WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste management costs

  1. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  2. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  3. Charging generators for waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Homan, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    DOE-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) has recognized that an effective waste management program focuses on control at the source and that the burden for responsible waste management can be placed on generators by charging for waste management costs. The principle of including the waste management costs in the total cost of the product, even when the product is research and development, is being implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Charging waste management costs to the pollutor creates an incentive to optimize processes so that less waste is produced and provides a basis for determining the cost effectiveness. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Estimating and understanding DOE waste management costs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, J.S.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines costs associated with cleaning up the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facilities, with particular emphasis on the waste management program. Life-cycle waste management costs have been compiled and reported in the DOE Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). Waste management costs are a critical issue for DOE because of the current budget constraints. The DOE sites are struggling to accomplish their environmental management objectives given funding scenarios that are well below anticipated waste management costs. Through the BEMR process, DOE has compiled complex-wide cleanup cost estimates and has begun analysis of these costs with respect to alternative waste management scenarios and policy strategies. From this analysis, DOE is attempting to identify the major cost drivers and prioritize environmental management activities to achieve maximum utilization of existing funding. This paper provides an overview of the methodology DOE has used to estimate and analyze some waste management costs, including the key data requirements and uncertainties

  5. Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

    1994-03-01

    This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs

  6. Charging generators for waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Homan, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need for waste management that incorporates improved waste-handling techniques and more stringent regulatory requirements to prevent future liabilities such as Superfund sites. DOE-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) has recognized that an effective waste management program focuses on control at the source and that the burden for responsible waste management can be placed on generators by charging for waste management costs. The principle of including the waste management costs in the total cost of the product, even when the product is research and development, is being implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper summarizes a plan to charge waste generators, the administrative structure of the plan, a comparison between the rate structure and changes in waste disposal operations, and issues that have surfaced as the plan is implemented

  7. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.

  8. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options

  9. Charging generators for waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Homan, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Implementation of a plan to charge waste management costs to the facility that generates such waste requires a long-term commitment and consistent administration. The benefit is that generators are provided the incentive to optimize waste management practices if the charges are appropriately applied. This paper summarizes (1) a plan to charge waste generators, (2) the administrative structure of the plan, (3) a comparison between the rate structure and changes in waste disposal operations, and (4) issues that have surfaced as the plan is implemented. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Unit costs of waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics

  11. Waste management facilities cost information for transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing transuranic waste. The report's information on treatment and storage modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  12. Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report's information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  13. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  14. Nuclear hazardous waste cost control management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selg, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the waste content of glass waste forms on Savannah River high-level waste disposal costs are currently under study to adjust the glass frit content to optimize the glass waste loadings and therefore significantly reduce the overall waste disposal cost. Changes in waste content affect onsite Defense Waste Changes in waste contents affect onsite Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) costs as well as offsite shipping and repository emplacement charges. A nominal 1% increase over the 28 wt% waste loading of DWPF glass would reduce disposal costs by about $50 million for Savannah River wastes generated to the year 2000. Optimization of the glass waste forms to be produced in the SWPF is being supported by economic evaluations of the impact of the forms on waste disposal costs. Glass compositions are specified for acceptable melt processing and durability characteristics, with economic effects tracked by the number of waste canisters produced. This paper presents an evaluation of the effects of variations in waste content of the glass waste forms on the overall cost of the disposal, including offsite shipment and repository emplacement, of the Savannah River high-level wastes

  15. Application research of cost construction on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yanfeng; Bi Sheng; Liu Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the theoretical basis systems for the cost component on radioactive waste management. Through the decomposition production of various types of project content, analysis of the cost elements of operating activities, study subjects at reason-able cost and expense. On the basis of the formation of radioactive waste management costs of the various operating structure Into, and established a comprehensive system of price system. (authors)

  16. Life Cycle Costing Model for Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    To ensure sustainability of solid waste management, there is a need for cost assessment models which are consistent with environmental and social assessments. However, there is a current lack of standardized terminology and methodology to evaluate economic performances and this complicates...... LCC, e.g. waste generator, waste operator and public finances and the perspective often defines the systemboundaries of the study, e.g. waste operators often focus on her/his own cost, i.e. technology based,whereas waste generators and public finances often focus on the entire waste system, i.......e. system based. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed modeling framework that distinguishes between: a) budget cost, b) externality costs and 3) transfers and defines unit costs of each technology (per ton of input waste). Unitcosts are afterwards combined with a mass balance to calculate the technology cost...

  17. Methodology for the cost evaluation of radioactive waste management routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowa, S.; Stenersen, F.; Shamsi, T.; Thiels, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the significant aspects of radioactive waste management is cost. To determine plant costs for radioactive waste management routes, a method was developed by the Joint Venture Kraftanlagen Heidelberg (FRG) and Task R ampersand S (Italy) to perform a realistic, economic cost assessment of different waste management schemes. This assessment procedure was first developed for System Studies concerning the Management and Storage of radioactive waste in the frame of the 2nd R ampersand D program of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and is presently being applied in the 3rd R ampersand D program to assess the costs of different management schemes for LWR Waste and Zircaloy hulls. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  18. New York State interim waste management cost evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.S.; Watts, R.J.; Jorgensen, J.R.; Rochester Gas and Electric Corp., NY)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and quantify the comparative costs associated with including or excluding Class A utility wastes at a centralized interim waste management facility in New York State. The objective of the study is to assess the unit costs and total statewide costs associated with two distinct scenarios: (1) the case where non-utility Class A LLRW is received, incinerated and stored at the centralized interim facility, and utility Class A wastes are held without incineration at respective nuclear power plant interim onsite facilities without incineration; and (2) the alternative case where both utility and non-utility Class A wastes are accepted, incinerated and stored at the centralized facility. Unit costs to waste generators are estimated for each of the two cases described. This is followed by an estimation of the statewide cost impact to the public. The cost impact represents the cost differential resulting from the exclusion of utility Class A waste from the centralized NYS interim waste management facility. The principal factors comprising the cost differential include (1) higher unit disposal fees charged to non-utility waste generators, which are passed along in the costs of products and services; and (2) costs to utilities due to construction of additional onsite storage capacity, which in turn are charged to electric rate payers

  19. A Nuclear Waste Management Cost Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, R. W.; Hill, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Although integrated assessments of climate change policy have frequently identified nuclear energy as a promising alternative to fossil fuels, these studies have often treated nuclear waste disposal very simply. Simple assumptions about nuclear waste are problematic because they may not be adequate to capture relevant costs and uncertainties, which could result in suboptimal policy choices. Modeling nuclear waste management costs is a cross-disciplinary, multi-scale problem that involves economic, geologic and environmental processes that operate at vastly different temporal scales. Similarly, the climate-related costs and benefits of nuclear energy are dependent on environmental sensitivity to CO2 emissions and radiation, nuclear energy's ability to offset carbon emissions, and the risk of nuclear accidents, factors which are all deeply uncertain. Alternative value systems further complicate the problem by suggesting different approaches to valuing intergenerational impacts. Effective policy assessment of nuclear energy requires an integrated approach to modeling nuclear waste management that (1) bridges disciplinary and temporal gaps, (2) supports an iterative, adaptive process that responds to evolving understandings of uncertainties, and (3) supports a broad range of value systems. This work develops the Nuclear Waste Management Cost Model (NWMCM). NWMCM provides a flexible framework for evaluating the cost of nuclear waste management across a range of technology pathways and value systems. We illustrate how NWMCM can support policy analysis by estimating how different nuclear waste disposal scenarios developed using the NWMCM framework affect the results of a recent integrated assessment study of alternative energy futures and their effects on the cost of achieving carbon abatement targets. Results suggest that the optimism reflected in previous works is fragile: Plausible nuclear waste management costs and discount rates appropriate for intergenerational cost

  20. A systems engineering cost analysis capability for use in assessing nuclear waste management system cost performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, M.R.

    1990-04-01

    The System Engineering Cost Analysis (SECA) capability has been developed by the System Integration Branch of the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management for use in assessing the cost performance of alternative waste management system configurations. The SECA capability is designed to provide rapid cost estimates of the waste management system for a given operational scenario and to permit aggregate or detailed cost comparisons for alternative waste system configurations. This capability may be used as an integral part of the System Integration Modeling System (SIMS) or, with appropriate input defining a scenario, as a separate cost analysis model

  1. Cost efficiency of waste management in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Hans; van Heezik, A.; Hollanders, D.; Felsö, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the cost efficiency of waste management of Dutch municipalities. For the first time stochastic frontier analysis is applied to Dutch data, employing recent multi-year data (2005-2008). The preliminary findings confirm earlier results on the importance for cost efficiency of

  2. Cost risk analysis of radioactive waste management Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, J.

    2006-12-01

    This work begins with exposition of the basics of risk analysis. These basics are then applied to the Finnish radioactive waste disposal environment in which the nuclear power companies are responsible for all costs of radioactive waste management including longterm disposal of spent fuel. Nuclear power companies prepare cost estimates of the waste disposal on a yearly basis to support the decision making on accumulation of resources to the nuclear waste disposal fund. These cost estimates are based on the cost level of the ongoing year. A Monte Carlo simulation model of the costs of the waste disposal system was defined and it was used to produce preliminary results of its cost risk characteristics. Input data was synthesised by modifying the original coefficients of cost uncertainty to define a cost range for each cost item. This is a suitable method for demonstrating results obtainable by the model but it is not accurate enough for supporting decision making. Two key areas of further development were identified: the input data preparation and identifying and handling of (i.e. eliminating or merging) interacting cost elements in the simulation model. Further development in both of the mentioned areas can be carried out by co-operating with the power companies as they are the sources of the original data. (orig.)

  3. Integrated waste management system costs in a MPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supko, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The impact on system costs of including a centralized interim storage facility as part of an integrated waste management system based on multi-purpose canister (MPC) technology was assessed in analyses by Energy Resources International, Inc. A system cost savings of $1 to $2 billion occurs if the Department of Energy begins spent fuel acceptance in 1998 at a centralized interim storage facility. That is, the savings associated with decreased utility spent fuel management costs will be greater than the cost of constructing and operating a centralized interim storage facility

  4. Waste management facilities cost information: System cost model product description. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, A.S.; Hsu, K.M.; Shropshire, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    In May of 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) in Idaho Falls, Idaho and subcontractors developed the System Cost Model (SCM) application. The SCM estimates life-cycle costs of the entire US Department of Energy (DOE) complex for designing; constructing; operating; and decommissioning treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, transuranic, and mixed transuranic waste. The SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing facilities at DOE installations. In addition, SCM can model new facilities based on capacity needs over the program life cycle. The SCM also provides transportation costs for DOE wastes. Transportation costs are provided for truck and rail and include transport of contact-handled, remote-handled, and alpha (transuranic) wastes. The user can provide input data (default data is included in the SCM) including the volume and nature of waste to be managed, the time period over which the waste is to be managed, and the configuration of the waste management complex (i.e., where each installation's generated waste will be treated, stored, and disposed). Then the SCM uses parametric cost equations to estimate the costs of pre-operations (designing), construction costs, operation management, and decommissioning these waste management facilities

  5. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report's information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  6. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  7. Cost effective waste management through composting in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couth, R. [CRECHE, Centre for Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE, Centre for Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The financial/social/institutional sustainability of waste management in Africa is analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This note is a compendium of a study on the potential for GHG control via improved zero waste in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study provides the framework for Local Authorities for realizing sustained GHG reductions. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per person from urban waste management activities are greater in sub-Saharan African countries than in other developing countries, and are increasing as the population becomes more urbanised. Waste from urban areas across Africa is essentially dumped on the ground and there is little control over the resulting gas emissions. The clean development mechanism (CDM), from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol has been the vehicle to initiate projects to control GHG emissions in Africa. However, very few of these projects have been implemented and properly registered. A much more efficient and cost effective way to control GHG emissions from waste is to stabilise the waste via composting and to use the composted material as a soil improver/organic fertiliser or as a component of growing media. Compost can be produced by open windrow or in-vessel composting plants. This paper shows that passively aerated open windrows constitute an appropriate low-cost option for African countries. However, to provide an usable compost material it is recommended that waste is processed through a materials recovery facility (MRF) before being composted. The paper demonstrates that material and biological treatment (MBT) are viable in Africa where they are funded, e.g. CDM. However, they are unlikely to be instigated unless there is a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol, which ceases for Registration in December 2012.

  8. Cost effective waste management through composting in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The financial/social/institutional sustainability of waste management in Africa is analysed. ► This note is a compendium of a study on the potential for GHG control via improved zero waste in Africa. ► This study provides the framework for Local Authorities for realizing sustained GHG reductions. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per person from urban waste management activities are greater in sub-Saharan African countries than in other developing countries, and are increasing as the population becomes more urbanised. Waste from urban areas across Africa is essentially dumped on the ground and there is little control over the resulting gas emissions. The clean development mechanism (CDM), from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol has been the vehicle to initiate projects to control GHG emissions in Africa. However, very few of these projects have been implemented and properly registered. A much more efficient and cost effective way to control GHG emissions from waste is to stabilise the waste via composting and to use the composted material as a soil improver/organic fertiliser or as a component of growing media. Compost can be produced by open windrow or in-vessel composting plants. This paper shows that passively aerated open windrows constitute an appropriate low-cost option for African countries. However, to provide an usable compost material it is recommended that waste is processed through a materials recovery facility (MRF) before being composted. The paper demonstrates that material and biological treatment (MBT) are viable in Africa where they are funded, e.g. CDM. However, they are unlikely to be instigated unless there is a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol, which ceases for Registration in December 2012.

  9. A cost effective waste management methodology for power reactor waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granus, M.W.; Campbell, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a computer based methodology for the selection of the processing methods (solidification/dewatering) for various power reactor radwaste streams. The purpose of this methodology is to best select the method that provides the most cost effective solution to waste management. This method takes into account the overall cost of processing, transportation and disposal. The selection matrix on which the methodology is based is made up of over ten thousand combinations of liner, cask, process, and disposal options from which the waste manager can choose. The measurement device for cost effective waste management is the concurrent evaluation of total dollars spent. The common denominator is dollars per cubic foot of the input waste stream. Dollars per curie of the input waste stream provides for proper checks and balances. The result of this analysis can then be used to assess the total waste management cost. To this end, the methodology can then be employed to predict a given number of events (processes, transportation, and disposals) and project the annual cost of waste management. For the purposes of this paper, the authors provide examples of the application of the methodology on a typical BWR at 2, 4 and 6 years. The examples are provided in 1984 dollars. Process selection is influenced by a number of factors which must be independently evaluated for each waste stream. Final processing cost is effected by the particular process efficiency and a variety of regulatory constraints. The interface between process selection and cask selection/transportation driven by the goal of placing the greatest amount of pre-processed waste in the package and remaining within the bounds of weight, volume, regulatory, and cask availability limitations. Disposal is the cost of burial and can be affected by disposal, but availability of burial space, and the location of the disposal site in relation to the generator

  10. Waste Management facilities cost information: System Cost Model Software Quality Assurance Plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, B.L.; Lundeen, A.S.

    1996-02-01

    In May of 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) in Idaho Falls, Idaho and subcontractors developed the System Cost Model (SCM) application. The SCM estimates life-cycle costs of the entire US Department of Energy (DOE) complex for designing; constructing; operating; and decommissioning treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, transuranic, and mixed transuranic waste. The SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing facilities at DOE installations. In addition, SCM can model new facilities based on capacity needs over the program life cycle. The SCM also provides transportation costs for truck and rail, which include transport of contact-handled, remote-handled, and alpha (transuranic) wastes. The user can provide input data (default data is included in the SCM) including the volume and nature of waste to be managed, the time period over which the waste is to be managed, and the configuration of the waste management complex (i.e., where each installation's generated waste will be treated, stored, and disposed). Then the SCM uses parametric cost equations to estimate the costs of pre-operations (designing), construction costs, operation management, and decommissioning these waste management facilities. For the product to be effective and useful the SCM users must have a high level of confidence in the data generated by the software model. The SCM Software Quality Assurance Plan is part of the overall SCM project management effort to ensure that the SCM is maintained as a quality product and can be relied on to produce viable planning data. This document defines tasks and deliverables to ensure continued product integrity, provide increased confidence in the accuracy of the data generated, and meet the LITCO's quality standards during the software maintenance phase. 8 refs., 1 tab

  11. Waste Management facilities cost information: System Cost Model Software Quality Assurance Plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B.L.; Lundeen, A.S.

    1996-02-01

    In May of 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) in Idaho Falls, Idaho and subcontractors developed the System Cost Model (SCM) application. The SCM estimates life-cycle costs of the entire US Department of Energy (DOE) complex for designing; constructing; operating; and decommissioning treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, transuranic, and mixed transuranic waste. The SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing facilities at DOE installations. In addition, SCM can model new facilities based on capacity needs over the program life cycle. The SCM also provides transportation costs for truck and rail, which include transport of contact-handled, remote-handled, and alpha (transuranic) wastes. The user can provide input data (default data is included in the SCM) including the volume and nature of waste to be managed, the time period over which the waste is to be managed, and the configuration of the waste management complex (i.e., where each installation`s generated waste will be treated, stored, and disposed). Then the SCM uses parametric cost equations to estimate the costs of pre-operations (designing), construction costs, operation management, and decommissioning these waste management facilities. For the product to be effective and useful the SCM users must have a high level of confidence in the data generated by the software model. The SCM Software Quality Assurance Plan is part of the overall SCM project management effort to ensure that the SCM is maintained as a quality product and can be relied on to produce viable planning data. This document defines tasks and deliverables to ensure continued product integrity, provide increased confidence in the accuracy of the data generated, and meet the LITCO`s quality standards during the software maintenance phase. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report

  13. LEAN HEALTHCARE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: MINIMIZING WASTE AND COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia M L Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the management models applied in the supply chain providing services in healthcare organizations, considering the lenses of lean. The aim of this is to develop a model of supply chain management focusing on the identification and minimization of waste, assisting in decision making and contributing to the quality of services and as a consequence the reduction of the costs involved in healthcare supply chain. The philosophies of continuous improvement and lean techniques have a role to play in helping healthcare to provide quality service and support to reduce costs in the current budget constraints. In the supply chain of hospitals the financial costs can be around 40% of its budget (MASOUMI et al. 2012; SOUZA et al., 2013. This article sheds light on the improvement in decision making and the effect of reducing costs in the healthcare supply chain. In this sense, the research intend to expand knowledge related to supply chain management in the area of ​​provision of healthcare services through the use of the philosophy of continuous improvement and lean principles, helping healthcare to provide quality service within their current budget constraints.

  14. Safety and cost evaluation of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Hautojaervi, A.; Korhonen, R.

    1989-11-01

    The report introduces the results of the nuclear waste management safety and cost evaluation research carried out in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) during the years 1984-1988. The emphasis is on the description of the state-of-art of performance and cost evaluation methods. The report describes VTT's most important assessment models. Development, verification and validation of the models has largely taken place within international projects, including the Stripa, HYDROCOIN, INTRACOIN, INTRAVAL, PSACOIN and BIOMOVS projects. Furthermore, VTT's other laboratories are participating in the Natural Analogue Working Group,k the CHEMVAL project and the CoCo group. Resent safety analyses carried out in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory include a concept feasibility study of spent fuel disposal, safety analyses for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Reports (PSAR's) of the repositories to be constructed for low and medium level operational reactor waste at the Olkiluoto and Loviisa power plants as well as safety analyses of disposal of decommissioning wastes. Appendix 1 contains a comprehensive list of the most important publications and technical reports produced. They present the content and results of the research in detail

  15. Determination of cost effective waste management system receipt rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Huber, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive logistics and cost analysis has been carried out to determine if there are potential benefits to the high-level waste management system for receipt rates other than the current 3000 MTU/yr design-basis. The analysis includes both a Repository-Only System and a Storage-Only System. Repository startup dates of 2010 and 2015 and MRS startup dates of 1988 and three years prior to the repository have been evaluated. Receipt rates ranging from 1,500 to 6, 000 MTU/yr have been considered. Higher receipt rates appear to be economically justified, for either system, minimum costs are found at a repository receipt rate of 6000 MTU/yr. However, the MRS receipt rate for minimum system costs depends on the MRS startup date. With a 1988 MRS and a 2010 repository, the added cost of providing the MRS is offset by at-reactor storage cost reductions and the total system cost of $10.0 billion is virtually the same as for the repository- only system. 9 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  16. TRU Waste Management Program. Cost/schedule optimization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detamore, J.A.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Wolaver, R.W.; Hastings, G.A.

    1985-10-01

    This Current Year Work Plan presents in detail a description of the activities to be performed by the Joint Integration Office Rockwell International (JIO/RI) during FY86. It breaks down the activities into two major work areas: Program Management and Program Analysis. Program Management is performed by the JIO/RI by providing technical planning and guidance for the development of advanced TRU waste management capabilities. This includes equipment/facility design, engineering, construction, and operations. These functions are integrated to allow transition from interim storage to final disposition. JIO/RI tasks include program requirements identification, long-range technical planning, budget development, program planning document preparation, task guidance development, task monitoring, task progress information gathering and reporting to DOE, interfacing with other agencies and DOE lead programs, integrating public involvement with program efforts, and preparation of reports for DOE detailing program status. Program Analysis is performed by the JIO/RI to support identification and assessment of alternatives, and development of long-term TRU waste program capabilities. These analyses include short-term analyses in response to DOE information requests, along with performing an RH Cost/Schedule Optimization report. Systems models will be developed, updated, and upgraded as needed to enhance JIO/RI's capability to evaluate the adequacy of program efforts in various fields. A TRU program data base will be maintained and updated to provide DOE with timely responses to inventory related questions

  17. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Fredholmsgatan 2, SE-721 63, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid

  18. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle

  19. Determination of cost effective waste management system receipt rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Huber, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive logistics and cost analysis has been carried out to determine if there are potential benefits to the high-level waste management system for receipt rates other than the current 3,000 MTU/yr design-basis receipt rate. The scope of the analysis includes both a Repository-Only System and a Storage-Only or Basic MRS System. To allow for current uncertainties in facility startup scheduling, cases considering repository startup dates of 2010 and 2015 and MRS startup dates of 1998 and three years prior to the repository have been evaluated. Receipt rates ranging from 1,500 to 6,000 MTU/yr have been considered for both the MRS and the repository. Higher receipt rates appear to be economically justified for both the repository and an MRS. For a repository-only system, minimum costs are found at a repository receipt rate of 6,000 MTU/yr. When a storage-only MRS is included in the system, minimum system costs are also achieved at a repository receipt rate of 6,000 MTU/yr. However, the MRS receipt rate for minimum system costs depends on the MRS startup date and ranges from 3,500 to 6,000 MTU/yr. With a 1998 MRS and a 2010 repository, the added cost of providing the MRS is offset by at-reactor storage cost reductions and the total system cost of $10.0 billion is virtually the same as for the repository-only system

  20. On-site vs off-site management of environmental restoration waste: A cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, M.A.; Aamodt, P.L.; Cox, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Restoration Project is expected to generate relatively large volumes of hazardous waste as a result of cleanup operations. These volumes will exceed the Laboratories existing waste management capacity. This paper presents four options for managing remediation wastes, including three alternatives for on-site waste management utilizing a corrective action management unit (CAMU). Costs are estimated for each of the four options based on current volumetric estimates of hazardous waste. Cost equations are derived for each of the options with the variables being waste volumes, the major unknowns in the analysis. These equations provide a means to update cost estimates as volume estimates change. This approach may be helpful to others facing similar waste management decisions

  1. Order of magnitude cost appraisal for selected aspects of clad waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zima, G.E.

    1977-02-01

    A simple formula, incorporating the fixed charge rate principle, is applied to a clad waste management exercise involving densification, canning, transportation and salt disposal. For the purpose of comparison with the bulk of published nuclear waste management costs, cost and fixed charge rate data appropriate to roughly the period 1970 to 1973 are used. Within the context of this order of magnitude appraisal, densification displays some cost advantage, reflected principally in the transportation cost. Dependent on the degree of densification, above a certain clad waste generation rate the transportation savings may be expected to exceed reasonable densification costs. There is no explicit consideration of the decontamination step in this appraisal. The limited accessibility of surface effect decontamination to internal transuranic and activation product contamination suggests a quite small influence of decontamination on the transportation and disposal costs. Decontamination may, however, have a significant effect on the ease of establishing a practicable containment envelope of high reliability throughout the clad waste history. A brief comparison is made of clad waste management costs with the major costs of the nuclear power economy. This comparison implies a virtually unlimited technical latitude for clad waste treatment in accommodating the public safety without significant perturbation of nuclear power costs. It is submitted that clad waste management optimization will be under the primal constraint of maximizing thelong term public safety, with economic analysis useful only as a discriminator between waste handling alternatives of sensibly equivalent containment qualities. Some areas of clad waste treatment meriting increased attention are noted

  2. Cost estimation for solid waste management in industrialising regions – Precedents, problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthan, Shantha R.; Milke, Mark W.; Wilson, David C.; Cocks, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We review cost estimation approaches for solid waste management. ► Unit cost method and benchmarking techniques used in industrialising regions (IR). ► Variety in scope, quality and stakeholders makes cost estimation challenging in IR. ► Integrate waste flow and cost models using cost functions to improve cost planning. - Abstract: The importance of cost planning for solid waste management (SWM) in industrialising regions (IR) is not well recognised. The approaches used to estimate costs of SWM can broadly be classified into three categories – the unit cost method, benchmarking techniques and developing cost models using sub-approaches such as cost and production function analysis. These methods have been developed into computer programmes with varying functionality and utility. IR mostly use the unit cost and benchmarking approach to estimate their SWM costs. The models for cost estimation, on the other hand, are used at times in industrialised countries, but not in IR. Taken together, these approaches could be viewed as precedents that can be modified appropriately to suit waste management systems in IR. The main challenges (or problems) one might face while attempting to do so are a lack of cost data, and a lack of quality for what data do exist. There are practical benefits to planners in IR where solid waste problems are critical and budgets are limited.

  3. Life cycle cost estimation and systems analysis of Waste Management Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Feizollahi, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents general conclusions from application of a system cost analysis method developed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Waste Management Division (WM), Waste Management Facilities Costs Information (WMFCI) program. The WMFCI method has been used to assess the DOE complex-wide management of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. The Idaho Engineering Laboratory, along with its subcontractor Morrison Knudsen Corporation, has been responsible for developing and applying the WMFCI cost analysis method. The cost analyses are based on system planning level life-cycle costs. The costs for life-cycle waste management activities estimated by WMFCI range from bench-scale testing and developmental work needed to design and construct a facility, facility permitting and startup, operation and maintenance, to the final decontamination, decommissioning, and closure of the facility. For DOE complex-wide assessments, cost estimates have been developed at the treatment, storage, and disposal module level and rolled up for each DOE installation. Discussions include conclusions reached by studies covering complex-wide consolidation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, system cost modeling, system costs sensitivity, system cost optimization, and the integration of WM waste with the environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning secondary wastes

  4. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica, E-mail: vems@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljoevej, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kromann, Mikkel A. [COWI A/S, Parallelvej 2, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljoevej, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  5. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  6. Risks, regulation responsibilities and costs in nuclear waste management: a preliminary survey in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy produces radioactive waste which may present risks of pollution for man and his environment. Their protection must be ensured by technical or institutional controls. The report examines the second, i.e. the administrative, legal and financial measures, dealing with the management of radioactive waste in existence or under consideration within the Member States of the European Community. The following aspects are studied: laws and regulations, authorities concerned, costs and financing of radioactive waste management, civil liability, national policies, international aspects of radioactive waste management

  7. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within...... regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding...

  8. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornibrook, C. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it`s evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it`s risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed.

  9. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  10. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  11. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report

  12. PLAN 98 - Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The nuclear utilities in Sweden are responsible for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The most important measures are to plan, build and operate the facilities and systems needed, and to conduct related R and D. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products. Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB. Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR I. Plans also exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. At the end of 1995, certain amendments were made in the Financing Act which influence the calculations presented in this report. The most important amendment is that the reactor owners, besides paying a fee or charge on nuclear energy production, must also give guarantees as security for remaining costs. In this way the fee can be based on a probable cost for waste management. This cost includes uncertainties and variations that are normal for this type of project. Cost increases as a consequence of major changes, disruptions etc. can instead be covered via the given guarantees. The total future costs, in January 1998 prices, for the Swedish waste management system from 1999 onward has been calculated to be SEK 45.8 billion. The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. They will fall due over a total period of approximately 50 years up to the middle of the 2l st century, but the greater part will fall due during the next 20 years. It is estimated that SEK 12.1 billion in current money terms

  13. The mixed waste management facility: Cost-benefit for the Mixed Waste Management Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinker, S.D.; Streit, R.D.

    1996-04-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility, or MWMF, has been proposed as a national testbed facility for the demonstration and evaluation of technologies that are alternatives to incineration for the treatment of mixed low-level waste. The facility design will enable evaluation of technologies at pilot scale, including all aspects of the processes, from receiving and feed preparation to the preparation of final forms for disposal. The MWMF will reduce the risk of deploying such technologies by addressing the following: (1) Engineering development and scale-up. (2) Process integration and activation of the treatment systems. (3) Permitting and stakeholder issues. In light of the severe financial constraints imposed on the DOE and federal programs, DOE/HQ requested a study to assess the cost benefit for the MWMF given other potential alternatives to meet waste treatment needs. The MVVMF Project was asked to consider alternatives specifically associated with commercialization and privatization of the DOE site waste treatment operations and the acceptability (or lack of acceptability) of incineration as a waste treatment process. The result of this study will be one of the key elements for a DOE decision on proceeding with the MWMF into Final Design (KD-2) vs. proceeding with other options

  14. Plan 96 - Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power reactors. The cost calculations include costs for R,D and D as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. The following facilities and systems are already in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products, Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, Final repository for radioactive operational wastes. Plans exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel, Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste, Final repository for decommissioning waste. The total future costs, in Jan 1996 prices, for the Swedish waste system from 1997 have been calculated to be 42.2 billion SEK (about 6.4 billion USD). The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. It is estimated that 10.6 billion SEK in current money has been spent through 1996. Costs based on waste quantities from operation of the reactors for 40 years are also reported. 6 refs

  15. Cost optimization of a real-time GIS-based management system for hazardous waste transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhong, Yilong; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Che-Jen; Chen, Chunyi

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, the design and cost analysis of a real-time, geographical information system (GIS) based management system for hazardous waste transportation are described. The implementation of such a system can effectively prevent illegal dumping and perform emergency responses during the transportation of hazardous wastes. A case study was conducted in Guangzhou, China to build a small-scale, real-time management system for waste transportation. Two alternatives were evaluated in terms of system capability and cost structure. Alternative I was the building of a complete real-time monitoring and management system in a governing agency; whereas alternative II was the combination of the existing management framework with a commercial Telematics service to achieve the desired level of monitoring and management. The technological framework under consideration included locating transportation vehicles using a global positioning system (GPS), exchanging vehicle location data via the Internet and Intranet, managing hazardous waste transportation using a government management system and responding to emergencies during transportation. Analysis of the cost structure showed that alternative II lowered the capital and operation cost by 38 and 56% in comparison with alternative I. It is demonstrated that efficient management can be achieved through integration of the existing technological components with additional cost benefits being achieved by streamlined software interfacing.

  16. Projection of Big Cities Waste Management and Cost Based on Economic and Demographic Factors in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajati, Gita; Padmi, Tri; Benno Rahardyan, dan

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, solid waste management continues to be a major challenge in urban areas, especially in developing country. It is triggered by population growth, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization. Indonesia itselfs categorized into developing country. Indonesia's government has many program in order to increase the economic growth. One of them is MP3EI (Masterplan Percepatan dan Perluasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia. This program should be suppported by right waste management system. If Indonesia's waste management system can't afford the economic growth, it will trigger health and environmental problems. This study's purpose is to develop the socio-economic-environment model that can be used as a basis planning for the facility and cost of waste management systems. In this paper we used the development of Khajuria model test method. This method used six variables, which are GDP, population, population density, illiteracy, school's period and economic growth. The result showed that development of Khajuria test could explained the influence of economic and demographic factors to waste generation, 65.6%. The projection of waste generation shows that Pangkalpinang, Pekanbaru and Serang are the cities with the highest waste generation for the next five years. The number of dump truck and TPS in DKI Jakarata is the highest within another city, which is 39.37%. For the next five years, the waste management system in our study areas cost maximum 0.8% from GDP (Gross Domestic Products).

  17. Cost Implications of an Interim Storage Facility in the Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, Joshua J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joseph, III, Robert Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Rob L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petersen, Gordon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutt, Mark [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cotton, Thomas [Complex Systems Group, Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the cost implications of incorporating a consolidated interim storage facility (ISF) into the waste management system (WMS). Specifically, the impacts of the timing of opening an ISF relative to opening a repository were analyzed to understand the potential effects on total system costs.

  18. Evaluation of Externality Costs in Life-Cycle Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The development of sustainable solid waste management (SWM) systems requires consideration of both economic and environmental impacts. Societal life-cycle costing (S-LCC) provides a quantitative framework to estimate both economic and environmental impacts, by including "budget costs...... suburban U.S. county of 500 000 people generating 320 000 Mg of waste annually. Estimated externality costs are based on emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, VOC, CO, NH3, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr (VI), Ni, As, and dioxins. The results indicate that incorporating S-LCC into optimized SWM strategy...... development encourages the use of a mixed waste material recovery facility with residues going to incineration, and separated organics to anaerobic digestion. Results are sensitive to waste composition, energy mix and recycling rates. Most of the externality costs stem from SO2, NOx, PM2.5, CH4, fossil CO2...

  19. Management Information System (MIS: Tool for Monitoring the Waste Management Health Service (RSS and Cost of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Elisabete Schneider

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of solid waste management has been improve and deploy systems that perform monitoring and control of management processes of health service’s waste (HSW. This study aims to evaluate the total cost per category of HSW/day and active bed/day with the handling of HSW in a teaching hospital in northeastern area of Brazil`s Rio Grande do Sul state and identify contributions of a management information system (MIS in the management process, especially considering the generation and segregation of waste. Utilized methodology was developed in two stages: data collection about the management of the HSW and proposition, implementation and feed of a MIS for recording and processing of data related to waste characterization. Results show that whether the management system of the hospital in this study were 100% right, the monthly savings for the treatment of infectious waste would be 18.4% of the costs and 5.83% of costs of chemical waste. The implementation of MIS becomes an essential tool in the evaluation of the management process of HSW since it makes possible to raise issues of fundamental importance to the implementation and evaluation of strategies contained in the HSW management plan. The MIS also represents a tool of easy reference and of great importance to evaluate generation of HSW as it helps to promote the surveillance, identification of sectors that have the biggest problems with segregation, as well as ways to minimize costs and impacts.

  20. Optimal scenario balance of reduction in costs and greenhouse gas emissions for municipal solid waste management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 张强; 陈广武; 齐长青; 崔文谦; 张于峰; 马洪亭

    2015-01-01

    To reduce carbon intensity, an improved management method balancing the reduction in costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is required for Tianjin’s waste management system. Firstly, six objective functions, namely, cost minimization, GHG minimization, eco-efficiency minimization, cost maximization, GHG maximization and eco-efficiency maximization, are built and subjected to the same constraints with each objective function corresponding to one scenario. Secondly, GHG emissions and costs are derived from the waste flow of each scenario. Thirdly, the range of GHG emissions and costs of other potential scenarios are obtained and plotted through adjusting waste flow with infinitely possible step sizes according to the correlation among the above six scenarios. And the optimal scenario is determined based on this range. The results suggest the following conclusions. 1) The scenarios located on the border between scenario cost minimization and GHG minimization create an optimum curve, and scenario GHG minimization has the smallest eco-efficiency on the curve;2) Simple pursuit of eco-efficiency minimization using fractional programming may be unreasonable; 3) Balancing GHG emissions from incineration and landfills benefits Tianjin’s waste management system as it reduces GHG emissions and costs.

  1. Life-cycle costs for the Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement (draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Shropshire, D.E.; Hsu, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has produced a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) in order to assess the potential consequences resulting from a cross section of possible waste management strategies for the DOE complex. The PEIS has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act, and includes evaluations of a variety of alternatives. The analysis performed for the PEIS included the development of life-cycle cost estimates for the different waste management alternatives being considered. These cost estimates were used in the PEIS to support the identification and evaluation of economic impacts. Information developed during the preparation of the life-cycle cost estimates was also used to support risk and socioeconomic analyses performed for each of the alternatives. This technical report provides an overview of the methodology used to develop the life-cycle cost estimates for the PEIS alternatives. The methodology that was applied made use of the Waste Management Facility Cost Information Reports, which provided a consistent approach and estimating basis for the PEIS cost evaluations. By maintaining consistency throughout the cost analyses, life-cycle costs of the various alternatives can be compared and evaluated on a relative basis. This technical report also includes the life-cycle cost estimate results for each of the PEIS alternatives evaluated. Summary graphs showing the results for each waste type are provided in the main document, and tables showing different breakdowns of the cost estimates are provided in the Appendices A-D. Appendix E contains PEIS cost information that was developed using an approach different than the standard methodology described in this report

  2. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter formation of wastes and basic concepts of non-radioactive waste management are explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: People in Peril; Self-regulation of nature as a guide for minimizing and recycling waste; The current waste management situation in the Slovak Republic; Categorization and determination of the type of waste in legislative of Slovakia; Strategic directions waste management in the Slovak Republic.

  3. Solid waste management based on cost-benefit analysis using the WAMED model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutavchi, Viacheslav

    2012-11-01

    Efficient waste management enables the protection of human health, reducing environmental pollution, saving of natural resources, and achieving sustainable and profitable management of energy. In many countries, the general guidelines for waste management are set by national or local waste management plans. Various models provide local authorities with decision-making tools in planning long-term waste management scenarios. This study aims at providing a special model framework for the evaluation of ecological-economic efficiency (ECO-EE) of waste management. This will serve as an information support tool for decision making by actors of a solid waste management (SWM) scheme, primarily at the municipal and regional levels. The objective of this study is to apply the waste management's efficient decision (WAMED) model along with the company statistical business tool for environmental recovery indicator (COSTBUSTER) model to SWM and municipal solid waste (MSW) schemes in general in order to evaluate and improve their ECO-EE. COSTBUSTER is a mathematical indicator for the size and extent of implementation costs of a certain SWM scheme, compared with the total size of the average financial budget of a SWM actor of a certain kind. In particular, WAMED is proposed for evaluating the suitability to invest in baling technology. Baling of solid waste is an emerging technology which is extensively used worldwide to temporarily store waste for either incineration or recovery of raw materials. The model for efficient use of resources for optimal production economy (the EUROPE model) is for the first time applied to emissions from baling facilities. It has been analysed how cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and full cost accounting (FCA) can facilitate environmental optimisation of SWM schemes. The effort in this work represents a continuation of such ambitions as an enlargement of the research area of CBAbased modelling within SWM. In the thesis, certain theoretical and economic

  4. The Nuclear Waste Fund Inquiry. Financing of nuclear waste management in Sweden and Finland and the cost control system in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report describes the Finnish system for financing nuclear waste management, and compares it to the swedish one. It gives an analysis of the economic effects for the waste management financing of an early shut-down of a nuclear power plant, and of a change to a new system for financing the waste management, more like the Finnish one. Finally the cost for the Swedish nuclear waste management, as estimated by SKB, is scrutinized. 25 refs

  5. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management--costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar's SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident financial deficit could else endanger the public-private partnership (PPP) and lead to failure of this setup in the medium to long term, thus also endangering the now existing improved and currently reliable service. We present four options on how financial sustainability of the SWM system in Bahir Dar might be enhanced: (i) improved fee collection efficiency by linking the fees of solid waste collection to water supply; (ii) increasing the value

  6. Impact of Capital and Current Costs Changes of the Incineration Process of the Medical Waste on System Management Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolanta Walery, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The article describes optimization studies aimed at analysing the impact of capital and current costs changes of medical waste incineration on the cost of the system management and its structure. The study was conducted on the example of an analysis of the system of medical waste management in the Podlaskie Province, in north-eastern Poland. The scope of operational research carried out under the optimization study was divided into two stages of optimization calculations with assumed technical and economic parameters of the system. In the first stage, the lowest cost of functioning of the analysed system was generated, whereas in the second one the influence of the input parameter of the system, i.e. capital and current costs of medical waste incineration on economic efficiency index (E) and the spatial structure of the system was determined. Optimization studies were conducted for the following cases: with a 25% increase in capital and current costs of incineration process, followed by 50%, 75% and 100% increase. As a result of the calculations, the highest cost of system operation was achieved at the level of 3143.70 PLN/t with the assumption of 100% increase in capital and current costs of incineration process. There was an increase in the economic efficiency index (E) by about 97% in relation to run 1.

  7. Waste management strategy for cost effective and environmentally friendly NPP decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Per Lidar; Arne Larsson [Studsvik Nuclear AB (ndcon partner), Nykoping (Sweden); Niklas Bergh; Gunnar Hedin [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB (ndcon partner), Vasteraas (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named ndcon to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle

  8. Waste management strategy for cost effective and environmentally friendly NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Per Lidar; Arne Larsson; Niklas Bergh; Gunnar Hedin

    2013-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named ndcon to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle

  9. Cost study on waste management at three model Canadian uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    A waste management cost study was initiated to determine the capital and operating costs of three different uranium waste management systems which incorporate current technologies being used in Canadian uranium mining operations. Cost estimates were to be done to a thirty percent level of accuracy and were to include all waste management related costs of a uranium ore processing facility. Each model is based on an annual uranium production of 1,923,000 kg U (5,000,000 lbs U 3 O 8 ) with a total operating life of 20 years for the facility. The three models, A, B, and C, are based on three different uranium ore grades, 0.10 percent U 3 O 8 , 0.475 percent U 3 O 8 and 1.5 percent U 3 O 8 respectively. Yellowcake production is assumed to start in January 1984. Model A is based on a conceptual 7,180 tonne per day uranium ore processing facility and waste management system typical of uranium operations in the Elliot Lake area of northern Ontario with an established infrastructure. Model B is a 1.512 tonne per day operation based on a remote uranium operation typical of the Athabasca Basin properties in northern Saskatchewan. Model C is a 466 tonne per day operation processing a high-grade uranium ore containing arsenic and heavy metal concentrations typical of some northern Saskatchewan deposits

  10. Comparison of SUREPAK life cycle costs to other methods of low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston, S.J.; Little, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons of costs of low-level radioactive waste management techniques invariably degenerate into parochial arguments over differences in commercial objectives. The purpose of this paper is to establish a common basis for comparing technologies and then to examine the result as a complete cycle instead of a snapshot view taken at an arbitrary point in the progression. One objective is to portray cost sensitivity in terms of the options available for waste management. A second, perhaps less obvious, point is the definition of cost factors hidden from the short-term view. The final objective is to show the cumulative effects of costs externally imposed without reference to the technology employed (e.g., legislated surcharges based on arbitrary parameters)

  11. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household......Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial...... be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated....

  12. National perspective on waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sources of nuclear wastes are listed and the quantities of these wastes per year are given. Methods of processing and disposing of mining and milling wastes, low-level wastes, decommissioning wastes, high-level wastes, reprocessing wastes, spent fuels, and transuranic wastes are discussed. The costs and safeguards involved in the management of this radioactive wastes are briefly covered in this presentation

  13. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  14. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  15. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Cost and Schedule Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish quantitative expressions of proposed costs and schedule to serve as a basis for measurement of program performance. It identifies the components of the Program Cost and Schedule Baseline (PCSB) that will be subject to change control by the Executive (Level 0) and Program (Level 1) Change Control Boards (CCBS) and establishes their baseline values. This document also details PCSB reporting, monitoring, and corrective action requirements. The Program technical baseline contained in the Waste Management System Description (WMSD), the Waste Management System Requirements (WMSR), and the Physical System Requirements documents provide the technical basis for the PCSB. Changes to the PCSB will be approved by the Pregrain Change Control Board (PCCB)In addition to the PCCB, the Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board Baseline CCB (ESAAB BCCB) will perform control functions relating to Total Project Cost (TPC) and major schedule milestones for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project

  16. Cost benefit analysis, sustainability and long-lived radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine how far the sustainability concept and the technique of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) can be applied to the problem of radioactive waste management. The paper begins with a slightly altered definition of the problem to the one carried in the Nea's background document (Nea 1994). A preliminary attempt is then be made to ascribe burdens to the various phases of long-lived radioactive waste management. The appropriateness of CBA and the sustainability concept for making decisions about long-term waste management policy is then discussed. The author ends with some conclusions about the appropriateness of systematic assessment approaches in the political process of constructing social consent for technological decisions. (O.L.). 12 refs., 1 tab

  17. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Sebastião Roberto; Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues; Prudêncio da Silva, Vamilson; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. ► HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. ► Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg −1 for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg −1 for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg −1 for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible alternative to subsidize the formulation of the policy for small generators of HCW.

  18. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sebastiao Roberto, E-mail: soares@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues, E-mail: finotti@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Prudencio da Silva, Vamilson, E-mail: vamilson@epagri.sc.gov.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); EPAGRI, Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1347, Itacorubi, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina 88034-901 (Brazil); Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F., E-mail: alvarenga.raf@gmail.com [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Ghent University, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure Links 653/9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible

  19. Comparison of costs for three hypothetical alternative kitchen waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiettecatte, Wim; Tize, Ronald; De Wever, Heleen

    2014-11-01

    Urban water and waste management continues to be a major challenge, with the Earth's population projected to rise to 9 billion by 2050, with 70% of this population expected to live in cities. A combined treatment of wastewater and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste offers opportunities for improved environmental protection and energy recovery, but the collection and transport of organic wastes must be cost effective. This study compares three alternative kitchen waste collection and transportation systems for a virtual modern urban area with 300,000 residents and a population density of 10,000 persons per square kilometre. Door-to-door collection, being the standard practice in modern urban centres, remains the most economically advantageous at a cost of 263 euros per tonne of kitchen waste. Important drawbacks are the difficult logistics, increased city traffic, air and noise pollution. The quieter, cleaner and more hygienic vacuum transport of kitchen waste comes with a higher cost of 367 euros per tonne, mainly resulting from a higher initial investment cost for the system installation. The third option includes the well-known use of under-sink food waste disposers (often called garbage grinders) that are connected to the kitchen's wastewater piping system, with a total yearly cost of 392 euros per tonne. Important advantages with this system are the clean operation and the current availability of a city-wide sewage conveyance pipeline system. Further research is recommended, for instance the application of a life cycle assessment approach, to more fully compare the advantages and disadvantages of each option. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste managementCosts and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji, E-mail: christian.lohri@eawag.ch; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph, E-mail: ephraimcamenzind@hotmail.com; Zurbrügg, Christian, E-mail: christian.zurbruegg@eawag.ch

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Cost-revenue analysis over 2 years revealed insufficient cost-recovery. • Expenses for motorized secondary collection increased by 82% over two years. • Low fee collection rate and reliance on only one revenue stream are problematic. • Different options for cost reduction and enhanced revenue streams are recommended. • Good public–private alliance is crucial to plan and implement improvement measures. - Abstract: Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar’s SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident

  1. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste managementCosts and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cost-revenue analysis over 2 years revealed insufficient cost-recovery. • Expenses for motorized secondary collection increased by 82% over two years. • Low fee collection rate and reliance on only one revenue stream are problematic. • Different options for cost reduction and enhanced revenue streams are recommended. • Good public–private alliance is crucial to plan and implement improvement measures. - Abstract: Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar’s SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident

  2. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE's Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs

  3. Strategies for safe and cost-efficient management of nuclear wastes in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhanen, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In 2001, the Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision-in-Principle on a final disposal facility of spent fuel to be constructed at the Olkiluoto site in the Western Finland. Since the early 1980s, this decision was grounded up by R and D and siting activities as well as by communications aiming at confidence building. Before the recent important licensing and siting step in the national waste management programme, interim storage facilities for spent fuel have been constructed at both nuclear power plant sites. Two shallow underground repositories were commissioned for low- and medium-level operating waste in the 1990s. Long-term programme and stepwise advancement have facilitated keeping the annual costs of nuclear waste management moderate. All major objectives were decided by the Government already in an early phase several decades ago, and these objectives have been met without significant delays. Nuclear power plant areas have been found out to be suitable even for location of waste storage and disposal facilities, which means benefits concerning infrastructure. Funds for R and D and implementation of waste management have been collected in the price of nuclear electricity since the start of nuclear power generation. (author)

  4. Applicability of the cost-effectiveness approach for comparison of waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.; Peltonen, E.; Vieno, T.; Vira, J.

    1984-01-01

    There is an obvious need to consider the achievable level of safety of waste management in view of the costs involved. The feasibility of the cost-effectiveness approach for this purpose is discussed in the framework of practical case studies. The analysis indicates that such an approach has clear benefits, but it also reveals several issues and ambiguities in its application. The waste management alternatives considered include various concepts for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level reactor wastes as well as of the unreprocessed spent fuel. The employed impact indicators describe both the individual and collective risks. In addition, indicators simultaneously giving a perspective into other risks in the society and a means to make a rank ordering of the alternative options are proposed. The cost-effectiveness ratios for collective risks vary in the range of ten to hundreds of millions US $ per man.Sv. The examples considered also indicate that increased costs do not necessarily improve safety. Furthermore, the comparison of the safety of different options requires more sophisticated and realistic models than those employed in the present analyses, because an unbalanced degree of conservatism could result in misleading conclusions. (author)

  5. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 6. Cost determination of the LWR waste management routes (treatment/conditioning/packaging/transport operations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiels, G.M.; Kowa, S.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the cost determination of a number of schemes for the treatment, conditioning, packaging, interim storage and transport operations of LWR wastes drawn up on the basis of Belgian, French and German practices in this particular area. In addition to the general procedure elaborated for determining, actualizing and scaling of plant and transport costs associated with the various schemes, in-depth calculations of each intermediate management stage are included in this report. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  6. Costs associated with the management of waste from healthcare facilities: An analysis at national and site level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Mentore; Tudor, Terry; Perteghella, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Given rising spend on the provision of healthcare services, the sustainable management of waste from healthcare facilities is increasingly becoming a focus as a means of reducing public health risks and financial costs. Using data on per capita healthcare spend at the national level, as well as a case study of a hospital in Italy, this study examined the relationship between trends in waste generation and the associated costs of managing the waste. At the national level, healthcare spend as a percentage of gross domestic product positively correlated with waste arisings. At the site level, waste generation and type were linked to department type and clinical performance, with the top three highest generating departments of hazardous healthcare waste being anaesthetics (5.96 kg day -1 bed -1 ), paediatric and intensive care (3.37 kg day -1 bed -1 ) and gastroenterology-digestive endoscopy (3.09 kg day -1 bed -1 ). Annual overall waste management costs were $US5,079,191, or approximately $US2.36 kg -1 , with the management of the hazardous fraction of the waste being highest at $US3,707,939. In Italy, reduction in both waste arisings and the associated costs could be realised through various means, including improved waste segregation, and linking the TARI tax to waste generation.

  7. Cost-benefit analysis for management of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    There are several types of cost-benefit analyses that can be used in evaluating a technical activity such as waste management. A direct comparison can be made of the benefits to be gained versus the costs to be accrued. If the balance is favorable the activity is considered to be acceptable. In many cases, however, a number of alternatives may be available requiring a comparative cost-benefit analysis so that the most favorable option is chosen. After the basic option is chosen, a further analysis is required in which additional control technologies can be considered to further reduce specific types of impact; this represents a differential cost-benefit analysis or, perhaps more properly, a study of cost-effectiveness. Also, because of the wide variety of parameters that go into a cost-benefit analysis and the range of value judgements that may be applied by different interest groups, it is likely that each additional increment of technology will have a slightly different balance point. Factors and impacts that need to be considered in management of low-level wastes will be discussed and a simplified example will be used to demonstrate the difficulties that may be encountered

  8. Cost-benefit analysis for management of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.

    1977-01-01

    There are several types of cost-benefit analyses that can be used in evaluating a technical activity such as waste management. A direct comparison can be made of the benefits to be gained versus the costs to be accrued. If the balance is favorable, the activity is considered to be acceptable. In many cases, however, a number of alternatives may be available requiring a comparative cost-benefit analysis so that the most favorable option is chosen. After the basic option is chosen, a further analysis is required in which additional control technologies can be considered to further reduce specific types of impact; this represents a differential cost-benefit analysis or, perhaps more properly, a study of cost-effectiveness. Also, because of the wide variety of parameters that go into a cost-benefit analysis and the range of value judgements that may be applied by different interest groups, it is likely that each additional increment of technology will have a slightly different balance point. Factors and impacts that need to be considered in management of low-level wastes will be discussed and a simplified example will be used to demonstrate the difficulties that may be encountered

  9. Biological waste by-production costs in forest management and possibilities for their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kadlec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes in forestry were observed from view of their by-production in silvicultural and logging operations. There were identified points where biological waste was produced in this paper, waste costs ratio for silvicultural and logging operations and were made suggestions for reduction of these costs. Biological waste costs give 34.4% of total costs of silvicultural operations and 30% of total costs of logging operations. Natural regeneration and minor forest produce operations are opportunities for reduction of these costs.

  10. ANALYSIS OF COSTS AND BENEFITS OF INVESTMENTS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presiana Nenkova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a study employing Cost-Benefit Analisys for efficiency appraisal of a set of 19 projects for Regional Waste Management Systems (RWMS construction, envisaged for funding under Priority axis 2: Improvement and development of waste treatment infrastructure within Operational Programme Environment 2007-2013 in Bulgaria. The member states are required to submit a Cost-Benefit Analysis to the Commission services for major projects to provide evidence that, in the framework of EU regional policy objectives, the project is both desirable from an economic point of view and needs the contribution of the Funds in order to be financially feasible. To draw the conclusion on potential impact on social welfare of the public investments undertaken in waste management ecological infrastructure costs and benefits are first identified and monetized. The aggregated model for assessing the impact of investments is based on information declared in those specific project proposals, and the data has then been processed to extract averages and aggregates needed for the purposes of analysis. Financial Analysis is employed to assess the need of co-financing by the European fund for regional development and to estimate the amount of the EU assistance. Economic Analysis is employed to determine whether the society would be better-off with the projects. According to the economic evaluation undertaken the projects’ net present value is positive thus proving that investments in ecological infrastructure in Bulgaria generate net benefits for society as a whole.

  11. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority

  12. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority. The

  13. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-04-19

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from unpurchased food commodities were spent on goods/services with a more environmentally damaging production than that of the (prevented) food. This was not the case when savings were used, e.g., for health care, education, and insurances. This study demonstrates that income effects, although uncertain, should be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated.

  14. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  15. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  16. Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2006-01-01

    The Productivity Commission’s inquiry report into ‘Waste Management’ was tabled by Government in December 2006. The Australian Government asked the Commission to identify policies that would enable Australia to address market failures and externalities associated with the generation and disposal of waste, and recommend how resource efficiencies can be optimised to improve economic, environmental and social outcomes. In the final report, the Commission maintains that waste management policy sh...

  17. A review of scope and costs for the swedish system for management of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    From a financial analysis of the swedish nuclear waste management program it is deduced that a 25 year long operation of the swedish reactors will not create funds large enough to finance the program at the present fee level (0.019 SEK/kWh). The real interest rate is of great importance for the return from the fees. The cost estimates for decommissioning are much lower than that for comparable reactors in other countries (e.g. Trojan, USA vs Ringhals 2), possibly totaling up to 20 GSEK for all twelve swedish reactors. 3 figs., 12 tabs

  18. Evaluation of cost of radioactive waste management during the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrish, V.M.; Tkachev, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the results of calculations on evaluation of radioactive waste volumes, the required financing, and the labor expenses for management of radioactive waste that may arise during the decommissioning of Chernobyl NPP Units 1, 2, 3

  19. Two hypothetical problems in radioactive waste management: a comparison of cost/benefit analysis and decision analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S R; Hayward, G M

    1982-01-01

    In our interim report a general review was given of the characteristics of three formal methods for aiding decision making in relation to the general problems posed in radioactive waste management. In this report, consideration is given to examples of the sort of proposals that the Environment Departments may be asked to review, and two of the formal decision aids (cost-benefit analysis and decision analysis) which could be used to assist these tasks are discussed. The example decisions chosen are the siting of an underground repository for intermediate-level wastes and the choice of a waste management procedure for an intermediate-level waste stream.

  20. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1994-09-01

    This report contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, greater-than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic waste (TRU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled ( 200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste have been estimated previously, and a summary has been included in earlier WMFCI reports. In order to have a single source for obtaining transportation cost for all radioactive waste, the transportation costs for the contact- and remote-handled wastes are repeated in this report. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the US Department of Transportation (DOT), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations. It should be noted that the trend is toward greater restrictions on transportation of radioactive waste (e.g., truck or rail car speed, shipping route, security escort, and personnel training requirements), which may have a significant impact on future costs

  1. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  2. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soule, H.F.

    1975-01-01

    Current planning for the management of radioactive wastes, with some emphasis on plutonium contaminated wastes, includes the provision of re-positories from which the waste can be safely removed to permanent disposal. A number of possibilities for permanent disposal are under investigation with the most favorable, at the present time, apparently disposal in a stable geological formation. However, final choice cannot be made until all studies are completed and a pilot phase demonstrates the adequacy of the chosen method. The radioactive wastes which result from all portions of the fuel cycle could comprise an important source of exposure to the public if permitted to do so. The objectives of the AEC waste management program are to provide methods of treating, handling and storing these wastes so that this exposure will not occur. This paper is intended to describe some of the problems and current progress of waste management programs, with emphasis on plutonium-contaminated wastes. Since the technology in this field is advancing at a rapid pace, the descriptions given can be regarded only as a snapshot at one point in time. (author)

  4. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (<200 mrem/hr contact dose) and remote-handled (>200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations.

  5. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled ( 200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations

  6. Assessing the 'Waste Hierarchy' a social cost-benefit analyse of MSW management in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisson, I. E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses, in the context of an impending 'waste crisis', the concept of optimal waste generation and an optimal mix of municipal solid waste (MSW) management methods. It argues that excessive quantities of MSW are likely to be generated, and consequently excessive demand for waste services will exist, as long as the marginal cost of waste services facing the household is zero. In order to avoid this excess demand, households should be charged for waste services according to their use of it, and not as presently at a flat rate. In the price to be paid by householders should be included financial as well as external costs. With respect to the optimal mix of MSW management methods, the paper asserts that this would be attained when the marginal net social costs of each management methods were equal. After setting out the theoretical background, the paper then proceeds to undertake a social cost-benefit analysis of waste management methods currently employed by the 12 'old' European Union Member States, including external and financial costs of landfill, incineration, recycling and composting. The estimates obtained from this analysis are used to assess the validity of the 'waste hierarchy', which has won widespread acceptance, and is used as a guideline in a number of countries' waste policies. In the light of the widespread focus on increasing recycling efforts, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to ascertain whether particular materials are especially suited for recycling, and whether there are other materials for which recycling should not be encouraged. (au) 16 refs

  7. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  8. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworschak, H.; Mannone, F.; Rocco, P.

    1995-01-01

    The presence of tritium in tritium-burning devices to be built for large scale research on thermonuclear fusion poses many problems especially in terms of occupational and environmental safety. One of these problems derives from the production of tritiated wastes in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. All these wastes need to be adequately processed and conditioned to minimize tritium releases to an acceptably low occupational and environmental level and consequently to protect workers and the public against the risks of unacceptable doses from exposure to tritium. Since all experimental thermonuclear fusion devices of the Tokomak type to be built and operated in the near future as well as all experimental activities undertaken in tritium laboratories like ETHEL will generate tritiated wastes, current strategies and practices to be applied for the routine management of these wastes need to be defined. Adequate background information is provided through an exhaustive literature survey. In this frame alternative tritiated waste management options so far investigated or currently applied to this end in Europe, USA and Canada have been assessed. The relevance of tritium in waste containing gamma-emitters, originated by the neutron activation of structural materials is assessed in relation to potential final disposal options. Particular importance has been attached to the tritium retention efficiency achievable by the various waste immobilization options. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Financial management of hazardous waste compliance and mitigation costs: constraints and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Babos, Jeffrey C.

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This research investigates financial management and other constraints and implications of hazardous waste disposal and compliance within DoD and DoN. It shows that during contracting fiscal period where there is an environmentally conscious public, the DoD and the Navy have to make trade-offs in funding for hazardous waste management. The study reveals that legislation removing sovereign immunity from the DoD for hazardous waste dispo...

  10. Cost efficiency and ressource efficiency in the waste management. Proceedings; Kosten- und Ressourceneffizienz in der Abfallwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K. [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany)]|[Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft; Bergs, C.G. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany); Kosak, G. [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany)]|[IBK-Kosak GmbH, Neustadt/Weinstrasse (Germany); Wallamnn, R. (eds.) [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany)]|[IGW Ingenieurgemeinschaft Witzenhausen Fricke und Turk GmbH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Within the scope of the 68th information discussion of ANS e.V., the following lectures were held: (a) Supply of resources from the German waste management (S. Harmening); (b) Ressource management: A contribution to environment, climate and fees (R. Siechau); (c) Climate protection and protection of resources by means of export of technology and know-how (A. Jaron); (d) The future of the markets of secondary raw materials (E. Rehbock, T. Probst); (e) Potentials of increase of the contributions o the waste management to climate protection and protection of resources (G. Dehoust, U. Fritsche); (f) Evaluation of new strategic efforts to disposal of domestic wastes under consideration of resource efficiency and relevance of climate (M. Kranert, G. Hafner); (g) REACh and secondary raw materials (B. Kummer); (h) What is the effect of the regulation of chemicals (REACh) on the recycling economy? (A. Ochs, H. Kleinwege); (i) Motivation and steps of planning according to rekommunalisation (K.-H. Kellermann); (j) Chances and risks of private disposers (P. Kurth); (k) Cost advantages and boundary conditions at intercommunal cooperations of procurement (H. Gassner); (l) From BAB to budgeting - why does a new advertising of service contracts not result in an improvement of the communal efficiency? (W.P. Bauer, K. Ihmels); (m) Benchmarking as an instrument of control in the waste management (K. Gellenbeck); (n) Minimizing financial costs - the funding programs of KW in the waste management (M. von Zedlitz); (o) Innovative models of cooperation, financing and operating models for the establishment of new fermentation plants (M. Zeifang); (p) BEKON dry fermentation for production of biogas from organic waste (P. Lutz); (q) New methods for process control during composting - a component in the enhancement of efficiency of utilization of biological wastes (Frank Scholwin, Gereon Stolle); (r) Enhancement of the output of biogas by means of specific loading materials (Heinrich Josef

  11. A system dynamic modeling approach for evaluating municipal solid waste generation, landfill capacity and related cost management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng Huan; Yu Danlin

    2010-01-01

    As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework for Newark urban region in the US, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-processes that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity of the state, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by different waste processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.

  12. Conceptual costing study for the long-term management of the Port Hope area low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    Comparative conceptual cost estimates for several possible options for the long-term management of the Port Hope area low-level radioactive wastes have been developed. Five potentially applicable concepts were considered in the study: shallow land burial, using either unlined trenches, lined trenches or concrete canisters; engineered storage mounds; above-ground concrete vaults; below-ground concrete vaults; and intermediate-depth caverns using either open stopes or shrinkage mining. The objective was to develop comparative estimates. The differences in costs between concepts reflect the differences in handling methodology or costs of additional engineered barriers around the stored waste. An in situ waste volume of 805 000 m 3 , relatively favorable site conditions, a four-year disposal schedule and a consistent costing basis were assumed for each concept. Limited effort was made to optimize specific facility designs or disposal operations. The projected disposal costs vary from $68/m 3 of waste for shallow land burial in unlined trenches, to $312/m 3 of waste disposal in concrete canisters in trenches. The results of this study are reasonably consistent with previous estimates prepared for the low-level Radioactive Waste Management Office

  13. Plan 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration throughout the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are included. The total future cost for handling the waste from 40 years operation of the 11 Swedish reactors in operation and Barsebaeck-1 which already is taken out of operation, amounts to 49.6 billion SEK (about 6.2 billion USD). 12.7 billion SEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants, and for research and development (incl. year 2003 costs)

  14. Activation/waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maninger, C.

    1984-10-01

    The selection of materials and the design of the blankets for fusion reactors have significant effects upon the radioactivity generated by neutron activation in the materials. This section considers some aspects of materials selection with respect to waste management. The activation of the materials is key to remote handling requirements for waste, to processing and disposal methods for waste, and to accident severity in waste management operations. In order to realize the desirable evnironmental potentials of fusion power systems, there are at least three major goals for waste management. These are: (a) near-surface burial; (b) disposal on-site of the fusion reactor; (c) acceptable radiation doses at least cost during and after waste management operations

  15. Methods for estimating costs of transporting spent fuel and defense high-level radioactive waste for the civilian radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrough, M.E.; Lilly, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is planning and developing a transportation program for the shipment of spent fuel and defense high-level waste from current storage locations to the site of the mined geologic repository. In addition to its responsibility for providing a safe transportation system, the DOE will assure that the transportation program will function with the other system components to create an integrated waste management system. In meeting these objectives, the DOE will use private industry to the maximum extent practicable and in a manner that is cost effective. This paper discusses various methodologies used for estimating costs for the national radioactive waste transportation system. Estimating these transportation costs is a complex effort, as the high-level radioactive waste transportation system, itself, will be complex. Spent fuel and high-level waste will be transported from more than 100 nuclear power plants and defense sites across the continental US, using multiple transport modes (truck, rail, and barge/rail) and varying sizes and types of casks. Advance notification to corridor states will be given and scheduling will need to be coordinated with utilities, carriers, state and local officials, and the DOE waste acceptance facilities. Additionally, the waste forms will vary in terms of reactor type, size, weight, age, radioactivity, and temperature

  16. The effect of inflation rate on the cost of medical waste management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolanta Walery, Maria

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the optimization study aimed to analyse the impact of the parameter describing the inflation rate on the cost of the system and its structure. The study was conducted on the example of the analysis of medical waste management system in north-eastern Poland, in the Podlaskie Province. The scope of operational research carried out under the optimization study was divided into two stages of optimization calculations with assumed technical and economic parameters of the system. In the first stage, the lowest cost of functioning of the analysed system was generated, whereas in the second one the influence of the input parameter of the system, i.e. the inflation rate on the economic efficiency index (E) and the spatial structure of the system was determined. With the assumed inflation rate in the range of 1.00 to 1.12, the highest cost of the system was achieved at the level of PLN 2022.20/t (increase of economic efficiency index E by ca. 27% in comparison with run 1, with inflation rate = 1.12).

  17. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: an integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  19. Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport

  20. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Progrram is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report is an input into the third evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The total-system cost for the reference waste-management program in this analysis is estimated to be 24 to 30 billion (1984) dollars. For the sensitivity cases studied in this report, the costs could be as high as 35 billion dollars and as low as 21 billion dollars. Because factors like repository location, the quantity of waste generated, transportation-cask technology, and repository startup dates exert substantial impacts on total-system costs, there are several tradeoffs between these factors, and these tradeoffs can greatly influence the total cost of the program. The total-system cost for the reference program described in this report is higher by 3 to 5 billion dollars, or 15 to 20%, than the cost for the reference program of the TSLCC analysis of April 1984. More than two-thirds of this increase is in the cost of repository construction and operation. These repository costs have increased because of changing design concepts, different assumptions about the effort required to perform the necessary activities, and a change in the source data on which the earlier analysis was based. Development and evaluation costs have similarly increased because of a net addition to the work content. Transportation costs have increased because of different assumptions about repository locations and several characteristics of the transportation system. It is expected that the estimates of total-system costs will continue to change in response to both an evolving program strategy and better definition of the work required to achieve the program objectives

  1. Community R and D programme on radioactive waste management and storage (Shared Cost Action). List of scientific reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, W.; Falke, W.

    1984-11-01

    The scientific reports listed herein have been brought out in the scope of the Research and Development programme sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities in the field of Radioactive Waste Management and Storage. The list systematically contains the references of all final R and D reports and equivalent scientific publications drawn up since 1975 on the various contractual research works sponsored by the Commission in its programme on shared cost terms (Shared Cost Action). It states the autor of the work, the title, the EUR report number (where applicable), the way of publication and the contractor's reference (CEC contract number). The content headings are: conditioning of fuel cladding and dissolution residues, immobilization and storage of gaseous waste, treatment of Low and Medium Level waste, processing of alpha contaminated waste, characterization of conditioned Low and Medium Level waste forms, testing of solidified High Level waste forms, shallow land burial of solid Low Level waste, waste disposal in geological formations, safety of radioactive waste disposal, and annual progress reports of the Community programme

  2. Eco-dialysis: the financial and ecological costs of dialysis waste products: is a 'cradle-to-cradle' model feasible for planet-friendly haemodialysis waste management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Nazha, Marta; Ferraresi, Martina; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Pereno, Amina; Barbero, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 2 million chronic haemodialysis patients produce over 2,000,000 tons of waste per year that includes about 600,000 tons of potentially hazardous waste. The aim of the present study was to analyse the characteristics of the waste that is produced through chronic haemodialysis in an effort to identify strategies to reduce its environmental and financial impact. The study included three dialysis machines and disposables for bicarbonate dialysis, haemodiafiltration (HFR) and lactate dialysis. Hazardous waste is defined as waste that comes into contact with bodily fluids. The weight and cost of waste management was evaluated by various policies of differentiation, ranging from a careful-optimal differentiation to a careless one. The amount of time needed for optimal management was recorded in 30 dialysis sessions. Non-hazardous materials were assessed for potential recycling. The amount of plastic waste that is produced per dialysis session ranges from 1.5 to 8 kg (from 1.1 to 8 kg of potentially hazardous waste), depending upon the type of dialysis machine and supplies, differentiation and emptying policies. The financial cost of waste disposal is high, and is mainly related to hazardous waste disposal, with costs ranging from 2.2 to 16 Euro per session (2.7-21 USD) depending on the waste management policy. The average amount of time needed for careful, optimal differentiation disposal is approximately 1 minute for a haemodialysis session and 2 minutes for HFR. The ecological cost is likewise high: less than one-third of non-hazardous waste (23-28%) is potentially recyclable, while the use of different types of plastic, glues, inks and labels prevents the remaining materials from being recycled. Acknowledging the problem of waste management in dialysis could lead to savings of hundreds of millions of Dollars and to the reuse and recycling of hundreds of tons of plastic waste per year on a world-wide scale with considerable financial and ecological savings

  3. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 8. Cost and radiological impact associated with near-surface disposal of reactor waste (Spanish concept)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamo Berna, S.; Sanchez Delgado, N.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the determination of the cost and the radiological impact associated with a near-surface disposal site (Spanish concept) for low and medium-level radioactive waste generated during operation of a 20 GWe nuclear park composed of LWRs for 30 years. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  4. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 7. Cost and radiological impact associated with near-surface disposal of reactor waste (French concept)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the determination of the cost and the radiological impact associated with a near-surface disposal site (French concept) for low and medium-level radioactive waste generated during operation of a 20 GWe nuclear park composed of LWRs for 30 years. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  5. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 2, Supporting information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 collars) over the entire life of the system, or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs

  6. A cost/risk framework for evaluation of nuclear waste management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a cost/risk framework which is developed to compare waste management alternatives such as partitioning and transmutation (P-T) to the currently open light water reactor fuel cycle in the United States in which spent fuel will be buried in a geologic repository. This framework has utility for developing economic values associated with long-term risk and was originally developed as part of a system study to define and determine the scope of the driving features of a P-T scheme involving nonconventional (pyrochemical) reprocessing and a fast-spectrum reactor fueled primarily with minor actinides. A potentially significant benefit is shown to be obtainable in the form of reduced long-term repository health risks; although the primary risk reduction is derived from the destruction or selective packaging and disposal of 99 Tc and 129 I, the modification of probabilities associated with site-specific repository features or highly uncertain future events could affect these results. The potential benefits are represented as a cost stream and appear as a large annual investment available for the development and implementation of P-T Preliminary results suggest further studies in selected areas; a particularly significant near-term health risk benefit is expected to arise from reduced uranium mining and purification activities associated with the closure of the currently open fuel cycle

  7. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  8. Two hypothetical problems in radioactive waste management: a comparison of cost/benefit analysis and decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.; Hayward, G.M.

    1982-03-01

    In our interim report we gave a general review of the characteristics of three formal methods for aiding decision making in relation to the general problems posed in radioactive waste management. In this report we go on to consider examples of the sort of proposals that the Environment Departments may be asked to review, and to discuss how two of the formal decision aids (cost-benefit analysis and decision analysis) could be used to assist these tasks. The example decisions we have chosen are the siting of an underground repository for intermediate-level wastes and the choice of a waste management procedure for an intermediate-level waste stream. (U.K.)

  9. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  10. Waste Management Process Improvement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.; Borden, G.; Rangel, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford-led Environmental Restoration Contractor team's Waste Management Process Improvement Project is working diligently with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office to improve the waste management process to meet DOE's need for an efficient, cost-effective program for the management of dangerous, low-level and mixed-low-level waste. Additionally the program must meet all applicable regulatory requirements. The need for improvement was highlighted when a change in the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project's waste management practices resulted in a larger amount of waste being generated than the waste management organization had been set up to handle

  11. Intermunicipal cooperation, privatization and waste management costs: Evidence from rural municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel, Germa; Mur, Melania

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of intermunicipal cooperation and privatization on the delivery costs of urban solid waste services in rural environments. The results of our empirical analysis, which we conducted among a sample of very small municipalities, indicate that small towns that cooperate incur lower costs for their waste collection service. Cooperation also raises collection frequency and improves the quality of the service in small towns. By contrast, the form of production, whether it is public or private, does not result in systematic differences in costs. Interestingly, the degree of population dispersion, that is, the number of population units within the municipal jurisdiction, has a significant positive relation with service costs. No evidence of scale economies is found because small municipalities have likely exploited them by means of intermunicipal cooperation.

  12. Waste management considerations in nuclear facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.; Murphy, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities involves the management of significant quantities of radioactive waste. This paper summarizes information on volumes of waste requiring disposal and waste management costs developed in a series of decommissioning studies performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. These studies indicate that waste management is an important cost factor in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Alternatives for managing decommissioning wastes are defined and recommendations are made for improvements in waste management practices

  13. Waste classification: a management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    A waste classification system designed to quantify the total hazard of a waste has been developed by the Low-Level Waste Management Program. As originally conceived, the system was designed to deal with mixed radioactive waste. The methodology has been developed and successfully applied to radiological and chemical wastes, both individually and mixed together. Management options to help evaluate the financial and safety trade-offs between waste segregation, waste treatment, container types, and site factors are described. Using the system provides a very simple and cost effective way of making quick assessments of a site's capabilities to contain waste materials. 3 references

  14. Fernald waste management and disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.L.; Fisher, L.A.; Frost, M.L.; Rast, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Historically waste management within the Department of Energy complex has evolved around the operating principle of packaging waste generated and storing until a later date. In many cases wastes were delivered to onsite waste management organizations with little or no traceability to origin of generation. Sites then stored their waste for later disposition offsite or onsite burial. While the wastes were stored, sites incurred additional labor costs for maintaining, inspecting and repackaging containers and capital costs for storage warehouses. Increased costs, combined with the inherent safety hazards associated with storage of hazardous material make these practices less attractive. This paper will describe the methods used at the Department of Energy's Fernald site by the Waste Programs Management Division to integrate with other site divisions to plan in situ waste characterization prior to removal. This information was utilized to evaluate and select disposal options and then to package and ship removed wastes without storage

  15. Risk management for noncombustion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, K.K.; Rice, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Noncombustion Waste Risk Management Project is designed to incorporate the insights and information developed in these projects into tools that will help utilities make better noncombustion waste management decisions. Specific project goals are to synthesize information useful to utilities on noncombustion wastes, emphasize waste reduction as a priority over end-of-pipe management, develop methods to manage the costs and risks associated with noncombustion wastes (e.g., direct costs, permitting costs, liability costs, public relations costs), develop software and documentation to deliver the information and analysis methods to the industry. This project was initiated EPRI's Environment Division in late 1988. The early phases of the project involved gathering information on current noncombustion waste management practices, specific utility problems and concerns with respect to these wastes, current and potential future regulations, and current and emerging management options. Recent efforts have focused on characterizing the direct and indirect (e.g., lawsuits, remedial action) costs of managing these wastes and on developing and implementing risk management methods for a subset of wastes. The remainder of this paper describes the specific issues addressed by and the results and insights from the three completed waste-specific studies

  16. FOUNDRY WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kosec

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in foundries is gaining a higher ecological and economical importance. Waste is becoming an increasingly traded product, where excellent profits can be made. Due to the cost reduction and successful business operation in companies, waste has to be regenerated and used again as a material to the maximum possible extent. Such research is long lasting and expensive and is a great challenge for companies. In the frame of our research, a total waste management case study for the Slovenian foundry Feniks was carried out. From the sustainable development point of view, waste management is most suitable, since it ensures the material utilization of waste, reduces the consumption of natural renewable or non-renewable resources and makes efficient production capacity utilization possible. Properly treated ecologically safe waste with a suitable physical characteristic, long-term existence, is a substitute for natural materials. Sand, dust, slag and other mineral waste from foundries are increasingly being used as materials in other industries. The foundry Feniks was awarded with certification of the environmental management system according to the standard SIST EN ISO 14001 and confirmed its environmental credentials.

  17. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  18. Trade study for water and waste management concepts. Task 7: Support special analysis. [cost analysis of life support systems for waste utilization during space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cost analyses and tradeoff studies are given for waste management in the Space Station, Lunar Surface Bases, and interplanetary space missions. Crew drinking water requirements are discussed and various systems to recycle water are examined. The systems were evaluated for efficiency and weight savings. The systems considered effective for urine water recovery were vapor compression, flash evaporation, and air evaporation with electrolytic pretreatment. For wash water recovery, the system of multifiltration was selected. A wet oxidation system, which can process many kinds of wastes, is also considered.

  19. Securing the long-term financing of decommissioning and radioactive waste management - From cost estimates to a comprehensive financing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebersold, Michael

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the area of waste disposal concerns the long-term securing of the necessary financing. Large amounts of money will have to be invested, managed and subsequently spent at the appropriate time, over an extended period of 100 years or more. In an electricity market that is opening up across Europe and is characterised by complicated legal structures, a focus on a handful of major groups and cost pressure due to increased competition, it will be necessary to create the corresponding background conditions. The anticipated costs for decommissioning and disposal will have to be calculated or estimated on the basis of available know-how and criteria. The required funds will then have to be collected and invested on the domestic and international money markets, which given the current situation on the stock markets will by no means be an easy task. But the assurance that enough money will be available is essential for public confidence. Using Switzerland as an example, the author wishes to demonstrate which steps are necessary in order to calculate the potential decommissioning and waste disposal costs based on a defined disposal concept and programme, determine the annual contributions to be paid in by operators, and establish a suitable system for securing the necessary funding. This paper deals with the following issues: 1. Political background and legislative framework in Switzerland; 2. Swiss radioactive waste management policy and programmes; 3. Calculating the decommissioning and waste management costs; 4. Calculating the contributions to the Funds; 5. Financing system

  20. Demonstration of the application of weighting factors for cost and radiological impact to waste management decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraclough, I.M.; Morrey, M.; Mobbs, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive waste management can require difficult decisions involving many complex and often competing factors. In order to make decisions, the relevant factors need to be compared with each other and balanced, so that the resulting action produces the greatest net benefit. Decision-aiding techniques may help to carry out this balancing. A public survey has been designed and analyzed, which focused on the importance of both social values and the psychological processes likely to contribute to their formation. A method has been developed by which the preferences of the public concerning the consequence of waste management options may be obtained in a form suitable for use in multi-attribute decision-aiding techniques. It appears that this method is capable of producing useful, meaningful values for these weights, and therefore represents a major improvement on previous methods of obtaining weighting factors

  1. An interval-based possibilistic programming method for waste management with cost minimization and environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y P; Huang, G H

    2010-09-15

    Considerable public concerns have been raised in the past decades since a large amount of pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal of processes pose risks on surrounding environment and human health. Moreover, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, an interval-based possibilistic programming (IBPP) method is developed for planning the MSW management with minimized system cost and environmental impact under uncertainty. The developed method can deal with uncertainties expressed as interval values and fuzzy sets in the left- and right-hand sides of constraints and objective function. An interactive algorithm is provided for solving the IBPP problem, which does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. The developed model is applied to a case study of planning a MSW management system, where mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique is introduced into the IBPP framework to facilitate dynamic analysis for decisions of timing, sizing and siting in terms of capacity expansion for waste-management facilities. Three cases based on different waste-management policies are examined. The results obtained indicate that inclusion of environmental impacts in the optimization model can change the traditional waste-allocation pattern merely based on the economic-oriented planning approach. The results obtained can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Municipal solid waste management: Identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberini, R., E-mail: rita.gamberini@unimore.it; Del Buono, D.; Lolli, F.; Rimini, B.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Collection and analysis of real life data in the field of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and costs for management. • Study of 92 virtuous Italian communities. • Elaboration of trends of engineering indexes useful during design and evaluation of MSWM systems. - Abstract: The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them.

  3. Hanford Site Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Plan (HWMP) was prepared in accordance with the outline and format described in the US Department of Energy Orders. The HWMP presents the actions, schedules, and projected costs associated with the management and disposal of Hanford defense wastes, both radioactive and hazardous. The HWMP addresses the Waste Management Program. It does not include the Environmental Restoration Program, itself divided into the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program and the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. The executive summary provides the basis for the plans, schedules, and costs within the scope of the Waste Management Program at Hanford. It summarizes fiscal year (FY) 1988 including the principal issues and the degree to which planned activities were accomplished. It further provides a forecast of FY 1989 including significant milestones. Section 1 provides general information for the Hanford Site including the organization and administration associated with the Waste Management Program and a description of the Site focusing on waste management operations. Section 2 and Section 3 describe radioactive and mixed waste management operations and hazardous waste management, respectively. Each section includes descriptions of the waste management systems and facilities, the characteristics of the wastes managed, and a discussion of the future direction of operations

  4. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  5. Municipal solid waste management: identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, R; Del Buono, D; Lolli, F; Rimini, B

    2013-11-01

    The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Dirk; Piet, Steve; Trickel, Timothy; Carter, Joe; Vienna, John; Ebert, Bill; Matthern, Gretchen

    2008-01-01

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE

  7. Nuclear waste management. Pioneering solutions from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Presentation outline: Background: Nuclear energy in Finland; Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) Experiences; Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW); High Level Waste - Deep Geological Repository (DGR); NWM cost estimate in Finland; Conclusions: World-leading expert services

  8. Municipal Solid Waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2010-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  9. The Community's R and D programme on the management and storage of radioactive waste. Shared-cost action programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMenamin, T.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1975 the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) has been operating a series of shared-cost action programmes in the field of radioactive waste management with the primary objective of developing methods to protect the public and the environment against the potential hazards of radioactive waste. Member States with small, as well as sizeable, nuclear programmes have been taking part. The choice and type of topics for the programme have depended largely on the work being carried out nationally by these countries with the programmes acting as a support and extension to national projects. To this end they have acted as a catalyst in encouraging and promoting cross-border cooperation and have provided a unique opportunity to compare results and ideas leading to improved quality and efficiency. The list of publications covers reports, proceedings, communications and information leaflets produced and published in the framework of the cost-sharing research programmes of the Commission of the European Communities on radioactive waste management and disposal. The list, which is regularly updated, includes: reports of contractors on research supported by the Commission; reports on research in coordinated actions, assembled and edited by the Commission staff or on behalf of the Commission; proceedings of meetings, conferences and workshops organized and edited by the Commission staff; scientific reports, communications, annual progress reports and information leaflets produced and edited by the Commission staff. Not included are contributions of contractors and staff to national or international meetings, workshops, conferences and expert groups

  10. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed, with special reference to the UK, under the headings: radiation; origins of the waste (mainly from nuclear power programme; gas, liquid, solid; various levels of activity); dealing with waste (methods of processing, storage, disposal); high-active waste (storage, vitrification, study of means of eventual disposal); waste management (UK organisation to manage low and intermediate level waste). (U.K.)

  11. Integrated refinery waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Y -S [ETG Environmental, Inc., Blue Bell, PA (US); Sheehan, W J [Separation and Recovery Systems, Inc., Irvine, CA (US)

    1992-01-01

    In response to the RCRA land ban regulations and TC rule promulgated by the U.S. Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1988-1990, an Integrated Refinery Waste Management (IRWM) program has been developed to provide cost-effective solutions to petroleum industry customers. The goal of IRWM is to provide technology based remediation treatment services to manage sludges and wastewaters generated from the oil refining processes, soils contaminated with petroleum distillates and groundwater contaminated with fuels. Resource recovery, volume reduction and waste minimization are the primary choices to mitigate environmental problems. Oil recovery has been performed through phase separation (such as centrifugation and filtration) and heating of heavy oils. Volume reduction is achieved by dewatering systems such as centrifuges and filter presses, and low temperature thermal treatment. Waste minimization can be accomplished by bioremediation and resource recovery through a cement kiln. (Author).

  12. Management of tritium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisalu, J.; Mellow, D.G.; Pennington, J.D.; Thompson, H.M.; Wood, E.

    1991-07-01

    This work provides a review of the management of tritium wastes with particular reference to current practice, possible alternatives and to the implications of any alternatives considered. It concludes that reduction in UK emissions from nuclear industry is feasible but at a cost out of all proportion to the reduction in dose commitment achievable. Commercial usage of tritium involves importation at several times the UK nuclear production level although documentation is sparse. (author)

  13. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  14. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.

    1998-09-01

    The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed

  15. Greening waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ). Countries are moving waste up the waste management hierarchy away from landfilling towards waste prevention, reuse, recycling and recovery. According to the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA, 2012:5), around “70% of the municipal waste produced...

  16. Low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the current situation in the United States and a look to the future of low-level waste management are presented. Current problems and challenges are discussed, such as: the need of additional disposal sites in the future; risks and costs involved in transport of low-level wastes; reduction of low-level waste volume through smelting, incineration, and storage for wastes containing nuclides with short half lives; development of a national policy for the management of low-level waste, and its implementation through a sensible system of regulations. Establishing a success with low-level waste management should provide the momentum and public confidence needed to continue on and to resolve the technical and politically more difficult low-level waste problems

  17. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  18. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes is perhaps the most controversial and least understood aspect of the use of nuclear materials in generating electrical power, the investigation of biochemical processes through tracer kinetics, and the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In the siting of nuclear power facilities, the disposal of radioactive wastes is invariably posed as the ultimate unanswerable question. In the fall of 1979, biochemical and physiologic research employing radioactive tracers was threatened with a slowdown resulting from temporary closure of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Radioactive pharmaceuticals used extensively for diagnosis and treatment of human disease have increased dramatically in price, partly as a result of the escalating cost of disposing of radioactive wastes created during production of the labeled pharmaceuticals. These problems have resulted in identification of the disposal of LLW as the most pressing issue in the entire scheme of management of hazardous wastes. How this issue as well as the separate issue of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) are being addressed at both national and state levels is the subject of this chapter

  19. The Cost of Health Service Waste Management of (HSWM: A Case Study of Intensive Care Unit of Infectious Diseases at a Public Hospital in São Paulo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennyfer Dobbins Paes da Rosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Health Service Waste Management is a set of technical and legal procedures for waste management in any type of health facilities. It is known about the limited resources, so reducing environmental costs can contribute to the management of hospital costs. The objective was to estimate the cost of the phases of HSWM to the Intensive Care Unit for public service. Data collecting was done through a script of questions and observations on site at the Emilio Ribas Infectious Diseases Institute in Sao Paulo. The ABC costing method was used. The most costly step was wrapping (40.68%, followed by segregation (40.17%, which is justified by both being associated with health workers’ salaries. The daily cost of the management of health care waste from segregation to final disposal in the ICU was R$ 4,288.81 a day, being R$ 314.80/bed-patient/day. To know the cost of an activity allows for the analysis of strategies for price negotiation. Health care waste is little remembered when pricing a daily ICU, many managers believe this value to be irrelevant; but< if not measured, it may bring losses to the institution.

  20. Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.

  1. Optimal control of greenhouse gas emissions and system cost for integrated municipal solid waste management with considering a hierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; He, Li; Fan, Xing; Chen, Yizhong; Lu, Hongwei

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a synergic optimization of control for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and system cost in integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management on a basis of bi-level programming. The bi-level programming is formulated by integrating minimizations of GHG emissions at the leader level and system cost at the follower level into a general MSW framework. Different from traditional single- or multi-objective approaches, the proposed bi-level programming is capable of not only addressing the tradeoffs but also dealing with the leader-follower relationship between different decision makers, who have dissimilar perspectives interests. GHG emission control is placed at the leader level could emphasize the significant environmental concern in MSW management. A bi-level decision-making process based on satisfactory degree is then suitable for solving highly nonlinear problems with computationally effectiveness. The capabilities and effectiveness of the proposed bi-level programming are illustrated by an application of a MSW management problem in Canada. Results show that the obtained optimal management strategy can bring considerable revenues, approximately from 76 to 97 million dollars. Considering control of GHG emissions, it would give priority to the development of the recycling facility throughout the whole period, especially in latter periods. In terms of capacity, the existing landfill is enough in the future 30 years without development of new landfills, while expansion to the composting and recycling facilities should be paid more attention.

  2. New U.S. financial initiatives: covering the cost of managing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosselli, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on new financial initiatives in the US embodied in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, namely the setting up of the Nuclear Waste Fund and the Interim Storage Fund. It describes the major goal of the Act and hence, the use to which the funds will be put: the construction of a nuclear waste repository, to be operational by 1st January 1998. (NEA) [fr

  3. Mine waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation

  4. International waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the international waste management conference. Topics covered include: Quality assurance in the OCR WM program; Leading the spirit of quality; Dept. of Energy hazardous waste remedial actions program; management of hazardous waste projects; and System management and quality assurance

  5. Waste management progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    During the Cold War era, when DOE and its predecessor agencies produced nuclear weapons and components, and conducted nuclear research, a variety of wastes were generated (both radioactive and hazardous). DOE now has the task of managing these wastes so that they are not a threat to human health and the environment. This document is the Waste Management Progress Report for the U.S. Department of Energy dated June 1997. This progress report contains a radioactive and hazardous waste inventory and waste management program mission, a section describing progress toward mission completion, mid-year 1997 accomplishments, and the future outlook for waste management

  6. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing for demolition waste management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, M.; Miranda-Xicotencat, B.; Ita-Nagy, D.; Prado, V.; Guinée, J.B.; van Roekel, E; Huismans, R.; Rens, F.; Lotfi, Somayeh; Di Maio, F.; Di Maio, F.; Lotfi, S.; Bakker, M.; Hu, M.; Vahidi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ninety five percent of the construction and demolition waste is recycled in the Netherlands. Most of it is used for low value applications such as road base materials; the use of secondary material in buildings is still less than 3%7. In order to recover waste for higher value applications,

  7. Transaction Costs in Collective Waste Recovery Systems in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to identify the institutional flaws of the current EU waste management model by analysing the economic model of extended producer responsibility and collective waste management systems and to create a model for measuring the transaction costs borne by waste recovery organizations. The model was approbated by analysing the Bulgarian collective waste management systems that have been complying with the EU legislation for the last 10 years. The analysis focuses on waste oils becau...

  8. Managing a mixed waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    IT Corporation operates an analytical laboratory in St. Louis capable of analyzing environmental samples that are contaminated with both chemical and radioactive materials. Wastes generated during these analyses are hazardous in nature; some are listed wastes others exhibit characteristic hazards. When the original samples contain significant quantities of radioactive material, the waste must be treated as a mixed waste. A plan was written to document the waste management program describing the management of hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes. This presentation summarizes the methods employed by the St. Louis facility to reduce personnel exposures to the hazardous materials, minimize the volume of mixed waste and treat the materials prior to disposal. The procedures that are used and the effectiveness of each procedure will also be discussed. Some of the lessons that have been learned while dealing with mixed wastes will be presented as well as the solutions that were applied. This program has been effective in reducing the volume of mixed waste that is generated. The management program also serves as a method to manage the costs of the waste disposal program by effectively segregating the different wastes that are generated

  9. Derivation of weighting factors for cost and radiological impact for use in comparison of waste management methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.T.; Lee, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear waste management decisions are complex, and must include considerations of cost and social factors in addition to dose limitation. Decision-aiding techniques, such as multi-attribute analysis, can assist in structuring the problem and can icorporate as many factors, or attributes, as required. However, the relative weights of such attributes need to be established. Methods were devised which could be compared with one another. These were questionnaire-based but, in order to examine the possible influence of the measurement procedures on the results, two of the methods were combined in an experimental design. The two direct methods for obtaining weights (the conventional rating scales and the direct rating task) showed good agreement and yielded different values for separate social groups, such as industrial employees and lay public. The main conclusion is that the elicitation of weighting factors from the public is possible and that the resulting weights are meaningful and could have significant effects on the choice of waste management options

  10. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  12. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of our activities have always produced waste products of one sort or another. Huxley gives a humorous account of wastes throughout antiquity. So it should come as no surprise that some radioactive materials end up as waste products requiring management and disposal. Public perception of nuclear waste hazards places them much higher on the ''worry scale'' than is justified by the actual hazard involved. While the public perception of these hazards appears to revolve mostly around high-level wastes, there are several other categories of wastes that must also be controlled and managed. The major sources of radioactive wastes are discussed

  13. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  14. Agricultural waste concept, generation, utilization and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural wastes are non-product outputs of production and processing of ... less than the cost of collection, transportation, and processing for beneficial use. ... Agricultural waste management system (AWMS) was discussed and a typical ...

  15. Nuclear wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the debate that took place at the French Senate on April 13, 2005 about the long-term French policy of radioactive wastes management. The different points tackled during the debate concern: the 3 axes of research of the 1991 law, the public acceptance about the implementation of repositories, the regional economic impact, the cost and financing, the lack of experience feedback, the reversibility or irreversibility of the storage, the share of nuclear energy in the sustainable development policy, the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project, the privatization of Electricite de France (EdF) etc. (J.S.)

  16. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  17. Relative costs of transporting low-level waste according to four postulated regional-management cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, E.L.; Shirley, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results presented in this paper show that almost any compact binding states into cooperating regions for disposal of LLW will reduce nationwide transportation costs markedly. As a corollary, the reduction of costs may reflect a two- to four-fold reduction of transportation distances with consequent reduction of risk to the public since risk generally decreases directly as transport distances decrease

  18. Environmental restoration and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleman, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this Five-Year Plan is to establish an agenda for compliance and cleanup against which progress will be measured. DOE is committed to an open and participatory process for developing a national priority system for expenditure of funds. This system will be based on scientific principles and risk reduction in terms that are understandable to the public. The Plan will be revised annually, with a five-year planning horizon. For FY 1991--1995, this Plan encompasses total program activities and costs for DOE Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, Waste Management Operations, and Applied R ampersand D. It addresses hazardous wastes, radioactive wastes, mixed wastes (radioactive and hazardous), and sanitary wastes. It also addresses facilities and sites contaminated with or used in the management of those wastes. The Plan does not include the Safety and Health Program (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health) or programs of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. It does include the annual Defense Programs contribution to the Nuclear Waste Fund for disposal of defense high-level waste and research toward characterizing the defense waste form for repository disposal

  19. Assessing waste management systems using reginalt software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, N.K.; Camasta, S.F.; Gilbert, T.L.

    1988-03-01

    A method for assessing management systems for low-level radioactive waste is being developed for US Department of Energy. The method is based on benefit-cost-risk analysis. Waste management is broken down into its component steps, which are generation, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal. Several different alternatives available for each waste management step are described. A particular waste management system consists of a feasible combination of alternatives for each step. Selecting an optimal waste management system would generally proceed as follows: (1) qualitative considerations are used to narrow down the choice of waste management system alternatives to a manageable number; (2) the costs and risks for each of these system alternatives are evaluated; (3) the number of alternatives is further reduced by eliminating alternatives with similar risks but higher costs, or those with similar costs but higher risks; (4) a trade-off factor between cost and risk is chosen and used to compute the objective function (sum of the cost and risk); and (5) the selection of the optimal waste management system among the remaining alternatives is made by choosing the alternative with the smallest value for the objective function. The authors propose that the REGINALT software system, developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., as an acid for managers of low-level commerical waste, be augmented for application to the managment of DOE-generated waste. Specific recommendations for modification of the REGINALT system are made. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 1, The analysis and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 dollars) over the entire life of the system...or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs

  1. The management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    One of the key questions asked about nuclear power production is whether the industry can manage its waste safely and economically. Management must take account of long term safety, since some radioisotopes take a very long time to decay. This long term decay, which can take millions of years, focused attention for the first time on the need for some wastes to be managed for a very long time beyond the lifetime of those who generated the waste. This paper reviews what the different types of waste are, what the technical consensus is on the requirements for their safe management, and how the present state of knowledge developed. It describes how radioactive waste management is practised and planned within the fuel cycle and indicates the moderate scale of the costs in relation to the total cost of producing electricity. Country annexes give more information about what is being done in a selection of countries, in order to indicate how radioactive waste management is carried out in practice. (Author)

  2. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  3. Swedish waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandwall, L.

    2004-01-01

    Sweden has a well-functioning organization for managing various types of radioactive waste. There is an interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, a final repository for low and intermediate level waste, and a specially-built vessel with transport casks and containers for shipping the radioactive waste between the nuclear installations. (author)

  4. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  5. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  6. Aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)

  7. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, F.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of an Expert Group appointed in 1976 to consider the 1959 White Paper 'The Control of Radioactive Wastes' in the light of the changes that have taken place since it was written and with the extended remit of examining 'waste management' rather than the original 'waste disposal'. The Group undertook to; review the categories and quantities present and future of radioactive wastes, recommend the principles for the proper management of these wastes, advise whether any changes in practice or statutory controls are necessary and make recommendations. (UK)

  8. More reliable financing of future nuclear waste costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This appendix contains seven reports written by consultants to the Commission. The report titles are: Basic document regarding the inquiry on fund management; Scenarios for growth and real interest rates in a long perspective; Stability of the Swedish financing system; Report concerning the financing of nuclear waste management in Sweden and Finland and the cost control system in Sweden; Evaluation of the cost estimates and calculation methods of SKB; A study of the costs for nuclear waste - The basis for cost estimation; A review of scope and costs for the Swedish system for management of nuclear waste. The four last reports are separately indexed

  9. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Nuclear waste management at DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perge, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    DOE is responsible for interim storage for some radioactive wastes and for the disposal for most of them. Of the wastes that have to be managed a significant part are a result of treatment systems and devices for cleaning gases. The long term waste management objectives place minimal reliance on surveillance and maintenance. Thus, the concerns about the chemical, thermal, and radiolytic degradation of wastes require technology for converting the wastes to forms acceptable for long term isolation. The strategy of the DOE airborne radioactive waste management program is to increase the service life and reliability of filters; to reduce filter wastes; and in anticipation of regulatory actions that would require further reductions in airborne radioactive releases from defense program facilities, to develop improved technology for additional collection, fixation, and long-term management of gaseous wastes. Available technology and practices are adequate to meet current health and safety standards. The program is aimed primarily at cost effective improvements, quality assurance, and the addition of new capability in areas where more restrictive standards seem likely to apply in the future

  11. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  12. Economic analysis of waste management alternatives for reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Clark, L.L.; Daling, P.M.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Swanson, J.L.

    1984-02-01

    This study describes the results of a cost analysis of a broad range of alternatives for management of reprocessing wastes that would require geologic repository disposal. The intent was to identify cost-effective alternatives and the costs of potential repository performance requirements. Four integrated treatment facility alternatives for transuranic (TRU) wastes are described and compared. These include no treatment, compaction, incineration, and hulls melting. The advantages of reducing high-level wastes (HLW) volume are also evaluated as are waste transportation alternatives and several performance-related alternatives for emplacing waste in a basalt repository. Results show (1) that system costs for disposal of reprocessing waste are likely to be higher than those for disposal of spent fuel; (2) that volume reduction is cost-effective for both remote-handled (RH) TRU wastes and HLW, and that rail transport for HLW is more cost-effective than truck transport; (3) that coemplacement of RH-TRU wastes with HLW does not have a large cost advantage in a basalt repository; and (4) that, relative to performance requirements, the cost impact for elimination of combustibles is about 5%, long-lived containers for RH-TRU wastes can increase repository costs 10% to 20%, and immediate backfill compared to delayed backfill (bentonite/basalt) around the HLW canisters would increase repository costs up to 10% or overall system costs up to about 5%. 13 references, 4 figures, 12 tables

  13. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, A.

    1978-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association has specific views on the following aspects of waste management: a) public information and public participation programs should be encouraged; b) positive political leadership is essential; c) a national plan and policy are necessary; d) all hazardous materials should receive the same care as radioactive wastes; e) power plant construction need not be restricted as long as there is a commitment to nuclear waste management; f) R and D should be funded consistently for nuclear waste management and ancillary topics like alternative fuel cycles and reprocessing. (E.C.B.)

  14. Battery waste management status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, B.M.; Sabatini, J.C.; Wolsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper consists of a series of slides used in the conference presentation. The topics outlined in the slides are: an overview of battery waste management; waste management of lead acid batteries; lead acid recycling; typical legislation for battery waste; regulatory status in European countries; mercury use in cells; recent trends in Hg and Cd use; impact of batteries to air quality at MSW incinerators; impact of electric vehicles; new battery technologies; and unresolved issues

  15. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.S.; Saling, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The purposes of the book are: To create a general awareness of technologies and programs of radioactive waste management. To summarize the current status of such technologies, and to prepare practicing scientists, engineers, administrative personnel, and students for the future demand for a working team in such waste management

  16. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  17. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Pahissa, Marta H. de

    2000-01-01

    Throughout this century, the application of nuclear energy has produced many benefits, in industry, in research, in medicine, and in the generation of electricity. These activities generate wastes in the same way as do other human activities. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is to protect human health and environment now and in the future without imposing undue burden on future generations, through sound, safe and efficient radioactive waste management. This paper briefly describes the different steps of the management of short lived low and intermediate level wastes, and presents and overview of the state of art in countries involved in nuclear energy, describing their organizations, methodologies used in the processing of these wastes and the final disposal concepts. It also presents the Argentine strategy, its technical and legal aspects. Worldwide experience during the past 50 years has shown that short lived low and intermediate level wastes can be successfully isolated from human and environment in near surface disposal facilities. (author)

  18. ITER waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosanvallon, S.; Na, B.C.; Benchikhoune, M.; Uzan, J. Elbez; Gastaldi, O.; Taylor, N.; Rodriguez, L.

    2010-01-01

    ITER will produce solid radioactive waste during its operation (arising from the replacement of components and from process and housekeeping waste) and during decommissioning (de-activation phase and dismantling). The waste will be activated by neutrons of energies up to 14 MeV and potentially contaminated by activated corrosion products, activated dust and tritium. This paper describes the waste origin, the waste classification as a function of the French national agency for radioactive waste management (ANDRA), the optimization process put in place to reduce the waste radiotoxicity and volumes, the estimated waste amount based on the current design and maintenance procedure, and the overall strategy from component removal to final disposal anticipated at this stage of the project.

  19. Handbook of hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metry, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities

  20. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste is produced at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) during the recovery of spent highly enriched nuclear fuels. Liquid waste is stored safely in doubly contained tanks made of steel. The liquid waste is calcined to a solid and stored safely in a retrievable form in doubly contained underground bins. The calcine can be treated further or left untreated in anticipation of ultimate storage. Fluidized bed calcination has been applied to many kinds of high-level waste. The environmental impact of high-level waste management at the ICcP has been negligible and should continue to be negligible. 13 refs

  1. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomek, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru

  2. Waste management in NUCEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Maeda, A.; Sugikawa, S.; Takeshita, I.

    2000-01-01

    In the NUCEF, the researches on criticality safety have been performed at two critical experiment facilities, STACY and TRACY in addition to the researches on fuel cycle such as advanced reprocessing and partitioning in alpha-gamma concrete cells and glove boxes. Many kinds of radioactive wastes have been generated through the research activities. Furthermore, the waste treatment itself may produce some secondary wastes. In addition, the separation and purification of plutonium of several tens-kg from MOX powder are scheduled in order to supply plutonium nitrate solution fuel for critical experiments at STACY. A large amount of wastes containing plutonium and americium will be generated from the plutonium fuel treatment. From the viewpoint of safety, the proper waste management is one of important works in NUCEF. Many efforts, therefore, have been made for the development of advanced waste treatment techniques to improve the waste management in NUCEF. Especially the reduction of alpha-contaminated wastes is a major interest. For example, the separation of americium is planned from the liquid waste evolved alter plutonium purification by application of tannin gel as an adsorbent of actinide elements. The waste management and the relating technological development in NUCEF are briefly described in this paper. (authors)

  3. Waste management in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Maeda, A.; Sugikawa, S.; Takeshita, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dept. of Safety Research Technical Support, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In the NUCEF, the researches on criticality safety have been performed at two critical experiment facilities, STACY and TRACY in addition to the researches on fuel cycle such as advanced reprocessing and partitioning in alpha-gamma concrete cells and glove boxes. Many kinds of radioactive wastes have been generated through the research activities. Furthermore, the waste treatment itself may produce some secondary wastes. In addition, the separation and purification of plutonium of several tens-kg from MOX powder are scheduled in order to supply plutonium nitrate solution fuel for critical experiments at STACY. A large amount of wastes containing plutonium and americium will be generated from the plutonium fuel treatment. From the viewpoint of safety, the proper waste management is one of important works in NUCEF. Many efforts, therefore, have been made for the development of advanced waste treatment techniques to improve the waste management in NUCEF. Especially the reduction of alpha-contaminated wastes is a major interest. For example, the separation of americium is planned from the liquid waste evolved alter plutonium purification by application of tannin gel as an adsorbent of actinide elements. The waste management and the relating technological development in NUCEF are briefly described in this paper. (authors)

  4. Preliminary estimates of the total-system cost for the restructured program: An addendum to the May 1989 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 - a fee levied on electricity generated and sold by commercial nuclear power plants - is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The costs contained in this report represent a preliminary analysis of the cost impacts associated with the Secretary of Energy's Report to Congress on Reassessment of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program issued in November 1989. The major elements of the restructured program announced in this report which pertain to the program's life-cycle costs are: a prioritization of the scientific investigations program at the Yucca Mountain candidate site to focus on identification of potentially adverse conditions, a delay in the start of repository operations until 2010, the start of limited waste acceptance at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in 1998, and the start of waste acceptance at the full-capability MRS facility in 2,000. Based on the restructured program, the total-system cost for the system with a repository at the candidate site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $26 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $34 to $35 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) requiring disposal. 17 figs., 17 tabs

  5. Hazardous industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Hilda; Salas, Juan Carlos; Romero, Luis Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    The appropriate managing of hazardous wastes is a problem little dealed in the wastes management in the country. A search of available information was made about the generation and handling to internal and external level of the hazardous wastes by national industries. It was worked with eleven companies of different types of industrial activities for, by means of a questionnaire, interviews and visits, to determine the degree of integral and suitable handling of the wastes that they generate. It was concluded that exist only some isolated reports on the generation of hazardous industrial wastes and handling. The total quantity of wastes generated in the country was impossible to establish. The companies consulted were deficient in all stages of the handling of their wastes: generation, accumulation and storage, transport, treatment and final disposition. The lack of knowledge of the legislation and of the appropriate managing of the wastes is showed as the principal cause of the poor management of the residues. The lack of state or private entities entrusted to give services of storage, transport, treatment and final disposition of hazardous wastes in the country was evident. (author) [es

  6. Airborne radionuclide waste-management reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.; Christian, J.D.; Thomas, T.R.

    1983-07-01

    This report provides the detailed data required to develop a strategy for airborne radioactive waste management by the Department of Energy (DOE). The airborne radioactive materials of primary concern are tritium (H-3), carbon-14 (C-14), krypton-85 (Kr-85), iodine-129 (I-129), and radioactive particulate matter. The introductory section of the report describes the nature and broad objectives of airborne waste management. The relationship of airborne waste management to other waste management programs is described. The scope of the strategy is defined by considering all potential sources of airborne radionuclides and technologies available for their management. Responsibilities of the regulatory agencies are discussed. Section 2 of this document deals primarily with projected inventories, potential releases, and dose commitments of the principal airborne wastes from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. In Section 3, dose commitments, technologies, costs, regulations, and waste management criteria are analyzed. Section 4 defines goals and objectives for airborne waste management

  7. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoulfanidis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste is a very important part of the nuclear industry. The future of the nuclear power industry depends to a large extent on the successful solution of the perceived or real problems associated with the disposal of both low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). All the activities surrounding the management of radioactive waste are reviewed. The federal government and the individual states are working toward the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the Low-Level Waste Policy Act. The two congressional acts are reviewed and progress made as of early 1990 is presented. Spent-fuel storage and transportation are discussed in detail as are the concepts of repositories for HLW. The status of state compacts for LLW is also discussed. Finally, activities related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are also described

  8. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  9. The waste management implications of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    Decommissioning policy can only be framed in the light of radioactive waste management policy. What can be done with the waste materials, how and when, will determine the overall decommissioning plans and costs. In this paper the waste management options and their costs are reviewed for the decommissioning of the Central Electricity Generating Boards civil nuclear power stations. The paper concentrates on the decommissioning of Magnox stations, although comparative information on waste volumes and costs are given for the AGR programme and a typical PWR. (author)

  10. Radioactive waste management glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Management Glossary defines over 300 terms in the English language that have special meanings when they are used in the context of radioactive waste management. The Glossary is intended to provide a consistent reference for these terms for specialists in this field. It also will assist non-specialists who read IAEA reports dealing with waste management. This is the second edition of the Glossary. It is intended to update and replace its predecessor, TECDOC-264, that was issued in 1982. (author)

  11. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  12. Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokosa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface

  13. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  14. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  15. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawson, C.A.

    1967-01-01

    When I first became concerned with radioactive waste management, in the early 1950's, very little was really known about the subject. There was a general feeling that it was a serious 'problem'. Articles were appearing in the press and talks were being given on the radio suggesting that the wastes generated by the proposed nuclear power reactors might be a serious menace to humanity. The prophets pointed with alarm to the enormous quantities of fission products that would accumulate steadily over the years in tank farms associated with reactor fuel reprocessing plants, and calculations were made of the possible results from rupture of the tanks due to corrosion, earthquakes or enemy attack. Responsible people suggested seriously that the waste disposal problem might be fatal to the development of a nuclear power industry, and this attitude was reinforced by the popular outcry that arose from experience with fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The Canadian nuclear power industry was not critically involved in this controversy because our heavy-water reactors are fuelled with natural uranium, and reprocessing of the fuel is not necessary. The spent fuel contains plutonium, a potential fuel, but the cost of recovering it was such that it was not competitive with natural uranium, which is not in short supply in Canada. Our spent fuel is not dissolved in acid - it is stored. still in its zirconium cladding, under water at the reactor site, or placed in sealed concrete-and-steel pipes below ground. If the price of uranium rises sufficiently it will become profitable to recover the plutonium, and only then shall we have an appreciable amount of waste from this source. However. during the first five or six years of research and development at Chalk River we did investigate fuel processing methods, and like everybody else we grad stainless steel tanks containing high and medium level wastes. These were located quite close to the Ottawa River, and we worried about what

  16. Waste management: products and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    A number of products and services related to radioactive waste management are described. These include: a portable cement solidification system for waste immobilization; spent fuel storage racks; storage and transport flasks; an on-site low-level waste storage facility; supercompactors; a mobile waste retrieval and encapsulation plant; underwater crushers; fuel assembly disposal; gaseous waste management; environmental restoration and waste management services; a waste treatment consultancy. (UK)

  17. Radioactive waste management profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    In 1989, the International Atomic Energy Agency began development of the Waste Management Data Base (WMDB) to, primarily, establish a mechanism for the collection, integration, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to radioactive waste management in Member States. This report is a summary and compilation of the information contained in the data base. The WMDB contains information and data on several aspects of waste management and offer a ready source of information on such activities as R and D efforts, waste disposal plans and programmes, important programme milestones, waste volume projections, and national and regulatory policies. This report is divided into two parts. Part one describes the Waste Management Data Base system and the type of information it contains. The second part contains data provided by Member States between August 1989 and December 1990 in response to a questionnaire sent by the Agency. However, if a Member State did not respond to the questionnaire, data from IAEA sources, such as technical assistance mission reports, were used - where such data exist. The WMDB system became operational in January 1991. The type of information contained in the data base includes radioactive waste management plans, policies and activities in Member States

  18. Waste management safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.

    1983-01-01

    All studies carried out by competent authors of the safety of a waste management concept on the basis of reprocessing of the spent fuel elements and storage in the deep underground of the radioactive waste show that only a minor technical risk is involved in this step. This also holds true when evaluating the accidents which have occurred in waste management facilities. To explain the risk, first the completely different safety aspects of nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants and repositories are outlined together with the safety related characteristics of these plants. Also this comparison indicates that the risk of waste management facilities is considerably lower than the, already very small, risk of nuclear power plants. For the final storage of waste from reprocessing and for the direct storage of fuel elements, the results of safety analyses show that the radiological exposure following an accident with radioactivity releases, even under conservative assumptions, is considerably below the natural radiation exposure. The very small danger to the environment arising from waste management by reprocessing clearly indicates that aspects of technical safety alone will hardly be a major criterion for the decision in favor of one or the other waste management approach. (orig.) [de

  19. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  20. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abdul Malik Syed Zain

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the basic subjects covered in the radioactive waste management. The subjects are policy and legislation, pre-treatment, classification, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, siting and disposal, and quality assurance

  1. The Community's research and development programme on radioactive waste management and storage. Shared cost action. Annual progress report 1988. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Third annual progress report of the European Community's 1985-89 programme of research and development on radioactive waste management and disposal, carried out by public organizations and private firms in the Community under cost-sharing contracts with the Commission of the European Communities. This report describes the work to be carried out under research contracts already concluded before the end of 1988, as well as the work performed and the results obtained so far

  2. The Community's research and development programme on radioactive waste management and storage. Shared cost action. Annual progress report 1988. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Third annual progress report of the European Community's 1985-89 programme of research and development on radioactive waste management and disposal, carried out by public organizations and private firms in the Community under cost-sharing contracts with the Commission of the European Communities. This report describes the work to be carried out under research contracts already concluded before the end of 1988, as well as the work performed and the results obtained so far

  3. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book highlights the main issues of public concern related to radioactive waste management and puts them into perspective. It provides an overview of radioactive waste management covering, among other themes, policies, implementation and public communication based on national experiences. Its purpose is to assists in increasing the understanding of radioactive waste management issues by public and national authorities, organizations involved in radioactive waste management and the nuclear industry; it may also serve as a source book for those who communicate with the public. Even in the unlikely event that nuclear power does not further develop around the world, the necessity for dealing with nuclear waste from past usages, from uranium mining and milling, decontamination and decommissioning of existing nuclear facilities and from the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research would still exist. In many countries, radioactive waste management planning involves making effective institutional arrangements in which responsibilities and liabilities are well established for the technical operation and long term surveillance of disposal systems. Financing mechanisms are part of the arrangements. Continuous quality assurance and quality control, at all levels of radioactive waste management, are essential to ensure the required integrity of the system. As with any other human activity, improvements in technology and economics may be possible and secondary problems avoided. Improvements and confirmation of the efficiency of processes and reduction of uncertainties can only be achieved by continued active research, development and demonstration, which are the goals of many national programmes. International co-operation, also in the form of reviews, can contribute to increasing confidence in the ongoing work. The problem of radioactive wastes is not a unique one; it may be compared with other problems of toxic wastes resulting from many other

  4. Waste predisposal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    All Member States have to a large or small extent nuclear activities that generate radioactive wastes. Hospitals, research in biomedicine or in agriculture, and some industrial applications, beside other large nuclear activities such as Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Research, generate unconditioned liquid or solid radioactive wastes that have to be treated, conditioned and stored prior final disposal. Countries with small nuclear activities require of organizations and infrastructure as to be able to manage, in a safe manner, the wastes that they generate. Predisposal management of radioactive waste is any step carried out to convert raw waste into a stable form suitable for the safe disposal, such as pre-treatment, treatment, storage and relevant transport. Transport of radioactive waste do not differ, in general, from other radioactive material and so are not considered within the scope of this fact sheet (Nevertheless the Agency, within the Nuclear Safety Department, has created a special Unit that might give advise Member States in this area). Predisposal management is comprised of a set of activities whose implementation may take some time. In most of the cases, safety issues and strategic and economical considerations have to be solved prior the main decisions are taken. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance for the management of radioactive waste at national and operating level, in the definition and/or implementation of the projects. The services could include, but are not limited to guidance in the definition of national waste management strategy and its implementation, definition of the most adequate equipment and practices taking into account specific Member State conditions, as well as assisting in the procurement, technical expertise for the evaluation of current status of operating facilities and practical guidance for the implementation of corrective actions, assistance in the definition of waste acceptance criteria for

  5. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotos, G.; Karagiannidis, A.; Zampetoglou, S.; Malamakis, A.; Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Kontogianni, S.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings

  6. Radioactive waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, F.P.

    1976-01-01

    The information in the US ERDA ''Technical Alternatives Document'' is summarized. The first two points show that waste treatment, interim storage and transportation technologies for all wastes are currently available. Third, an assessment of integrated waste management systems is needed. One such assessment will be provided in our expanded waste management environmental statement currently planned for release in about one year. Fourth, geologies expected to be suitable for final geologic storage are known. Fifth, repository system assessment methods, that is a means to determine and assess the acceptability of a terminal storage facility for nonretrievable storage, must and will be prepared. Sixth, alternatives to geologic storage are not now available. Seventh, waste quantities and characteristics are sensitive to technologies and fuel-cycle modes, and therefore an assessment of these technologies and modes is important. Eighth, and most important, it is felt that the LWR fuel cycle can be closed with current technologies

  7. Mixed Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Steenhoven, J.

    1993-08-01

    The DOE has developed a National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan which calls for the construction of 2 to 9 mixed waste treatment centers in the Complex in the near future. LLNL is working to establish an integrated mixed waste technology development and demonstration system facility, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), to support the DOE National Mixed Waste Strategic Plan. The MWMF will develop, demonstrate, test, and evaluate incinerator-alternatives which will comply with regulations governing the treatment and disposal of organic mixed wastes. LLNL will provide the DOE with engineering data for design and operation of new technologies which can be implemented in their mixed waste treatment centers. MWMF will operate under real production plant conditions and process samples of real LLNL mixed waste. In addition to the destruction of organic mixed wastes, the development and demonstration will include waste feed preparation, material transport systems, aqueous treatment, off-gas treatment, and final forms, thus making it an integrated ''cradle to grave'' demonstration. Technologies from offsite as well as LLNL's will be tested and evaluated when they are ready for a pilot scale demonstration, according to the needs of the DOE

  8. Transuranic waste management program waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Crisler, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    To ensure that all technology necessary for long term management of transuranic (TRU) wastes is available, the Department of Energy has established the Transuranic Waste Management Program. A principal focus of the program is development of waste forms that can accommodate the very diverse TRU waste inventory and meet geologic isolation criteria. The TRU Program is following two approaches. First, decontamination processes are being developed to allow removal of sufficient surface contamination to permit management of some of the waste as low level waste. The other approach is to develop processes which will allow immobilization by encapsulation of the solids or incorporate head end processes which will make the solids compatible with more typical waste form processes. The assessment of available data indicates that dewatered concretes, synthetic basalts, and borosilicate glass waste forms appear to be viable candidates for immobilization of large fractions of the TRU waste inventory in a geologic repository

  9. Healthcare liquid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D R; Pradhan, B; Pathak, R P; Shrestha, S C

    2010-04-01

    The management of healthcare liquid waste is an overlooked problem in Nepal with stern repercussions in terms of damaging the environment and affecting the health of people. This study was carried out to explore the healthcare liquid waste management practices in Kathmandu based central hospitals of Nepal. A descriptive prospective study was conducted in 10 central hospitals of Kathmandu during the period of May to December 2008. Primary data were collected through interview, observation and microbiology laboratory works and secondary data were collected by records review. For microbiological laboratory works,waste water specimens cultured for the enumeration of total viable counts using standard protocols. Evidence of waste management guidelines and committees for the management of healthcare liquid wastes could not be found in any of the studied hospitals. Similarly, total viable counts heavily exceeded the standard heterotrophic plate count (p=0.000) with no significant difference in such counts in hospitals with and without treatment plants (p=0.232). Healthcare liquid waste management practice was not found to be satisfactory. Installation of effluent treatment plants and the development of standards for environmental indicators with effective monitoring, evaluation and strict control via relevant legal frameworks were realized.

  10. Norm waste management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar

    2000-01-01

    There are a number of industries generating NORM wastes in Malaysia. These include oil and gas and minerals/ores processing industries. A safe management of radioactive wastes is required. The existing guidelines are insufficient to help the management of oil and gas wastes. More guidelines are required to deal with NORM wastes from minerals/ores processing industries. To ensure that radioactive wastes are safely managed and disposed of, a National Policy on the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste is being developed which also include NORM waste. This paper describes the current status of NORM waste management in Malaysia. (author)

  11. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  12. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredson, P.G.; Levins, D.M.

    1975-08-01

    Present and future methods of managing radioactive wastes in the nuclear industry are reviewed. In the stages from uranium mining to fuel fabrication, the main purpose of waste management is to limit and control dispersal into the environment of uranium and its decay products, particularly radium and radon. Nuclear reactors produce large amounts of radioactivity but release rates from commercial power reactors have been low and well within legal limits. The principal waste from reprocessing is a high activity liquid containing essentially all the fission products along with the transuranium elements. Most high activity wastes are currently stored as liquids in tanks but there is agreement that future wastes must be converted into solids. Processes to solidify wastes have been demonstrated in pilot plant facilities in the United States and Europe. After solidification, wastes may be stored for some time in man-made structures at or near the Earth's surface. The best method for ultimate disposal appears to be placing solid wastes in a suitable geological formation on land. (author)

  13. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICALLY OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF WASTE FROM HEALTHCARE FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Marczak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern healthcare facilities generate more and more waste, and their management is a significant constitutes a significant cost of their functioning. The undertakings aimed at lowering the costs of expenses in waste management may have a positive influence on budgetary accounts in the institutions rendering health care services. On the example of a hospital in Lublin the costs of waste management and the possibilities to lower these costs by intensifying segregation procedures were presented. Moreover, the article presents the influence of specific waste neutralisation on the costs of waste management.

  14. Management and cost accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Colin

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of a textbook on management and cost accounting features coverage of activity-based costing (ABC), advance manufacturing technologies (AMTs), JIT, MRP, target costing, life-cycle costing, strategic management accounting, total quality management and customer profitability analysis. Also included are revised and new end-of-chapter problems taken from past examination papers of CIMA, ACCA and ICAEW. There is increased reference to management accounting in practice, including many of the results of the author's CIMA sponsored survey, and greater emphasis on operational control and performance measurement.

  15. Domestic Waste Management In Samarinda City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentinus Sudiran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Garbage is solid wastes which have mostly organic composition and the rest consists of plastic paper cloth rubber bone and others. Garbage disposal in urban areas is often a burden because it involves financing for waste transport disposal sites health and environmental hygiene. The burden of waste management is increasing as the volume of waste increases due to population growth and community behavior. Samarinda as a developing city also experienced the problem. Problems encountered include low service coverage especially for domestic waste high landfill demand and high government subsidies that resulted in the community no matter the amount of waste generated. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the waste management by the government of Samarinda City from management management aspects institutional capacity and financing system is environmentally sound. The method used is non experimental method and do direct observation in the field. Data collection with questionnaires field observations document analysis and literature. Based on the results of the study concluded as follows Waste management by the Government of Samarinda City as a whole has been good and has environmentally minded by running the system of collecting transporting and destruction and separating waste from waste processing and sources into compost fertilizer though still very limited in scope. Waste management by the capital intensive Samarinda City Government leads to high costs by the operational costs of trucks and other vehicles.

  16. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables

  17. Ways and means of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Any decision for or against the different nuclear waste management methods has to be judged by the following three criteria: 1. Agreement with the needs of the environment and posterity. 2. Safeguards against diversion and abuse of fissionable material. 3. Social and industrial costs. The FRG decided to try the two-tier waste management system, fostering waste reprocessing on the one hand and examining methods of ultimate waste disposal on the other, and so far is the only country that has done so. This approach to solving the nuclear waste problem seems quite safe at present, following the prinicple of: do the one thing, and try the other. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Waste Management Program management plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    As the prime contractor to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) provides comprehensive waste management services to all contractors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) through the Waste Management (WM) Program. This Program Management Plan (PMP) provides an overview of the Waste Management Program objectives, organization and management practices, and scope of work. This document will be reviewed at least annually and updated as needed to address revisions to the Waste Management`s objectives, organization and management practices, and scope of work. Waste Management Program is managed by LMITCO Waste Operations Directorate. The Waste Management Program manages transuranic, low-level, mixed low-level, hazardous, special-case, and industrial wastes generated at or transported to the INEEL.

  19. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    In response to the Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, a White Paper was published in 1977, announcing a number of steps to deal with the problems presented by wastes from the nuclear industry and setting out the position of the then government. The present White paper is in four sections. i. A brief description of the nature of radioactive wastes, and the general objectives of waste management. ii. What has been achieved, the role of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee, the expansion of research, and the conclusions from the review of existing controls. iii. The present position for each major category of waste, including relevant current action and research, transport and decommissioning. iv. The next steps. Research and development must continue; shallow land burial and the carefully controlled disposal of certain wastes to the sea will continue to play a role; and, for some wastes, new disposal facilities are needed at an early date. For others, the appropriate course of action at the moment is properly controlled storage. New developments are also required in organisation. Throughout, the public must be kept fully informed about what is being done, and there must be proper scope for public discussion. (U.K.)

  20. Tribal Waste Journal: What Is an Integrated Waste Management Plan (Issue 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs) may offer tribes an efficient and cost-effective way to reduce open dumping, effectively manage solid waste, and protect human health and the environment for this generation and the next.

  1. Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The September 1985 Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is the third revision of this document. In the future, the HWMP will be updated on an annual basis or as major changes in disposal planning at Hanford Site require. The most significant changes in the program since the last release of this document in December 1984 include: (1) Based on studies done in support of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS), the size of the protective barriers covering contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, and single-shell tanks has been increased to provide a barrier that extends 30 m beyond the waste zone. (2) As a result of extensive laboratory development and plant testing, removal of transuranic (TRU) elements from PUREX cladding removal waste (CRW) has been initiated in PUREX. (3) The level of capital support in years beyond those for which specific budget projections have been prepared (i.e., fiscal year 1992 and later) has been increased to maintain Hanford Site capability to support potential future missions, such as the extension of N Reactor/PUREX operations. The costs for disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes are identified in four major areas in the HWMP: waste storage and surveillance, technology development, disposal operations, and capital expenditures

  2. Radioactive waste computerized management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communaux, M.; Lantes, B.

    1993-01-01

    Since December 31, 1990, the management of the nuclear wastes for all the power stations has been computerized, using the DRA module of the Power Generation and Transmission Group's data processing master plan. So now EDF has a software package which centralizes all the data, enabling it to declare the characteristics of the nuclear wastes which are to be stored on the sites operated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Among other uses, this application makes it possible for EDF, by real time data exchange with ANDRA, to constitute an inventory of validated, shippable packs. It also constitutes a data base for all the wastes produced on the various sites. This application was developed to meet the following requirements: give the producers of radioactive waste a means to fully manage all the characteristics and materials that are necessary to condition their waste correctly; guarantee the traceability and safety of data and automatically assure the transmission of this data in real time between the producers and the ANDRA; give the Central Services of EDF an operation and statistical tool permitting an experienced feed-back based on the complete national production (single, centralized data base); and integrate the application within the products of the processing master plan in order to assure its maintenance and evolution

  3. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Volume 1. The analysis and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the fourth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The total-system cost for the reference authorized-system program is estimated to be 24 to 32 billion (1985) dollars. The total-system cost for the reference improved-performance system is estimated to be 26 to 34 billion dollars. A number of sensitivity cases were analyzed. For the authorized system, the costs for the sensitivity cases studied range from 21 to 39 billion dollars. For the improved-performance system, which includes a facility for monitored retrievable storage, the total-system cost in the sensitivity cases is estimated to be as high as 41 billion dollars. The factors that affect costs more than any other single factor for both the authorized and the improved-performance systems are delays in repository startup. A preliminary analysis of the impact of extending the burnup of nuclear fuel in the reactor was also performed; its results indicate that the impact is insignificant: the total-system cost is essentially unchanged from the comparable constant-burnup cases. The current estimate of the the total-system cost for the reference authorized system is zero to 3 billion dollars (9%) higher than the estimate for the reference system in the January 1985 TSLCC analysis

  4. Waste Management Project Contingency Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward L. Parsons, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the office of Waste Management (WM) with recommended contingency calculation procedures for typical WM projects. Typical projects were defined as conventional construction-type activities that use innovative elements when necessary to meet the project objectives. Projects involve treatment, storage, and disposal of low level, mixed low level, hazardous, transuranic, and high level waste. Cost contingencies are an essential part of Total Cost Management. A contingency is an amount added to a cost estimate to compensate for unexpected expenses resulting from incomplete design, unforeseen and unpredictable conditions, or uncertainties in the project scope (DOE 1994, AACE 1998). Contingency allowances are expressed as percentages of estimated cost and improve cost estimates by accounting for uncertainties. The contingency allowance is large at the beginning of a project because there are more uncertainties, but as a project develops, the allowance shrinks to adjust for costs already incurred. Ideally, the total estimated cost remains the same throughout a project. Project contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by lack of project definition, and process contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by use of new technology. Different cost estimation methods were reviewed and compared with respect to terminology, accuracy, and Cost Guide standards. The Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE) methods for cost estimation were selected to represent best industry practice. AACE methodology for contingency analysis can be readily applied to WM Projects, accounts for uncertainties associated with different stages of a project, and considers both project and process contingencies and the stage of technical readiness. As recommended, AACE contingency allowances taper off linearly as a project nears completion

  5. Waste Management Program management plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    As the prime contractor to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) provides comprehensive waste management services to all contractors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) through the Waste Management (WM) Program. This Program Management Plan (PMP) provides an overview of the Waste Management Program objectives, organization and management practices, and scope of work. This document will be reviewed at least annually and updated as needed to address revisions to the Waste Management's objectives, organization and management practices, and scope of work. Waste Management Program is managed by LMITCO Waste Operations Directorate. The Waste Management Program manages transuranic, low-level, mixed low-level, hazardous, special-case, and industrial wastes generated at or transported to the INEEL

  6. Waste management at KKP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, W.; Grundke, E.; Majunke, J.

    1997-01-01

    The smooth management of radioactive plant waste is an integral, essential part of safe and economic operation of a nuclear power plant. The Philippsburg Nuclear Power Station (KKP) addressed these problems early on. The stationary facilities installed, with an organization established in the lights of the objectives to be met, allow problems to be solved largely independent of external factors and make for operational flexibility and optimum utilization of plant and personnel capacities. The good performance achieved in volume reduction and product quality of the conditioned radioactive waste justifies the capital investments made. In this way, KKP has met the ecological and economic requirements of orderly waste management. At KKP, waste management is considered an interdisciplinary duty. Existing resources in KKP's organization were used to achieve synergy effects. The Central Monitoring Unit is responsible for the cooperation of all groups involved with the objective of generating a product fit for final storage. The necessary coordination and monitoring efforts are made by a small team of specialists with extensive know-how in waste management. Four persons are responsible for coordination and monitoring, and another ten or twelve persons for direct execution of the work. (orig.) [de

  7. LOGISTICS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HEALTHCARE INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Marczak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The waste management system in health care is a tool that allows to conduct reasonable steps to reduce their amount, collection, storage and transport, and provide a high level of utilization or disposal. Logistics solutions in waste management are intended to make full use of the infrastructure and technical resources, optimize costs, ensure the safety and health at work and meet legal requirements. The article discusses the elements of the logistics system of waste management in hospital, necessary to ensure the smooth flow of waste from its origin to landfilling. The following criteria were characterized: technical and technological, ecological and economic that can be used in the analysis and evaluation of solutions in waste management in the hospital. Finally, solutions to improve waste management system in the hospital on the example of the real object have been presented.

  8. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICALLY OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF WASTE FROM HEALTHCARE FACILITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Halina Marczak

    2013-01-01

    Modern healthcare facilities generate more and more waste, and their management is a significant constitutes a significant cost of their functioning. The undertakings aimed at lowering the costs of expenses in waste management may have a positive influence on budgetary accounts in the institutions rendering health care services. On the example of a hospital in Lublin the costs of waste management and the possibilities to lower these costs by intensifying segregation procedures were presented....

  9. Nuclear waste management news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeber, H.

    1987-01-01

    In view of the fact that nuclear waste management is an important factor determining the future perspectives of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, it seems suitable to offer those who are interested in this matter a source of well-founded, concise information. This first newsletter will be followed by others at irregular intervals, reviewing the latest developments and the state of the art in West Germany and abroad. The information presented in this issue reports the state of the art of nuclear waste management in West Germany and R and D activities and programmes, refers to conferences or public statements, and reviews international relations and activities abroad. (orig.) [de

  10. Nuclear Waste Fund management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosselli, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) established two separate special bank accounts: the Nuclear Waste Fund (NWF) was established to finance all of the Federal Government activities associated with the disposal of High-Level Waste (HLW) or Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The Interim Storage Fund (ISF) is the financial mechanism for the provision of Federal Interim Storage capacity, not to exceed 1900 metric tons of SNF at civilian power reactors. The management of these funds is discussed. Since the two funds are identical in features and the ISF has not yet been activated, the author's remarks are confined to the Nuclear Waste Fund. Three points discussed include legislative features, current status, and planned activities

  11. Nuclear Waste Fund management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, L.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Acts requires that DOE enter into contracts with nuclear utilities and others to accept their nuclear wastes at some unspecified date, at some unspecified rate, hopefully starting in 1998. Contracts between DOE and the states, and with civilian and other government agencies must be sufficiently detailed to secure competitive bids on definable chunks of work at a fixed-cost basis with incentives. The need is stressed for a strong central program for the selection of contractors on the basis of competitive bidding on a fixed price basis to perform the task with defined deliverables

  12. Radioactive waste management for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, W.A.

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive waste management practices at nuclear power plants are summarized. The types of waste produced and methods for treating various types of wastes are described. The waste management systems, including simplified flow diagrams, for typical boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are discussed. (U.S.)

  13. Assessment of logistic outlays in industrial solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Grabara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of concern for environmental protection is an increasingly common practice. Companies thus have an additional task which is the correct organization of the industrial waste management. This is achieved through the use of logistics processes in industrial waste management, mainly such as warehousing, transport, storage and recovery. These processes involve the formation of logistics costs resulting from waste management. The paper presents a mathematical model for cost of logistics management of industrial waste resulting from the above-mentioned processes. It also shows the interpretation of these costs and the relations between them. The model can increase costefficiency in companies managing industrial waste, while increasing attention to the environment.

  14. Learning the ABCs: Activity based costing in waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zocher, Marc A.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a challenging new national role based on current world events, changing public perception and awareness, and a legacy of wastes generated in the past. Clearly, the DOE must put mechanisms in place to comply with environmental rules, regulations, and good management practices so that public health risk is minimized while programmatic costs are controlled. DOE has begun this process and has developed a Five-Year Plan to describe the activities necessary to comply with both cleanup, or environmental restoration, and waste management of existing waste streams. The focus of this paper is how to best manage the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of waste throughout the DOE weapons complex by using Activity Based Costing (ABC) to both plan and control expenditures in DOE Waste Management (WM). The basics of ABC, along with an example, will be detailed. (author)

  15. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The dossier published in this issue deals with all matters relating to radioactive waste management. It describes in detail the guidelines implemented by France in this field and provides a general overview of actions carried out at international level. The articles are assembled in several chapters, treating the following subjects: I. Upstream storage management. II. Storage (surface and underground). III. Research to back up the management program. There then follows a description of various processes and equipment developed by research laboratories and industrialists to provide, at the different stages, a number of operations required by the management programs [fr

  16. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The text comprises three sections, i.e. theological and moral aspects, scientific and technical aspects, and administrative and political aspects. The book informs on the scientific and legal situation concerning nuclear waste management and intends to give some kind of decision aid from a theological point of view. (PW) [de

  17. K. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is a controversial and emotive subject. This report discusses radioactivity hazards which arise from each stage of the fuel cycle and then relates these hazards to the New Zealand situation. There are three appendices, two of which are detailed considerations of a paper by Dr. B.L.Cohen

  18. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Ross, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Papers from the Second International Symposium on Ceramics in Nuclear Waste Management, held during the American Ceramic Society's 85th Annual Meeting, comprise this eighth volume in the Advances in Ceramics series. The 81 papers included in this volume were compiled by George G. Wicks, of Savannah River Lab, and Wayne A. Ross, of Battelle, Pacific Northwest Labs

  19. Alternatives for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1975-10-01

    The safety aspects of waste management alternatives are emphasized. The options for waste management, their safety characteristics, and the methods that might be used to evaluate the options and their safety are outlined

  20. COST QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitanova Gordana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the contemporary economic conditions, enterprises might achieve a competitive advantage if only they sell goods and services with high quality and lower prices. Customers, usually, prefer quality goods with acceptable prices, while such goods create reputation with the particular brand. The perfect control system is necessary to achieve a high quality product, which the cost quality management is considered to be an indispensable part in. The cost quality is nevertheless created to ensure that customers’ requirements are being appropriately attained. The most important objective of quality costs controlling is to assist the management in enhancing the product’s value permanently. The superior cost quality control system helps the management to achieve other strategic objectives, such as: producing goods with acceptable costs and deliver the products to their customers in time.

  1. Solid Waste Management In Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Tahiri; , A. Maçi; , V. Tahiri; , K. Tahiri

    2016-01-01

    Waste management accordingly from concept and practices that are used in different countries there are differences, particularly between developed and developing countries. Our country takes part in the context of small developing countries where waste management right is almost at the beginning. In order to have better knowledge about waste management in Kosovo is done a research. The research has included the institutions that are responsible for waste management, including central and loca...

  2. Managing Ongoing EVSE Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The costs associated with EVSE begin with picking the best location and unit for the job, but they continue with electricity and network charges through the life of your vehicle. This presentation tells how to balance electricity demand charges and network management costs through smart planning at your program's inception.

  3. Goals for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Establishing a publicly, politically, economically, and technologically acceptable waste management system for the fuel cycle is a necessary condition for accepting the nuclear program as a national energy option. Findings are given on the technology, politics, economics, morality, aesthetics, and societal impact of waste management. Proposed goals are outlined for the regulation of waste management

  4. Laboratory Waste Management. A Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    A primary goal of the American Chemical Society Task Force on Laboratory Waste Management is to provide laboratories with the information necessary to develop effective strategies and training programs for managing laboratory wastes. This book is intended to present a fresh look at waste management from the laboratory perspective, considering both…

  5. Waste management at the Ardennes power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    In 1976, the SENA (with the participation of EDF, CEA and CEC in the framework of a research program on the management and storage of radioactive wastes) has developed an industrial pilot plant for the encapsulation of wastes in thermosetting polyester resins. The industrial putting in operation of the plant will enable most of the wastes from the nuclear station to be processed. The quality of products will be improved and the volume and processing cost reduced

  6. Carbon-14 waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    As part of their research programme on Radioactive Waste Management, the Commission of the European Communities has provided financial support for a detailed study of wastes containing 14 C and the options for their management. The main results of this study are outlined. Carbon-14 is formed by neutron activation reactions in core materials and is therefore present in a variety of waste streams both at reactors and at reprocessing plants. Data on the production and release of 14 C from various reactor systems are presented. A possible management strategy for 14 C might be reduction of 14 N impurity levels in core materials, but only reductions of about a factor of five in arisings could be achieved in this way. The key problem in 14 C management is its retention in off-gas streams, particularly in the dissolver off-gas stream at reprocessing plants. In this stream the nuclide is present as carbon dioxide and is extensively isotopically diluted by the carbon dioxide content of the air. Processes for trapping 14 C from these off-gases must be integrated with the other processes in the overall off-gas treatment system, and should provide for conversion to a stable solid compound of carbon, suitable for subsequent immobilization and disposal. Three trapping processes that convert carbon dioxide into insoluble carbonates can be identified: the double alkali (NaOH/Ca(OH) 2 ) process, the direct calcium hydroxide slurry process, and the barium ocathydrate gas/solid process. Calcium or barium carbonates, produced in the above processes, could probably be incorporated into satisfactory immobilized waste forms. However, the stability of such waste forms to prolonged irradiation and to leaching remains to be investigated. (author)

  7. Managing mixed wastes: technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, J.E.; Eyman, L.D.; Burton, D.W.; McBrayer, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The US Department of Energy manages wastes that are both chemically hazardous and radioactive. These mixed wastes are often unique and many have national security implications. Management practices have evolved over the more than forty years that the Department and its predecessor agencies have been managing these wastes, both in response to better understanding of the hazards involved and in response to external, regulatory influences. The Department has recently standarized its waste management practices and has initited an R and D program to address priority issues identified by its operating contractor organizations. The R and D program is guided by waste management strategy that emphasizes reduction of human exposure to hazardous wastes in the environment, reduction of the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, treatment of wastes that are generated to reduce volumes and toxicities, and identification of alternatives to land disposal of wastes that remain hazardous following maximum practicable treatment

  8. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantrana, D.

    1986-01-01

    The general structure of a regulatory scheme for the management of hospital radioactive wastes is presented. The responsabilities of an institution in the radioactive waste management, and storage conditions are defined. The radioactive wastes are classified in physical terms, and the criteria for evaluating the activity of solid wastes are described. The container characteristics and, the types of treatments given to the wastes are specified. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Waste management. Sector 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The waste management section of this report deals with two sectors: land disposal of solid waste and wastewater treatment. It provides background information on the type of emissions that contribute to the greenhouse gases from these two sectors, presents both sector current status in Lebanon, describes the methodology followed to estimate the corresponding emissions, and presents the results obtained regarding greenhouse emissions. The total methane emissions from solid waste disposal on land are 42.804 Gg approximately. There are no emissions from wastewater and industrial handling systems because, for the target year 1994, there was no treatment facilities in Lebanon. The wastewater (municipal, commercial and industrial) was directly discharged into the sea, rivers, ravines or septic tanks which indicate that methane or nitrous oxide emissions are significant if not nonexistent. Note that this situation will change in the future as treatment plants are being constructed around the country and are expected to come into operation by the year 2000

  10. Radioactive waste management - the Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Kanwar

    2008-01-01

    In India, nuclear power generation programme and application of radioisotopes for health care and various other application is increasing steadily. With resultant increase in generation of radioactive waste, emphasis is on the minimization of generation of radioactive waste by deploying suitable processes and materials, segregation of waste streams at sources, recycle and re-use of useful components of waste and use of volume reduction techniques. The minimization of the radioactive waste is also essential to facilitate judicious use of the scarce land available for disposal, to reduce impact on the environment due to disposal and, finally to optimize the cost of radioactive waste management. This paper presents a bird's eye view of radioactive waste management programme in the country today

  11. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  12. Waste management and chemical inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site

  13. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposl of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) examines the potential environmental and cost impacts of strategic management alternatives for managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes that have resulted and will continue to result from nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste, low-level waste, transuranic waste, high-level waste, and hazardous waste. The WM PEIS provides information on the impacts of various siting alternatives which the Department of Energy (DOE) will use to decide at which sites to locate additional treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for each waste type.Volume II is an integral part of the Office of Environmental Management''s (EM''s) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), which portrays the impacts of EM''s waste management activities at each of the 17 major DOE sites evaluated in the WM PEIS

  14. Managing nuclear waste from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L.; Winterfeldt, D. von

    1994-01-01

    National strategies to manage nuclear waste from commercial nuclear power plants are analyzed and compared. The current strategy is to try to operate a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to dispose storage at a centralized facility or next to nuclear power plants. If either of these is pursued now, the analysis assumes that a repository will be built in 2100 for waste not subsequently put to use. The analysis treats various uncertainties: whether a repository at Yucca Mountain would be licensed, possible theft and misuse of the waste, innovations in repository design and waste management, the potential availability of a cancer cure by 2100, and possible future uses of nuclear waste. The objectives used to compare alternatives include concerns for health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and direct economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs to electricity ratepayers, federal government responsibility to manage nuclear waste, and implications of theft and misuse of nuclear waste. The analysis shows that currently building an underground repository at Yucca Mountain is inferior to other available strategies by the equivalent of $10,000 million to $50,000 million. This strongly suggests that this policy should be reconsidered. A more detailed analysis using the framework presented would help to define a new national policy to manage nuclear waste. 36 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  15. Management on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents fΩm Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  16. Evaluation of environmental management cost estimating capabilities for the subject area ''Life-cycle economics for radioactive waste management and environmental remediation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hombach, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive perspective on the scope of Environmental Management (EM) activities and on the existing capability to estimate their costs. The scope is defined in terms of both activities and associated cost driving factors. The capability to estimate this scope was determined by evaluating existing cost estimating tools identified through a survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Environmental Protection Agency, and private industry. This paper is largely based on the results of a report produced for the Office of the Secretary of Defense, US Department of Defense, entitled, Evaluation of Environmental Management Cost-Estimating Capabilities of Major Defense Acquisition Programs, March 22, 1995. The DoD sponsored report was designed to have a broad application relevant not only to DoD, but to other government agencies, and industry. In addition to DoD, it has particular application to DOE because significant portions of the analyses and data were derived from DOE environmental management databases, cost models, reports, and work breakdown structures. This paper provides the basis used and methodology employed to conduct an evaluations of selected EM cost estimating tools. The following topics are discussed: Life Cycle of EM Activities; Major Elements of EM Activities; Cost Tool Evaluation Matrix; Results of Cost Tool Evaluations; Cost Tool Development Plan

  17. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1985-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)

  18. Management of coal combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-02-01

    It has been estimated that 780 Mt of coal combustion products (CCPs) were produced worldwide in 2010. Only about 53.5% were utilised, the rest went to storage or disposal sites. Disposal of coal combustion waste (CCW) on-site at a power plant may involve decades-long accumulation of waste, with hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of tonnes of dry ash or wet ash slurry being stored. In December 2008, a coal combustion waste pond in Kingston, Tennessee, USA burst. Over 4 million cubic metres of ash sludge poured out, burying houses and rivers in tonnes of toxic waste. Clean-up is expected to continue into 2014 and will cost $1.2 billion. The incident drew worldwide attention to the risk of CCW disposal. This caused a number of countries to review CCW management methods and regulations. The report begins by outlining the physical and chemical characteristics of the different type of ashes generated in a coal-fired power plant. The amounts of CCPs produced and regulations on CCW management in selected countries have been compiled. The CCW disposal methods are then discussed. Finally, the potential environmental impacts and human health risks of CCW disposal, together with the methods used to prevent them, are reviewed.

  19. The management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This educative booklet describes the role and missions of the ANDRA, the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes, and the different aspects of the management of radioactive wastes: goal, national inventory, classification, transport (organisation, regulation, safety), drumming, labelling, surface storage of short life wastes, environmental control, management of long life wastes (composition, research, legal aspects) and the underground research laboratories (description, public information, projects, schedules). (J.S.)

  20. Hospital waste management and other small producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, H.; Roy, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes waste management in hospitals and other waste producers. Low-level radioactive wastes are collected by ANDRA (French Agency for radioactive waste management) and informations on waste processing or regulations on radiation sources are given

  1. Solid waste management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadzri Yahaya

    2010-01-01

    All of the countries over the world have their own policies about how waste were managed. Malaysia as one of the developing country also faces this problems. So, the government was established Department of National Solid Waste Management under Ministry of Housing and Local Government to control and make sure all of these problem on waste will managed systematically. Guiding principle on these issues was mentioned in 3rd Outline Perspective Plan (2000 until 2010), National Policy on Solid Waste Management, National Strategic Plan on Solid Waste Management and also 10th Malaysian Plan. In 10th Malaysian Plan, the government will complete restructuring efforts in this Solid Waste Management sector with the federalization of solid waste management and public cleansing and full enforcement of the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007. The key outcomes of these efforts will include providing support to local authorities, delivering comprehensive and sanitary services and ensuring that waste is managed in a sustainable manner. These presentations cover all aspect of solid waste management in Malaysia. What are guiding principle, paradigm shift, strategies approach, monitoring and enforcement and also mention about some issues and constraint that appear in Solid waste management in Malaysia.

  2. Radioactive waste management glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Terminology used in documents published by the IAEA is frequently defined in glossaries in the separate documents so that understanding is enhanced, particularly for terms having unique meanings in the field of radioactive waste management. This has been found to be a good practice but frequently a burdensome one, too. In addition, terms in various documents occasionally were used differently. Thus, a common glossary of terms for radioactive waste management documents is believed to have merit. This glossary has been developed for use in IAEA documentation on radioactive waste management topics. The individual items have been compiled by selecting terms and definitions from thirty sources, listed on the next page, and numerous people. An effort has been made to use the definitions in internationally-accepted glossaries (e.g. ICRP, ICRU, ISO), with minimum modification; similarly, definitions in recently published IAEA documents have been respected. Nevertheless, when modifications were believed appropriate, they have been made. The glossary, stored on magnetic tape, is intended to be used as a standard for terminology for IAEA use; it is hoped that some benefits of common international terminology may result from its use in IAEA documentation

  3. Radioactive waste management at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadsby, R.D.; Allan, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    AECL has maintained an active program in radioactive waste management since 1945, when the Canadian nuclear program commenced activities at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Waste management activities have included operation of waste management storage and processing facilities at AECL's CRL and Whiteshell Laboratories (WL); operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Office on behalf of Natural Resources Canada to resolve historic radioactive waste problems (largely associated with radioactive ore recovery, transport and processing operations) that are the responsibility of the Federal Government; development of the concept and related technology for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste; development of the Intrusion-Resistant Underground Structure (IRUS) disposal concept for low-level nuclear waste; development of dry storage technology for the interim storage of used fuel; and development and assessment of waste processing technology for application in CANDU nuclear power plants and at CRL and WL. Today these activities are continuing. In addition, AECL is: preparing to decommission the nuclear facilities at WL; carrying out a number of smaller decommissioning projects at CRL; putting in place projects to upgrade the low-level liquid waste processing capabilities of the CRL Waste Treatment Centre, recover and process highly active liquid wastes currently in storage, and recover, condition and improve the storage of selected fuel wastes currently stored in below-ground standpipes in the CRL waste management areas; and assessing options for additional remediation projects to improve the management of other wastes currently in storage and to address environmental contamination from past practices. (author)

  4. Hazardous waste management plan, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1984-06-01

    All SRP waste storage, disposal, and recycling facilities that have received hazardous waste, low-level radioactive hazardous waste (mixed waste) or process waste since 1980 have been evaluated by EPA standards. Generally the waste storage areas meet all applicable standards. However, additional storage facilities currently estimated at $2 million and waste disposal facilities currently estimated at $20 million will be required for proper management of stored waste. The majority of the disposal facilities are unlined earthen basins that receive hazardous or process wastes and have or have the potential to contaminate groundwater. To come into compliance with the groundwater standards the influents to the basins will be treated or discontinued, the basins will be decommissioned, groundwater monitoring will be conducted, and remedial actions will be taken as necessary. The costs associated with these basin actions are not completely defined and will increase from present estimates. A major cost which has not been resolved is associated with the disposal of the sludge produced from the treatment plants and basin decommissioning. The Low-Level Radioactive Burial Ground which is also a disposal facility has received mixed waste; however, it does not meet the standards for hazardous waste landfills. In order to properly handle mixed wastes additional storage facilities currently estimated at $500,000 will be provided and options for permanent disposal will be investigated

  5. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Paul H.; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas

  6. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.brunner@tuwien.ac.at; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas.

  7. The Ethos of Cost Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the ethos of cost management, distinguishing the definition, functions and principles governing cost management. I have emphasized the efforts made by the specialists in the field towards finding a much more complete definition of cost management. The description of cost management principles reveals the current interest of the specialists in this extremely important domain of company management.

  8. Radioactive waste management in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Reyes L, J.; Jimenez D, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the radioactive waste management in Mexico, particularly the activities that the National Institute of Nuclear Research (NINR) is undertaking in this field. Classification and annual generation of radioactive waste, together with practices and facilities relating to the management of radioactive waste are addressed. The respective national legal framework and policy are outlined. (author)

  9. Nuclear waste management: a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The scope of our problems with nuclear waste management is outlined. Present and future inventories of nuclear wastes are assessed for risk. A discussion of what is presently being done to solve waste management problems and what might be done in the future are presented

  10. Management of radioactive waste from nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive waste arises from the generation of nuclear energy and from the production of radioactive materials and their applications in industry, agriculture, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. Technical expertise is a prerequisite for safe and cost-effective management of radioactive waste. A training course is considered an effective tool for providing technical expertise in various aspects of waste management. The IAEA, in co-operation with national authorities concerned with radioactive waste management, has organized and conducted a number of radioactive waste management training courses. The results of the courses conducted by the IAEA in 1991-1995 have been evaluated at consultants meetings held in December 1995 and May 1996. This guidance document for use by Member States in arranging national training courses on the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear applications has been prepared as the result of that effort. The report outlines the various requirements for the organization, conduct and evaluation of training courses in radioactive waste management and proposes an annotated outline of a reference training course

  11. Perspectives concerning radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a general overview of the principles of radioactive waste management as established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Subsequently, research and development related to radioactive waste management at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK·CEN is discussed. Different topical areas are treated including radioactive waste characterisation, decontamination and the long-term management of radioactive waste. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and the construction and the exploitation of the underground research laboratory HADES are cited as examples of the pioneering role that SCK·CEN has played in radioactive waste management.

  12. ERDA overview of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liverman, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    In ERDA it is believed that interaction is essential to the final assurance of bringing technologies on line which are acceptable to all sectors. If this can be achieved then questions surrounding waste management may not be any easier to solve, but they will certainly not crop up at the last minute to confound the technology that is needed tomorrow to meet our energy needs. At the same time, the public who needs to decide what cost and risks they are willing to accept for the benefit of energy use have the information they need and the confidence that all the issues have been addressed

  13. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  14. Hanford Waste Management Plan, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is to provide an integrated plan for the safe storage, interim management, and disposal of existing waste sites and current and future waste streams at the Hanford Site. The emphasis of this plan is, however, on the disposal of Hanford Site waste. The plans presented in the HWMP are consistent with the preferred alternative which is based on consideration of comments received from the public and agencies on the draft Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS). Low-level waste was not included in the draft HDW-EIS whereas it is included in this plan. The preferred alternative includes disposal of double-shell tank waste, retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste, one pre-1970 TRU solid waste site near the Columbia River and encapsulated cesium and strontium waste

  15. Household hazardous waste management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglezakis, Vassilis J; Moustakas, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    This paper deals with the waste stream of household hazardous waste (HHW) presenting existing management systems, legislation overview and other relevant quantitative and qualitative information. European Union legislation and international management schemes are summarized and presented in a concise manner by the use of diagrams in order to provide crucial information on HHW. Furthermore, sources and types, numerical figures about generation, collection and relevant management costs are within the scope of the present paper. The review shows that the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in households is not clearly defined in legislation, while there is absence of specific acts regulating the management of HHW. The lack of obligation to segregate HHW from the household waste and the different terminology used makes it difficult to determine the quantities and composition of this waste stream, while its generation amount is relatively small and, therefore, is commonly overlooked in waste statistics. The paper aims to cover the gap in the related literature on a subject that is included within the crucial waste management challenges at world level, considering that HHW can also have impact on other waste streams by altering the redox conditions or causing direct reactions with other non hazardous waste substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Joinville, i.e. in the same area as the Bure underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne. Therefore, the discussion focuses more on the local impacts of the setting up of a waste disposal facility (environmental aspects, employment, economic development). (J.S.)

  17. Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan (HWMTP) is a companion document to the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP). A reference plan for management and disposal of all existing and certain projected future radioactive Hanford Site Defense Wastes (HSDW) is described and discussed in the HWMP. Implementation of the reference plan requires that various open technical issues be satisfactorily resolved. The principal purpose of the HWMTP is to present detailed descriptions of the technology which must be developed to close each of the technical issues associated with the reference plan identified in the HWMP. If alternative plans are followed, however, technology development efforts including costs and schedules must be changed accordingly. Technical issues addressed in the HWMTP and HWMP are those which relate to disposal of single-shell tank wastes, contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, double-shell tank wastes, encapsulated 137 CsCl and 90 SrF 2 , stored and new solid transuranic (TRU) wastes, and miscellaneous wastes such as contaminated sodium metal. Among the high priority issues to be resolved are characterization of various wastes including early determination of the TRU content of future cladding removal wastes; completion of development of vitrification (Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant) and grout technology; control of subsidence in buried waste sites; and development of criteria and standards including performance assessments of systems proposed for disposal of HSDW. Estimates of the technology costs shown in this report are made on the basis that all identified tasks for all issues associated with the reference disposal plan must be performed. Elimination of, consolidation of, or reduction in the scope of individual tasks will, of course, be reflected in corresponding reduction of overall technology costs

  18. Information security cost management

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavan, Ioana V

    2006-01-01

    While information security is an ever-present challenge for all types of organizations today, most focus on providing security without addressing the necessities of staff, time, or budget in a practical manner.Information Security Cost Management offers a pragmatic approach to implementing information security, taking budgetary and real-world constraints into consideration. By providing frameworks, step-by-step processes, and project management breakdowns, this book demonstrates how to design the best security strategy with the resources you have available. Organized into five sections, the book-Focuses on setting the right road map so that you can be most effective in your information security implementationsDiscusses cost-effective staffing, the single biggest expense to the security organizationPresents practical ways to build and manage the documentation that details strategy, provides resources for operating annual audits, and illustrates how to advertise accomplishments to senior management effectivelyI...

  19. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1979-09-01

    Reports and other Canadian literature on radioactive waste processing and disposal covering the period 1953-1979 are listed. A selected list of international conferences relating to waste management (1959-1979) is attached. (LL)

  20. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werthamer, N.R.

    1977-01-01

    The State of New York, some 15 years ago, became a party to an attempt to commercialize the reprocessing and storage of spent nuclear fuels at the West Valley Reprocessing Facility operated by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS). That attempted commercialization, and the State of New York, have fallen victim to changing Federal policies in the United States, leaving an outstanding and unique radioactive waste management problem unresolved. At the beginning of construction in 1963, the AEC assured both NFS and New York State of the acceptability of long-term liquid tank storage for high level wastes, and New York State ERDA therefore agreed to become the responsible long-lived stable institution whose oversight was needed. It was understood that perpetual care and maintenance of the wastes, as liquid, in on-site underground tanks, would provide for safe and secure storage in perpetuity. All that was thought to be required was the replacement of the tanks near the end of their 40-year design life, and the transferring of the contents; for this purpose, a perpetual care trust fund was established. In March of 1972, NFS shut West Valley down for physical expansion, requiring a new construction permit from the AEC. After four years of administrative proceedings, NFS concluded that changes in Federal regulations since the original operating license had been issued would require about 600 million dollars if operations were to resume. In the fall of 1976, NFS informed the NRC, of its intention of closing the reprocessing business. The inventories of wastes left are listed. The premises upon which the original agreements were based are no longer valid. Federal responsibilities for radioactive wastes require Federal ownership of the West Valley site. The views of New York State ERDA are discussed in detail

  1. French policy concerning radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet, Andre.

    1981-01-01

    After having mentioned the origin of nuclear waste, the problems brought about by the existence of radioactive products and the change in the regulations, the processing and packaging of waste is examined. In the economic calculations the total cost of waste management, including storage, must be allowed for, and the risks-profits study must be applied to the waste and the sum total of the doses for the populations and the workers minimized. The temporary or definitive storage depends on the sort of wastes: beta-gamma without alpha stored on the surface or at small depth, low or medium activity stored temporarily whilst awaiting a site and the high activity waste which is vitrified then stored in situ and cooled before deep storage. Although there is no complete solution as yet for the problem of waste, it is technically very advanced and it is from the political and psychological angle that it meets most difficulties [fr

  2. Toward integrated design of waste management technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Implementation of waste management technologies has been hindered by the intervention of diverse interests. Relying on a perceived history of inadequate and improper management, operations, and technological design, critics have stymied the implementation of scientifically and governmentally approved technologies and facilities, leading to a critical shortage of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste management capacity. The research and development (R ampersand D) required to identify technologies that are simultaneously (1) scientifically valid, (2) economically sound, and (3) publicly acceptable must necessarily address, in an integrated and interdisciplinary manner, these three criteria and how best to achieve the integration of stakeholders early in the technology implementation process (i.e., R ampersand D, demonstration, and commercialization). The goal of this paper is to initiate an identification of factors likely to render radioactive and hazardous waste management technologies publicly acceptable and to provide guidance on how technological R ampersand D might be revised to enhance the acceptability of alternative waste management technologies. Principal among these factors are the equitable distribution of costs, risks, and benefits of waste management policies and technologies, the equitable distribution of authority for making waste management policy and selecting technologies for implementation, and the equitable distribution of responsibility for resolving waste management problems. Stakeholder participation in assessing the likely distribution of these factors and mitigative mechanisms to enhance their equitable distribution, together with stakeholder participation in policy and technology R ampersand D, as informed by stakeholder assessments, should enhance the identification of acceptable policies and technologies

  3. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  4. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-12-01

    The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged

  5. Radioactive waste management centers: an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotts, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste management centers would satisfy the need for a cost-effective, sound management system for nuclear wastes by the industry and would provide a well integrated solution which could be understood by the public. The future demands for nuclear waste processing and disposal by industry and institutions outside the United States Government are such that a number of such facilities are required between now and the year 2000. Waste management centers can be organized around two general needs in the commercial sector: (1) the need for management of low-level waste generated by nuclear power plants, the once-through nuclear fuel cycle production facilities, from hospitals, and other institutions; and (2) more comprehensive centers handling all categories of nuclear wastes that would be generated by a nuclear fuel recycle industry. The basic technology for radioactive waste management will be available by the time such facilities can be deployed. This paper discusses the technical, economic, and social aspects of organizing radioactive waste managment centers and presents a strategy for stimulating their development

  6. Infrastructure needs for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.

    2001-01-01

    National infrastructures are needed to safely and economically manage radioactive wastes. Considerable experience has been accumulated in industrialized countries for predisposal management of radioactive wastes, and legal, regulatory and technical infrastructures are in place. Drawing on this experience, international organizations can assist in transferring this knowledge to developing countries to build their waste management infrastructures. Infrastructure needs for disposal of long lived radioactive waste are more complex, due to the long time scale that must be considered. Challenges and infrastructure needs, particularly for countries developing geologic repositories for disposal of high level wastes, are discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. Carbon-14 waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.P.; Smith, G.M.; White, I.F

    1984-01-01

    Carbon-14 occurs in nature, but is also formed in nuclear reactors. Because of its long half-life and the biological significance of carbon, releases from nuclear facilities could have a significant radiological impact. Waste management strategies for carbon-14 are therefore of current concern. Carbon-14 is present in a variety of waste streams both at reactors and at reprocessing plants. A reliable picture of the production and release of carbon-14 from various reactor systems has been built up for the purposes of this study. A possible management strategy for carbon-14 might be the reduction of nitrogen impurity levels in core materials, since the activation of 14 N is usually the dominant source of carbon-14. The key problem in carbon-14 management is its retention of off-gas streams, particularly in the dissolver off-gas stream at reprocessing plants. Three alternative trapping processes that convert carbon dioxide into insoluble carbonates have been suggested. The results show that none of the options considered need be rejected on the grounds of potential radiation doses to individuals. All exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. If, on these grounds, retention and disposal of carbon-14 is found to be beneficial, then, subject to the limitations noted, appropriate retention, immobilization and disposal technologies have been identified

  8. Waste management and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauk, W.

    1980-01-01

    It is the Court's consideration of the repercussions the regulation on waste management of Sect. 9a of the Atomic Energy Law will have, relating to the licensing of a plant according to Sect. 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law which is noteworthy. Overruling its former legal conception, the Administrative Court Schleswig now assumes, together with the public opinion, that the problem of waste management being brought to a point only with the initial operation of a nuclear power station is accordingly to be taken into account in line with the discretion of licensing according to Sect. 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law. In addition, the Administrative Court expressed its opinion on the extent to the right of a neighbour to a nuclear power station to file suit. According to the Sections 114 and 42 (2) of the rules of Administrative Courts it is true that a plaintiff cannot take action to set aside the licence because public interests have not been taken into account sufficiently, but he may do so because his own interests have not been included in the discretionary decision. The Administrative Court is reserved when qualifying the regulation on waste management with regard to the intensity of legal control. The Court is not supposed to replace controversial issues of technology and natural sciences on the part of the executive and its experts by its own assessment. According to the proceedings, the judicial review refers to the finding as to whether decisions made by authorities are suited - according to the way in which they were made - to guarantee the safety standard prescribed in Subdivision 3 of Sect. 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law. (HSCH) [de

  9. FY 2001 Hanford Waste Management Strategic Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COLLINS, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to present the 2001 Hanford Waste Management Program Strategic Plan. This plan supports the newly developed U. S. Department of Energy Site outcomes strategy. The 2001 Plan reflects current and projected needs for Waste Management Program services in support of Hanford Site cleanup, and updates the objectives and actions using new waste stream oriented logic for the strategic goals: (1) waste treatment/processing, storage, and disposal; (2) interfaces; and (3) program excellence. Overall direction for the Program is provided by the Waste Management Division, Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is the operating contractor for the program. This Plan documents proactive strategies for planning and budgeting, with a major focus on helping meet regulatory commitments in a timely and efficient manner and concurrently assisting us in completing programs cheaper, better and quicker. Newly developed waste stream oriented logic was incorporated to clarify Site outcomes. External drivers, technology inputs, treatment/processing, storage and disposal strategies, and stream specific strategies are included for the six major waste types addressed in this Plan (low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, contact-handled transuranic waste, remote-handled transuranic waste, liquid waste, and cesium/strontium capsules). The key elements of the strategy are identification and quantification of the needs for waste management services, assessment of capabilities, and development of cost-effective actions to meet the needs and to continuously improve performance. Accomplishment of specific actions as set forth in the Plan depends on continued availability of the required resources and funding. The primary objectives of Plan are: (1) enhance the Waste Management Program to improve flexibility, become more holistic especially by implementing new

  10. Waste management units - Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only

  11. Solid wastes management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Simon E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the problem of wastes in Lebanon and their management according to international (European and French) descriptions. It presents the situation in Lebanon including the policies taken by the ministry of environment towards the treatment of different types of wastes especially solid wastes. It is estimated that the production of wastes in Lebanon is 5854 tones per day and it is distributed as follows: Domestic wastes 3200 t/d; industrial wastes 1300 t/d; commercial wastes 1000 t/d; slaughter-houses 150 t/d; waste oils 100 t/d; hospital wastes 64 t/d; vehicle wheels 40 t/d. The annual production within regions is also presented in tables. Collection, transportation, recycling, composting and incineration of wastes are included

  12. 40 CFR 273.13 - Waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management. 273.13 Section 273...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.13 Waste management. (a) Universal waste batteries. A small quantity handler of universal waste must manage...

  13. 40 CFR 273.33 - Waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management. 273.33 Section 273...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.33 Waste management. (a) Universal waste batteries. A large quantity handler of universal waste must manage...

  14. Economic challenges of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderberg, O.

    1996-01-01

    The management of long lived waste, and the decommissioning of nuclear power plants represent major economic challenges. Power production is an activity that produces benefits now, but considerable costs will appear up to one or two generations later. Who should pay for such inevitable costs? How do you guarantee a lifetime ahead that money will be available when needed? The issues of inter-generational equity and management of the uncertainties involved in estimating future costs decommissioning and waste management, the development of the concept of trust funds and the overseeing of long-term financial liabilities in this field are discussed. The paper contains an overview of how such challenges are met in different countries. Information for the general public about economics in connection with nuclear waste management needs to combine the conflicting demands of accuracy and simplification. Systems for financing future costs are discussed, together with proposed guarantees and suggestions for the efficient organisation of such funding. The present Swedish system is explained. This basically requires license holders to pay a yearly fee to cover the costs of the safe handling and final disposal of nuclear fuel used in the reactor, the safe decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor, and the R and D activities required to achieve this. With recent suggestions for improving the reliability of the 1981 Swedish nuclear waste management funding system as a basis, five information messages rom the Government and responsible authorities are discussed. (author)

  15. Developing radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gichana, Z.

    2012-04-01

    A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)

  16. Radioactive waste management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ik Hwan

    1997-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing energy demand in Korea, continuous promotion of nuclear power program will be inevitable in the future. However, the use of nuclear energy eventually requires effective and reliable radioactive waste management. For the safe and economical management of radioactive waste, first of all, volume reduction is essentially required and hence the development of related technologies continuously be pursued. A site for overall radioactive waste management has to be secured in Korea. KEPCO-NETEC will improve public understanding by reinforcing PA and will maintain transparency of radioactive waste management. (author). 1 fig

  17. Radioactive waste management policy for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Simionov, V.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear power is part of energy future as a clean and environmental friendly source of energy. For the case of nuclear power, two specific aspects come more often in front of public attention: how much does it cost and what happens with radioactive waste. The competitiveness of nuclear power vs other sources of energy is already proved in many developed and developing countries. As concerns the radioactive wastes treatment and disposal, industrial technologies are available. Even final solutions for disposal of high level radioactive waste, including spent fuel, are now fully developed and ready for large scale implementation. Policies and waste management strategies are established by all countries having nuclear programs. Once, the first nuclear power reactor was commissioned in Romania, and based on the national legal provisions, our company prepared the first issue of a general strategy for radioactive waste management. The general objective of the strategy is to dispose the waste according to adequate safety standards protecting the man and the environment, without undue burden on future generations. Two target objectives were established for long term: an interim spent fuel dry storage facility and a low and intermediate level waste repository. A solution for spent fuel disposal will be implemented in the next decade, based on international experience. Principles for radioactive waste management, recommended by IAEA are closely followed in the activities of our company. The continuity of responsibilities is considered to be very important. The radioactive waste management cost will be supported by the company. A tax on unit price of electricity will be applied. The implementation of radioactive waste management strategy includes as a major component the public information. A special attention will be paid by the company to an information program addressed to different categories of public in order to have a better acceptance of our nuclear power projects

  18. Regulation of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the regulation of radioactive waste management of the UJD are presented. Radioactive waste (RAW) is the gaseous, liquid or solid material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than clearance levels and for which no use is foreseen. The classification of radioactive waste on the basis of type and activity level is: - transition waste; - short lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-SL); - long lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-LL); - high level waste. Waste management (in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll.) involves collection, sorting, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal of radioactive waste originated by nuclear facilities and conditioning, transport to repository and disposal of other radioactive waste (originated during medical, research and industrial use of radioactive sources). The final goal of radioactive waste management is RAW isolation using a system of engineered and natural barriers to protect population and environment. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic regulates radioactive waste management in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll. Inspectors regularly inspect and evaluate how the requirements for nuclear safety at nuclear facilities are fulfilled. On the basis of safety documentation evaluation, UJD issued permission for operation of four radioactive waste management facilities. Nuclear facility 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning contains bituminization plants and Bohunice conditioning centre with sorting, fragmentation, evaporation, incineration, supercompaction and cementation. Final product is waste package (Fibre reinforced container with solidified waste) acceptable for near surface repository in Mochovce. Republic repository in Mochovce is built for disposal of short lived low and intermediate level waste. Next

  19. Waste management plan - plant plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudet, F.

    2008-01-01

    The author summarizes the nuclear activity of the Pierre Fabre Research Institute (sites, used radionuclides, radioprotection organisation), indicates the applied regulation, gives a brief analytical overview of the waste collection, sorting and elimination processes, of the management process for short period wastes and for long period wastes, and of the traceability and control procedures. He briefly presents some characteristics of the storing premises

  20. Solid low level waste management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the 1980's the nuclear industry began focusing a great deal of attention on minimizing the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) that required disposal. This was driven by several factors including rising disposal costs, increased regulatory pressures, and increased pressure from other organizations such as INPO. In the 1990's most utilities are faced with intense competition in the electrical generation market. The survival of a utility is based on their ability to produce electricity by the most efficient and economical means available. Waste management related costs are a substantial portion of most utilities O ampersand M budgets. Disposal site access denial continues to be a major factor in waste management program decision, and the pressures to minimize waste volumes from outside organizations is greater than ever

  1. The mixed waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    During FY96, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Project has the following major objectives: (1) Complete Project Preliminary Design Review (PDR). (2) Complete final design (Title II) of MWMF major systems. (3) Coordinate all final interfaces with the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) for facility utilities and facility integration. (4) Begin long-lead procurements. (5) Issue Project Baseline Revision 2-Preliminary Design (PB2), modifying previous baselines per DOE-requested budget profiles and cost reduction. Delete Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) as a treatment process for initial demonstration. (6) Complete submittal of, and ongoing support for, applications for air permit. (7) Begin detailed planning for start-up, activation, and operational interfaces with the Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Division (HWM). In achieving these objectives during FY96, the Project will incorporate and implement recent DOE directives to maximize the cost savings associated with the DWTF/MWMF integration (initiated in PB1.2); to reduce FY96 new Budget Authority to ∼$10M (reduced from FY97 Validation of $15.3M); and to keep Project fiscal year funding requirements largely uniform at ∼$10M/yr. A revised Project Baseline (i.e., PB2), to be issued during the second quarter of FY96, will address the implementation and impact of this guidance from an overall Project viewpoint. For FY96, the impact of this guidance is that completion of final design has been delayed relative to previous baselines (resulting from the delay in the completion of preliminary design); ramp-up in staffing has been essentially eliminated; and procurements have been balanced through the Project to help balance budget needs to funding availability

  2. French regulations and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the organization and the role of safety authorities in France in matter of waste management. They precise the French policy in waste storage and treatment: basic objectives, optimization of waste management. The safety requirements are based upon the barrier principle. Safety requirements about waste conditioning and waste disposal are mentioned. In addition to the safety analysis and studies described above, the Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute assists the ministerial authorities in the drafting of ''basic safety rules (RFS)'', laying down safety objectives. Appendix 1 and Appendix 2 deal with safety aspects in spent fuel storage and in transportation of radioactive materials [fr

  3. CEGB's radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.; Maul, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) produces low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the process of operating its eight Magnox and five Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) nuclear power stations. Future wastes will also arise from a programme of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) and the decommissioning of existing reactors. The paper gives details of how the UK waste management strategy is put into practice by the CEGB, and how general waste management principles are developed into strategies for particular waste streams. (author)

  4. Nuclear Waste Fund management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, L.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Fund involves a number of features which make it a unique federal program. Its primary purpose is to finance one of the largest and most controversial public works programs in the history of the United States. Despite the program's indicated size and advance publicity, no one knows exactly where the anticipated projects will be built, who will construct them, what they will look like when they are done or how they will be operated and by whom. Implimentation of this effort, if statutory targets are actually met, covers a 16-year period. To cover the costs of the program, the Federal Government will tax nuclear power at the rate of 1 mil per kilowatt hour generated. This makes it one of the biggest and longest-lived examples of advance collections for construction work in progress in the history of the United States. While the Department of Energy is authorized to collect funds for the program the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has the authority to cut off this revenue stream by the shutdown of particular reactors or particular reactor types. If all goes well, the Federal Government will begin receiving spent nuclear fuel by 1998, continuing to assess a fee which will cover operating and maintenance costs. If all does not go well, the Federal Government and/or utilities will have to take other steps to solve the problem of permanent disposal. Should the latter circumstance prevail, presumably not only used to date but the $7.5 billion would be spent. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, contains no clear provision for utility refunds in that case

  5. ORION - A Global Approach to Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2015-01-01

    In the ORION project supported by the European Commission, 20 partners work together to manage organic waste from agro-food industries. The goal is to develop a small, automatic and user-friendly digestion machine to facilitate the domestic on-site treatment of a wide range of organic waste from around 100 and up to 5000 tonnes per year at low cost and with limited maintenance. Simon Crelier at the HES-SO Valais/Wallis is part of the network.

  6. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluzny, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The public has demonstrated interest and even concern for radioactive waste. A fully demonstrated industrial solution already exists for 90% of the waste generated by the nuclear industry. Several solutions are currently under development for long-term management of long-lived waste. They could be implemented on an industrial scale within twenty years. The low volumes of this type of waste mean there is plenty of time to adopt a solution. (author). 5 photos

  7. Defense Remote Handled Transuranic Waste Cost/Schedule Optimization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, G.D.; Wolaver, R.W.; Carson, P.H.

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the DOE information with which it can establish the most efficient program for the long management and disposal, in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste. To fulfill this purpose, a comprehensive review of waste characteristics, existing and projected waste inventories, processing and transportation options, and WIPP requirements was made. Cost differences between waste management alternatives were analyzed and compared to an established baseline. The result of this study is an information package that DOE can use as the basis for policy decisions. As part of this study, a comprehensive list of alternatives for each element of the baseline was developed and reviewed with the sites. The principle conclusions of the study follow. A single processing facility for RH TRU waste is both necessary and sufficient. The RH TRU processing facility should be located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Shielding of RH TRU to contact handled levels is not an economic alternative in general, but is an acceptable alternative for specific waste streams. Compaction is only cost effective at the ORNL processing facility, with a possible exception at Hanford for small compaction of paint cans of newly generated glovebox waste. It is more cost effective to ship certified waste to WIPP in 55-gal drums than in canisters, assuming a suitable drum cask becomes available. Some waste forms cannot be packaged in drums, a canister/shielded cask capability is also required. To achieve the desired disposal rate, the ORNL processing facility must be operational by 1996. Implementing the conclusions of this study can save approximately $110 million, compared to the baseline, in facility, transportation, and interim storage costs through the year 2013. 10 figs., 28 tabs

  8. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.; Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The first European Community conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal was held in Luxembourg, where twenty-five papers were presented by scientists involved in European Community contract studies and by members of the Commission's scientific staff. The following topics were covered: treatment and conditioning technology of solid intermediate level wastes, alpha-contaminated combustible wastes, gaseous wastes, hulls and dissolver residues and plutonium recovery; waste product evaluation which involves testing of solidified high level wastes and other waste products; engineering storage of vitrified high level wastes and gas storage; and geological disposal in salt, granite and clay formations which includes site characterization, conceptual repository design, waste/formation interactions, migration of radionuclides, safety analysis, mathematical modelling and risk assessment

  9. Waste management 86. Volume 1:General interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on radioactive waste management. Topics considered at the symposium included the status of radioactive waste disposal, the status of international nuclear waste management, waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, legal and liability issues, risk perceptions and public involvement, waste transportation, waste processing, remedial action, decontamination, predisposal processing and treatment processes, low-level and mixed waste management, and mixed chemical and radioactive waste disposal

  10. International trends of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    1989-01-01

    The new trends of radioactive waste management in the world such as focusing on decreasing the amount of radioactive wastes, developing decontamination and decommissioning technology, conscientious solution for radiactive waste disposal, carrying out social services of waste treatment and quality assurance are reviewed. Besides, comments and suggestions are presented. Key words Radioactive waste management, Radioactive waste treatment, Radioactive waste disposal

  11. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Lester, R.K.; Greenberg, S.C.; Mitchell, H.C.; Walker, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose of this book is to assist in developing public policy and institutions for the safe management of radioactive waste, currently and long term. Both high-level waste and low-level waste containing transuranium elements are covered. The following conclusions are drawn: the safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; the basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged. The following recommendations are made: a national Radioactive Waste Authority should be established as a federally chartered public corporation; with NRC as the primary agency, a comprehensive regulatory framework should be established to assure the safety of all radioactive waste management operations under U.S. jurisdiction or control; ERDA should continue to have primary government responsibility for R and D and demonstration of radioactive waste technology; and the U.S. government should propose that an international Radioactive Waste Commission be established under the IAEA

  12. Integrated solid waste management: a palliative to existing waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a concept, Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is a sustainable ... on the perspective of consumers on waste generation, collection and disposal. ... to effective solid waste management in the case study area; non-sorting and ...

  13. Defense waste management operations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.; Kendall, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management activities were initiated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of low-level wastes (LLW) produced by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) weapons testing program. Disposal activities have expanded from the burial of atmospheric weapons testing debris to demonstration facilities for greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) waste, transuranic (TRU) waste storage and certification, and the development of a mixed waste (MW) facility. Site specific operational research projects support technology development required for the various disposal facilities. The annual cost of managing the facilities is about $6 million depending on waste volumes and types. The paper discusses site selection; establishment of the Radioactive Waste Management Project; operations with respect to low-level radioactive wastes, transuranic waste storage, greater confinement disposal test, and mixed waste management facility; and related research activities such as tritium migration studies, revegetation studies, and in-situ monitoring of organics

  14. Guide for Industrial Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Guide is to provide facility managers, state and tribal regulators, and the interested public with recommendations and tools to better address the management of land-disposed, non-hazardousindustrial wastes.

  15. 40 CFR 60.2065 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Plan § 60.2065 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must... additional waste management measures and implement those measures the source considers practical and feasible, considering the effectiveness of waste management measures already in place, the costs of additional measures...

  16. Development of waste management regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnour, E.G.

    2012-04-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a by product of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applied. The purpose of this study is to develop regulations for radioactive waste management for low and intermediate radioactive level waste (LILW), and other purpose of regulations is to establish requirements with which all organizations must comply in Sudan from LILW in particular disused/spent sources, not including radioactive waste for milling and mining practices. The national regulations regarding the radioactive waste management, should prescribe the allocation of responsibilities and roles of the Country, the regulatory body, user/owner, waste management organization, including regulations on transport packaging of waste and applied a quality assurance programme, to ensure that radioactive waste management is done safely and securely. (author)

  17. Radioactive waste management - v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In this second part, the program of waste management of non-military origin of the following countries: USA, United Kingdom, France, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan, is presented. For each country, a brief overview on its nuclear program, to identify the reason of the major emphasis done by this country for a specific waste management, is presented. The legislation control, the classification, the treatment and, the options for waste disposal are also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Radioactive wastes. Management prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the perspectives of management of radioactive wastes as defined in the French law from December 30, 1991. This law defines three ways of research: abatement of the radiotoxicity of wastes (first way), reversible geological storage (second way) or long duration geological disposal (third way). This article develops these three solutions: 1 - strategic perspectives; 2 - separation, transmutation and specific conditioning: isotopes to be separated (evolution of the radio-toxicity inventory of spent fuels, migration of long-living radionuclides, abatement of radio-toxicity), research on advanced separation (humid and dry way), research on transmutation of separate elements (transmutation and transmutation systems, realistic scenarios of Pu consumption and actinides transmutation, transmutation performances), research on materials (spallation targets, fuels and transmutation targets), research on conditioning matrices for separated elements; 3 - long-term storage: principles and problems, containers, surface and subsurface facilities; 4 - disposal: reversibility and disposal, geological disposal (principle and problems, site and concept selection), adaptation to reversibility, research on materials (bentonite and cements for geologic barrier, metals for containers), underground research and qualification laboratories, quantity of containers to be stored. (J.S.)

  19. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones

  20. Applications to waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, D.; Uresk, V.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Ecological studies of the 200 Area plateau waste management environs have provided preliminary answers to questions concerning the environmental health of associated biota, potential for radionuclide transport through the biotic system and risk to man. More importantly creation of this ecological data base provides visible evidence of environmental expertise so essential for maintenance of continued public confidence in waste management operations

  1. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1986-09-01

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  2. Radioactive wastes. Their industrial management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a series that will review the present situation in the field of long-term management of radioactive wastes. Both the meaning and the purposes of an industrial management of radioactive wastes are specified. This short introduction is complemented by outline of data on the French problem [fr

  3. Public debate - radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Between September 2005 and January 2006 a national debate has been organized on the radioactive wastes management. This debate aimed to inform the public and to allow him to give his opinion. This document presents, the reasons of this debate, the operating, the synthesis of the results and technical documents to bring information in the domain of radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  4. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Aoustin, E.

    2009-01-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental...... specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited...... Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more...

  5. The management of radioactive wastes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Ten papers are presented, dealing with the management and environmental impact of radioactive wastes, environmental considerations related to uranium mining and milling, the management of uranium refining wastes, reactor waste management, proposals for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level wastes, disposal of nuclear fuel wastes, federal government policy on radioactive waste management, licensing requirements, environmental assessment, and internatioal cooperation in wast management. (LL)

  6. Waste management at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.E.; Grisham, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Future major improvements at the Clinto P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) will require replacement of many large radioactive components. Proper disposal of the components presents special waste management problems caused by component size, weight, geometry, and activity level. A special, large cask trailer (54 metric tons gross) is being constructed for transporting the material to the disposal site. The cask trailer is designed so that the amount of shielding may be individually tailored to suit the geometry and activity level of eah item transported. Special handling techniques and methods of stabilizing loose contamination are being developed to facilitate transport of large radioactive components across open areas. A special Monitor remote-handling system is being constructed to perform the various preparation and rigging operations. Implementation of this equipment will expedite future improvements at LAMPF with minimum impact and/or interference with other ongoing activities

  7. Assessment of costs related to the implementation of management solutions on the long term for high and medium level long life radioactive wastes. ANDRA's proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    This huge document contains several volumes which propose detailed costing of the various parts of the Cigeo project after sketch studies (this project deals with the deep geological storage of high and medium level long life radioactive wastes). It notably states the various hypotheses regarding the inventory of radioactive wastes, the waste supply prediction, and works closure. This cost assessment takes the different project stages into account and a cost update. Various aspects are thus assessed, some related to investments (design studies, preliminary works, construction of the various installations, renewal of equipment during exploitation, installation dismantling and works closure, insurance, commissioning authority and engineering subcontracting), to exploitation (production and maintenance, support, activities related to safety, radiation protection and control of the environment, operating costs, utilities, storage containers, insurance), and to other expenses (tax, research and development, technological tests, control after closure)

  8. Hospital waste management in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaker, Alissar

    1999-01-01

    Hospital wastes comprises approximately 80% domestic waste components, also known as non-risk waste and 20% hazardous or risk waste. The 20% of the hospital waste stream or the risk waste (also known as infectious, medical, clinical wastes) comprises components which could be potentially contaminated with infections, chemical or radioactive agents. Therefore, it should be handled and disposed of in such a manner as to minimize potential human exposure and cross-contamination. Hospital risk waste and be subdivided into seven general categories as follows: infections, anatomical/pathological, chemical, pharmaceutical, radioactive waste, sharps and pressurised containers. These waste categories are generated by many types of health care establishments, including hospitals, clinics, infirmaries.... The document presents also tables of number of hospitals and estimated bed number in different regions in Lebanon; estimated hospital risk and non-risk waste generation per tonnes per day for the years 1998 until 2010 and finally sensitivity analysis of estimated generation of hospital risk waste in Lebanon per tonnes per day for the years 1998 until 2010. The management, treatment and disposal of hospital risk waste constitute important environmental and public safety issues. It is recognised that there is alack of infrastructure for the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of hospital waste in Lebanon

  9. Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1977-11-01

    Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In addition to the cost estimates, this report provides details on the bases and assumptions used to develop the cost estimates

  10. Policies and strategies for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A policy for spent fuel and radioactive waste management should include a set of goals or requirements to ensure the safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste in the country. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. The spent fuel and radioactive waste management strategy sets out the means for achieving the goals and requirements set out in the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant waste owner or nuclear facility operator, or by government (institutional waste). Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategy components. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of radioactive waste, countries are advised to formulate appropriate policies and strategies. A typical policy should include the following elements: defined safety and security objectives, arrangements for providing resources for spent fuel and radioactive waste management, identification of the main approaches for the management of the national spent fuel and radioactive waste categories, policy on export/import of radioactive waste, and provisions for public information and participation. In addition, the policy should define national roles and responsibilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management. In order to formulate a meaningful policy, it is necessary to have sufficient information on the national situation, for example, on the existing national legal framework, institutional structures, relevant international obligations, other relevant national policies and strategies, indicative waste and spent fuel inventories, the availability of resources, the situation in other countries and the preferences of the major interested parties. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set out in the policy statement. For its formulation, detailed information is needed on the current situation in the country

  11. Commercial nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    This report is primarily concerned with nuclear waste generated by commercial power operations. It is clear, however, that the total generation of commercial nuclear waste does not tell the whole story, there are sizeable stockpiles of defense nuclear wastes which will impact areas such as total nuclide exposure to the biosphere and the overall economics of waste disposal. The effects of these other nuclear waste streams can be factored in as exogenous inputs. Their generation is essentially independent of nuclear power operations. The objective of this report is to assess the real-world problems associated with nuclear waste management and to design the analytical framework, as appropriate, for handling nuclear waste management issues in the International Nuclear Model. As such, some issues that are not inherently quantifiable, such as the development of environmental Impact Statements to satisfy the National Environmental Protection Act requirements, are only briefly mentioned, if at all

  12. Status of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses what nuclear waste is and where it comes from, what the technical strategies are for disposing of this waste, compares the toxicity of nuclear waste to other materials that are more familiar to us, and finally, comments on why it is taking so long to get on with the job of isolating nuclear waste permanently. The author believes that the technical solutions for the management and disposal of high-level and low-level nuclear waste are adequately in hand. The issues that are delaying the implementation of this technology are almost entirely related to sociological and political considerations. High-level nuclear waste can be safely stored and isolated through a multiple barrier approach. Although it is a hazardous material and must be handled properly, its toxicity diminishes rapidly. It then becomes less hazardous than other materials that we deal with everyday in routine industrial or household operations. The disposal of low-level waste has not attracted as much public attention as high-level waste management. Nevertheless, it is just as important to the public. For example, the use of radioactive isotopes in medicine, and the many lives that are saved as a result, would be very greatly reduced if medical institutions had no place to dispose of their radioactive waste. The management of uranium mill tailings is similar in many technical aspects to low-level waste management. Institutional issues, however, have not become as important in the case of mill tailings disposal

  13. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  14. Waste management in a sustainable society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascari, Sergio; Milan, Univ. ''Bocconi''

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarises the environmental economics debate about sustainable management of solid wastes. Sustainable levels of solid waste generation, recycling and disposal cannot be set by general criteria, but priorities are better defined locally. Preferable solutions are mostly determined by market forces once economic instruments are introduced in order to compel agents to incorporate environmental costs and benefits into their decisions. Greater care should be devoted to dangerous wastes, where schemes may be devised to subsidize not only recovery and recycling but environmentally safe disposal as well; these may be financed by raw materials levies

  15. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  16. Tank waste remediation system configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The configuration management program for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Mission supports management of the project baseline by providing the mechanisms to identify, document, and control the functional and physical characteristics of the products. This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission and work. It is an integrated approach for control of technical, cost, schedule, and administrative information necessary to manage the configurations for the TWRS Project Mission. Configuration management focuses on five principal activities: configuration management system management, configuration identification, configuration status accounting, change control, and configuration management assessments. TWRS Project personnel must execute work in a controlled fashion. Work must be performed by verbatim use of authorized and released technical information and documentation. Application of configuration management will be consistently applied across all TWRS Project activities and assessed accordingly. The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) configuration management requirements are prescribed in HNF-MP-013, Configuration Management Plan (FDH 1997a). This TWRS Configuration Management Plan (CMP) implements those requirements and supersedes the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Program Plan described in Vann, 1996. HNF-SD-WM-CM-014, Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Implementation Plan (Vann, 1997) will be revised to implement the requirements of this plan. This plan provides the responsibilities, actions and tools necessary to implement the requirements as defined in the above referenced documents

  17. Waste vs Resource Management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...

  18. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  19. JYT - Publicly financed nuclear waste management research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.

    1993-06-01

    The nuclear waste management research in Finland is funded both by the state and the utilities (represented in cooperation by the Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies). A coordinated research programme (JYT) comprising the publicly financed waste management studies was started in 1989 and continues until 1993. The utilities continue to carry out a parallel research programme according to their main financial and operational responsibility for nuclear waste management. The research programme covers the following main topic areas: (1) Bedrock characteristics, groundwater and repository, (2) Release and transport of radionuclides, (3) Performance and safety assessment of repositories, and (4) Waste management technology and costs

  20. JYT - Publicly financed nuclear waste management research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.

    1992-07-01

    The nuclear waste management research in Finland is funded both by the state and the utilities (represented in cooperation by the Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies). A coordinated research programme (JYT) comprising the publicly financed waste management studies was started in 1989 and continues until 1993. The utilities continue to carry out a parallel research programme according to their main financial and operational responsibility for nuclear waste management. The research programme covers the following main topic areas: (1) Bedrock characteristics, groundwater and repository, (2) Release and transport of radionuclides, (3) Performance and safety assessment of repositories, and (4) Waste management technology and costs

  1. JYT - Publicly financed nuclear waste management research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.

    1991-07-01

    The nuclear waste management research in Finland is funded both by the state and the utilities (represented in cooperation by the Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies). A coordinated research programme (JYT) comprising the publicly financed waste management studies was started in 1989 and continues until 1993. The utilities continue to carry out a parallel research programme according to their main financial and operational responsibility for nuclear waste management. The research programme covers the following main topic areas: (1) Bedrock characteristics, groundwater and repository, (2) Release and transport of radionuclides, (3) Performance and safety assessment of repositories, and (4) Waste management technology and costs

  2. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  3. Hospital Waste Management - Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Edra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of waste management in hospitals is indisputable in preserving the environment and protecting public health, but management models are rarely discussed. This study presents the legal and conceptual frameworks of good waste management practices applicable to hospitals and associated indicators. As a case study, the overall performance of Hospital Centre of São João, in Porto, was analysed based on published reports. Data on the production of waste in their different typologies were collected from 2010 to 2016, enabling a correlation of the waste production with the kg/bed/day indicator. The aim of this study was to gather data and discuss trends in a real scenario of evolution over a six-year period in order to contribute to a future research proposal on indicators that can be used as reference for benchmarking the construction of methodological guides for hospital waste management.

  4. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  5. Municipal waste - management and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudel, E.S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Though per capita waste generation in Nepalese urban cities is not so high, the lack of proper waste management is considered one of the severe problems to be faced by urban people in future. With rapid urbanization, life style of people is changing their habits and consuming more materials and producing a large volume of waste in urban areas in Nepal. The nature and amount of waste generated in municipality is dependent of demography and geography. But most common aspect of municipal waste in Nepal is more than 60% of the waste biodegradable. Whatever the nature and amount of waste generated, the most common practice of managing municipal waste is to dispose in the riverside nearby or dumped elsewhere. The involvement of private sector in waste management is a new concept adopted by many municipalities in Nepal. One of the most progress approaches, 4R (reduces, reuse, recycle and refuse) principle is being practiced. The need of awareness progressive like segregation of wastes at collection point also being practiced in Nepal. Finally, Proper formulation of program and legislation and its application is one of the major challenges for local authorities in Nepal. (author)

  6. The radioactive waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareeduddin, S.; Hirling, J.

    1983-01-01

    The international conference on radioactive waste management was held in Seattle, Washington, from 16 to 20 May 1983. The response was gratifying, reflecting world-wide interest: it was attended by 528 participants from 29 Member States of the IAEA and eight international organizations. The conference programme was structured to permit reviews and presentation of up-to-date information on five major topics: - waste management policy and its implementation: national and international approaches; legal, economic, environmental, and social aspects (four sessions with 27 papers from 16 countries and four international organizations); - handling, treatment, and conditioning of wastes from nuclear facilities, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants, including the handling and treatment of gaseous wastes and wastes of specific types (five sessions with 35 papers); - storage and underground disposal of radioactive wastes: general, national concepts, underground laboratories, and designs of repositories for high-level, and low- and intermediate-level waste disposal (five sessions with 35 papers); - environmental and safety assessment of waste management systems: goals methodologies, assessments for geological repositories, low- and intermediate-level wastes, and mill tailings (four sessions with 26 papers); - radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear operations: status and perspectives, environmental transport processes, and control of radioactive waste disposal into the environment (three sessions with 23 papers)

  7. Human factors in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moray, N.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the role of human factors in radioactive waste management. Although few problems and ergonomics are special to radioactive waste management, some problems are unique especially with long term storage. The entire sociotechnical system must be looked at in order to see where improvement can take place because operator errors, as seen in Chernobyl and Bhopal, are ultimately the result of management errors

  8. AECL's mixed waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peori, R.; Hulley, V.

    2006-01-01

    Every nuclear facility has it, they wish that they didn't but they have generated and do possess m ixed waste , and until now there has been no permanent disposition option; it has been for the most been simply maintained in interim storage. The nuclear industry has been responsibly developing permanent solutions for solid radioactive waste for over fifty years and for non-radioactive, chemically hazardous waste, for the last twenty years. Mixed waste (radioactive and chemically hazardous waste) however, because of its special, duo-hazard nature, has been a continuing challenge. The Hazardous Waste and Segregation Program (HW and SP) at AECL's CRL has, over the past ten years, been developing solutions to deal with their own in-house mixed waste and, as a result, have developed solutions that they would like to share with other generators within the nuclear industry. The main aim of this paper is to document and describe the early development of the solutions for both aqueous and organic liquid wastes and to advertise to other generators of this waste type how these solutions can be implemented to solve their mixed waste problems. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and in particular, CRL has been satisfactorily disposing of mixed waste for the last seven years. CRL has developed a program that not only disposes of mixed waste, but offers a full service mixed waste management program to customers within Canada (that could eventually include U.S. sites as well) that has developed the experience and expertise to evaluate and optimize current practices, dispose of legacy inventories, and set up an efficient segregation system to reduce and effectively manage, both the volumes and expense of, the ongoing generation of mixed waste for all generators of mixed waste. (author)

  9. WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SRS - MAKING IT HAPPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heenan, T. F.; Kelly, S.

    2002-01-01

    The past five years have witnessed a remarkable transition in the pace and scope of waste management activities at SRS. At the start of the new M and O contract in 1996, little was being done with the waste generated at the site apart from storing it in readiness for future treatment and disposal. Large volumes of legacy waste, particularly TRU and Low Level Waste, had accumulated over many years of operation of the site's nuclear facilities, and the backlog was increasing. WSRC proposed the use of the talents of the ''best in class'' partners for the new contract which, together with a more commercial approach, was expected to deliver more results without a concomitant increase in cost. This paper charts the successes in the Solid Waste arena and analyzes the basis for success

  10. Innovative technologies for managing oil field waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste that is generated. Many companies follow a three-tiered waste management approach. First, companies try to minimize waste generation when possible. Next, they try to find ways to reuse or recycle the wastes that are generated. Finally, the wastes that cannot be reused or recycled must be disposed of. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has evaluated the feasibility of various oil field waste management technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper describes four of the technologies Argonne has reviewed. In the area of waste minimization, the industry has developed synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) that have the desired drilling properties of oil-based muds without the accompanying adverse environmental impacts. Use of SBMs avoids significant air pollution from work boats hauling offshore cuttings to shore for disposal and provides more efficient drilling than can be achieved with water-based muds. Downhole oil/water separators have been developed to separate produced water from oil at the bottom of wells. The produced water is directly injected to an underground formation without ever being lifted to the surface, thereby avoiding potential for groundwater or soil contamination. In the area of reuse/recycle, Argonne has worked with Southeastern Louisiana University and industry to develop a process to use treated drill cuttings to restore wetlands in coastal Louisiana. Finally, in an example of treatment and disposal, Argonne has conducted a series of four baseline studies to characterize the use of salt caverns for safe and economic disposal of oil field wastes.

  11. Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

  12. Nondestructive radioassay for waste management: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, G.D.

    1981-06-01

    Nondestructive Assay (NDA) for Transuranic Waste Management is used to mean determining the amount of transuranic (TRU) isotopes in crates, drums, boxes, cans, or other containers without having to open the container. It also means determining the amount of TRU in soil, bore holes, and other environmental testing areas without having to go through extensive laboratory wet chemistry analyses. it refers to radioassay techniques used to check for contamination on objects after decontamination and to determine amounts of TRU in waste processing streams without taking samples to a laboratory. Gednerally, NDA instrumentation in this context refers to all use of radioassay which does not involve taking samples and using wet chemistry techniques. NDA instruments have been used for waste assay at some sites for over 10 years and other sites are just beginning to consider assay of wastes. The instrumentation used at several sites is discussed in this report. Almost all these instruments in use today were developed for special nuclear materials safeguards purposes and assay TRU waste down to the 500 nCi/g range. The need for instruments to assay alpha particle emitters at 10 nCi/g or less has risen from the wish to distinguish between Low Level Waste (LLW) and TRU Waste at the defined interface of 10 nCi/g. Wastes have historically been handled as TRU wastes if they were just suspected to be transuranically contaminated but their exact status was unknown. Economic and political considerations make this practice undesirable since it is easier and less costly to handle LLW. This prompted waste generators to want better instrumentation and led the Transuranic Waste Management Program to develop and test instrumentation capable of assaying many types of waste at the 10 nCi/g level. These instruments are discussed.

  13. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of radioactive waste management, including decommissioning and environmental remediation, to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied.

  14. The management of fusion waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Fusion reactors based on the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle will generate radioactive waste as a result of neutron irradiation of the structural materials and absorption of the tritium fuel. An important issue is whether the volume of this waste and the risks associated with it can be reduced to a sufficiently low level that the environmental advantage of fusion can be maintained without incurring unacceptable additional costs. Information is presented on the radioactive waste expected from the decommissioning of three generations of fusion devices - the JET experiment, NET, and power reactors. The characteristics and probable volumes of this waste are considered, together with the risks associated with its disposal. (author)

  15. The management of fusion waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion reactors based on the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle will generate radioactive waste as a result of neutron irradiation of the structural materials and absorption of the tritium fuel. An important issue is whether the volume of this waste and the risks associated with it can be reduced to a sufficiently low level that the environmental advantage of fusion can be maintained without incurring unacceptable additional costs. Information is presented on the radioactive waste expected from the decommissioning of three generations of fusion devices - the JET experiment, NET, and power reactors. The characteristics and probable volumes of this waste are considered, together with the risks associated with its disposal. (orig.)

  16. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  17. Environmental management and costs of construction wastes; Gestion ambiental e internalizacion sectorial de los costes medioambientales de los residuos de construccion y demolicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The majority of the construction waste could consider in their origin like inert. However, the abandon of many buildings and installations, the practices of intensive demolition, and the not separation in origin of the residuals generated in the diverse phases of the works, assure a variable level of contamination in the majority of the loads that the works leave from by containing materials and toxic and dangerous products. (Author)

  18. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced mi...

  19. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced migra...

  20. Overview of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The question of what to do with radioactive wastes is discussed. The need to resolve this issue promptly is pointed out. Two significant events which have occurred during the Carter administration are discussed. An Interagency Review Group (IRG) on waste management was formed to formulate recommendations leading to the establishment of a National policy for managing radioactive wastes. The technical findings in the IRG report are listed. The author points out some issues not addressed by the report. President Carter issued a national policy statement on Radioactive Waste Management in February 1980. The most significant elements of this statement are summarized. The cancellation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is currently meeting opposition in Congress. This and other items in the National Policy Statement are discussed

  1. Management of small quantities of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance primarily to developing Member States on the predisposal management of small quantities of radioactive waste arising from hospitals, laboratories, industries, institutions, research reactors and research centres.The publication covers the management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes at the users' premises and gives general guidance on procedures at a centralized waste management facility. Predisposal management of radioactive waste includes handling, treatment, conditioning, storage and transportation. This publication provides information and guidance on the following topics: national waste management framework; origin and characteristics of radioactive waste arising from users generating small quantities of waste; radioactive waste management concepts appropriate for small quantities; local waste management; the documentation and approval necessary for the consignment of waste to a centralized waste management facility; centralized waste management; exemption of radionuclides from the regulatory body; transportation; environmental monitoring; quality assurance for the whole predisposal process; regional co-operation aspects

  2. The waste originating from nuclear energy peaceful applications and its management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1997-05-01

    This work presents the waste originating from nuclear energy and its management. It approaches the following main topics: nature and classification of the wastes; security requirements to the waste management; state of the art related to the wastes derivates of the uses of the nuclear energy; wastes in the fuel cycle; wastes of the industrial, medical and research and development applications; costs of the waste management

  3. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BELGOWASTE was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: Purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste; centralization assumes the making of adequate arrangements for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of resiudal material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste; deep clay formations are at present preferred; disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol [fr

  4. 40 CFR 273.52 - Waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management. 273.52 Section 273...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Universal Waste Transporters § 273.52 Waste management. (a) A universal waste transporter must comply with all applicable U.S. Department of...

  5. Defense waste management operations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.; Kendall, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management activities were initiated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of low-level wastes (LLW) produced by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) weapons testing program. Disposal activities have expanded from the burial of atmospheric weapons testing debris to demonstration facilities for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) waste, transuranic (TRU) waste storage and certification, and the development of a mixed waste (MW) facility. Site specific operational research projects support technology development required for the various disposal facilities. The annual cost of managing the facilities is about $6 million depending on waste volumes and types

  6. Waste management at WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.D.; Willax, H.O.

    1986-01-01

    After a short description of the WAK plant and its reprocessing and intervention activities, types and sources of WAK wastes are described. Roughly half of the waste volume is generated during reprocessing, the other half during intervention periods. Most of the waste is transported to KfK for conditioning. Only waste from the head end cell is cementated on the spot. HLLW is stored in stainless steel tanks. Some results from analyzing this stuff are given. The corrosion behavior is acceptable for medium term storage. (orig.)

  7. Waste Management System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This DCP establishes an interim plan for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) technical baseline until the results of the OCRWM Document Hierarchy Task Force can be implemented. This plan is needed to maintain continuity in the Program for ongoing work in the areas of Waste Acceptance, Transportation, Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) and Yucca Mountain Site Characterization

  8. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  9. Defense waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Defense high-level waste (HLW) and defense transuranic (TRU) waste are in interim storage at three sites, namely: at the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina; at the Hanford Reservation, in Washington; and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho. Defense TRU waste is also in interim storage at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee; at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico; and at the Nevada Test Site, in Nevada. (Figure E-2). This document describes a workable approach for the permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic waste from atomic energy defense activities. The plan does not address the disposal of suspect waste which has been conservatively considered to be high-level or transuranic waste but which can be shown to be low-level waste. This material will be processed and disposed of in accordance with low-level waste practices. The primary goal of this program is to utilize or dispose of high-level and transuranic waste routinely, safely, and effectively. This goal will include the disposal of the backlog of stored defense waste. A Reference Plan for each of the sites describes the sequence of steps leading to permanent disposal. No technological breakthroughs are required to implement the reference plan. Not all final decisions concerning the activities described in this document have been made. These decisions will depend on: completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, authorization and appropriation of funds, agreements with states as appropriate, and in some cases, the results of pilot plant experiments and operational experience. The major elements of the reference plan for permanent disposal of defense high-level and transuranic waste are summarized

  10. Evaluation of composting in the intervention of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, F. J.; Claver, F.; Moraleda, M.; Vazquez, C.

    1998-01-01

    Decontamination countermeasures may generate high amounts of wastes. The management of wastes (meaning all those actions to be carried out until its final disposal) should be taking into account during the selection of the optimum restoration strategy. TEMAS Project (Techniques and Management Strategies for environmental restoration and their ecological consequences) considers waste management in the selection of optimized intervention. The management of wastes can follow an stepped process (disposal route) from the origin of waste to its final disposal. Each potential waste can be managed throughout one or more of these disposal routes. These processes must be characterized in the following terms: cost (machinery; manpower and consumables) and added dose for workers. This work deals with the obtention of this type of information required to evaluate the applicability of disposal routes including composting as one step in the management of organic wastes generated during the intervention. (Author) 11 refs

  11. Technology for commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The scope of this report is limited to technology for management of past-fission wastes produced in the commercial nuclear power light water reactor fuel cycle. Management of spent fuel (as a waste), high-level and other transuranic wastes, and gaseous wastes are characterized. Non-transuranic wastes are described, but management of these wastes, except for gaseous wastes, is excluded from the scope of this report. Volume 1 contains the summary and the bases and background information

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan, fiscal year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A was promulgated in final form on September 26, 1988. The order requires heads of field organizations to prepare and to submit updates on the waste management plans for all operations under their purview according to the format in Chap. 6, open-quotes Waste Management Plan Outline.close quotes These plans are to be submitted by the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) in December of each year and distributed to the DP-12, ES ampersand H-1, and other appropriate DOE Headquarters (DOE-HQ) organizations for review and comment. This document was prepared in response to this requirement for fiscal year (FY) 1994. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) waste management mission is reduction, collection, storage, treatment, and disposal of DOE wastes, generated primarily in pursuit of ORNL missions, in order to protect human health and safety and the environment. In carrying out this mission, waste management staff in the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) will (1) guide ORNL in optimizing waste reduction and waste management capabilities and (2) conduct waste management operations in a compliant, publicly acceptable, technically sound, and cost-efficient manner. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of this document is compilation and consolidation of information on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what activities are planned for FY 1994, and how all of the activities are

  13. Solid waste management - Pakistan's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    2003-01-01

    The discipline of 'Solid Waste Management' is as old as human civilization itself. The problem had been felt when the human beings commenced living together in the form of communities. The situation got worsened with ever-increasing population and growing industrialization. The developed nations have endeavored to tackle the issue of the industrial and municipal wastes according to the principles of engineering and environment. Most of the developing countries have not dealt with the 'Third Pollution' in the eco-friendly manner. Ironically Pakistan is facing this serious menace because of ever-expanding population (2.2% per annum) and ill management of the wastes and effluents being generated from multifarious activities. These pollutants are degrading the land, air and water resources at alarming rates. In Pakistan about 7,250 tonnes of solid waste is generated per day. Of this quantity only 60-70% is collected and the remaining quantity is allowed to burn indiscriminately or decay in situ. Unfortunately the industrial waste, animal dung and hospital waste are allowed to mix with the municipal waste, which adds to inefficiency of the existing 'Solid Waste Management System'. Scores of faecal, fly, rodent and mosquito born diseases are caused due to open dumping of the waste besides aesthetic impairment of the surroundings. None of the scientifically recognized methods of disposal is practiced. It is not based on administrative, financial, environmental and technical consideration. There is dire necessity of educating the masses to adopt clean habits and resort to generation of minimum waste. Further, nothing is waste as the so-called 'waste material' is the raw material after reuse and recycling for another process. (author)

  14. High-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Liikala, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the U.S. will be converted to an encapsulated solid and shipped to a Federal repository for retrievable storage for extended periods. Meanwhile the development of concepts for ultimate disposal of the waste which the Federal Government would manage is being actively pursued. A number of promising concepts have been proposed, for which there is high confidence that one or more will be suitable for long-term, ultimate disposal. Initial evaluations of technical (or theoretical) feasibility for the various waste disposal concepts show that in the broad category, (i.e., geologic, seabed, ice sheet, extraterrestrial, and transmutation) all meet the criteria for judging feasibility, though a few alternatives within these categories do not. Preliminary cost estimates show that, although many millions of dollars may be required, the cost for even the most exotic concepts is small relative to the total cost of electric power generation. For example, the cost estimates for terrestrial disposal concepts are less than 1 percent of the total generating costs. The cost for actinide transmutation is estimated at around 1 percent of generation costs, while actinide element disposal in space is less than 5 percent of generating costs. Thus neither technical feasibility nor cost seems to be a no-go factor in selecting a waste management system. The seabed, ice sheet, and space disposal concepts face international policy constraints. The information being developed currently in safety, environmental concern, and public response will be important factors in determining which concepts appear most promising for further development

  15. Materials and Waste Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is developing data and tools to reduce waste, manage risks, reuse and conserve natural materials, and optimize energy recovery. Collaboration with states facilitates assessment and utilization of technologies developed by the private sector.

  16. Waste management and the workplace*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    those employed by private contractors or intermediaries providing waste management services to local .... Tension both within this coalition and between the coalition and the ruling ANC has at times been high. 12 A lifeline tariff (also called a ...

  17. Radioactive Waste Management Program Activities in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of radioactive waste management in Croatia comprises three major areas: management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW), spent fuel management and decommissioning. All the work regarding radioactive waste management program is coordinated by Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) and Croatian Power Utility (HEP) in cooperation with other relevant institutions. Since the majority of work has been done in developing low and intermediate level radioactive waste management program, the paper will focus on this part of radioactive waste management, mainly on issues of site selection and characterization, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance. A short description of national radioactive waste management infrastructure will also be presented. (author)

  18. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Management of reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatz, H.

    1976-01-01

    The author discusses the type, production and amount of radioactive waste produced in a nuclear power station (LWR) as well as its conditioning and disposal. The mobile system developed by STEAG for the solidification of medium-activity waste and sludge is referred to in this connection. (HR) [de

  20. ERDA waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The ERDA commercial waste program is summarized. It consists of three parts: terminal storage, processing, and preparation of the Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Emplacement in geologic formations is the best disposal method for high-level waste; migration would be essentially zero, as it was in the Oklo event. Solidification processes are needed. Relations with the states, etc. are touched upon

  1. Management of radioactive waste gases from PET radiopharmaceutical synthesis using cost effective capture systems integrated with a cyclotron safety system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, D H R; Pringle, A J; Maillet, D; King, A R; Nevin, S T; Venkatachalam, T K; Reutens, D C; Bhalla, R

    2016-09-01

    The emphasis on the reduction of gaseous radioactive effluent associated with PET radiochemistry laboratories has increased. Various radioactive gas capture strategies have been employed historically including expensive automated compression systems. We have implemented a new cost-effective strategy employing gas capture bags with electronic feedback that are integrated with the cyclotron safety system. Our strategy is suitable for multiple automated 18 F radiosynthesis modules and individual automated 11 C radiosynthesis modules. We describe novel gas capture systems that minimize the risk of human error and are routinely used in our facility.

  2. Developing Tribal Integrated Waste Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    An IWMP outlines how the tribe will reduce, manage, and dispose of its waste. It identifies existing waste systems, assesses needs, and sets forth the ways to design, implement, and monitor a more effective and sustainable waste management program.

  3. System approach for the management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, I.G.

    1997-01-01

    An integrated approach to Waste Management and Decommissioning, which takes account of the lifetime implications (safety, dose uptake, discharges and cost) is an important strategic process in forward planning. This type of approach is particularly relevant when making decisions concerning waste minimisation and segregation, packaging and surface storage of high and intermediate level waste in advance of the existence of disposal facilities. Such a systematic approach forms an integral part of a process which enable progress to be assessed and plans to be updated in response to changing demands upon business operations and can continually be applied to waste management policy and to optimise the detailed waste management plans. (author)

  4. Decision-making methodology for management of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, J.S.; Cranwell, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    A decision-making methodology is presented that combines systems and risk analysis techniques to evaluate hazardous waste management practices associated with DOE weapon production operations. The methodology provides a systematic approach to examining waste generation and waste handling practices in addition to the more visible disposal practices. Release-exposure scenarios for hazardous waste operations are identified and operational risk is determined. Comparisons may be made between existing and alternative waste management practices (and processes) on the basis of overall risk, cost and compliance with regulations. Managers can use this methodology to make and defend resource allocation decisions and to prioritize research needs

  5. A system approach for the management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, I.G. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    An integrated approach to Waste Management and Decommissioning, which takes account of the lifetime implications (safety, dose uptake, discharges and cost) is an important strategic process in forward planning. This type of approach is particularly relevant when making decisions concerning waste minimization and segregation, packaging and surface storage of high and intermediate level waste in advance of the existence of disposal facilities. Such a systematic approach forms an integral part of a process which enables progress to be assessed and plans to be updated in response to changing demands upon business operations and can continually be applied to waste management policy and to optimise the detailed waste management plans. (author)

  6. A system approach for the management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, I.G.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated approach to Waste Management and Decommissioning, which takes account of the lifetime implications (safety, dose uptake, discharges and cost) is an important strategic process in forward planning. This type of approach is particularly relevant when making decisions concerning waste minimization and segregation, packaging and surface storage of high and intermediate level waste in advance of the existence of disposal facilities. Such a systematic approach forms an integral part of a process which enables progress to be assessed and plans to be updated in response to changing demands upon business operations and can continually be applied to waste management policy and to optimise the detailed waste management plans. (author)

  7. Aspects of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, L.

    1990-10-01

    Six areas of concern in nuclear waste management have been dealt with in a four-year Nordic research programme. They include work in two international projects, Hydrocoin dealing with modelling of groundwater flow in crystalline rock, and Biomovs, concerned with biosphere models. Geologic questions of importance to the prediction of future behaviour are examined. Waste quantities from the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are estimated, and total amounts of waste to be transported in the Nordic countries are evaluated. Waste amounts from a hypothetical reactor accident are also calculated. (au)

  8. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  9. Radioactive waste management in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report drafted by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) deals with the basic principles and the main stages of radioactive waste management. The review more precisely focuses on what relates to environment protection, safety assessment, financing, social issues, public concerns and international co-operation. An annex finally summarises the radioactive waste management programs that are implemented in 15 of the NEA countries. (TEC). figs

  10. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonioli, S.; Manet, M.

    1985-01-01

    The experience acquired over forty years through an extensive nuclear power program has enabled France to develop a corresponding comprehensive waste management policy, covering rules and regulations, health and safety aspects for both the short and the long term, technologies from the design of installations to their decommissioning and the conditioning, transport and disposal of the entailed wastes. The various partners, their role and responsibilities, specially those involved in industrial activities, are briefly introduced. The principles and objectives of French waste management policy, the techniques adopted and the long term disposal program are then presented [fr

  11. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.; Brignon, P.

    1986-01-01

    The experience acquired over forty years through an extensive nuclear power program has enabled FRANCE to develop a corresponding comprehensive waste management policy, covering rules and regulations, health and safety aspects for both the short and the long term, technologies from the design of installations to their decommissioning, and the conditioning, transport and disposal of the entailed wastes. The various partners, their role and responsabilities, specially those involved in industrial activities, are briefly introduced. The principles and objectives of French waste management policy, the techniques adopted and the long term disposal program are then presented [fr

  12. Waste management outlook for mountain regions: Sources and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semernya, Larisa; Ramola, Aditi; Alfthan, Björn; Giacovelli, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    Following the release of the global waste management outlook in 2015, the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment), through its International Environmental Technology Centre, is elaborating a series of region-specific and thematic waste management outlooks that provide policy recommendations and solutions based on current practices in developing and developed countries. The Waste Management Outlook for Mountain Regions is the first report in this series. Mountain regions present unique challenges to waste management; while remoteness is often associated with costly and difficult transport of waste, the potential impact of waste pollutants is higher owing to the steep terrain and rivers transporting waste downstream. The Outlook shows that waste management in mountain regions is a cross-sectoral issue of global concern that deserves immediate attention. Noting that there is no 'one solution fits all', there is a need for a more landscape-type specific and regional research on waste management, the enhancement of policy and regulatory frameworks, and increased stakeholder engagement and awareness to achieve sustainable waste management in mountain areas. This short communication provides an overview of the key findings of the Outlook and highlights aspects that need further research. These are grouped per source of waste: Mountain communities, tourism, and mining. Issues such as waste crime, plastic pollution, and the linkages between exposure to natural disasters and waste are also presented.

  13. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume III of V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) examines the potential environmental and cost impacts of strategic management alternatives for managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes that have resulted and will continue to result from nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste, low-level waste, transuranic waste, high-level waste, and hazardous waste. The WM PEIS provides information on the impacts of various siting alternatives which the Department of Energy (DOE) will use to decide at which sites to locate additional treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for each waste type

  14. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Guerrero, L.; Maas, G.J.; Hogland, W

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities’ authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that

  15. Remote waste handling and feed preparation for Mixed Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, S.A.; Merrill, R.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will serve as a national testbed to demonstrate mature mixed waste handling and treatment technologies in a complete front-end to back-end --facility (1). Remote operations, modular processing units and telerobotics for initial waste characterization, sorting and feed preparation have been demonstrated at the bench scale and have been selected for demonstration in MWMF. The goal of the Feed Preparation design team was to design and deploy a robust system that meets the initial waste preparation flexibility and productivity needs while providing a smooth upgrade path to incorporate technology advances as they occur. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors -- personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Modular processing units were selected to enable processing flexibility and facilitate reconfiguration as new treatment processes or waste streams are brought on line for demonstration. Modularity will be achieved through standard interfaces for mechanical attachment as well as process utilities, feeds and effluents. This will facilitate reconfiguration of contaminated systems without drilling, cutting or welding of contaminated materials and with a minimum of operator contact. Modular interfaces also provide a standard connection and disconnection method that can be engineered to allow convenient remote operation

  16. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    A system of combining a calciner for concentrated radioactive liquid waste and an incinerator for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste is being developed. Both the calciner and the incinerator are operated by fluidized bed method. The system features the following points: (1) Inflammable miscellaneous solids and concentrated liquid can be treated in combination to reduce the volume. (2) Used ion-exchange resin can be incinerated. (3) The system is applicable even if any final waste disposal method is adopted; calcinated and incinerated solids obtained as intermediate products are easy to handle and store. (4) The system is readily compatible with other waste treatment systems to form optimal total system. The following matters are described: the principle of fluidized-bed furnaces, the objects of treatment, system constitution, the features of the calciner and incinerator, and the current status of development. (J.P.N.)

  17. Radioactive waste management in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, K.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste management is both scientifically and technically complex and also deeply emotional issue. In the last twenty years the first two aspects have been mostly resolved up to the point of safe implementation. In the Republic of Slovenia, certain fundamentalist approaches in politics and the use of radioactive waste problem as political marketing tool, make things even more complex. Public involvement in planning and development of radioactive waste management program must be perceived as essential for the success of the program. Education is a precursor to public comprehension and confidence which lead to adequate waste management decisions that will protect the public health, safety and environment without jeopardizing further progress and development. (author) [sl

  18. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, E.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of this paper briefly describes the nuclear industry in Belgium and the problem of radioactive wastes with regard to their quality and quantity. The second part emphasizes the recent guidelines regarding the management of the nuclear industry in general and the radioactive wastes in particular. In this respect, important tasks are the reinforcement of administrative structures with regard to the supervision and the control of nuclear activities, the establishment of a mixed company entrusted with the covering of the needs of nuclear plants in the field of nuclear fuels and particularly the setting up of a public autonomous and specialized organization, the 'Public Organization for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials', in short 'O.N.D.R.A.F.'. This organization is in charge of the management of the transport, the conditioning, the storage and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (Auth.)

  19. Status and challenges for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riotte, H.

    2011-01-01

    safety case which goes beyond demonstrating compliance with numerical safety indicators and highlights the range of underlying evidence and methods that give confidence. Regarding long-term safety regulation, the variety of approaches in national criteria and practices that reflects the different national regulatory, legal and cultural environments needs to be made transparent. Today, there is a clear understanding that the implementation of radioactive waste repositories is as much a socio-political challenge as a technical one. Public acceptance of the site needs to be secured and maintained over the lifetime of the repository and beyond. A durable relationship between a waste management facility and its host community is paramount to resolve conflicts and to deal with diverging interests that may come up during the long implementation and operational period of a geologic repository. Reversibility of decisions and retrievability of waste, under specified conditions, are typically two important requests from the local public that need to be taken into account when designing a disposal programme. While the management of short-lived, low-level waste became an industrial reality and general attention has been focusing on the management of high level waste and geologic repositories, in several countries there are still outstanding issues related to special types of radioactive waste, e.g. mixed waste and graphite, that require further consideration. As a specific case, safe and cost-effective management of waste from accident facilities, like the Fukushima plants, or from remediation of contaminated land, may pose new questions that could benefit from the international experience.

  20. Solutions for Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    To safely and securely dispose of highlevel and long-lived radioactive waste, this material needs to be stored for a period of time that is very long compared to our everyday experience. Underground disposal facilities need to be designed and constructed in suitable geological conditions that can be confidently demonstrated to contain and isolate the hazardous waste from our environment for hundreds of thousands of years. Over this period of time, during which the safety of an underground waste repository system must be assured, the waste's radioactivity will decay to a level that cannot pose a danger to people or the environment. The archaeological record can help in visualizing such a long period of time. Climates change, oceans rise and vanish, and species evolve in the course of a one hundred millennia. Rocks bear witness to all of these changes. Geologists in their search for safe repositories for the long-term disposal of high level radioactive waste have identified rock formations that have proven stable for millions of years. These geological formations are expected to remain stable for millions of years and can serve as host formations for waste repositories.

  1. How Wastes Influence Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiela Dana BOCA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies are often surprised to learn that only a fraction of their activities actually add value for their customers. A primary cause of waste is information deficits – employees simply lack the knowledge they need to do their jobs efficiently and effectively. This leads employees to waste valuable time and motion searching, waiting, retrieving, reworking or just plain future action. Companies are able to respond to changing customer desires with high variety, high quality, low cost, and with very fast throughput times. Eliminating waste along entire value streams, instead of at isolated points, creates processes that need less human effort, less space, less capital, and less time to make products and services at far less costs and with much fewer defects, compared with traditional business systems. Companies are able to respond to changing customer desires with high variety, high quality, low cost, and with very fast throughput times.

  2. A comparison of the costs of treating wastes from a radio analytical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL) is a government-owned, government-operated facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). RESL's traditional strengths are in precise radionuclide analysis and dosimetry measurements. RESL generates small quantities of various types of waste. This study identified potential waste management options for a solvent extraction process waste stream and the cost differences resulting from either process changes, improved technology usage, or material substitutions or changes at RESL. Where possible, this report identifies changes that have resulted or may result in waste reduction and cost savings. DOE P2 directs the lab to review processes, evaluate waste practices, and estimate potential reductions in waste volumes and waste management costs. This study focused on selected processes, but the processes are illustrative of potential waste volume reductions and cost minimizations that may be achieved elsewhere at the INEL and throughout the DOE complex. In analyzing a waste disposal process, the authors allocated component costs to functional categories. These categories included the following: (1) operational costs, included waste generation and collection into a storage area; (2) administrative costs, including worker training, routine inspections, and reporting; and (3) disposal costs, including preparing the waste for shipment and disposing of it

  3. The Community's research and development programme on radioactive waste management and storage shared cost action annual progress report 1989 volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1985 the Council of Ministers of the European Communities adopted a five-year R and D programme on 'Management and storage of radioactive waste' for the period 1985-89. The R and D programme was carried out by public organizations and private firms in the Member States. By the end of 1989 over 256 contracts had been concluded with some 70 bodies. This annual report, covering the year 1989, is the fourth of its type. For each contract it gives the objectives, working programme and a summary of progress and results obtained as prepared by the contractor under the responsibility of the project leader. The report contains sections on treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste, characterization of conditioned radioactive waste, general aspects of radioactive waste disposal, and the performance of isolation systems

  4. The Community's research and development programme on radioactive waste management and storage shared cost action annual progress report 1989 volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1985 the Council of Ministers of the European Communities adopted a five-year R and D programme on 'Management and storage of radioactive waste' for the period 1985-89. The R and D programme was carried out by public organizations and private firms in the Member States. By the end of 1989 over 256 contracts had been concluded with some 70 bodies. This annual report, covering the year 1989, is the fourth of its type. For each contract it gives the objectives, working programme and a summary of progress and results obtained as prepared by the contractor under the responsibility of the project leader. The report contains sections on treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste, characterization of conditioned radioactive waste, general aspects of radioactive waste disposal, and the performance of isolation systems

  5. Prospects of nuclear waste management and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2015-01-01

    The policy of radioactive waste management in the Slovak Republic is based on the principles defined by law on the National Nuclear Fund (NJF) and sets basic objectives: 1 Safe and reliable nuclear decommissioning; 2 The minimization of radioactive waste; 3. Selection of a suitable fuel cycle; 4 Safe storage of radioactive waste (RAW) 5 Security chain management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel (SNF); 6 Nuclear safety; 7 The application of a graduated approach; 8 Respect of the principle 'a polluter pays'; 9 Objective decision-making process; 10 Responsibility. In connection with the above objectives, it appears necessary to build required facilities that are listed in this article.

  6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  8. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases

  9. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BelgoWaste was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste, centralization assuming that adequate arrangements are made for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of residual material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste (deep clay formations are at present preferred); and disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic Ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol. (author)

  10. Community's research and development programme on radioactive waste management and storage shared-cost action (1990-94). Annual progress report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In december 1989 the Council of Ministers of the European Communities adopted the fourth R and D programme on 'Management and Storage of radioactive waste' for the period 1990-1994. Contract negotiations for selected research proposals lead to the signature of contracts with some 93 bodies in charge of carrying out the working programme. This annual report, covering the year 1991 presents for each contract the objectives, the whole research programme and a synopsis of progress and results achieved as prepared by the contractor under the responsibility of the project leader. Part A deals with the study of management systems, treatment and characterization of waste, general aspects of the waste disposal and the safety of geological disposal systems. The running activities on construction and operation of underground facilities in candidated geological media for disposal is presented in part B

  11. Assessment of LANL waste management site plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, R.L.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present findings from evaluating the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Management Plan to determine if it meets applicable DOE requirements. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, sets forth requirements and guidelines for the establishment of a Waste Management Plan. The primary purpose of a Waste Management Plan is to describe how waste operations are conducted, what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming year

  12. Waste Management Operations Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The major function of the Program is to operate the Laboratory's systems and facilities for collecting and disposing of radioactive gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes. This includes collection and shallow land burial of about 2000 m 3 of β-γ contaminated waste and retrievable storage of about 60 m 3 of transuranium contaminated waste annually; ion-exchange treatment and release to the environment of about 450 x 10 3 m 3 of slightly contaminated water; volume reduction by evaporation of about 5000 m 3 of intermediate-level liquid waste followed by hydrofracture injection of the concentrate; and scrubbing and/or filtration of the gases from radioactive operations prior to release to the atmosphere. In addition, this year disposal of about 350,000 gal of radioactive sludge from the old (no longer in service) gunite tanks began. Operations are in conformance with rules and regulations presently applicable to ORNL. This Program is responsible for planning and for development activities for upgrading the facilities, equipment, and procedures for waste disposal to ensure ORNL work incorporates the latest technology. Major (line-item) new facilities are provided as well as substantial (GPP) upgrading of old facilities. These activities as well as the technical and engineering support to handle them are discussed

  13. Management situation and prospect of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Pil Jun

    1985-04-01

    This book tell US that management situation and prospect of radioactive waste matter, which includes importance of energy, independence, limitation of fossil fuel energy, density of nuclear energy, strategy of supply of energy resource in Korea, nuclear energy development and radioactive waste matter, summary of management of radioactive waste, statistics of radioactive waste, disposal principle of radioactive waste, management on radioactive waste after using, disposal of Trench, La Marche in French, and Asse salt mine in Germany.

  14. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management

  15. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.C.; Walter, P.L.; Baird, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation

  16. Integrated waste management - Looking beyond the solid waste horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seadon, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Waste as a management issue has been evident for over four millennia. Disposal of waste to the biosphere has given way to thinking about, and trying to implement, an integrated waste management approach. In 1996 the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) defined 'integrated waste management' as 'a framework of reference for designing and implementing new waste management systems and for analysing and optimising existing systems'. In this paper the concept of integrated waste management as defined by UNEP is considered, along with the parameters that constitute integrated waste management. The examples used are put into four categories: (1) integration within a single medium (solid, aqueous or atmospheric wastes) by considering alternative waste management options (2) multi-media integration (solid, aqueous, atmospheric and energy wastes) by considering waste management options that can be applied to more than one medium (3) tools (regulatory, economic, voluntary and informational) and (4) agents (governmental bodies (local and national), businesses and the community). This evaluation allows guidelines for enhancing success: (1) as experience increases, it is possible to deal with a greater complexity; and (2) integrated waste management requires a holistic approach, which encompasses a life cycle understanding of products and services. This in turn requires different specialisms to be involved in the instigation and analysis of an integrated waste management system. Taken together these advance the path to sustainability

  17. COST MEASUREMENT AND COST MANAGEMENT IN TARGET COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisello Anna Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Firms are coping with a competitive scenario characterized by quick changes produced by internationalization, concentration, restructuring, technological innovation processes and financial market crisis. On the one hand market enlargement have increased the number and the segmentation of customers and have raised the number of competitors, on the other hand technological innovation has reduced product life cycle. So firms have to adjust their management models to this scenario, pursuing customer satisfaction and respecting cost constraints. In a context where price is a variable fixed by the market, firms have to switch from the cost measurement logic to the cost management one, adopting target costing methodology. The target costing process is a price driven, customer oriented profit planning and cost management system. It works, in a cross functional way, from the design stage throughout all the product life cycle and it involves the entire value chain. The process implementation needs a costing methodology consistent with the cost management logic. The aim of the paper is to focus on Activity Based Costing (ABC application to target costing process. So: -it analyzes target costing logic and phases, basing on a literary review, in order to highlight the costing needs related to this process; -it shows, through a numerical example, how to structure a flexible ABC model – characterized by the separation between variable, fixed in the short and fixed costs - that effectively supports target costing process in the cost measurement phase (drifting cost determination and in the target cost alignment; -it points out the effectiveness of the Activity Based Costing as a model of cost measurement applicable to the supplier choice and as a support for supply cost management which have an important role in target costing process. The activity based information allows a firm to optimize the supplier choice by following the method of minimizing the

  18. Special waste disposal in Austria - cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntscher, H.

    1983-01-01

    The present situation of special waste disposal in Austria is summarized for radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. A cost benefit analysis for regulary collection, transport and disposal of industrial wastes, especially chemical wastes is given and the cost burden for the industry is calculated. (A.N.)

  19. Nuclear waste management: options and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper addresses three topics relevant to the technology of waste management: an overview describing the types of waste and the status of technologies used to manage them, a review of high-level waste management, and final disposition of the waste

  20. Integrated solid waste management of Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Seattle, Washington, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  1. Integrated solid waste management of Sevierville, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Sevierville, Tennessee integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  2. Waste management and treatment or disguised disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.A.; Lauber, J.

    1992-01-01

    A number of political action groups, environmental groups, and waste management industries have purposely used medical waste data and municipal solid waste test results to mislead public officials and communities. Waste management schemes and waste treatment technologies must be measured and compared by the same test criteria. For example, anti-incineration groups often use the toxic dioxin/furan data and/or toxic metal arguments to oppose waste-to-energy incineration technologies. Comparable test data on waste management techniques such as waste composting, autoclaving, and landfilling are either nonexistent or often inappropriately applied. Integrated waste management systems require technologically accurate and complete data, environmentally-appropriate designed systems, and fiscal responsibility. The primary emphasis of waste management and treatment practices must be directed toward minimization, reuse, destruction, and detoxification of municipal solid wastes and medical wastes. The issues and alternatives will be examined

  3. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houy, J.C.; Rimbert, J.C.; Bouvet, C.; Laugle, S.

    1997-01-01

    radioactive wastes which do not correspond to the disposal standards will be processed by ANDRA (National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management)

  4. Radiation waste management in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomczak, W.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive waste management especially related to storage of spent fuel from Ewa and Maria research nuclear reactors has been presented. The classification and balance of radioactive wastes coming from different branches of nuclear activities have been shown. The methods of their treatment in respect of physical state and radioactive have been performed as well as their storage in Central Polish Repository have been introduced. 2 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Waste management - nuclear style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, P.

    1977-01-01

    Possible ways of disposing of highly radioactive wastes arising from the United Kingdom nuclear industry are briefly reviewed: projecting into outer space, dumping in containers in the ocean, or storage on land. The problems in each case and, in particular, the risks of environmental contamination from marine or land disposal, are discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Industrial management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This article deals with the present situation in France concerning radioactive waste management. For the short and medium term, that is to say processing and disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes, there are industrial processes giving all the guarantees for a safe containment, but improvements are possible. For the long term optimization of solution requires more studies of geologic formations. Realization emergency comes less from the waste production than the need to optimize the disposal techniques. An international cooperation exists. All this should convince the public opinion and should develop planning and realization [fr

  7. Externalities in solid waste managements: Values, instruments and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisson, I. E.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis was stimulated by and completed against the backdrop of the unfolding 'waste crisis'. It critically examines whether the crisis is real or whether it merely reflects mis-perceptions. Three principal problems associated with the disposal of solid waste are identified. First, there is increasing concern over the environmental pollution of waste disposal, reflecting not just the increase in actual waste arisings, but also the increased public awareness of environmental pollution. Secondly, there is concern over the financial costs of waste collection and disposal, which can constitute a considerable drain on available public revenues. Lastly, there is the perceived scarcity of suitable land for siting disposal facilities. Although some low-lying, densely populated regions are inappropriate for the sitting of landfills, the scarcity more often reflects political constraints rather than a genuine shortage. This thesis asserts that a non-optimal quantity of waste, together with the concomitant environmental pollution and financial costs of disposal, partly result from government failure. Current practice fails to ensure that the parties generating the waste face a price at the point of disposal and that such a price reflects the full social costs of disposal. A model is presented which argues that the socially optimal configuration of waste management is that where the marginal social costs of each waste treatment method equals those of the others. In an empirical section, the external costs of landfill, incineration, recycling and composting are estimated for the European Union, based on existing studies of damage costs for different pollutants. This is followed by estimations of the financial costs of municipal solid waste management. Combining financial and external cost estimates, a cost-benefit analysis of municipal solid waste management in the European Union is undertaken. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. International waste-management symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    An International Symposium on the Management of Wastes from the LWR Fuel Cycle was held in Denver, Colo., on July 11 to 16, 1976. The symposium covered a broad range of topics, from policy issues to technology. Presentations were made by national and international speakers involved in all aspects of waste management, government and agency officials; laboratory managers, directors, and researchers; and industrial representatives. Many speakers advocated pragmatic action on programs for the management of commercial nuclear wastes to complete the light-water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. The industrialized nations' demand for increasing supplies of energy and their increasing dependence on nuclear energy to fulfill this demand will necessitate the development of an acceptable solution to the disposal of nuclear wastes within the next decade for some industrial nations. Waste-disposal technology should be implemented on a commercial scale, but the commercialization must be accompanied by the decision to use the technology. An important issue in the use of nuclear energy is the question of sharing the technology with the less industrialized nations and with nations that may not have suitable means to dispose of nuclear wastes. The establishment of international and multinational cooperation will be an important key in realizing this objective. Pressing issues that international organizations or task groups will have to address are ocean disposal, plutonium recycling and safeguards, and disposal criteria. The importance of achieving a viable waste-management program is made evident by the increased funding and attention that the back end of the fuel cycle is now receiving

  9. Management of Radioactive Wastes in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Ghani, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The management of radioactive wastes is one area of increasing interest especially in developing countries having more and more activities in the application of radioisotopes in medicine, research and industry. For a better understanding of radioactive waste management in developing countries this work will discuss the following items:Classification of countries with respect to waste management programs. Principal Radionuclides used in medicine, biological research and others and the range of radioactivity commonly used. Estimation of radioactive waste volumes and activities. Management of liquid wastes Collection. Treatment. Management of small volumes of organic liquid waste. Collection Treatment. Packaging and storage of radioactive wastes

  10. Energy from waste: a wholly acceptable waste-management solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteous, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the 'waste management hierarchy' and why it should be treated as a checklist and not a piece of unquestioning dogma. The role of energy from waste (EfW) is examined in depth to show that it is a rigorous and environmentally sound waste-management option which complements other components of the waste-management hierarchy and assists resource conservation. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaf, Latifah Abd; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  12. Waste management - an integral part of environmental management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Ulrich

    1998-12-01

    To consider waste as a resource instead of an annoyance with which the management has to cope with, has become an unavoidable task for modern managers. The task the management has to take to secure competitiveness in an environment of rising complexity of production processes and further increasing legal requirements, is to manage waste as much as other recourses are managed. Waste has to be considered an aspect of planning and decision process just as business plans or logistics are. Main themes discussed in this publication comprise waste management, implementation of waste management as an integral part of environmental management systems, and management approach to waste - the results. 4 figs.

  13. French regulation and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The organization and the role played by French safety authorities for waste management are described. The French policy for storage and conditioning: basic objectives and waste management optimization are specified. Safety requirements are based on the barrier principle, they are mentioned for packaging and storage. The ''Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire'' deals not only with safety analysis but also help the ''autorites ministerielles'' for the development of fundamental safety rules. Examples for spent fuel storage and radioactive materials transport are treated in appendixes [fr

  14. The cost management organization: the next step for materiel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuweiler, R C

    1997-06-01

    With Materiel Management's transition over the last decade from simple logistics to analysis and cost management, it has gained recognition as a key part of the management team responsible for supplies, equipment, standards, and associated processes to identify, purchase, store, distribute, issue, and dispose of supplies and equipment. The materiel manager's job consists of putting the right product in the right place at the right time and in the right quantity at the best total delivered cost. In this context, Materiel Management has made powerful impacts to lower costs associated with: Distribution--costs have been lowered by actively adopting advanced supply channel management techniques such as primary suppliers, JIT, stockless programs, case cart/custom kit/procedure based delivery systems, modified stockless programs as well as margin management through cost plus, flat fee, or margins paid per activity. Cost of goods--lowered through aggregated purchasing in the forms of regional and national purchasing alliances and local capitation or other gain/risk share programs. Internal process costs--lowered by out-sourcing and/or integrating supplier processes and personnel into operations via partnership approaches. We have also reduced transactional costs through EDI transaction sets and the emerging use of the inter and intranet/electronic commerce, procurement cards, and evaluated receipt settlement processes. De-layering--We have lowered the operating costs of Materiel Management overhead by re-design/re-engineering, resulting in reduced management and greater front line authority. Quality--We have learned to identify and respond to customer and supplier needs by using quality improvement tools and ongoing measurement and monitoring techniques. Through this we have identified the waste of non-beneficial products and services. We have adopted supplier certification measurers to ensure quality is built into processes and outcomes. With so much already accomplished

  15. An international approach to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlett, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Needs and opportunities for an international approach to management and disposal of radioactive wastes are discussed. Deficiencies in current national radioactive waste management programs are described, and the impacts of management of fissile materials from nuclear weapons on waste management are addressed. Value-added services that can be provided by an international organization for waste management are identified, and candidate organizations that could provide these services are also identified

  16. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  17. Radioactive waste management - with evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The select committee was appointed to report on the present (1988) situation and future prospects in the field of radioactive waste management in the European Community. The report covers all aspects of the subject. After an introduction the parts of the report are concerned with the control of radiation hazards, the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste, the control of radioactive effluents, storage and disposal of solid radioactive wastes, research programmes, surface storage versus deep geological disposal of long-term wastes, the future of reprocessing and the public debate. Part 10 is a resume of the main conclusions and recommendations. It is recommended that the House of Lords debate the issue. The oral and written evidence presented to the committee is included in the report. (U.K.)

  18. Progress in waste management technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.G.

    1978-08-01

    In a previous paper by the same author, emphasis was placed on the role that 'pathways analysis' would play in providing 'beyond reasonable doubt' that a particular method and a particular formation would be suitable for the safe geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. Since that paper was released, pertinent pathways analyses have been published by Bernard Cohen, de Marsily et al., the American Physical Society's Special Study Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Waste Management, and KBS of Sweden. The present paper reviews and analyses the strengths and weaknesses of each of these papers and their implications for the Canadian plan for the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The conclusion is that the Canadian plan is on the right track and that the disposal of nuclear wastes is not an intractable problem. Indeed the analyses show that several options, each with large safety factors, are likely eventually to be identified. (author)

  19. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  20. Tank waste remediation system risk management list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remedation System (TWRS) Risk Management List and it's subset of critical risks, the Critical Risk Management List, provide a tool to senior RL and WHC management (Level-1 and -2) to manage programmatic risks that may significantly impact the TWRS program. The programmatic risks include cost, schedule, and performance risks. Performance risk includes technical risk, supportability risk (such as maintainability and availability), and external risk (i.e., beyond program control, for example, changes in regulations). The risk information includes a description, its impacts, as evaluation of the likelihood, consequences and risk value, possible mitigating actions, and responsible RL and WHC managers. The issues that typically form the basis for the risks are presented in a separate table and the affected functions are provided on the management lists

  1. Radioactive waste management in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzi, F.P.; Bundala, F.M.; Nyanda, A.M.; Msaki, P.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)

  2. Conceptual Model for Systematic Construction Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Rahim Mohd Hilmi Izwan; Kasim Narimah

    2017-01-01

    Development of the construction industry generated construction waste which can contribute towards environmental issues. Weaknesses of compliance in construction waste management especially in construction site have also contributed to the big issues of waste generated in landfills and illegal dumping area. This gives sign that construction projects are needed a systematic construction waste management. To date, a comprehensive criteria of construction waste management, particularly for const...

  3. Feed Materials Production Center Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, R.E.; Allen, T.; Castle, S.A.; Hopper, J.P.; Oelrich, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    In the process of producing uranium metal products used in Department of Energy (DOE) defense programs at other DOE facilities, various types of wastes are generated at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). Process wastes, both generated and stored, are discussed in the Waste Management Plan and include low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed hazardous/radioactive waste, and sanitary/industrial waste. Scrap metal waste and wastes requiring special remediation are also addressed in the Plan. The Waste Management Plan identifies the comprehensive programs developed to address safe storage and disposition of all wastes from past, present, and future operations at the FMPC. Waste streams discussed in this Plan are representative of the waste generated and waste types that concern worker and public health and safety. Budgets and schedules for implementation of waste disposition are also addressed. The waste streams receiving the largest amount of funding include LLW approved for shipment by DOE/ORO to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (MgF 2 , slag leach filter cake, and neutralized raffinate); remedial action wastes (waste pits, K-65 silo waste); thorium; scrap metal (contaminated and noncontaminated ferrous and copper scrap); construction rubble and soil generated from decontamination and decommissioning of outdated facilities; and low-level wastes that will be handled through the Low-Level Waste Processing and Shipping System (LLWPSS). Waste Management milestones are also provided. The Waste Management Plan is divided into eight major sections: Introduction; Site Waste and Waste Generating Process; Strategy; Projects and Operations; Waste Stream Budgets; Milestones; Quality Assurance for Waste Management; and Environmental Monitoring Program

  4. Fuel reprocessing and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippone, R.L.; Kaiser, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Because of different economic, social and political factors, there has been a tendency to compartmentalize the commercial nuclear power industry into separate power and fuel cycle operations to a greater degree in some countries compared to other countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe how actions in one part of the industry can affect the other parts and recommend an overall systems engineering approach which incorporates more cooperation and coordination between individual parts of the fuel cycle. Descriptions are given of the fuel cycle segments and examples are presented of how a systems engineering approach has benefitted the fuel cycle. Descriptions of fuel reprocessing methods and the waste forms generated are given. Illustrations are presented describing how reprocessing options affect waste management operations and how waste management decisions affect reprocessing

  5. Radioactive waste management turning options into solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, J.

    2000-10-01

    scientific community continues to invent more stable waste forms and improved storage. It is a general view that extended interim storage must bridge the time span till a final solution is found. The reality is that waste exists, and the volume of waste continues to grow. Until feasible solutions are demonstrated and implemented, the problem continues to grow. Another reality is that many members of the public exhibit an inherent distrust of all things nuclear, resulting in a lack of political motivation to tackle the resolution of radioactive waste issues. Since most of the topics in the different sessions focused on issues concerning high level waste and spent fuel there were discussions with members of the IAEA to organize a conference focusing on radioactive waste management issues in countries not using nuclear power. There are intentions now to organize an international conference on 'management of radioactive waste from non-power applications - Sharing the experience'. It is considered to be important, since the number of countries nuclear power is four higher then the number of countries applying nuclear power. Operators of waste treatment and/or storage facilities in countries not using nuclear power face the same opposition from the public, but lack in addition the financial background of nuclear power plants. In order to cover the costs for operating such facilities, public financing is necessary in addition to the fee paid by the polluter. (author)

  6. Radioactive waste management in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    The responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste is regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Atomic Energy Act. Basically, it is the responsibility of the waste producers to carry out all necessary processing steps up to the delivery to a repository. The Federal Republic reserves the right to select, explore and operate the repository (§ 9a, para. 3 AtG). The costs of all necessary expenditures of this task are borne by the waste producers in accordance with § 21 AtG regulation. The waste quantity forecasts have shown that by the year 2080 a total volume of about 300,000 m3 of low- and intermediate-level (non-heat-generating) waste will be generated in research, industry, medicine and in the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. This waste is to be transported to the ‘Konrad repository’ which is under construction. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), which is responsible for the construction and operation, intends to commission the repository at 2019. As a repository for heat-generating wastes, i. Approximately 10.000 tSM spent fuel (BE) 7,500 molds (HAW and MAW, corresponding to about 6000 tSM) returned Waste from reprocessing, the Gorleben salt dome has been explored since 1979. The works were resumed on 01.10.2010 after a 10-year break. Federal Environment Minister Röttgen has made it clear that the Federal Government has proposed a transparent procedure and a dialogue and participation procedure for open-ended exploration. (roessner)

  7. Healthcare waste management in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prem Ananth, A.; Prashanthini, V.; Visvanathan, C.

    2010-01-01

    The risks associated with healthcare waste and its management has gained attention across the world in various events, local and international forums and summits. However, the need for proper healthcare waste management has been gaining recognition slowly due to the substantial disease burdens associated with poor practices, including exposure to infectious agents and toxic substances. Despite the magnitude of the problem, practices, capacities and policies in many countries in dealing with healthcare waste disposal, especially developing nations, is inadequate and requires intensification. This paper looks upon aspects to drive improvements to the existing healthcare waste management situation. The paper places recommendation based on a 12 country study reflecting the current status. The paper does not advocate for any complex technology but calls for changes in mindset of all concerned stakeholders and identifies five important aspects for serious consideration. Understanding the role of governments and healthcare facilities, the paper also outlines three key areas for prioritized action for both parties - budget support, developing policies and legislation and technology and knowledge management.

  8. Healthcare waste management in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, A Prem; Prashanthini, V; Visvanathan, C

    2010-01-01

    The risks associated with healthcare waste and its management has gained attention across the world in various events, local and international forums and summits. However, the need for proper healthcare waste management has been gaining recognition slowly due to the substantial disease burdens associated with poor practices, including exposure to infectious agents and toxic substances. Despite the magnitude of the problem, practices, capacities and policies in many countries in dealing with healthcare waste disposal, especially developing nations, is inadequate and requires intensification. This paper looks upon aspects to drive improvements to the existing healthcare waste management situation. The paper places recommendation based on a 12 country study reflecting the current status. The paper does not advocate for any complex technology but calls for changes in mindset of all concerned stakeholders and identifies five important aspects for serious consideration. Understanding the role of governments and healthcare facilities, the paper also outlines three key areas for prioritized action for both parties - budget support, developing policies and legislation and technology and knowledge management.

  9. International waste management fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, J P; LaMarche, M N; Upton, J F

    1997-10-01

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs.

  10. International waste management fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya, J.P.; LaMarche, M.N.; Upton, J.F.

    1997-10-01

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs

  11. Costs of mixed low-level waste stabilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Cooley, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Selection of final waste forms to be used for disposal of DOE's mixed low-level waste (MLLW) depends on the waste form characteristics and total life cycle cost. In this paper the various cost factors associated with production and disposal of the final waste form are discussed and combined to develop life-cycle costs associated with several waste stabilization options. Cost factors used in this paper are based on a series of treatment system studies in which cost and mass balance analyses were performed for several mixed low-level waste treatment systems and various waste stabilization methods including vitrification, grout, phosphate bonded ceramic and polymer. Major cost elements include waste form production, final waste form volume, unit disposal cost, and system availability. Production of grout costs less than the production of a vitrified waste form if each treatment process has equal operating time (availability) each year; however, because of the lower volume of a high temperature slag, certification and handling costs and disposal costs of the final waste form are less. Both the total treatment cost and life cycle costs are higher for a system producing grout than for a system producing high temperature slag, assuming equal system availability. The treatment costs decrease with increasing availability regardless of the waste form produced. If the availability of a system producing grout is sufficiently greater than a system producing slag, then the cost of treatment for the grout system will be less than the cost for the slag system, and the life cycle cost (including disposal) may be less depending on the unit disposal cost. Treatment and disposal costs will determine the return on investment in improved system availability

  12. Benefits of a formal waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    The proper management of waste is of vital importance in the conservation of our environment. Mound Laboratory, which is operated by Monsanto Research Corporation for the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, has embarked upon a waste management program designed to assure that the generation, processing, storage, and disposal of waste is conducted in such a manner as to have a minimum impact on the environment. The organizational approach taken toward waste management is discussed and some of the benefits of the waste management program at Mound Laboratory are described. Ithas been shown that the utilization of proper waste management techniques can have economic, as well as environmental protection, benefits. (U.S.)

  13. Cost-benefit analysis for waste segregation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a cost-benefit analysis for the segregation of mixed, hazardous, and nonhazardous wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The cost-benefit analysis was conducted to determine if current waste segregation practices and additional candidates for waste segregation at LLNL might have the potential for significant waste source reduction and annual savings in treatment and disposal costs. In the following cost-benefit analysis, capital costs and recurring costs of waste segregation practices are compared to the economic benefits of savings in treatment and disposal costs. Indirect or overhead costs associated with these wastes are not available and have not been included. Not considered are additional benefits of waste segregation such as decreased potential for liability to LLNL for adverse environmental effects, improved worker safety, and enhanced LLNL image within the community because of environmental improvement. The economic evaluations in this report are presented on a Lab-wide basis. All hazardous wastes generated by a program are turned over to the Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) group, which is responsible for the storage, treatment, or disposal of these wastes and funded funded directly for this work

  14. WasteWise Resource Management: Innovative Solid Waste Contracting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource management is an innovative contractual partnership between a waste-generating organization and a qualified contractor that changes the nature of current disposal services to support waste minimization and recycling.

  15. Implementation of spatial smart waste management system in malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M. F.; Termizi, A. A. A.; Zainal, D.; Wahap, N. A.; Ismail, N. M.; Ahmad, N.

    2016-06-01

    One of the challenges to innovate and create an IoT -enabled solution is in monitoring and management of the environment. Waste collection utilizing the Internet of Things (IoT) with the technology of smart wireless sensors will able to gather fill-level data from waste containers hence providing a waste monitoring solution that brings up savings in waste collection costs. One of the challenges to the local authority is how to monitor the works of contractor effective and efficiently in waste management. This paper will propose to the local authority the implementation of smart waste management in Malaysia to improve the city management and to provide better services to the public towards smart city applications.

  16. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana, E-mail: l.abarca.guerrero@tue.nl [Built Environment Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech, 25612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maas, Ger, E-mail: g.j.maas@tue.nl [Built Environment Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech, 25612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hogland, William, E-mail: william.hogland@lnu.se [School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting performance waste management systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information

  17. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stakeholders. ► Factors affecting performance waste management systems. ► Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities’ authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders’ action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems’ failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems

  18. Implementation of SAP Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, M.L.; LaBorde, C.M.; Nichols, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) assumed responsibility for newly generated waste on October 1, 2005. To ensure effective management and accountability of newly generated waste, Y-12 has opted to utilize SAP, Y-12's Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) tool, to track low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW), hazardous waste, and non-regulated waste from generation through acceptance and disposal. SAP Waste will include the functionality of the current waste tracking system and integrate with the applicable modules of SAP already in use. The functionality of two legacy systems, the Generator Entry System (GES) and the Waste Information Tracking System (WITS), and peripheral spreadsheets, databases, and e-mail/fax communications will be replaced by SAP Waste. Fundamentally, SAP Waste will promote waste acceptance for certification and disposal, not storage. SAP Waste will provide a one-time data entry location where waste generators can enter waste container information, track the status of their waste, and maintain documentation. A benefit of the new system is that it will provide a single data repository where Y-12's Waste Management organization can establish waste profiles, verify and validate data, maintain inventory control utilizing hand-held data transfer devices, schedule and ship waste, manage project accounting, and report on waste handling activities. This single data repository will facilitate the production of detailed waste generation reports for use in forecasting and budgeting, provide the data for required regulatory reports, and generate metrics to evaluate the performance of the Waste Management organization and its subcontractors. SAP Waste will replace the outdated and expensive legacy system, establish tools the site needs to manage newly generated waste, and optimize the use of the site's ERP tool for integration with related business processes while promoting disposition of waste. (authors)

  19. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA`s CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information.

  20. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA's CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information

  1. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  2. Hospital waste management and toxicity evaluation: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakona, M.; Anagnostopoulou, E.; Gidarakos, E.

    2007-01-01

    Hospital waste management is an imperative environmental and public safety issue, due to the waste's infectious and hazardous character. This paper examines the existing waste strategy of a typical hospital in Greece with a bed capacity of 400-600. The segregation, collection, packaging, storage, transportation and disposal of waste were monitored and the observed problematic areas documented. The concentrations of BOD, COD and heavy metals were measured in the wastewater the hospital generated. The wastewater's toxicity was also investigated. During the study, omissions and negligence were observed at every stage of the waste management system, particularly with regard to the treatment of infectious waste. Inappropriate collection and transportation procedures for infectious waste, which jeopardized the safety of staff and patients, were recorded. However, inappropriate segregation practices were the dominant problem, which led to increased quantities of generated infectious waste and hence higher costs for their disposal. Infectious waste production was estimated using two different methods: one by weighing the incinerated waste (880 kg day -1 ) and the other by estimating the number of waste bags produced each day (650 kg day -1 ). Furthermore, measurements of the EC 50 parameter in wastewater samples revealed an increased toxicity in all samples. In addition, hazardous organic compounds were detected in wastewater samples using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrograph. Proposals recommending the application of a comprehensive hospital waste management system are presented that will ensure that any potential risks hospital wastes pose to public health and to the environment are minimized

  3. Online Management of Waste Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia IANCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a telematic system designed to monitor the areas affected by the uncontrollable waste storing by using the newest informational and communicational technologies through the elaboration of a GPS/GIS electronic geographical positioning system. Within the system for online management of the affected locations within the built up areas, the following data categories are defined and processed: data regarding the waste management (monitored locations within the built up areas, waste, pollution sources, waste stores, waste processing stations, data describing the environment protection (environmental quality parameters: water, air, soil, spatial data (thematic maps. Using the automatic collection of the data referring to the environment quality, it is aiming at the realization of a monitoring system, equipped with sensors and/or translators capable of measuring and translating (into electrical signals measures with meteorological character (the intensity of the solar radiation, temperature, humidity but also indicators of the ecological system (such as: the concentration of nutrients in water and soil, the pollution in water, air and soil, biomasses. The organization, the description and the processing of the spatial data requires the utilization of a GIS (Geographical Information System type product.

  4. Fuel reprocessing and waste management in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.; Griffin, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    The currently preferred route for the management of irradiated fuel in the UK is reprocessing. This paper, therefore, concentrates on outlining the policies, practices and achievement of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) associated with the management of its irradiated fuel facilities at Sellafield. The paper covers reprocessing and how the safe management of each of the major waste categories is achieved. BNFL's overall waste management policy is to develop, in close consultation with the regulatory authorities, a strategy to minimize effluent discharges and provide a safe, cost effective method of treating and preparing for disposal all wastes arising on the site

  5. 1995 Baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.S.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    This provides a detailed solid waste system description that documents the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) strategy for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and greater-than-Class III waste. This system description is intended for use by managers of the solid waste program, facility and system planners, as well as system modelers. The system description identifies the TSD facilities that constitute the solid waste system and defines these facilities' interfaces, schedules, and capacities. It also provides the strategy for treating each of the waste streams generated or received by the Hanford Site from generation or receipt through final destination

  6. National waste management infrastructure in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E.O.; Fletcher, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive materials have been used in Ghana for more than four decades. Radioactive waste generated from their applications in various fields has been managed without adequate infrastructure and any legal framework to control and regulate them. The expanded use of nuclear facilities and radiation sources in Ghana with the concomitant exposure to human population necessitates effective infrastructure to deal with the increasing problems of waste. The Ghana Atomic Energy Act 204 (1963) and the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993) made inadequate provision for the management of waste. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, PNDCL 308, a radioactive waste management centre has been established to take care of all waste in the country. To achieve the set objectives for an effective waste management regime, a waste management regulation has been drafted and relevant codes of practice are being developed to guide generators of waste, operators of waste management facilities and the regulatory authority. (author)

  7. Full cost accounting in the analysis of separated waste collection efficiency: A methodological proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onza, Giuseppe; Greco, Giulio; Allegrini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Recycling implies additional costs for separated municipal solid waste (MSW) collection. The aim of the present study is to propose and implement a management tool - the full cost accounting (FCA) method - to calculate the full collection costs of different types of waste. Our analysis aims for a better understanding of the difficulties of putting FCA into practice in the MSW sector. We propose a FCA methodology that uses standard cost and actual quantities to calculate the collection costs of separate and undifferentiated waste. Our methodology allows cost efficiency analysis and benchmarking, overcoming problems related to firm-specific accounting choices, earnings management policies and purchase policies. Our methodology allows benchmarking and variance analysis that can be used to identify the causes of off-standards performance and guide managers to deploy resources more efficiently. Our methodology can be implemented by companies lacking a sophisticated management accounting system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Waste Management Improvement Initiatives at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited - 13091

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Nicholas; Adams, Lynne; Wong, Pierre [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) has been in operation for over 60 years. Radioactive, mixed, hazardous and non-hazardous wastes have been and continue to be generated at CRL as a result of research and development, radioisotope production, reactor operation and facility decommissioning activities. AECL has implemented several improvement initiatives at CRL to simplify the interface between waste generators and waste receivers: - Introduction of trained Waste Officers representing their facilities or activities at CRL; - Establishment of a Waste Management Customer Support Service as a Single-Point of Contact to provide guidance to waste generators for all waste management processes; and - Implementation of a streamlined approach for waste identification with emphasis on early identification of waste types and potential disposition paths. As a result of implementing these improvement initiatives, improvements in waste management and waste transfer efficiencies have been realized at CRL. These included: 1) waste generators contacting the Customer Support Service for information or guidance instead of various waste receivers; 2) more clear and consistent guidance provided to waste generators for waste management through the Customer Support Service; 3) more consistent and correct waste information provided to waste receivers through Waste Officers, resulting in reduced time and resources required for waste management (i.e., overall cost); 4) improved waste minimization and segregation approaches, as identified by in-house Waste Officers; and 5) enhanced communication between waste generators and waste management groups. (authors)

  9. Using an information system to meet Hazardous Waste Management needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.J. Jr.; Howe, R.E.; Townsend, S.L.; Maloy, D.T.; Kochhar, R.K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large quantity RCRA hazardous waste generator. LLNL also generates low level and transuranic radioactive waste that is managed in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The mixed low level and mixed transuranic waste generated must be managed to comply with both RCRA regulations and DOE orders. LLNL's hazardous and radioactive waste generation is comprised of 900 generators who contribute to nearly two hundred waste streams. LLNL has a permitted EPA treatment and storage (TSD) facility for handling RCRA hazardous waste that is operated by LLNL's Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) division. In HWM we have developed an information system, the Total Waste Management System (TWMS), to replace an inadequate ''cradle to grave'' tracking of all the waste types described above. The goals of this system are to facilitate the safe handling and storage of these hazardous wastes, provide compliance with the regulations and serve as an informational tool to help HWM manage and dispose of these wastes in a cost effective manner

  10. Managing Costs and Medical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with cancer may face major financial challenges and need help dealing with the high costs of care. Cancer treatment can be very expensive, even when you have insurance. Learn ways to manage medical information, paperwork, bills, and other records.

  11. Making waste management public (or falling back to sleep).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, Myra J; Lougheed, Scott; Rowe, R Kerry; Kuyvenhoven, Cassandra

    2014-06-01

    Human-produced waste is a major environmental concern, with communities considering various waste management practices, such as increased recycling, landfilling, incineration, and waste-to-energy technologies. This article is concerned with how and why publics assemble around waste management issues. In particular, we explore Noortje Marres and Bruno Latour's theory that publics do not exist prior to issues but rather assemble around objects, and through these assemblages, objects become matters of concern that sometimes become political. The article addresses this theory of making things public through a study of a small city in Ontario, Canada, whose landfill is closed and waste diversion options are saturated, and that faces unsustainable costs in shipping its waste to the United States, China, and other regions. The city's officials are undertaking a cost-benefit assessment to determine the efficacy of siting a new landfill or other waste management facility. We are interested in emphasizing the complexity of making (or not making) landfills public, by exploring an object in action, where members of the public may or may not assemble, waste may or may not be made into an issue, and waste is sufficiently routinized that it is not typically transformed from an object to an issue. We hope to demonstrate Latour's third and fifth senses of politics best account for waste management's trajectory as a persistent yet inconsistent matter of public concern.

  12. Waste management regroups units into Rust International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, E.

    1992-01-01

    Three Waste Management (Oak Brook, IL) subsidiaries have proposed merging units from Chemical Waste Management (CWM) and Wheelabrator Technologies with the Brand Companies (Park Ridge, IL). Waste Management says the new company, to be called Rust International, will become one of the US's largest environmental consulting and infrastructure organizations and will include design and construction services. Waste Management expects the merged company's 1993 revenues to reach $1.8 billion. It will be based in Birmingham, AL and have 12,000 employees

  13. Waste Management Information System (WMIS) User Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    This document provides the user of the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) instructions on how to use the WMIS software. WMIS allows users to initiate, track, and close waste packages. The modular design supports integration and utilization of data through the various stages of waste management. The phases of the waste management work process include generation, designation, packaging, container management, procurement, storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal

  14. Waste Management Information System (WMIS) User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. E. Broz

    2008-12-22

    This document provides the user of the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) instructions on how to use the WMIS software. WMIS allows users to initiate, track, and close waste packages. The modular design supports integration and utilization of data throuh the various stages of waste management. The phases of the waste management work process include generation, designation, packaging, container management, procurement, storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal.

  15. Costs of food waste in South Africa: Incorporating inedible food waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic, social and environmental costs of food waste are being increasingly recognised. Food waste consists of both edible and inedible components. Whilst wastage of edible food is problematic for obvious reasons, there are also costs...

  16. MANAGING HANFORD'S LEGACY NO-PATH-FORWARD WASTES TO DISPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. This vision will protect the Columbia River, reduce the Site footprint, and reduce Site mortgage costs. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W and FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 m 3 of waste was defined as 'no-path-forward waste.' The majority of these wastes are suspect transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes which are currently stored in the low-level Burial Grounds (LLBG), or stored above ground in the Central Waste Complex (CWC). A portion of the waste will be generated during ongoing and future site cleanup activities. The DOE-RL and CHPRC have collaborated to identify and deliver safe, cost-effective disposition paths for 90% (∼8,000 m 3 ) of these problematic wastes. These paths include accelerated disposition through expanded use of offsite treatment capabilities. Disposal paths were selected that minimize the need to develop new technologies, minimize the need for new, on-site capabilities, and accelerate shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  17. Re-defining the concepts of waste and waste management:evolving the Theory of Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Pongrácz, E. (Eva)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract In an attempt to construct a new agenda for waste management, this thesis explores the importance of the definition of waste and its impact on waste management, and the role of ownership in waste management. It is recognised that present legal waste definitions are ambiguous and do not really give an insight into the concept of waste. Moreover, despite its explicit wish of waste prevention, when according to present legislation a thing is assigned the label...

  18. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This bibliography is a review of the Canadian literature on radioactive waste management from 1953 to the present. It incorporates the references from the previous AECL--6186 revisions, and adds the current data and some of the references that had been omitted. Publications from outside organizations of concern to the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Program are included in addition to AECL Research reports and papers. This report is intended as an aid in the preparation of the Concept Assessment Document and is complementary to AECL Research's internal document-ready references on the MASS-11 word processing systems

  19. Radioactive waste integrated management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D Y; Choi, S S; Han, B S [Atomic Creative Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication.

  20. Radioactive waste integrated management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, D. Y.; Choi, S. S.; Han, B. S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication