Improved technology and prospection yielding more pure and homogeneous raw materials for preparing buffers and backfills will ultimately outdate the clays and ballast materials described in the present part of the Handbook. It describes experimentally investigated materials of potential use in repositories but other, more suitable materials will replace them in the future. The Handbook will hence have to be reviewed regularly, making room for superior materials in future, upgraded Handbook versions. Buffer is the term for dense clay used for embedment of canisters with highly radioactive waste, while backfill is soil used for filling tunnels and shafts in repositories. Examples of soil materials of potential use as buffers and backfills in repositories of KBS-3 type are described in this part of the Handbook. They are: smectitic clay materials intended for preparation of buffers (canister-embedding clay) and used as clay component in artificially prepared tunnel and shaft backfills consisting of mixtures of clay and ballast. Ballast materials intended for backfilling of tunnels and shafts and used as components of artificially prepared backfills. Smectitic natural clay soils intended for use as buffers and backfills. Very fine-grained smectite clay used as grout for sealing rock fractures. In this part of the Handbook for Buffers and Backfills, description of various candidate materials will be made with respect to their mineral composition and physical properties, with respect to the groundwater chemistry that can be expected in a deep repository in Swedish bedrock. Chapter 3 deals with smectitic clay materials intended for embedment of heat-producing canisters with highly radioactive waste. Focus is on the nature of the buffer constituents, i. e. the smectite content, the non-expanding clay minerals colloidal and the accessory non-clay minerals as well as amorphous matter and organic substances. The dominant part of the chapter describes the occurrence and origin

  3. Liquid Nitrogen and Water Jet Milling of Energetic Material Production Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP017711 TITLE: Liquid Nitrogen and Water Jet Milling of Energetic...NITROGEN AND WATER JET MILLING OF ENERGETIC MATERIAL PRODUCTION WASTES Roger L. Schneider Rho Sigma Associates, Inc. Whitefish Bay, WI 53217-5968 USA 414

  4. Prevention of spontaneous combustion of backfilled plant waste material.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adamski, SA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Grootegeluk Coal Mine commenced operation in 1980 all plant discards and inter-burden material have been stacked on discards dumps, a practice that has led to the spontaneous combustion of the waste material on these dumps. From 1980 to 1988...

  5. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  6. Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steubing, Bernhard; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Silva, Uca; Ludwig, Christian

    2010-03-01

    The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000 tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation.

  7. Material Recovery from Wastes: An Employment and Poverty Alleviation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Oumarou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is not only about removing waste from the environment but also a tool of social integration and economic well-being. Waste management through the three Rs offers advantages of employment, sustainable development and poverty alleviation. The environment requires attention because it is rapidly degrading amidst dwindling natural resources, mounting amounts of wastes while poverty continues to increase. This paper focused on material recovery from wastes through recovery, re-use, and recycling of municipal solid wastes in the north- eastern city of Maiduguri in Nigeria over a period of 24 months between 2011 and 2013. Three waste management scenarios were thought of and adopted within 7 groups made of the major wards, areas of the Maiduguri metropolis and the University of Maiduguri; involving 5000 respondents/participants working under waste collection outfits or operating at open dump areas. Data obtained were analyzed using simple statistical methods. Findings revealed an annual estimate of the recovery as 16.8 tons of bottles/glasses, 158.4 tons of plastics/rubber, and 264 tons of metal. It also indicated that considerable amount of money could be made from material recovery and recycling=N=97,600 was made from the sales of bottles/glasses, =N= 652,800 from plastic/rubber and =N= 1,408,000 from sales of scrap metals. Material recovery, re-use and recycling have many economic and material benefits. They also constitute human capacity development schemes. These recoverables have paved great means of livelihood to many people involved in this activity. There is need for support from either government or private sector.

  8. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  9. Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative Requirements for Hazardous Waste Determination and Accumulation of Unwanted Material at Laboratories Owned by Colleges and Universities and Other Eligible Academic Entities Formally Affiliated With Colleges and Universities. Final Rule. Federal Register, Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Parts 261 and 262. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is finalizing an alternative set of generator requirements applicable to laboratories owned by eligible academic entities, as defined in this final rule. The rule provides a flexible and protective set of regulations that address the specific nature of hazardous waste generation and…

  10. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  11. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  12. Steel wastes as versatile materials for treatment of biorefractory wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Sara V; Amorim, Camila C; Andrade, Luiza N; Calixto, Natália C Z; Henriques, Andréia B; Ardisson, José D; Leão, Mônica M D

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on novel cost-effective adsorbent materials suggests potential use of industrial wastes for effluent treatment, with the added benefit of reuse of the wastes. Waste steel materials, including blast oxygen furnace sludge (BOFS), blast furnace sludge (BFS), and blast furnace dust (BFD), were investigated as low-cost adsorbents for removal of an oil emulsion and RR195 dye. The residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller area, volume and distribution of pore diameters, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, granulometry, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and pHpzc. Adsorption kinetics data were obtained by UV-vis spectrophotometry at the maximum absorption wavelength of the dye solution and crude oil emulsion. The use of waste as an adsorbent was more efficient for treatment of the oil emulsion than the dye solution. BOFS had higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency than the other waste materials. For the RR195 dye, good color removal was observed for all adsorbents, >90 % within 24 h. TOC removal was poor, <10 % for BFD and BFS and a maximum of 37 % for BOFS. For the oil emulsion, 97 % TOC removal was obtained by adsorption onto BOFS and 87 % onto BFS.

  13. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  14. Recycling industrial waste in brick manufacture. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreola, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing accumulation of industrial waste speaks to the need to seek cost-effective disposal methods. Brick manufacture would appear to be particularly promising in this regard. The present study analyzes the possibility of recycling the sludge generated in porcelain tile polishing, as well as coal, steel and municipal incinerator ash to make a special type of facing brick whose properties readily accommodate a full analysis of all the problems deriving from the incorporation of residue in its manufacture. Physical-chemical, mechanical and structural analyses were performed on bricks made with varying percentages of the different types of waste considered. This first paper reports the results of the physical arid technological characterization of the products; the second part of the research will address their chemical, mechanical and structural properties.

    El continuo aumento de la cantidad de residuos (desechos que se generan en los procesos industriales induce a buscar nuevos métodos alternativos a la disposición final que sean altamente eficientes y a bajo costo. La industria manufac turera de ladrillos resulta muy prometedora desde este punto de vista. En este trabajo ha sido investigada la posibilidad de usar distintos residuos industriales, entre ellos barros de pulido del gres porcelánico. cenizas de carbón, cenizas de acerías y de incinerador municipal para la fabricación de ladrillos de exteriores. Fueron analizados los problemas que podrían derivar al introducir estos residuos en la pasta. En particular, en esta primera parte del trabajo se muestran los resultados derivados de la introducción de los residuos considerados, en distintos porcentajes, sobre las propiedades físicas y tecnológicas del producto final. En la segunda parte se desarrollarán los efectos causados sobre las propiedades químicas, mecánicas y microestructurales.

  15. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Materials and Waste Management in the United States Key Facts and Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Each year EPA produces a report called Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures. It includes information on municipal solid waste (MSW)...

  16. Serpentinitic waste materials: possible reuses and critical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The extraction and processing of marbles, rocks and granites produces a significant amount of waste materials, in the form of shapeless blocks, scraps, gravel and sludge. Current regulations and a greater concern to the environment promote the reuse of these wastes: quartz-feldspathic materials are successfully used for ceramics, crushed porphyry as track ballast, whereas carbonatic wastes for lime, cement and fillers. However, there are currently no reuses for serpentinitic materials: a striking example is represented by the Valmalenco area (central Alps, northern Italy), a relatively small productive district. In this area 22 different enterprises operate in the quarrying and/or processing of serpentinites with various textures, schistose to massive, and color shades; the commercial products are used all over the world and are known with many commercial names. The total volume extracted in the quarries is estimated around 68000 m3/yr. and the resulting commercial blocks and products can be estimated around the 40 - 50 % of the extracted material. The processing wastes can vary significantly according to the finished product: 35 % of waste can be estimated in the case of slab production, whereas 50 % can be estimated in the case of gang-saw cutting of massive serpentinite blocks. The total estimate of the processing rock waste in the Valmalenco area is about 12700 m3/yr; together with the quarry waste, the total amount of waste produced in the area is more than 43000 m3/yr. The sludge (approximately 12000 m3/yr, more than 95 % has grain size waste materials (85 samples) were characterized by quantitative XRPD (FULLPAT software), whole-rock geochemistry (ICP-AES, ICP-MS and Leco®) and SEM-EDS. The mineralogical composition is quite variable from quarry to quarry, with abundant antigorite (up to 90 wt. %) and olivine (up to 38 wt. %), and variable contents of diopside, chlorite, magnetite, chromite and brucite. The chemical composition reflects the protolith: Mg

  17. The useful application of sulphur-bound waste materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, M.M.C.; Koene, J.I.A.

    1996-01-01

    An immobilization process is described which is based on sulphur (instead of cement) as a binding agent for the treatment of hazardous waste materials. Elemental sulphur is able to bind chemically metals such as mercury and, to a lesser extent, lead as metal sulphides. Furthermore, sulphur forms a

  18. The useful application of sulphur-bound waste materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, M.M.C.; Koene, J.I.A.

    1996-01-01

    An immobilization process is described which is based on sulphur (instead of cement) as a binding agent for the treatment of hazardous waste materials. Elemental sulphur is able to bind chemically metals such as mercury and, to a lesser extent, lead as metal sulphides. Furthermore, sulphur forms a c

  19. Compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul M.; Faller, Kenneth M.; Bauer, Edward J.

    2001-08-21

    A compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor includes a waste material feed assembly having a hopper, a supply tube and a compression tube. Each of the supply and compression tubes includes feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends. A feed-discharge valve assembly is located between the feed-outlet end of the compression tube and the reactor. A feed auger-screw extends axially in the supply tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. A compression auger-screw extends axially in the compression tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. The compression tube is sloped downwardly towards the reactor to drain fluid from the waste material to the reactor and is oriented at generally right angle to the supply tube such that the feed-outlet end of the supply tube is adjacent to the feed-inlet end of the compression tube. A programmable logic controller is provided for controlling the rotational speed of the feed and compression auger-screws for selectively varying the compression of the waste material and for overcoming jamming conditions within either the supply tube or the compression tube.

  20. Vertical Flume Testing of WIPP Surrogate Waste Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Schuhen, M.; Kicker, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. The DOE demonstrates compliance with 40 CFR 194 by means of performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. WIPP PA calculations estimate the probability and consequences of radionuclide releases for a 10,000 year regulatory period. Human intrusion scenarios include cases in which a future borehole is drilled through the repository. Drilling mud flowing up the borehole will apply a hydrodynamic shear stress to the borehole wall which could result in erosion of the waste and radionuclides being carried up the borehole. WIPP PA uses the parameter TAUFAIL to represent the shear strength of the degraded waste. The hydrodynamic shear strength can only be measured experimentally by flume testing. Flume testing is typically performed horizontally, mimicking stream or ocean currents. However, in a WIPP intrusion event, the drill bit would penetrate the degraded waste and drilling mud would flow up the borehole in a predominantly vertical direction. In order to simulate this, a flume was designed and built so that the eroding fluid enters an enclosed vertical channel from the bottom and flows up past a specimen of surrogate waste material. The sample is pushed into the current by a piston attached to a step motor. A qualified data acquisition system controls and monitors the fluid's flow rate, temperature, pressure, and conductivity and the step motor's operation. The surrogate materials used correspond to a conservative estimate of degraded TRU waste at the end of the regulatory period. The recipes were previously developed by SNL based on anticipated future states of the waste

  1. Environmental Management of Waste Based on Road Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damijan Koletnik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the European Council adopted a revised framework for waste management in the EU, with an objective to encourage recycling and reuse of waste, in order to reduce landfills and potential environmental emissions. This framework also sets new recycling targets for construction and demolition waste by 2020, suggesting that at least 70 % of the waste should be recycled. Nigrad d.d. is a utility company providing services to several municipalities in North-East Slovenia. These services include repairs to public roads and pavements. This paper examines the origin, amount and fraction of construction waste produced, identifying current waste management practices. Based on the state-of-the art study new approaches are to be proposed, which will make it possible to decrease environmental impacts and costs, when providing public services and establishing sustainable service systems. To reach this objective a life-cycle analysis of the existing service has been carried out, which will help identify the system parts that have the most significant impact on the environment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.681

  2. Characteristics of and sorption to biochars derived from waste material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huichao; Kah, Melanie; Sigmund, Gabriel; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochars can exhibit a high sorption potential towards heavy metals and organic contaminants in various environmental matrices (e.g., water, soil). They have therefore been proposed for environmental remediation purposes to sequester contaminants. To date, most studies have focused on the physicochemical and sorption properties of mineral phases poor biochars, which are typically produced from plant residues. Only little knowledge is available for biochars derived from human and animal waste material, which are typically characterized by high mineral contents (e.g., sewage sludge, manure). Using human and animal waste as source material to produce biochars would support the development of attractive combined strategies for waste management and remediation. The potential impact of mineral phases on the physicochemical and sorption properties of biochars requires further studies so that the potential as sorbent material can be evaluated. With this purpose, different source material biochars were produced at 200°C, 350°C and 500°C, to yield a series of biochars representing a range of mineral content. The derived biochars from wood shavings (heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) of all materials were within the guidelines values proposed by the International Biochar Initiative, indicating their suitability for environmental application. Single point sorption coefficients for the model sorbate pyrene were measured to investigate the effect of mineral content, feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, particle size fractions and acid demineralization on sorption behavior. Overall, sorption of pyrene was strong for all materials (4 < Log Kd < 6.5 L/kg). Sorption generally increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature but there was no effect of particle size on sorption affinity. For mineral phase rich biochars, sorption generally increased after acid demineralization. When considering all materials together, the sorbent aromaticity (hydrogen-carbon ratio) was

  3. Radiation effects in nuclear waste materials. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J.; Corrales, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US); Birtcher, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this multidisciplinary, multi-institutional research effort is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels. The goal is to provide the underpinning science and models necessary to assess the performance of glasses and ceramics designed for the immobilization and disposal of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues, excess weapons plutonium, and other highly radioactive waste streams. A variety of experimental and computer simulation methods are employed in this effort. In general, research on glasses focuses on the electronic excitations due to ionizing radiation emitted from beta decay, since this is currently thought to be the principal mechanism for deleterious radiation effects in nuclear waste glasses. Research on ceramics focuses on defects and structural changes induced by the elastic interactions between alpha-decay particles and the atoms in the structure. Radiation effects can lead to changes in physical and chemical properties that may significantly impact long-term performance of nuclear waste materials. The current lack of fundamental understanding of radiation effects in nuclear waste materials makes it impossible to extrapolate the limited existing data bases to larger doses, lower dose rates, different temperature regimes, and different glass compositions or ceramic structures. This report summarizes work after almost 2 years of a 3-year project. Work to date has resulted in 9 publications. Highlights of the research over the past year are presented.'

  4. Alternative strategies for energy recovery from municipal solid waste Part A: Mass and energy balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, S; Giugliano, M; Grosso, M

    2005-01-01

    This two-part paper assesses four strategies for energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) by dedicated waste-to-energy (WTE) plants generating electricity through a steam cycle. The feedstock is the residue after materials recovery (MR), assumed to be 35% by weight of the collected MSW. In strategy 1, the MR residue is fed directly to a grate combustor. In strategy 2, the MR residue is first subjected to light mechanical treatment. In strategies 3 and 4, the MR residue is converted into RDF, which is combusted in a fluidized bed combustor. To examine the relevance of scale, we considered a small waste management system (WMS) serving 200,000 people and a large WMS serving 1,200,000 people. A variation of strategy 1 shows the potential of cogeneration with district heating. The assessment is carried out by a Life Cycle Analysis where the electricity generated by the WTE plant displaces electricity generated by fossil fuel-fired steam plants. Part A focuses on mass and energy balances, while Part B focuses on emissions and costs. Results show that treating the MR residue ahead of the WTE plant reduces energy recovery. The largest energy savings are achieved by combusting the MR residue "as is" in large scale plants; with cogeneration, primary energy savings can reach 2.5% of total societal energy use.

  5. Modelling origin and transport fate of waste materials on the south-eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tudor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern parts of the Adriatic Sea coastline were severely polluted by large amounts of accumulated waste material in the second half of November 2010. The waste, reported by major news agencies, accumulated dominantly during 21 November 2010 by favourable wind – ocean current transport system. In the study we analysed meteorological and oceanographic conditions that lead to the waste deposition using available in situ measurements, remote sensing data as well numerical models of the ocean and the atmosphere. The measured data reveal that an intensive rainfall event from 7 till 10 November 2010, over the parts of Montenegro and Albania, was followed by a substantial increase of the river water levels indicating flash floods that possibly splashed the waste material into a river and after to the Adriatic Sea. In order to test our hypothesis we set a number of numerical drifter experiments with trajectories initiated off the coast of Albania during the intensive rainfall events following their faith in space and time. One of the numerical drifter trajectory experiment resulted with drifters reached right position (south-eastern Adriatic coast and time (exactly by the time the waste was observed when initiated on 00:00 and 12:00 UTC of 10 November 2010 during the mentioned flash flood event.

  6. 10 CFR 71.131 - Nonconforming materials, parts, or components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonconforming materials, parts, or components. 71.131... RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.131 Nonconforming materials, parts, or components. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to control materials, parts, or...

  7. Application of solid waste containing lead for gamma ray shielding material

    OpenAIRE

    SARAEE, Rezaee Ebrahim; POURAJAM BAFERANI, S.; TAHMASEBI, O.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The basic strategies to decrease solid waste disposal problems have focused on the reduction of waste production and recovery of usable materials using waste and making raw materials. Generally, various materials have been used for radiation shielding in different areas and situations. In this study, a novel shielding material produced by a metallurgical solid waste containing lead has been analyzed in order to make a shielding material against gamma radiation. The photon total mass...

  8. Compacting biomass waste materials for use as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ou

    Every year, biomass waste materials are produced in large quantity. The combustibles in biomass waste materials make up over 70% of the total waste. How to utilize these waste materials is important to the nation and the world. The purpose of this study is to test optimum processes and conditions of compacting a number of biomass waste materials to form a densified solid fuel for use at coal-fired power plants or ordinary commercial furnaces. Successful use of such fuel as a substitute for or in cofiring with coal not only solves a solid waste disposal problem but also reduces the release of some gases from burning coal which cause health problem, acid rain and global warming. The unique punch-and-die process developed at the Capsule Pipeline Research Center, University of Missouri-Columbia was used for compacting the solid wastes, including waste paper, plastics (both film and hard products), textiles, leaves, and wood. The compaction was performed to produce strong compacts (biomass logs) under room temperature without binder and without preheating. The compaction conditions important to the commercial production of densified biomass fuel logs, including compaction pressure, pressure holding time, back pressure, moisture content, particle size, binder effects, and mold conditions were studied and optimized. The properties of the biomass logs were evaluated in terms of physical, mechanical, and combustion characteristics. It was found that the compaction pressure and the initial moisture content of the biomass material play critical roles in producing high-quality biomass logs. Under optimized compaction conditions, biomass waste materials can be compacted into high-quality logs with a density of 0.8 to 1.2 g/cm3. The logs made from the combustible wastes have a heating value in the range 6,000 to 8,000 Btu/lb which is only slightly (10 to 30%) less than that of subbituminous coal. To evaluate the feasibility of cofiring biomass logs with coal, burn tests were

  9. Deployment of Performance Management Methodology as part of Liquid Waste Program at Savannah River Site - 12178

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prod' homme, A.; Drouvot, O.; Gregory, J. [AREVA, Paris (France); Barnes, B.; Hodges, B.; Hart, M. [SRR, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR) assumed the management lead of the Liquid Waste (LW) Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The four SRR partners and AREVA, as an integrated subcontractor are performing the ongoing effort to safely and reliably: - Close High Level Waste (HLW) storage tanks; - Maximize waste throughput at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF); - Process salt waste into stable final waste form; - Manage the HLW liquid waste material stored at SRS. As part of these initiatives, SRR and AREVA deployed a performance management methodology based on Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) at the DWPF in order to support the required production increase. This project took advantage of lessons learned by AREVA through the deployment of Total Productive Maintenance and Visual Management methodologies at the La Hague reprocessing facility in France. The project also took advantage of measurement data collected from different steps of the DWPF process by the SRR team (Melter Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering, Laboratory Operations, Plant Operations). Today the SRR team has a standard method for measuring processing time throughout the facility, a reliable source of objective data for use in decision-making at all levels, and a better balance between engineering department goals and operational goals. Preliminary results show that the deployment of this performance management methodology to the LW program at SRS has already significantly contributed to the DWPF throughput increases and is being deployed in the Saltstone facility. As part of the liquid waste program on Savannah River Site, SRR committed to enhance production throughput of DWPF. Beyond technical modifications implemented at different location of the facility, SRR deployed performance management methodology based on OEE metrics. The implementation benefited from the experience gained by AREVA in its own facilities in France. OEE proved to be a valuable tool in order

  10. Yucca Mountain project canister material corrosion studies as applied to the electrometallurgical treatment metallic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository. As part of the repository assessment activities, candidate materials are being tested for possible use as construction materials for waste package containers. A large portion of this testing effort is focused on determining the long range corrosion properties, in a Yucca Mountain environment, for those materials being considered. Along similar lines, Argonne National Laboratory is testing a metallic alloy waste form that also is scheduled for disposal in a geologic repository, like Yucca Mountain. Due to the fact that Argonne`s waste form will require performance testing for an environment similar to what Yucca Mountain canister materials will require, this report was constructed to focus on the types of tests that have been conducted on candidate Yucca Mountain canister materials along with some of the results from these tests. Additionally, this report will discuss testing of Argonne`s metal waste form in light of the Yucca Mountain activities.

  11. Yucca Mountain project canister material corrosion studies as applied to the electrometallurgical treatment metallic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository. As part of the repository assessment activities, candidate materials are being tested for possible use as construction materials for waste package containers. A large portion of this testing effort is focused on determining the long range corrosion properties, in a Yucca Mountain environment, for those materials being considered. Along similar lines, Argonne National Laboratory is testing a metallic alloy waste form that also is scheduled for disposal in a geologic repository, like Yucca Mountain. Due to the fact that Argonne`s waste form will require performance testing for an environment similar to what Yucca Mountain canister materials will require, this report was constructed to focus on the types of tests that have been conducted on candidate Yucca Mountain canister materials along with some of the results from these tests. Additionally, this report will discuss testing of Argonne`s metal waste form in light of the Yucca Mountain activities.

  12. Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6. Nuclear waste management and reactor safety report 2009/2010. Material science for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkenberg, M.; Neumeier, S.; Bosbach, D. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    graphite. Within the product quality control group (PKS) 16 scientists and engineers are currently working on the qualification of radioactive waste on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The nuclear safeguards group is coordinating the joint safeguards R and D programme between IAEA and BMWi. Research and development activities are integrated into national and international research programms and cooperations. They represent a substantial part of the Helmholtz Research programme ''Nuclear Safety Research''. Material science for nuclear waste management is the research subject of IEK-6, Nuclear Waste Management part. (orig.)

  13. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 63 - Alternative Validation Procedure for EPA Waste and Wastewater Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EPA Waste and Wastewater Methods D Appendix D to Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Procedure for EPA Waste and Wastewater Methods 1. Applicability This procedure is to be applied exclusively.... For the purposes of this appendix, “waste” means waste and wastewater. 2. Procedure This...

  14. 40 CFR 270.18 - Specific part B information requirements for waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM...; (2) Control of run-on; (3) Control of run-off; (4) Management of collection and holding units... complied with; (h) A description of how hazardous waste residues and contaminated materials will be removed...

  15. Use of basaltic waste as red ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays, environmental codes restrict the emission of particulate matters, which result in these residues being collected by plant filters. This basaltic waste came from construction aggregate plants located in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (State of Paraná, Brazil. Initially, the basaltic waste was submitted to sieving (< 75 μm and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of density and particle size distribution. The plasticity of ceramic mass containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of basaltic waste was measured by Atterberg method. The chemical composition of ceramic formulations containing 0% and 20% of basaltic waste was determined by X-ray fluorescence. The prismatic samples were molded by extrusion and fired at 850 °C. The specimens were also tested to determine density, water absorption, drying and firing shrinkages, flexural strength, and Young's modulus. Microstructure evaluation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Basaltic powder has similar physical and chemical characteristics when compared to other raw materials, and contributes to ceramic processing by reducing drying and firing shrinkage. Mechanical performance of mixtures containing basaltic powder is equivalent to mixtures without waste. Microstructural aspects such as pore size distribution were modified by basaltic powder; albite phase related to basaltic powder was identified by X-ray diffraction.

  16. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national

  17. Biomass from Paddy Waste Fibers as Sustainable Acoustic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Putra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of biomass for green products is still progressing in the effort to provide alternative clean technology. This paper presents the utilization of natural waste fibers from paddy as acoustic material. Samples of sound absorbing material from paddy waste fibers were fabricated. The effect of the fiber density, that is, the fiber weight and the sample thickness, and also the air gap on the sound absorption coefficient is investigated through experiment. The paddy fibers are found to have good acoustic performance with normal incidence absorption coefficient greater than 0.5 from 1 kHz and can reach the average value of 0.8 above 2.5 kHz. This result is comparable against that of the commercial synthetic glass wool. Attachment of a single layer of polyester fabric is shown to further increase the absorption coefficient.

  18. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderova, Zdenka; Horska, Katerina; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm on various surfaces has significant negative economic effects. The aim of this study was to find a simple procedure to decrease the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in a water environment by using different food waste biological materials as signal molecule adsorbents. The selected biomaterials did not reduce the cell growth but affected biofilm formation. Promising biomaterials were magnetically modified in order to simplify manipulation and facilitate their magnetic separation. The best biocomposite, magnetically modified spent grain, exhibited substantial adsorption of signal molecules and decreased the biofilm formation. These results suggest that selected food waste materials and their magnetically responsive derivatives could be applied to solve biofilm problems in water environment.

  19. Building Blocks Incorporating Waste Materials Bound with Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described an investigation and evaluation which was carried out in the United Kingdom-UK, on the properties of masonry building block materials that incorporate waste materials, namely: steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA, incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA, municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA or shortened as IBA, bound with bitumen or asphalt, named as Bitublock. The binder used was 50 pen bitumen. The properties of the blocks evaluated were: compressive strength, density, porosity, initial rate of suction (IRS, creep, and volume stability. It was found that the Bitublock performance can be improved by optimizing porosity and curing regime. Compaction level of 2 MPa and curing regime of 200°C for 24 hours gave satisfactory bitublock performances that at least comparable to concrete block found in the United Kingdom (UK. The Volume stability (expansion of the unit is affected by environment relative humidity.

  20. Microbial corrosion of metallic materials in a deep nuclear-waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoulil J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study summarises current knowledge on microbial corrosion in a deep nuclear-waste repository. The first part evaluates the general impact of microbial activity on corrosion mechanisms. Especially, the impact of microbial metabolism on the environment and the impact of biofilms on the surface of structure materials were evaluated. The next part focuses on microbial corrosion in a deep nuclear-waste repository. The study aims to suggest the development of the repository environment and in that respect the viability of bacteria, depending on the probable conditions of the environment, such as humidity of bentonite, pressure in compact bentonite, the impact of ionizing radiation, etc. The last part is aimed at possible techniques for microbial corrosion mechanism monitoring in the conditions of a deep repository. Namely, electrochemical and microscopic techniques were discussed.

  1. Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen H

    1992-01-01

    This "Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste" forms part of a series of "Informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behal

  2. Leaching characteristics of construction materials and stabilization products containing waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; De Groot, G.J.; Wijkstra, J.

    1987-06-01

    Construction materials prepared with an admixture of waste material(s) and various stabilized waste products have been subjected to leaching studies. Static and dynamic leach tests are applied, in which the specimen to be studied is fully submerged in demineralized water or in seawater. At increasing time intervals the contact solution is renewed and the flux of elements into solution is measured. By studying a wide range of products containing waste materials attempts have been made to find common leaching characteristics. Materials studied to date comprise mortar specimen with a 20% cement replacement by pulverized coal ash, phosphate slag, light weight concrete with 50% of pulverized coal ash, stabilized phosphogypsum and stabilized products prepared from combinations of pulverized coal ash, phosphogypsum, incinerator ash, blast furnace slag, lime or cement. The alkalinity of the material, the open porosity of the product and the surface to volume ratio prove to be important factors in controlling the release of potential hazardous elements from materials containing waste products. In these studies leach parameters on (trace) elements are related to those of sodium. Since the interaction of sodium with the solid phase is usually small, sodium can be used as an indicator for the tortuosity of the product. Elements leached from cement-based waste products are mainly anionic species, like Mo, B, V, F and SO/sub 4/-ions, whereas leaching of metals, like Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb, is limited due to the high pH in the pore solution. The leaching experiments have been verified by scanning electron microscopy for major components on field samples and by measuring depth profiles in waste products for trace constituents using apparatus developed for this purpose.

  3. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, R; Ferreira, V M; Machado, L M; Rodrigues, M; Coelho, I

    2011-02-01

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  4. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... recycling has been recognised as a backbone of circular economy, with constant measures and initiatives being proposed in order to increase the recycling rates of materials being consumed. Material cycles are complex and dynamic systems where chemicals are added and removed in production, manufacturing...

  5. Evaluation of performance indicators applied to a material recovery facility fed by mixed packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellone, Maria Laura; Cremiato, Raffaele; Zaccariello, Lucio; Lotito, Roberta

    2017-06-01

    Most of the integrated systems for municipal solid waste management aim to increase the recycling of secondary materials by means of physical processes including sorting, shredding and reprocessing. Several restrictions prevent from reaching a very high material recycling efficiency: the variability of the composition of new-marketed materials used for packaging production and its shape and complexity are critical issues. The packaging goods are in fact made of different materials (aluminium, polymers, paper, etc.), possibly assembled, having different shape (flat, cylindrical, one-dimensional, etc.), density, colours, optical properties and so on. These aspects limit the effectiveness and efficiency of the sorting and reprocessing plants. The scope of this study was to evaluate the performance of a large scale Material Recovery Facility (MRF) by utilizing data collected during a long period of monitoring. The database resulted from the measured data has been organized in four sections: (1) data related to the amount and type of inlet waste; (2) amount and composition of output products and waste; (3) operating data (such as worked hours for shift, planned and unscheduled maintenance time, setting parameters of the equipment, and energy consumption for shift); (4) economic data (value of each product, disposal price for the produced waste, penalty for non-compliance of products and waste, etc.). A part of this database has been utilized to build an executive dashboard composed by a set of performance indicators suitable to measure the effectiveness and the efficiency of the MRF operations. The dashboard revealed itself as a powerful tool to support managers and engineers in their decisions in respect to the market demand or compliance regulation variation as well as in the designing of the lay-out improvements. The results indicated that the 40% of the input waste was recovered as valuable products and that a large part of these (88%) complied with the standards of

  6. Utilization of Industrial Waste Material in GSB Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Arun Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available India has series of steel plant clusters located along its length and breadth of the territory. Several million metric tons of iron and steel are produced in these plants annually. Along with the production of iron and steel, huge quantities of solid wastes like blast furnace slag and steel slag as well as other wastes such as flue dust, blast furnace sludge, and refractories are also being produced in these plants. These solid wastes can be used as non-traditional/non-conventional aggregates in pavement construction due to acute scarcity of traditional/conventional road construction materials. A study was conducted to investigate the possibility of using Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS with various blended mixes of traditional/conventional aggregates in subbase layer with different percentages. This study also presents the result of experimental investigation on the influence of Rice husk ash (RHA on the index properties of Red soil which is used as filler material in subbase layer.

  7. Recycling Of Concrete Waste Material from Construction Demolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyewalehinmi E.O1 and Adeoye T.E2

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the engineering properties of demolished concrete aggregates wastes along Arakale Road, Akure. The purpose is to recycle and reduce the amount of construction wastes materials going into landfills and dumping pits. The study identifies about 15% to 20% of construction waste materials go into landfill and dumping pits in Akure. Four different mixes at 0.5, 0.55, 0.60 and 0.65 water/cement ratios were performed and a total of 96 (48 each concrete cube samples were cast, cured and crushed. The results showed that at lower percentage water/cement ratios, the compressive strength of used aggregates at day 28 were much lower than virgin aggregates (16.89N/mm2 , 19.93N/mm2 while at higher percentage water/cement ratios, the compressive strength of used aggregates at day 28 was almost the same as Virgin aggregates (18.07, 18.37. It shows that the used aggregates can attain the same compressive strength as virgin aggregates at higher water/cement ratios

  8. Implementation of Control Measures for Radioactive Waste Packages with Respect to the Materials Composition - 12365

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyer, S.; Kugel, K. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany); Brennecke, P. [Braunschweig (Germany); Boetsch, W.; Gruendler, D.; Haider, C. [ISTec, Cologne (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In addition to the radiological characterization and control measures the materials composition has to be described and respective control measures need to be implemented. The approach to verify the materials composition depends on the status of the waste: - During conditioning of raw waste the control of the materials composition has to be taken into account. - For already conditioned waste a retrospective qualification of the process might be possible. - If retrospective process qualification is not possible, legacy waste can be qualified by spot checking according to the materials composition requirements The integration of the control of the material composition in the quality control system for radioactive waste is discussed and examples of control measures are given. With the materials-list and the packaging-list the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) provides an appropriate tool to describe the materials composition of radioactive waste packages. The control measures with respect to the materials composition integrate well in the established quality control framework for radioactive waste. The system is flexible enough to deal with waste products of different qualities: raw waste, qualified conditioned waste or legacy waste. Control measures to verify the materials composition can be accomplished with minimal radiation exposure and without undue burden on the waste producers and conditioners. (authors)

  9. Radioactive materials and waste. Planning act of 28 jun 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The English translation contained in this booklet is based on Planning Act No. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006 and on articles L. 542-1 and following of the Environmental Code (as modified). It gathers all articles of the French law dealing with the activities of the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, and with the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. It is provided for convenience purposes only. The French version remains the only valid and legally binding version. In order to enhance readability, all articles relating to ANDRA's activities are consolidated in this self-supporting document. The original French version of the new Act and of the Environmental Code, already published in the 'Journal officiel', are the only authentic biding texts.

  10. Composite materials based on wastes of flat glass processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhovsky, A V; Escalante-Garcia, J I; Gashnikova, G Yu; Nikulina, L P; Artemenko, S E

    2005-01-01

    Glass mirrors scrap and poly (vinyl) butiral waste (PVB) obtained from flat glass processing plants were investigated as raw materials to produce composites. The emphasis was on studying the influence of milled glass mirror waste contents on properties of composites produced with PVB. The characterization involved: elongation under rupture, water absorption, tensile strength and elastic modulus tests. The results showed that the composite containing 10 wt% of filler powder had the best properties among the compositions studied. The influence of the time of exposure in humid atmosphere on the composite properties was investigated. It was found that the admixture of PVB iso-propanol solution to the scrap of glass mirrors during milling provided stabilization of the properties of the composites produced.

  11. Olive oil waste waters: Controlled fermentation and materials recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, F.; Montedoro, G.F.; Pozzi, V. (Tuscia Univ., Viterbo (Italy). Detp. di Agrobiologia e Agrochimica Perugia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Industrie Agrarie UNIECO s.c.r.l., Reggio Emilia (Italy))

    Land and water pollution due to waste water and oils deriving from the processing of olives to produce oil represents a serious environmental problem for Spain, Italy and Greece. This paper reports and discusses the results (time dependent enzyme activity) of performance tests on an innovative fermentation process to be used in olive oil waste water anaerobic digestion. An outline is then given of a demonstration depolymerization/materials recovery (including polyphenols, enzymes, etc.) process scheme based on the the tested fermentation method. The fermentation process tests involved the use of an albidus yeast in an Applikon bench scale experimental device. Process parameters were varied to determine optimum fermentation conditions. The European Communities sponsored one cubic meter/day demonstration plant utilizes a preliminary treatment process based on the use of gelatin, bentonite and polyclar.

  12. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  13. Material Recover and Waste Form Development--2016 Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Terry A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vienna, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Paviet, Patricia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Material Recovery and Waste Form Development (MRWFD) Campaign under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is responsible for developing advanced separation and waste form technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress (April 2010). This MRWFD accomplishments report summarizes the results of the research and development (R&D) efforts performed within MRWFD in Fiscal Year (FY) 2016. Each section of the report contains an overview of the activities, results, technical point of contact, applicable references, and documents produced during the FY. This report briefly outlines campaign management and integration activities but primarily focuses on the many technical accomplishments of FY 2016. The campaign continued to use an engineering-driven, science-based approach to maintain relevance and focus.

  14. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: the potential for energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Stefano; Viganò, Federico

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on "Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)". An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental

  15. Electronic waste (e-waste): material flows and management practices in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnorom, Innocent Chidi; Osibanjo, Oladele

    2008-01-01

    The growth in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) production and consumption has been exponential in the last two decades. This has been as a result of the rapid changes in equipment features and capabilities, decrease in prices, and the growth in internet use. This creates a large volume of waste stream of obsolete electrical and electronic devices (e-waste) in developed countries. There is high level of trans-boundary movement of these devices as secondhand electronic equipment into developing countries in an attempt to bridge the 'digital divide'. The past decade has witnessed a phenomenal advancement in information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigeria, most of which rely on imported secondhand devices. This paper attempts to review the material flow of secondhand/scrap electronic devices into Nigeria, the current management practices for e-waste and the environmental and health implications of such low-end management practices. Establishment of formal recycling facilities, introduction of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste and the confirmation of the functionality of secondhand EEE prior to importation are some of the options available to the government in dealing with this difficult issue.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 266 - Health-Based Limits for Exclusion of Waste-Derived Residues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste-Derived Residues* VII Appendix VII to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VII Appendix VII to Part 266—Health...

  17. Management of hazardous waste or materials. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the management of hazardous waste and materials. Citations discuss the assessments and findings at hazardous waste sites as well as the prevention of pollution. Also included are guidelines and methods for controlling and managing hazardous waste and materials.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  19. Part 1: The role of waste data in building knowledge: the South African waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Difford, Mark; Trois, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    An empirical study was undertaken with 31 organisations submitting data to the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) in order to explore the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge generated through a process of learning. The results show that of the three constructs of knowledge (experience, data/information, and theory), experience has the greatest influence on building waste knowledge, nearly twice that of data/information and three times that of theory. Together the three constructs account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Respondents from municipalities and private waste organisations reflect two distinct sub-groups in the data set. While the theoretical model remains the same for the two sub-groups, the way in which knowledge is constructed, and the variance in knowledge explained by the model, differs for the two. A mixed methods research design, combining quantitative statistical analysis and rich qualitative data, contributes to a comprehensive interpretation of the role of waste data in building knowledge in South Africa. While waste data has a minor influence on building knowledge, respondents acknowledge that waste data does have a positive impact on the way their organisations manage waste. However, it is not the data, but rather the resultant waste knowledge and raised level of awareness that causes the operational response. Experience is obtained predominantly through learning from others. Respondents in municipalities, emphasised learning from consultants, landfill site contractors, and colleagues in city-twinning programmes, while respondents in private waste companies, emphasised learning from experienced, senior colleagues.

  20. Multibarrier waste forms. Part II. Characterization and evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, J.M.; Gray, W.J.; Wald, J.W.

    1979-08-01

    The multibarrier concept for the storage of radioactive waste is to use up to three barriers to isolate radionuclides from the environment: a solidified waste inner core, an impervious coating, and a metal matrix. The four multibarrier waste forms were evaluated for thermal stability (volatility), mechanical strength (impact resistance), and leach resistance. This report discusses the characterization of the multibarrier waste forms and compares them to reference calcine and glass waste forms. The weight loss of supercalcine-ceramics after 4 h in dry air ranges between 0.01 and 1.6 wt % from 1000 to 1200/sup 0/C and is dependent upon composition. Glass marbles in a cast lead alloy offer approximately an order of magnitude decease in the wt % fines < 37 ..mu..m released after impact as compared to a glass monolith. CVD-coated supercalcine in a sintered 410 SS matrix offers up to two orders of magnitude decrease. Hot-pressed supercalcine ceramics may offer no increase in impact resistance or leach resistance over that of a glass monolith. Supercalcine may offer no advantage over waste glasses in leach resistance. Glass and PyC/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ coatings provide effective inert leaching barriers.

  1. CONVERSION OF COAL WASTES INTO WASTE-CLEANING MATERIALS. FIANL REPORT (8/1/94-12/31/97)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Heng Shih

    1998-01-01

    In the beginning part of this project, we successfully converted the fly ash from the Eddystone plant of PECO Energy into faujasites and zeolite A. However, when we used the same approach to convert ashes from other power plants, it was not successful. Because of the differences in chemical compositions between different ashes, the conversion process has to be modified. Therefore the first goal in this project is to find a general method that can convert ashes of a wide variety of chemical compositions into zeolites. The zeolites synthesized from fly ash are then studied for their ion exchange behavior for the application in removing heavy metal ions from waste streams. In an attempt to broaden the applications of fly ash, investigation into the formation of mesoporous materials from fly ash was initiated. Mesoporous materials were discovered three years ago by scientists at Mobil and have been under active research by many researchers since then. Mesoporous materials have large surface areas with variable pore sizes in the range of >20 {angstrom}. Potential applications of mesoporous materials include catalysts, absorbents, molecular sieves, etc. If mesoporous materials can be converted from fly ash, it will open up another area of applications for fly ash. The second goal of this project is to convert fly ash into mesoporous materials.

  2. Energy and raw material saving through recycling of plastics materials extracted from urban waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaux, J.

    The study is divided into 3 parts: Technical feasibility study, economic feasibility study, study of a factory handling 2,400 tons/year of plastics waste, and technico-economic feasibility study and market research, with an analysis of energy savings.

  3. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems.

  4. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  5. Enhanced Materials from Nature: Nanocellulose from Citrus Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Mariño

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose is a relatively inexpensive, highly versatile bio-based renewable material with advantageous properties, including biodegradability and nontoxicity. Numerous potential applications of nanocellulose, such as its use for the preparation of high-performance composites, have attracted much attention from industry. Owing to the low energy consumption and the addition of significant value, nanocellulose extraction from agricultural waste is one of the best alternatives for waste treatment. Different techniques for the isolation and purification of nanocellulose have been reported, and combining these techniques influences the morphology of the resultant fibers. Herein, some of the extraction routes for obtaining nanocellulose from citrus waste are addressed. The morphology of nanocellulose was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, while cellulose crystallinity indexes (CI from lyophilized samples were determined using solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD measurements. The resultant nanofibers had 55% crystallinity, an average diameter of 10 nm and a length of 458 nm.

  6. Enhanced materials from nature: nanocellulose from citrus waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Mayra; Lopes da Silva, Lucimara; Durán, Nelson; Tasic, Ljubica

    2015-04-03

    Nanocellulose is a relatively inexpensive, highly versatile bio-based renewable material with advantageous properties, including biodegradability and nontoxicity. Numerous potential applications of nanocellulose, such as its use for the preparation of high-performance composites, have attracted much attention from industry. Owing to the low energy consumption and the addition of significant value, nanocellulose extraction from agricultural waste is one of the best alternatives for waste treatment. Different techniques for the isolation and purification of nanocellulose have been reported, and combining these techniques influences the morphology of the resultant fibers. Herein, some of the extraction routes for obtaining nanocellulose from citrus waste are addressed. The morphology of nanocellulose was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), while cellulose crystallinity indexes (CI) from lyophilized samples were determined using solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements. The resultant nanofibers had 55% crystallinity, an average diameter of 10 nm and a length of 458 nm.

  7. Multiple material additive manufacturing – Part 1:\\ud a review

    OpenAIRE

    Vaezi, Mohammad; Chianrabutra, Srisit; Mellor, Brian; Yang, Shoufeng

    2013-01-01

    Interest in multifunctional structures made automatically from multiple materials poses a challenge for today’s additive manufacturing (AM) technologies; however the ability to process multiple materials is a fundamental advantage to some AM technologies. The capability to fabricate multiple material parts can improve AM technologies by either optimizing the mechanical properties of the parts or providing additional functions to the final parts. The objective of this paper is to give an overv...

  8. Sound Absorbing Property of Porous Material by Using Polyester Fiber Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Naoya; Kimura, Teruo

    Polyester waste generated from a water jet loom in the weaving process is one of the typical industrial fiber wastes. The development of a recycling system for such fiber wastes has been strongly expected so far. In this study, the recyclability of polyester wastes as a sound absorption material was discussed. As a result, it was cleared that the sound absorption material can be obtained by heated compression molding combined with a PLA binder and fiber wastes, and higher sound absorption properties are obtainable if the defiberization of the waste is increased.

  9. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites - Commercial Hazardous Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Commercial Hazardous Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Hazardous Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to...

  10. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  11. Pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshops: Proceedings. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of the second workshop was to bring together representatives of DOE and DOE contractor organizations to discuss four topics: process waste assessments (PWAs), a continuation of one of the sessions held at the first workshop in Clearwater; waste minimization reporting requirements; procurement systems for waste minimization; and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) and replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The topics were discussed in four concurrent group sessions. Participants in each group were encouraged to work toward achieving two main objectives: establish a ``clear vision`` of the overall target for their session`s program, focusing not just on where the program is now but on where it should go in the long term; and determine steps to be followed to carry out the target program.

  12. Low Carbon Footprint Mortar from Pozzolanic Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Mehmannavaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Portland cement clinker leads to emission of CO2 into the atmosphere and therefore causes greenhouse effect. Incorporating of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA as partial cement replacement materials into mix of low carbon mortar decreases the amount of cement use and reduces high dependence on cements compared to ordinary mortar. The result of this research supported use of the new concept in preparing low carbon mortar for industrial constructions. Strength of low carbon mortar with POFA and PFA replacement in cement was affected and changed by replacing percent finesse, physical and chemical properties and pozzolanic activity of these wastes. Waste material replacement instead of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC was used in this study. This in turn was useful for promoting better quality of construction and innovative systems in construction industry, especially in Malaysia. This study was surely a step forward to achieving quality products which were affordable, durable and environmentally friendly. Disposing ash contributes to shortage of landfill space in Malaysia. Besides, hazard of ash might be another serious issue for human health. The ash disposal area also might create a new problem, which is the area's sedimentation and erosion.

  13. Low Carbon Footprint mortar from Pozzolanic Waste Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmannavaz, Taha; Mehman navaz, Hossein Ali; Moayed Zefreh, Fereshteh; Aboata, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, Portland cement clinker leads to emission of CO2 into the atmosphere and therefore causes greenhouse effect. Incorporating of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) and Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) as partial cement replacement materials into mix of low carbon mortar decreases the amount of cement use and reduces high dependence on cements compared to ordinary mortar. The result of this research supported use of the new concept in preparing low carbon mortar for industrial constructions. Strength of low carbon mortar with POFA and PFA replacement in cement was affected and changed by replacing percent finesse, physical and chemical properties and pozzolanic activity of these wastes. Waste material replacement instead of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was used in this study. This in turn was useful for promoting better quality of construction and innovative systems in construction industry, especially in Malaysia. This study was surely a step forward to achieving quality products which were affordable, durable and environmentally friendly. Disposing ash contributes to shortage of landfill space in Malaysia. Besides, hazard of ash might be another serious issue for human health. The ash disposal area also might create a new problem, which is the area's sedimentation and erosion.

  14. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information......Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...

  15. Using quartzofeldspathic waste to obtain foamed glass material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Kazmina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a method for the processing of mine refuse non-ferrous metal ore in the production of foamed glass. The subject of this research is a low-temperature frit synthesis (<900 °C, allowing for the high-temperature glass melting process to be avoided. The technology for the production of frit without complete melting of the batch and without using glass-making units offers a considerable reduction in energy consumption and air pollution. It was found that material samples obtained with a density of up to 250 kg/m3 are of rigidity (up to 1.7 MPa in comparison with the conventional foamed glass (1 MPa. This increased rigidity was due to the presence of crystalline phase particles in its interpore partition of less than 2 µm in size. Material with a density of 300 kg/cm3 is recommended for thermal insulation for the industrial and construction sectors. At densities above 300 kg/cm3 and a strength of 2.5 MPa, the purpose becomes heat-insulating construction material. The proposed method for obtaining a porous material from waste widens our choice of raw materials for foamed glass, whilst saving resources and energy.

  16. Round table part 5 : Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for waste management and recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Any manned missions will produce solid waste with or without on board food production. Of course in case of high food production, the percentage of waste of plant origin will be much higher and may pass the 80 %. Consequently the ultimate objective of a closed loop system is not achievable without an efficient waste r4cycling system. Over the years, a large panel of investigations of technologies have been performed form microbial degradation to wet oxidation. These part 5 is aiming to be a platform of discussion on the current world wide investigations related to solid waste treatment and to allow synergies and collaborations.

  17. Part II--the effect of data on waste behaviour: the South African waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Difford, Mark; Trois, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Combining the process of learning and the theory of planned behaviour into a new theoretical framework provides an opportunity to explore the impact of data on waste behaviour, and consequently on waste management, in South Africa. Fitting the data to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents to behavioural intention (attitude, subjective norm and PBC). However, it is PBC, and not intention, that has the greatest influence on waste behaviour. While respondents may have an intention to act, this intention does not always manifest as actual waste behaviour, suggesting limited volitional control. The theoretical framework accounts for 53.7% of the variance in behaviour, suggesting significant external influences on behaviour not accounted for in the framework. While the theoretical model remains the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57.6% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in private organisations. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organisations are subject to different structural forces that shape knowledge, intention, and resultant waste behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  19. Aspects regarding the use of the industrial wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of building materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. G. Popa; L. G. Popescu; T. A. Abagiu; C. Popescu; R. Cazalbasu

    2015-01-01

    ...: ash and slag, drilling sludge, metallurgical slag. Also, were established the conditions in which these industrial waste types could be used as raw materials for manufacture some building materials...

  20. Process analysis transit of municipal waste. Part II - Domestic provisions of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starkowski Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Polish legal system referring to municipal waste management was restructured in a revolutionary way. The analysis of new provisions of law described in the article requires particular attention, taking into account their place in the entire system of dealing with waste and connections with the remaining elements of this system. At present, Polish regulations lay down the rules of conduct with all types of waste, diversifying a subjective area of responsibility. These assumptions are determined by the provisions of law that are in force in the Republic of Poland. At present, the system of legal provisions is quite complex; however, the provisions of law of the EU constitute its base (the first article. At the level of Polish law, the goals and tasks concerned with dealing with waste were set forth, which leads to tightening of the system. All actions in this respect - from propagating the selective accumulation and collection of municipal waste, keeping the established levels of recycling and recycling of packaging wastes, and limiting the mass of biodegradable waste directed at the storage - is only a beginning of the road to reduction of environmental risks. In this case, permanent monitoring of proper waste dealing in the commune, the province as well as the entire country is essential. Third part of the article will present characterization, division, classification and identification of waste, together with the aspects of logistic process of municipal waste collection and transport.

  1. Recycling systems and material flows from the viewpoint of thermal waste treatment; Kreislaufwirtschaft- und Stoffstrombetrachtungen aus Sicht der thermischen Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnke, B. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Mast, P.G. [Tauw Umwelt GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Material stream analysis can serve as a basis for decisions on which materials should be kept in circulation, and in what quantity, and which materials it is better to remove from the recycling system and dispose of as waste. Wastes destined for disposal are mostly transferred to waste treatment plants and landfills. The role of thermal treatment as part of the disposal system is to destroy or decompose organic pollutants contained in the waste, concentrate and remove inorganic pollutants, make the heat arising during the treatment process available for use as energy, and make the greatest possible physical use of the treatment residues. The present paper reviews the current regulations for the promotion of recycling and investigates selected material streams and the fate of these materials. In connection with the residue quality of household waste incineration slag as a thermal waste treatment product it also considers the influence of waste management measures on wastes destined for disposal. [Deutsch] Stoffstrombetrachtungen koennen als Grundlage fuer Entscheidungen dienen, welche Stoffe in welchem Umfang im Kreislauf verbleiben oder wieder integriert werden sollten und welche besser als Abfall zur Beseitigung aus dem Kreislaufsystem auszuschleusen sind. Fuer Abfaelle zur Beseitigung wird diese Aufgabe i.d.R. von thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen und Deponien uebernommen. Im Rahmen der Entsorgung kommt der thermischen Behandlung dabei die Aufgabe zu, die im Abfall zur Beseitigung enthaltenen organischen Schadstoffe zu zerstoeren oder abzubauen, anorganische Schadstoffe aufzukonzentrieren und auszuschleusen, die bei dem Behandlungsprozess entstehende Waerme einer weitgehenden Energienutzung zuzufuehren und die Rueckstaende aus der Behandlung so weit wie moeglich stofflich zu verwerten. Nachfolgend sollen insbesondere die Regelungen zur Unterstuetzung der Kreislaufwirtschaft, ausgewaehlte Stofffluesse und der Verbleib dieser Stoffe und Materialien und der

  2. Raw-materials mixtures from waste of the coal industry for production of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E.I. [Scientific-Manufacturing Enterprise ``Ceramics``, Donetsk (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L.V. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry of NASU, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    The liquidation of waste dumps on the surface of mining enterprises and realization of measures by environment protection of air and aquatic basins are connected to the complex processing of mining mass. The main directions of utilization of mining rocks and coal wastes realized in Ukraine industry are: - filling of mines worked-out area by grouting solutions; - ceramic brick, porous filling materials and binding materials production; - road-making, construction of hydrostructures and industrial objects; - output of concrete items predominantly for using in mining conditions. The peculiarity of wastes using in above-mentioned fields is the possibility of their mass application in quantities commensurable with valumes of their yields. The experience of enterprises work which process mining rocks into building materials by burning method (ceramic brick, porous aggregates of concretes as aggloporite, expanded clay aggregate) has shown that unconstant and, as the rule, exceeding norms content of carbon and sulphur in the rock results to deterioration of products quality and technological factors of production. Unstability of carbon content in raw material makes the burning process hardly operated. Obtained products having residual carbon in the view of coke residue are often characterized by lower physical-mechanical characteristics. (orig./SR)

  3. Use of ceramic materials in waste-package systems for geologic disposal of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1980-12-01

    A study to investigate the potential use of ceramic materials as components in the waste package systems was conducted. The initial objective of the study was to screen and compare a large number of ceramic materials and identify the best materials for the proposed application. The principal method used to screen the candidates was to subject samples of each material to a series of leaching tests and to determine their relative resistance to attack by the leach solutions. A total of 14 ceramic materials, plus graphite and basalt were evaluated using three different leach solutions: demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford ground water, and a synthetic WIPP brine solution. The ceramic materials screened were Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99%), Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99.8%), mullite (2Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.SiO/sub 2/), vitreous silica (SiO/sub 2/), BaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiSiO/sub 5/, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, ZrSiO/sub 4/, Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor Code 9658 machinable glass-ceramic. Average leach rates for the materials tested were determined from analyses of the leach solutions and/or sample weight loss measurements. Because of the limited scope of the present study, evaluation of the specimens was limited to ceramographic examination. Based on an overall evaluation of the leach rate data, five of the materials tested, namely graphite, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, and the two grades of alumina, exhibited much greater resistance to leaching than did the other materials tested. Based on all the experimental data obtained, and considering other factors such as cost, availability, fabrication technology, and mechanical and physical properties, graphite and alumina are the preferred candidates for the barrier application. The secondary choices are TiO/sub 2/ and ZrO/sub 2/.

  4. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Shimomura, Satoshi; Hachiya, Misao [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol`s iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs.

  5. Modification of clay-based waste containment materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Newark, DE (United States); Whang, J.M. [DuPont Specialty Chemicals, Deepwater, NJ (United States); McDevitt, M.F. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Bentonite clays are used extensively for waste containment barriers to help impede the flow of water in the subsurface because of their low permeability characteristics. However, they do little to prevent diffusion of contaminants, which is the major transport mechanism at low water flows. A more effective way of minimizing contaminant migration in the subsurface is to modify the bentonite clay with highly sorptive materials. Batch sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the sorptive capabilities of organo-clays and humic- and iron-based materials. These materials proved to be effective sorbents for the organic contaminants 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, and aniline in water, humic acid, and methanol solution media. The sorption capacities were several orders of magnitude greater than that of unmodified bentonite clay. Modeling results indicate that with small amounts of these materials used as additives in clay barriers, contaminant flux through walls could be kept very small for 100 years or more. The cost of such levels of additives can be small compared to overall construction costs.

  6. Valorization of rice straw waste: an alternative ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Guzmán A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of rice a large amount of solid residue is produced, for which alternative utilizations are scarce or are not commonly applied in industry. Rice straw (RS is a waste product of rice harvest that is generated in equal or greater quantities than the rice itself. RS is frequently burned in open air, which makes it a significant source of pollution. In the search for possible uses of RS, it should be noted that its ash (RSA is particularly rich in silica, alkaline and alkaline earth metals and may be used as a source of alkalis and silica for the production of triaxial ceramics. The present research work proposes the production of a ceramic raw material from RS for its use in the fabrication of ceramic materials for the construction industry. Based on the chemical and mineralogical composition of RSA created under different thermal conditions, the most suitable RSA for this purpose was that obtained from treating RS at a temperature of 800 ºC for a time of 2 h. The resulting RSA presented high contents of SiO2 (79.62%, alkaline oxides (K2O (10.53% and alkaline earth oxides (CaO (2.80%. It is concluded that RSA is a new alternative ceramic raw material that can be used as a replacement for the fluxing (mainly feldspar and inert (quartz materials that are used in the production of triaxial ceramics.

  7. Reusing of types wastes in way construction. First part; Reutilizacion de neumaticos usados en la construccion de carreteras 1 parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas Raz, R.

    2001-07-01

    Used vehicle tyres involve an ecological problem, regarding waste products. Both Spanish and European Environmental Standards promote waste recycling instead of waste incineration, which is specifically applicable to waste tyres. The Engineering Group, Elsamex, has developed, through its research centre CIESM, a researching line completely feasible, offering a recycling option based on the addition, by means of three different techniques, of the refused tyres rubber powder to the asphalt mixes for road construction. This is the refused tyre treatment, which contributes, to a greater extent, to a sustainable development, mostly thanks to the great capacity of roads for using this product as raw materials. Added to this, there is an environmental benefit derived from the ecological treatment used with refused tyres, and its efficacy. Moreover, the treatment helps to the production of asphalt mixes with longer durability with a wet process. This allows long term money saving in road maintenance. (Author)

  8. Diffusion of Iodine and Rhenium in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2006-12-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e. sorption or precipitation). This understanding will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. A set of diffusion experiments using carbonated and non-carbonated concrete-soil half cells was conducted under unsaturated conditions (4% and 7% by wt moisture content). Spiked concrete half-cell specimens were prepared with and without colloidal metallic iron addition and were carbonated using supercritical carbon dioxide. Spikes of I and Re were added to achieve measurable diffusion profile in the soil part of the half-cell. In addition, properties of concrete materials likely to influence radionuclide migration such as carbonation were evaluated in an effort to correlate these properties with the release of iodine and rhenium.

  9. Part II - The effect of data on waste behaviour: The South African waste information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Linda [CSIR, Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE - Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Scott, Dianne [University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Development Studies, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Difford, Mark [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE - Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This empirical study explores the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study shows that 'Experience, Data and Theory' account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strategic framework for Municipalities emerged from this study. - Abstract: Combining the process of learning and the theory of planned behaviour into a new theoretical framework provides an opportunity to explore the impact of data on waste behaviour, and consequently on waste management, in South Africa. Fitting the data to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents to behavioural intention (attitude, subjective norm and PBC). However, it is PBC, and not intention, that has the greatest influence on waste behaviour. While respondents may have an intention to act, this intention does not always manifest as actual waste behaviour, suggesting limited volitional control. The theoretical framework accounts for 53.7% of the variance in behaviour, suggesting significant external influences on behaviour not accounted for in the framework. While the theoretical model remains the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57.6% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in private organisations. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organisations are subject to different structural forces that shape knowledge, intention, and resultant waste behaviour.

  10. STUDIES ON STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS ON UTILIZATION OF WASTE MATERIALS AS COARSE AGGREGATE IN CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. T. SEKAR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of natural resources is a common phenomenon in developing countries like India due to rapid urbanization and Industrialization involving construction of Infrastructure and other amenities. In view of this, people have started searching for suitable other viable alternative materials for concrete so that the existing natural resources could be preserved to the possible extent, for the future generation. In this process, different industrial waste materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, quarry dust, tile waste, brick bats, broken glass waste, waste aggregate from demolition of structures, ceramic insulator waste, etc. have been tried as a viablesubstitute material to the conventional materials in concrete and has also been succeeded. This paper describes the studies conducted on strength characteristics of concrete made with utilizing waste materials viz: ceramic tiles, ceramic insulator waste, and broken glass pieces. A total number of 24cubes, 24 cylinders and 24 beamswere cast and tested for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength using industrial wastes and the results presented. It was found that, the concrete made of waste ceramic tile aggregate produced more strength in compression, split tensile and flexure than ceramic insulator scrap and broken glass material. This paper recommends that waste ceramic tiles can be used as an alternate construction material to coarse aggregate in concrete.

  11. Hanford facility dangerous waste Part A, Form 3 and Part B permit application documentation, Central Waste Complex (WA7890008967)(TSD: TS-2-4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saueressig, D.G.

    1998-05-20

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Central Waste Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-17). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this Central Waste Complex permit application documentation is current as of May 1998.

  12. Material Recovery and Waste Form Development FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Terry Allen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, Lori Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Material Recovery and Waste Form Development (MRWFD) Campaign under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is responsible for developing advanced separation and waste form technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The FY 2015 Accomplishments Report provides a highlight of the results of the research and development (R&D) efforts performed within the MRWFD Campaign in FY-14. Each section contains a high-level overview of the activities, results, technical point of contact, applicable references, and documents produced during the fiscal year. This report briefly outlines campaign management and integration activities, but primarily focuses on the many technical accomplishments made during FY-15. The campaign continued to utilize an engineering driven-science-based approach to maintain relevance and focus. There was increased emphasis on development of technologies that support near-term applications that are relevant to the current once-through fuel cycle.

  13. Surface analysis of carbon black waste materials from tire residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Ko, Y. K.; Reucroft, P. J.; Zondlo, J. W.

    1999-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to obtain surface chemical state information on two carbon black waste materials in terms of the surface element distribution/concentration and chemical structure. Small amounts of sulfur in the form of CS 2 were detected on the surface (less than 1.7 mass %). C-H/C-C was the major carbon functional component on the surface of carbon black samples but other functional forms of carbon were also present such as CO and C-O. The surface of the carbon black obtained from a hydropyrolysis process was highly oxidized primarily in the form of carbon based oxygen groups. On the other hand, surface oxygen atoms on the surface of the carbon black obtained from a pyrolysis process in the absence of H 2 were in the form of both metal oxides and carbon based oxygen groups.

  14. Environmental Degradation of Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories Engineered Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-24

    Several countries are considering geological repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. Most of the environments for these repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, copper, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  15. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-08-28

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  16. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2006-06-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  17. Utilization of Construction Waste Composite Powder Materials as Cementitious Materials in Small-Scale Prefabricated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuizhen Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and demolition wastes have increased rapidly due to the prosperity of infrastructure construction. For the sake of effectively reusing construction wastes, this paper studied the potential use of construction waste composite powder material (CWCPM as cementitious materials in small-scale prefabricated concretes. Three types of such concretes, namely, C20, C25, and C30, were selected to investigate the influences of CWCPM on their working performances, mechanical properties, and antipermeability and antifrost performances. Also the effects of CWCPM on the morphology, hydration products, and pore structure characteristics of the cement-based materials were analyzed. The results are encouraging. Although CWCPM slightly decreases the mechanical properties of the C20 concrete and the 7 d compressive strengths of the C25 and C30 concretes, the 28 d compressive strength and the 90 d flexural strength of the C25 and C30 concretes are improved when CWCPM has a dosage less than 30%; CWCPM improves the antipermeability and antifrost performances of the concretes due to its filling and pozzolanic effects; the best improvement is obtained at CWCPM dosage of 30%; CWCPM optimizes cement hydration products, refines concrete pore structure, and gives rise to reasonable pore size distribution, therefore significantly improving the durability of the concretes.

  18. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material and concrete (nonbiodegradable material were used as the carrier for microorganisms’ attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99% and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%. The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms’ adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment.

  19. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect.

  20. Application of organic waste composts when producing forest planting material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov Evgeny M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most seedlings and saplings of woody plants in the Russian Federation are produced in the open ground in forest nurseries. In order to produce high quality planting material it is necessary to support and preserve soil fertility, which can be obtained by using organic wastes and organic-based fertilizers. Our research is aimed at the assessment of the influence of non-conventional organic fertilizers on fertility of podzols and on the growth rate of seedlings and saplings of woody plants in forest nurseries. Our research shows, that the application of non-conventional organic fertilizers does not result in any accumulation of heavy metal salts in podzols, but optimizes hydro physical and agrochemical properties of the ploughed horizon. The efficiency of non-conventional organic fertilizers depends on their composition, physical and chemical characteristics of the original components, their doses applied and original fertility of soils. A combined application of non-conventional organic fertilizers and sand results in the optimization of practically all soil fertility parameters in middle clay-loam soils, while application of non-conventional organic fertilizers and clay is optimal for application on light soils. The optimal application dose of non-conventional fertilizers depends on soil texture, woody species and the fertilizer composition. An optimal application dose for Norway spruce on a light clay-loam soil is 50-80 tons/ha, and on a middle clay-loam soil is 149-182 tons/ha. It is 50 tons/ha for Scots pine growing on a sandy loam soil, and 100 tons/ha for the same species growing on a sandy soil or a light clay-loam. For Siberian larch growing on a light clay-loam soil the dose of fertilizer applied should be 150 tons/ha. It is recommended to apply composts containing over 50% (by weight of Category II wastes (substrate for the amelioration of light soils, and composts containing over 40% (by weight of Category I wastes (filler for the

  1. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  2. Development of a Lightweight Low-Carbon Footprint Concrete Containing Recycled Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the use of waste materials such as crushed glass, ground tire rubber, and recycled aggregate in concrete. Compressive strength and elastic modulus were the primary parameters of interest. Results demonstrated that ground tire rubber introduced significant amounts of air into the mix and adversely affected the strength. The introduction of a defoamer was able to successfully remove part of the excess air from the mix, but the proportional strength improvements were not noted implying that air left in the defoamed mixture had undesirable characteristics. Freeze-thaw tests were next performed to understand the nature of air in the defoamed mixtures, and results demonstrated that this air is not helpful in resisting freeze-thaw resistance either. Overall, while lightweight, low-carbon footprint concrete materials seem possible from recycled materials, significant further optimization remains possible.

  3. 10 CFR 51.62 - Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste....62 Environmental report—land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61. (a) Each applicant for issuance of a license for land disposal of radioactive waste pursuant to part 61 of this...

  4. Managing Materials and Wastes for Homeland Security Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on waste management planning and preparedness before a homeland security incident, including preparing for the large amounts of waste that would need to be managed when an incident occurs, such as a large-scale natural disaster.

  5. In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W> Stockman; S. LeStrange

    2000-09-28

    The objective of this calculation is to provide estimates of the amount of fissile material flowing out of the waste package (source term) and the accumulation of fissile elements (U and Pu) in a crushed-tuff invert. These calculations provide input for the analysis of repository impacts of the Pu-ceramic waste forms. In particular, the source term results are used as input to the far-field accumulation calculation reported in Ref. 51, and the in-drift accumulation results are used as inputs for the criticality calculations reported in Ref. 2. The results are also summarized and interpreted in Ref. 52. The scope of this calculation is the waste package (WP) Viability Assessment (VA) design, which consists of an outer corrosion-allowance material (CAM) and an inner corrosion-resistant material (CRM). This design is used in this calculation in order to be consistent with earlier Pu-ceramic degradation calculations (Ref. 15). The impact of the new Enhanced Design Alternative-I1 (EDA-11) design on the results will be addressed in a subsequent report. The design of the invert (a leveling foundation, which creates a level surface of the drift floor and supports the WP mounting structure) is consistent with the EDA-I1 design. The invert will be composed of crushed stone and a steel support structure (Ref. 17). The scope of this calculation is also defined by the nominal degradation scenario, which involves the breach of the WP (Section 10.5.1.2, Ref. 48), followed by the influx of water. Water in the WP may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the ceramic waste forms. Thus, the water in the WP may become laden with dissolved actinides (e.g., Pu and U), and may eventually overflow or leak from the WP. Once the water leaves the WP, it may encounter the invert, in which the actinides may reprecipitate. Several factors could induce reprecipitation; these factors include: the high surface area of the crushed stone, and the presence of

  6. Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Marija D.; Nikolić Ivan R.; Milutinović Milica D.; Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.; Šiler-Marinković Slavica S.; Antonović Dušan G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper has demonstrated the valorization of inexpensive and readily available restaurant waste containing most consumed food and beverage residues as adsorbents for methylene blue dye. Coffee, tea, lettuce and citrus waste have been utilized without any pre-treatment, thus the adsorption capacities and dye removal efficiency were determined. Coffee waste showed highest adsorbent capacity, followed by tea, lettuce and citrus waste. The dye removal was mo...

  7. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  8. Some aspects of the analysis of raw material losses and use of the woodworking industries waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsyuk, Nadiуa Yevhenivna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problem of the elimination of losses and the mostefficient use of wood waste. In particular, the author pays special attention to the issues of reducingcosts of raw wood materials and more efficient use of secondary materials. The influence ofmethods of waste while wood processing on increasing the use of forestry return waste is described.A sample of classification factors affecting the losses of wood and waste use is set. The scheme ofmovement of raw-material resources and companies’ wood waste is described within the effectivewaste control in the industry under consideration. The distribution of wood industry wastesaccording to the economic content is proposed. The system of synthetic and analytical accountingof production waste within the general plan of accounts and itemization of the production wastecost used as secondary raw material in the reports is proposed for their proper accountingtreatment.

  9. RCRA Part A Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Part B Permit Application Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, Nevada Test Site, and Part B Permit Application - Explosives Ordnance Disposal Unit (EODU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-06-17

    The Area 5 Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) was established to support testing, research, and remediation activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a large-quantity generator of hazardous waste. The HWSU, located adjacent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), is a prefabricated, rigid steel-framed, roofed shelter used to store hazardous nonradioactive waste generated on the NTS. No offsite generated wastes are managed at the HWSU. Waste managed at the HWSU includes the following categories: Flammables/Combustibles; Acid Corrosives; Alkali Corrosives; Oxidizers/Reactives; Toxics/Poisons; and Other Regulated Materials (ORMs). A list of the regulated waste codes accepted for storage at the HWSU is provided in Section B.2. Hazardous wastes stored at the HWSU are stored in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) compliant containers, compatible with the stored waste. Waste transfer (between containers) is not allowed at the HWSU and containers remain closed at all times. Containers are stored on secondary containment pallets and the unit is inspected monthly. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  10. Hazardous materials and waste management a guide for the professional hazards manager

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P

    1995-01-01

    The management of hazardous materials and industrial wastes is complex, requiring a high degree of knowledge over very broad technical and legal subject areas. Hazardous wastes and materials are diverse, with compositions and properties that not only vary significantly between industries, but within industries, and indeed within the complexity of single facilities. Proper management not only requires an understanding of the numerous and complex regulations governing hazardous materials and waste streams, but an understanding and knowledge of the treatment, post-treatment, and waste minimizatio

  11. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  12. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  13. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  14. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  15. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff are investigating novel ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation (groundwater, high-level waste (HLW), and low-level waste (LLW)). Waste components targeted for remediation include cesium, strontium, and technetium.

  16. Study of Material Flow of End-of-Life Computer Equipment (e-wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    makorede

    In this study, a material flow model for the analysis of e-waste ... analysis of individual flows of computer from the material flow model showed that the fate of obsolete computer equipment ...... Design Initiative Technical Report #97-10.

  17. PRESENCE OF MICROORGANISMS AT VARIOUS STAGES OF POULTRY WASTES MANAGEMENT. PART I. KERATINOLYTIC MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Wrońska

    2016-11-01

    Based on the study, the presence of keratinolytic microorganisms was found in all materials. The slime was the most numerously inhabited waste, while proper compost the least. Predominant group of microorganisms, regardless of the tested material type, was composed of bacteria.

  18. Secondary Zinc Waste Sludge: Resource Material with Potential Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Akram; Shrivastava, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    The waste sludge generated during secondary zinc extraction process of an industry was studied for the recovery of electrolytic grade zinc and copper. The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the secondary zinc waste were studied in detail. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test was carried out for the sample and concentrations of heavy metals present in the waste were estimated. The engineering properties of the samples prepared through high temperature fired route provided important information on the characteristics and composition of the waste. Different binders like fly ash and yellow clay were used in different formulations using Indian Standard sand to prepare the samples and to study the Solidification-Stabilisation (S/S) mechanism of the encapsulated waste mass. The leachability studies and engineering properties of the samples were evaluated to study the abatement of hazardous potential of waste and to explore better utilisation options for the secondary zinc waste sludge.

  19. THE PILOT STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE GENERATED IN SUBURBAN PARTS OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Steinhoff-Wrześniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the studies were waste generated in suburban households, in 3-bag system. The sum of wastes generated during the four analyzed seasons (spring, summer, autumn, winter – 1 year, in the households under study, per 1 person, amounted to 170,3 kg (in wet mass basis. For 1 person, most domestic waste was generated in autumn – 45,5 kg per capita and the least in winter – 39,0 kg per capita. The analysis performed of sieved composition (size fraction showed that fractions: >100 mm, 40–100 mm, 20–40 mm constituted totally 80% of the mass of wastes (average in a year. The lowest fraction (<10 mm, whose significant part constitutes ashes, varied depending on the season of year: from 3.5% to 12.8%. In the morphological composition of the households analyzed (on average in 4 seasons, biowastes totally formed over 53% of the whole mass of wastes. A significant part of waste generated were also glass waste (10,7% average per year and disposable nappies (8,3% average per year. The analysis of basic chemical components of biowastes showed that in case of utilizing them for production of compost, it would be necessary to modify (correct the ratios C/N and C/P. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that the biowastes were characterized by very high moisture content and neutral pH.

  20. Municipal solid wastes management. cost evaluation of selective collecting; Gestion integral de residuos urbanos. Evaluacion de rendimientos y costes de la recogida selectiva (Parte I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldasano, J. M.; Ginestar, X.; Perez, C.; Gasso, S.

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish Nuclear Plan for Municipal Solid Waste (PNRU 2000-2006) includes and integrated waste management model that arranges the management options of waste in order of priority: minimization, re-use, recycling (including composting and biomethanisation), energy recovery and final disposal. This paper makes an evaluation of the cost increase of the MSW separate collection for recycling compared to the traditional collection system. This first part includes a description of the different possibilities to carry out the separate collection in terms of materials (containers and collectors), human resources and performances, as well as a comparison between its unitary costs. (Author)

  1. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Materials and Fuels Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Debris Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Grant; P. J. Crane; S. Butler; M. A. Henry

    2010-02-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes the information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of transuranic (TRU) waste between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP). The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and the applicable portion of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and treatment of TRU debris waste in AMWTP. This report has been prepared for contact-handled TRU debris waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at MFC. The TRU debris waste will be shipped to AMWTP for purposes of supercompaction. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU debris waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for waste originating from MFC.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN WASTE MATERIALS USED IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Netinger Grubeša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of solid waste in place of conventional materials in civil engineering structures preserves natural resources and energy and avoids expensive and/or potentially harmful waste disposal. Many studies are investigating the application of waste materials in civil engineering structures. However, in an effort to find out new areas of waste materials utilization, the environmental impact of the installation of such materials in building structures often remains neglected. This study focused on the environmental aspect of the application of currently investigated waste materials in Croatia with an emphasis on heavy metal content. Heavy metal concentration in steel slag, river sediment, and biomass ash was measured, and the possibility of their use in road construction in accordance with currently valid legislation was assessed.

  3. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies...

  4. Pozzolanic mortars based on waste building materials for the restoration of historical buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pašalić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental aspects of waste building materials have been of great interest in recent years. For the sector of building materials this means increased recycling, reduction of energy consumption and natural resources preservation. This also presents an important contribution in the field of environmental protection. The work deals with the development of pozzolanic mortars made of waste building materials, ground red structure bricks and raw clay materials of inadequate characteristics for the production of ceramic materials. Based on the results of historical mortar characterizations, a group of mortars with specific characteristics (satisfied durability, good compatibility with a historical mortar was prepared. The potential of the waste materials and domestic clay materials application in the production of pozzolanic mortars was confirmed. In addition to the waste management, pozzolanic mortars were designed taking into account the existing conventions in the area of culture heritage.

  5. Molecular Environmental Science Using Synchrotron Radiation: Chemistry and Physics of Waste Form Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindle, Dennis W.

    2011-04-21

    Production of defense-related nuclear materials has generated large volumes of complex chemical wastes containing a mixture of radionuclides. The disposition of these wastes requires conversion of the liquid and solid-phase components into durable, solid forms suitable for long-term immobilization. Specially formulated glass compositions and ceramics such as pyrochlores and apatites are the main candidates for these wastes. An important consideration linked to the durability of waste-form materials is the local structure around the waste components. Equally important is the local structure of constituents of the glass and ceramic host matrix. Knowledge of the structure in the waste-form host matrices is essential, prior to and subsequent to waste incorporation, to evaluate and develop improved waste-form compositions based on scientific considerations. This project used the soft-x-ray synchrotron-radiation-based technique of near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) as a unique method for investigating oxidation states and structures of low-Z elemental constituents forming the backbones of glass and ceramic host matrices for waste-form materials. In addition, light metal ions in ceramic hosts, such as titanium, are also ideal for investigation by NEXAFS in the soft-x-ray region. Thus, one of the main objectives was to understand outstanding issues in waste-form science via NEXAFS investigations and to translate this understanding into better waste-form materials, followed by eventual capability to investigate “real” waste-form materials by the same methodology. We conducted several detailed structural investigations of both pyrochlore ceramic and borosilicate-glass materials during the project and developed improved capabilities at Beamline 6.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to perform the studies.

  6. ROCK FALL CALCULATIONS FOR SINGLE CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIAL WASTE PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Ceylan

    1999-03-23

    The purpose of this activity is to determine the structural performance of waste packages (WP) subject to rock fall design basis event (DBE) dynamic loads and document the calculation results that describe the threshold rock sizes for crack-initiation and through cracks in waste package shells. This activity is associated with the waste package design. AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, Calculations, is used to develop the calculation.

  7. ROCK FALL CALCULATIONS FOR SINGLE CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIAL WASTE PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bader

    1999-09-20

    The purpose of this activity is to determine the structural performance of waste packages (WP) subject to rock fall design basis event (DBE) dynamic loads and document the calculation results that describe the threshold rock sizes for crack-initiation and through-cracks in waste package shells. This activity is associated with the waste package design. AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, Calculations, is used to develop the calculation.

  8. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program.

  9. Recycling of quarry waste as part of sustainable aggregate production: Norwegian and Italian point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Chiappino, Claudia; Primavori, Piero; Engelsen, Christian John

    2016-04-01

    Resource preservation is one of the main challenges in Europe, together with waste management and recycling; recently several researchers are interested in the recovering of critical raw materials and secondary raw materials from landfill. Aggregate supply, even if it is not "critical" sensus stricto (s.s.), is one of the European priorities (low value but high volume needs). On the other side, the management of quarry waste , mainly from dimension stones, but also as fines from aggregate crushing, is still a matter of concern. Such materials are managed in different ways both locally and nationwide, and often they are landfilled, because of an unclear legislation and a general lack of data. Most of time the local authorities adopt the maximum precaution principle or the enterprises find it little profitable to recover them, so that the sustainable recycling of such material is not valued. Several studies have shown, depending on the material specific characteristics, the viability of recycling quarry waste into new raw materials used in glass and ceramic industries, precast concrete production, infrastructures etc. (Loudes et al. 2012, Dino&Marian 2015, Bozzola et al 2012, Dino et al. 2012, etc.). Thus, aggregate production may be one of the profitable ways to use quarry waste and is falling under the priority of EU (aggregate supply). Positive economic and environmental effects are likely to be achieved by systematic recycling of quarry waste planned by industries (industrial planning) and public authorities (national and local planning of aggregate exploitation). Today, the recycling level varies to a great extent and systematic recovery is not common among European Countries. In Italy and Norway no significant incentives on recycling or systematic approaches for local aggregate exploitation exist. The environmental consequences can be overexploitation of the natural resources, land take for the landfills, environmental contamination and landscape alteration by

  10. Interaction study between nuclear waste-glass melt and ceramic melter bellow liner materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pranesh

    2011-04-01

    Identification of proper materials for plant scale vitrification furnaces, engaged in immobilization of high level nuclear waste has always been a great challenge. Fast degradation of pour spout materials very often cause problem towards smooth pouring of waste-glass melt in canister and damages bellow kept in between. The present experimental study describes the various reaction products that form due to interaction between waste-glass melt and potential bellow liner materials such as copper, stainless steel and nickel based Superalloys (Alloy 690, 625). The results indicate that copper based material has lesser tendency to form adherent glassy layer.

  11. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials - Selection of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltens, R., E-mail: reinhilde.weltens@vito.be [VITO Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B 2400 Mol (Belgium); Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K. [VITO Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B 2400 Mol (Belgium); Robbens, J. [University of Antwerp - Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Deprez, K.; Michiels, L. [University of Hasselt - Biomedical Research Institute, University Hasselt, Campus Diepenbeek, Agoralaan A, B3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or - if not all compounds are identified - from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  12. Development of a methodology for electronic waste estimation: A material flow analysis-based SYE-Waste Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Improved living standards and the share of services sector to the economy in Asia, and the use of electronic equipment is on the rise and results in increased electronic waste generation. A peculiarity of electronic waste is that it has a 'significant' value even after its life time, and to add complication, even after its extended life in its 'dump' stage. Thus, in Indian situations, after its life time is over, the e-material changes hands more than once and finally ends up either in the hands of informal recyclers or in the store rooms of urban dwellings. This character makes it extremely difficult to estimate electronic waste generation. The present study attempts to develop a functional model based on a material flow analysis approach by considering all possible end uses of the material, its transformed goods finally arriving at disposal. It considers various degrees of uses derived of the e-goods regarding their primary use (life time), secondary use (first degree extension of life), third-hand use (second degree extension of life), donation, retention at the respective places (without discarding), fraction shifted to scrap vendor, and the components reaching the final dump site from various end points of use. This 'generic functional model' named SYE-Waste Model, developed based on a material flow analysis approach, can be used to derive 'obsolescence factors' for various degrees of usage of e-goods and also to make a comprehensive estimation of electronic waste in any city/country.

  13. Molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes: Separation of radioactive materials and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.T.; Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in a program to apply a molten salt oxidation (MSO) process to the treatment of mixed wastes at Oak Ridge and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Mixed wastes are defined as those wastes that contain both radioactive components, which are regulated by the atomic energy legislation, and hazardous waste components, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A major part of our ORNL program involves the development of separation technologies that are necessary for the complete treatment of mixed wastes. The residues from the MSO treatment of the mixed wastes must be processed further to separate the radioactive components, to concentrate and recycle residues, or to convert the residues into forms acceptable for final disposal. This paper is a review of the MSO requirements for separation technologies, the information now available, and the concepts for our development studies.

  14. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Gao, Song; Duan, Huabo; Liu, Lili

    2009-07-01

    Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 degrees C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO(3):H(2)O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 degrees C.

  15. An information system for sustainable materials management with material flow accounting and waste input–output analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Cheng Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable materials management focuses on the dynamics of materials in economic and environmental activities to optimize material use efficiency and reduce environmental impact. A preliminary web-based information system is thus developed to analyze the issues of resource consumption and waste generation, enabling countries to manage resources and wastes from a life cycle perspective. This pioneering system features a four-layer framework that integrates information on physical flows and economic activities with material flow accounting and waste input–output table analysis. Within this framework, several applications were developed for different waste and resource management stakeholders. The hierarchical and interactive dashboards allow convenient overview of economy-wide material accounts, waste streams, and secondary resource circulation. Furthermore, the system can trace material flows through associated production supply chain and consumption activities. Integrated with economic models; this system can predict the possible overloading on the current waste management facility capacities and provide decision support for designing strategies to approach resource sustainability. The limitations of current system are specified for directing further enhancement of functionalities.

  16. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  17. Preliminary concepts: materials management in an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostenak, C.A.; Whitty, W.J.; Dietz, R.J.

    1979-11-01

    Preliminary concepts of materials accountability are presented for an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository. A hypothetical reference repository that receives nuclear waste for emplacement in a geologic medium serves to illustrate specific safeguards concepts. Nuclear wastes received at the reference repository derive from prior fuel-cycle operations. Alternative safeguards techniques ranging from item accounting to nondestructive assay and waste characteristics that affect the necessary level of safeguards are examined. Downgrading of safeguards prior to shipment to the repository is recommended whenever possible. The point in the waste cycle where international safeguards may be terminate depends on the fissile content, feasibility of separation, and practicable recoverability of the waste: termination may not be possible if spent fuels are declared as waste.

  18. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    CO2-loads from combustible waste are important inputs for national CO2 inventories and life-cycle assessments (LCA). CO2 emissions from waste incinerators are often expressed by emission factors in kg fossil CO2 emitted per GJ energy content of the waste. Various studies have shown considerable...... variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... of this study was to quantify the importance of source separation for determination of emission factors for incineration of residual household waste. This was done by mimicking various source separation scenarios and based on waste composition data calculating resulting emission factors for residual waste...

  19. Environmental and economic aspects of using marble fine waste in the manufacture of facing ceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemlyanushnov Dmitriy Yur'evich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work considers economic expediency of using marble fine waste in facing ceramic materials manufacture by three-dimensional coloring method. Adding marble fine waste to the charge mixture reduces the production cost of the final product. This waste has a positive impact on the intensification of drying clay rocks and raw as a whole, which increases production efficiency. Using marble fine waste as a coloring admixture makes it possible to manufacture more environmentally friendly construction material with the use of wastes of hazard class 3 instead of class 4. At the same time, disposal areas and environmental load in the territories of mining and marble processing reduce significantly. Replacing ferrous pigments with manganese oxide for marble fine waste reduces the cost of the final product and the manufacture of facing ceramic brick of a wide range of colors - from dark brown to yellow.

  20. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (Part I). Moreover a Steam Turbine Plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences...... an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist...

  1. From waste to sustainable materials management: Three case studies of the transition journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angie; Rosano, Michele; Stocker, Laura; Gorissen, Leen

    2017-03-01

    Waste policy is increasingly moving on from the 'prevention of waste' to a 'sustainable materials policy' focused agenda recognising individual wastes as a resource. In order to comparatively analyse policy developments in enhanced waste management, three case studies were selected; San Francisco's Zero Waste Program, Flanders's Sustainable Materials Management Initiative and Japan's Sound Material-Cycle Society Plan. These case studies were chosen as an opportunity to investigate the variety of leading approaches, governance structures, and enhanced waste policy outcomes, emerging globally. This paper concludes that the current transitional state of waste management across the world, is only in the first leg of the journey towards Circular Economy closed loop production models of waste as a resource material. It is suggested that further development in government policy, planning and behaviour change is required. A focus on material policy and incorporating multiple front runners across industry and knowledge institutions are offered as potential directions in the movement away from end-pipe land-fill solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Computer-Aided Design Of Sheet-Material Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Paternoster, Vincent Y.; Levitt, Maureen L.; Osterloh, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-aided-design system partly automates tedious process of designing and guiding assembly of small pieces of flat sheet material into large surfaces that approximate smoothly curved surfaces having complicated three-dimensional shapes. Capability provides for flexibility enabling designer to assess quickly and easily effects of changes in design in making engineering compromises among various sizes and shapes. Saves time and money in both design and fabrication. Used in rocket-engine application and other applications requiring design of sheet-material parts.

  3. Dealing with emerging waste streams: used tyre assessment in Thailand using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Paul; Kashyap, Prakriti; Suparat, Tasawan; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2014-09-01

    Increasing urbanisation and automobile use have given rise to an increase in global tyre waste generation. A tyre becomes waste once it wears out and is no longer fit for its original purpose, and is thus in its end-of-life state. Unlike in developed countries, where waste tyre management has already become a significant issue, it is rarely a priority waste stream in developing countries. Hence, a large quantity of waste tyres ends up either in the open environment or in landfill. In Thailand, waste tyre management is in its infancy, with increased tyre production and wider use of vehicles, but low levels of recycling, leaving scope for more appropriate policies, plans and strategies to increase waste tyre recycling. This article describes the journey of waste tyres in Thailand in terms of recycling and recovery, and disposal. Material flow analysis was used as a tool to quantify the flows and accumulation of waste tyres in Thailand in 2012. The study revealed that, in Thailand in 2012, waste tyre management was still biased towards destructive technologies (48.9%), rather than material recovery involving rubber reclamation, retreading tyres and whole and shredded tyre applications (6.7%). Despite having both economic and environmental benefits, 44.4% of used tyres in 2012 were dumped in the open environment, and the remaining 0.05% in landfills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-03-01

    A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced.

  5. Decomposition of paper wastes in presence of ceramics and cement raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa, Juan A; Gálvez, Araceli; Fullana, Andrés

    2008-05-01

    Paper recycling is an environmental important activity that is carried out in all the countries, but during the recycling process a paper waste is produced. Generally these wastes are placed in landfill sites but it is possible to profit it as secondary fuel and raw material in manufacture furnaces. In this work the combustion of the waste papers with cement and ceramic raw material has been studied with the objective to analyse the interaction of these substances with the emitted pollutants like PAHs and PCDD/Fs. The results of the study show that the presence of inorganic material produces an increment in the lighter PAH emission but chlorinated compounds are not affected. The PCDD/F emission level found in the combustion of this waste is quite low compared with other wastes subjected to similar conditions.

  6. Products Made from Nonmetallic Materials Reclaimed from Waste Printed Circuit Boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOU Peng; XIANG Dong; DUAN Guanghong

    2007-01-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are in all electronic equipment, so with the sharp increase of electronic waste, the recovery of PCB components has become a critical research field. This paper presents a study of the reclaimation and reuse of nonmetallic materials recovered from waste PCBs. Mechanical processes, such as crushing, milling, and separation, were used to process waste PCBs. Nonmetallic materials in the PCBs were separated using density-based separation with separation rates in excess of 95%. The recovered nonmetals were used to make models, construction materials, composite boards, sewer grates,and amusement park boats. The PCB nonmetal products have better mechanical characteristics and durability than traditional materials and fillers. The flexural strength of the PCB nonmetallic material composite boards is 30% greater than that of standard products. Products derived from PCB waste processing have been brought into industrial production. The study shows that PCB nonmetals can be reused in profitable and environmentally friendly ways.

  7. Reuse of aluminosilicate waste materials to synthesize geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmiki Samadhi, Tjokorde; Wibowo, Nanda Tri; Athaya, Hana

    2017-08-01

    Geopolymer, a solid alkali-aluminosilicate bonding phase produced by reactions between aluminosilicate solids and concentrated alkali solution, is a potential substitute for ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Geopolymer offers environmental advantages since it can be prepared from various inorganic waste materials, and that its synthesis may be undertaken in mild conditions. This research studies the mechanical and physical characteristics of three-component geopolymer mortars prepared from coal fly ash (FA), rice husk ash (RHA), and metakaolin or calcined kaolin (MK). The ternary aluminosilicate blend formulations are varied according to an extreme vertices mixture experimental design with the RHA content limited to 15% mass. Temperature for initial heat curing of the mortars is combined into the experimental design as a 2-level process variable (30 °C and 60 °C). Compressive strengths of the mortars are measured after setting periods of 7 and 14 d. Higher heat curing temperature increases the strength of the mortar. Compositional shift towards RHA from either MK or FA reduces the strength. The highest strength is exhibited by FA-dominated composition (15.1 MPa), surpassing that of OPC mortar. The compressive strengths at 7 and 14 d are represented by a linear mixture model with a synergistic interaction between FA content and heat curing temperature. Geopolymer with the highest strength contains only FA heat-cured at 60 °C. Further studies are needed to be undertaken to confirm the relationship between biomass ash amorphosity and oxide composition to its geopolymerization reactivity, and to optimize the curing conditions.

  8. The Al-containing wastes technology of recycling for alumina, coagulants and building materials production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lainer; U.; A.; Tuzhilin; A.; S.; Perekhoda; S.; P.; Vetchinkina; T.; N.; Samoilov; E.; N.

    2005-01-01

    The Al-containing wastes are generated by a row of industrial plants as hydroalumocarbonate residuum, underwastes water, foundry slag, mud, catalysts, mineral part of coals and others. These wastes is cycling in technological processes that cause to extra energy costs, processes stages difficulties and negatively affecting to environment.……

  9. The Al-containing wastes technology of recycling for alumina, coagulants and building materials production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Al-containing wastes are generated by a row of industrial plants as hydroalumocarbonate residuum, underwastes water, foundry slag, mud, catalysts, mineral part of coals and others. These wastes is cycling in technological processes that cause to extra energy costs, processes stages difficulties and negatively affecting to environment.

  10. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management performance by material flow analysis: Theoretical approach and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccariello, Lucio; Cremiato, Raffaele; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2015-10-01

    The main role of a waste management plan is to define which is the combination of waste management strategies and method needed to collect and manage the waste in such a way to ensure a given set of targets is reached. Objectives have to be sustainable and realistic, consistent with the environmental policies and regulations and monitored to verify the progressive achievement of the given targets. To get the aim, the setting up and quantification of indicators can allow the measurement of efficiency of a waste management system. The quantification of efficiency indicators requires the developing of a material flow analysis over the system boundary, from waste collection to secondary materials selling, processing and disposal. The material flow analysis has been carried out with reference to a case study for which a reliable, time- and site-specific database was available. The material flow analysis allowed the evaluation of the amount of materials sent to recycling, to landfilling and to waste-to-energy, by highlighting that the sorting of residual waste can further increase the secondary materials amount. The utilisation of energy recovery to treat the low-grade waste allows the maximisation of waste diversion from landfill with a low production of hazardous ash. A preliminary economic balance has been carried out to define the gate fee of the waste management system that was in the range of 84-145 € t(-1) without including the separate collection cost. The cost of door-by-door separate collection, designed to ensure the collection of five separate streams, resulted in 250 € t(-1) ±30%.

  11. Nanostructured oxide materials and modules for high temperature power generation from waste heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    2013-01-01

    A large amount of thermal energy that emitted from many industrial processes is available as waste heat. Thermoelectric power generators that convert heat directly into electricity can offer a very promising way for waste heat recovery. However, the requirements for this task place in the materials...

  12. Sustainable Practices for Landfill Design and Operation (Part of book series Waste Management Principles and Practice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries throughout the world has changed significantly over the past fifty years, with a shift from uncontrolled dumping or burning to complex systems that integrate multiple processes to recover materials or energy and prov...

  13. Sustainable Practices for Landfill Design and Operation (Part of book series Waste Management Principles and Practice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries throughout the world has changed significantly over the past fifty years, with a shift from uncontrolled dumping or burning to complex systems that integrate multiple processes to recover materials or energy and prov...

  14. Catalytic thermal cracking of post-consumer waste plastics to fuels: Part 1 - Kinetics and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics such as prescription bottles (polypropylene/PP), high density polyethylene, landfill liners (polyethylene/PE), packing materials (polystyrene/PS), and foams (polyurethane/PU) into crude plastic...

  15. Utilization of Waste Materials for the Treatment of Waste Water Contaminated with Sulphamethoxazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Lisha

    2014-01-01

    The activities were carried out to develop potential adsorbents from waste material and employ them for the removal of hazardous antibacterial, Sulphamethoxazole from the wastewater by adsorption technique. The selection of this method was done because of its economic viability. The method has the potency of eradicating the perilous chemicals which make their appearance in water and directly or indirectly into the whole biological system, through the ejection of effluents by the industries in flowing water. The adsorption technique was used to impound the precarious antibiotics from wastewater using Deoiled Soya an agricultural waste and Water Hyacinth a prolific colonizer. The adsorption capacity of these adsorbents was further enhanced by treating them with sodium hydroxide solution and it was seen that the adsorption capacity increases by 10% to 25%. Hence a comparative account of the adsorption studies of all the four adsorbents i.e. Deoiled Soya, Alkali treated Deoiled Soya, Water Hyacinth and Alkali treated Water Hyacinth has been discussed in this paper. Different isotherms like Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin Radushkevich were also deduced from the adsorption data. Isotherm studies were in turn used in estimating the thermodynamic parameters. Deoiled Soya (DOS) showed sorption capacity of 0.0007 mol g(-1) while Alkali treated Deoiled Soya (ADOS) exhibited 0.0011 mol g(-1) of sorption capacity which reveals that the adsorption is higher in case of alkali treated adsorbent. The mean sorption energy (E) was obtained between 9 to 12 kJ/mol which shows that the reaction proceeds by ion exchange reaction. Various kinetic studies like order of reaction, mass transfer studies, mechanism of diffusion were also performed for the ongoing processes. The mass transfer coefficient obtained for alkali treated moieties was higher than the parent moieties. The breakthrough curves plotted from the column studies show percentage saturation of 90% to 98%. Moreover the

  16. Optimizing Urban Material Flows and Waste Streams in Urban Development through Principles of Zero Waste and Sustainable Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond energy efficiency, there are now urgent challenges around the supply of resources, materials, energy, food and water. After debating energy efficiency for the last decade, the focus has shifted to include further resources and material efficiency. In this context, urban farming has emerged as a valid urban design strategy, where food is produced and consumed locally within city boundaries, turning disused sites and underutilized public space into productive urban landscapes and community gardens. Furthermore, such agricultural activities allow for effective composting of organic waste, returning nutrients to the soil and improving biodiversity in the urban environment. Urban farming and resource recovery will help to feed the 9 billion by 2050 (predicted population growth, UN-Habitat forecast 2009. This paper reports on best practice of urban design principles in regard to materials flow, material recovery, adaptive re-use of entire building elements and components (‘design for disassembly’; prefabrication of modular building components, and other relevant strategies to implement zero waste by avoiding waste creation, reducing wasteful consumption and changing behaviour in the design and construction sectors. The paper touches on two important issues in regard to the rapid depletion of the world’s natural resources: the built environment and the education of architects and designers (both topics of further research. The construction and demolition (C&D sector: Prefabricated multi-story buildings for inner-city living can set new benchmarks for minimizing construction wastage and for modular on-site assembly. Today, the C&D sector is one of the main producers of waste; it does not engage enough with waste minimization, waste avoidance and recycling. Education and research: It’s still unclear how best to introduce a holistic understanding of these challenges and to better teach practical and affordable solutions to architects, urban

  17. Nuclear Waste Disposal and Strategies for Predicting Long-Term Performance of Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, G G

    2001-03-28

    Ceramics have been an important part of the nuclear community for many years. On December 2, 1942, an historic event occurred under the West Stands of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago. Man initiated his first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. The impact of this event on civilization is considered by many as monumental and compared by some to other significant events in history, such as the invention of the steam engine and the manufacturing of the first automobile. Making this event possible and the successful operation of this first man-made nuclear reactor, was the use of forty tons of UO2. The use of natural or enriched UO2 is still used today as a nuclear fuel in many nuclear power plants operating world-wide. Other ceramic materials, such as 238Pu, are used for other important purposes, such as ceramic fuels for space exploration to provide electrical power to operate instruments on board spacecrafts. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are used to supply electrical power and consist of a nuclear heat source and converter to transform heat energy from radioactive decay into electrical power, thus providing reliable and relatively uniform power over the very long lifetime of a mission. These sources have been used in the Galileo spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and for scientific investigations of Saturn with the Cassini spacecraft. Still another very important series of applications using the unique properties of ceramics in the nuclear field, are as immobilization matrices for management of some of the most hazardous wastes known to man. For example, in long-term management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, glass matrices are currently in production immobilizing high-level radioactive materials, and cementious forms have also been produced to incorporate low level wastes. Also, as part of nuclear disarmament activities, assemblages of crystalline phases are being developed for immobilizing weapons grade plutonium, to

  18. Far-Field Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.P. Nicot

    2000-09-29

    The objective of this calculation is to estimate the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in fractures in the rock beneath plutonium-ceramic (Pu-ceramic) and Mixed-Oxide (MOX) waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This calculation is to feed another calculation (Ref. 31) computing the probability of criticality in the systems described in Section 6 and then ultimately to a more general report on the impact of plutonium on the performance of the proposed repository (Ref. 32), both developed concurrently to this work. This calculation is done in accordance with the development plan TDP-DDC-MD-000001 (Ref. 9), item 5. The original document described in item 5 has been split into two documents: this calculation and Ref. 4. The scope of the calculation is limited to only very low flow rates because they lead to the most conservative cases for Pu accumulation and more generally are consistent with the way the effluent from the WP (called source term in this calculation) was calculated (Ref. 4). Ref. 4 (''In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material from WPs Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Forms'') details the evolution through time (breach time is initial time) of the chemical composition of the solution inside the WP as degradation of the fuel and other materials proceed. It is the chemical solution used as a source term in this calculation. Ref. 4 takes that same source term and reacts it with the invert; this calculation reacts it with the rock. In addition to reactions with the rock minerals (that release Si and Ca), the basic mechanisms for actinide precipitation are dilution and mixing with resident water as explained in Section 2.1.4. No other potential mechanism such as flow through a reducing zone is investigated in this calculation. No attempt was made to use the effluent water from the bottom of the invert instead of using directly the effluent water from the

  19. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis.

  20. Comparison or organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from Hanford waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP-CP task to develop and evaluate high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for the uptake of cesium, strontium, and technetium (Cs, Sr, and Tc) from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff, in collaboration with researchers from industry, academia, and national laboratories are investigating these and other novel and commercial ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation of groundwater, HLW, and LLW. Since FY 1995, experimental work at PNNL has focused on small-scale batch distribution (K{sub d}) testing of numerous solid sorbents with actual and simulated Hanford wastes, chemical and radiolytic stability of various organic ion exchanger resins, bench-scale column ion exchange testing in actual and simulated Complexant Concentrate (CC) and Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW), and Tc and Sr removal from groundwater and LLW. In addition, PNNL has continued to support various site demonstrations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, West Valley Nuclear Services, Hanford N-Springs, and Hanford N-Basin using technologies developed by their industrial partners. This summary will focus on batch distribution results from the actual waste tests. The data collected in these development and testing tasks provide a rational basis for the selection and direct comparison of various ion exchange materials in simulated and actual HLW, LLW, and groundwater. In addition, prediction of large-scale column loading performance for the materials tested is possible using smaller volumes of actual waste solution. The method maximizes information while minimizing experimental expense, time, and laboratory and process wastes.

  1. Structural Dimensions, Fabrication, Materials, and Operational History for Types I and II Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.J.

    2000-08-16

    Radioactive waste is confined in 48 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste will eventually be processed and transferred to other site facilities for stabilization. Based on waste removal and processing schedules, many of the tanks, including those with flaws and/or defects, will be required to be in service for another 15 to 20 years. Until the waste is removed from storage, transferred, and processed, the materials and structures of the tanks must maintain a confinement function by providing a leak-tight barrier to the environment and by maintaining acceptable structural stability during design basis event which include loading from both normal service and abnormal conditions.

  2. Potential for energy recovery and greenhouse gas mitigation from municipal solid waste using a waste-to-material approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu

    2016-12-01

    Energy recovery and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastes are getting noticed in recent years. This study evaluated the potential for energy recovery and GHG mitigation from municipal solid waste (MSW) with a waste-to-material (WTM) approach. Waste generated in Taiwan contains a large amount of paper, food waste, and plastics, which previously were mostly sent to waste-to-energy (WTE) plants for incineration. However, the mitigation of GHGs by the WTM approach has been especially successful in the recycling of metals (averaging 1.83×10(6)kgCO2-eq/year) and paper (averaging 7.38×10(5)kgCO2-eq/year). In addition, the recycling of paper (1.33×10(10)kWh) and plastics (1.26×10(10)kWh) has contributed greatly to energy saving. Both metal and glass are not suitable for incineration due to their low energy content. The volumes of paper and food waste contained in the MSW are positively related to the carbon concentration, which may contribute to increased GHGs during incineration. Therefore, the recycling of paper, metals, and food waste is beneficial for GHG mitigation. Measures to reduce GHGs were also suggested in this study. The development of the WTM approach may be helpful for the proper management of MSW with regards to GHG mitigation. The results of this study can be a successful example for other nations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  4. Leaching tests as a tool in waste management to evaluate the potential for utilization of waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloot, H.A. van der [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Kosson, D.S. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Several waste materials from large scale industrial processes possess technical properties that would allow their use in certain construction applications, e.g. coal fly ash, slags from large scale industrial melting and ore processing, and incinerator residues. The disposal of such materials requires space and controlled landfills to minimize long term environmental risks. The beneficial use of such bulk materials is an attractive alternative, if it can be shown that such applications are environmentally acceptable. For this management of wastes and the decision to either dispose or use, information on the environmental properties of materials is needed. Leaching tests have been developed to assess such properties. These have been designed typically in relation to regulatory tools, not as instruments to guide the management of wastes and the possibilities to improve material properties. New methods have been designed to address this aspect, in which maximum benefit can be derived from knowledge of the systematic behaviour of materials and the already existing knowledge in other countries producing similar residues. After initial detailed characterization, concise procedures can be used for control purposes focused on the typical aspects of a certain residue stream. Examples of existing knowledge in this field will be presented.

  5. 76 FR 53897 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source... management, recycling, measurement, data, data collection, construction and demolition (C&D)...

  6. Economic analysis of electronic waste recycling: modeling the cost and revenue of a materials recovery facility in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hai-Yong; Schoenung, Julie M

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the various techniques used for treating electronic waste (e-waste) at material recovery facilities (MRFs) in the state of California and to investigate the costs and revenue drivers for these techniques. The economics of a representative e-waste MRF are evaluated by using technical cost modeling (TCM). MRFs are a critical element in the infrastructure being developed within the e-waste recycling industry. At an MRF, collected e-waste can become marketable output products including resalable systems/components and recyclable materials such as plastics, metals, and glass. TCM has two main constituents, inputs and outputs. Inputs are process-related and economic variables, which are directly specified in each model. Inputs can be divided into two parts: inputs for cost estimation and for revenue estimation. Outputs are the results of modeling and consist of costs and revenues, distributed by unit operation, cost element, and revenue source. The results of the present analysis indicate that the largest cost driver for the operation of the defined California e-waste MRF is the materials cost (37% of total cost), which includes the cost to outsource the recycling of the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) (dollar 0.33/kg); the second largest cost driver is labor cost (28% of total cost without accounting for overhead). The other cost drivers are transportation, building, and equipment costs. The most costly unit operation is cathode ray tube glass recycling, and the next are sorting, collecting, and dismantling. The largest revenue source is the fee charged to the customer; metal recovery is the second largest revenue source.

  7. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintain the system under a lease-purchase arrangement which provides that: (1) The urban community will... part of an urban area. 1951.232 Section 1951.232 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix Xiii to Part 266 - Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units XIII Appendix XIII to Part 266 Protection of Environment... XIII to Part 266—Mercury Bearing Wastes That May Be Processed in Exempt Mercury Recovery Units These...

  9. Material Flow Analysis as a Tool to improve Waste Management Systems: The Case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesch, Astrid; Brunner, Paul H

    2017-01-03

    This paper demonstrates the power of material flow analysis (MFA) for designing waste management (WM) systems and for supporting decisions with regards to given environmental and resource goals. Based on a comprehensive case study of a nationwide WM-system, advantages and drawbacks of a mass balance approach are discussed. Using the software STAN, a material flow system comprising all relevant inputs, stocks and outputs of wastes, products, residues, and emissions is established and quantified. Material balances on the level of goods and selected substances (C, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, N, Ni, P, Pb, Zn) are developed to characterize this WM-system. The MFA results serve well as a base for further assessments. Based on given goals, stakeholders engaged in this study selected the following seven criteria for evaluating their WM-system: (i) waste input into the system, (ii) export of waste (iii) gaseous emissions from waste treatment plants, (iv) long-term gaseous and liquid emissions from landfills, (v) waste being recycled, (vi) waste for energy recovery, (vii) total waste landfilled. By scenario analysis, strengths and weaknesses of different measures were identified. The results reveal the benefits of a mass balance approach due to redundancy, data consistency, and transparency for optimization, design, and decision making in WM.

  10. Empirical Evaluation of Construction Material Waste Generated on Sites in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi, T.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the level of construction material waste generated on building sites in South-South, Nigeria. The objective is to empirically establish the level of waste generated on building sites and compare such with the allowable value in estimates. Data were collected from 30 on-going public building projects for six months. The level of material waste was calculated in percentages while one way ANOVA was employed to compare the waste values among the States in the zone. The significant difference between actual and allowable values of waste was tested using paired t-test. The level of material waste was found to be 11.69, 12.10, 10.45, 14.54, and 12.07 for concrete blocks, steel reinforcement, timber, and tiles respectively. It was concluded that these values are significantly different, with p-values < 0.05, from the allowable waste. The study recommends that the values of waste derived by this study be adopted in estimates

  11. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 1: Radiological surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, H.T. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 90}Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium.

  12. Techno-economic feasibility of waste biorefinery: Using slaughtering waste streams as starting material for biopolyester production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Khurram; Narodoslawsky, Michael; Sagir, Muhammad; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Shahid; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Koller, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of industrial waste streams as input materials for bio-mediated production processes constitutes a current R&D objective not only to reduce process costs at the input side but in parallel, to minimize hazardous environmental emissions. In this context, the EU-funded project ANIMPOL elaborated a process for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers starting from diverse waste streams of the animal processing industry. This article provides a detailed economic analysis of PHA production from this waste biorefinery concept, encompassing the utilization of low-quality biodiesel, offal material and meat and bone meal (MBM). Techno-economic analysis reveals that PHA production cost varies from 1.41 €/kg to 1.64 €/kg when considering offal on the one hand as waste, or, on the other hand, accounting its market price, while calculating with fixed costs for the co-products biodiesel (0.97 €/L) and MBM (350 €/t), respectively. The effect of fluctuating market prices for offal materials, biodiesel, and MBM on the final PHA production cost as well as the investment payback time have been evaluated. Depending on the current market situation, the calculated investment payback time varies from 3.25 to 4.5years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  14. The Future Resources for Eco-building Materials: II.Fly Ash and Coal Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Delong

    2009-01-01

    To use fly ash and coal waste effectively,the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed,such as utilizing fly ash as the component of fly ash cement and low heat cement after the processes of separation,removal of carbon remains and fine comminution,calcining coal waste into kaolin and meta-kaolin with suspension technology,and preparing clinkerless alkali-activated geopolymer materials with fly ash and meta-kaolin.

  15. Application of material flow analysis to municipal solid waste in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko

    2017-03-01

    Understanding waste flows within an urban area is important for identifying the main problems and improvement opportunities for efficient waste management. Assessment tools such as material flow analysis (MFA), an extensively applied method in waste management studies, provide a structured and objective evaluating process to characterize the waste management system best, to identify its shortcomings and to propose suitable strategies. This paper presents the application of MFA to municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The results included the identification and quantification of the main input and output flows of the MSWM system in 2007 and 2014, from the generation, material recovery and collection, to final disposal and the unaccounted flow of municipal solid waste (MSW). We estimated that the waste generation increased from 397×10(3) tonnes in 2007 to 437×10(3) tonnes in 2014, whereas the total material recovery was insignificant in both years - 3×10(3) and 7×10(3) tonnes, respectively. As for collection and final disposal, the official collection of waste to the local dumpsite in the inner city increased about threefold, from 76×10(3) to 253×10(6) tonnes. For waste unaccounted for, the estimates indicated a reduction during the study period from 300×10(3) to 158×10(3) tonnes, due to the increase of collection services. The emphasized aspects include the need for practical waste reduction strategies, the opportunity to explore the potential for material recovery, careful consideration regarding the growing trend of illegal dumping and the urgency in phasing-out from the harmful practice of open dumping.

  16. Renal salt wasting as part of dysautonomia in Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, T; Grimm, C; Ringleb, P A

    2011-09-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) are the most important causes of non-iatrogenic hyponatraemia that can significantly complicate various brain diseases. Salt wasting without an underlying CNS disease may have been disregarded so far by clinicians and has been described as renal salt-wasting (RSW) in patients as drug side effect (eg, cisplatin), in older people with various common diseases (eg, hip fracture, pulmonary infections) and other sporadic conditions. In Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), however, hyponatraemia has been described mainly as SIAD. However, symptoms of hyponatraemia rarely develop in GBS. Here, we report on a woman with GBS with dominant symptoms of dysautonomia and moderate severe hyponatraemia. We could identify RSW as part of the autonomic dysfunction that significantly contributed to disease worsening.

  17. The cost of waste of consumable materials in a surgical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina de Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to identify the types, quantities and cost of the consumable materials sent, used, returned unopened and wasted in surgical operations; to classify the incidences of waste as avoidable or unavoidable losses, and to calculate the rate of waste of the consumable materials in the peri-operative period in the Surgical Center of a São Paulo university hospital. METHOD: a descriptive-exploratory case study with a quantitative approach. The convenience sample corresponded to 105 types of consumable materials sent for the 275 operations observed between February and May 2011. RESULTS: the items wasted most were surgical sutures, surgical cotton sutures, and gauze compresses. The total cost of the waste was R$ 709.84. The mean percentage of waste in the sample was 9.34%, of which 1.23% was avoidable and 8.14% unavoidable. CONCLUSION: the study evidenced that the effective management of material resources reduces the costs of the processes, and reduces waste.

  18. Review: Agricultural Wastes as a Source of Silica Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Permatasari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Silica is the most abundant components in the earth's crust and is made by way of synthesis for use in the application of technology. Silica are generally found commercially as alkoxysilane compounds (i.e such as tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, sodium silicate, and tetramethylorthosilicat. However, these compounds can have a negative impact on health. Thus, further approaches to find the source of silica that is safer, cheaper, and more environmentally friendly is inevitable. However, not all summary journals are thoroughly discussed the silica sources. Further, method of isolation and application of the silica from agricultural waste is limited. This paper reported studied several sources of silica derived from agricultural waste, such as rice husk, rice straw, corn cobs, and bagasse. In addition, this paper discussed also about the method of isolation of silica from agricultural waste, and its application as a catalyst.

  19. Removal of Pb, Cd, and Cr in a water purification system using modified mineral waste materials and activated carbon derived from waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H. R.; Su, L. C.; Ruan, H. D.

    2016-08-01

    This study attempts to find out and optimize the removal efficiency of heavy metals in a water purification unit using a low-cost waste material and modified mineral waste materials (MMWM) accompanied with activated carbon (AC) derived from waste materials. The factors of the inner diameter of the purification unit (2.6-5cm), the height of the packing materials (5-20cm), the size of AC (200-20mesh), the size of MMWM (1-0.045mm), and the ratio between AC and MMWM in the packing materials (1:0 - 0:1) were examined based on a L18 (5) 3 orthogonal array design. In order to achieve an optimally maximum removal efficiency, the factors of the inner diameter of the purification unit (2.6-7.5cm), the height of the packing materials (10-30cm), and the ratio between AC and MMWM in the packing materials (1:4-4:1) were examined based on a L16 (4) 3 orthogonal array design. A height of 25cm, inner diameter of 5cm, ratio between AC and MMWM of 3:2 with size of 60-40mesh and 0.075-0.045mm, respectively, were the best conditions determined by the ICP-OES analysis to perform the adsorption of heavy metals in this study.

  20. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  1. 10 CFR 71.117 - Identification and control of materials, parts, and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the identification and control of materials, parts, and components. These measures must assure that... or defective materials, parts, and components. ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification and control of materials, parts, and...

  2. New Filler Material for Reference Free Part Encapsulation Fixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bei-zhi; YANG Jian-guo; ZHOU Hu

    2002-01-01

    Reference free part encapsulation (RFPE) is a nontraditional universal fixturing technique. In this paper,new filler material-a lower melting point alloy for RFPE technique is introduced. Based on experiment, the shrinlkage and expansion rate, the effect of filler on workpiece drift and the effect of filler thickness on cutting distortion are studied. The alloy has a good mechanical and physical performance and the need of RFPE fixturing can be perfectly satisfied. The result shows that if the formula and process parameters of filler material are properly selected, it can obviously improve the quality of the workpiece, enhance the machining efficiency and reduce the manufacturing cost.

  3. Photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge as supplementary cementitious material (SCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quercia, G., E-mail: g.quercia@tue.nl [Materials innovation institute (M2i), Mekelweg 2, P.O. Box 5008, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of the Built Environment, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Putten, J.J.G. van der [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of the Built Environment, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hüsken, G. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Brouwers, H.J.H. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of the Built Environment, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Waste sludge, a solid recovered from wastewater of photovoltaic-industries, composes of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO{sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3}. This sludge deflocculates in aqueous solutions into nano-particles smaller than 1 μm. Thus, this sludge constitutes a potentially hazardous waste when it is improperly disposed. Due to its high content of amorphous SiO{sub 2}, this sludge has a potential use as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in concrete. In this study the main properties of three different samples of photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge (nSS) were physically and chemically characterized. The characterization techniques included: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physical adsorption isotherm (BET method), density by Helium pycnometry, particle size distribution determined by laser light scattering (LLS) and zeta-potential measurements by dynamic light scattering (DLS). In addition, a dispersability study was performed to design stable slurries to be used as liquid additives for the concrete production on site. The effects on the hydration kinetics of cement pastes by the incorporation of nSS in the designed slurries were determined using an isothermal calorimeter. A compressive strength test of standard mortars with 7% of cement replacement was performed to determine the pozzolanic activity of the waste nano-silica sludge. Finally, the hardened system was fully characterized to determine the phase composition. The results demonstrate that the nSS can be utilized as SCM to replace portion of cement in mortars, thereby decreasing the CO{sub 2} footprint and the environmental impact of concrete. -- Highlights: •Three different samples of PV nano-silica sludge (nSS) were fully characterized. •nSS is composed of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO{sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3}. •Dispersability studies demonstrated that nSS agglomerates are broken to nano

  4. Materials And Carbon Flow In A Waste Refinery Process Using Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Woods, M.; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of resources from mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a crucial aspect of waste management practices. In this paper the materials and carbon flows of an innovative waste refinery process using enzymes are presented. Through enzymatic treatment the process produces two main streams from...... the initial mixed MSW: a bioslurry (liquefied paper and organics) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials). The discussion is based on the performance of the process in separating recyclables and recovery Cbiogenic as well as nutrients from the input MSW. The results of MFA and SFA illustrate...... that the waste refinery has great potential for resource recovery: about 100% of the Cbiogenic and up to 90% of N and P can potentially be recovered in the bioslurry and returned to land after anaerobic digestion. Recovery of ferrous and non-ferrous material is estimated double compared to recovering the same...

  5. Quality Improvement of Granular Wastes-The Effective Way to Recycle Secondary Raw Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Wei-hong; Charles Hendriks; Alex Fraaij; Peter Rem

    2004-01-01

    Granular wastes have negative effects on the environment due to contamination. On the other hand, stony components in granular wastes have a potential good perspectives for utilization in civil engineering works as secondary raw building materials. To reuse such materials without environmental risks, all contaminants must be removed or reduced to an acceptable level. Therefore liberation of materials is an important step in waste treatment. For this purpose, separation and cleansing techniques are suitable. Based on the analysis of contaminants in wastes, it is discussed how to select suitable techniques. The rules for technique selection and processes for quality improvement are set up. To evaluate the environmental quality and technical quality of output products, it is necessary to check leaching behaviours and physical properties.

  6. Radioactive waste and recoverable material in France. Summary of the National Inventory 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Thorough knowledge is needed if the various types of radioactive waste are to be managed openly, consistently and in a safe manner. All French radioactive material users have subscribed to this process for many years. Under the terms of the French Act of Parliament of 30 December 1991, the Government commissioned the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (or ANDRA) to carry out a survey of all the radioactive waste present on French Territory. Through its efforts to collect and confirm information from many sources over the years, that is mainly from statements made by waste producers and handlers, ANDRA has built up a database on existing waste and its geographical location. This constantly updated resource has been regularly circulated. At the beginning of the century the Government decided to extend the areas covered by this database, in response to the recommendations made by the National Review Board (CNE) and the Parliamentary Office for Evaluating Scientific and Technology Options (OPECST). This is how the first edition of the National Inventory, published in 2004, came about. The National Inventory of Radioactive Waste and Recoverable Material, presents a full panorama of radioactive waste that it groups into waste families that present homogenous characteristics. It describes the state of the waste that may be conditioned (that is, in its final form) or may not be conditioned (that is, has not been put through sufficient treatments to arrive at its final form) at the end of 2004. Furthermore it presents not only a statistical and geographical summary, but a predictive summary, as it provides waste quantity forecasts for 2010, 2020 and beyond. The Inventory also includes recoverable materials that contain radioactivity. They are always accounted for separately because of their special nature. The data is presented in a synthesis report. This summary is the general public version of the report. The synthesis report offers more in

  7. Integral municipal wastes management. Cost evaluation; Gestion integral de residuos urbanos. Evaluacion de rendimientos y costes de la recogida selectiva (Parte II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldasano, J. M.; Ginestar, X.; Perez, C.; Gasso, S.

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish National Plan for Municipal Solid Waste (PNRU 2002-2006) includes an integrated waste management model that arranges the waste management options in order of priority: minimization, reuse, recycling (including composting and biomethanisation), energy recovery and final disposal. This paper makes an evaluation of the cost increases of the MSW separate collection for recycling compared to the traditional collection system. The first part of this paper include a description of the different possibilities to carry out the separate collection in terms of materials (containers and collectors), human resources and performances, as well as a comparison between its unitary costs. This second part contains a total cost evaluation and specially focuses on the organic matter and refuse separate collection comparing the lateral load system and the back load system in three temporal scenarios from 2001 to 2006. (Author)

  8. Practice of the utilization of biomass from waste materials; Praxis der Verwertung von Biomasse aus Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, Klaus; Kern, Michael; Raussen, Thomas (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    (Martin Wellacher); (17) The Bio-QZ - an innovative process step for the increase of efficiency of biogas facilities (Karsten Mennerich); (18) Processing of biological wastes for the production of biogas (Thomas Authmann); (19) An example of a optimization measure in the area of processing biological wastes in the fermentation plant Leonberg (Rudi Sendersky); (20) The concept of materials management for municipal biological wastes and green waste in the administrative district Emsland (Heinz Boekers); (21) Cultivation of green waste places between material and energetic utilization (Leonhard Unterberg); (22) Construction and startup of a municipal thermal power station for fuels from green wastes (Guenter Hacklaender); (23) Biogas in Energy Verbund - Chances for municipal power suppliers (Thorsten Ebert); (24) New developments and perspectives in the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of biomass (Fritz Richarts).

  9. Data uncertainties in material flow analysis: Municipal solid waste management system in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Material flow analysis can effectively trace and quantify the flows and stocks of materials such as solid wastes in urban environments. However, the integrity of material flow analysis results is compromised by data uncertainties, an occurrence that is particularly acute in low-and-middle-income study contexts. This article investigates the uncertainties in the input data and their effects in a material flow analysis study of municipal solid waste management in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The analysis is based on data collected in 2007 and 2014. Initially, the uncertainties and their ranges were identified by the data classification model of Hedbrant and Sörme, followed by the application of sensitivity analysis. The average lower and upper bounds were 29% and 71%, respectively, in 2007, increasing to 41% and 96%, respectively, in 2014. This indicates higher data quality in 2007 than in 2014. Results also show that not only data are partially missing from the established flows such as waste generation to final disposal, but also that they are limited and inconsistent in emerging flows and processes such as waste generation to material recovery (hence the wider variation in the 2014 parameters). The sensitivity analysis further clarified the most influencing parameter and the degree of influence of each parameter on the waste flows and the interrelations among the parameters. The findings highlight the need for an integrated municipal solid waste management approach to avoid transferring or worsening the negative impacts among the parameters and flows.

  10. Material Waste Minimisation Strategies among Construction Firms in South-South, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Olubanwo Adewuyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined material waste minimisation strategies practiced by construction firms in the study area, the amount of waste generated and the relationship between them. The data collected were analysed using mean score, Spearman Rank Correlation, Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests. It is revealed that the most commonly employed strategies are “ensuring that storage facilities are properly secured before staff leave on a daily basis”; “checking of deliveries for any shortages and/or damages”; and “using materials before expiry date” with mean scores of 4.46, 4.22, 4.20 respectively. A significant variation in the level of material waste generated by different category of firms was confirmed. There is also a significant relationship between the level of minimisation strategies adopted and the waste generated. Based on the R2 values, 18.8% to 49.4% of the material waste generated for all the material types studied could be explained by the material minimisation strategies adopted on site except for stone base with 9.4%. %. The study recommends that the players in the industry should step up efforts towards introducing incentives to motivate labour to minimise material wastage on site and the use of modular design system.

  11. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  12. Phosphogypsum Utilization Part III: as Adhesive Filler and Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to make use of phosphogypsum (PG) waste material, which is produced in phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizer manufactures. A number of wood adhesive formulations based on polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) polymer and phosphogypsum as a filler have been prepared, using different percentages of phusphogypsum, ranging between 5~20 wt pct. The prepared formulations wore tested for adhesion strength and compared with both natural and pure gypsum fillers. The results indicate that PG improves the adhesion strenth when 5 wt pct added, and that may be due to filling the porous surface of wood with the fine particles of PG, as well as coating the particles of the filler (PG) with PVAc units. Also, a number of formulations based on urea-formaldehyde polymer have been prepared using phosphogypsum as an active filler in the ratio of 40~75 wt pct to prepare composite materials used for some decoration purposes and construction. Mechanical, physical, and thermal properties of these formulations were studied. Also, the activation energy was calculated. The results indicate that PG without acid hardener can be used for preparation of composite materials based on urea-formaldehyde between 40~63.64 wt pct for construction purposes in the humid atmosphere, while between 63.64~75 wt pct for decoration purposes. The improvement of the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the composite material may be attributed to the simultaneous hydration hardening action of phosphogypsum and the presence of 0.8% P2O5. These effects act as an active hardener for urea-formaldehyde resin and accelerate the cross-linking and network formation reinforced by the fine dusty inorganic particles of PG. The advantage of this method is to prepare composite material gypsum-urea-formaldehyde, which achieves the utilization of large amount of PG, reducing the price of the main product phosphate, minimizing the pollution and producing new materials which possess high thermal

  13. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste......Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  14. Aspects regarding the use of the industrial wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Popa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article are present the results of physical and chemical characterisation activities, of industrial wastes: ash and slag, drilling sludge, metallurgical slag. Also, were established the conditions in which these industrial waste types could be used as raw materials for manufacture some building materials. The ash can be assimilated with a lightweight aggregate similar to the natural sands, the oil-well drilling sludge presents an advanced similarity with the suspensions of fine particles of sand clays, the steel melting slag in electric furnace has the characteristics of a dense granular aggregate and the secondary treatment steel slag is characterized by the high content of calcium oxide.

  15. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-07

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate.

  16. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE RECOVERY OF CRITICAL MATERIALS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, T. E.; Diaz, L. A.; Clark, G. G.; Keller, P.

    2016-09-01

    As electronic technology continues to evolve there is a growing need to develop processes which recover valuable material from antiquated technology. This need follows from the environmental challenges associated with the availability of raw materials and fast growing generation of electronic waste. Although just present in small quantities in electronic devices, the availability of raw materials, such as rare earths and precious metals, becomes critical for the production of high tech electronic devices and the development of green technologies (i.e. wind turbines, electric motors, and solar panels). Therefore, the proper recycling and processing of increasing volumes of electronic waste present an opportunity to stabilize the market of critical materials, reducing the demand of mined products, and providing a proper disposal and treatment of a hazardous waste stream. This paper will describe development and techno-economic assessment of a comprehensive process for the recovery of value and critical materials from electronic waste. This hydrometallurgical scheme aims to selectively recover different value segments in the materials streams (base metals, precious metals, and rare earths). The economic feasibility for the recovery of rare earths from electronic waste is mostly driven by the efficient recovery of precious metals, such as Au and Pd (ca. 80 % of the total recoverable value). Rare earth elements contained in magnets (speakers, vibrators and hard disk storage) can be recovered as a mixture of rare earths oxides which can later be reduced to the production of new magnets.

  17. Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

  18. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw MaterialsPart II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović, S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A short review of biopolymers based on starch (starch derivatives, thermoplastic starch, lignin and hemicelluloses, chitin (chitosan and products obtained by degradation of starch and other polysaccharides and sugars (poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxyalkanoates, as well as some of their basic properties and application area, are given in this part. The problem of environmental and economic feasibility of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials and their competitiveness with polymers based on fossil raw materials is discussed. Also pointed out are the problems that appear due to the increasing use of agricultural land for the production of raw materials for the chemical industry and energy, instead for the production of food for humans and animals. The optimistic assessments of experts considering the development perspectives of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials in the next ten years have also been pointed out.At the end of the paper, the success of a team of researchers gathered around the experts from the company Bayer is indicated. They were the first in the world to develop a catalyst by which they managed to effectively activate CO - and incorporate it into polyols, used for the synthesis of polyurethanes in semi-industrial scale. By applying this process, for the first time a pollutant will be used as a basic raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds, which will have significant consequences on the development of the chemical industry, and therefore the production of polymers.

  19. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  20. Potential Biogenic Corrosion of Alloy 22, A Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials, Under Simulated Repository Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Martin, S.I.; Rivera, A.J.; Bedrossian, P.J.; Lian, T.

    2000-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy has been charged with assessing the suitability of a geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. Microorganisms, both those endogenous to the repository site and those introduced as a result of construction and operational activities, may contribute to the corrosion of metal nuclear waste packaging and thereby decrease their useful lifetime as barrier materials. Evaluation of potential Microbiological Influenced Corrosion (MIC) on candidate waste package materials was undertaken reactor systems incorporating the primary elements of the repository: YM rock (either non-sterile or presterilized), material coupons, and a continual feed of simulated YM groundwater. Periodically, both aqueous reactor efflux and material coupons were analyzed for chemical and surfacial characterization. Alloy 22 coupons exposed for a year at room temperature in reactors containing non-sterile YM rock demonstrated accretion of chromium oxide and silaceous scales, with what appear to be underlying areas of corrosion.

  1. Waste-based materials; capability, application and impact on indoor environment – literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Rode, Carsten; Kolarik, Jakub;

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses various sustainable materials utilizing waste products with the focus on their properties having an impact on the indoor environmental conditions and indoor air quality (IAQ). Materials included in the review are selected considering the following aspects: sustain......: sustainability, cradle to cradle perspective, application, their impact on indoor environment and human well-being. The attempt of the paper is to cover a wide spectrum of information so to provide better understanding of waste utilization in construction industry.......This paper reviews and discusses various sustainable materials utilizing waste products with the focus on their properties having an impact on the indoor environmental conditions and indoor air quality (IAQ). Materials included in the review are selected considering the following aspects...

  2. Study on pyrolysis of typical medical waste materials by using TG-FTIR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H M; Yan, J H; Jiang, X G; Lai, Y E; Cen, K F

    2008-05-01

    Pyrolysis of certain medical waste materials was studied using thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). Pyrolysis characteristics of three common materials were discussed. The pyrolysis of absorbent cotton turned out to be the most concentrative, followed by medical respirator and bamboo stick. From TG and DTG curves, pyrolysis of these three materials occurred in single, two and three stages respectively. Evolved volatile products from all these three materials included 2-butanone, benzaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid, hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water; whereas no sulphur dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide was detected. There are several differences in yield among them. However, the study in this paper is essential for medical waste pyrolysis model, the TG-FTIR approach is potential to provide valuable inputs for predictive modeling of medical waste pyrolysis. More studied are needed to get the kinetic parameters and pyrolysis models that can predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products for CFD applications.

  3. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation and Topological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-06-01

    A comprehensive numerical model has been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details of the model and results from the analysis of General Motors' prototype TEG were described in part I of the study. In part II of this study, parametric evaluations are considered to assess the influence of heat exchanger, geometry, and thermoelectric module configurations to achieve optimization of the baseline model. The computational tool is also adapted to model other topologies such as transverse and circular configurations (hexagonal and cylindrical) maintaining the same volume as the baseline TEG. Performance analysis of these different topologies and parameters is presented and compared with the baseline design.

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated waste paper--source of raw material for production of liquid biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, Vladimir; Jurena, Tomas; Hlavacek, Viliam; Omelkova, Jirina; Bebar, Ladislav; Gabriel, Petr; Stehlik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of waste paper is becoming a perspective way to obtain raw material for production of liquid biofuels. Reducing sugars solutions that arise from the process of saccharification are a precursors for following or simultaneous fermentation to ethanol. Different types of waste paper were evaluated, in terms of composition and usability, in order to select the appropriate type of the waste paper for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Novozymes® enzymes NS50013 and NS50010 were used in a laboratory scale trials. Technological conditions, which seem to be the most suitable for hydrolysis after testing on cellulose pulp and filter paper, were applied to hydrolysis of widely available waste papers - offset paper, cardboard, recycled paper in two qualities, matte MYsol offset paper and for comparison again on model materials. The highest yields were achieved for the cardboard, which was further tested using various pretreatment combinations in purpose of increasing the hydrolysis yields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Desulphurization of hot metal and nickel pig iron using waste materials from the aluminum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.D.; McLean, A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Hasegawa, M.; Iwase, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Energy Science and Technology, Ferrous Metallurgy Research Group; Ren, M.L.; Zhang, D.F. [China Aluminum Co. Ltd., Shandong (China)

    2009-07-01

    The aluminium and steel industries are both energy-intensive and have significant impacts on the environment. The desulphurization of hot metal and nickel pig iron using waste materials from the aluminium industry was evaluated in this study. A simple processing technique using dross and white mud was developed to desulphurize hot metals. Waste materials with a high oxide content were combined with an aluminium instant reduction method and then used for hot metal desulphurization. The presence of nickel in the hot metals showed a negative effect on the desulphurization process as the nickel reduced carbon solubility in an iron-based metal solution. It was concluded that the use of waste slags and solids residuals from the aluminium industry within the steel industry will reduce the disposal of waste and provide significant economic benefits to both industries. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  6. Materials selection for process equipment in the Hanford waste vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, M R; Jensen, G A

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify defense liquid high-level wastes and transuranic wastes stored at Hanford. The HWVP Functional Design Criteria (FDC) requires that materials used for fabrication of remote process equipment and piping in the facility be compatible with the expected waste stream compositions and process conditions. To satisfy FDC requirements, corrosion-resistant materials have been evaluated under simulated HWVP-specific conditions and recommendations have been made for HWVP applications. The materials recommendations provide to the project architect/engineer the best available corrosion rate information for the materials under the expected HWVP process conditions. Existing data and sound engineering judgement must be used and a solid technical basis must be developed to define an approach to selecting suitable construction materials for the HWVP. This report contains the strategy, approach, criteria, and technical basis developed for selecting materials of construction. Based on materials testing specific to HWVP and on related outside testing, this report recommends for constructing specific process equipment and identifies future testing needs to complete verification of the performance of the selected materials. 30 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...

  8. A novel shielding material prepared from solid waste containing lead for gamma ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Mehmet; Baykara, Oktay; Doğru, Mahmut; Kuluöztürk, Fatih

    2010-09-01

    Human beings are continuously exposed to cosmogenic radiation and its products in the atmosphere from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) within Earth, their bodies, houses and foods. Especially, for the radiation protection environments where high ionizing radiation levels appear should be shielded. Generally, different materials are used for the radiation shielding in different areas and for different situations. In this study, a novel shielding material produced by a metallurgical solid waste containing lead was analyzed as shielding material for gamma radiation. The photon total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ/ ρ) were measured and calculated using WinXCom computer code for the novel shielding material, concrete and lead. Theoretical and experimental values of total mass attenuation coefficient of the each studied sample were compared. Consequently, a new shielding material prepared from the solid waste containing lead could be preferred for buildings as shielding materials against gamma radiation.

  9. The Development Materials from Substances Waste for Some Topics in Science and Technology Textbook for Primary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to develop instructional materials from substances waste in which students teachers have problems to learn, taught in Instructional Technology and Materials Course at the third year of primary science teacher education program. The study was carried out with 54 primary science student teachers attending primary science teacher education program in Ahi Evran University Faculty of Education, in the fall term of the 2009-2010 academic year. Material design or development of prospective teachers' views were taken before and after. The findings from the material prepared were supported by the data obtained from the interviews conducted with 16 head student teachers. It was concluded that, based on the findings obtained from the material design the environmental pollution by waste products are designed for visual teaching materials. Can be taken into account the materials designed or developed by nominated teacher, during revised to be name of last books.

  10. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials for Waste Heat Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Thermoelectric Oxide Materials. Science of Advanced Materials 2011, 321 (1457), 682–686. 2. International World Energy, Wold Energy Outlook 2006 Edition...power is clearly limited to the inefficiencies of the TE material and is currently a major road block to wide TEG acceptance. A TE material can be...International World Energy, 2001. 3. Board, D. S. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on DoD Energy Strategy, More Fight-Less Fuel, Office

  11. Recycling waste brick from construction and demolition of buildings as pozzolanic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Wu, Hsiu-Hsien; Shie, Je-Lueng; Hwang, Chao-Lung; An Cheng

    2010-07-01

    This investigation elucidates the pozzolic characteristics of pastes that contain waste brick from building construction and demolition wastes. The TCLP leaching concentrations of waste brick for the target cations or heavy metals were all lower than the current regulatory thresholds of the Taiwan EPA. Waste brick had a pozzolanic strength activity index of 107% after 28 days. It can be regarded as a strong pozzolanic material. The compressive strengths of waste brick blended cement (WBBC) that contain 10% waste brick increased from 71.2 MPa at 28 days to 75.1 MPa at 60 days, an increase of approximately 5% over that period. At 28 days, the pozzolanic reaction began, reducing the amount of Ca(OH)(2) and increasing the densification. The intensity of the peak at 3640 cm(- 1) associated with Ca(OH)(2) is approximately the same for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The hydration products of all the samples yield characteristics peaks at 978 cm(-1) associated with C-S-H, and at ~3011 cm(-1) and 1640 cm(-1) associated with water. The samples yield peaks at 1112 cm(-1), revealing the formation of ettringite. In WBBC pastes, the ratio Q(2)/Q(1) increases with curing time. These results demonstrate that increasing the curing time increases the number of linear polysilicate anions in C-S-H. Experimental results reveal that waste brick has potential as a pozzolanic material in the partial replacement of cement.

  12. Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M. Omar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Green concrete are generally composed of recycling materials as hundred or partial percent substitutes for aggregate, cement, and admixture in concrete. Limestone waste is obtained as a by-product during the production of aggregates through the crushing process of rocks in rubble crusher units. Using quarry waste as a substitute of sand in construction materials would resolve the environmental problems caused by the large-scale depletion of the natural sources of river and mining sands. This paper reports the experimental study undertaken to investigate the influence of partial replacement of sand with limestone waste (LSW, with marble powder (M.P as an additive on the concrete properties. The replacement proportion of sand with limestone waste, 25%, 50%, and 75% were practiced in the concrete mixes except in the concrete mix. Besides, proportions of 5%, 10% and 15% marble powder were practiced in the concrete mixes. The effects of limestone waste as fine aggregate on several fresh and hardened properties of the concretes were investigated. The investigation included testing of compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and permeability. It was found that limestone waste as fine aggregate enhanced the slump test of the fresh concretes. But the unit weight concretes were not affected. However, the good performance was observed when limestone waste as fine aggregate was used in presence of marble powder.

  13. Application of macro material flow modeling to the decision making process for integrated waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, S.A. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Holter, G.M. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Computer models have been used for almost a decade to model and analyze various aspects of solid waste management Commercially available models exist for estimating the capital and operating costs of landfills, waste-to-energy facilities and compost systems and for optimizing system performance along a single dimension (e.g. cost or transportation distance). An alternative to the use of currently available models is the more flexible macro material flow modeling approach in which a macro scale or regional level approach is taken. Waste materials are tracked through the complete integrated waste management cycle from generation through recycling and reuse, and finally to ultimate disposal. Such an approach has been applied by the authors to two different applications. The STELLA simulation language (for Macintosh computers) was used to model the solid waste management system of Puerto Rico. The model incorporated population projections for all 78 municipalities in Puerto Rico from 1990 to 2010, solid waste generation factors, remaining life for the existing landfills, and projected startup time for new facilities. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has used the SimScript simulation language (for Windows computers) to model the management of solid and hazardous wastes produced during cleanup and remediation activities at the Hanford Nuclear Site.

  14. Waste glass from end-of-life fluorescent lamps as raw material in geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Rui M; Ascensão, G; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays the stunning volume of generated wastes, the exhaustion of raw materials, and the disturbing greenhouse gases emission levels show that a paradigm shift is mandatory. In this context, the possibility of using wastes instead of virgin raw materials can mitigate the environmental problems related to wastes, while reducing the consumption of the Earth's natural resources. This innovative work reports the incorporation of unexplored waste glass coming from end-of-life fluorescent lamps into geopolymers. The influence of the waste glass incorporation level, NaOH molarity and curing conditions on the microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymers was evaluated. Results demonstrate that curing conditions are the most influential factor on the geopolymer characteristics, while the NaOH molarity is less important. Geopolymers containing 37.5% (wt) waste glass were successfully produced, showing compressive strength of 14MPa (after 28days of curing), suggesting the possibility of their use in non-structural applications. Porous waste-based geopolymers for novel applications were also fabricated.

  15. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laili, Zalina, E-mail: liena@nm.gov.my [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600, Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600, Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Wahab, Mohd Abdul [Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  16. Mobilization of radionuclides from uranium mill tailings and related waste materials in anaerobic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Specific extraction studies in our laboratory have shown that iron and manganese oxide- and alkaline earth sulfate minerals are important hosts of radium in uranium mill tailings. Iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria may enhance the release of radium (and its analog barium) from uranium mill tailings, oil field pipe scale [a major technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) waste], and jarosite (a common mineral in sulfuric acid processed-tailings). These research findings are reviewed and discussed in the context of nuclear waste forms (such as barium sulfate matrices), radioactive waste management practices, and geochemical environments in the Earth's surficial and shallow subsurface regions.

  17. Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This document describes the Department of Energy`s Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program`s objectives, its scope, application, and structure.

  18. Particle passage kinetics and neutral detergent fiber degradability of silage of pineapple waste (aerial parts under different packing densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Araújo de Oliveira Caetano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of in situ degradability parameters of the dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF and the passage of materials originating from the ensilage of the waste from pineapple cultivation (aerial parts. The four treatments utilized were silage of pineapple waste compacted at 600, 700, 900 and 1000 kg/m³. After ensiling the material from the pineapple cultivation, the particle-transit and rumen-degradation kinetics were analyzed. For the analysis of particle transit, chromium was utilized as a marker to mark the fiber. Passage rates were determined by retrieving the markers in the feces of the animals. In the degradation assay, samples were incubated in nylon bags for 0, 6, 18, 48 and 96 hours. The behavior observed in the regression curves of the variables analyzed describes high correlation between them, i.e., the time during which the silage is retained in the rumen influences its digestibility and its degradation rate. Although the silage compacted at 900 kg/m³ shows a larger potentially digestible fraction, it is recommended that it be ensiled at a compaction density of approximately 750 kg/m³ due to the lower cost and shorter mean retention time in the rumen-reticulum and rumen fill, thereby increasing the ruminal degradation and passage dynamics.

  19. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  20. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo F. Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

  1. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, E., E-mail: david@icsi.ro [National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, P.O Raureni, P.O. Box 7, 240050 Rm. Valcea (Romania); Kopac, J., E-mail: Janez.Kopac@fs.uni-lj.si [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Askerceva 6, P.O. Box 394, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrolysis of aluminum dross in tap water generates pure hydrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminum particles from dross are activated by mechanically milling technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process is completely greenhouse gases free and is cleanly to environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrolysis process leads to recycling of waste aluminum by hydrogen production. - Abstract: A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 {mu}m. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation.

  2. Embedded Materials: Strategic Materials Associated with U.S. Imports of Parts and End-Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Figure 1 to explicitly consider various stages of material processing (e.g., mining , smelting, alloying, casting/forging/rolling, manufacture of parts...aluminum- lithium alloys to 55% for natural rubber. The 17% figure, however, is a low outlier. Of the 51 materials listed in Table 1, 41 have an...the median (45%). The low outliers (aluminum- lithium alloys, noted above, and chromium metal, with a value of 19%) warrant further examination. As

  3. Application of agro-wastes for bio-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askanian, Haroutioun; Novello, Ottavio; Coelho, Christian; Commereuc, Sophie; Verney, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    This work was devoted to study the potential of different agro-wastes as reinforcements for thermoplastics as an alternative to wood fibers. Olive pits flour, walnut nutshells flour and cherry pits flour was used as filler for polylactic acid. Thermal behaviour of the composites was studied to investigate the nucleation effect of the lignocellulosic flour. The effects of filler loading on the mechanical properties, as well as viscoelastic behavior were also studied. The results indicates that these agricultural by-products can be used as filler in production of bio-composites without any further treatment, especially in the case of walnut nutshells flour and cherry pits flour.

  4. New Porous Material Made from Industrial and Municipal Waste for Building Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find a new method for usage of the hazardous waste coming from recycling industry. Two hazardous wastes – aluminium recycling final dross or non-metallic product (NMP and lead – silica glass (LSG were investigated. It is generally considered that NMP is a process waste and subject to disposal after residual metal has been recovered from primary dross. NMP is impurities which are removed from the molten metal in dross recycling process and it could be defined as a hazardous waste product in aluminium recycling industry. LSG comes from fluorescence lamp recycling plant and could be classified as hazardous waste due to high amount of lead in the composition and re-melting problems. The new alkali activated material, which can be defined as porous building material, was created. Composition of this material consisted of aluminium recycling waste, recycled fluorescent lamp LSG, sintered kaolin clay as well as commercially available alkali flakes (NaOH and liquid glass (Na2SiO3 + nH2O. Physical and mechanical properties of the obtained material were tested. Density of the obtained material was from (460 – 550 kg/m3 and the total porosity was from 82 % – 83 %. The compressive strength of the material was in range from 1.1 MPa to 2.3 MPa. The thermal conductivity was determined. The pore microstructure was investigated and the mineralogical composition of porous material was determined. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4330

  5. New Porous Material Made from Industrial and Municipal Waste for Building Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find a new method for usage of the hazardous waste coming from recycling industry. Two hazardous wastes – aluminium recycling final dross or non-metallic product (NMP and lead – silica glass (LSG were investigated. It is generally considered that NMP is a process waste and subject to disposal after residual metal has been recovered from primary dross. NMP is impurities which are removed from the molten metal in dross recycling process and it could be defined as a hazardous waste product in aluminium recycling industry. LSG comes from fluorescence lamp recycling plant and could be classified as hazardous waste due to high amount of lead in the composition and re-melting problems. The new alkali activated material, which can be defined as porous building material, was created. Composition of this material consisted of aluminium recycling waste, recycled fluorescent lamp LSG, sintered kaolin clay as well as commercially available alkali flakes (NaOH and liquid glass (Na2SiO3 + nH2O. Physical and mechanical properties of the obtained material were tested. Density of the obtained material was from (460 – 550 kg/m3 and the total porosity was from 82 % – 83 %. The compressive strength of the material was in range from 1.1 MPa to 2.3 MPa. The thermal conductivity was determined. The pore microstructure was investigated and the mineralogical composition of porous material was determined. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4330

  6. Pineapple Liquid Waste as Nata De Pina Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sutanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the quantity, quality, ecological and economic feasibility of nata de pina production (NP from pineapple liquid waste (PLW. The design of the study employs complete random design (CRD with three treatments: PLW without nutrients addition (A, PLW nutrients addition (B, and PLW stored for six months with nutrients addition (C. The nata de pina’s production factors measured were weight, thickness, fiber content, color, brightness, and residual waste. The highest weight was reached in treatment B (899 grams, followed by treatment A (616.4 grams, and C (477.8 grams. The thickness of NP of the height and low as in treatment B (1.58 cm followed by treatment A (1.24 cm and C (0.88 cm, respectively. The highest fiber content was found in treatment C (9.3% followed by treatment B (7.6% and A (6.9%, respectively. The fiber content, along with color quality and brightness fit with food standards. The production of NP may reduce the volume of the PLW from 46.2% to 89.1% (p= 0.001. Based on the standard value of biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solid (TSS below to the required threshold except pH. The production of NP is economically feasible to 4.7 BC ratio. The overal manufacture of nata de pina from PLW produces better and feasible product ecologically and

  7. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2012-03-30

    A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 μm. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system.

  9. Active materials for automotive adaptive forward lighting Part 1: system requirements vs. material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Andrew C.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.

    2011-04-01

    Adaptive Frontlighting Systems (AFS in GM usage) improve visibility by automatically optimizing the beam pattern to accommodate road, driving and environmental conditions. By moving, modifying, and/or adding light during nighttime, inclement weather, or in sharp turns, the driver is presented with dynamic illumination not possible with static lighting systems The objective of this GM-HRL collaborative research project was to assess the potential of active materials to decrease the cost, mass, and packaging volume of current electric stepper-motor AFS designs. Solid-state active material actuators, if proved suitable for this application, could be less expensive than electric motors and have lower part count, reduced size and weight, and lower acoustic and EMF noise1. This paper documents Part 1 of the collaborative study, assessing technically mature, commercially available active materials for use as actuators. Candidate materials should reduce cost and improve AFS capabilities, such as increased angular velocity on swivel. Additional benefits to AFS resulting from active materials actuators were to be identified as well such as lower part count. In addition, several notional approaches to AFS were documented to illustrate the potential function, which is developed more fully in Part 2. Part 1 was successful in verifying the feasibility of using two active materials for AFS: shape memory alloys, and piezoelectrics. In particular, this demonstration showed that all application requirements including those on actuation speed, force, and cyclic stability to effect manipulation of the filament assembly and/or the reflector could be met by piezoelectrics (as ultrasonic motors) and SMA wire actuators.

  10. Utilization of metal oxide-containing waste materials for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimane, R.B. [Gas Processing Research Group, Gas Technology Institute, 1700 S. Mount Prospect Road, 60018-1804 Des Plaines, IL (United States); Abbasian, J. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 West, 33rd Street, 60616 Chicago, IL (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Four metal oxide waste materials from metal processing operations and one coal bottom ash sample were procured and their reactivities toward hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) were evaluated in the temperature range of 400C to 600C. A low-cost sorbent pelletization/granulation technique was applied to produce preliminary sorbent formulations in the form of attrition-resistant granules that were also evaluated. The results indicate that sorbents based on an iron oxide waste material, in the as-received as well as processed form, were the most reactive and exhibited the highest effective capacities for sulfur. The regeneration of these sorbents could be carried out over a relatively moderate temperature range, suggesting that the iron oxide waste material might be a viable candidate for the development of low-cost regenerable sorbents for H{sub 2}S removal from hot coal gases under conditions of current practical interest.

  11. Molecular environmental science using synchrotron radiation:Chemistry and physics of waste form materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindle, Dennis W.; Shuh, David K.

    2005-02-28

    Production of defense-related nuclear materials has generated large volumes of complex chemical wastes containing a mixture of radionuclides. The disposition of these wastes requires conversion of the liquid and solid-phase components into durable, solid forms suitable for long-term immobilization [1]. Specially formulated glass compositions, many of which have been derived from glass developed for commercial purposes, and ceramics such as pyrochlores and apatites, will be the main recipients for these wastes. The performance characteristics of waste-form glasses and ceramics are largely determined by the loading capacity for the waste constituents (radioactive and non-radioactive) and the resultant chemical and radiation resistance of the waste-form package to leaching (durability). There are unique opportunities for the use of near-edge soft-x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to investigate speciation of low-Z elements forming the backbone of waste-form glasses and ceramics. Although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the primary technique employed to obtain speciation information from low-Z elements in waste forms, NMR is incompatible with the metallic impurities contained in real waste and is thus limited to studies of idealized model systems. In contrast, NEXAFS can yield element-specific speciation information from glass constituents without sensitivity to paramagnetic species. Development and use of NEXAFS for eventual studies of real waste glasses has significant implications, especially for the low-Z elements comprising glass matrices [5-7]. The NEXAFS measurements were performed at Beamline 6.3.1, an entrance-slitless bend-magnet beamline operating from 200 eV to 2000 eV with a Hettrick-Underwood varied-line-space (VLS) grating monochromator, of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBNL. Complete characterization and optimization of this beamline was conducted to enable high-performance measurements.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems. (DLC)

  13. Preparation of sustainable photocatalytic materials through the valorization of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrañez, Rafael; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2013-12-01

    A new value-added material was developed from wastes to aim for appropriate waste management and sustainable development. This paper reports the valorization of industrial sandblasting operation wastes (SOWs) as new photocatalytic materials. This waste is composed of Fe2 O3 (60.7 %), SiO2 (29.1 %), and Al2 O3 (3.9 %) as the main components. The high presence of iron oxides was used to develop photocatalytic properties through their thermal transformation into α-Fe2 O3 . The new product, SOW-T, exhibited a good behavior towards the photochemical degradation of organic dyes. The preparation of advanced photocatalytic materials that exhibit self-cleaning and depolluting properties was possible by the inclusion of SOW-T and TiO2 in a cement-based mortar. The synergy observed between both materials enhanced their photocatalytic action. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the use of transformed wastes based on iron oxide for the photochemical oxidation of NOx gases.

  14. PSO 5806 Material development for waste-to-energy plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Jørgen; Frederiksen, Jens; Larsen, Ole Hede;

    2010-01-01

    The vision of this project (PSO 5806) is to throw light and focus on some of the refractory material characteristics of major importance to predictable service.......The vision of this project (PSO 5806) is to throw light and focus on some of the refractory material characteristics of major importance to predictable service....

  15. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, R; Pivnenko, K; Boldrin, A; Scheutz, C; Astrup, T Fruergaard

    2016-08-01

    Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable fractions within one material type were observed. This indicates that careful planning and performance evaluation of recycling schemes are important to ensure a high quality of collected recyclables. Rare earth elements (REE) were quantified in all waste fractions analysed, with the highest concentrations of REE found in fractions with high content of mineral raw materials, soil materials and dust. The observed REE concentrations represent the background concentration level in non-hazardous waste materials that may serve as a reference point for future investigations related to hazardous waste management. The detailed dataset provided here can be used for assessments of waste management solutions in Denmark and for the evaluation of the quality of recyclable materials in waste.

  16. Direct waste heat recovery via thermoelectric materials - chosen issues of the thermodynamic description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasiński, Piotr; Kolasińska, Ewa

    2016-02-01

    The effective waste heat recovery is one of the present-day challenges in the industry and power engineering. The energy systems dedicated for waste heat conversion into electricity are usually characterized by low efficiency and are complicated in the design. The possibility of waste heat recovery via thermoelectric materials may be an interesting alternative to the currently used technologies. In particular, due to their material characteristics, conducting polymers may be competitive when compared with the power machinery and equipment. These materials can be used in a wide range of the geometries e.g. the bulk products, thin films, pristine form or composites and the others. In this article, the authors present selected issues related to the mathematical and thermodynamic description of the heat transfer processes in the thermoelectric materials dedicated for the waste heat recovery. The link of these models with electrical properties of the material and a material solution based on a conducting polymer have also been presented in this paper.

  17. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste mandarin over nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Jeong Wook; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seong-Soo; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Lee, See Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of waste mandarin was performed using nanoporous catalysts. AI-MCM-41 and Meso-MFI, which had different acid characteristics, were used. In addition, the characteristics of Pt/Meso-MFI were compared with those of Meso-MFI. To analyze the characteristics of the catalyst samples, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, temperature programmed desorption of NH3, and N2 adsorption-desorption analyses were performed. In addition, pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to facilitate the direct analysis of the pyrolytic products. The products obtained from catalytic pyrolysis contained a greater amount of valuable components than did those obtained from non-catalytic pyrolysis, indicating that catalytic pyrolysis improved the quality of the bio-oil. Additionally, valuable products such as furan and aromatic compounds were produced in greater quantities when Meso-MFI was used. When Pt/Meso-MFI was used, the amounts of furan and aromatic compounds produced increased even further.

  19. Cleaner phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes for application in building materials: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Reijnders [University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    Application of phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes in building materials has been limited by the presence of minor components that are hazardous, such as radioactive substances, chlorinated dioxins and heavy metals, or have a negative impact on product quality or production economics, such as phosphate, fluoride, carbon and chloride. Source reduction, destruction of persistent organics and separation techniques may reduce the concentrations of such components. With a few exceptions, separation techniques currently lead to significantly higher (private) costs. Higher waste disposal costs, tighter regulations and higher prices for competing virgin minerals could make the use of the purified phosphogypsum and ashes in building materials more attractive.

  20. Measurements and modeling of gas fluxes in unsaturated mine waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabwe, L.K.

    2008-07-01

    A technique known as dynamic closed chamber (DDC) was recently developed to measure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fluxes from the soil surface to the atmosphere. The field application of the DCC was investigated in this thesis with a particular focus on quantifying reaction rates in 2 waste-rock piles at the Key Lake uranium mine in northern Saskatchewan. The dominant geochemical reactions in both waste-rock piles were not typical of acid rock drainage (ARD) waste-rock piles. The CO{sub 2} fluxes measured in this study occur in the organic material underlying the waste rocks. The study provided a complete suite of measurements needed to characterize spatial distribution of CO{sub 2} fluxes on larger-scale studies of waste-rock piles. In comparison to other CO{sub 2} flux measuring techniques, the DCC method accurately quantified field soil respiration and had an added advantage in terms of speed and repeatability. The DCC was also used to investigate CO{sub 2} fluxes under the climatic variables that affect soil water content in waste-rock piles. A simple model for predicting the effects of soil water content on CO{sub 2} diffusion coefficient and concentration profiles was developed and verified. It was concluded that the DCC method is suitable for field applications to quantify CO{sub 2} fluxes and to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of CO{sub 2} fluxes from unsaturated C-horizon soils and waste-rock piles.

  1. Thermal treatment and utilization of Al-rich waste in high calcium fly ash geopolymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk; Vongvoradit, Pimdao; Jenjirapanya, Supichart

    2012-09-01

    The Al-rich waste with aluminium and hydrocarbon as the major contaminant is generated at the wastewater treatment unit of a polymer processing plant. In this research, the heat treatment of this Al-rich waste and its use to adjust the silica/alumina ratio of the high calcium fly ash geopolymer were studied. To recycle the raw Al-rich waste, the waste was dried at 110°C and calcined at 400 to 1000°C. Mineralogical analyses were conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the phase change. The increase in calcination temperature to 600, 800, and 1000°C resulted in the phase transformation. The more active alumina phase of active γ-Al2O3 was obtained with the increase in calcination temperature. The calcined Al-rich waste was then used as an additive to the fly ash geopolymer by mixing with high calcium fly ash, water glass, 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and sand. Test results indicated that the calcined Al-rich waste could be used as an aluminium source to adjust the silica/alumina ratio and the strength of geopolymeric materials. The fly ash geopolymer mortar with 2.5wt% of the Al-rich waste calcined at 1000°C possessed the 7-d compressive strength of 34.2 MPa.

  2. Use of industrial waste for the manufacturing of sustainable building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrañez, Rafael; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Martín, Francisco; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2012-04-01

    Presently, appropriate waste management is one of the main requisites for sustainable development; this task is tackled by the material construction industry. The work described herein is focused on the valorization of granite waste through incorporation, as a filler-functional admixture, into cement-based mortar formulations. The main components of the waste are SiO(2) (62.1 %), Al(2)O(3) (13.2 %), Fe(2)O(3) (10.1 %), and CaO (4.6 %). The presence of iron oxides is used to develop the photocatalytic properties of the waste. Following heating at 700 °C, α-Fe(2)O(3) forms in the waste. The inclusion of the heated sample as a filler admixture in a cement-based mortar is possible. Moreover, this sample exhibits a moderate ability in the photodegradation of organic dye solutions. Also, the plastering mortars, in which the heated samples have been used, show self-cleaning properties. The preparation of sustainable building materials is demonstrated through the adequate reuse of the granite waste.

  3. Assessment of possibility of metal waterjet cutting wastes use in building materials production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skanavi Nataliya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at studying the composition and properties of the wastes generated during metal waterjet cutting and assessing the possibility of their use in building materials production. The essence of waterjet cutting process, waste generation mechanism, waste accumulation volumes at enterprises are described. The composition and properties of the used abradant – garnet sand is given and the features of its destruction during cutting are revealed. Waterjet cutting wastes are comprehensively studies: average and bulk density, granulometric composition, chemical composition are determined, various fractions are studied with an electronic microscope. It is revealed that during cutting abradant particles are destroyed, a large amount of dust fraction emerges with the particles of cut metal mixed into it. The metal waterjet cutting wastes are found to be very small, practically monofractive, heavy sands with a high content of dust fraction, which chemical composition is dominated by oxides of iron, silicon and aluminum. This characteristic of the wastes has allowed us to outline possible ways of how to use them: in ceramic items production as thinning agents and fluxing agents, in Portland cement production as a correcting iron-containing agent, as a mortar filler, including special mortars, as a building materials volumetric staining pigment, etc.

  4. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: Technology selection and implementation plan, Part 2, Support processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish the foundation for the selection and implementation of technologies to be demonstrated in the Mixed Waste Management Facility, and to select the technologies for initial pilot-scale demonstration. Criteria are defined for judging demonstration technologies, and the framework for future technology selection is established. On the basis of these criteria, an initial suite of technologies was chosen, and the demonstration implementation scheme was developed. Part 1, previously released, addresses the selection of the primary processes. Part II addresses process support systems that are considered ``demonstration technologies.`` Other support technologies, e.g., facility off-gas, receiving and shipping, and water treatment, while part of the integrated demonstration, use best available commercial equipment and are not selected against the demonstration technology criteria.

  5. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Processing of ash and slag waste of heating plants by arc plasma to produce construction materials and nanomodifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Kondratenko, A. S.; Shishulkin, S. Yu; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Khmelev, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The resultsare presented of plasma processing slag and ash waste from coal combustion in heating plants. Melting mechanism of ashand slagraw material is considered by an electromagnetic technological reactor. The analysis was conducted of temperature and phase transformations of raw material when it is heated up to the melting point, and also determination of specific energy consumption by using a generalized model of the thermodynamic analysis of TERRA. The study of materials melting temperature conditions and plum of melt was carried with high-temperature thermal imaging method, followed by mapping and 3D-modeling of the temperature fields. The investigations to establish the principal possibilities of using slag waste of local coal as raw material for the production of mineral (ash and slag) fibers found that by chemical composition there are oxides in the following ranges: 45-65% SiO2; 10-25% Al2O3; 10-45% CaO; 5-10% MgO; other minerals (less than 5%). Thus, these technological wastes are principally suitable for melts to produce mineral wool by the plasma method. An analysis of the results shows the melting point of ash and slag waste - 1800-2000 °C. In this case the specific energy consumption of these processes keeps within the limits of 1.1-1.3 kW*h/kg. For comparison it should be noted that the unit cost of electricity in the known high-melting industrial installations 5-6 kW*h/kg. Upon melting ash and slag waste, which contains up to 2-5% of unburned carbon, carbon nanomaterials were discovered.in the form of ultrafine soot accumulating as a plaque on the water-cooled surfaces in the gas cleaning chamber. The process of formation of soot consists in sublimation-desublimation of part of carbon which is in ash and slag, and graphite electrode. Thus, upon melting of ash and slag in the electromagnetic reactor it is possible to obtain melt, and in the subsequent mineral high quality fiber, which satisfies the requirements of normative documents, and

  7. Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2010-07-15

    In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass.

  8. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has

  9. Optimizing resource and energy recovery for materials and waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decisions affecting materials management today are generally based on cost and a presumption of favorable outcomes without an understanding of the environmental tradeoffs. However, there is a growing demand to better understand and quantify the net environmental and energy trade-...

  10. Optimizing resource and energy recovery for materials and waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decisions affecting materials management today are generally based on cost and a presumption of favorable outcomes without an understanding of the environmental tradeoffs. However, there is a growing demand to better understand and quantify the net environmental and energy trade-...

  11. Physical and mechanical properties of composite materials of different compositions based on waste products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Burdonov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of mineral filler on the polymer composite material based on waste products of heat and power engineering - fly ash. This type of waste products has never been used for the production of polymer-mineral composites. Depending on the type of ash, its chemical composition and its quantity in the material, we can adjust the properties of the resulting composites. The use of fly ash as a filler will not only make a product less expensive, but it also will reduce development pressure on the environment and improve the physical and mechanical properties of the material. The article shows research results of the ash chemical composition as well as the properties of the resulting materials on its basis. According to the research conclusions there is a prospect for using this material in the construction industry.

  12. Potential Use Of Carbide Lime Waste As An Alternative Material To Conventional Hydrated Lime Of Cement-Lime Mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Al Khaja, Waheeb A.

    1992-01-01

    The present study aimed at the possibility of using the carbide lime waste as an alternative material to the conventional lime used for cement-lime mortar. The waste is a by-product obtained in the generation of acetylene from calcium carbide. Physical and chemical properties of the wastes were studied. Two cement-lime-sand mix proportions containing carbide lime waste were compared with the same mix proportions containing conventional lime along with a control mix without lime. Specimens wer...

  13. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  14. Investigation of potential waste material insulating properties at different temperature for thermal storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T. Z. S.; Rosli, A. B.; Gan, L. M.; Billy, A. S.; Farid, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal energy storage system (TES) is developed to extend the operation of power generation. TES system is a key component in a solar energy power generation plant, but the main issue in designing the TES system is its thermal capacity of storage materials, e.g. insulator. This study is focusing on the potential waste material acts as an insulator for thermal energy storage applications. As the insulator is used to absorb heat, it is needed to find suitable material for energy conversion and at the same time reduce the waste generation. Thus, a small-scale experimental testing of natural cooling process of an insulated tank within a confined room is conducted. The experiment is repeated by changing the insulator from the potential waste material and also by changing the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The analysis presented the relationship between heat loss and the reserved period by the insulator. The results show the percentage of period of the insulated tank withstands compared to tank insulated by foam, e.g. newspaper reserved the period of 84.6% as much as foam insulated tank to withstand the heat transfer of cooking oil to the surrounding. The paper finally justifies the most potential waste material as an insulator for different temperature range of heat transfer fluid.

  15. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rodella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu. This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  16. First clean closure of a fully RCRA Part B Permitted Hazardous Waste Land Treatment Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carty, D.J.; Hornby, W.J.; Conlin, M.F.; Lupo, M.J.; Anderson, D.C. [K. W. Brown Environmental Services, College Station, TX (United States); Miller, W.R.; Romankowski, D.; Stender, J.; Jenkins, O.

    1995-12-31

    On December 9, 1993, the Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (UDSHW) established as fact, the first clean closure of a fully RCRA Part B Permitted Hazardous Waste Land Treatment Unit in the USA. A total of approximately 100 acres in two (out of four) land treatment unit areas at the US Pollution Control, Inc. Grassy Mountain Facility (USPCI-GMF) were clean closed. Conceptual design, implementation, and documentation of clean closure required the combined efforts of numerous individuals and entities. UDSHW and USPCI-GMF recognized that clean closure was a long-term, minimum-risk, cost-effective option for protecting human health and the environment. UDSHW and USPCI-GMF negotiated permit modifications ensuring closure to background levels would be demonstrably achieved, and that documentation would withstand rigorous scrutiny. At stake for USPCI-GMF was potential limitation of future landfill expansion, incineration costs versus landfill costs for removed soils, problems for future construction of landfills on soil carrying hazardous waste codes, and post-closure monitoring of LTUs for up to thirty years.

  17. 2016 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016.

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste rice husk over mesoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mi-Jin; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ji Man; Sohn, Jung Min; Lee, See-Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of waste rice husk was carried out using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [Py-GC/MS]. Meso-MFI zeolite [Meso-MFI] was used as the catalyst. In addition, a 0.5-wt.% platinum [Pt] was ion-exchanged into Meso-MFI to examine the effect of Pt addition. Using a catalytic upgrading method, the activities of the catalysts were evaluated in terms of product composition and deoxygenation. The structure and acid site characteristics of the catalysts were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption analysis. Catalytic upgrading reduced the amount of oxygenates in the product vapor due to the cracking reaction of the catalysts. Levoglucosan, a polymeric oxygenate species, was completely decomposed without being detected. While the amount of heavy phenols was reduced by catalytic upgrading, the amount of light phenols was increased because of the catalytic cracking of heavy phenols into light phenols and aromatics. The amount of aromatics increased remarkably as a result of catalytic upgrading, which is attributed to the strong Brönsted acid sites and the shape selectivity of the Meso-MFI catalyst. The addition of Pt made the Meso-MFI catalyst even more active in deoxygenation and in the production of aromatics.

  19. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thekdi, Arvind [E3M, Inc. North Potomac, MD (United States); Rogers, Benjamin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kafka, Orion L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wenning, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  20. New Method of Online Measurement of Oil and Suspended Material Concentration In Flowing Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongwei; Xu, Guobing; Xu, Xinqiang; Zhou, Fangde

    2007-06-01

    At present, the most of the measurements of oil and suspended material concentration in waste water measuring are not online surveys. A new method of online measurement of oil and suspended material concentration in flowing waste water is presented. The room experiments and field tests showed that it is suitable to waste water treatment on line. After sampling, It needed to measure immediately the concentration in first time. Then let sample to be in still in 10 - 20 seconds. After that the bulk concentration was measured in second time. Because of the suspended solids having heavy density, they would be dropped from waster water. During ultrasonic operation, emulsify the oil in waster water, the oil and suspended solid would be depart. After that the third time measurement was done. In thus way the concentrations of oil and suspended solids can be measured. At present there are two on-site equipments operating in the Changqing oilfield, and the results are pretty well.

  1. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  2. Material Characteristic of Lightweight Concretes With Waste PVC Additive and Their Possible Utilization in Agricultural Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Orung

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, characteristics of lightweight concretes prepared adding waste PVC materials at different rates into natural lightweight aggregates of Van Ercis region were investigated. The aims of the study were to propose and produce a construction material with low unit weight, sufficient pressure resistance and low water absorption capacity. The unit weight of leight weight material produced was ranged from 760 to 883 kg/m3, compressive strenght was ranged from 21.4 to 37.7 kgf/cm2, and water absorption values were changed between 23.4 % and 32.3 %. The bulk density and compressive strength of samples were increasing with increasing waste PVC mixture, whereas, water absorbtion was decreased with the same amount of additions. The results of the study indicated that produced lightweight material could safely be used in agricultural structures, especially in animal housing facilities with sensitive environmental conditions, in storage facilities and houses as wall block materials. Introducing a material produced with waste PVC material into the construction market will provide several benefits to economy, and environment.

  3. Material flow analysis and market survey for securing the disposal of waste oils; Stoffstrom- und Marktanalyse zur Sicherung der Altoelentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, Knut; Jepsen, Dirk; Zangl, Stephanie; Schilling, Stephanie [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    This research project had two main topics: 1. A material flow analysis of the German waste oil flow adapted to the current situation 2. An analysis of the German waste oil recovery market, possible recent market changes and the potential influences of different factors. In order to determine the German waste oil mass flows the German Ministry of Environment applies a calculation model which is based on a backwards calculation approach (Rueckrechnungsmodell, backward calculation model). The performed analysis of this model revealed that it is suitable for the calculation of the German waste oil material flows. Aiming at a further qualification some elements of the model have been updated respectively adapted to new developments. In the course of the market analysis the basic economic parameter like supply, demand, prices resp. price differences of the German waste oil management market were considered. It was analysed how the changing market conditions affect the waste oil material flows and the waste oil recovery. Furthermore it was examined whether the given circumstances are sufficient to maintain a secure and sustainable waste oil disposal. The research results showed that the German waste oil market performs well and is reacting flexible on price signals of the respective (primary) reference products. During the timeframe investigated (2000-2004) an increasing majority of the available waste oil was used for the production of secondary mineral oil products. 30% of the available waste oil has been submitted to energy recovery operations. During these years the waste oil ordinance (Altoelverordnung) and the directive to promote processing of waste oil into base oil (Foerderrichtlinie) entered into force and relevant investments in waste oil treatment facilities were executed. The reliability of the future waste oil management is therefore approved and sufficient capacity reserves are available in all waste oil related management areas. (orig.)

  4. Critical Review of Removal of Nano Materials in Waste Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Solomon W.; Williams, Bradley; De Jesus, Karl; Lai, James C. K.

    2017-05-01

    Industrial applications of nanomaterials (NMs) are rising drastically in recent years and the commercial value of these materials can reach over 100 billion in 5 years. Major effort in nano research has been devoted to the utilities of the materials, only minimum effort has been directed to the disposal, reuse, and recycle of these new forms of materials. Due to their unique sizes and sharps, nanomaterials possess unique characteristics and toxicity that are not expected from their counterparts in meso/micro forms. At the present time, there are no regulations governing the handling and disposals of NMs, but recent research demonstrated that NMs are more hazardous than we realize. A main reason why less caution is being exercised by the general public regarding NMs is that the measurement and quantitation of NMs are difficult, which lead to difficulties in monitoring, thus regulation. This article critically reviewed over the issues stemming from the development of NMs, especially the challenges of measurement and disposal of these materials in landfills.

  5. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  6. 30 CFR 715.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... loading) 1.0 (iv) The dam, foundation, and abutments shall be stable under all conditions of construction...) of this section and for all increments of construction. (v) Seepage through the dam, foundation, and...) constructed of waste materials, in accordance with the requirements of this section. (b) Construction of...

  7. Impedance spectroscopy of composites based on waste polymeric materials for electrical engineering purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, V. I.; Zubko, D. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a high-sensitivity capacitance transducer and a method for measuring the complex of electrical indices of composites based on waste polymeric materials in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The electrical properties of composites depending on the electric field frequency and the content and type of the filler have been investigated.

  8. Polarimetric Determination of Starch in Raw Materials and Discharged Waste from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Farcas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain (BGS is a by-product of thebrewing process, consisting of the solid fraction of barley malt remainingafter separation of worth. In this research, raw materials and discharged waste from beer production were evaluated on the basis of starch content, using Ewers polarimetric method.

  9. Polarimetric Determination of Starch in Raw Materials and Discharged Waste from Beer Production

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Farcas; Maria Tofana; Sonia Socaci; Stancuta Scrob; Liana Salanta; Doinita Bors

    2013-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain (BGS) is a by-product of thebrewing process, consisting of the solid fraction of barley malt remainingafter separation of worth. In this research, raw materials and discharged waste from beer production were evaluated on the basis of starch content, using Ewers polarimetric method.

  10. Incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as an alternative raw material for red ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. P. Faria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry generates huge amounts of sugarcane bagasse ashes (SCBA. This work investigates the incorporation of a SCBA waste as an alternative raw material into a clay body, replacing natural clay material by up to 20 wt.%. Clay ceramic pieces were produced by uniaxial pressing and fired at temperatures varying from 700 to 1100 ºC. The technological properties of the clay ceramic pieces (linear shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption, and tensile strength as function of the firing temperature and waste addition are investigated. The phase evolution during firing was followed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the SCBA waste could be incorporated into red ceramics (bricks and roofing tiles in partial replacement for natural clay material. These results confirm the feasibility of valorisation of SCBA waste to produce red ceramic. This use of SCBA can also contribute greatly to reducing the environmental problems of the sugarcane industry, and also save the sources of natural raw materials used in the ceramic industry.

  11. Materials And Carbon Flow In A Waste Refinery Process Using Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Woods, M.; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    that the waste refinery has great potential for resource recovery: about 100% of the Cbiogenic and up to 90% of N and P can potentially be recovered in the bioslurry and returned to land after anaerobic digestion. Recovery of ferrous and non-ferrous material is estimated double compared to recovering the same...

  12. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production by engineered Cupriavidus necator from waste material containing lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povolo, Silvana; Toffano, Paolo; Basaglia, Marina; Casella, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 is a well-known polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) producer, but unable to grow on lactose. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant strain of C. necator that can use lactose-containing waste material such as cheese whey, to produce PHAs. One of the intracellular PHA depolymerases (phaZ1) of C. necator was chosen to insert the lacZ, lacI and lacO genes of Escherichia coli. This would have the effect to allow polymer production on lactose and, at the same time, to remove part of the PHA intracellular degradation system. Disruption of phaZ1 was achieved by gene replacement after isolating a fragment of this gene and interrupting it with a cartridge containing the lac genes and a synthetic promoter. Growth and polymer production studies of the genetically modified (GM) strain mRePT in lactose, whey permeate and hydrolyzed whey permeate as carbon sources, were performed. Lower PHA degradation and higher yields were obtained compared to the wild-type strain. Inactivation of the putative depolymerase gene phaZ3 on mRePT recombinant strain was also reported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Oxide Materials for Effective Power Generation from Waste Heat

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of thermal energy that emitted from many industrial processes is available as waste heat. It is difficult to reclaim this heat due to the dispersed nature and relative smallness of its sources. Thermoelectric conversion can offer a very promising method to overcome these difficulties by converting heat directly into electricity. However, the requirements for this task place in the materials are not easily satisfied by the conventional thermoelectric materials. Not only they mus...

  14. Study of the biodisintegration of a bioplastic material waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasa, Judith; Gracia, Jose M; Javierre, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodisintegration degree of different pieces made of a biodegradable thermoplastic material, the polylactic acid (PLA) with and without corn in its composition, is studied. The pieces of different shapes and thicknesses were obtained by both injection and extrusion processes, where also a specific foaming additive of polystyrene was added. The PLA and PLA-corn manufactured pieces were subjected to aerobic degradation at a constant temperature of 58+/-2 degrees C for 90 days, following EN 14806 and ISO 20200:2004 Norms. It was found that the pieces made of PLA and PLA with foaming agent had an average biodisintegration degree of 63.6%. With regard to the pieces made of PLA-corn, an average biodisintegration degree of 79.7% was obtained. In this case, the percentage of non degraded material was independent of the size, shape and thickness of the original pieces.

  15. Remediation of AMD using natural and waste material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basir, Nur Athirah Mohamad; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan [Pusat pengajian Sains Sekitaran dan Sumber Alam, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is highly acidic, sulphate rich and frequently carries a high transition metal and heavy metal burden. These AMD's eventually migrate into streams and rivers and impact negatively on the quality of these water bodies. So it is dire necessary to treat this AMD. Various materials such as ladle furnace slag (LFS), bentonite, zeolite, active carbon and kaolinite are currently available to remove heavy metals from contaminated water. All these materials are capable to rise up the pH value and adsorb heavy metals. The process is divided into two stages; screening test and tank experiment. Screening test is conduct by using Batch Equilibrium Test (BET), X-Ray Fluorescene (XRF) identification also Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) characteristic. The results showed that all the concentration of heavy metal are decreasing extremely and pH value rise up except for kaolinite. From screening test only ladle furnace slag, bentonite, zeolite and active carbon are chosen for the tank experiment. Tank experiment design with 18cm (H) X 15cm (L) X 15cm (H) was made by silica glass. All these treatment materials were stirred in the tank for 30 days. Initial pH for all tanks is 2.4 and after 30 days is changing into 6.11, 3.91, 2.98 and 2.71 for LFS, bentonite, active carbon as well as zeolite respectively. LFS is the best material for absorption of Zn, Mn and Cu in the synthetic solution. Meanwhile, bentonite is the best absorbent for Ni, Fe and Cd. The conclusion shows that LFS might have big potentials to control AMD pollution base on neutralize pH resulting in a great improvement in the quality of the water.

  16. Waste processing: new near infrared technologies for material identification and selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesetti, M.; Nicolosi, P.

    2016-09-01

    The awareness of environmental issues on a global scale increases the opportunities for waste handling companies. Recovery is set to become all the more important in areas such as waste selection, minerals processing, electronic scrap, metal and plastic recycling, refuse and the food industry. Effective recycling relies on effective sorting. Sorting is a fundamental step of the waste disposal/recovery process. The big players in the sorting market are pushing for the development of new technologies to cope with literally any type of waste. The purpose of this tutorial is to gain an understanding of waste management, frameworks, strategies, and components that are current and emerging in the field. A particular focus is given to spectroscopic techniques that pertains the material selection process with a greater emphasis placed on the NIR technology for material identification. Three different studies that make use of NIR technology are shown, they are an example of some of the possible applications and the excellent results that can be achieved with this technique.

  17. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA)); Weiss, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  20. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  1. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Magnetic mesoporous materials for removal of environmental wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chan; Lee, Jinwoo; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Jaeyun; Joo, Jin; Lee, Jin Hyung; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Lee, Changha; Lee, Hongshin; Addleman, Raymond S.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-09-15

    We have synthesized two different magnetic mesoporous materials that can be easily separated from aqueous solutions by applying a magnetic field. Synthesized magnetic mesoporous materials, Mag-SBA-15 (magnetic ordered mesoporous silica) and Mag-OMC (magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon), have a high loading capacity of contaminants due to high surface area of the supports and high magnetic activity due to the embedded iron oxide particles. Application of surface-modified Mag-SBA-15 was investigated for the collection of mercury from water. The mercury adsorption using Mag-SBA-15 was rapid during the initial contact time and reached a steady-state condition, with an uptake of approximately 97% after 7 hours. Application of Mag-OMC for collection of organics from water, using fluorescein as an easily trackable model analyte, was explored. The fluorescein was absorbed into Mag-OMC within minutes and the fluorescent intensity of solution was completely disappeared after an hour. In another application, Mag-SBA-15 was used as a host of tyrosinase, and employed as recyclable catalytic scaffolds for tyrosinase-catalyzed biodegradation of catechol. Tyrosinase aggregates in Mag-SBA-15, prepared in a two step process of tyrosinase adsorption and crosslinking, could be used repeatedly for catechol degradation with no serious loss of enzyme activity. Considering these results of cleaning up water from toxic inorganic, organic and biochemical contaminants, magnetic mesoporous materials have a great potential to be employed for the removal of environmental contaminants and potentially for the application in large-scale wastewater treatment plants.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-disposed elemental phosphorus processing wastes May 26, 2000. D004 Newly identified D004 and mineral processing wastes Aug. 24, 1998. D004 Mixed radioactive/newly identified D004 or mineral processing wastes May 26, 2000 D005 Newly identified D005 and mineral processing wastes Aug. 24, 1998. D005...

  4. The use of waste materials in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncan, Mustafa; Tuncan, Ahmet; Cetin, Altan

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of rubber and plastic concentrations and rubber particle sizes on properties of asphalt cement, (b) on properties of asphalt concrete specimens and (c) the effects of fly ash, marble powder, rubber powder and petroleum contaminated soil as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete specimens. One type of limestone aggregate and one penetration-graded asphalt cement (75-100) were used. Three concentrations of rubber and plastic (i.e. 5%, 10% and 20% of the total weight of asphalt cement), three rubber particle sizes (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 20 [0.85 mm], No. 20 [0.85mm] - 200 [0.075mm] and No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm]) and one plastic particle size (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 10 [2.00mm]) were also used. It was found that while the addition of plastic significantly increased the strength of specimens, the addition of rubber decreased it. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm] rubber particles showed the best results with respect to the indirect tensile test. The Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength properties of plastic modified specimens increased. Marble powder and fly ash could be used as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete pavement specimens.

  5. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  6. Reusing of tyres wastes in way construction: 2 part; Reutilizacion de neumaticos usados en la construcciond e carreteras-II parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas Raz, R.

    2002-07-01

    Used vehicle tyres involve and ecological problem, regarding waste products. Both Spanish and European Environmental Standards promote waste recycling instead of waste incineration, which is specifically applicable to waste tyres. The Engineering Group, Elsamex, has developed, through its research centre CIESM, a researching line completely feasible, offering a recycling option based on the addition, by means of three different techniques, of the refused tyres rubber powder to the asphalt mixes for road construction. This is the refused tyr treatment, which contributes, to a greater extent, to a sustainable development, mostly thanks to the great capacity of roads for using this product as raw materials. Added to this, there is an environmental benefit derived from the ecological treatment used with refused tyres, and its efficacy. Moreover, the treatment helps to the production of asphalt mixes with longer durability with a wet process. This allows long term money saving in road maintenance. (Author)

  7. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site: Proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWSU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-07-19

    The proposed Mixed Waste Storage Unit (MWSU) will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Existing facilities at the RWMC will be used to store low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Storage is required to accommodate offsite-generated LLMW shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal in the new Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) currently in the design/build stage. LLMW generated at the NTS (onsite) is currently stored on the Transuranic (TRU) Pad (TP) in Area 5 under a Mutual Consent Agreement (MCA) with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). When the proposed MWSU is permitted, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will ask that NDEP revoke the MCA and onsite-generated LLMW will fall under the MWSU permit terms and conditions. The unit will also store polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste and friable and non-friable asbestos waste that meets the acceptance criteria in the Waste Analysis Plan (Exhibit 2) for disposal in the MWDU. In addition to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the proposed MWSU will also be subject to Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other applicable state and federal regulations. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational RCRA units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  8. Kinder Lernen Deutsch. Materials Project Part I. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Teachers of German.

    The Kinder Lernen Deutsch (LKD) materials evaluation project identifies materials appropriate for the elementary school German classrooms in grades K-8. This guide consists of an annotated bibliography, with ratings, of these materials. The guiding principles by which the materials were assessed were: use of the communicative approach; integration…

  9. Potential use of densified polymer-pastefill mixture as waste containment barrier materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, M; Célestin, J; Sen, H F

    2010-12-01

    Mining activities generate a large amount of solid waste, such as waste rock and tailings. The surface disposal of such waste can create several environmental and geotechnical problems. Public perception and strict government regulations with regards to the disposal of such waste compel the mining industry to develop new strategies which are environmentally sound and cost effective. In this scenario, recycling of such waste into mining or civil engineering construction materials have become a great challenge for the mining and civil engineering community. Hence, in this study, taking advantage of the inherent low hydraulic conductivity of paste tailings (pastefill), small amounts (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5%) of a super absorbent polymer (SAP) are added to the latter after moisturizing the tailings. The resulting densified polymer-pastefill (PP) materials are compacted and submitted to permeability tests at room temperature and performance tests under cyclic freeze-thaw and wet-dry conditions to evaluate their suitability as a barrier for waste containment facilities. Valuable results are obtained. It is found that the hydraulic conductivity of the proposed barrier material (PP) decreases as the amount of SAP increases. Hydraulic conductivity values as low as 1 × 10(-7) and 6 × 10(-9)cm/s are obtained for PPs which contain 0.1-0.5% SAP, respectively. The PP material also shows relatively good resistance to cyclic freeze-thaw and wet-dry stresses. The results show that negligible to acceptable changes in hydraulic conductivity occur after five freeze-thaw and six wet-dry cycles. None of the changes reach one order of magnitude. As a final step, a cost analysis is undertaken to evaluate the economical benefits that could be drawn from such a proposed barrier material. When compared to a conventional compacted sand-bentonite barrier with 12% bentonite concentration, it is found that the benefit realized could be estimated to 98, 96 and 90% when using PP material that

  10. Low-temperature setting phosphate ceramics for stabilization of DOE problem low level mixed-waste: I. Material and waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.; Knox, L. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of some of the {open_quotes}problem{close_quotes} DOE low-level mixed wastes at low-temperatures. Development of these materials is crucial for stabilization of waste streams which have volatile species and any use of high-temperature technology leads to generation of off-gas secondary waste streams. Several phosphates of Mg, Al, and Zr have been investigated as candidate materials. Monoliths of these phosphates were synthesized using chemical routes at room or slightly elevated temperatures. Detailed physical and chemical characterizations have been conducted on some of these phosphates to establish their durability. Magnesium ammonium phosphate has shown to possess excellent mechanical and as well chemical properties. These phosphates were also used to stabilize a surrogate ash waste with a loading ranging from 25-35 wt.%. Characterization of the final waste forms show that waste immobilization is due to both chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation of the surrogate waste which is desirable for waste immobilization.

  11. Treatment of waste water from textile Finishing mills (Part 7). Comparison and combination of treatment methods on actual waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widayat; Winiati, W.; Indarto; Amirdin; Kusno, P.; Jufri, R.; Higashi, Kunishige; Hagiwara, Kazuyoshi; Saito, Toshihide; Honda, Shigeru

    1987-03-25

    Comparison of coagulative precipitation treatment, activated sludge treatment, and active carbon adsorption treatment was studied on the actual waste water from two dyeing factories (A and B) located in Bandung City, Indonesia. Quality of waste waters was evaluated by the measurement of pH, COD, BOD, and absorption spectrum. The waste water A had COD value of 180 mg/l, and the ratio of BOD to COD was 1.2. Biological oxidation, therefore, looks effective for this waste water. The COD removals became 67% and 83% by coagulative precipitation method and activated sludge respectively. The coagulative precipitation treatment followed by the activated sludge treatment made COD removal to 100%. The waste water B had COD value of 1005 mg/l, and the ratio of BOD to COD was 0.20. THe COD removal became 58% and 72% by coagulative method and the coagulation method followed by the activated sludge method respectively. For removing dyestuff in the waste water, both coagulative precipitation method and activated carbon absorption treatment were effective. (4 figs, 4 tabs, 3 refs)

  12. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Protection and Technical Services

    2009-09-30

    This permit application provides facility information on the design, processes, and security features associated with the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit. The unit will receive and dispose of onsite and offsite containerized low-level mixed waste (LLMW) that has an approved U.S. Department of Energy nexus.

  14. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker’s cooperatives: An alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina, E-mail: magda@pep.ufrj.br [Program of Production Engineering, School and Research in Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz, E-mail: fabio@pep.ufrj.br [Program of Production Engineering, School and Research in Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► In the marketing of recyclable materials, the waste-pickers are the least wins. ► It is proposed creating a network of recycling cooperatives to achieve viability. ► The waste-pickers contribute to waste management to the city. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city’s main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers’ cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  15. Techniques of material-flow-specific residual waste treatment; Techniken der stoffstromspezifischen Restabfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maak, D.; Collins, H.J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig, Leichtweiss - Inst. fuer Wasserbau (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The success achieved with large-scale plants for mechanical-biological residual waste treatment has led to a change of course in waste pretreatment. In view of the low emissions via the water and gas routes from landfilled wastes and the low costs of waste treatment some authorising authorities have meanwhile issued special licences pursuant to clause no. 2.4 of the Technical Code on Household Waste, thus enabling mechanical-biological residual waste treatment plants to continue operations beyond the year 2005. Beside offering a means of treatment and disposal, cost-effective mechanical-biological pretreatment also provides an opportunity for going over to material-flow-specific residual waste treatment. These process stages permit recirculating valuable materials and using other materials for energy production. They can be retrofitted on a modular basis in existing plants. If these advantages of the present innovative pretreatment methods are not used, then mechanical-biological pretreatment can still serve as a preparatory stage for thermal treatment. To date there has been no practical experience with this innovative method of residual waste treatment. However, industrial-scale trials have shown that each individual treatment stage is capable of being carried out successfully. [Deutsch] Die guten Erfolge im grosstechnischen Betrieb von Anlagen zur mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung haben zu einer Kursaenderung bei der Vorbehandlung von Abfaellen gefuehrt. Geringe Emissionen der deponierten Abfaelle auf dem Gas- und Wasserpfad sowie geringe Kosten fuer die Behandlung der Abfaelle haben dazu gefuehrt, dass inzwischen bereits einige Genehmigungsbehoerden eine Ausnahmegenehmigung nach Nr. 2.4 der TA Siedlungsabfall erteilt haben und damit der Betrieb von mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlungsanlagen auch nach 2005 ermoeglicht wird. Neben der alleinigen Behandlung und Deponierung bietet die kostenguenstige Vorbehandlung mit mechanisch

  16. Combination of material flow analysis and substance flow analysis: a powerful approach for decision support in waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljevic, Nemanja; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-08-01

    The novelty of this paper is the demonstration of the effectiveness of combining material flow analysis (MFA) with substance flow analysis (SFA) for decision making in waste management. Both MFA and SFA are based on the mass balance principle. While MFA alone has been applied often for analysing material flows quantitatively and hence to determine the capacities of waste treatment processes, SFA is more demanding but instrumental in evaluating the performance of a waste management system regarding the goals "resource conservation" and "environmental protection". SFA focuses on the transformations of wastes during waste treatment: valuable as well as hazardous substances and their transformations are followed through the entire waste management system. A substance-based approach is required because the economic and environmental properties of the products of waste management - recycling goods, residues and emissions - are primarily determined by the content of specific precious or harmful substances. To support the case that MFA and SFA should be combined, a case study of waste management scenarios is presented. For three scenarios, total material flows are quantified by MFA, and the mass flows of six indicator substances (C, N, Cl, Cd, Pb, Hg) are determined by SFA. The combined results are compared to the status quo in view of fulfilling the goals of waste management. They clearly point out specific differences between the chosen scenarios, demonstrating potentials for improvement and the value of the combination of MFA/SFA for decision making in waste management.

  17. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed......, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some...

  18. Industrial wastes as alternative raw materials to produce eco-friendly fired bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quero, V.; Maza-Ignacio, O. T.; Guerrero-Paz, J.; Campos-Venegas, K.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) and silica fume (SF) wastes as an alternative raw material into clay bricks, replacing clay by up to 40 wt.%. Fly ash (FA) was used as reference. The plasticity of the batches was determined by Atterberg’s consistency limits. Bricks were produced by uniaxial pressing and fired a 900 and 1000°C. Physical properties (fired shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity and Initial water absorption rate) and mechanical properties (compressive strength and flexural strength) as function of the firing temperature and type waste were investigated. The results showed that wastes into clay body increase its global plasticity. 80%Clay-20%SCBA mixture has the lower linear shrinkage. After firing process, the brick produced with clay-SCBA show the higher water absorption and apparent porosity, regardless of the firing temperature. The brick produced with 60%clay-40%SF show the water absorption and apparent porosity similar to control bricks. The SCBA waste additions tend to decrease the mechanical strength of the clay bricks, therefore amounts of 40% SCBA waste should be avoided because it reduce the mechanical strength of the red fired bricks. The fired bricks with 40% SF, firing a 900°C show mechanical properties similar control bricks.

  19. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Roger Vasques; Paz, Matheus Francisco da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2016-01-01

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46°C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vasques Marques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46 °C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste.

  1. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  2. Finite element analysis of ion transport in solid state nuclear waste form materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, F.; Brinkman, K.; Amoroso, J.; Reifsnider, K.

    2017-09-01

    Release of nuclear species from spent fuel ceramic waste form storage depends on the individual constituent properties as well as their internal morphology, heterogeneity and boundary conditions. Predicting the release rate is essential for designing a ceramic waste form, which is capable of effectively storing the spent fuel without contaminating the surrounding environment for a longer period of time. To predict the release rate, in the present work a conformal finite element model is developed based on the Nernst Planck Equation. The equation describes charged species transport through different media by convection, diffusion, or migration. And the transport can be driven by chemical/electrical potentials or velocity fields. The model calculates species flux in the waste form with different diffusion coefficient for each species in each constituent phase. In the work reported, a 2D approach is taken to investigate the contributions of different basic parameters in a waste form design, i.e., volume fraction, phase dispersion, phase surface area variation, phase diffusion co-efficient, boundary concentration etc. The analytical approach with preliminary results is discussed. The method is postulated to be a foundation for conformal analysis based design of heterogeneous waste form materials.

  3. 10 CFR Appendix P to Part 110 - Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Material P Appendix P to Part... MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. P Appendix P to Part 110—Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Material Table 1—Import and Export Threshold Limits Radioactive material Category 1 Terabequerels(TBq) Curies(Ci) 1 Category...

  4. Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

    2000-02-07

    This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed

  5. The usage of plastic waste as a secondary raw material for the modification of sandcrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Daukšys, M.; Venčkauskas, L.

    2015-03-01

    Recently the usage of various industry wastes as a secondary raw material tends to increase its relevancy. One of possible options to decrease the amount of waste is to use them to produce new products or materials. The operation of various secondary raw materials (tire rubber, tire cord, ground glass shards, ground ceramic waste products) during the concrete mixture preparation allows to change its as well as cured concrete properties. Recently polymer and steel fibers are used for concrete reinforcement. This study analyses the usage possibility of plastic shavings for the reinforcement of concrete. The technological properties of cement slurry (sand, fraction of 0/4 and 10 kg/m3, 15 kg/m3 and 20 kg/m3 of plastic shavings) as well as mechanical, physical and porosity properties of cured sandcrete were established during the experimental research. The geometric characteristics of mill-shredded plastic shavings were established. Experimental results revealed that the usage of plastic shavings decreased slurry slump and density. The minor decrease of cured sandcrete density (~2200 kg/m3) was noticed with the addition of plastic shavings within the limits of 10 - 20 kg/m3. The flexural strength of cured sandcrete increased from 36 % to 57 % compared with reference specimen (without plastic shavings). The dependence of flexural force and deflection was obtained. Study revealed that the residual strength after crack opening is bigger with the usage of plastic shavings as a secondary raw material compared with reference specimen.

  6. Material characterization in cemented radioactive waste with the associated particle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasco, C.; Perot, B.; Mariani, A.; El Kanawati, W.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Obhodas, J.

    2010-07-01

    The elemental characterization of materials constituting radioactive waste is of great importance for the management of storage and repository facilities. To complement the information brought by gamma or X-ray imaging, the performance of a fast neutron interrogation system based on the associated particle technique (APT) has been investigated by using MCNP simulations and by performing proof-of-principle experiments. APT provides a 3D localisation of the emission of fast neutron induced gamma rays, whose spectroscopic analysis allows to identify the elements present in specific volumes of interest in the waste package. Monte Carlo calculations show that it is possible to identify materials enclosed behind the thick outer envelop of a ≈1 m 3 cemented waste drum, provided the excited nuclei emit gamma rays with a sufficient energy to limit photon attenuation. Neutron attenuation and scattering are also predominant effects that reduce the sensitivity and spatial selectivity of APT, but it is still possible to localise items in the waste by neutron time-of-flight and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Experimental tests confirm that the elemental characterization is possible across thick mortar slabs.

  7. A hazardous waste from secondary aluminium metallurgy as a new raw material for calcium aluminate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan; Pérez, Carlos; Alguacil, Francisco José; López, Félix Antonio

    2009-06-15

    A solid waste coming from the secondary aluminium industry was successfully vitrified in the ternary CaO-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2) system at 1500 degrees C. This waste is a complex material which is considered hazardous because of its behaviour in the presence of water or moisture. In these conditions, the dust can generate gases such as H(2), NH(3), CH(4), H(2)S, along with heat and potential aluminothermy. Only silica sand and calcium carbonate were added as external raw materials to complete the glasses formula. Different nominal compositions of glasses, with Al(2)O(3) ranging between 20% and 54%, were studied to determine the glass forming area. The glasses obtained allow the immobilisation of up to 75% of waste in a multicomponent oxide system in which all the components of the waste are incorporated. The microhardness Hv values varied between 6.05 and 6.62GPa and the linear thermal expansion coefficient, alpha, varied between (62 and 139)x10(-7)K(-1). Several glasses showed a high hydrolytic resistance in deionised water at 98 degrees C.

  8. MWIP: Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 4, Wastewater treatment sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Stevenson, R.J.; Richmond, A.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bickford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The category of sludges, filter cakes, and other waste processing residuals represent the largest volume of low-level mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Treatment of these wastes to minimize the mobility of contaminants, and to eliminate the presence of free water, is required under the Federal Facility Compliance Act agreements between DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency. In the text, we summarize the currently available data for several of the high priority mixed-waste sludge inventories within DOE. Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 Sludge and Rocky Flats Plant By-Pass Sludge are transuranic (TRU)-contaminated sludges that were isolated with the use of silica-based filter aids. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant West End Treatment Facility Sludge is predominantly calcium carbonate and biomass. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Pond Waste is a large-volume waste stream, containing clay, silt, and other debris in addition to precipitated metal hydroxides. We formulate ``simulants`` for the waste streams described above, using cerium oxide as a surrogate for the uranium or plutonium present in the authentic material. Use of nonradiological surrogates greatly simplifies material handling requirements for initial treatability studies. The use of synthetic mixtures for initial treatability testing will facilitate compositional variation for use in conjunction with statistical design experiments; this approach may help to identify any ``operating window`` limitations. The initial treatability testing demonstrations utilizing these ``simulants`` will be based upon vitrification, although the materials are also amenable to testing grout-based and other stabilization procedures. After the feasibility of treatment and the initial evaluation of treatment performance has been demonstrated, performance must be verified using authentic samples of the candidate waste stream.

  9. Reconfigurable materials handling system incorporating part tracking, routing and scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidu, P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available . In this regard the tracking of the parts within the manufacturing cycle is important for ascertaining the location of parts within the cycle as well as the history of the completed parts. This paper outlines the development of a reconfigurable manufacturing...

  10. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@eng.nssmc.com [NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD., (EUROPEAN OFFICE), Am Seestern 8, 40547 Dusseldorf (Germany); Ishida, Yoshihiro [NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD., (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A new waste management scheme and the effects of co-gasification of MSW were assessed. • A co-gasification system was compared with other conventional systems. • The co-gasification system can produce slag and metal with high-quality. • The co-gasification system showed an economic advantage when bottom ash is landfilled. • The sensitive analyses indicate an economic advantage when the landfill cost is high. - Abstract: This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the

  11. Compression Molding of Chemical/Thermal Resistant Composite Materials Using Wastes of Glass Fiber Reinforced PTFE and Carbon Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    This report proposed the compression molding method of chemical/thermal resistant composite materials reinforced by the carbon fiber extracted from CFRP waste and the waste of glass fiber coated by PTFE. The FEP resin was used for the matrix material. The contents of carbon fiber and FEP resin were varied in the experiments, and the machanical properties of composite materials were discussed in detail. As a result, the bending strength and modulus increased with increasing the content of carb...

  12. Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Miron, Y. [Bureau of Mines (United States)

    1994-01-01

    To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1, Technology Evaluation: Part C, Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report documents activities at ORNL including waste management and remedial action at the site; also waste processing and disposal; robotics and automation of the laboratory; and regulatory compliance

  14. CERAMIC WASTES AS RAW MATERIALS IN PORTLAND CEMENT CLINKER FABRICATION.· CHARACTERIZATION AND ALKALINE ACTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    [EN] The world-wide cementindustry is seeking experimentalavenues that wi// lead to cementproduction that is less energy-intensive/ less damaging to the surrounding environment and less prolific in GHGemissions. In Spain andEurope in general, this approach is who//y consistent with the concept of sustainability and compliance with the Kyoto Protocol. The use ofdifferent kinds of industrial waste and by-products as alternative materials in cement manufacture has proved to ...

  15. Utilization of flotation wastes of copper slag as raw material in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, I; Deveci, H; Süngün, H

    2008-11-30

    Copper slag wastes, even if treated via processes such as flotation for metal recovery, still contain heavy metals with hazardous properties posing environmental risks for disposal. This study reports the potential use of flotation waste of a copper slag (FWCS) as iron source in the production of Portland cement clinker. The FWCS appears a suitable raw material as iron source containing >59% Fe(2)O(3) mainly in the form of fayalite (Fe(2)SiO(4)) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). The clinker products obtained using the FWCS from the industrial scale trial operations over a 4-month period were characterised for the conformity of its chemical composition and the physico-mechanical performance of the resultant cement products was evaluated. The data collected for the clinker products produced using an iron ore, which is currently used as the cement raw material were also included for comparison. The results have shown that the chemical compositions of all the clinker products including those of FWCS are typical of a Portland cement clinker. The mechanical performance of the standard mortars prepared from the FWCS clinkers were found to be similar to those from the iron ore clinkers with the desired specifications for the industrial cements e.g. CEM I type cements. Furthermore, the leachability tests (TCLP and SPLP) have revealed that the mortar samples obtained from the FWCS clinkers present no environmental problems while the FWCS could act as the potential source of heavy metal contamination. These findings suggest that flotation wastes of copper slag (FWCS) can be readily utilised as cement raw material due to its availability in large quantities at low cost with the further significant benefits for waste management/environmental practices of the FWCS and the reduced production and processing costs for cement raw materials.

  16. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Dumitru LICA; Ioan CURTU; Mariana-Domnica STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels), only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for...

  17. Processing and physical utilisation of waste materials relevant to iron and steel manufacture; Aufarbeitung und stoffliche Nutzung eisen- und stahlrelevanter Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, G.; Schmidt, B.; Sucker, D. [Betriebsforschungsinstitut VDEh-Institut fuer Angewandte Forschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    A part of the waste materials arising in iron and steel manufacture is utilised physically, either internally for the recovery of iron or externally for the production of cement and nonferrous metals. Most of these materials can be used without prior processing. Iron and steel-relevant waste materials which at present are still landfilled or disposed of as hazardous wastes are not immediately suitable for physical recycling as secondary raw material. These waste materials have to be processed without exception before they can be used again in the existing steel and iron manufacturing plants. The results of the authors` own studies have clearly shown that the cupola furnace is suited for the use of a wide variety of waste materials. [Deutsch] Ein Teil der bei der Eisen- und Stahlerzeugung anfallenden Abfallstoffe werden entweder intern zur Rueckgewinnung des Eisens oder extern in der Zement- bzw. Nichteisenmetallgewinnung stofflich verwertet. Dabei handelt es sich ueberwiegend um Materialien, die ohne weitere Aufbereitung verwertbar sind. Die bislang noch deponierten oder als Sonderabfall entsorgten eisen- und stahlrelevanten Abfallstoffe sind ohne weiteres als Sekundaerrohstoff nicht stofflich verwertbar. Die Aufarbeitung dieser Abfallstoffe ist fuer den Wiedereinsatz in den vorhandenen Anlagen zur Gewinnung von Eisen und Stahl zwingend erforderlich. Die Ergebnisse der eigenen Untersuchungen haben klar gezeigt, dass der Kupolofen fuer die Nutzung einer grossen Vielfalt an Abfallstoffen geeignet ist. Zur Erhoehung der spezifischen Einsatzmenge an eisen- und stahlrelevanten Abfallstoffen untersuchen wir derzeit den Einsatz von oxidischen Materialien als sogenannte selbstgaengige Briketts zusammen mit den ueblichen Eisentraegern fuer die Erzeugung von fluessigem Giessereieisen. Selbstgaengig heisst hierbei, dass der Reduktionskohlenstoff und auch die notwendigen Legierungselemente insbesondere Silizium als SiC in den Briketts eingebunden werden. Fuer die Aufbereitung

  18. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker's cooperatives: an alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city's main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers' cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  19. Screening of heavy metal containing waste types for use as raw material in Arctic clay-based bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2016-01-01

    In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact of especially hazardous wastes can have severe consequences and the reduction and safe handling of these waste types are therefore an important issue. In this study, two groups of heavy metal containing particulate waste materials, municipal solid...... waste incineration (MSWI) fly and bottom ashes and mine tailings (i.e., residues from the mineral resource industry) from Greenland were screened in order to determine their suitability as secondary resources in clay-based brick production. Small clay discs, containing 20 or 40% of the different...... particulate waste materials, were fired and material properties and heavy metal leaching tests were conducted before and after firing. Remediation techniques (washing in distilled water and electrodialytical treatment) applied to the fly ash reduced leaching before firing. The mine tailings and bottom ash...

  20. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated...... and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties...... in Denmark (untreated) was calculated, and the BMP contribution of the individual material fractions was then evaluated. Material fractions of the two general waste types, defined as "food waste" and "fibre-rich waste," were found to be anaerobically degradable with considerable BMP. Material degradability...

  1. Research about the pozzolanic activity of waste materials from calcined clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, M. I.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To recycle and reutilise waste materials and find definite applications for their use, it is necessary to have a deep knowledge of them. The aim of this study is to study the possibility of using waste materials from calcined clay, actually ceramic tile, once crushed and grounded, as pozzolanic material. For this purpose, different tests are carried out in order to establish the pozzolanic activity of this material. At the same time, these results are compared to those of other industrial by-products, fly ash and silica fume, which are pozzolanic materials usually employed to elaborate mortars and concretes.

    Para llevar a cabo labores encaminadas al reciclado y revalorización de residuos es necesario un conocimiento profundo de los mismos, de forma que se busquen aplicaciones concretas de uso. El objetivo de este estudio es investigar la posibilidad de utilizar materiales de desecho procedentes de arcilla cocida, concretamente teja cerámica, una vez triturada y molida, como puzolana. Para ello, se efectúan diferentes ensayos dirigidos a establecer la actividad puzolanica del material. A su vez, estos resultados son comparados con otros residuos industriales, ceniza volante y humo de sílice, habituales en la elaboración de morteros y hormigones.

  2. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume I, Part 3, Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    A conference sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), was held on waste management. Topics of discussion were transuranic waste management, chemical and physical treatment technologies, waste minimization, land disposal technology and characterization and analysis. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  3. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume I, Part 2, Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    A conference sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) was held on Waste Mangement. Topics discussed were waste stabilization technologies regulations and standards, innovative treatment technology, waste stabilization projects. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  4. Adsorbent materials from paper industry waste materials and their use in Cu(II) removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, A; Barriga, S; Fidalgo, J M; Gascó, G

    2009-06-15

    This paper deals with the removal of Cu(2+) from water using adsorbent materials prepared from paper industry waste materials (one de-inking paper sludge and other sludge from virgin pulp mill). Experimental results showed that de-inking paper sludge leads to mesoporous materials (V(mic)/V(T)=0.13 and 0.14), whereas the sludge from virgin pulp mill produces high microporous adsorbents (V(mic)/V(T)=0.39 and 0.41). Adsorbent materials were then used for Cu(2+) removal from water at acid pH. During water treatment, heavy metals lixiviation from adsorbent materials was not produced. However, important Ca and Mg leaching was observed. Final pH significantly increases after treatment of water with adsorbent materials probably due to their elevated CaCO(3) content. In general, highest Cu(2+) removal was obtained using adsorbent materials from de-inking paper sludge. This result could be due to their higher content in oxygenated surface groups, high average pore diameter, elevated superficial charge density, high CaCO(3) amount and high Ca and Mg exchange content.

  5. Sewage sludge as barrier material for heavy metals in waste landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huyuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollutants in the leachate of waste landfill are a potential threat to the environment. In this study, the feasibility of using municipal sewage sludge as barrier material for the containment of heavy metal pollutants from solid waste landfills was evaluated by compaction test and hydraulic conductivity test concerning compaction property, impermeability and heavy metal retardation. Results of the compaction test showed that the maximum dry density of 0.79 g·cm−3 was achieved at the optimum water content of about 60%. The hydraulic conductivities of compacted sewage sludge permeated with synthetic heavy metal solutions were in the range of 1.3×10−8 – 6.2×10−9 cm·s−1, less than 1.0 ×10−7cm·s−1 recommended by regulations for barrier materials. Chemical analyses on the effluent from the hydraulic conductivity tests indicated that the two target heavy metals, Zn and Cd in the permeants were all retarded by compacted sewage sludge, which might be attributed to the precipitation and adsorption of heavy metal ions. The results of this study suggest that specially prepared material from sewage sludge could be used as a barrier for waste landfills for its low permeability and strong retardation to heavy metal pollutants.

  6. Impact of Waste Materials and Organic Amendments on Soil Properties and Vegetative Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. McGeehan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials, and materials derived from wastes, possess many characteristics that can improve soil fertility and enhance crop performance. These materials can be particularly useful as amendments to severely degraded soils associated with mining activities. This study evaluated biosolids, composts, log yard wastes, and two organic soil treatments for improved soil fertility and vegetative performance using side-by-side comparisons. Each plot was seeded with a standardized seed mix and evaluated for a series of soil chemical and physical parameters, total vegetation response, species diversity, ecological plant response, and invasion indices. All treatments were successful at improving soil fertility and promoting a self-sustaining vegetative cover. The level of available nitrogen had a strong impact on vegetative coverage, species distribution, and extent of unseeded vegetation. For example, high nitrogen treatments promoted a grass-dominated (low forb plant community with a low content of unseeded vegetation. In contrast, low nitrogen treatments promoted a more balanced plant community with a mixture of grass and forb species and greater susceptibility to unseeded vegetation establishment.

  7. Scale-dependent dispersivity for buffer material of nuclear waste depository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear waste deposit is commonly isolated by buffer material, such as bentonite, to prevent its leak from deposit cane. Therefore, the hydrogeological property of buffer material is the key issue for the success of nuclear waste deposition. Lee et al. (2013) performed an experimental work to explore the diffusion coefficient of Bentonite (MX-80) which is used as the buffer material of nuclear waste deposits. Scale effect was found in the diffusion coefficient. The result contradicts to the stochastic theory which states that the scale effect appears for the dispersion coefficient but not the diffusion coefficient. We reexamine the experimental data to explore the issue. Both analytical solutions of diffusion and advection-dispersion equations (ADE) were applied to estimate the parameters. Considering the micro-heterogeneity of bentonite, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is used to analyze the velocity, dispersion and diffusion coefficients of the breakthrough data from column tests. The results show that the experiment is influenced by the velocity. Diffusion model generates significant error in matching the breakthrough data. ADE model which considers velocity and dispersion performs better than the diffusion model. Scale effect is found in dispersion coefficient even in the small scale below the Gelha's (1993) data. Dispersion coefficient increases linearly with experimental lengths.

  8. Wood plastic composites from agro-waste materials: Analysis of mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Amir; Ashori, Alireza

    2010-04-01

    This article presents the application of agro-waste materials (i.e., corn stalk, reed stalk, and oilseed stalk) in order to evaluate and compare their suitability as reinforcement for thermoplastics as an alternative to wood fibers. The effects of fiber loading and CaCO(3) content on the mechanical properties were also studied. Overall trend shows that with addition of agro-waste materials, tensile and flexural properties of the composites are significantly enhanced. Oilseed fibers showed superior mechanical properties due to their high aspect ratio and chemical characteristics. The order of increment in the mechanical properties of the composites is oilseed stalk >corn stalk>reed stalk at all fiber loadings. The tensile and flexural properties of the composite significantly decreased with increasing CaCO(3) content, due to the reduction of interface bond between the fiber and matrix. It can be concluded from this study that the used agro-waste materials are attractive reinforcements from the standpoint of their mechanical properties.

  9. Evolution of cement based materials in a repository for radioactive waste and their chemical barrier function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Metz, Volker; Schlieker, Martina; Bohnert, Elke [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE)

    2015-07-01

    The use of cementitious materials in nuclear waste management is quite widespread. It covers the solidification of low/intermediate-level liquid as well as solid wastes (e.g. laboratory wastes) and serves as shielding. For both high-level and intermediate-low level activity repositories, cement/concrete likewise plays an important role. It is used as construction material for underground and surface disposals, but more importantly it serves as barrier or sealing material. For the requirements of waste conditioning, special cement mixtures have been developed. These include special mixtures for the solidification of evaporator concentrates, borate binding additives and for spilling solid wastes. In recent years, low-pH cements were strongly discussed especially for repository applications, e.g. (Celine CAU DIT COUMES 2008; Garcia-Sineriz, et al. 2008). Examples for relevant systems are Calcium Silicate Cements (ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based) or Calcium Aluminates Cements (CAC). Low-pH pore solutions are achieved by reduction of the portlandite content by partial substitution of OPC by mineral admixtures with high silica content. The blends follow the pozzolanic reaction consuming Ca(OH){sub 2}. Potential admixtures are silica fume (SF) and fly ashes (FA). In these mixtures, super plasticizers are required, consisting of polycarboxilate or naphthalene formaldehyde as well as various accelerating admixtures (Garcia-Sineriz, et al. 2008). The pH regime of concrete/cement materials may stabilize radionuclides in solution. Newly formed alteration products retain or release radionuclides. An important degradation product of celluloses in cement is iso-saccharin acid. According to Glaus 2004 (Glaus and van Loon 2004), it reacts with radionuclides forming dissolved complexes. Apart from potentially impacting radionuclide solubility limitations, concrete additives, radionuclides or other strong complexants compete for surface sites for sorbing onto cement phases. In

  10. Washery wastes as a source of raw materials for ceramic products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmistrov, V.N.; Tambovtseva, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the output of walling products and the exhaustion of raw material sources for brickmaking have brought to the fore the urgency of devising methods of utilizing coal-mining wastes in the production of rough ceramics, i.e., ceramic walling products, and sewage pipes. The method developed in the VNIIstrom Institute for the production of walling products from washery wastes has now been approved by the Joint Authorities Commission and recommended for commercial exploitation. However, these wastes can only be used (like the traditional clay materials) provided they are uniform in composition and properties. Significant variations lead to a lower product quality and reduced cost effectiveness. The composition and properties of washery wastes vary to an extent which depends on the composition variations in the rock over- and under-lying the coal seam, the proportions of rock included in the mined product, the production rhythm in the washery and the labor organizations at the mining, transportation, and cleaning stages. A survey of the variations in composition of the rocks over- and under-lying coal seams in the Donbas has shown that the average ashes are 88% above and 83% below the seam; the variability coefficients are comparatively low (13 and 16.3%, respectively). Correspondingly, the long-term average variability of the ash of the tailings from half the washeries is below 15%. The construction of modern washeries attached to the large pits will further reduce the variability in the ash of the washery wastes. We took samples from No. 1 and No. 2 washeries at the Cherevopets I and SW to investigate the variability of the tailings composition and properties.

  11. Methodology in the handling of the waste radioactive material; Metodologia en el manejo del material radiactivo de desecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeterio H, M., E-mail: miguel.emeterio@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The methodology in the management of radioactive waste is constituted by an administrative part and seven technical stages: transport, classification, segregation, conditioning, treatment, packages qualification and final disposition (storage). In their diverse stages the management deserves a special attention, due to the increment of the use and application of the nuclear energy and radioactive substances, for such a reason should be managed in such a way that the exposed personnel safety and the public in general is guaranteed, protecting the integrity of the environment. (Author)

  12. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - Criteria Relating to the Operation of Uranium Mills and the Disposition of Tailings or Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Disposition of Tailings or Wastes Produced by the Extraction or Concentration of Source Material... Relating to the Operation of Uranium Mills and the Disposition of Tailings or Wastes Produced by the... relating to milling operations and the disposition of tailings or wastes resulting from such milling...

  13. Recycling of inorganic waste in monolithic and cellular glass-based materials for structural and functional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Acacio; Marangoni, Mauro; Cetin, Suna; Bernardo, Enrico

    2016-07-01

    The stabilization of inorganic waste of various nature and origin, in glasses, has been a key strategy for environmental protection for the last decades. When properly formulated, glasses may retain many inorganic contaminants permanently, but it must be acknowledged that some criticism remains, mainly concerning costs and energy use. As a consequence, the sustainability of vitrification largely relies on the conversion of waste glasses into new, usable and marketable glass-based materials, in the form of monolithic and cellular glass-ceramics. The effective conversion in turn depends on the simultaneous control of both starting materials and manufacturing processes. While silica-rich waste favours the obtainment of glass, iron-rich wastes affect the functionalities, influencing the porosity in cellular glass-based materials as well as catalytic, magnetic, optical and electrical properties. Engineered formulations may lead to important reductions of processing times and temperatures, in the transformation of waste-derived glasses into glass-ceramics, or even bring interesting shortcuts. Direct sintering of wastes, combined with recycled glasses, as an example, has been proven as a valid low-cost alternative for glass-ceramic manufacturing, for wastes with limited hazardousness. The present paper is aimed at providing an up-to-date overview of the correlation between formulations, manufacturing technologies and properties of most recent waste-derived, glass-based materials. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Environmental monitoring recovery of solid wastes in Muribeca (Brasil). 2 part; Monitoreo ambiental de la recuperacion del vertedero de residuos solidos de Muribeca, Brasil-II parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juca, J. F. T.; Monteiro, V. E. D.; Melo, M. C.

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive program of studying and monitoring the in situ performance of Muribeca Landfill, Physical, chemical and biological properties of the solid waste were analyzing in order to understand the mechanics of the landfill, the waste biodegradation process and the contamination level of air, liquids and subsoil. the parameters monitored in this investigation involve from leachate and gases generation to salts variations and the evolution of bacteria growth. Climate variation, among several others environment parameters, that affects solid waste degradation in sanitary landfills, were also controlled. Temperature, settlement, physical-chemical parameters, pathogenic microorganisms determination (quantitative and qualitative) and phyto toxicity are also part of this study. Secondary determinations as: moisture content, volatile solids, pH, grains density, and metals evaluation in different depths were also investigated. (Author) 23 refs.

  15. Environmental monitoring recovery of solid wastes in Muribeca, (Brasil): 1 part; Monitoreo ambiental de la recuperacion del vertedero de residuos solidos de Muribeca, Brasil- 1 parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juca, J. f. T.; Monteiro, V. E. D.; Melo, M. C.

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive program of studying and monitoring the in situ performance of Muribeca Landfill. Physical, chemical and biological properties of the solid waste were analyzing in order to understand the mechanics of the landfill, the waste biodegradation process and the contamination level of air, liquids and subsoil. The parameters monitored in this investigation involve from leachate and gases generation to salts variations and the evolution of bacteria growth. Climate variation, among several others environment parameters, that affects solid waste degradation in sanitary landfills, were also controlled. Temperature, settlement, physical-chemical parameters, pathogenic microorganisms determination (quantitative and qualitative) and phytotoxicity are also part of this study. Secondary determinations as: moisture content, volatile solids, pH, grains density, and metals, evaluation in different depths were also investigated. (Author)

  16. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Improving mechanical properties of lightweight Porcelanite aggregate concrete using different waste material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheelan M. Hama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving the mechanical properties of lightweight concrete using waste material is the goal of this work to get both structural and environmental advantage besides cost saving. Porcelanite aggregate was used as lightweight aggregate. First plastic bottles were cut into slices and used as fibers with these percentages: 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25% and 1.5% by volume. The results of tests under compression and tensile stress showed that mix 1% plastic fiber (PF gave the best results when compared to reference mix without PF. Eggshell (rich with CaO and glass wastes (rich of silca were crashed and powdered to desired size and used as partial replacement of cement with these percentage: 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Compressive strength, flexural strength, density, absorption and modulus of elasticity were tested. Comparison was made with reference mix (without waste powder to figure the efficiency of using these waste in lightweight Porcelanite concrete. The results of tests showed that mixes with 1% PF and 5% eggshell powder (ESP gave results so close to reference mix. Using more than 5% ESP made no improvement in lightweight concrete, while the mix with 1% PF with any glass powder (GP percentages used in this research gave good improvement in the tested properties especially at 20% GP.

  18. Exploring high-strength glass-ceramic materials for upcycling of industrial wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Gu-Seul; Park, Hyun Seo; Seo, Sung Mo; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2015-11-01

    To promote the recycling of industrial waste and to develop value-added products using these resources, the possibility of manufacturing glass-ceramic materials of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3 system has been investigated by various heat treatment processes. Glass-ceramic materials with six different chemical compositions were prepared using steel industry slags and power plant waste by melting, casting and heat treatment. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that diopside and anorthite were the primary phases in the samples. The anorthite phase was formed in SiO2-rich material (at least 43 wt%). In CaO-rich material, the gehlenite phase was formed. By the differential scanning calorimetry analyses, it was found that the glass transition point was in the range of 973-1023 K, and the crystallization temperature was in the range of 1123-1223 K. The crystallization temperature increased as the content of Fe2O3 decreased. By the multi-step heat treatment process, the formation of the anorthite phase was enhanced. Using FactSage, the ratio of various phases was calculated as a function of temperature. The viscosities and the latent heats for the samples with various compositions were also calculated by FactSage. The optimal compositions for glass-ceramics materials were discussed in terms of their compressive strength, and micro-hardness.

  19. Reliable classification of moving waste materials with LIBS in concrete recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Han; Bakker, M C M

    2014-03-01

    Effective discrimination between different waste materials is of paramount importance for inline quality inspection of recycle concrete aggregates from demolished buildings. The moving targeted materials in the concrete waste stream are wood, PVC, gypsum block, glass, brick, steel rebar, aggregate and cement paste. For each material, up to three different types were considered, while thirty particles of each material were selected. Proposed is a reliable classification methodology based on integration of the LIBS spectral emissions in a fixed time window, starting from the deployment of the laser shot. PLS-DA (multi class) and the hybrid combination PCA-Adaboost (binary class) were investigated as efficient classifiers. In addition, mean centre and auto scaling approaches were compared for both classifiers. Using 72 training spectra and 18 test spectra per material, each averaged by ten shots, only PLS-DA achieved full discrimination, and the mean centre approach made it slightly more robust. Continuing with PLS-DA, the relation between data averaging and convergence to 0.3% average error was investigated using 9-fold cross-validations. Single-shot PLS-DA presented the highest challenge and most desirable methodology, which converged with 59 PC. The degree of success in practical testing will depend on the quality of the training set and the implications of the possibly remaining false positives.

  20. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Xonotlite-type Calcium Silicate Insulation Material Using Industrial Zirconium Waste Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jinguo; CUI Chong; LIU Jinqiang; LIAO Wenli

    2011-01-01

    Xonotlite-type insulation material was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis technology using industrial zirconium waste residue in this paper, and the phase analysis together with the observation of micro-morphology were also carried out by XRD, SEM and TEM. The density and thermal conductivity were measured finally. The results indicate, chlorine ion impurity contained in zirconium waste residue can be removed effectively via water washed process, and the reactive activity of silicon dioxide is almost not affected,which make it be a good substitution of silicon material for the preparation of calcium silicate insulation material by hydrothermal synthesis technique. The density and thermal conductivity of xonotlite-type calcium silicate insulation material obtained by hydrothermal synthesis technique can reach 159 kg/m3, 0.049 W/(m·°C), respectively, meeting with National Standard well, when synthesis conditions are selected as follows: Ca/Si molar ratio equal to 1, synthesis temperature at 210 ℃ and kept for 8 hrs. It provides a new approach to realize lightweight and low thermal conductivity of calcium silicate insulation material.

  1. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw MaterialsPart I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the production and application of polymer materials based on renewable raw materials – biopolymers. It is pointed out that, investment of resources in the study of renewable raw materials in the last twenty years has led to the improvement of old and development of completely new chemical and biochemical processes for using biomass for the production of low molecular weight chemical substances, and especially for the production of biopolymers, which are biodegradable and compostable, and biopolymers which are nonbiodegradable. In the same period, producers of polymers based on fossil raw materials have also developed biopolymers that are biodegradable and some of them compostable and, most important, compatible with biopolymers based on renewable raw materials. The facts considering the state of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials on the market, and prediction of production increase over the next five years are also stated. Additionally, the main renewable raw materials and the biopolymers made from them that are already present in the world market are briefly listed. A short review of biopolymers based on cellulose from wood and annual plants is also given.

  2. Recycled water reuse permit renewal application for the materials and fuels complex industrial waste ditch and industrial waste pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Name, No

    2014-10-01

    This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  3. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Name

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  4. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  5. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 73 - Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Materials I Appendix I to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. I Appendix I to Part 73—Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Materials Table I-1—Quantities...

  6. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-02-04

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  7. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  8. Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education safety guide

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on the > fulfilment of the safety requirements established in Safety Standards > Series No. WS-R-2, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, > Including Decommissioning. It covers the roles and responsibilities of > different bodies involved in the predisposal management of radioactive > waste and in the handling and processing of radioactive material. It > is intended for organizations generating and handling radioactive > waste or handling such waste on a centralized basis for and the > regulatory body responsible for regulating such activities.  > Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the > environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety > considerations; 5. Predisposal management of radioactive waste; 6. > Acceptance of radioactive waste in disposal facilities; 7. Record > keeping and reporting; 8. Management systems; Appendix I: Fault > schedule for safety assessment and environmental impact assessment; > Ap...

  9. Turning waste into valuable resource: potential of electric arc furnace dust as photocatalytic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores the potential of a hazardous waste of difficult management, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), as photocatalytic material. Starting from a real waste coming from a Spanish steel factory, chemical, mineralogical, and optical characterizations have been carried out. Direct trials on EAFD and mortar containing this waste have been performed to evaluate its potential as photocatalyst itself and within a cementitious material. The analysis of photocatalytic properties has been done by two different methods: degradation of NO x and degradation of rhodamine (RhB). As a result, it can be said that EAFD exhibited photocatalytic activity for both configurations with UV and visible light, having the mortar enhanced photocatalytic activity for NO x with respect to the EAFD itself. Additionally, in direct trials on the EAFD, it has been able to degrade RhB even in the dark, which has been attributed to transfer of electrons between the adsorbed RhB and the conduction band of some oxides in the dust.

  10. Leaching capacity of metals-metalloids and recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvilotidou, Vasiliki; Hahladakis, John N; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of Directive 2012/19/EU which is related to WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment), also known as "e-waste", is to contribute to their sustainable production and consumption that would most possibly be achieved by their recovery, recycling and reuse. Under this perspective, the present study focused on the recovery of valuable materials, metals and metalloids from LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays). Indium (In), arsenic (As) and stibium (Sb) were selected to be examined for their Leaching Capacity (R) from waste LCDs. Indium was selected mainly due to its rarity and preciousness, As due to its high toxicity and wide use in LCDs and Sb due to its recent application as arsenic's replacement to improve the optimal clarity of a LCD screen. The experimental procedure included disassembly of screens along with removal and recovery of polarizers via thermal shock, cutting, pulverization and digestion of the shredded material and finally leaching evaluation of the aforementioned elements. Leaching tests were conducted under various temperatures, using various solid:liquid (S/L) ratios and solvents (acid mixtures), to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining the maximum leaching capacities. The examined elements exhibited different leaching behaviors, mainly due to the considerable diversity in their inherent characteristic properties. Indium demonstrated the highest recovery percentages (approximately 60%), while the recovery of As and Sb was unsuccessful, obtaining poor leaching percentages (0.16% and 0.5%, respectively).

  11. Critical review of real-time methods for solid waste characterisation: Informing material recovery and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, C; Longhurst, P J; Wagland, S T

    2017-03-01

    Waste management processes generally represent a significant loss of material, energy and economic resources, so legislation and financial incentives are being implemented to improve the recovery of these valuable resources whilst reducing contamination levels. Material recovery and waste derived fuels are potentially valuable options being pursued by industry, using mechanical and biological processes incorporating sensor and sorting technologies developed and optimised for recycling plants. In its current state, waste management presents similarities to other industries that could improve their efficiencies using process analytical technology tools. Existing sensor technologies could be used to measure critical waste characteristics, providing data required by existing legislation, potentially aiding waste treatment processes and assisting stakeholders in decision making. Optical technologies offer the most flexible solution to gather real-time information applicable to each of the waste mechanical and biological treatment processes used by industry. In particular, combinations of optical sensors in the visible and the near-infrared range from 800nm to 2500nm of the spectrum, and different mathematical techniques, are able to provide material information and fuel properties with typical performance levels between 80% and 90%. These sensors not only could be used to aid waste processes, but to provide most waste quality indicators required by existing legislation, whilst offering better tools to the stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Technological process and optimum design of organic materials vacuum pyrolysis and indium chlorinated separation from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a technology process including vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum chlorinated separation was proposed to convert waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels into useful resources using self-design apparatuses. The suitable pyrolysis temperature and pressure are determined as 300°C and 50 Pa at first. The organic parts of the panels were converted to oil (79.10 wt%) and gas (2.93 wt%). Then the technology of separating indium was optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated the indium recovery ratio was 99.97% when the particle size is less than 0.16 mm, the weight percentage of NH4Cl to glass powder is 50 wt% and temperature is 450°C. The research results show that the organic materials, indium and glass of LCD panel can be recovered during the recovery process efficiently and eco-friendly.

  13. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  14. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Boldrin, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher...... recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant...... differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable...

  15. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part I. The fluorination-fractionation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1977-07-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the fluorination-fractionation (dry hydrofluor) process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. This study is designed to assist in defining the term as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitment are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  16. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473).

  17. High temperature materials for radioactive waste incineration and vitrification. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D F; Ondrejcin, R S; Salley, L

    1986-01-01

    Incineration or vitrification of radioactive waste subjects equipment to alkaline or acidic fluxing, oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and thermal shock. It is necessary to select appropriate materials of construction and control operating conditions to avoid rapid equipment failure. Nickel- and cobalt-based alloys with high chromium or aluminum content and aluminum oxide/chromium oxide refractories with high chromium oxide content have provided the best service in pilot-scale melter tests. Inconel 690 and Monofrax K-3 are being used for waste vitrification. Haynes 188 and high alumina refractory are undergoing pilot scale tests for incineration equipment. Laboratory tests indicate that alloys and refractories containing still higher concentrations of chromium or chromium oxide, such as Inconel 671 and Monofrax E, may provide superior resistance to attack in glass melter environments.

  18. Laser Raman spectrometric determination of oxy-anions in nuclear waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.G.

    1977-03-01

    Oxy-anions in complex nuclear process-waste materials are being determined by laser Raman spectrometry (LRS). The double internal-standard technique developed by Marston is applied to the simultaneous determination of up to x anions in alkaline solutions. The method of Marston has been extended to solutions prepared from the solids formed in nuclear waste storage tanks. As many as six anions, aluminate, chromate, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate, are simultaneously determined in about one hour. Carbonate may also be determined, but in the presence of the prevalent nitrate, a chemical separation is required. Individual methods have been relegated to a secondary status due to the many advantages of LRS. Advantages such as small sample size, speed of analysis, accuracy, and specificity will be discussed. The typical precision obtained for analyses in high concentration is around five percent relative standard deviation.

  19. Viability of utilization of waste materials from ceramic products in precast concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, M. I.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The recycled and re-valuation process of waste materials involves studies lead to a deep acknowledges of them, finding applications for their intended use. The waste materials from ceramic products can be recycled into the construction sector, as arid or pozzolanic materials. The current work deals with the incorporation of ceramic materials in these two different ways, checking the behaviour of the elaborated mortar by mean of laboratory tests. Also, tests are developed in factory, using these as components for precast concrete tiles.

    Todo proceso de reciclado y revalorización de residuos implica estudios encaminados a un conocimiento profundo de los mismos, de forma que se busquen aplicaciones concretas de uso. Los materiales de desecho procedentes de productos cerámicos pueden ser reciclados dentro del sector de la construcción, ya sea como áridos o como materiales puzolánicos. El presente trabajo aborda la incorporación de materiales cerámicos desde estas dos vertientes, comprobando, en cada caso, el comportamiento de los morteros elaborados mediante ensayos de laboratorio. También se llevan a cabo pruebas en fábrica, siendo utilizados como componentes en prefabricados de hormigón.

  20. Municipal household waste used as complement material for composting chicken manure and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume L. Amadji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few organic materials available as agricultural soil amendment because their low chemical content means that large quantities are required. In order to improve the availability of raw materials for composting, as well as the quality of the compost produced, municipal solid waste (MW was added to cotton-seed residue (CSR and to the association of CSR with chicken manure (M in different weight/weight (MW/added materials ratios of 5:1 and 2:1. Aerobic composting was processed and compost yield was determined, as well as compost particle size and pH. Also, the compost bulk density and its water holding capacity were determined as well as contents of total nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, calcium (Ca, magnesium and heavy metals. According to its pH and carbon/nitrogen ratio values, the municipal waste of Cotonou was judged to be a good raw material for composting in order to improve availability of the organic source of nutrients. The composts produced with MW+M+CSR had the highest potential for amending Ferralsols, especially with a mixture of 2:1 (200 kg MW+100 kg M+100 kg CSR that could be applied at 10 t ha–1. However, further improvement in composting methods was suggested to increase Ca++ and reduce mercury contents, respectively. Moreover, potassium balance should be improved in the produced compost.

  1. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  2. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: Exploratory Shaft Facility fluids and materials evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, K.A.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if any fluids or materials used in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) of Yucca Mountain will make the mountain unsuitable for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain, an area on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA, is a candidate site for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power and defense nuclear activities. To properly characterize Yucca Mountain, it will be necessary to construct an underground test facility, in which in situ site characterization tests can be conducted. The candidate repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, however, could potentially be compromised by fluids and materials used in the site characterization tests. To minimize this possibility, Los Alamos National Laboratory was directed to evaluate the kinds of fluids and materials that will be used and their potential impacts on the site. A secondary objective was to identify fluids and materials, if any, that should be prohibited from, or controlled in, the underground. 56 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Investigation of metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials for engineered barrier applications in nuclear-waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerman, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    An effort to develop licensable engineered barrier systems for the long-term (about 1000 yr) containment of nuclear wastes under conditions of deep continental geologic disposal has been underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory since January 1979, under the auspices of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program. In the present work, the barrier system comprises the hard or structural elements of the package: the canister, the overpack(s), and the hole sleeve. A number of candidate metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials were put through mechanical, corrosion, and leaching screening tests to determine their potential usefulness in barrier-system applications. Materials demonstrating adequate properties in the screening tests will be subjected to more detailed property tests, and, eventually, cost/benefit analyses, to determine their ultimate applicability to barrier-system design concepts. The following materials were investigated: two titanium alloys of Grade 2 and Grade 12; 300 and 400 series stainless steels, Inconels, Hastelloy C-276, titanium, Zircoloy, copper-nickel alloys and cast irons; total of 14 ceramic materials, including two grades of alumina, plus graphite and basalt; and polymers such as polyamide-imide, polyarylene, polyimide, polyolefin, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, fluoropolymer, epoxy, furan, silicone, and ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. The most promising candidates for further study and potential use in engineered barrier systems were found to be rubber, filled polyphenylene sulfide, fluoropolymer, and furan derivatives.

  4. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes II: Influence of raw material composition under catalytic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A; Torres, A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the results obtained in catalytic pyrolysis of three plastic waste streams which are the rejects of an industrial packing wastes sorting plant are presented. The samples have been pyrolysed in a 3.5 dm(3) reactor under semi-batch conditions at 440 °C for 30 min in nitrogen atmosphere. Commercial ZSM-5 zeolite has been used as catalyst in liquid phase contact. In every case, high HHV gases and liquids which can be useful as fuels or source of chemicals are obtained. A solid fraction composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials and some char formed in the pyrolysis process is also obtained. The zeolite has shown to be very effective to produce liquids with great aromatics content and C3-C4 fraction rich gases, even though the raw material was mainly composed of polyolefins. The characteristics of the pyrolysis products as well as the effect of the catalyst vary depending on the composition of the raw material. When paper rich samples are pyrolysed, ZSM-5 zeolite increases water production and reduces CO and CO(2) generation. If stepwise pyrolysis is applied to such sample, the aqueous liquid phase can be separated from the organic liquid fraction in a first low temperature step.

  6. National inventory of the radioactive wastes and the recycling materials; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.C

    2006-07-01

    This synthesis report presents the 2006 inventory of the radioactive wastes and recycling materials, in France. It contains 9 chapters: a general introduction, the radioactive wastes (definition, classification, origins and management), the inventory methodology (organization, accounting and prospecting, exhaustiveness and control tools), main results (stocks, prevision for the period 2005-2020, perspectives after 2020), the inventory for producers or owners (front end fuel cycle, electric power plants, back end fuel cycle, wastes processing and maintenance facilities, researches centers, medical activities, industrial activities, non nuclear industries using nuclear materials, defense center, storage and disposal), the polluted sites, examples of foreign inventories, conclusion and annexes. (A.L.B.)

  7. Effective utilization of incinerated municipal solid waste incineration ash: zeolitic material synthesis and silica extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bac, Bui Hoang; Song, Yungoo; Moon, Yonghee; Kim, Myung Hun; Kang, Il Mo

    2010-08-01

    In this study the effective utilization of two types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ashes, namely air-cooled ash (ACS) and water-cooled ash (WCS) samples obtained from a municipal solid waste incineration plant, was examined by applying zeolitic material synthesis and silica extraction. The influence of the experimental conditions including the ratio of sample : NaOH solution, the reaction temperature and time, and the concentration of NaOH solution were investigated. The results for the 25 experimental trials can be summarized as: (1) the formation of tobermorite and/or pectolite-1A as a major component in most conditions; (2) the synthesis of hydroxycancrinite as a major phase at 200 degrees C; (3) a dramatic increase in the extracted SiO(2) yield at 1 : 30 value of sample : NaOH ratio and 200 degrees C, even at short reaction times; and (4) relatively high SiO(2) yields for WCS ashes rather than ACS ashes. An increase in the reaction time improved the quantity of synthesized zeolitic materials. The reaction temperature determined the type of zeolite. An increase in the NaOH concentration can be an essential factor to improve zeolitic material synthesis, but it significantly reduced the yield of SiO(2) extraction. In conclusion, suitable conditions for obtaining both SiO(2) extraction and synthesized zeolites from the ashes of the incinerated solid waste materials should be: 200 degrees C reaction temperature; a 1 : 30 (g : mL) value for the sample : NaOH ratio; 2 mol L(-1) NaOH concentration; and a reaction time of more than 24 h.

  8. Investigation of Cotton Component Destruction in Cotton/Polyester Blended Textile Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė SANKAUSKAITĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recycling technologies of textile industry waste usually are adjusted for materials manufactured of uniform fibers. Unfortunately, usually materials are manufactured of blended chemical and natural fibers to achieve better wearing properties, i. e. abrasion resistance, durability and etc. This paper presents investigation about the destruction of cotton component and easy separation from non-biodegradable polyester. The pre-treatment (soaking in aqueous solutions of reagents was carried out at different temperatures for blended knitting yarn (50 % cotton / 50 % polyester waste. The waste was pre-treated by aqueous solutions of reagents: MgCl2; Al2(SO43, MgCl2 and Al2(SO43 mixture, MgCl2 and citric acid mixture at 20, 50, 90 and 130 °C. After the pre-treatment all samples were dried at 102 °C and heat-treated at different temperatures: 150, 160 and 180 °C. The investigation results showed that the highest degradation rate (95.47 % of cotton component from 50 % cotton / 50 % polyester blended knitting yarn waste  was achieved by using the pre-treatment at 20 °C temperature by aqueous solution of 20 g/l MgCl2 and 4 g/l Al2(SO43 mixture and heat-treatment of dry samples at 180 °C temperature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.3115

  9. Investigation of Cotton Component Destruction in Cotton/Polyester Blended Textile Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė SANKAUSKAITĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recycling technologies of textile industry waste usually are adjusted for materials manufactured of uniform fibers. Unfortunately, usually materials are manufactured of blended chemical and natural fibers to achieve better wearing properties, i. e. abrasion resistance, durability and etc. This paper presents investigation about the destruction of cotton component and easy separation from non-biodegradable polyester. The pre-treatment (soaking in aqueous solutions of reagents was carried out at different temperatures for blended knitting yarn (50 % cotton / 50 % polyester waste. The waste was pre-treated by aqueous solutions of reagents: MgCl2; Al2(SO43, MgCl2 and Al2(SO43 mixture, MgCl2 and citric acid mixture at 20, 50, 90 and 130 °C. After the pre-treatment all samples were dried at 102 °C and heat-treated at different temperatures: 150, 160 and 180 °C. The investigation results showed that the highest degradation rate (95.47 % of cotton component from 50 % cotton / 50 % polyester blended knitting yarn waste  was achieved by using the pre-treatment at 20 °C temperature by aqueous solution of 20 g/l MgCl2 and 4 g/l Al2(SO43 mixture and heat-treatment of dry samples at 180 °C temperature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.3115

  10. Report: transboundary hazardous waste management. part II: performance auditing of treatment facilities in importing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2006-06-01

    Before implementing the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention in the Asia, Taiwan has conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project to visit the governmental authorities and waste-disposal facilities in the countries that import waste from Taiwan. A total of nine treatment facilities, six of which are reported in this paper, and the five countries where the plants are located were visited in 2001-2002. France, Belgium and Finland primarily handled polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, steel mill dust and metal waste. The United States accepted metal sludge, mainly electroplating sludge, from Taiwan. Waste printed circuit boards, waste wires and cables, and a mixture of waste metals and electronics were the major items exported to China. Relatively speaking, most treatment plants for hazardous waste paid close attention to environmental management, such as pollution control and monitoring, site zoning, system management regarding occupational safety and hygiene, data management, permits application, and image promotion. Under the tight restrictions formulated by the central environment agency, waste treatment plants in China managed the environmental issues seriously. For example, one of the treatment plants had ISO 14001 certification. It is believed that with continuous implementation of regulations, more improvement is foreseeable. Meanwhile, Taiwan and China should also continuously enhance their collaboration regarding the transboundary management of hazardous waste.

  11. Screening for halogenated flame retardants in European consumer products, building materials and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Šimon; Bečanová, Jitka; Melymuk, Lisa; Komprdová, Klára; Kohoutek, Jiří; Kukučka, Petr; Klánová, Jana

    2017-02-01

    To fulfill national and international fire safety standards, flame retardants (FRs) are being added to a wide range of consumer products and building materials consisting of flammable materials like plastic, wood and textiles. While the FR composition of some products and materials has been identified in recent years, the limited global coverage of the data and the large diversity in consumer products necessitates more information for an overall picture of the FR composition in common products/materials. To address this issue, 137 individual samples of various consumer products, building materials and wastes were collected. To identify and characterize potential sources of FRs in indoor environment, all samples were analyzed for content of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs). The most frequently detected were HBCDDs (85%), with the highest median concentration of Σ4HBCDDs of 300 mg kg(-1) in polystyrenes. The highest median concentration of Σ10PBDEs was found in recycled plastic materials, reaching 4 mg kg(-1). The lowest concentrations were observed for NFRs, where the median of Σ12NFRs reached 0.4 mg kg(-1) in the group of electrical & electronic equipment wastes. This suggests that for consumer products and building materials that are currently in-use, legacy compounds still contribute to the overall burden of FRs. Additionally, contrasting patterns of FR composition in recycled and virgin plastics, revealed using principle component analysis (PCA), suggest that legacy flame retardants are reentering the market through recycled products, perpetuating the potential for emissions to indoor environments and thus for human exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Material stream management of biomass wastes for the optimization of organic wastes utilization; Stoffstrommanagement von Biomasseabfaellen mit dem Ziel der Optimierung der Verwertung organischer Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappe, Florian; Boess, Andreas; Fehrenbach, Horst; Giegrich, Juergen; Vogt, Regine [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Dehoust, Guenter; Schueler, Doris; Wiegmann, Kirsten; Fritsche, Uwe [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The effective use of the valuable substances found in waste materials can make an important contribution to climate protection and the conservation of fossil and mineral resources. In order to harness the potential contribution of biomass waste streams, it is necessary to consider the potential of the waste in connection with that of the total biomass. In this project, relevant biogenous material streams in the forestry, the agriculture as well as in several industries are studied, and their optimization potentials are illustrated. Scenarios are then developed, while taking various other environmental impacts into considerations, to explore possible optimized utilization of biomass streams and biomass waste substances for the future. Straw that is not needed for humus production and currently left on the field can be used for its energy content. The realisation of this potential would be significant contribution towards climate protection. The energetic use of liquid manure without negatively influencing its application as commercial fertilizer can also be similarly successful because of its large volume. The results of our study also support an increased energetic use of saw residues as fuel (in form of pellets) in small furnaces. For household organic wastes, the report suggests the fermentation with optimized energy use and intensified marketing of the aerobically treated compost as peat substitution. While for waste cooking fat that is currently disposed in the residual waste, a separate collection and direct use in motors that are used as combined heat and power generation are recommended. For meat and bone meal and communal sludge that are not being used substantial currently or in the future, phosphorus can be recovered with promising success from the ash produced when the waste is burnt in mono incinerators. These technical options should however be tested against disposal standard. (orig.)

  13. Utilization of sepiolite materials as a bottom liner material in solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yucel; Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Tanyu, Burak F; Koparal, Savas

    2014-01-01

    Landfill bottom liners are generally constructed with natural clay soils due to their high strength and low hydraulic conductivity characteristics. However, in recent years it is increasingly difficult to find locally available clay soils that satisfy the required engineering properties. Fine grained soils such as sepiolite and zeolite may be used as alternative materials in the constructions of landfill bottom liners. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using natural clay rich in kaolinite, sepiolite, zeolite, and their mixtures as a bottom liner material. Unconfined compression tests, swell tests, hydraulic conductivity tests, batch and column adsorption tests were performed on each type of soil and sepiolite-zeolite mixtures. The results of the current study indicate that sepiolite is the dominant material that affects both the geomechanical and geoenvironmental properties of these alternative liners. An increase in sepiolite content in the sepiolite-zeolite mixtures increased the strength, swelling potential and metal adsorption capacities of the soil mixtures. Moreover, hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreased significantly with the addition of sepiolite. The utilization of sepiolite-zeolite materials as a bottom liner material allowed for thinner liners with some reduction in construction costs compared to use of a kaolinite-rich clay.

  14. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  15. Mathematical Research in Materials Science: Opportunities and Perspectives. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    mainly involves classical mathematics and therefore little knowledge of modern mathematics , especially tools that might be beneficial for exploring...application. The committee believes that a considerable amount of modern mathematics and statistics would be useful in resolving problems of materials science

  16. Innovations in bonding to zirconia-based materials: Part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abou Shelib, M.N.M.; Matinlinna, J.P.; Salameh, Z.; Ounsi, H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Establishing a reliable bond to zirconia-based materials has proven to be difficult which is the major limitation against fabricating adhesive zirconia restorations. This bond could be improved using novel selective infiltration etching conditioning in combination with engineered

  17. Flow resistance of textile materials, Part I: Monofilament fabrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooijer, H.; Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G.; Groot Wassink, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the relation between the flow resistance of a textile material and its geometry. A literature survey reveals that the orifice model is most suited to modeling the flow resistance of woven fabrics, but applications of this model were, until now, restricted to relatively open fabr

  18. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  19. Tapped density optimisation for four agricultural wastes - Part II: Performance analysis and Taguchi-Pareto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibade Oluwaseyi Ayodele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this attempt, which is a second part of discussions on tapped density optimisation for four agricultural wastes (particles of coconut, periwinkle, palm kernel and egg shells, performance analysis for comparative basis is made. This paper pioneers a study direction in which optimisation of process variables are pursued using Taguchi method integrated with the Pareto 80-20 rule. Negative percentage improvements resulted when the optimal tapped density was compared with the average tapped density. However, the performance analysis between optimal tapped density and the peak tapped density values yielded positive percentage improvements for the four filler particles. The performance analysis results validate the effectiveness of using the Taguchi method in improving the tapped density properties of the filler particles. The application of the Pareto 80-20 rule to the table of parameters and levels produced revised tables of parameters and levels which helped to identify the factor-levels position of each parameter that is economical to optimality. The Pareto 80-20 rule also produced revised S/N response tables which were used to know the relevant S/N ratios that are relevant to optimality.

  20. 76 FR 53376 - Definition of Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260, 261, and 270 RIN 2050-AG62 Definition of Solid Waste AGENCY: Environmental... definition of solid waste published in the Federal Register on July 22, 2011. EPA is proposing to revise certain exclusions from the definition of solid waste for hazardous secondary materials intended for...

  1. Organoclay nanocomposites of post-industrial waste poly(butylene terephthalate) from automotive parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Noe B; Fernandes, Elizabeth G; Zanata, Fernanda; Bartoli, Julio R; Souza, Diego H S; Ito, Edson N

    2015-10-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites are novel materials of huge interest owing to their favourable cost/performance ratio with low amount of nanofillers, improved thermal resistance, flame retardancy and mechanical properties in relation to their matrices. In this work, composites based on post-industrial waste or primary recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) and 5 wt.% of organic modified montmorillonite clays were melt compounded using a twin-screw extruder. A 2(2) factorial experimental design was used to study the compounding and processing variables: Organic modified montmorillonite with one or two hydrogenated tallow (initial basal spacing) and screw speed of the extruder. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy suggest that a partial exfoliation of the organoclay in the recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) matrix was achieved for organic modified montmorillonite with lower initial basal spacing. On the other hand, formulations containing organic modified montmorillonite with higher initial basal spacing showed only intercalated structure. The recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)-organic modified montmorillonite nanocomposites did not drip flaming material during burning tests. Storage of dynamic-mechanical, tensile and flexural moduli of the recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)-organic modified montmorillonite were improved when compared with both virgin and recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)s, mainly for nanocomposites formulated at a lower initial basal spacing organoclay. This could be related to a better diffusion of polymer into organic modified montmorillonite layers compared with the higher initial basal spacing organoclay. The improvements on the physical properties of recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) showed the feasibility to add value to primary recycled engineering thermoplastics with a very small amount of organic modified montmorillonite. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Material monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, W.; Zirker, L.; Hancock, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) facilities are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overall goal for the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Unit is to identify and establish the correct amount of waste generated so that it can be reduced. Quarterly, the INEL Pollution Prevention (P2) Unit compares the projected amount of waste generated per process with the actual amount generated. Examples of waste streams that would be addresses for our facility would include be are not limited to: Maintenance, Upgrades, Office and Scrap Metal. There are three potential sources of this variance: inaccurate identification of those who generate the waste; inaccurate identification of the process that generates the waste; and inaccurate measurement of the actual amount generated. The Materials Monitoring Program was proposed to identify the sources of variance and reduce the variance to an acceptable level. Prior to the implementation of the Material Monitoring Program, all information that was gathered and recorded was done so through an informal estimation of waste generated by various personnel concerned with each processes. Due to the inaccuracy of the prior information gathering system, the Material Monitoring Program was established. The heart of this program consists of two main parts. In the first part potential waste generators provide information on projected waste generation process. In the second part, Maintenance, Office, Scrap Metal and Facility Upgrade wastes from given processes is disposed within the appropriate bin dedicated to that process. The Material Monitoring Program allows for the more accurate gathering of information on the various waste types that are being generated quarterly.

  3. Carbon-mineral adsorbents prepared by pyrolysis of waste materials in the presence of tetrachloromethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboda, Roman; Charmas, Barbara; Skubiszewska-Zieba, Jadwiga; Chodorowski, Stanislaw; Oleszczuk, Patryk; Gun'ko, Vladimir M; Pokrovskiy, Valery A

    2005-04-01

    Natural bentonite spent in the process of plant oil bleaching was used as an initial material for preparation of carbon-mineral adsorbents. The spent bleaching earth was treated using four procedures: T (thermal treatment); H (hydrothermal treatment); C (thermal treatment with addition of CCl4 vapor); M (modification of porous structure). Raw bentonite, RB (raw bleaching earth), and carbon materials prepared using plant oil were compared. The physicochemical characteristics of the adsorbents were determined using different methods: nitrogen adsorption/desorption, XRD, TEM, and MS-TPD. Carbon-mineral adsorbents contain from 5.23 to 19.92% C (w/w) and carbon adsorbents include from 84.2 to 91.18% C (w/w). Parallel processes of organic substance carbonization, porous structure modification, sublimation or evaporation of metal chlorides, and removal of hydrogen chloride take place during pyrolysis of waste mineral materials in the CCl4 atmosphere.

  4. Vacuum pyrolysis characteristics and parameter optimization of recycling organic materials from waste tantalum capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyang; Niu, Bo; Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-08-12

    Recycling rare metal tantalum from waste tantalum capacitors (WTCs) is significant to alleviate the shortage of tantalum resource. However, environmental problems will be caused if the organic materials from WTCs are improperly disposed. This study presented a promising vacuum pyrolysis technology to recycle the organic materials from WTCs. The organics removal rate could reach 94.32wt% according to TG results. The optimal parameters were determined as 425°C, 50Pa and 30min on the basis of response surface methodology (RSM). The oil yield and residual rate was 18.09wt% and 74.94wt%, respectively. All pyrolysis products can be recycled through a reasonable route. Besides, to deeply understand the pyrolysis process, the pyrolysis mechanism was also proposed based on the product and free radical theory. This paper provides an efficient process for recycling the organic material from WTCs, which can facilitate the following tantalum recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Recycling of iron foundry sand and glass waste as raw material for production of whiteware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragança, Saulo R; Vicenzi, Juliane; Guerino, Kareline; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production feasibility of triaxial whiteware using sand from cast iron moulds as a raw material instead of silica, and recycled glass in place of feldspar. Formulations were prepared using sand, glass waste, and white-firing clay such that only 50% of the composition was virgin material (clay). The ceramic bodies were formed by pressing and fired at different temperatures (between 1100 and 1300 degrees C). Specimens were characterized in terms of green density prior to firing; and their flexural strength, linear shrinkage, and water absorption were measured after firing. The microstructure was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Possible environmental impacts of this recycling process were also evaluated, through solubility and leaching tests, according to Brazilian standards. Gaseous emissions during the firing process were also analysed. The results showed that it is possible to produce triaxial ceramics by using such alternative raw materials.

  6. Carbonised red mud--a new water treatment product made from a waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, I D; Hargreaves, J S J; Ďurišová, J; Kramulova, B; Girard, C; Balakrishnan, M; Batra, V S; Rico, J L

    2012-06-15

    Proposals to use red mud, the waste produced by the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore in the Bayer process, as a material for treatment of heavy metal-contaminated water are limited by its inherent alkalinity and variability. Attempts to lower its pH have been largely unreliable. However, an alternative strategy is carbonisation of red mud by catalytic hydrocarbon cracking, which results in a magnetic material of greater surface area. The efficacy of this material has been compared with that of the untreated parent red mud and acidified red mud for the sorption of CrO(4)(2-), Cu(2+) and Pb(2+). Carbonised red mud does not remove CrO(4)(2-) from solution, but shows enhancement of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) removal. There is an approximate ten-fold increase in removal of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) by carbonised red mud compared with acidified red mud.

  7. Environmental analysis of a construction and demolition waste recycling plant in Portugal--Part I: energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    This work is a part of a wider study involving the economic and environmental implications of managing construction and demolition waste (CDW), focused on the operation of a large scale CDW recycling plant. This plant, to be operated in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (including the Setúbal peninsula), is analysed for a 60 year period, using primary energy consumption and CO2eq emission impact factors as environmental impact performance indicators. Simplified estimation methods are used to calculate industrial equipment incorporated, and the operation and transport related impacts. Material recycling--sorted materials sent to other industries, to act as input--is taken into account by discounting the impacts related to industrial processes no longer needed. This first part focuses on calculating the selected impact factors for a base case scenario (with a 350 tonnes/h installed capacity), while a sensitivity analysis is provided in part two. Overall, a 60 year global primary energy consumption of 71.4 thousand toe (tonne of oil equivalent) and a total CO2eq emission of 135.4 thousand tonnes are expected. Under this operating regime, around 563 thousand toe and 1465 thousand tonnes CO2eq could be prevented by replacing raw materials in several construction materials industries (e.g.: ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics, paper and cardboard).

  8. Additive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue

    -ended. What is to hope is that future research will tie these ends with the emerge of a fully developed system. Additive Multi Material Manufacturing Additive Manufacturing share close family bonds with CNC machine tools. State-of-the-art CNC machine tools of today are multi-axis hybrid machines....... Abendoflathes,mills,grindersinoneplatform. Ifhistoryrepeatitself, hybrid additive manufacturing machines will emerge as the field evolve. It is sought to fuel this, by developing a flexible multi material manufacturing platform that will permit fundamental research towards a second generation additive...... manufacturing system that truly will be a universally applicable manufacturing machine. A desktop sized factory. Not merely the development of such machine is undertaken, also examined is the possibility to additively manufacture complex electromechanical systems, as a step towards being able to autonomously...

  9. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on February, 1999. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from April, 1996 to September, 1996. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  10. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on March, 1999. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from October, 1996 to March, 1997. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  11. Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 2: Flexural strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Michael; Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Mevec, Daniel; Harrer, Walter; Lube, Tanja; Danzer, Robert; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Strength is one of the preferred parameters used in dentistry for determining clinical indication of dental restoratives. However, small dimensions of CAD/CAM blocks limit reliable measurements with standardized uniaxial bending tests. The objective of this study was to introduce the ball-on-three-ball (B3B) biaxial strength test for dental for small CAD/CAM block in the context of the size effect on strength predicted by the Weibull theory. Eight representative chairside CAD/CAM materials ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Specimens were prepared with highly polished surfaces in rectangular plate (12×12×1.2mm(3)) or round disc (Ø=12mm, thickness=1.2mm) geometries. Specimens were tested using the B3B assembly and the biaxial strength was determined using calculations derived from finite element analyses of the respective stress fields. Size effects on strength were determined based on results from 4-point-bending specimens. A good agreement was found between the biaxial strength results for the different geometries (plates vs. discs) using the B3B test. Strength values ranged from 110.9MPa (Vitablocs Mark II) to 1303.21MPa (e.max ZirCAD). The strength dependency on specimen size was demonstrated through the calculated effective volume/surface. The B3B test has shown to be a reliable and simple method for determining the biaxial strength restorative materials supplied as small CAD/CAM blocks. A flexible solution was made available for the B3B test in the rectangular plate geometry. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disassembly properties and material characterisation of household small waste electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This paper is focused on characterising small waste electric and electronic equipment, specifically small household appliances, from two different points of views: disassembly properties and material identification. The sample for this characterisation was obtained from a selective collection campaign organised in Castellón de la Plana (Spain). A total amount of 833.7kg (749 units) of small waste electric and electronic equipment was collected, of which 23.3% by weight and 22.4% by units belonged to the subcategory household equipment. This subcategory, composed of appliances such as vacuum cleaners, toasters, sandwich makers, hand blenders, juicers, coffee makers, hairdryers, scales, irons and heaters, was first disassembled in order to analyse different aspects of the disassembly process for each equipment type: type of joints, ease of identification of materials, ease of access to joints for extracting components, ease of separation of components from the whole, uniformity of tools needed for the disassembly process and possibility of reassembly after disassembly. Results show that the most common joints used in these equipment types are snap-fits and screws, although some permanent joints have also been identified. Next, the material composition of each component of each appliance belonging to each equipment type was identified visually and with additional mechanical trials and testing. It can be observed that plastic and electric/electronic components are present in all the equipment types analysed and are also the material fractions that appear with higher percentages in the material composition: 41.1wt% and 39.1wt% for the plastic fraction and electric/electronic components, respectively. The most common plastics are: polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC), while the most common electric/electronic components are: cable, plug and printed circuit boards. Results also show that disassembly properties and material

  13. LEATHER WASTE VALORISATION THROUGH MATERIAL INNOVATION: SOME PROPERTIES OF LEATHER WOOD FIBREBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel M. RINDLER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-increasing scarcity of resources and raw materials in the wood panels industry, it is imperative to look for suitable alternatives to the established resources. Therefore a combination of the traditionally used and newly explored sources may reveal highly innovative ways. The objective of this study is to provide an insight into the behavior of the material and possible new applications of those fiber/particle wood and waste leather composites. For this reason exclusively fibers of spruce were used for the trials. Wet white (WW leather particles and wet blue (WB leather particles were mixed with the wooden materials for the production of high density fibreboards. Besides the mechanical properties such as the internal bond (IB the bending strength (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE was analyzed. Further physical property as thickness swelling after 24h watering was investigated. To analyze how the density influences the behavior under thermal conditions, fiberboards with the densities 500, 700 and 900 kg/m³ were tested. The results of the material properties were influenced by the leather content of the panels. The results for the UF-bonded HDF boards show enhancement of the transverse IB with increasing wet blue leather content, whereas the other mechanical properties decline meanwhile. The thickness swelling showed higher values compared to the wood fibreboard. The results of this study underline the usefulness of integrating leather shavings to HDF and give an overview of their influence in wood fiber materials. The combination of the natural resource wood fiber and the leather waste products (Wet Blue and Wet White gives a very interesting new material, its mechanical properties allow a variety of possible application in future applications.

  14. Dedicated-site, interim storage of high-level nuclear waste as part of the management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, E A

    1980-11-01

    Dedicated-site interim storage of high-level reprocessed nuclear waste and of spent fuel rods is proposed as a long-term integral part of the systems approach of the national nuclear waste isolation program. Separation of interim sites for retrievable storage from permanent-disposal repositories should enhance ensurance of the performance of the latter; maintenance of retrievability at separate sites also has many advantages in both safety and possible use of waste as resources. Interim storage sites probably will not be needed beyond about 100 years from now, so the institutional and technical considerations involved in their choice should be much less stringent than those for the selection of permanent sites. Development of interim sites must be concurrent with unabated effort to identify and to develop permanent repositories.

  15. Mathematical modeling of the emission of heavy metals into water bodies from building materials derived from production waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time industrial waste is considered to be an alternative to primary natural resources when producing construction materials and products. The use of industrial waste in the construction branch allows reducing ecological load on the environment and population as a result of reducing the amount of unrecyclable waste and reducing the use of primary natural resources. Though when involving waste products as raw material in the preparation of building materials there occur environmental risks of anthropogenic impact increase on the environment. These risks are related to possible emission of heavy metals from construction materials in use. The article describes a tool which allows predicting this issue, depending on the acidity of the medium, the residence time of the material in the environment. The experimental data obtained in determining the migration activity of metals from cement concretes to aqueous solutions served as the basis for the mathematical model. The proposed model allows us to make a prediction of anthropogenic impact on the environment and commensurate this impact with the possibility of assimilation of the environment area where the building materials are applied. This will allow conducting an effective assessment of the created and applied technologies of waste disposal, taking into account the operating conditions of the materials produced.

  16. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties in relation to BMP, protein content, lipids, lignocellulose biofibres and easily degradable carbohydrates (carbohydrates other than lignocellulose biofibres). The three components in lignocellulose biofibres, i.e. lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, were differentiated, and theoretical BMP (TBMP) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition in Denmark (untreated) was calculated, and the BMP contribution of the individual material fractions was then evaluated. Material fractions of the two general waste types, defined as "food waste" and "fibre-rich waste," were found to be anaerobically degradable with considerable BMP. Material degradability of material fractions such as vegetation waste, moulded fibres, animal straw, dirty paper and dirty cardboard, however, was constrained by lignin content. BMP for overall SSOHW (untreated) was 404 mL CH4 per g VS, which might increase if the relative content of material fractions, such as animal and vegetable food waste, kitchen tissue and dirty paper in the waste, becomes larger.

  17. Biomass waste carbon materials as adsorbents for CO2 capture under post-combustion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Muñoz, Elisa; García-Mateos, Francisco José; Rosas, Juana; Rodríguez-Mirasol, José; Cordero, Tomás

    2016-05-01

    A series of porous carbon materials obtained from biomass waste have been synthesized, with different morphologies and structural properties, and evaluated as potential adsorbents for CO2 capture in post-combustion conditions. These carbon materials present CO2 adsorption capacities, at 25 ºC and 101.3 kPa, comparable to those obtained by other complex carbon or inorganic materials. Furthermore, CO2 uptakes under these conditions can be well correlated to the narrow micropore volume, derived from the CO2 adsorption data at 0 ºC (VDRCO2). In contrast, CO2 adsorption capacities at 25 ºC and 15 kPa are more related to only pores of sizes lower than 0.7 nm. The capacity values obtained in column adsorption experiments were really promising. An activated carbon fiber obtained from Alcell lignin, FCL, presented a capacity value of 1.3 mmol/g (5.7 %wt). Moreover, the adsorption capacity of this carbon fiber was totally recovered in a very fast desorption cycle at the same operation temperature and total pressure and, therefore, without any additional energy requirement. Thus, these results suggest that the biomass waste used in this work could be successfully valorized as efficient CO2 adsorbent, under post-combustion conditions, showing excellent regeneration performance.

  18. Pyrolysis behavior of different type of materials contained in the rejects of packaging waste sorting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; De Marco, I; Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper rejected streams coming from a waste packaging material recovery facility have been characterized and separated into families of products of similar nature in order to determine the influence of different types of ingredients in the products obtained in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis experiments have been carried out in a non-stirred batch 3.5 dm(3) reactor, swept with 1 L min(-1) N(2), at 500°C for 30 min. Pyrolysis liquids are composed of an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is greater as higher is the cellulosic material content in the sample. The organic phase contains valuable chemicals as styrene, ethylbenzene and toluene, and has high heating value (HHV) (33-40 MJ kg(-1)). Therefore they could be used as alternative fuels for heat and power generation and as a source of valuable chemicals. Pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons but contain high amounts of CO and CO(2); their HHV is in the range of 18-46 MJ kg(-1). The amount of COCO(2) increases, and consequently HHV decreases as higher is the cellulosic content of the waste. Pyrolysis solids are mainly composed of inorganics and char formed in the process. The cellulosic materials lower the quality of the pyrolysis liquids and gases, and increase the production of char.

  19. Construction material properties of slag from the high temperature arc gasification of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Olivera, Fernando D; Wasman, Scott J; Townsend, Timothy G; McVay, Michael C; Ferraro, Christopher C; Blaisi, Nawaf I

    2016-06-01

    Slag from the high temperature arc gasification (HTAG) of municipal solid waste (MSW) was tested to evaluate its material properties with respect to use as a construction aggregate. These data were compared to previously compiled values for waste to energy bottom ash, the most commonly produced and beneficially used thermal treatment residue. The slag was tested using gradations representative of a base course and a course aggregate. Los Angeles (LA) abrasion testing demonstrated that the HTAG slag had a high resistance to fracture with a measured LA loss of 24%. Soundness testing indicated a low potential for reactivity and good weathering resistance with a mean soundness loss of 3.14%. The modified Proctor compaction testing found the slag to possess a maximum dry density (24.04kN/m(3)) greater than conventionally used aggregates and WTE BA. The LBR tests demonstrated a substantial bearing capacity (>200). Mineralogical analysis of the HTAG suggested the potential for self cementing character which supports the elevated LBR results. Preliminary material characterization of the HTAG slag establishes potential for beneficial use; larger and longer term studies focusing on the material's possibility for swelling and performance at the field scale level are needed.

  20. Quantitative assessment of microbiological contributions to corrosion of candidate nuclear waste-package materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.; Jones, D.; Lian, T.; Martin, S.

    1998-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy is contributing to the design of a potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A system to predict the contribution of Yucca Mountain (YM) bacteria to overall corrosion rates of candidate waste-package (WP) materials was designed and implemented. DC linear polarization resistance techniques were applied to candidate material coupons that had been inoculated with a mixture of YM-derived bacteria with potentially corrosive activities or left sterile. Inoculated bacteria caused a 5- to 6-fold increase in corrosion rate of carbon steel C1020 (to approximately 7Ð8mm/yr) and an almost 100-fold increase in corrosion rate of Alloy 400 (to approximately 1mm/yr). Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) rates on more resistant materials (CRMs: Alloy 625, Type 304 Stainless Steel, and Alloy C22) were on the order of hundredths of micrometers per year (mm/yr). Bulk chemical and surfacial end-point analyses of spent media and coupon surfaces showed preferential dissolution of nickel from Alloy 400 coupons and depletion of chromium from CRMs after incubation with YM bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed greater damage to the Alloy 400 surface than that indicated by electrochemical detection methods.

  1. [Experimental study on methane potentials of source-separated BMW and individual waste materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Li, Run-dong; Li, Yan-ji; Ke, Xin; Wei, Li-hong; Luo, Xiao-song

    2008-08-01

    A laboratory procedure is described for measuring methane potentials of source-separated bio-organic municipal waste (BMW). Triplicate reactors with about 20 grams fresh material were incubated at 37 degrees C with 300 mL inoculum from Shenyang wastewater treatment plant and the methane production was followed over a 50 d period by regular measurement of methane on a gas chromatograph. At 37 degrees C, the methane production efficiency of source-separated BMW and individual waste materials was: starch > BMW > protein > food oil > fat > paper. For the source-separated BMW,starch,protein,food oil,fat and paper, the methane potential (CH4/VS) of 218.15, 209.11, 194.20, 238.86, 257.82 and 131.41 mL/g were found,and ultimate biodegradability of 6 difference materials were 67.73%, 72.88%, 65.84%, 78.38%, 74.11% and 47.98%, respectively.

  2. BENTONITE-QUARTZ SAND AS THE BACKFILL MATERIALS ON THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharjo Raharjo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the contribution of quartz sand in the bentonite mixture as the backfill materials on the shallow land burial of radioactive waste has been done. The experiment objective is to determine the effect of quartz sand in a bentonite mixture with bentonite particle sizes of -20+40, -40+60, and -60+80 mesh on the retardation factor and the uranium dispersion in the simulation of uranium migration in the backfill materials. The experiment was carried out by the fixed bed method in the column filled by the bentonite mixture with a bentonite-to-quartz sand weight percent ratio of 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25, and 100/0 on the water saturated condition flown by uranyl nitrate solution at concentration (Co of 500 ppm. The concentration of uranium in the effluents in interval 15 minutes represented as Ct was analyzed by spectrophotometer, then using Co and Ct, retardation factor (R and dispersivity ( were determined. The experiment data showed that the bentonite of -60+80 mesh and the quartz sand of -20+40 mesh on bentonite-to-quartz sand with weight percent ratio of 50/50 gave the highest retardation factor and dispersivity of 18.37 and 0.0363 cm, respectively.   Keywords: bentonite, quartz sand, backfill materials, radioactive waste

  3. Biomass waste carbon materials as adsorbents for CO2 capture under post-combustion conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M Calvo-Muñoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of porous carbon materials obtained from biomass waste have been synthesized, with different morphologies and structural properties, and evaluated as potential adsorbents for CO2 capture in post-combustion conditions. These carbon materials present CO2 adsorption capacities, at 25 ºC and 101.3 kPa, comparable to those obtained by other complex carbon or inorganic materials. Furthermore, CO2 uptakes under these conditions can be well correlated to the narrow micropore volume, derived from the CO2 adsorption data at 0 ºC (VDRCO2. In contrast, CO2 adsorption capacities at 25 ºC and 15 kPa are more related to only pores of sizes lower than 0.7 nm. The capacity values obtained in column adsorption experiments were really promising. An activated carbon fiber obtained from Alcell lignin, FCL, presented a capacity value of 1.3 mmol/g (5.7 %wt. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of this carbon fiber was totally recovered in a very fast desorption cycle at the same operation temperature and total pressure and, therefore, without any additional energy requirement. Thus, these results suggest that the biomass waste used in this work could be successfully valorized as efficient CO2 adsorbent, under post-combustion conditions, showing excellent regeneration performance.

  4. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems--part I: lessons learned and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Alexis; Bakas, Ioannis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Hauschild, Michael Z; Christensen, Thomas H

    2014-03-01

    The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of capturing the local specific conditions in the modelling of environmental impacts and benefits of a SWMS, allows identifying critical problems and proposing improvement options adapted to the local specificities.

  5. The Feasibility of Teaching Science via a Socio-Historical Approach. Part 2. Classroom Materials. Practical Paper No. 303. (Part 1 of 2 Parts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agin, Michael Lawrence

    This publication, part 1 of two parts, presents the narrative materials for the teaching of the concept--the development of atomic energy and its social implications--growing out of a study made to determine the feasibility of teaching scientific concepts related to the social and historical developments of science and selected concepts related to…

  6. The Feasibility of Teaching Science via a Socio-Historical Approach. Part 2. Classroom Materials. Practical Paper No. 303. (Part 2 of 2 Parts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agin, Michael Lawrence

    Reported is part 2 of a two-part publication which presents the narrative materials for the teaching of the concept--the development of atomic energy and its social implications. This publication is the result of a study to determine the feasibility of teaching scientific concepts related to the social and historical developments of science and…

  7. Radiolytically-induced novel materials and their application to waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimo Bertino, Akira Tokuhiro, Tadashi Tokuhiro

    2007-12-05

    In the present NEER project we investigated two different types of gel materials with respect to potential applications in environmental remediation, including mixed waste generated from the nuclear fuel cycles. The materials under study were: (1) silica-polymer based aerogel composites into which specific metallic cations diffuse into and remain, and (2) polymer gels made of thermo-sensitive polymer networks, whose functional groups can be ''tailored'' to have a preferred affinity for specific cations, again diffusing into and remaining in the network under a volumetrically, contractive phase-transition. The molecular, diffusion of specific cations, including those of concern in low-level waste streams, into the gel materials studied here indicates that a scaled, engineered system can be designed so that it is passive; that is, minimal (human) intervention and risk would be involved in encapsulating LLW species. In addition, the gel materials hold potential significance in environmental remediation of and recovery of metallic cations identified in respective domains and physico-chemical processes. In brief, silica gels start as aqueous/liquid solutions of base catalyzed silica hydrogels and metal ions (targeted species), such as silver. The metal ions are reduced radiolytically and migrate through the solution to form clusters. Upon post-irradiation processing, aerogel monoliths, extremely lightweight but mechanically strong, that encapsulate the metals are produced. Interestingly the radiolytic or photonic source can be gamma-rays and/or other rays from ''artificial sources'', such as reactors, or ''inherent sources'' like those characterizing mixed waste. Polymer gels, in contrast exhibit thermally-induced volumetric contraction at 20-50 C by expelling water from the gels physical state. Further, some functional groups that capture di- or tri-valent cations from aqueous solutions can be incorporated

  8. USE OF LOCAL NATURAL SILICEOUS RAW MATERIAL AND WASTES FOR PRODUCTION OF HEAT-INSULATING FOAMCONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. U. Matsapulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the resource base, reserves and the use of siliceous rocks, their economic feasibility of the use for production of building materials of new generation with low-energy and other costs. Presented are the results of laboratory research and testing technology of production of insulating foam from a composition based on an aqueous solution of sodium silicate obtained from the local siliceous rocks (diatomite and the liquid alkali component - soapstock, hardener from ferrochrome slag and waste carbonate rock able to harden at a low temperature processing ( 100-110 ° C.

  9. Properties of Cement Mortar Produced from Mixed Waste Materials with Pozzolanic Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Waste materials with pozzolanic characteristics, such as sewage sludge ash (SSA), coal combustion fly ash (FA), and granulated blast furnace slag (GBS), were reused as partial cement replacements for making cement mortar in this study. Experimental results revealed that with dual replacement of cement by SSA and GBS and triple replacement by SSA, FA, and GBS at 50% of total cement replacement, the compressive strength (Sc) of the blended cement mortars at 56 days was 93.7% and 92.9% of the co...

  10. Removal of lead ions using hydroxyapatite nano-material prepared from phosphogypsum waste

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa, S.M.; N.S. Ammar; H.A. Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Nano-material of calcium hydroxyapatite (n-CaHAP), with particle size ranging from 50 to 57 nm which was prepared from phosphogypsum waste (PG), was used for the removal of lead ions (Pb (II)) from aqueous solutions. It was investigated in a batch reactor under different experimental conditions. Effects of process parameters such as pH, initial Pb ion concentration and adsorbent dose were studied. Also, various types of kinetic modeling have been studied where the lead uptake was quantitative...

  11. Physical chemical studies of dispersed aluminosilicate wastes for obtaining the burned building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuriev, I. Y.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Volokitin, G. G.; Volokitin, O. G.; Lutsenko, A. V.; Kosmachev, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of the studies that determined that grinding can be one of the ways to modify aluminosilicate wastes. The optimal grinding modes were defined in laboratory conditions. Physical and chemical studies of modified ashes were carried out by means of X-ray phase analysis, differential thermal analysis and microscopy. The results have shown that modified ashes of thermal power stations when being applied in production of ceramic brick influence positively the processing properties of raw materials and the ready products.

  12. A mechanism of basal spacing reduction in sodium smectitic clay materials in contact with DNAPL wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayral-Cinar, Derya; Otero-Diaz, Margarita; Demond, Avery H

    2016-09-01

    There has been concern regarding the possible attack of clays in aquitards, slurry walls and landfill liners by dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) wastes, resulting in cracking. Despite the fact that a reduction in basal spacing in sodium smectitic clay materials has been linked to cracking, no plausible mechanism by which this reduction occurs in contact with waste DNAPLs has been formulated. To elucidate a mechanism, screening studies were conducted that showed that the combination of an anionic surfactant (AOT), a nonionic surfactant (TritonX-100) and a chlorinated solvent, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), could replicate the basal spacing reduction and cracking behavior of water-saturated bentonite caused by two waste DNAPLs obtained from the field. FTIR measurements of this system showed a displacement of the HOH bending band of water symptomatic of desiccation. Sorption measurements showed that the uptake of AOT by bentonite increased eight fold in the presence of TritonX-100 and PCE. The evidence presented here supports a mechanism of syneresis, involving the extraction of water from the interlayer space of the clay through the synergistic sorption of a nonionic and anionic surfactant mixture. It is speculated that the solvation of water in reverse micellar aggregates is the process driving the syneresis.

  13. Reclamation with Recovery of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Materials, Soils, and Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

  14. Survival of bacteria in nuclear waste buffer materials. The influence of nutrients, temperature and water activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K.; Motamedi, M. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Karnland, O. [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The concept of deep geological disposal of spent fuel is common to many national nuclear waste programs. Long-lived radioactive waste will be encapsulated in canisters made of corrosion resistant materials e.g. copper and buried several hundred meters below ground in a geological formation. Different types of compacted bentonite clay, or mixtures with sand, will be placed as a buffer around the waste canisters. A major concern for the performance of the canisters is that sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may be present in the clay and induce corrosion by production of hydrogen sulphide. This report presents data on viable counts of SRB in the bedrock of Aespoe hard rock laboratory. A theoretical background on the concept water activity is given, together with basic information about SRB. Some results on microbial populations from a full scale buffer test in Canada is presented. These results suggested water activity to be a strong limiting factor for survival of bacteria in compacted bentonite. As a consequence, experiments were set up to investigate the effect from water activity on survival of SRB in bentonite. Here we show that survival of SRB in bentonite depends on the availability of water and that compacting a high quality bentonite to a density of 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}, corresponding to a water activity (a{sub w}) of 0.96, prevented SRB from surviving in the clay. 24 refs.

  15. Performance appraisal of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as controlled low-strength material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Hashim Abdul; Naganathan, Sivakumar; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2009-12-30

    Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) is slurry made by mixing sand, cement, ash, and water. It is primarily used as a replacement for soil and structural fillings. This paper presents the findings of a preliminary investigation carried out on the performance of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as CLSM. CLSM mixes were designed using industrial waste incineration bottom ash, and cement. Tests for density, setting time, bleed, and compressive strength on cubes under various curing conditions, corrosivity, and leaching of heavy metals and salts were carried out on the CLSM mixtures, and the results discussed. Compressive strength for the designed CLSM mixtures ranged from 0.1 to 1.7 MPa. It is shown that the variations in curing conditions have less influence on the compressive strength of CLSM at high values of water to cement ratio (w/c), but low values of w/c influences the strength of CLSM. The CLSM produced does not exhibit corrosive characters as evidenced by pH. Leaching of heavy metals and salts is higher in bleed than in leachate collected from hardened CLSM. Cement reduces the leaching of Boron in bleed. It is concluded that there is good potential for the use of industrial waste incineration bottom ash in CLSM.

  16. A comprehensive review on removal of arsenic using activated carbon prepared from easily available waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Monoj Kumar; Garg, Ravi

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic contamination in water bodies is a serious problem and causes various health problems due to which US Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) set its maximum permissible limit of 10 ppb. The present review article starts with the removal of toxic arsenic using adsorbents prepared from easily available waste materials. Adsorbent either commercial or low-cost adsorbent can be used for arsenic removal but recent research was focused on the low-cost adsorbent. Preparation and activation of various adsorbents were discussed. Adsorption capacities, surface area, thermodynamic, and kinetics data of various adsorbents for As(III) and As(V) removal were compiled. Desorption followed by regeneration and reuse of adsorbents is an important step in adsorption and leads to economical process. Various desorbing and regenerating agents were discussed for arsenic decontamination from the adsorbent surface. Strong acids, bases, and salts are the main desorbing agents. Disposal of arsenic-contaminated adsorbent and arsenic waste was also a big problem because of the toxic and leaching effect of arsenic. So, arsenic waste was disposed of by proper stabilization/solidification (S/S) technique by mixing it in Portland cement, iron, ash, etc. to reduce the leaching effect.

  17. Optimum Ratio Between Waste Cooking Oil and Coconut Oilas Raw Material for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthia Elma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a energy that is processed from biological processes and employ agriculture products rather than geological processes. Waste Cooking Oil (WCO and Coconut Oil (CO are some of agriculture products that have been applied for this work. The utilization of WCO enables to cycle the waste from the environment and also CO may promote local home industries. The aims of this work are to produce biodiesel from mixture of waste cooking oil and coconut oil. This work is also to study the optimum composition between these two materials (0% to 100% WCO or CO in reverse in producing biodiesel. Several methods were applied in this work: i.e. esterification, trans-esterification, washing, drying and filtering processes. Some steps of characterization were conducted to fulfil the International Standard (EN 14214.Yield of biodiesel produced was 97.65% with oil mixture composition of50% WCO and50% CO. The FAME component in 50% WCO and 50% CO showed as the nonanoic acid methyl ester (C15H20O2 with composition of 37,79%.

  18. Heavy Metals in Water Percolating Through Soil Fertilized with Biodegradable Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbowska, Jadwiga; Sienkiewicz, Stanisław; Krzebietke, Sławomir; Bowszys, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The influence of manure and composts on the leaching of heavy metals from soil was evaluated in a model lysimeter experiment under controlled conditions. Soil samples were collected from experimental fields, from 0- to 90-cm layers retaining the layout of the soil profile layers, after the second crop rotation cycle with the following plant species: potatoes, spring barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat. During the field experiment, 20 t DM/ha of manure, municipal sewage sludge composted with straw (SSCS), composted sewage sludge (SSC), dried granular sewage sludge (DGSS), "Dano" compost made from non-segregated municipal waste (CMMW), and compost made from municipal green waste (CUGW) was applied, i.e., 10 t DM/ha per crop rotation cycle. The concentrations (μg/dm(3)) of heavy metals in the leachate were as follows: Cd (3.6-11.5) manganese or zinc, whereas the concentrations of the other metals increased to the levels characteristic of unsatisfactory water quality and poor water quality classes. The copper and nickel content of percolating water depended on the concentration of those metals introduced into the soil with organic waste materials. The concentrations of Cd in the leachate increased, whereas the concentrations of Cu and Ni decreased with increasing organic C content of organic fertilizers. The widening of the C/N ratio contributed to Mn leaching. The concentrations of Pb, Cr, and Mn in the percolating water were positively correlated with the organic C content of soil.

  19. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates,