WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste management costs

  1. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  2. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.

  3. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.

  4. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  5. Life Cycle Costing Model for Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    To ensure sustainability of solid waste management, there is a need for cost assessment models which are consistent with environmental and social assessments. However, there is a current lack of standardized terminology and methodology to evaluate economic performances and this complicates...... LCC, e.g. waste generator, waste operator and public finances and the perspective often defines the systemboundaries of the study, e.g. waste operators often focus on her/his own cost, i.e. technology based,whereas waste generators and public finances often focus on the entire waste system, i.......e. system based. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed modeling framework that distinguishes between: a) budget cost, b) externality costs and 3) transfers and defines unit costs of each technology (per ton of input waste). Unitcosts are afterwards combined with a mass balance to calculate the technology cost...

  6. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  7. Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model; Final report: Documentation of waste management process, development of Cost Estimation Model, and model reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

    1994-03-01

    This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs.

  8. LEAN HEALTHCARE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: MINIMIZING WASTE AND COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia M L Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the management models applied in the supply chain providing services in healthcare organizations, considering the lenses of lean. The aim of this is to develop a model of supply chain management focusing on the identification and minimization of waste, assisting in decision making and contributing to the quality of services and as a consequence the reduction of the costs involved in healthcare supply chain. The philosophies of continuous improvement and lean techniques have a role to play in helping healthcare to provide quality service and support to reduce costs in the current budget constraints. In the supply chain of hospitals the financial costs can be around 40% of its budget (MASOUMI et al. 2012; SOUZA et al., 2013. This article sheds light on the improvement in decision making and the effect of reducing costs in the healthcare supply chain. In this sense, the research intend to expand knowledge related to supply chain management in the area of ​​provision of healthcare services through the use of the philosophy of continuous improvement and lean principles, helping healthcare to provide quality service within their current budget constraints.

  9. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica, E-mail: vems@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljoevej, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kromann, Mikkel A. [COWI A/S, Parallelvej 2, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljoevej, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  10. Does recyclable separation reduce the cost of municipal waste management in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifari, Rosaria; Lo Piano, Samuele; Matsumoto, Shigeru; Tasaki, Tomohiro

    2017-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a system involving multiple sub-systems that typically require demanding inputs, materials and resources to properly process generated waste throughput. For this reason, MSW management is generally one of the most expensive services provided by municipalities. In this paper, we analyze the Japanese MSW management system and estimate the cost elasticity with respect to the waste volumes at three treatment stages: collection, processing, and disposal. Although we observe economies of scale at all three stages, the collection cost is less elastic than the disposal cost. We also examine whether source separation at home affects the cost of MSW management. The empirical results show that the separate collection of the recyclable fraction leads to reduced processing costs at intermediate treatment facilities, but does not change the overall waste management cost. Our analysis also reveals that the cost of waste management systems decreases when the service is provided by private companies through a public tender. The cost decreases even more when the service is performed under the coordination of adjacent municipalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within...... regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding...

  12. Cost recovery of municipal solid waste management in small cities of inland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xin; Hu, Shunong

    2014-04-01

    Financial performance of waste management, the key for efficiency and sustainability, has rarely been studied in China, especially for small cities. Through questionnaires and interviews, we conducted such a case study in several cities aiming to fill the gap and improve waste service. We found that labour accounts for more than half to three-quarters of the operation cost, followed by fuel and vehicle maintenance. The waste service heavily relies on budget transfer of the municipality. User fees collected recover less than half of total operation cost at best, even if the collection rate is relatively high. The low cost recovery is mainly due to low fee rates, unchanged for years owing to public pressure. Public complaint seems to be justified by the finding that the service only accounts for 5-10% of municipal revenue annually and even lower in government spending. Contrary to general perception, per capita waste generation in small cities is not less than big ones. Waste composition is dominated by kitchen wastes, with fractions of recyclables and combustibles much lower than big cities. These findings have implications on the waste management strategy: commercial incineration or recycling may not be economically viable for small cities. The article concludes that user fees might better serve, and be designed for, behaviour change than for cost recovery. Municipalities need to first improve cost efficiency and transparency of waste services to gain public trust and support in order to tackle the biggest challenge facing developing countries, cost recovery.

  13. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornibrook, C. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it`s evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it`s risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed.

  14. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  15. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  16. Cost Implications of an Interim Storage Facility in the Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, Joshua J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joseph, III, Robert Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Rob L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petersen, Gordon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutt, Mark [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, Joe [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cotton, Thomas [Complex Systems Group, Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the cost implications of incorporating a consolidated interim storage facility (ISF) into the waste management system (WMS). Specifically, the impacts of the timing of opening an ISF relative to opening a repository were analyzed to understand the potential effects on total system costs.

  17. Management Information System (MIS: Tool for Monitoring the Waste Management Health Service (RSS and Cost of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Elisabete Schneider

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of solid waste management has been improve and deploy systems that perform monitoring and control of management processes of health service’s waste (HSW. This study aims to evaluate the total cost per category of HSW/day and active bed/day with the handling of HSW in a teaching hospital in northeastern area of Brazil`s Rio Grande do Sul state and identify contributions of a management information system (MIS in the management process, especially considering the generation and segregation of waste. Utilized methodology was developed in two stages: data collection about the management of the HSW and proposition, implementation and feed of a MIS for recording and processing of data related to waste characterization. Results show that whether the management system of the hospital in this study were 100% right, the monthly savings for the treatment of infectious waste would be 18.4% of the costs and 5.83% of costs of chemical waste. The implementation of MIS becomes an essential tool in the evaluation of the management process of HSW since it makes possible to raise issues of fundamental importance to the implementation and evaluation of strategies contained in the HSW management plan. The MIS also represents a tool of easy reference and of great importance to evaluate generation of HSW as it helps to promote the surveillance, identification of sectors that have the biggest problems with segregation, as well as ways to minimize costs and impacts.

  18. Optimal scenario balance of reduction in costs and greenhouse gas emissions for municipal solid waste management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 张强; 陈广武; 齐长青; 崔文谦; 张于峰; 马洪亭

    2015-01-01

    To reduce carbon intensity, an improved management method balancing the reduction in costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is required for Tianjin’s waste management system. Firstly, six objective functions, namely, cost minimization, GHG minimization, eco-efficiency minimization, cost maximization, GHG maximization and eco-efficiency maximization, are built and subjected to the same constraints with each objective function corresponding to one scenario. Secondly, GHG emissions and costs are derived from the waste flow of each scenario. Thirdly, the range of GHG emissions and costs of other potential scenarios are obtained and plotted through adjusting waste flow with infinitely possible step sizes according to the correlation among the above six scenarios. And the optimal scenario is determined based on this range. The results suggest the following conclusions. 1) The scenarios located on the border between scenario cost minimization and GHG minimization create an optimum curve, and scenario GHG minimization has the smallest eco-efficiency on the curve;2) Simple pursuit of eco-efficiency minimization using fractional programming may be unreasonable; 3) Balancing GHG emissions from incineration and landfills benefits Tianjin’s waste management system as it reduces GHG emissions and costs.

  19. Analysis of the management costs of municipal wastes; Analyse des couts de gestion des dechets municipaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagnot, J.F.; Monier, V.; Hugues, N.

    1998-10-01

    This document presents the results of the study carried out from March 1997 to September 1998 and relative to the costs generated by the management of domestic wastes. The study comprises 3 parts: the elaboration of a method of evaluation of management costs, the analysis of management costs in todays situation and in the regulatory context of the year 2002, and the elaboration of tools for the application of the method. The following aspects are presented successively: 1 - the objectives, methodology and limitations of the analysis; 2 - the costs of the municipal wastes management in the regulatory context of 2002: presentation of the configurations studied, costs, comparison with the 1997 situation as observed on sites; 3 - factors that influence the success of a good management of municipal wastes: selective collecting, dimensioning of equipments with respect to capacities, local or centralized management, energy and materials valorization of products from incineration plants, materials recycling; 4 - impact of local conditions of programs application: costs, influence of the type of accommodation in the selective collecting, public information. (J.S.)

  20. Solid waste management based on cost-benefit analysis using the WAMED model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutavchi, Viacheslav

    2012-11-01

    Efficient waste management enables the protection of human health, reducing environmental pollution, saving of natural resources, and achieving sustainable and profitable management of energy. In many countries, the general guidelines for waste management are set by national or local waste management plans. Various models provide local authorities with decision-making tools in planning long-term waste management scenarios. This study aims at providing a special model framework for the evaluation of ecological-economic efficiency (ECO-EE) of waste management. This will serve as an information support tool for decision making by actors of a solid waste management (SWM) scheme, primarily at the municipal and regional levels. The objective of this study is to apply the waste management's efficient decision (WAMED) model along with the company statistical business tool for environmental recovery indicator (COSTBUSTER) model to SWM and municipal solid waste (MSW) schemes in general in order to evaluate and improve their ECO-EE. COSTBUSTER is a mathematical indicator for the size and extent of implementation costs of a certain SWM scheme, compared with the total size of the average financial budget of a SWM actor of a certain kind. In particular, WAMED is proposed for evaluating the suitability to invest in baling technology. Baling of solid waste is an emerging technology which is extensively used worldwide to temporarily store waste for either incineration or recovery of raw materials. The model for efficient use of resources for optimal production economy (the EUROPE model) is for the first time applied to emissions from baling facilities. It has been analysed how cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and full cost accounting (FCA) can facilitate environmental optimisation of SWM schemes. The effort in this work represents a continuation of such ambitions as an enlargement of the research area of CBAbased modelling within SWM. In the thesis, certain theoretical and economic

  1. Hot Issue and Burning Options in Waste Management: A Social Cost Benefit Analysis of Waste-to-Energy in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Kiamil, H.; Nepal, R.

    2008-01-01

    The growing stream of municipal solid waste requires a sustainable waste management strategy. Meanwhile, addressing climate change and security of energy supply concerns require increased use of low-carbon and domestic sources of energy. This paper assesses the economic and policy aspects of waste management options focusing on waste to energy (WtE). We conclude that high levels of WtE and recycling are compatible as waste treatment options. We also present a social cost-benefit analysis of w...

  2. Cost estimation for solid waste management in industrialising regions--precedents, problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthan, Shantha R; Milke, Mark W; Wilson, David C; Cocks, John H

    2012-03-01

    The importance of cost planning for solid waste management (SWM) in industrialising regions (IR) is not well recognised. The approaches used to estimate costs of SWM can broadly be classified into three categories - the unit cost method, benchmarking techniques and developing cost models using sub-approaches such as cost and production function analysis. These methods have been developed into computer programmes with varying functionality and utility. IR mostly use the unit cost and benchmarking approach to estimate their SWM costs. The models for cost estimation, on the other hand, are used at times in industrialised countries, but not in IR. Taken together, these approaches could be viewed as precedents that can be modified appropriately to suit waste management systems in IR. The main challenges (or problems) one might face while attempting to do so are a lack of cost data, and a lack of quality for what data do exist. There are practical benefits to planners in IR where solid waste problems are critical and budgets are limited.

  3. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management--costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar's SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident financial deficit could else endanger the public-private partnership (PPP) and lead to failure of this setup in the medium to long term, thus also endangering the now existing improved and currently reliable service. We present four options on how financial sustainability of the SWM system in Bahir Dar might be enhanced: (i) improved fee collection efficiency by linking the fees of solid waste collection to water supply; (ii) increasing the value

  4. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  5. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  6. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  7. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial...... assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household...... expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from...

  8. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sebastiao Roberto, E-mail: soares@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues, E-mail: finotti@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Prudencio da Silva, Vamilson, E-mail: vamilson@epagri.sc.gov.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); EPAGRI, Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1347, Itacorubi, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina 88034-901 (Brazil); Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F., E-mail: alvarenga.raf@gmail.com [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Ghent University, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure Links 653/9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible

  9. Comparison of costs for three hypothetical alternative kitchen waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiettecatte, Wim; Tize, Ronald; De Wever, Heleen

    2014-11-01

    Urban water and waste management continues to be a major challenge, with the Earth's population projected to rise to 9 billion by 2050, with 70% of this population expected to live in cities. A combined treatment of wastewater and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste offers opportunities for improved environmental protection and energy recovery, but the collection and transport of organic wastes must be cost effective. This study compares three alternative kitchen waste collection and transportation systems for a virtual modern urban area with 300,000 residents and a population density of 10,000 persons per square kilometre. Door-to-door collection, being the standard practice in modern urban centres, remains the most economically advantageous at a cost of 263 euros per tonne of kitchen waste. Important drawbacks are the difficult logistics, increased city traffic, air and noise pollution. The quieter, cleaner and more hygienic vacuum transport of kitchen waste comes with a higher cost of 367 euros per tonne, mainly resulting from a higher initial investment cost for the system installation. The third option includes the well-known use of under-sink food waste disposers (often called garbage grinders) that are connected to the kitchen's wastewater piping system, with a total yearly cost of 392 euros per tonne. Important advantages with this system are the clean operation and the current availability of a city-wide sewage conveyance pipeline system. Further research is recommended, for instance the application of a life cycle assessment approach, to more fully compare the advantages and disadvantages of each option.

  10. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costs for pre-disaster waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Yohei; Peii, Tsai; Tabata, Tomohiro; Saeki, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    This study develops a method of environmental and economic evaluation of an integrated disaster waste management system that considers the spatial scale of removal, transport, and treatment of disaster waste. A case study was conducted on combustibles, which is a type of disaster waste derived from dwellings, in Mie Prefecture, Japan. First, we calculated the quantity and the spatial distribution of disaster waste derived from dwellings and tsunami debris produced as a result of a large-scale earthquake. The quantity of disaster waste was estimated as 7,178,000t with functioning flood-preventing facilities and 11,956,000t without functioning flood prevention facilities. Ensuring resilience in the face of earthquakes and tsunamis by renovating flood-preventing facilities is extremely important in decreasing the production of wastes, especially in coastal regions. Next, the transportation network for transporting combustibles in disaster waste to temporary storage sites, incineration plants, and landfill was constructed using an optimization model. The results showed that if flood-preventing facilities do not function properly, the installation of temporary incineration facilities becomes essential. Life-cycle emissions of CO2, SOx, NOx, and PM and the costs of removal, storage, and treatment of combustibles were calculated as 258,000t, 618t, 1705t, 7.9t, and 246millionUSD, respectively, in the case of functioning flood-preventing facilities. If flood-preventing facilities do not function, the quantity of environmentally unfriendly emissions and the costs increase. This result suggested the significance of renovation in order to maintain the conditions of flood-preventing facilities to decrease the environmental burden and costs as well as keep the production of disaster waste at a minimum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste managementCosts and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji, E-mail: christian.lohri@eawag.ch; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph, E-mail: ephraimcamenzind@hotmail.com; Zurbrügg, Christian, E-mail: christian.zurbruegg@eawag.ch

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Cost-revenue analysis over 2 years revealed insufficient cost-recovery. • Expenses for motorized secondary collection increased by 82% over two years. • Low fee collection rate and reliance on only one revenue stream are problematic. • Different options for cost reduction and enhanced revenue streams are recommended. • Good public–private alliance is crucial to plan and implement improvement measures. - Abstract: Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar’s SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident

  12. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Volume 2. Supporting information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-04-01

    This report presents the detailed results and assumptions for the January 1986 Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) analysis. The report is composed of three sections: Section A lists the costing assumptions which have been made about the principal waste management system parameters; Section B presents the yearly flows of waste material between system facilities for the 8 logistics cases which were studied; and Section C presents the annual total system costs for each of the 32 TSLCC cases by major cost category.

  13. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE`s Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Biological waste by-production costs in forest management and possibilities for their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kadlec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes in forestry were observed from view of their by-production in silvicultural and logging operations. There were identified points where biological waste was produced in this paper, waste costs ratio for silvicultural and logging operations and were made suggestions for reduction of these costs. Biological waste costs give 34.4% of total costs of silvicultural operations and 30% of total costs of logging operations. Natural regeneration and minor forest produce operations are opportunities for reduction of these costs.

  15. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sebastião Roberto; Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues; da Silva, Vamilson Prudêncio; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$0.12 kg(-1) for the waste treated with microwaves, US$1.10 kg(-1) for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$1.53 kg(-1) for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible alternative to subsidize the formulation of the policy for small generators of HCW.

  16. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 2, Supporting information. [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 collars) over the entire life of the system, or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs.

  17. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-04-19

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from unpurchased food commodities were spent on goods/services with a more environmentally damaging production than that of the (prevented) food. This was not the case when savings were used, e.g., for health care, education, and insurances. This study demonstrates that income effects, although uncertain, should be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated.

  18. Municipal solid wastes management. cost evaluation of selective collecting; Gestion integral de residuos urbanos. Evaluacion de rendimientos y costes de la recogida selectiva (Parte I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldasano, J. M.; Ginestar, X.; Perez, C.; Gasso, S.

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish Nuclear Plan for Municipal Solid Waste (PNRU 2000-2006) includes and integrated waste management model that arranges the management options of waste in order of priority: minimization, re-use, recycling (including composting and biomethanisation), energy recovery and final disposal. This paper makes an evaluation of the cost increase of the MSW separate collection for recycling compared to the traditional collection system. This first part includes a description of the different possibilities to carry out the separate collection in terms of materials (containers and collectors), human resources and performances, as well as a comparison between its unitary costs. (Author)

  19. Eco-dialysis: the financial and ecological costs of dialysis waste products: is a 'cradle-to-cradle' model feasible for planet-friendly haemodialysis waste management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Nazha, Marta; Ferraresi, Martina; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Pereno, Amina; Barbero, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 2 million chronic haemodialysis patients produce over 2,000,000 tons of waste per year that includes about 600,000 tons of potentially hazardous waste. The aim of the present study was to analyse the characteristics of the waste that is produced through chronic haemodialysis in an effort to identify strategies to reduce its environmental and financial impact. The study included three dialysis machines and disposables for bicarbonate dialysis, haemodiafiltration (HFR) and lactate dialysis. Hazardous waste is defined as waste that comes into contact with bodily fluids. The weight and cost of waste management was evaluated by various policies of differentiation, ranging from a careful-optimal differentiation to a careless one. The amount of time needed for optimal management was recorded in 30 dialysis sessions. Non-hazardous materials were assessed for potential recycling. The amount of plastic waste that is produced per dialysis session ranges from 1.5 to 8 kg (from 1.1 to 8 kg of potentially hazardous waste), depending upon the type of dialysis machine and supplies, differentiation and emptying policies. The financial cost of waste disposal is high, and is mainly related to hazardous waste disposal, with costs ranging from 2.2 to 16 Euro per session (2.7-21 USD) depending on the waste management policy. The average amount of time needed for careful, optimal differentiation disposal is approximately 1 minute for a haemodialysis session and 2 minutes for HFR. The ecological cost is likewise high: less than one-third of non-hazardous waste (23-28%) is potentially recyclable, while the use of different types of plastic, glues, inks and labels prevents the remaining materials from being recycled. Acknowledging the problem of waste management in dialysis could lead to savings of hundreds of millions of Dollars and to the reuse and recycling of hundreds of tons of plastic waste per year on a world-wide scale with considerable financial and ecological savings

  20. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: an integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  1. Integral municipal wastes management. Cost evaluation; Gestion integral de residuos urbanos. Evaluacion de rendimientos y costes de la recogida selectiva (Parte II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldasano, J. M.; Ginestar, X.; Perez, C.; Gasso, S.

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish National Plan for Municipal Solid Waste (PNRU 2002-2006) includes an integrated waste management model that arranges the waste management options in order of priority: minimization, reuse, recycling (including composting and biomethanisation), energy recovery and final disposal. This paper makes an evaluation of the cost increases of the MSW separate collection for recycling compared to the traditional collection system. The first part of this paper include a description of the different possibilities to carry out the separate collection in terms of materials (containers and collectors), human resources and performances, as well as a comparison between its unitary costs. This second part contains a total cost evaluation and specially focuses on the organic matter and refuse separate collection comparing the lateral load system and the back load system in three temporal scenarios from 2001 to 2006. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of Externality Costs in Life-Cycle Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    " and "externality costs". Budget costs include market goods and services (economic impact), whereas externality costs include effects outside the economic system (e.g., environmental impact). This study demonstrates the applicability of S-LCC to SWM life-cycle optimization through a case study based on an average...... suburban U.S. county of 500 000 people generating 320 000 Mg of waste annually. Estimated externality costs are based on emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, VOC, CO, NH3, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr (VI), Ni, As, and dioxins. The results indicate that incorporating S-LCC into optimized SWM strategy...... development encourages the use of a mixed waste material recovery facility with residues going to incineration, and separated organics to anaerobic digestion. Results are sensitive to waste composition, energy mix and recycling rates. Most of the externality costs stem from SO2, NOx, PM2.5, CH4, fossil CO2...

  3. Trade study for water and waste management concepts. Task 7: Support special analysis. [cost analysis of life support systems for waste utilization during space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cost analyses and tradeoff studies are given for waste management in the Space Station, Lunar Surface Bases, and interplanetary space missions. Crew drinking water requirements are discussed and various systems to recycle water are examined. The systems were evaluated for efficiency and weight savings. The systems considered effective for urine water recovery were vapor compression, flash evaporation, and air evaporation with electrolytic pretreatment. For wash water recovery, the system of multifiltration was selected. A wet oxidation system, which can process many kinds of wastes, is also considered.

  4. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

    2008-11-01

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

  5. Deployed Force Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Granath J., Baky A., Thhyselius L., (2004). Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production , forthcoming...Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production , forthcoming article In this paper different waste

  6. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  7. The Cost of Health Service Waste Management of (HSWM: A Case Study of Intensive Care Unit of Infectious Diseases at a Public Hospital in São Paulo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennyfer Dobbins Paes da Rosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Health Service Waste Management is a set of technical and legal procedures for waste management in any type of health facilities. It is known about the limited resources, so reducing environmental costs can contribute to the management of hospital costs. The objective was to estimate the cost of the phases of HSWM to the Intensive Care Unit for public service. Data collecting was done through a script of questions and observations on site at the Emilio Ribas Infectious Diseases Institute in Sao Paulo. The ABC costing method was used. The most costly step was wrapping (40.68%, followed by segregation (40.17%, which is justified by both being associated with health workers’ salaries. The daily cost of the management of health care waste from segregation to final disposal in the ICU was R$ 4,288.81 a day, being R$ 314.80/bed-patient/day. To know the cost of an activity allows for the analysis of strategies for price negotiation. Health care waste is little remembered when pricing a daily ICU, many managers believe this value to be irrelevant; but< if not measured, it may bring losses to the institution.

  8. Plan 2002. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production; Plan 2002. Kostnader foer kaernkraftens radioaktiva restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration throughout the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are included. The total future cost for handling the waste from 25 years operation of the 12 Swedish reactors amounts to 48.6 billion SEK (in the reference scenario). 14.5 billion SEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants (end 2001). The following systems are operational as of today: A transport system for radioactive waste; Central interim storage facility for spent fuels (CLAB); Final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (SFR1). The following systems are planned: Encapsulation plant for spent fuels, Geologic repository for spent fuels, Repository for long-lived low and medium active wastes, repository for demolition wastes.

  9. The contributions of construction material waste to project cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management, Faculty ... management of materials and waste leads to an increase in the total cost of building ... cost, quality and sustainability, as well as on the success of projects. (Nagapan ..... Moving beyond optimism bias and strategic ...

  10. Possibility of the most cost efficient choice: a divided process approach to method and location selection for municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, M Kemal; Cihan, Ahmet; Alkan, Atakan; Ozbay, Ismail; Karademir, Aykan; Aladag, Zerrin

    2014-11-01

    As studies on municipal solid waste management increased in recent years, many new mathematical models and approaches with a focus on determining the best treatment and disposal scenario were developed and applied. In this study, a mixed integer linear programming model was developed to be used as a facilitative tool for the cost minimisation of municipal solid waste management practices. Since municipal solid waste mass is a mixed composition of various types of waste components with different physical and chemical properties, the model was designed to include all the suitable treatment and disposal methods for these different waste components. The method alternatives with multiple waste inputs, such as aerobic biological treatment and the thermal processes, were divided into a number of inputs to remove their non-linear structures. This way, linear programming could be used, and the linear cost function could be minimised over a set of linear constraints with integer variables. The model was applied to the city of Kocaeli, which will require a new waste management application in the future, beginning from 2015. The results obtained for different haul distance constraints in the study area were presented and assessed. The results showed that all the information required for a comprehensive management task could be modelled by a linear optimisation model with a divided processes approach easily.

  11. Plan 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production; Plan 2003. Kostnader foer kaernkraftens radioaktiva restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration throughout the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are included. The total future cost for handling the waste from 40 years operation of the 11 Swedish reactors in operation and Barsebaeck-1 which already is taken out of operation, amounts to 49.6 billion SEK (about 6.2 billion USD). 12.7 billion SEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants, and for research and development (incl. year 2003 costs)

  12. Calculating the costs of waste collection: A methodological proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskovic, Goran; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Jovanovic, Sasa; Simovic, Vladimir

    2016-08-01

    Waste collection and transport can generate up to 70% of the total costs of the system. Separated collection of recyclables implies additional costs for which the sale of recycled waste often does not compensate, but there is increased pressure to reach the long-term recycling objectives set by law. The proper estimation and monitoring of waste collection costs are essential to define the most cost-effective waste collection system. The aim of this study is to propose and implement a management tool to determine waste collection costs for different waste collection schemes. Based on input data, such as waste quantity and composition, the number of waste bins, the location of collection points, the type of collection vehicle, crew, collection route, etc., the developed tool can calculate the time and costs of waste collection (per vehicle, collection point or tonne of collected waste). This tool uses Excel spreadsheets and it was tested on a district in the central area of the city of Kragujevac to calculate the costs of waste collection for two scenarios: Collecting all waste as mixed waste, and collecting separately recyclables and residual waste. The developed tool can be useful for municipal solid waste management companies, since it allows benchmarking and variance analysis.

  13. Biomedical Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sikovska, Biljana; Dimova, Cena; Sumanov, Gorgi; Vankovski, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Medical waste is all waste material generated at health care facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, dental practices, blood banks, and veterinary hospitals/clinics, as well as medical research facilities and laboratories. Poor management of health care waste potentially exposes health care workers, waste handlers, patients and the community at large to infection, toxic effects and injuries, and risks polluting the environment. It is essential that all medical waste ma...

  14. Cost of Managing Waste in Contingency Operations: A Case Study from Bagram Air Force Base, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Local Resale Markets • On-Site Reuse /Composting • On-Site Incineration (all types) and/or Containerized Burn (solid) • On-Site Landfills (with liners...Transport Treatment: Blackwater:Yes Greywater : No Disposal: Local River 6 Cost Components Cost Component Cost Drivers Infrastructure Facility type (e.g

  15. Assessing waste management systems using reginalt software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.K.; Camasta, S.F.; Gilbert, T.L.

    1988-03-01

    A method for assessing management systems for low-level radioactive waste is being developed for US Department of Energy. The method is based on benefit-cost-risk analysis. Waste management is broken down into its component steps, which are generation, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal. Several different alternatives available for each waste management step are described. A particular waste management system consists of a feasible combination of alternatives for each step. Selecting an optimal waste management system would generally proceed as follows: (1) qualitative considerations are used to narrow down the choice of waste management system alternatives to a manageable number; (2) the costs and risks for each of these system alternatives are evaluated; (3) the number of alternatives is further reduced by eliminating alternatives with similar risks but higher costs, or those with similar costs but higher risks; (4) a trade-off factor between cost and risk is chosen and used to compute the objective function (sum of the cost and risk); and (5) the selection of the optimal waste management system among the remaining alternatives is made by choosing the alternative with the smallest value for the objective function. The authors propose that the REGINALT software system, developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., as an acid for managers of low-level commerical waste, be augmented for application to the managment of DOE-generated waste. Specific recommendations for modification of the REGINALT system are made. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  17. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  18. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  19. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  20. Plan 2004. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production; Plan 2004. Kostnader foer kaernkraftens radioaktiva restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration throughout the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are included. The total cost for handling the waste from 40 years operation of the 11 Swedish reactors in operation and Barsebaeck-1 which already is taken out of operation, amounts to about 70 billion SEK (about 9.3 billion USD). 18 billion SEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants, and for research and development. The future costs amounts to 51.5 billion SEK. The cost are financed by the nuclear utilities in the form of a special charge on the electricity produced by the nuclear power plants. At present this charge is, on average, 0.005 SEK/kWh (about 0.0007 USD/kWh)

  1. E-waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Hieronymi, Klaus; Williams, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The landscape of electronic waste, e-waste, management is changing dramatically. Besides a rapidly increasing world population, globalization is driving the demand for products, resulting in rising prices for many materials. Absolute scarcity looms for some special resources such as indium. Used electronic products and recyclable materials are increasingly crisscrossing the globe. This is creating both - opportunities and challenges for e-waste management. This focuses on the current and future trends, technologies and regulations for reusable and recyclable e-waste worldwide.

  2. Waste management in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Maeda, A.; Sugikawa, S.; Takeshita, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dept. of Safety Research Technical Support, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In the NUCEF, the researches on criticality safety have been performed at two critical experiment facilities, STACY and TRACY in addition to the researches on fuel cycle such as advanced reprocessing and partitioning in alpha-gamma concrete cells and glove boxes. Many kinds of radioactive wastes have been generated through the research activities. Furthermore, the waste treatment itself may produce some secondary wastes. In addition, the separation and purification of plutonium of several tens-kg from MOX powder are scheduled in order to supply plutonium nitrate solution fuel for critical experiments at STACY. A large amount of wastes containing plutonium and americium will be generated from the plutonium fuel treatment. From the viewpoint of safety, the proper waste management is one of important works in NUCEF. Many efforts, therefore, have been made for the development of advanced waste treatment techniques to improve the waste management in NUCEF. Especially the reduction of alpha-contaminated wastes is a major interest. For example, the separation of americium is planned from the liquid waste evolved alter plutonium purification by application of tannin gel as an adsorbent of actinide elements. The waste management and the relating technological development in NUCEF are briefly described in this paper. (authors)

  3. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  4. Comparative analysis of the cost of waste management options for Berlin; Kostenvergleich der Abfallwirtschaftsalternativen fuer Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oetjen-Dehne, R. [u.e.c., Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The Berlin/Brandenburg region is getting under pressure as the waste treatment deadline of 1 June 2005 is getting closer and sufficient plant capacities are lacking. The contribution presents a chronology of the discussion of the available plant variants. [German] Die Sicherung der gesetzlich geforderten Abfallbehandlung ab dem 01.06.2005 geraet in der Region Berlin/Brandenburg immer mehr unter Zeitdruck, da ausreichende Anlagenkapazitaeten nicht zur Vefuegung stehen. Waehrend im Land Brandenburg die benoetigten Kapazitaeten weitgehend erst nach Durchfuehrung von VOB- oder VOL-Ausschreibungen (ueberwiegend im Jahr 2002) geschaffen werden, hat der Berliner Senat im Sommer 2001 auf der Basis eines Konzeptes der Berliner Stadtreinigung (sog. STAB-Modell) ein Behandlungskonzept beschlossen, das sich nun in der Umsetzung befindet. Dem Senatsbeschluss gingen umfangreiche gutachterliche Analysen und kontroverse Diskussionen, natuerlich auch ueber die kuenftig zu erwartenden Kosten, voraus. Nachdem im folgenden zunaechst auf einige fast schon banale allgemein gueltige Voraussetzungen fuer eine sachliche Kostendiskussion eingegangen wird, wird ein chronologischer Ueberblick zur Variantendiskussion in Berlin gegeben. (orig.)

  5. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  6. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  7. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  8. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  9. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, G; Karagiannidis, A; Zampetoglou, S; Malamakis, A; Antonopoulos, I-S; Kontogianni, S; Tchobanoglous, G

    2009-05-01

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings.

  10. Cost-saving in waste and cleaning management. Final report; Kostensenkung in der kommunalen Abfallentsorgung und Stadtreinigung. Zusammenfassender Abschlussbericht mit wesentlichen Veroeffentlichungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallenkemper; Dornbusch; Woebbeking; Bilitewski; Saberi

    2002-07-01

    Nineteen municipalities have joined together for this BMBF-project in order to find cost-saving potentials in waste and town cleaning management. This project is based on an idea competition initiated by the BMBF which called for cost, price and fee reductions in drinking-water supply as well as municipal waste and waste water disposal. During the investigations within this project it was found out that considerable efforts had already been made for optimization and cost reduction by all project partners involved. Nonetheless, further saving potentials are available, even considerable ones in case of waste management and waste collection. The report finally presented includes suitable steps having already been realized by all project partners involved as well as supportive capacities within the fields of refuse disposal service, street cleaning, garage, cost accounting, economy control, controlling and optimization of administration and organisation. (orig.) [German] Um Kosteneinsparpotenziale in der Abfallwirtschaft und Stadtreinigung zu erschliessen, schlossen sich 19 Betriebe zu diesem BMBF-Verbundvorhaben zusammen. Das Projekt geht zurueck auf den BMBF-Ideenwettbewerb 'Kosten-, Preis- und Gebuehrensenkung bei der Trinkwasserversorgung sowie der kommunalen Abwasser- und Abfallentsorgung'. Im Rahmen dieses BMBF-Verbundvorhabens wurde festgestellt, dass die beteiligten Betriebe in den vergangenen Jahren z.T. bereits erhebliche Anstrengungen zur Optimierung und zur Kostensenkung durchgefuehrt haben. Trotzdem sind noch weitere, teilweise erhebliche Einsparpotenziale insbesondere in den Bereichen Entsorgungslogistik und Muellabfuhr vorhanden. Der vorgelegte Bericht zeigt die moeglichen Massnahmen am Beispiel der Umsetzung in den beteiligten Betrieben sowie die unterstuetzenden Leistungen in den Bereichen Entsorgungslogistik, Strassenreinigung, Werkstatt, Kostenrechnung, Wirtschaftlichkeitssteuerung, Controlling sowie die Optimierungen in der Verwaltung und

  11. The Integrated Waste Tracking System - A Flexible Waste Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2001-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has fully embraced a flexible, computer-based tool to help increase waste management efficiency and integrate multiple operational functions from waste generation through waste disposition while reducing cost. The Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS)provides comprehensive information management for containerized waste during generation,storage, treatment, transport, and disposal. The IWTS provides all information necessary for facilities to properly manage and demonstrate regulatory compliance. As a platformindependent, client-server and Web-based inventory and compliance system, the IWTS has proven to be a successful tracking, characterization, compliance, and reporting tool that meets the needs of both operations and management while providing a high level of management flexibility.

  12. Tribal Waste Journal: What Is an Integrated Waste Management Plan: Issue 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs) may offer tribes an efficient and cost-effective way to reduce open dumping, effectively manage solid waste, and protect human health and the environment for this generation and the next.

  13. Waste Management Program management plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    As the prime contractor to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) provides comprehensive waste management services to all contractors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) through the Waste Management (WM) Program. This Program Management Plan (PMP) provides an overview of the Waste Management Program objectives, organization and management practices, and scope of work. This document will be reviewed at least annually and updated as needed to address revisions to the Waste Management`s objectives, organization and management practices, and scope of work. Waste Management Program is managed by LMITCO Waste Operations Directorate. The Waste Management Program manages transuranic, low-level, mixed low-level, hazardous, special-case, and industrial wastes generated at or transported to the INEEL.

  14. LOGISTICS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HEALTHCARE INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Marczak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The waste management system in health care is a tool that allows to conduct reasonable steps to reduce their amount, collection, storage and transport, and provide a high level of utilization or disposal. Logistics solutions in waste management are intended to make full use of the infrastructure and technical resources, optimize costs, ensure the safety and health at work and meet legal requirements. The article discusses the elements of the logistics system of waste management in hospital, necessary to ensure the smooth flow of waste from its origin to landfilling. The following criteria were characterized: technical and technological, ecological and economic that can be used in the analysis and evaluation of solutions in waste management in the hospital. Finally, solutions to improve waste management system in the hospital on the example of the real object have been presented.

  15. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  16. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus

    2016-01-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system...... (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain......, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power...

  17. Management and cost accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Colin

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of a textbook on management and cost accounting features coverage of activity-based costing (ABC), advance manufacturing technologies (AMTs), JIT, MRP, target costing, life-cycle costing, strategic management accounting, total quality management and customer profitability analysis. Also included are revised and new end-of-chapter problems taken from past examination papers of CIMA, ACCA and ICAEW. There is increased reference to management accounting in practice, including many of the results of the author's CIMA sponsored survey, and greater emphasis on operational control and performance measurement.

  18. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  19. COST ANALYSIS OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF WASTE DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Oke, K. O. Awofeso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantifies the cost involved due to the psychological effect of waste disposal. The major costs are quantified as management and personnel costs. Management costs refer to those associated with awareness, recovery and recycling, taskforce and experimental. On the other hand, personnel costs are related to tax and health. The approach utilized is the algebraic sum of these component costs, since dimensional consistency of the formulation is observed. The results obtained indicate that the framework presented could beneficially add to the tool kit of the environmental decision makers. This would make it possible to generate scenarios that would give the decision maker adequate information before decisions are made. The implication of this research is that intuitive decision-making on cost is replaced with scientific backed up decision making. The idea proposed in this work is new since it provides a unique way of measuring cost of the effects of waste disposal on the stakeholders in the system.

  20. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.brunner@tuwien.ac.at; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas.

  1. Managing Information On Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulbee, Zoe A.

    1990-01-01

    Cost Management Model, CMM, software tool for planning, tracking, and reporting costs and information related to costs. Capable of estimating costs, comparing estimated to actual costs, performing "what-if" analyses on estimates of costs, and providing mechanism to maintain data on costs in format oriented to management. Number of supportive cost methods built in: escalation rates, production-learning curves, activity/event schedules, unit production schedules, set of spread distributions, tables of rates and factors defined by user, and full arithmetic capability. Import/export capability possible with 20/20 Spreadsheet available on Data General equipment. Program requires AOS/VS operating system available on Data General MV series computers. Written mainly in FORTRAN 77 but uses SGU (Screen Generation Utility).

  2. Compromising economic cost and air pollutant emissions of municipal solid waste management strategies by fuzzy multiobjective optimization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Lin, Min-Der

    2013-06-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an important environmental challenge and subject in urban planning. A sustainable MSWM strategy should consider not only economic efficiency but also life-cycle assessment of environmental impact. This study employs the fuzzy multiobjective linear programming (FMOLP) technique to find the optimal compromise between economic optimization and pollutant emission reduction for the MSWM strategy. Taichung City in Taiwan is evaluated as a case study. The results indicate that the optimal compromise MSWM strategy can reduce significant amounts of pollutant emissions and still achieve positive net profits. Minimization of the sulfur oxide (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are the two major priorities in achieving this optimal compromise strategy when recyclables recovery rate is lower; however minimization of the carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) emissions become priority factors when recovery rate is higher.

  3. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  4. Managing Ongoing EVSE Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The costs associated with EVSE begin with picking the best location and unit for the job, but they continue with electricity and network charges through the life of your vehicle. This presentation tells how to balance electricity demand charges and network management costs through smart planning at your program's inception.

  5. Component Cost of Fuel Oil of Waste Transportation Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhamtoro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of the transportation system can be measured based on four things, namely the efficiency of time, energy and fuel efficiency, environmental impact, and safety. Efficiency of energy and fuel is often stated as part of vehicle operating costs (VOC. So need to know the amount of the percentage of the fuel cost component of vehicle operating costs. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of the fuel cost component of the total cost of transportation. Research object is a dump truck or on the SCS transport system that serves the city of Malang. Stages of research begins with getting the data needed to analyze the cost of transporting waste. Furthermore, the analysis performed to determine the percentage of each component of transport costs. Results of the analysis showed that the greatest percentage of the cost of each component of the cost of transporting waste is a component of the fuel, while the smallest percentage of the cost of the mechanical components. For the percentage of fuel costs by 28.90% of the variable cost per kilometer, while the percentage of fuel costs by 27.45% of the total cost of transporting waste on his m3each.

  6. Waste to energy--key element for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Paul H; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of "protection of men and environment" and "resource conservation". Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  8. The Ethos of Cost Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the ethos of cost management, distinguishing the definition, functions and principles governing cost management. I have emphasized the efforts made by the specialists in the field towards finding a much more complete definition of cost management. The description of cost management principles reveals the current interest of the specialists in this extremely important domain of company management.

  9. ORION - A Global Approach to Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2015-01-01

    In the ORION project supported by the European Commission, 20 partners work together to manage organic waste from agro-food industries. The goal is to develop a small, automatic and user-friendly digestion machine to facilitate the domestic on-site treatment of a wide range of organic waste from around 100 and up to 5000 tonnes per year at low cost and with limited maintenance. Simon Crelier at the HES-SO Valais/Wallis is part of the network.

  10. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

  11. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

  12. Guide for Industrial Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Guide is to provide facility managers, state and tribal regulators, and the interested public with recommendations and tools to better address the management of land-disposed, non-hazardousindustrial wastes.

  13. Information security cost management

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavan, Ioana V

    2006-01-01

    While information security is an ever-present challenge for all types of organizations today, most focus on providing security without addressing the necessities of staff, time, or budget in a practical manner.Information Security Cost Management offers a pragmatic approach to implementing information security, taking budgetary and real-world constraints into consideration. By providing frameworks, step-by-step processes, and project management breakdowns, this book demonstrates how to design the best security strategy with the resources you have available. Organized into five sections, the book-Focuses on setting the right road map so that you can be most effective in your information security implementationsDiscusses cost-effective staffing, the single biggest expense to the security organizationPresents practical ways to build and manage the documentation that details strategy, provides resources for operating annual audits, and illustrates how to advertise accomplishments to senior management effectivelyI...

  14. Setting priorities for waste management strategies in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Paul H; Fellner, Johann

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the waste management systems, that are presently applied in affluent countries are appropriate solutions for waste management in less developed regions. For this purpose, three cities (Vienna, Damascus and Dhaka) which differ greatly in their gross domestic product and waste management were compared. The criteria for evaluation were economic parameters, and indicators as to whether the goals of waste management (protection of human health and the environment, the conservation of resources) were reached. Based on case studies, it was found that for regions spending 1-10 Euro capita(-1) year(-1) for waste management, the 'waste hierarchy' of prevention, recycling and disposal is not an appropriate strategy. In such regions, the improvement of disposal systems (complete collection, upgrading to sanitary landfilling) is the most cost-effective method to reach the objectives of solid waste management. Concepts that are widely applied in developed countries such as incineration and mechanical waste treatment are not suitable methods to reach waste management goals in countries where people cannot spend more than 10 Euro per person for the collection, treatment and disposal of their waste. It is recommended that each region first determines its economic capacity for waste management and then designs its waste management system according to this capacity and the goals of waste management.

  15. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  16. Waste vs Resource Management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...

  17. WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SRS - MAKING IT HAPPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heenan, T. F.; Kelly, S.

    2002-02-25

    The past five years have witnessed a remarkable transition in the pace and scope of waste management activities at SRS. At the start of the new M&O contract in 1996, little was being done with the waste generated at the site apart from storing it in readiness for future treatment and disposal. Large volumes of legacy waste, particularly TRU and Low Level Waste, had accumulated over many years of operation of the site's nuclear facilities, and the backlog was increasing. WSRC proposed the use of the talents of the ''best in class'' partners for the new contract which, together with a more commercial approach, was expected to deliver more results without a concomitant increase in cost. This paper charts the successes in the Solid Waste arena and analyzes the basis for success.

  18. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  19. Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

  20. 40 CFR 273.52 - Waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management. 273.52 Section 273...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Universal Waste Transporters § 273.52 Waste management. (a) A universal waste transporter must comply with all applicable U.S. Department...

  1. Materials and Waste Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is developing data and tools to reduce waste, manage risks, reuse and conserve natural materials, and optimize energy recovery. Collaboration with states facilitates assessment and utilization of technologies developed by the private sector.

  2. Waste management outlook for mountain regions: Sources and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semernya, Larisa; Ramola, Aditi; Alfthan, Björn; Giacovelli, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    Following the release of the global waste management outlook in 2015, the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment), through its International Environmental Technology Centre, is elaborating a series of region-specific and thematic waste management outlooks that provide policy recommendations and solutions based on current practices in developing and developed countries. The Waste Management Outlook for Mountain Regions is the first report in this series. Mountain regions present unique challenges to waste management; while remoteness is often associated with costly and difficult transport of waste, the potential impact of waste pollutants is higher owing to the steep terrain and rivers transporting waste downstream. The Outlook shows that waste management in mountain regions is a cross-sectoral issue of global concern that deserves immediate attention. Noting that there is no 'one solution fits all', there is a need for a more landscape-type specific and regional research on waste management, the enhancement of policy and regulatory frameworks, and increased stakeholder engagement and awareness to achieve sustainable waste management in mountain areas. This short communication provides an overview of the key findings of the Outlook and highlights aspects that need further research. These are grouped per source of waste: Mountain communities, tourism, and mining. Issues such as waste crime, plastic pollution, and the linkages between exposure to natural disasters and waste are also presented.

  3. Integrated Resource Planning for Urban Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Giurco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste hierarchy currently dominates waste management planning in Australia. It is effective in helping planners consider options from waste avoidance or “reduction” through to providing infrastructure for landfill or other “disposal”. However, it is inadequate for guiding context-specific decisions regarding sustainable waste management and resource recovery, including the ability for stakeholders to compare a range of options on an equal footing whilst considering their various sustainability impacts and trade-offs. This paper outlines the potential use of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP as a decision-making approach for the urban waste sector, illustrated using an Australian case study. IRP is well established in both the water and energy sectors in Australia and internationally. It has been used in long-term planning enabling decision-makers to consider the potential to reduce resource use through efficiency alongside options for new infrastructure. Its use in the waste sector could address a number of the current limitations experienced by providing a broader context-sensitive, adaptive, and stakeholder focused approach to planning not present in the waste hierarchy and commonly used cost benefit analysis. For both efficiency and new infrastructure options IRP could be useful in assisting governments to make decisions that are consistent with agreed objectives while addressing costs of alternative options and uncertainty regarding their environmental and social impacts. This paper highlights various international waste planning approaches, differences between the sectors where IRP has been used and gives a worked example of how IRP could be applied in the Australian urban waste sector.

  4. Management Strategy for Hazardous Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Vilgerts, J; Timma, L; Blumberga, D.

    2012-01-01

    During the past year authorities, manufactures and scientists have been focused on the management and treatment methods of hazardous wastes, because they realized that “prevention costs” of activities connected to handling of hazardous waste are lower than “restoration costs” after damage is done. Uncontrolled management of hazardous substances may lead to contamination of any ecosystem on Earth: freshwater, ocean and terrestrial. Moreover leakage of toxic gasses creates also air pollution...

  5. Remote waste handling and feed preparation for Mixed Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, S.A.; Merrill, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Densley, P.J. [Science Applications International Corp., (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will serve as a national testbed to demonstrate mature mixed waste handling and treatment technologies in a complete front-end to back-end --facility (1). Remote operations, modular processing units and telerobotics for initial waste characterization, sorting and feed preparation have been demonstrated at the bench scale and have been selected for demonstration in MWMF. The goal of the Feed Preparation design team was to design and deploy a robust system that meets the initial waste preparation flexibility and productivity needs while providing a smooth upgrade path to incorporate technology advances as they occur. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors -- personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Modular processing units were selected to enable processing flexibility and facilitate reconfiguration as new treatment processes or waste streams are brought on line for demonstration. Modularity will be achieved through standard interfaces for mechanical attachment as well as process utilities, feeds and effluents. This will facilitate reconfiguration of contaminated systems without drilling, cutting or welding of contaminated materials and with a minimum of operator contact. Modular interfaces also provide a standard connection and disconnection method that can be engineered to allow convenient remote operation.

  6. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  7. Beyond managed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, G T; Campbell, K S; Patman, T; Nunnelley, L L

    2000-01-01

    Managed care organizations (MCOs) face an uncertain future. While consolidation and price competition have expanded their market share, health care expenditures are expected to rise in the near future, and the cost containment premise--and promise--of MCOs is being threatened by mixed blessing and nonsupportive stakeholders. To shed light on MCOs' situation, we discuss four drivers for change in health management in the U.S.: technology, regulation, consumerism, and demographics. Using those four drivers, we then assess the various stakeholders in the industry through a competitive analysis and a stakeholder analysis. These analyses suggest that the munificence of the MCO business environment has significantly declined, especially among supplier and buyer stakeholders. Hence, MCOs cannot continue to manage health care costs alone as this will no longer generate sufficient support among buyer and supplier stakeholders. Instead, MCOs must tackle five critical health care issues by working closely with other stakeholders and also by learning what they can from innovative health care initiatives both inside and outside the United States.

  8. Development drivers for waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C

    2007-06-01

    This paper identifies six broad groups of drivers for development in waste management. Public health led to the emergence of formalized waste collection systems in the nineteenth century, and remains a key driver in developing countries. Environmental protection came to the forefront in the 1970s, with an initial focus on eliminating uncontrolled disposal, followed by the systematic increasing of technical standards. Today, developing countries seem still to be struggling with these first steps; while climate change is also emerging as a key driver. The resource value of waste, which allows people to make a living from discarded materials, was an important driver historically, and remains so in developing countries today. A current trend in developed countries is closing the loop, moving from the concept of 'end-of-pipe' waste management towards a more holistic resource management. Two underpinning groups of drivers are institutional and responsibility issues, and public awareness. There is no, one single driver for development in waste management: the balance between these six groups of drivers has varied over time, and will vary between countries depending on local circumstances, and between stakeholders depending on their perspective. The next appropriate steps towards developing a sustainable, integrated waste management system will also vary in each local situation.

  9. Management of radioactive waste gases from PET radiopharmaceutical synthesis using cost effective capture systems integrated with a cyclotron safety system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, D H R; Pringle, A J; Maillet, D; King, A R; Nevin, S T; Venkatachalam, T K; Reutens, D C; Bhalla, R

    2016-09-01

    The emphasis on the reduction of gaseous radioactive effluent associated with PET radiochemistry laboratories has increased. Various radioactive gas capture strategies have been employed historically including expensive automated compression systems. We have implemented a new cost-effective strategy employing gas capture bags with electronic feedback that are integrated with the cyclotron safety system. Our strategy is suitable for multiple automated (18)F radiosynthesis modules and individual automated (11)C radiosynthesis modules. We describe novel gas capture systems that minimize the risk of human error and are routinely used in our facility.

  10. Geotechnics of waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husami, Z.I. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    Seven lectures are presented on the geological aspects hazardous and nuclear waste disposal are presented. Each lecture has been abstracted and indexed for the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base (EDB).

  11. Greening waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available by issues of population growth and urbanisation; increasing quantity and complexity of waste; climate change; carbon economics; resource scarcity; commodity prices; energy security; globalisation; job creation; and tightening regulation (DST, 2014a...

  12. How Wastes Influence Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiela Dana BOCA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies are often surprised to learn that only a fraction of their activities actually add value for their customers. A primary cause of waste is information deficits – employees simply lack the knowledge they need to do their jobs efficiently and effectively. This leads employees to waste valuable time and motion searching, waiting, retrieving, reworking or just plain future action. Companies are able to respond to changing customer desires with high variety, high quality, low cost, and with very fast throughput times. Eliminating waste along entire value streams, instead of at isolated points, creates processes that need less human effort, less space, less capital, and less time to make products and services at far less costs and with much fewer defects, compared with traditional business systems. Companies are able to respond to changing customer desires with high variety, high quality, low cost, and with very fast throughput times.

  13. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management. (LK)

  14. Integrated solid waste management of Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Seattle, Washington, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  15. Integrated solid waste management of Sevierville, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Sevierville, Tennessee integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  16. Integrated solid waste management of Springfield, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1993 cost of the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for Municipal Solid Waste management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of managing MSW in Springfield; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  17. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: practices and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Latifah Abd; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-01

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  18. e-Waste Management Scenarios in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Fatihah Suja; Rakmi Abdul Rahman; Arij Yusof; Mohd Shahbudin Masdar

    2014-01-01

    e-Waste, or electronic waste, disposal that is uncontrolled can be harmful to human health and the environment because e-waste contains toxic substances and heavy metals. However, if the waste is properly managed, it can become a business opportunity that produces high returns because e-waste also contains valuable materials, such as gold, silver, platinum, and palladium. The government of Malaysia wants to ensure the safe, effective, and economically beneficial management of e-waste in Malay...

  19. e-Waste Management Scenarios in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Fatihah Suja; Rakmi Abdul Rahman; Arij Yusof; Mohd Shahbudin Masdar

    2014-01-01

    e-Waste, or electronic waste, disposal that is uncontrolled can be harmful to human health and the environment because e-waste contains toxic substances and heavy metals. However, if the waste is properly managed, it can become a business opportunity that produces high returns because e-waste also contains valuable materials, such as gold, silver, platinum, and palladium. The government of Malaysia wants to ensure the safe, effective, and economically beneficial management of e-waste in Malay...

  20. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  1. Conceptual Model for Systematic Construction Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Rahim Mohd Hilmi Izwan; Kasim Narimah

    2017-01-01

    Development of the construction industry generated construction waste which can contribute towards environmental issues. Weaknesses of compliance in construction waste management especially in construction site have also contributed to the big issues of waste generated in landfills and illegal dumping area. This gives sign that construction projects are needed a systematic construction waste management. To date, a comprehensive criteria of construction waste management, particularly for const...

  2. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  3. Methodology for assessing performance of waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.K.; Herzenberg, C.L.; Camasta, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the methodology provided in this report is to select the optimal way to manage particular sets of waste streams from generation to disposal in a safe and cost-effective manner. The methodology described is designed to review the entire waste management system, assess its performance, ensure that the performance objectives are met, compare different LLW management alternatives, and select the optimal alternative. The methodology is based on decision analysis approach, in which costs and risk are considered for various LLW management alternatives, a comparison of costs, risks, and benefits is made, and an optimal system is selected which minimizes costs and risks and maximizes benefits. A ''zoom-lens'' approach is suggested, i.e., one begins by looking at gross features and gradually proceeds to more and more detail. Performance assessment requires certain information about the characteristics of the waste streams and about the various components of the waste management system. Waste acceptance criteria must be known for each component of the waste management system. Performance assessment for each component requires data about properties of the waste streams and operational and design characteristics of the processing or disposal components. 34 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Implementation of spatial smart waste management system in malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M. F.; Termizi, A. A. A.; Zainal, D.; Wahap, N. A.; Ismail, N. M.; Ahmad, N.

    2016-06-01

    One of the challenges to innovate and create an IoT -enabled solution is in monitoring and management of the environment. Waste collection utilizing the Internet of Things (IoT) with the technology of smart wireless sensors will able to gather fill-level data from waste containers hence providing a waste monitoring solution that brings up savings in waste collection costs. One of the challenges to the local authority is how to monitor the works of contractor effective and efficiently in waste management. This paper will propose to the local authority the implementation of smart waste management in Malaysia to improve the city management and to provide better services to the public towards smart city applications.

  5. ICDF Complex Operations Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Waste Management Plan functions as a management and planning tool for managing waste streams generated as a result of operations at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The waste management activities described in this plan support the selected remedy presented in the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision for the operation of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex. This plan identifies the types of waste that are anticipated during operations at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex. In addition, this plan presents management strategies and disposition for these anticipated waste streams.

  6. Indian programme on radioactive waste management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Wattal

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation. This article describes, briefly, the Indian programme on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adhering to this objective.

  7. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  8. International waste management fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, J P; LaMarche, M N; Upton, J F

    1997-10-01

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs.

  9. Full cost accounting in the analysis of separated waste collection efficiency: A methodological proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onza, Giuseppe; Greco, Giulio; Allegrini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Recycling implies additional costs for separated municipal solid waste (MSW) collection. The aim of the present study is to propose and implement a management tool - the full cost accounting (FCA) method - to calculate the full collection costs of different types of waste. Our analysis aims for a better understanding of the difficulties of putting FCA into practice in the MSW sector. We propose a FCA methodology that uses standard cost and actual quantities to calculate the collection costs of separate and undifferentiated waste. Our methodology allows cost efficiency analysis and benchmarking, overcoming problems related to firm-specific accounting choices, earnings management policies and purchase policies. Our methodology allows benchmarking and variance analysis that can be used to identify the causes of off-standards performance and guide managers to deploy resources more efficiently. Our methodology can be implemented by companies lacking a sophisticated management accounting system.

  10. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA`s CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information.

  11. Waste management/waste certification plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. Jr.; Hunt-Davenport, L.D.; Cofer, G.H.

    1995-03-01

    This Waste Management/Waste Certification (C) Plan, written for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), outlines the criteria and methodologies to be used in the management of waste generated during ORNL ER field activities. Other agreed upon methods may be used in the management of waste with consultation with ER and Waste Management Organization. The intent of this plan is to provide information for the minimization, handling, and disposal of waste generated by ER activities. This plan contains provisions for the safe and effective management of waste consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) guidance. Components of this plan have been designed to protect the environment and the health and safety of workers and the public. It, therefore, stresses that investigation derived waste (IDW) and other waste be managed to ensure that (1) all efforts be made to minimize the amount of waste generated; (2) costs associated with sampling storage, analysis, transportation, and disposal are minimized; (3) the potential for public and worker exposure is not increased; and (4) additional contaminated areas are not created.

  12. Waste Management Information System (WMIS) User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. E. Broz

    2008-12-22

    This document provides the user of the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) instructions on how to use the WMIS software. WMIS allows users to initiate, track, and close waste packages. The modular design supports integration and utilization of data throuh the various stages of waste management. The phases of the waste management work process include generation, designation, packaging, container management, procurement, storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal.

  13. COST MEASUREMENT AND COST MANAGEMENT IN TARGET COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisello Anna Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Firms are coping with a competitive scenario characterized by quick changes produced by internationalization, concentration, restructuring, technological innovation processes and financial market crisis. On the one hand market enlargement have increased the number and the segmentation of customers and have raised the number of competitors, on the other hand technological innovation has reduced product life cycle. So firms have to adjust their management models to this scenario, pursuing customer satisfaction and respecting cost constraints. In a context where price is a variable fixed by the market, firms have to switch from the cost measurement logic to the cost management one, adopting target costing methodology. The target costing process is a price driven, customer oriented profit planning and cost management system. It works, in a cross functional way, from the design stage throughout all the product life cycle and it involves the entire value chain. The process implementation needs a costing methodology consistent with the cost management logic. The aim of the paper is to focus on Activity Based Costing (ABC application to target costing process. So: -it analyzes target costing logic and phases, basing on a literary review, in order to highlight the costing needs related to this process; -it shows, through a numerical example, how to structure a flexible ABC model – characterized by the separation between variable, fixed in the short and fixed costs - that effectively supports target costing process in the cost measurement phase (drifting cost determination and in the target cost alignment; -it points out the effectiveness of the Activity Based Costing as a model of cost measurement applicable to the supplier choice and as a support for supply cost management which have an important role in target costing process. The activity based information allows a firm to optimize the supplier choice by following the method of minimizing the

  14. Online Management of Waste Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia IANCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a telematic system designed to monitor the areas affected by the uncontrollable waste storing by using the newest informational and communicational technologies through the elaboration of a GPS/GIS electronic geographical positioning system. Within the system for online management of the affected locations within the built up areas, the following data categories are defined and processed: data regarding the waste management (monitored locations within the built up areas, waste, pollution sources, waste stores, waste processing stations, data describing the environment protection (environmental quality parameters: water, air, soil, spatial data (thematic maps. Using the automatic collection of the data referring to the environment quality, it is aiming at the realization of a monitoring system, equipped with sensors and/or translators capable of measuring and translating (into electrical signals measures with meteorological character (the intensity of the solar radiation, temperature, humidity but also indicators of the ecological system (such as: the concentration of nutrients in water and soil, the pollution in water, air and soil, biomasses. The organization, the description and the processing of the spatial data requires the utilization of a GIS (Geographical Information System type product.

  15. Regional solid waste management study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  16. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Chuan; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-11-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

  17. Local waste management constraints and waste administrators in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shan Shan; Lo, Carlos W H

    2008-01-01

    Local level waste authorities and their officials directly interact and serve the people on behalf of higher governments. Given the influential positions they have on the quality of life of the citizens, these local waste authorities deserve more attention from researchers. This study throws light on the factors related to local waste management and administrators that have caused waste management failures in three mainland Chinese cities. Based on a survey conducted in 2002-2003, it was found that waste administrators in these cities are not professionally competent in their jobs and they are also not confident in using economic instruments to address waste management issues in their cities. These local waste authorities are generally under-funded, and funding politics has to some extent eroded the incentives to carry out the instructions of higher waste authorities. The community at large also does not respect local waste management work. The residents frequently litter, are unobservant of waste collection times and are unwilling to pay for waste collection service. All of these are handicapping environmentally sound waste management.

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  19. 8. Muenster waste management meeting. Proceedings; 8. Muensteraner Abfallwirtschaftstage. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallenkemper, B.; Bidlingmaier, W.; Doedens, H.; Stegmann, R. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume come in the following categories: Boundary conditions of the waste management sector; The field of tension between theory and practice of environmental policy; Power generation from waste; Mechanical-biological waste treatment systems and landfills; BMBF project ''Cost Reduction in Waste Management and Street Cleaning; Industrial safety and health hazards; Utilisation of compost and biomass; Current trends in the management of waste electrical appliances; Practical implementation of the Industrial Waste Ordinance (Gewerbeabfallverordnung); Obligatory refundable deposits on packaging materials. [German] Der Tagungsband enthaelt die Beitraege der Autoren, die unter folgenden Themenpunkten zusammengefasst werden: Abfallwirtschaftliche Rahmenbedingungen, Spannungsfeld umweltpolitische Anforderung und Praxis, zukuenftige Struktur der Entsorgungswirtschaft, energetische Verwertung von Abfaellen, MBA und Deponie, BMBF-Verbundprojekt: Kostenreduzierung in der Entsorgungslogistik und Strassenreinigung, Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsbelastung, Kompost- und Biomassenutzung, Erfassung von Elektroaltgeraeten, Umsetzung der Gewerbeabfallverordnung, Pfandpflicht, Stadtbildpflege und Anti-Littering. (uke)

  20. Managing Educational Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This study, based on research by UNESCO's International Institute for Educational Planning, deals with a prime contemporary problem, that of how to provide better education to more people in the face of tightening budgets, escalating costs, and educational conservatism. The authors contend that the imaginative use of cost analysis can be a…

  1. An assessment of pharmaceutical waste management in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of pharmaceutical waste management in some Nigerian pharmaceutical industries. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... waste, pharmaceuticals, wastewater, waste management, environment, regulatory authorities, effluent.

  2. The costs of household food waste in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman, Anton; de Lange, Willem; Oelofse, Suzan; Godfrey, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Food waste is problematic for a number of reasons, including the loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource for use in other processes (e.g. energy generation or composting), wasted resources and emissions in the food supply chain, and problems associated with the disposal of organic waste to landfill. This paper quantifies the household food waste stream in South Africa, in order to draw attention to the magnitude of the problem. In addition, it estimates the economic (monetary) value of the wasted food, as well as the costs associated with disposing putrescible food waste to landfill, in order to highlight the associated costs to society. Costs associated with the loss of a potentially valuable food source are valued using a weighted average market price of the wasted food. Costs associated with the disposal of food waste to landfill are quantified based on estimates of the financial and external costs associated with landfilling. For household food waste alone, the costs to society associated with these two food-waste related problems are estimated at approximately R21.7 billion (approximately US$2.7 billion) per annum, or 0.82% of South Africa's annual GDP. These costs are therefore significant, particularly considering that household food waste accounts for less than 4% of total food losses across the food supply chain.

  3. Aerospace vehicle water-waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

  4. Aerospace vehicle water-waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

  5. WASTE MANAGEMENT IN A SCHOOL RESTAURANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Peruchin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the amount of waste generated and its proper final destination is one of the greatest environmental issues. The higher education institutions are an important source of waste due to its diversity of teaching, researching and extension activities undertaken by academic world. The university restaurant supplies meals to the university community and ends up generating a kind of waste similar to the domestic waste, but in a bigger amount. The aim of this study was to investigate the gravimetric composition of the waste generated in the school restaurant of a higher-education institution in southern Brazil and provide a diagnostic of the current waste management. The data were obtained through a characterization process of the solid waste generated in one week; an interview with the responsible managers and direct observation of the local structure. It was found non-existence of a Management Plan for Solid Waste, as well as a lack of practices relative to its management. The waste segregation is impaired due the lack of specific and labeled bins, besides the overworked employees. Along the experimental period it were characterized 547,068 Kg of solid waste, in which more than 80% were organic waste. The paper concludes that the organic waste could be treated by composting. It is recommended the formulation and implementation of an integrated management plan for solid waste in order to provide adequate infrastructure for waste management in the school restaurant.

  6. Issues for small businesses with waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Elizabeth; Wang, Calvin

    2008-07-01

    Participation by small and medium enterprise (SME) in corporate social responsibility issues has been found to be lacking. This is a critical issue, as individually SMEs may have little impact on the environment but their collective footprint is significant. The management style and ethical stance of the owner-manager affects business decision making and therefore has a direct impact on the environmental actions of the business. Although adoption of environmental practices to create competitive advantage has been advocated, many businesses see implementation as a cost which cannot be transferred to their customers. After a brief review of pertinent literature this paper reports on an exploratory investigation into the issue. Results show that whereas owner-managers of small enterprises express concern regarding the environment, this does not then translate into better waste management practices.

  7. The Cost-estimation of Mechanical Pre-treatment Lines of Municipal Solid Waste in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Āriņa Dace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of refuse derived fuel from municipal solid waste in future shall play a strategic role in an integrated waste management system. The amount of landfilled biodegradable materials thus will be diminished according to provisions of the 1999 Waste Landfill Directive. The aim of this article is to evaluate cost effectiveness based on cost evaluation of the different complication of the waste pre-treatment equipment complectation and based on regenerable waste quantities in Latvia. The comparison of cost estimates is done in 3 scenarios considering potential waste quantities in Latvia: Scenario I - planned annual waste quantity is 20 kT; Scenario II - 40 kT and Scenario III - 160 kT. An increase in amount of waste and processing capacity means the decrease in costs of mechanical pre-treatment of 1 ton of waste. Thus, costs of mechanical sorting line under different scenarios with capacities of 10 t h-1, 20 t h-1 and 80 t h-1 are EUR 32 per t, EUR 24 per t and EUR 15 per t, respectively. Most feasible cost for a set of mechanical pre-treatment equipment for the capacity of 10 t h-1 is EUR 32 per t by using rotating drum screener with the following manual sorting. Mechanical pre-treatment equipment of unsorted municipal waste is economically nonbeneficial, when the use of fine (biologically degradable fraction is not possible. As the sorting of biodegradable kitchen waste is not developed under the current waste management system in Latvia, the lines for mechanical pre-treatment of household waste would be better to install in landfills.

  8. LCA Modeling of Waste Management Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Simion, F.; Tonini, Davide

    2011-01-01

    and shows that recycling is superior to incineration with energy recovery, which again is better than landfilling. Cleary (2010) reviewed 20 waste management scenarios assessed in 11 studies published in the period 2002–2008 and concluded that, due to lack of transparency regarding boundary conditions...... and exchange with the energy systems, a comparison of results was hampered on a system level. In addition, differences in waste composition may affect the LCA results. This chapter provides results of LCA modeling of 40 waste management scenarios handling the same municipal waste (MSW) and using different...... management systems. The study focuses on Europe in terms of waste composition and exchange with the energy system. The waste management systems modeled are described with respect to waste composition, waste management technologies, mass flows and energy exchange in the systems. Results are first presented...

  9. Economic and employment potential in textile waste management of Faisalabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Muhammad; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhary, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the waste from the textile industry, to identify the sources and types of waste generation and to find out the economic and employment potential in this sector. Textile waste, its management, and the economic and employment potential in this sector are unrevealed facts in developing countries such as Pakistan. The textile industry is ranked first in export earning in Pakistan. Textile export of yarn and cloth from Faisalabad is US$3 billion per year. On average 161 325 people are employed in the textile sector in Faisalabad, of which 11 860 are involved in solid waste handling and management. The textile industries generate solid wastes such as fibre, metal, plastic and paper waste. A total of 794 209 kg day(-1) (289 886 285 kg year(-1)) solid waste is produced from this sector and purchased by cotton waste junkshop owners at US$125 027 day(-1) (US$45 634 855 year(-1)). Only pre-consumer textile waste is considered. Interestingly no waste is sent to landfill. The waste is first segregated into different categories/ types by hand and then weighed. Cotton waste is sold to brick kilns where it is used as an alternative fuel as it is cheaper than wood/coal. Iron scrap is sold in the junk market from where it is resold to recycling industries. Paper waste is recycled, minimizing the virgin material used for producing new paper products. Iron and plastic drums are returned to the chemical industries for refilling, thus decreasing the cost of dyes and decreasing the demand for new drums. Cutting rags are used for making different things such as ropes and underlay, it is also shredded and used as fillings for pillows and mattresses, thus improving waste management, reducing cost and minimizing the need for virgin material. As no system of quality control and no monitoring of subsequent products exist there is a need to carry out quality control and monitoring.

  10. Revolutionary advances in medical waste management. The Sanitec system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Borel, Lise; Jensen, H Gordon; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K Dean; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Becker, Daniel G; Chang, Dillon E; Korngold, Jonathan; Chitwood, W Randolph; Lin, Kant Y; Nichter, Larry S; Berenson, Susan; Britt, L D; Tafel, John A

    2006-01-01

    It is the purpose of this collective review to provide a detailed outline of a revolutionary medical waste disposal system that should be used in all medical centers in the world to prevent pollution of our planet from medical waste. The Sanitec medical waste disposal system consists of the following seven components: (1) an all-weather steel enclosure of the waste management system, allowing it to be used inside or outside of the hospital center; (2) an automatic mechanical lift-and-load system that protects the workers from devastating back injuries; (3) a sophisticated shredding system designed for medical waste; (4) a series of air filters including the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter; (5) microwave disinfection of the medical waste material; (6) a waste compactor or dumpster; and (7) an onboard microprocessor. It must be emphasized that this waste management system can be used either inside or outside the hospital. From start to finish, the Sanitec Microwave Disinfection system is designed to provide process and engineering controls that assure complete disinfection and destruction, while minimizing the operator's exposure to risk. There are numerous technologic benefits to the Sanitec systems, including environmental, operational, physical, and disinfection efficiency as well as waste residue disinfection. Wastes treated through the Sanitec system are thoroughly disinfected, unrecognizable, and reduced in volume by approximately 80% (saving valuable landfill space and reducing hauling requirements and costs). They are acceptable in any municipal solid waste program. Sanitec's Zero Pollution Advantage is augmented by a complete range of services, including installation, startup, testing, training, maintenance, and repair, over the life of this system. The Sanitec waste management system has essentially been designed to provide the best overall solution to the customer, when that customer actually looks at the total cost of dealing with the

  11. Waste Management in Hunter-Gatherer Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlíček Filip

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes examples of material and waste management with a focus on select Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic sites. It examines the structuring of space and landscape from the perspective of waste management as a certain need of natural human behavior. The article touches on the concept of purity and on defining the creation of waste.

  12. Sustainable Waste Management for Green Highway Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Nur Illiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green highway initiative is the transportation corridors based on sustainable concept of roadway. It incorporates both transportation functionality and ecological requirements. Green highway also provides more sustainable construction technique that maximizes the lifespan of highway. Waste management is one of the sustainable criterias in the elements of green highway. Construction of highway consumes enormous amounts of waste in term of materials and energy. These wastes need to be reduce to sustain the environment. This paper aims to identify the types of waste produced from highway construction. Additionally, this study also determine the waste minimization strategy and waste management practiced.. This study main focus are construction and demolition waste only. The methodology process begin with data collection by using questionnaire survey. 22 concession companies listed under Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia acted as a respondent. The questionnaires were distributed to all technical department staffs. The data received was analyzed using IBM SPSS. The results shows the most production of waste is wood, soil, tree root and concrete. The least production of waste is metal. For waste minimization, the best waste minimization is reuse for all type of waste except for tree root and stump. Whereas, the best waste management is providing strategic plan. The least practice for waste management is recording the quantity of waste.

  13. Integral Chemical Waste Management in Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza P., Jorge; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química - Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Silva M., Marina; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química - Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Galarreta D., Hugo; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química - Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The suitable management and handling of the chemical wastes origínatíng from laboratories allow the saving of reagents and materíals; as well as the reductíon of costs assocíated wíth their handling and final disposal. lt also prevents detriment to the health of the people who have to conduct an academic activity in the laboratory (professors, assistants and students) ora professíonal activity related to service consulting dealíng with chemical analyses (analysts, assistants and auxiliary per...

  14. Nuclear wastes management; Gestion des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of the debate that took place at the French Senate on April 13, 2005 about the long-term French policy of radioactive wastes management. The different points tackled during the debate concern: the 3 axes of research of the 1991 law, the public acceptance about the implementation of repositories, the regional economic impact, the cost and financing, the lack of experience feedback, the reversibility or irreversibility of the storage, the share of nuclear energy in the sustainable development policy, the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project, the privatization of Electricite de France (EdF) etc. (J.S.)

  15. International E-Waste Management Network (IEMN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Environmental Protection Administration Taiwan (EPAT) have collaborated since 2011 to build global capacity for the environmentally sound management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), which is commonly called e-waste.

  16. LCA of Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The chapter explores the application of LCA to solid waste management systems through the review of published studies on the subject. The environmental implications of choices involved in the modelling setup of waste management systems are increasingly in the spotlight, due to public health...... concerns and new legislation addressing the impacts from managing our waste. The application of LCA to solid waste management systems, sometimes called “waste LCA”, is distinctive in that system boundaries are rigorously defined to exclude all life cycle stages except from the end-of-life. Moreover......, specific methodological challenges arise when investigating waste systems, such as the allocation of impacts and the consideration of long-term emissions. The complexity of waste LCAs is mainly derived from the variability of the object under study (waste) which is made of different materials that may...

  17. Impacts on waste planning and management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available the skills or experience to manage this waste responsibly. Available waste water infrastructure in the study area is under pressure and requires urgent intervention. The technologies and capacity at these already stressed facilities are not sufficient...

  18. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from country to country. Furthermore, microbiological procedures, plasma vitrification process, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, evaporation and reverse osmosis are strategies used for the treatment of radioactive wastes. The major challenge is to manage these radioactive substances after being used and discharged. This report brings data from the literature published worldwide from 2009 to 2014 on radioactive waste management studies and it covers production, classification and management of radioactive solid, liquid and gas waste.

  19. E-Waste Management and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S.; Kumar, K. Ram

    2010-11-01

    E-Waste is one of the silent degraders of the environment in the fast-growing world. This paper explores briefly the ultra-modern problem of E-Waste. After enumerating the causes and effects of the E-Waste, it focuses on management of the E-waste using modern techniques. The paper also deals with the responsibilities of the governments, industries and citizens in reducing E-waste.

  20. Management of New Production Reactor waste streams at Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.; Newman, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    To ensure the adequacy of available facilities, the disposition of the several waste types generated in support of a heavy-water NPR operation at the Savannah River Site were projected through waste- treatment and disposal facilities after the year 2000. Volumes of high-level, low-level radioactive, TRU, hazardous, mixed and non-radioactive waste were predicted for early assessments of environmental impacts and to provide a baseline for future waste-minimization initiatives. Life-cycle unit costs for disposal of the waste, adjusted to reflect waste management capabilities in the NPR operating time frame, were developed to evaluate the economic effectiveness of waste-minimization activities in the NPR program.

  1. Management of New Production Reactor waste streams at Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.; Newman, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    To ensure the adequacy of available facilities, the disposition of the several waste types generated in support of a heavy-water NPR operation at the Savannah River Site were projected through waste- treatment and disposal facilities after the year 2000. Volumes of high-level, low-level radioactive, TRU, hazardous, mixed and non-radioactive waste were predicted for early assessments of environmental impacts and to provide a baseline for future waste-minimization initiatives. Life-cycle unit costs for disposal of the waste, adjusted to reflect waste management capabilities in the NPR operating time frame, were developed to evaluate the economic effectiveness of waste-minimization activities in the NPR program.

  2. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Lilliana Abarca; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities.

  3. Safe management of non-nuclear radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, J.C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-15

    In May 2002, the Swedish Government set up a non-standing committee for the management of radioactive waste unrelated to nuclear technology i.e. outside the nuclear fuel cycle - in this report called non-nuclear radioactive waste. The objective was to elaborate proposals for a national system for the management of all types of non-nuclear radioactive wastes with special consideration of inter alia the polluter pays principle and the responsibility of the producers. The author was principal secretary in the Committee. The proposals from the Committee was delivered to the Government by December 3, 2003. Funds for future costs for the management and final storage of waste from nuclear power are collected in a state-governed funding system. The power sector pays a flat fee per kilowatt-hour nuclear power. For non-nuclear radioactive waste, however, there are no means today to secure the funding. If a company goes bankrupt and leaves radioactive waste behind it might be up to the taxpayers to pay for its safe management. This is because the holder of the waste is responsible for its disposal. The costs appear at the time of disposal and it is usually the last owner/holder of a radioactive product that has to pay. Sometimes the costs come as a surprise and the owner might not have the money available. Thus the waste might be kept longer than warranted or end up as orphan waste. To solve this dilemma and other weaknesses in the Swedish system the Committee proposes a funding system paralleling the system for nuclear waste. The cost for the waste should be paid up front, i.e. when a customer buys a product using a radioactive source, the cost for the future waste management should be included in the price. In this way the consumer will not have to pay for this the day he disposes of the product by returning it to the original producer or leaving it to some waste treatment organization. It should be the responsibility of the producer (manufacturer, importer) to guarantee

  4. Managing Costs and Medical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with cancer may face major financial challenges and need help dealing with the high costs of care. Cancer treatment can be very expensive, even when you have insurance. Learn ways to manage medical information, paperwork, bills, and other records.

  5. Disaster waste management: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica

    2011-06-01

    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

  7. Integrated sustainable waste management in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, D C; Velis, C.A.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the lens of ‘integrated sustainable waste management’ to examine how cities in developing countries have been tackling their solid waste problems. The history of related concepts and terms is reviewed, and ISWM is clearly differentiated from integrated waste management, used mostly in the context of technological integration in developed countries. Instead, integrated sustainable waste management examines both the physical components (collection, disposal and recycling) and th...

  8. Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A; Ajaz, M.; Jan, FA

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance w...

  9. Environmental and economic analysis of management systems for biodegradable waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonesson, U. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7033, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Bjoerklund, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology/Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Carlsson, M. [Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7013, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Dalemo, M. [Swedish Institute of Agricultural Engineering, P.O. Box 7033, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    The management system for solid and liquid organic waste affects the environment and surrounding technical systems in several ways. In order to decrease the environmental impact and resource use, biological waste treatment and alternative solutions for sewage treatment are often advocated. These alternatives include increased agricultural use of waste residuals. To analyse whether such proposed systems indicate improvements for the environment and its sustainability, systems analysis is a useful method. The changes in environmental impact and resource use is not only a result of changes in waste treatment methods, but also largely a result of changes in surrounding systems (energy and agriculture) caused by changes in waste management practices. In order to perform a systems analysis, a substance-flow simulation model, the organic waste research model (ORWARE), has been used. The results are evaluated by using methodology from life cycle assessment (LCA). An economic analysis was also performed on three of the studied scenarios. The management system for solid organic waste and sewage in the municipality of Uppsala, Sweden, was studied. Three scenarios for different treatments of solid waste were analysed: incineration with heat recovery, composting, and anaerobic digestion. These three scenarios included conventional sewage treatment. A fourth scenario reviewed was anaerobic digestion of solid waste, using urine-separating toilets and separate handling of the urine fraction. The results are only valid for the case study and under the assumptions made. In this case study anaerobic digestion result in the lowest environmental impact of all the solid waste management systems, but is costly. Economically, incineration with heat recovery is the cheapest way to treat solid waste. Composting gives environmental advantages compared to incineration methods, without significantly increased costs. Urine separation, which may be implemented together with any solid waste

  10. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.

    1966-04-15

    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.

  11. Effectiveness of waste management in Mataram City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayanti, B. H.; Hirsan, F. P.; Kurniawan, A.

    2017-06-01

    Mataram city as National Activity Center (NAC) led to increased of activity that occurs in this region. This condition impacted the increasing of population and the amount of waste. The amount of waste in Mataram City currently reaches 1,444 m3/day and that has been transported by the Sanitation Department as much as 1,033.82 m3 or 71.59%. This research aims to analyze the effectiveness of community-based waste or waste management. The method that was used is quantitative descriptive analysis of waste heaps and analysis of waste management. The results of the analysis of waste heaps is that in the next 10 years (2026) the amount of waste will reach 2,019 m3/day. By using the analysis of waste management, if there are 25 units machines today and 48 waste management groups are effectively utilized, then 948 m3 amount of waste could be processed in a day or as much as 65.65% of the waste is managed by the community. So that, in order to get over this waste problems, collaboration between government and the community in Mataram City is needed.

  12. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  13. Strategic Aspects of Cost Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika I. Petrova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report is a summary of a research done on the area of Strategic Cost Management (SCM. This report includes a detailed discussion and application of Life Cycle Costing (LCC which a company can use to achieve its strategic objects in today's dynamic business environment. Hence, the main focus of this report is on LCC as mentioned

  14. Making waste management public (or falling back to sleep)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Scott; Rowe, R Kerry; Kuyvenhoven, Cassandra

    2014-01-01

    Human-produced waste is a major environmental concern, with communities considering various waste management practices, such as increased recycling, landfilling, incineration, and waste-to-energy technologies. This article is concerned with how and why publics assemble around waste management issues. In particular, we explore Noortje Marres and Bruno Latour’s theory that publics do not exist prior to issues but rather assemble around objects, and through these assemblages, objects become matters of concern that sometimes become political. The article addresses this theory of making things public through a study of a small city in Ontario, Canada, whose landfill is closed and waste diversion options are saturated, and that faces unsustainable costs in shipping its waste to the United States, China, and other regions. The city’s officials are undertaking a cost–benefit assessment to determine the efficacy of siting a new landfill or other waste management facility. We are interested in emphasizing the complexity of making (or not making) landfills public, by exploring an object in action, where members of the public may or may not assemble, waste may or may not be made into an issue, and waste is sufficiently routinized that it is not typically transformed from an object to an issue. We hope to demonstrate Latour’s third and fifth senses of politics best account for waste management’s trajectory as a persistent yet inconsistent matter of public concern. PMID:25051590

  15. Alternative approaches for better municipal solid waste management in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Sarika

    2006-01-01

    Waste is an unavoidable by product of human activities. Economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities, have led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste. Rapid growth of population and industrialization degrades the urban environment and places serious stress on natural resources, which undermines equitable and sustainable development. Inefficient management and disposal of solid waste is an obvious cause of degradation of the environment in most cities of the developing world. Municipal corporations of the developing countries are not able to handle increasing quantities of waste, which results in uncollected waste on roads and in other public places. There is a need to work towards a sustainable waste management system, which requires environmental, institutional, financial, economic and social sustainability. This study explores alternative approaches to municipal solid waste (MSW) management and estimates the cost of waste management in Mumbai, India. Two alternatives considered in the paper are community participation and public private partnership in waste management. Data for the present study are from various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and from the private sector involved in waste management in Mumbai. Mathematical models are used to estimate the cost per ton of waste management for both of the alternatives, which are compared with the cost of waste management by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). It is found that the cost per ton of waste management is Rs. 1518 (35 US dollars) with community participation; Rs. 1797 (41 US dollars) with public private partnership (PPP); and Rs. 1908 (44 US dollars) when only MCGM handles the waste. Hence, community participation in waste management is the least cost option and there is a strong case for comprehensively involving community participation in waste management.

  16. Benchmarking on the management of radioactive waste; Benchmarking sobre la gestion de los residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Gomez, M. a.; Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Gomez Castano, N.

    2013-09-01

    In this project, an evaluation of the practices carried out in the waste management field at the Spanish nuclear power plants has been done following the Benchmarking methodology. This process has allowed the identification of aspects to improve waste treatment processes; to reduce the volume of waste; to reduce management costs and to establish ways of management for the waste stream which do not have. (Author)

  17. Waste Management Technician Partnership Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Donna

    This final report for Columbia Basin College's waste management technician partnership program outlines 4 objectives: (1) develop at least 4 waste management competency-based curriculum modules; (2) have 50 participants complete at least 1 module; (3) have 100 participants complete a training and/or certification program and 200 managers complete…

  18. Optimal waste-to-energy strategy assisted by GIS For sustainable solid waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S. T.; Hashim, H.

    2014-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management has become more complex and costly with the rapid socio-economic development and increased volume of waste. Planning a sustainable regional waste management strategy is a critical step for the decision maker. There is a great potential for MSW to be used for the generation of renewable energy through waste incineration or landfilling with gas capture system. However, due to high processing cost and cost of resource transportation and distribution throughout the waste collection station and power plant, MSW is mostly disposed in the landfill. This paper presents an optimization model incorporated with GIS data inputs for MSW management. The model can design the multi-period waste-to-energy (WTE) strategy to illustrate the economic potential and tradeoffs for MSW management under different scenarios. The model is capable of predicting the optimal generation, capacity, type of WTE conversion technology and location for the operation and construction of new WTE power plants to satisfy the increased energy demand by 2025 in the most profitable way. Iskandar Malaysia region was chosen as the model city for this study.

  19. Community Participation in Solid Waste Management, Kathmandu

    OpenAIRE

    Gotame, Manira

    2012-01-01

    Waste management in Nepal is one of the important topics discussed today. Participation of the community is thus,being encouraged to manage solid waste. My study area is Kathmandu (Buddhajyoti, Chamati and Milijuli, Ganesh and Jagriti settlements in Kathmandu). My paper focuses in community participation in solid waste management in these settlements/communities. there are different projects working for this purpose in these settlements. I used household survey...

  20. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  1. Options for Healthcare Waste Management and Treatment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare waste management and treatment is one of the national priority tasks of China's Tenth Five-Year Plan.Numerous installations disposing medical waste have already operated the project or under construction to the operation in 2006. This paper focuses on the assessment of existing and fu~re options to handle medical waste (MW). Internationally available and so far in China applied technologies and management practice are analysed, including the problems how to materials. Non-hazardous MW can be managed and treated in analogue to municipal solid waste (MSW). In most of the European countries decentralised hospital incinerators have been, because of high operation costs and pollution problems,widely banned and replaced by pre-treatment technologies at the source and centralised incineration plants for hazardous MW.Information for adapting and further developing MW management solutions and treatment technologies in China and applying the most appropriate MWM practice is provided.

  2. e-Waste Management Scenarios in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatihah Suja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available e-Waste, or electronic waste, disposal that is uncontrolled can be harmful to human health and the environment because e-waste contains toxic substances and heavy metals. However, if the waste is properly managed, it can become a business opportunity that produces high returns because e-waste also contains valuable materials, such as gold, silver, platinum, and palladium. The government of Malaysia wants to ensure the safe, effective, and economically beneficial management of e-waste in Malaysia. Management approaches have included law enforcement and regulation and the promotion of e-waste recovery activities. e-Waste of no commercial value must be disposed of at sites/premises licensed by the Department of Environment (DOE, Malaysia. To date, 18 full recovery facilities and 128 partial recovery facilities that use various available technologies have been designated for the segregation, dismantling, and treatment of e-waste. However, there are issues faced by the recovery facilities in achieving the goal of converting e-waste into a source material. The issues include the e-waste supply, the importation of e-waste derived products and coding, and finally the need to develop the criteria for e-waste processing technologies to ensure the safety and the sustainability of the facilities.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Waste Management System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Waste Management System (Case Study: ... solid waste management systems for determine the optimum municipal solid waste ... include water pollution, air pollution, consumed energy and waste residues.

  4. Sustainable sound waste management startegies in Juja, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable sound waste management startegies in Juja, Kenya. ... Integrated solid waste management includes source reduction, source separation, recycling ... waste in Juja consisted of 80% food and other organic wastes, 10% plastics, ...

  5. An innovative national health care waste management system in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toktobaev, Nurjan; Emmanuel, Jorge; Djumalieva, Gulmira; Kravtsov, Alexei; Schüth, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    A novel low-cost health care waste management system was implemented in all rural hospitals in Kyrgyzstan. The components of the Kyrgyz model include mechanical needle removers, segregation using autoclavable containers, safe transport and storage, autoclave treatment, documentation, recycling of sterilized plastic and metal parts, cement pits for anatomical waste, composting of garden wastes, training, equipment maintenance, and management by safety and quality committees. The gravity-displacement autoclaves were fitted with filters to remove pathogens from the air exhaust. Operating parameters for the autoclaves were determined by thermal and biological tests. A hospital survey showed an average 33% annual cost savings compared to previous costs for waste management. All general hospitals with >25 beds except in the capital Bishkek use the new system, corresponding to 67.3% of all hospital beds. The investment amounted to US$0.61 per capita covered. Acceptance of the new system by the staff, cost savings, revenues from recycled materials, documented improvements in occupational safety, capacity building, and institutionalization enhance the sustainability of the Kyrgyz health care waste management system. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Integrated sustainable waste management in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, D.C.; Velis, C.A.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the lens of ‘integrated sustainable waste management’ to examine how cities in developing countries have been tackling their solid waste problems. The history of related concepts and terms is reviewed, and ISWM is clearly differentiated from integrated waste management, used mostly

  7. 40 CFR 273.13 - Waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste to the environment. The universal waste pesticides must be contained in one or more of the..., structurally sound, compatible with the pesticide, and that lacks evidence of leakage, spillage, or damage that... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management. 273.13 Section 273...

  8. 40 CFR 273.33 - Waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... component of a universal waste to the environment. The universal waste pesticides must be contained in one... the pesticide, and that lacks evidence of leakage, spillage, or damage that could cause leakage under... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management. 273.33 Section 273...

  9. Solid Waste Management Practices in EBRP Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nadine L.

    1994-01-01

    A Louisiana school district has made tremendous progress toward developing and implementing an environmentally friendly solid waste management program. Packaging changes in school food service, newspaper and aluminum can recycling, and composting of leaf and yard waste have contributed to reduced waste sent to the local landfill. (MLF)

  10. Assessment of municipal solid waste management scenarios in Irkutsk (Russia) using a life cycle assessment-integrated waste management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulokhonova, Alisa; Ulanova, Olga

    2013-05-01

    Continuous growth in the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) and increasing demands for their environmentally-friendly treatment are one of the main consequences of the growing social and economic development rate in modern society. Despite ecologically sustainable trends in waste management systems around the world, open dumps are still the main waste treatment option in Russia. This study aims to help the local municipality administration in Irkutsk (Russia) identify the most appropriate direction for current waste management and its optimization. Within this study four developed MSW management scenarios were assessed and compared with respect to their ecological, economic and social aspects using a life cycle-based integrated waste management model. The evaluation results of these scenarios show that the development of environmental sustainability and the reduction of social effects lead to an increase in handling of costs of waste. The best scenario, regarding both environmental and social aspects, is scenario four, which includes the separate collection and reprocessing of recyclables in combination with an aerobic mechanical-biological pre-treatment of the residual waste before landfilling. However, this scenario is 3.6 times more expensive than the existing system. The results of all assessed scenarios were further analyzed and recommendations were made to design integrated waste management solutions that are optimal not only from the ecological and social points of view, but which are also realistic within the given economic situation.

  11. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  12. CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN OROSZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most important areas are related to the developing projects of municipal solid waste treatment (increasingthe capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building of new composting plants. The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of national waste management on the short and long term?

  13. Technology Roadmapping for Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, O.

    2003-02-26

    Technology roadmapping can be an effective strategic technology planning tool. This paper describes a process for customizing a generic technology roadmapping process. Starting with a generic process reduces the learning curve and speeds up the roadmap development. Similarly, starting with a generic domain model provides leverage across multiple applications or situations within the domain. A process that combines these two approaches facilitates identifying technology gaps and determining common core technologies that can be reused for multiple applications or situations within the domain. This paper describes both of these processes and how they can be integrated. A core team and a number of technology working groups develop the technology roadmap, which includes critical system requirements and targets, technology areas and metrics for each area, and identifies and evaluates possible technology alternatives to recommend the most appropriate ones to pursue. A generalized waste management model, generated by considering multiple situations or applications in terms of a generic waste management model, provides the domain requirements for the technology roadmapping process. Finally, the paper discusses lessons learns from a number of roadmapping projects.

  14. An environmental analysis for comparing waste management options and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchettini, N; Ridolfi, R; Rustici, M

    2007-01-01

    The debate on different waste management practices has become an issue of utmost importance as human activities have overloaded the assimilative capacity of the biosphere. Recent Italian law on solid waste management recommends an increase in material recycling and energy recovery, and only foresees landfill disposal for inert materials and residues from recovery and recycling. A correct waste management policy should be based on the principles of sustainable development, according to which our refuse is not simply regarded as something to eliminate but rather as a potential resource. This requires the creation of an integrated waste management plan that makes full use of all available technologies. In this context, eMergy analysis is applied to evaluate three different forms of waste treatment and construct an approach capable of assessing the whole strategy of waste management. The evaluation included how much investment is needed for each type of waste management and how much "utility" is extracted from wastes, through the use of two indicators: Environmental yield ratio (EYR) and Net eMergy. Our results show that landfill is the worst system in terms of eMergy costs and eMergy benefits. Composting is the most efficient system in recovering eMergy (highest EYR) from municipal solid waste (MSW) while incineration is capable of saving the greatest quantity of eMergy per gram of MSW (highest net eMergy). This analysis has made it possible to assess the sustainability and the efficiency of individual options but could also be used to assess a greater environmental strategy for waste management, considering a system that might include landfills, incineration, composting, etc.

  15. Integrated solid waste management in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdoli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and industrialization, population growth and economic growth in developing countries make management of municipal solid waste more complex comparing with developed countries. Furthermore, the conventional municipal solid waste management approach often is reductionists, not tailored to handle complexity. Therefore, the need to a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary approach regarding the municipal solid waste management problems is increasing. The concept of integrated solid waste management is accepted for this aim all over the world. This paper analyzes the current situation as well as opportunities and challenges regarding municipal solid waste management in Isfahan according to the integrated solid waste management framework in six aspects: environmental, political/legal, institutional, socio-cultural, financial/economic, technical and performance aspects. Based on the results obtained in this analysis, the main suggestions for future integrated solid waste management of Isfahan are as i promoting financial sustainability by taking the solid waste fee and reducing the expenses through the promoting source collection of recyclable materials, ii improving compost quality and also marketing the compost products simultaneously, iii promoting the private sector involvements throughout the municipal solid waste management system.

  16. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  17. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs. In......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group.......This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning...

  18. Life cycle costs for disposal and assured isolation of low-level radioactive waste in Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, B.; Sutherland, A.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-03-01

    This document presents life cycle costs for a low-level radioactive disposal facility and a comparable assured isolation facility. Cost projections were based on general plans and assumptions, including volume projections and operating life, provided by the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service, for a facility designed to meet the State`s needs. Life cycle costs include the costs of pre-construction activities, construction, operations, closure, and post-closure institutional control. In order to provide a better basis for understanding the relative magnitude of near-term costs and future costs, the results of present value analysis of ut-year costs are provided.

  19. Domestic waste disposal practice and perceptions of private sector waste management in urban Accra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Waste poses a threat to public health and the environment if it is not stored, collected, and disposed of properly. The perception of waste as an unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards disposal. This study investigates the domestic waste practices, waste disposal, and perceptions about waste and health in an urban community. Methods The study utilised a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data. A total of 364 household heads were interviewed in the survey and six key informants were interviewed with the in-depth interviews. Results The results of the study revealed that 93.1% of households disposed of food debris as waste and 77.8% disposed of plastic materials as waste. The study also showed that 61.0% of the households disposed of their waste at community bins or had waste picked up at their homes by private contractors. The remaining 39.0% disposed of their waste in gutters, streets, holes and nearby bushes. Of those who paid for the services of private contractors, 62.9% were not satisfied with the services because of their cost and irregular collection. About 83% of the respondents were aware that improper waste management contributes to disease causation; most of the respondents thought that improper waste management could lead to malaria and diarrhoea. There was a general perception that children should be responsible for transporting waste from the households to dumping sites. Conclusion Proper education of the public, the provision of more communal trash bins, and the collection of waste by private contractors could help prevent exposing the public in municipalities to diseases. PMID:25005728

  20. Coal waste management practices in the USA:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoginder P. Chugh; Paul T. Behum

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of coal waste management practices with two case studies and an estimate of management cost in 2010 US dollars. Processing of as-mined coal typically results in considerable amount of coarse and fine coal processing wastes because of in-seam and out-of-seam dilution mining. Processing plant clean coal recovery values run typically 50%–80%. Trace metals and sulfur may be present in waste materials that may result in leachate water with corrosive charac-teristics. Water discharges may require special measures such as liner and collection systems, and treatment to neutralize acid drainage and/or water quality for trace elements. The potential for variations in coal waste production and quality depends upon mining or processing, plus the long-term methods of waste placement. The changes in waste generation rates and engineering properties of the coal waste during the life of the facility must be considered. Safe, economical and environmentally acceptable management of coal waste involves consideration of geology, soil and rock mechanics, hydrology, hydraulics, geochemistry, soil science, agronomy and environmental sciences. These support all aspects of the regulatory environment including the design and construction of earth and rock embankments and dams, as well as a wide variety of waste disposal structures. Development of impoundments is critical and require considerations of typical water-impounding dams and additional requirements of coal waste disposal impoundments. The primary purpose of a coal waste disposal facility is to dispose of unusable waste materials from mining. However, at some sites coal waste impoundments serve to provide water storage capacity for processing and flood attenuation.

  1. Rapid and sustained cost management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D. [Accenture, New York, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs.

  2. Electronic waste management approaches: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiddee, Peeranart [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@crccare.com [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Wong, Ming H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Human toxicity of hazardous substances in e-waste. ► Environmental impacts of e-waste from disposal processes. ► Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) to and solve e-waste problems. ► Key issues relating to tools managing e-waste for sustainable e-waste management. - Abstract: Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. This paper presents an overview of toxic substances present in e-waste, their potential environmental and human health impacts together with management strategies currently being used in certain countries. Several tools including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) have been developed to manage e-wastes especially in developed countries. The key to success in terms of e-waste management is to develop eco-design devices, properly collect e-waste, recover and recycle material by safe methods, dispose of e-waste by suitable techniques, forbid the transfer of used electronic devices to developing countries, and raise awareness of the impact of e-waste. No single tool is adequate but together they can complement each other to solve this issue. A national scheme such as EPR is a good policy in solving the growing e-waste problems.

  3. A Cost Analysis of Food Waste Composting in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration (EPA has enacted a food waste recycling policy since 2003 as an alternative of landfill and incineration for the final disposal of municipal solid waste. Recycled food waste is currently seen as a valuable material, especially when appropriate technology is developed. This paper conducts a cost/benefit analysis based on six cases of food waste composting plants in Taiwan, finding that (1 the composting of food waste may yield the most net benefit compared to other applications of today; (2 the production cost of compost ranges from NT$ 2897–23,117/tonne; (3 the adoption of more automatic technology may reduce operation costs and, thus, a closed composting system with mechanical aeration may be more cost effective; (4 the output is a determinant of affecting production costs and private firms are more competitive in production costs than government-affiliated composting units; (5 all of the government-affiliated composting units face a negative profit and thus they are required to make use of the market value of the produced compost to achieve economic viability; and (6 a subsidy to the compost producer is needed to expand the market demand as the food waste recycled can save the disposal cost of municipal solid waste (MSW incineration.

  4. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  5. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that date are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed.

  6. Costs of food waste in South Africa: Incorporating inedible food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Willem; Nahman, Anton

    2015-06-01

    The economic, social and environmental costs of food waste are being increasingly recognised. Food waste consists of both edible and inedible components. Whilst wastage of edible food is problematic for obvious reasons, there are also costs associated with the disposal of the inedible fraction to landfill. This is the third in a series of papers examining the costs of food waste throughout the value chain in South Africa. The previous papers focused on the edible portion of food waste. In this paper, costs associated with inedible food waste in South Africa are estimated, in terms of the value foregone by not recovering this waste for use in downstream applications, such as energy generation or composting; as well as costs associated with disposal to landfill. Opportunity costs are estimated at R6.4 (US$0.64) billion per annum, or R2668 (US$266) per tonne. Adding this to the previous estimate for edible food waste of R61.5 billion per annum (in 2012 prices; equivalent to R65 billion in 2013 prices) results in a total opportunity cost of food waste in South Africa (in terms of loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource) of R71.4 (US$7.14) billion per annum, or R5667 (US$567) per tonne. Thereafter, estimates of the costs associated with disposal of this food waste to landfill, including both financial costs and externalities (social and environmental costs), are taken into account. These costs amount to R255 (US$25) per tonne, giving rise to a total cost of food waste in South Africa of R75 billion (US$7.5 billion) per annum, or R5922 (US$592) per tonne. This is equivalent to 2.2% of South Africa's 2013 GDP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Supplemental Information Source Document Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Halpern, Jonathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mond, Michael du [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shain, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Supplemental Information Source Document for Waste Management was prepared in support of future analyses including those that may be performed as part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. This document presents information about waste management practices at SNL/NM, including definitions, inventory data, and an overview of current activities.

  8. Designing Cost-Competitive Technology Products through Cost Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, T.; Wouters, Marc

    2004-01-01

    SYNOPSIS: As manufacturing innovations spread throughout leading organizations, product development becomes a more important source of competitive advantage. Within product development, cost management receives increasing attention. To date, cost management in new product development focuses

  9. The Fully Burdened Cost of Waste in Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Markets • On-Site Reuse /Composting • On-Site Incineration (all types) and/or Containerized Burn (solid) • On-Site Landfills (with liners) • Off-Site Local...Blackwater:Yes Greywater : No Disposal: Local River 6 Cost Components Cost Component Cost Drivers Infrastructure Facility type (e.g., waste separation

  10. A mathematical model for municipal solid waste management - A case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C K M; Yeung, C L; Xiong, Z R; Chung, S H

    2016-12-01

    With the booming economy and increasing population, the accumulation of waste has become an increasingly arduous issue and has aroused the attention from all sectors of society. Hong Kong which has a relative high daily per capita domestic waste generation rate in Asia has not yet established a comprehensive waste management system. This paper conducts a review of waste management approaches and models. Researchers highlight that mathematical models provide useful information for decision-makers to select appropriate choices and save cost. It is suggested to consider municipal solid waste management in a holistic view and improve the utilization of waste management infrastructures. A mathematical model which adopts integer linear programming and mixed integer programming has been developed for Hong Kong municipal solid waste management. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to simulate different scenarios which provide decision-makers important information for establishing Hong Kong waste management system.

  11. Commercial high-level-waste management: options and economics. A comparative analysis of the ceramic and glass waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKisson, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Guon, J.; Recht, H.L.

    1983-02-25

    Results of an estimate of the waste management costs of the commercial high-level waste from a 3000 metric ton per year reprocessing plant show that the judicious use of the ceramic waste form can save about $2 billion during a 20-year operating campaign relative to the use of the glass waste form. This assumes PWR fuel is processed and the waste is encapsulated in 0.305-m-diam canisters with ultimate emplacement in a BWIP-type horizontal-borehole repository. The estimated total cost (capital and operating) of the management in the ceramic form is $2.0 billion, and that of the glass form is $4.0 billion. Waste loading and waste form density are the driving factors in that the low-waste loading (25%) and relatively low density (3.1 g/cm/sup 3/) characteristic of the glass form require several times as many canisters to handle a given waste throughput than is needed for the ceramic waste form whose waste loading capability exceeds 60% and whose waste density is nominally 5.2 g/cm/sup 3/) characteristic of the glass form requires several times as many canisters to handle a given waste throughput than is needed for the ceramic waste form whose waste loading capability exceeds 60% and whose waste density is nominally 5.2 g/cm/sup 3/. The minimum-cost ceramic waste form has a 60 wt. % waste loading of commercial high-level waste and requires 25 years storage before emplacement in basalt with delayed backfill. Because of the process flexibility allowed by the availability of the high-waste loading of the ceramic form, the intermediate-level liquid waste stream can be mixed with the high-level liquid waste stream and economically processed and emplaced. The cost is greater by $0.3 billion than that of the best high-level liquid waste handling process sequence ($2.3 billion vs $2.0 billion), but this difference is less than the cost of the separate disposal of the intermediate-level liquid waste.

  12. Waste management fiscal year 1998 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Waste Management Program is pleased to issue the Fiscal Year 1998 Progress Report presenting program highlights and major accomplishments of the last year. This year-end update describes the current initiatives in waste management and the progress DOE has made toward their goals and objectives, including the results of the waste management annual performance commitments. One of the most important program efforts continues to be opening the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic waste. A major success was achieved this year by the West Valley Demonstration Project in New York, which in June completed the project`s production phase of high-level waste processing ahead of schedule and under budget. Another significant accomplishment this year was the award of two privatization contracts for major waste management operations, one at Oak ridge for transuranic waste treatment, and one at Hanford for the Tank Waste Remediation System privatization project. DOE is proud of the progress that has been made, and will continue to pursue program activities that allow it to safely and expeditiously dispose of radioactive and hazardous wastes across the complex, while reducing worker, public, and environmental risks.

  13. Federal facilities compliance act waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J; Gates-Anderson, D; Hollister, R; Painter, S

    1999-07-06

    Site Treatment Plans (STPs) developed through the Federal Facilities Compliance Act pose many technical and administrative challenges. Legacy wastes managed under these plans require Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) compliance through treatment and ultimate disposal. Although capacity has been defined for most of the Department of Energy wastes, many waste streams require further characterization and many need additional treatment and handling beyond LDR criteria to be able to dispose of the waste. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Hazardous Waste Management Division has developed a comprehensive Legacy Waste Program. The program directs work to manage low level and mixed wastes to ensure compliance with nuclear facility rules and its STP. This paper provides a survey of work conducted on these wastes at LLNL. They include commercial waste treatment and disposal, diverse forms of characterization, inventory maintenance and reporting, on-site treatment, and treatability studies. These activities are conducted in an integrated fashion to meet schedules defined in the STP. The processes managing wastes are dynamic due to required integration of administrative, regulatory, and technical concerns spanning the gamut to insure safe proper disposal.

  14. CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT – TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Iżykowska-Kujawa

    2014-10-01

    Waste treatment processes presented in this paper are just a small fraction of the technologies used in Europe or worldwide. Many of the methods of waste treatment will not be introduced in Poland because of high (capital expenditures? expenses associated with their processing technology. In such case low level of costs generated by storing waste in disposal landfills remains unrivaled, posing potential threat to the environment.

  15. Radioactive waste management status and prospects in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ik Hwan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institite, Korea Electric Power Corporation, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of radioactive waste management including management policy and system in the Republic of Korea. Also included are the status and plan of the radioactive waste management projects: construction of a low-level radioactive waste repository, construction of spent fuel interim storage facility, transportation, radioisotope waste management, and public acceptance program. Finally, the status and prospects on radioactive waste management based on the national radioactive waste management program are briefly introduced. (author)

  16. The Integrated Waste Tracking Systems (IWTS) - A Comprehensive Waste Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson

    2005-09-01

    the changes were made. As regulations and permits change, and as the proliferation of personal computers flourish, procedures and data files begin to be stored in electronic databases. With many different organizations, contractors, and unique procedures, several dozen databases are used to track and maintain aspects of waste management. As one can see, the logistics of collecting and certifying data from all organizations to provide comprehensive information would not only take weeks to perform, but usually presents a variety of answers that require an immediate unified resolution. A lot of personnel time is spent scrubbing the data in order to determine the correct information. The issue of disparate data is a concern in itself, and is coupled with the costs associated with maintaining several separate databases. In order to gain waste management efficiencies across an entire facility or site, several waste management databases located among several organizations would need to be consolidated. The IWTS is a system to do just that, namely store and track containerized waste information for an entire site. The IWTS has proven itself at the INL since 1995 as an efficient, successful, time saving management tool to help meet the needs of both operations and management for hazardous and radiological containerized waste. Other sites have also benefited from IWTS as it has been deployed at West Valley Nuclear Services Company DOE site as well as Ontario Power Ge

  17. Influence of Planetary Protection Guidelines on Waste Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John A.; Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Race, Margaret S.; Stabekis, Perry D.; Rummel, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Newly outlined missions in the Space Exploration Initiative include extended human habitation on Mars. During these missions, large amounts of waste materials will be generated in solid, liquid and gaseous form. Returning these wastes to Earth will be extremely costly, and will therefore likely remain on Mars. Untreated, these wastes are a reservoir of live/dead organisms and molecules considered to be "biomarkers" i.e., indicators of life). If released to the planetary surface, these materials can potentially confound exobiology experiments and disrupt Martian ecology indefinitely (if existent). Waste management systems must therefore be specifically designed to control release of problematic materials both during the active phase of the mission, and for any specified post-mission duration. To effectively develop waste management requirements for Mars missions, planetary protection guidelines must first be established. While previous policies for Apollo lunar missions exist, it is anticipated that the increased probability of finding evidence of life on Mars, as well as the lengthy mission durations will initially lead to more conservative planetary protection measures. To facilitate the development of overall requirements for both waste management and planetary protection for future missions, a workshop was conducted to identify how these two areas interface, and to establish a preliminary set of planetary protection guidelines that address waste management operations. This paper provides background regarding past and current planetary protection and waste management issues, and their interactions. A summary of the recommended planetary protection guidelines, anticipated ramifications and research needs for waste management system design for both forward (Mars) and backward (Earth) contamination is also provided.

  18. Microbial keratinases: industrial enzymes with waste management potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amit; Singh, Hukum; Anwar, Shahbaz; Chattopadhyay, Anirudha; Tiwari, Kapil K; Kaur, Surinder; Dhilon, Gurpreet Singh

    2017-06-01

    Proteases are ubiquitous enzymes that occur in various biological systems ranging from microorganisms to higher organisms. Microbial proteases are largely utilized in various established industrial processes. Despite their numerous industrial applications, they are not efficient in hydrolysis of recalcitrant, protein-rich keratinous wastes which result in environmental pollution and health hazards. This paved the way for the search of keratinolytic microorganisms having the ability to hydrolyze "hard to degrade" keratinous wastes. This new class of proteases is known as "keratinases". Due to their specificity, keratinases have an advantage over normal proteases and have replaced them in many industrial applications, such as nematicidal agents, nitrogenous fertilizer production from keratinous waste, animal feed and biofuel production. Keratinases have also replaced the normal proteases in the leather industry and detergent additive application due to their better performance. They have also been proved efficient in prion protein degradation. Above all, one of the major hurdles of enzyme industrial applications (cost effective production) can be achieved by using keratinous waste biomass, such as chicken feathers and hairs as fermentation substrate. Use of these low cost waste materials serves dual purposes: to reduce the fermentation cost for enzyme production as well as reducing the environmental waste load. The advent of keratinases has given new direction for waste management with industrial applications giving rise to green technology for sustainable development.

  19. Can we talk? Communications management for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a complex nuclear waste management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, S.A.; Pullen, G.M.; Brewer, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia Nuclear Waste Management Program is pursuing for DOE an option for permanently disposing radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. Included in the Program are the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project for US defense program mixed waste the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) for spent power reactor fuel and vitrified high-level waste, projects for other waste types, and development efforts in environmental decision support technologies. WIPP and YMP are in the public arena, of a controversial nature, and provide significant management challenges. Both projects have large project teams, multiple organization participants, large budgets, long durations, are very complex, have a high degree of programmatic risk, and operate in an extremely regulated environment requiring legal defensibility. For environmental projects like these to succeed, SNL`s Program is utilizing nearly all areas in PMI`s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) to manage along multiple project dimensions such as the physical sciences (e.g., geophysics and geochemistry; performance assessment; decision analysis) management sciences (controlling the triple constraint of performance, cost and schedule), and social sciences (belief systems; public participation; institutional politics). This discussion focuses primarily on communication challenges active on WIPP. How is the WIPP team meeting the challenges of managing communications?`` and ``How are you approaching similar challenges?`` will be questions for a dialog with the audience.

  20. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  1. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  2. Radioactive waste management in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Neubauer Josef

    2004-01-01

    At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, there are several facilities in stalled for treatment of waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level (radwaste). A separate company within Centers, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, has been formed recently, acting as a centralized facility for treatment, conditioning and storing of such waste within the country. The relevant treatment technology is applied depending on the waste category. In total about 6900 m3 of solid waste of low and inte...

  3. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. A. Owca

    2007-06-21

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

  4. Selection criteria for waste management processes in manned space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, S; Cothran, B; McGhee, J

    1991-10-01

    Management of waste produced during manned space exploration missions will be an important function of advanced life support systems. Waste materials can be thrown away or recovered for reuse. The first approach relies totally on external supplies to replace depleted resources while the second approach regenerates resources internally. The selection of appropriate waste management processes will be based upon criteria which include mission and hardware characteristics as well as overall system considerations. Mission characteristics discussed include destination, duration, crew size, operating environment, and transportation costs. Hardware characteristics include power, mass and volume requirements as well as suitability for a given task. Overall system considerations are essential to assure optimization for the entire mission rather than for an individual system. For example, a waste management system designed for a short trip to the moon will probably not be the best one for an extended mission to Mars. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to identify and compare viable waste management options for selection of an appropriate waste management system.

  5. Waste prevention for sustainable resource and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Shin-Ichi; Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the 2Rs (reduce and reuse) are considered high-priority approaches, there has not been enough quantitative research on effective 2R management. The purpose of this paper is to provide information obtained through the International Workshop in Kyoto, Japan, on 11–13 November 2015, which...... a sustainable society. 3R and resource management policies, including waste prevention, will play a crucial role. Approaches using material/substance flow analyses have become sophisticated enough to describe the fate of resources and/or hazardous substances based on human activity and the environment......, including the final sink. Life-cycle assessment has also been developed to evaluate waste prevention activities. Regarding target products for waste prevention, food loss is one of the waste fractions with the highest priority because its countermeasures have significant upstream and downstream effects...

  6. Electronic waste management approaches: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddee, Peeranart; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H

    2013-05-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. This paper presents an overview of toxic substances present in e-waste, their potential environmental and human health impacts together with management strategies currently being used in certain countries. Several tools including life cycle assessment (LCA), material flow analysis (MFA), multi criteria analysis (MCA) and extended producer responsibility (EPR) have been developed to manage e-wastes especially in developed countries. The key to success in terms of e-waste management is to develop eco-design devices, properly collect e-waste, recover and recycle material by safe methods, dispose of e-waste by suitable techniques, forbid the transfer of used electronic devices to developing countries, and raise awareness of the impact of e-waste. No single tool is adequate but together they can complement each other to solve this issue. A national scheme such as EPR is a good policy in solving the growing e-waste problems. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solid waste management on small islands: the case of Green Island, Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, M.C.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Municipalities of small islands have limited capacities for waste disposal. In the case of Green Island, Taiwan, continuing with business as usual would only allow the disposal of waste on the island for another 8 years. Three alternatives for solid waste management (SWM) are compared. The cost-effe

  8. The waste originating from nuclear energy peaceful applications and its management; Os rejeitos provenientes de aplicacoes pacificas da energia nuclear e o seu gerenciamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [E-mail: jairalbo at ax.apc.org (Brazil)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    This work presents the waste originating from nuclear energy and its management. It approaches the following main topics: nature and classification of the wastes; security requirements to the waste management; state of the art related to the wastes derivates of the uses of the nuclear energy; wastes in the fuel cycle; wastes of the industrial, medical and research and development applications; costs of the waste management.

  9. Development of a Universal Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J.; Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    NASA is working with a number of commercial companies to develop the next low Earth orbit spacecraft. The hardware volume and weight constraints are similar to or greater than those of the Apollo era. This, coupled with the equally demanding cost challenge of the proposed commercial vehicles, causes much of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designs to be reconsidered. The Waste Collection System (WCS) is within this group of ECLSS hardware. The development to support this new initiative is discussed within. A WCS concept - intended to be common for all the vehicle platforms currently on the drawing board - is being developed. The new concept, referred to as the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), includes favorable features from previous designs while improving on other areas on previous Space Shuttle and the existing International Space Station (ISS) WCS hardware, as needed. The intent is to build a commode that requires less crew time, improved cleanliness, and a 75% reduction in volume and weight compared to the previous US ISS/Extended Duration Orbitor WCS developed in the 1990s. The UWMS is most similar to the ISS Development Test Objective (DTO) WCS design. It is understood that the most dramatic cost reduction opportunity occurs at the beginning of the design process. To realize this opportunity, the cost of each similar component between the UWMS and the DTO WCS was determined. The comparison outlined were the design changes that would result with the greatest impact. The changes resulted in simplifying the approach or eliminating components completely. This initial UWMS paper will describe the system layout approach and a few key features of major components. Future papers will describe the UWMS functionality, test results, and components as they are developed.

  10. Non-deposit system option for waste management on small islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilms, Monica; Voronova, Viktoria

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses waste management on small islands (on a global scale these are micro-islands). In the context of the paper, small islands are islands that have an area less than 50 km(2) The study presents an overview of the problems connected with waste transport from islands to the mainland. Waste generation on islands is very much related to tourists. If tourists do not handle waste properly, it will cause problems. Four small Estonian islands in the range of 3-19 km(2) are studied in detail. For these and other small islands, the main problem is the waste produced by tourists, or related to tourists and waste transport to the mainland. Currently, the local municipality has to arrange and finance waste transport. In fact, and based on the polluter-pays principle, the tourists should bear the cost of waste management. There are different tax options available in order to collect the money from tourists - waste tax, harbour tax, tourist tax, donations, environmental tax and others. The study results revealed that the best possible solution for Estonian islands may be a non-deposit system - including an additional charge on ferry ticket prices. The extra money should cover the costs of waste management and waste shipping. The tourists arriving in their own boats should pay a harbour tax, which includes a waste tax to compensate for the cost of waste management.

  11. [Health services waste management: a biosafety issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Zanetti-Ramos, Betina Giehl

    2004-01-01

    The subject of "health services waste" is controversial and widely discussed. Biosafety, the principles of which include safeguarding occupational health, community health, and environmental safety, is directly involved in the issue of medical waste management. There are controversies as to the risks posed by medical waste, as evidenced by diverging opinions among authors: some advocate severe approaches on the basis that medical waste is hazardous, while others contend that the potential for infection from medical waste is nonexistent. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has published resolution RDC 33/2003 to standardize medical waste management nationwide. There is an evident need to implement biosafety procedures in this area, including heath care workers' training and provision of information to the general population.

  12. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. ... industries discharge wastes into the environment without any proper treatment.

  13. Healthcare waste generation and its management system: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthcare waste generation and its management system: the case of health ... in the course of activities, the generation of hazardous and non hazardous waste is a ... Segregation of wastes and pre treatment of infectious wastes were not ...

  14. 76 FR 63252 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...: Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Disposal of Coal... Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Disposal of Coal... Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special......

  15. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  16. Biomedical waste management: Incineration vs. environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  17. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  18. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant. (LK)

  19. Radioactive waste management in member states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this part of the report is to present a brief overview of key issues in radioactive waste management on a nation-by-nation basis. Member State representatives were asked to address nine questions in no more than three or four pages. Hence, by design, the presentations are not comprehensive. Even so, the information set out here should provide the reader valuable insights into the nature of problems associated with radioactive waste management. The materials may also be used as a ready reference for specific information about radioactive waste management in individual Member States as well as for comparative purposes. (author).

  20. Mine Waste Disposal and Managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young-Wook; Min, Jeong-Sik; Kwon, Kwang-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research project deals with: Analysis and characterization of mine waste piles or tailings impoundment abandoned in mining areas; Survey of mining environmental pollution from mine waste impounds; Modelling of pollutants in groundwater around tailings impoundment; Demonstration of acid rock drainage from coal mine waste rock piles and experiment of seeding on waste rock surface; Development of a liner using tailings. Most of mine wastes are deposited on natural ground without artificial liners and capping for preventing contamination of groundwater around mine waste piles or containments. In case of some mine waste piles or containments, pollutants have been released to the environment, and several constituents in drainage exceed the limit of discharge from landfill site. Metals found in drainage exist in exchangeable fraction in waste rock and tailings. This means that if when it rains to mine waste containments, mine wastes can be pollutant to the environment by release of acidity and metals. As a result of simulation for hydraulic potentials and groundwater flow paths within the tailings, the simulated travel paths correlated well with the observed contaminant distribution. The plum disperse, both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, with time. Therefore liner system is a very important component in tailings containment system. As experimental results of liner development using tailings, tailings mixed with some portion of resin or cement may be used for liner because tailings with some additives have a very low hydraulic conductivity. (author). 39 refs.

  1. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-19

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2013 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3438 sites and 569 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  2. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2012 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3389 sites and 540 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  3. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-13

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2013 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3427 sites and 564 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  4. LCA Modeling of Waste Management Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Simion, F.; Tonini, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Lifecycle assessment (LCA) modeling provides a quantitative statement about resource issues and environmental issues in waste management useful in evaluating alternative management systems and in mapping where major loads and savings take place within existing systems. Chapter 3.1 describes...... the concepts behind LCA modeling and Chapter 3.2 gives an overview of existing models and shows examples of their application. A recent comprehensive review of publicly available LCA studies (WRAP, 2006) concluded that, on a material basis, LCA modeling in general confirms the validity of the waste hierarchy...... and exchange with the energy systems, a comparison of results was hampered on a system level. In addition, differences in waste composition may affect the LCA results. This chapter provides results of LCA modeling of 40 waste management scenarios handling the same municipal waste (MSW) and using different...

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan, fiscal year 1994. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A was promulgated in final form on September 26, 1988. The order requires heads of field organizations to prepare and to submit updates on the waste management plans for all operations under their purview according to the format in Chap. 6, {open_quotes}Waste Management Plan Outline.{close_quotes} These plans are to be submitted by the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) in December of each year and distributed to the DP-12, ES&H-1, and other appropriate DOE Headquarters (DOE-HQ) organizations for review and comment. This document was prepared in response to this requirement for fiscal year (FY) 1994. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) waste management mission is reduction, collection, storage, treatment, and disposal of DOE wastes, generated primarily in pursuit of ORNL missions, in order to protect human health and safety and the environment. In carrying out this mission, waste management staff in the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) will (1) guide ORNL in optimizing waste reduction and waste management capabilities and (2) conduct waste management operations in a compliant, publicly acceptable, technically sound, and cost-efficient manner. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of this document is compilation and consolidation of information on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what activities are planned for FY 1994, and how all of the activities are documented.

  6. Managing America`s solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-03-02

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  7. Municipal Solid Waste - Sustainable Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The MSW DST was initially developed in the 1990s and has evolved over the years to better account for changes in waste management practices, waste composition, and improvements in decision support tool design and functionality. The most recent version of the tool is publicly ava...

  8. Construction waste management based on industrial management models: a Swedish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenis, Jan

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes a methodology for estimating the true internal costs of construction waste, aimed at promoting environmentally friendly waste management. The study employs cost-benefit analysis, contribution margin analysis, the polluter-pays principle and a mathematical model: the model for Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy (EUROPE), which has been introduced previously by the author for assigning industrial costs to waste. The calculations are performed on construction waste created in a case study of a building project. Moreover, waste is regarded as, in a business sense, having the same basic status as any normal industrial product, namely the 'equality principle'. Application of the methodology is suggested to create incentives for environmental and profitability improvement in construction companies and other types of industrial sectors. The results of the case study show the generation of construction waste to substantially decrease the final operating income, due to the internal shadow price cost it creates. This paper is intended to reduce the gap between the choice of waste management procedures and their economic impact, the overall objective being to accomplish an improved industrial environmental situation.

  9. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  10. Integrating Total Quality Management (TQM) and hazardous waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Nancy [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and its subsequent amendments have had a dramatic impact on hazardous waste management for business and industry. The complexity of this law and the penalties for noncompliance have made it one of the most challenging regulatory programs undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The fundamentals of RCRA include ``cradle to grave`` management of hazardous waste, covering generators, transporters, and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The regulations also address extensive definitions and listing/identification mechanisms for hazardous waste along with a tracking system. Treatment is favored over disposal and emphasis is on ``front-end`` treatment such as waste minimization and pollution prevention. A study of large corporations such as Xerox, 3M, and Dow Chemical, as well as the public sector, has shown that well known and successful hazardous waste management programs emphasize pollution prevention and employment of techniques such as proactive environmental management, environmentally conscious manufacturing, and source reduction. Nearly all successful hazardous waste programs include some aspects of Total Quality Management, which begins with a strong commitment from top management. Hazardous waste management at the Rocky Flats Plant is further complicated by the dominance of ``mixed waste`` at the facility. The mixed waste stems from the original mission of the facility, which was production of nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy (DOE). A Quality Assurance Program based on the criterion in DOE Order 5700.6C has been implemented at Rocky Flats. All of the elements of the Quality Assurance Program play a role in hazardous waste management. Perhaps one of the biggest waste management problems facing the Rocky Flats Plant is cleaning up contamination from a forty year mission which focused on production of nuclear weapon components.

  11. Challenges of solid waste management and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of solid waste management and environmental sanitation in Ibadan North Local government, Oyo State, ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Data were collected using In-Depth Interviews and Key Informant Interviews.

  12. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  13. Integrated study for automobile wastes management and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    poor waste management is causing serious ecological and public health concerns. Analytical ... searching for mechanic specialists, to prevent motorists from falling .... long term exposure to toxicity. ...... Plant extracts arsenic from polluted soil;.

  14. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement.

  15. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement.

  16. Waste management in healthcare establishments within Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Patient. Primary to tertiary. Health care. 2. State Specialist Hospital, Jos ... For instance a pharmacist who had worked .... Documentation of waste management activities .... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (2004).

  17. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Aoustin, E.

    2009-01-01

    for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.......Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental...... Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more...

  18. MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘自强

    1994-01-01

    The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated.Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run.Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities.Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces.Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of “regional disposal”.Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest.southwest,south and east China respectively.A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made.

  19. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal.

  20. Sustainable waste management through end-of-waste criteria development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A

    2016-04-01

    The Waste Framework Directive 2000/98 (WFD) contains specific requirements to define end-of-waste criteria (EWC). The main goal of EWC is to remove and eliminate the administrative loads of waste legislation for safe and high-quality waste materials, thereby facilitating and assisting recycling. The target is to produce effective with high quality of recyclables materials, promoting product standardization and quality and safety assurance, and improving harmonization and legal certainty in the recyclable material markets. At the same time, those objectives aim to develop a plan in order to improve the development and wider use of environmental technologies, which reduce pressure on environment and at the same time address the three dimensions of the Lisbon strategy: growth, jobs and environment. This paper presents the importance of EWC, and the approach of setting EWC as EWC affect several management systems as well as sustainable and clean technologies.

  1. Alternatives for Future Waste Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Cimpan, Ciprian; Dall, Ole

    The TOPWASTE project has addressed the challenges of planning robust solutions for future waste management. The purpose was to identify economic and environmentally optimal solutions ‐ taking into account different scenarios for the development of the surrounding systems, such as the energy system....... During the project, four decision support tools were developed:1. Frida ‐ The EPA's tool for forecasting future waste generation 2. OptiWaste ‐ a new tool for economic optimisation of investments and operation of the combined waste and energy system3. KISS ‐ a new lifecycle based model with focus...... on comparison of greenhouse gas emissions associated with different waste management alternatives 4. A new tool for techno‐economic modelling of central sorting plants. The project has furthermore contributed with method development on evaluation of critical resources as well as analyses of economic...

  2. A short history of waste management at the Hanford Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Roy E.

    The world’s first full-scale nuclear reactors and chemical reprocessing plants built at the Hanford Site in the desert of southeastern Washington State produced two-thirds of the plutonium generated in the United States for nuclear weapons. Operating these facilities also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste, some of which was released into the environment exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Hanford now contains the largest accumulation of nuclear waste in the Western Hemisphere. Hanford’s last reactor shut down in 1987 followed by closure of the last reprocessing plant in 1990. Today, Hanford’s only mission is cleanup. Most onsite radioactive waste and nuclear material lingers inside underground tanks or storage facilities. About half of the chemical waste remains in tanks while the rest persists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Six million dollars each day, or nearly two billion dollars each year, are spent on waste management and cleanup activities. There is significant uncertainty in how long cleanup will take, how much it will cost, and what risks will remain for future generations. This paper summarizes portions of the waste management history of the Hanford Site published in the book “Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup.” ( Gephart, 2003).

  3. Pollution prevention: Avoiding the need to manage wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltzer, M.

    1993-12-01

    Today`s industrial processes generate many types of waste products that constitute risks to human health and the surrounding environment. While proper waste management procedures can lower this risk, prevention of the waste`s generation will eliminate the risk. For this reason, the United States has established pollution prevention as a national objective, through the passage of its Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. Pollution prevention involves a wide range of approaches, all with the same objective: to reduce or eliminate the creation of waste at its source in other words, within the process that generates it. This objective, so beneficial to the environment, also coincides with industrial economic interests. Pollution prevention measures and greater process efficiency go hand in hand, and typically result in lower operating costs as well as greatly reduced waste management expenses. The US Environmental Protection Agency defines pollution prevention as the maximum feasible reduction of all wastes generated at production sites. This objective is accomplished largely through source reduction and reuse of input materials during production.

  4. APPLICATION OF THE US DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR MATERIALS AND WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA¿s National Risk Management Research Laboratory has led the development of a municipal solid waste decision support tool (MSW-DST). The computer software can be used to calculate life-cycle environmental tradeoffs and full costs of different waste management plans or recycling...

  5. Urban waste management and the mobile challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavropoulos, Antonis; Tsakona, Maria; Anthouli, Aida

    2015-04-01

    Digital evolution and mobile developments are carving a new era that affects human behaviour and global governance. Interconnectivity and flow of information through various types of modern means create new opportunities for cooperation and ways to work. Waste management could not stay unaffected by these changes. New potentials are arising for the sector, offering a novel field for innovation, changing the way waste practices are applied. In this framework, mobile products and apps can become valuable tools for authorities, companies, civilians and other stakeholders, integrating these technologies in the battle for environmental protection, recycling, etc. This article examines the unexplored challenges of mobile apps to deliver sustainable waste management with emphasis on recycling and waste prevention performance, especially for emerging developing countries. It presents the opportunities that are involved in using mobile apps to improve both the systemic performance of a specific waste management system and the individual behaviour of the users. Furthermore, the article reviews the most important relevant literature and summarises the key findings of the recent research on mobile apps and human behaviour. Useful conclusions are drawn for both the content and the format of the mobile apps required for recycling and waste prevention. Finally, the article presents the most characteristic mobile apps that are already in place in the waste management sector. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Waste Management Strategies for Production of Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-31

    Production of Mo-99 for medical isotope use is being investigated using dissolved low enriched uranium (LEU) fissioned using an accelerator driven process. With the production and separation of Mo-99, a low level waste stream will be generated. Since the production facility is a commercial endeavor, waste disposition paths normally available for federally generated radioactive waste may not be available. Disposal sites for commercially generated low level waste are available, and consideration to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the disposal site should be integral in flowsheet development for the Mo-99 production. Pending implementation of the “Uranium Lease and Take-Back Program for Irradiation for Production of Molybdenum-99 for Medical Use” as directed by the American Medical Isotopes Production Act of 2012, there are limited options for disposing of the waste generated by the production of Mo-99 using an accelerator. The commission of a trade study to assist in the determination of the most favorable balance of production throughput and waste management should be undertaken. The use of a waste broker during initial operations of a facility has several benefits that can offset the cost associated with using a subcontractor. As the facility matures, the development of in-house capabilities can be expanded to incrementally reduce the dependence on a subcontractor.

  7. 76 FR 76677 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ....: EPA-R08-RCRA-2011-0823; FRL-9502-4] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of... industrial solid waste. If finalized, the EPA would conclude that ConocoPhillips' petitioned waste is... subject to Federal RCRA delisting, to manage industrial waste. II. Background A. What is a listed waste...

  8. The cost of waste of consumable materials in a surgical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina de Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to identify the types, quantities and cost of the consumable materials sent, used, returned unopened and wasted in surgical operations; to classify the incidences of waste as avoidable or unavoidable losses, and to calculate the rate of waste of the consumable materials in the peri-operative period in the Surgical Center of a São Paulo university hospital. METHOD: a descriptive-exploratory case study with a quantitative approach. The convenience sample corresponded to 105 types of consumable materials sent for the 275 operations observed between February and May 2011. RESULTS: the items wasted most were surgical sutures, surgical cotton sutures, and gauze compresses. The total cost of the waste was R$ 709.84. The mean percentage of waste in the sample was 9.34%, of which 1.23% was avoidable and 8.14% unavoidable. CONCLUSION: the study evidenced that the effective management of material resources reduces the costs of the processes, and reduces waste.

  9. Laboratory reengineering facilitates cost management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J E; Moser, L H

    1998-08-01

    In 1993, The Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) in Charleston undertook a change management initiative to achieve a more cost-competitive position in its market and become a more attractive partner for a possible future affiliation with another provider organization. A key element of this change process was a reorganization of the medical center's laboratory department. Through consolidation of MUSC's separate laboratories and the introduction of a new, more efficient chemistry analyzer system, the medical center realized annual laboratory savings of approximately $1.3 million.

  10. Using business intelligence to manage supply costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunata, Ernest

    2013-08-01

    Business intelligence tools can help materials managers and managers in the operating room and procedural areas track purchasing costs more precisely and determine the root causes of cost increases. Data can be shared with physicians to increase their awareness of the cost of physician preference items. Proper use of business intelligence goes beyond price benchmarking to manage price performance over time.

  11. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Todorut; L. Paliu-Popa; V. S. Tselentis; D. Cirnu

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM) tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main L...

  12. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-12

    In June 2009, ArcelorMittal learned about the potential to receive a 50% cost-matching grant from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ArcelorMittal applied for the competitive grant and, in November, received $31.6 million as a DOE cost-sharing award. By matching the federal funding, ArcelorMittal was able to construct a new, high efficiency Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler and supporting infrastructure.

  13. PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian ŢAICU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to meet the information needs of management.

  14. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gulghane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different characteristics are created at all the stages of construction. Construction industries have a larger part in contributing environmental problems. The economic and environmental benefits must be gained from construction waste minimization. This paper presents a review on systematically investigation of the management of construction materials and construction waste, material management techniques, control of construction waste and existing situation of construction management and construction waste in the industry.

  15. Radioactive waste management in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer Josef

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, there are several facilities in stalled for treatment of waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level (radwaste. A separate company within Centers, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, has been formed recently, acting as a centralized facility for treatment, conditioning and storing of such waste within the country. The relevant treatment technology is applied depending on the waste category. In total about 6900 m3 of solid waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level originating from Austria was treated in the period between 1976 and 2002. Presently, there exists no final repository for radwaste in Austria. A study is under way to identify the structure for a long term storage facility.

  16. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  17. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  18. Estimating costs of low-level radioactive waste disposal alternatives for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, National Low-Level Waste Management Program. It presents planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for four sizes of in-state low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities. These PLCC estimates include preoperational and operational expenditures, all support facilities, materials, labor, closure costs, and long-term institutional care and monitoring costs. It is intended that this report bc used as a broad decision making tool for evaluating one of the several complex factors that must be examined when deciding between various LLRW management options -- relative costs. Because the underlying assumptions of these analyses will change as the Board decides how it will manage Massachusett`s waste and the specific characteristics any disposal facility will have, the results of this study are not absolute and should only be used to compare the relative costs of the options presented. The disposal technology selected for this analysis is aboveground earth-mounded vaults. These vaults are reinforced concrete structures where low-level waste is emplaced and later covered with a multi-layered earthen cap. The ``base case`` PLCC estimate was derived from a preliminary feasibility design developed for the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. This PLCC report describes facility operations and details the procedure used to develop the base case PLCC estimate for each facility component and size. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case PLCC estimate by varying several factors to determine their influences upon the unit disposal costs. The report presents the results of the sensitivity analyses for the five most significant cost factors.

  19. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  20. 1993 baseline solid waste management system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armacost, L.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1994-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared this report under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The report provides an integrated description of the system planned for managing Hanford`s solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic waste, and transuranic mixed waste. The primary purpose of this document is to illustrate a collective view of the key functions planned at the Hanford Site to handle existing waste inventories, as well as solid wastes that will be generated in the future. By viewing this system as a whole rather than as individual projects, key facility interactions and requirements are identified and a better understanding of the overall system may be gained. The system is described so as to form a basis for modeling the system at various levels of detail. Model results provide insight into issues such as facility capacity requirements, alternative system operating strategies, and impacts of system changes (ie., startup dates). This description of the planned Hanford solid waste processing system: defines a baseline system configuration; identifies the entering waste streams to be managed within the system; identifies basic system functions and waste flows; and highlights system constraints. This system description will evolve and be revised as issues are resolved, planning decisions are made, additional data are collected, and assumptions are tested and changed. Out of necessity, this document will also be revised and updated so that a documented system description, which reflects current system planning, is always available for use by engineers and managers. It does not provide any results generated from the many alternatives that will be modeled in the course of analyzing solid waste disposal options; such results will be provided in separate documents.

  1. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    Reported are: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, criteria for defining waste isolation, and spent fuel and pool component integrity. (DLC)

  2. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  3. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled ``Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois` and the Midwest`s solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting's contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  5. Strategic plan for the Northeast Waste Management Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The Northeast Waste Management Enterprise (NEWME) is a new form of partnership whose goal is to increase the economic, commercial, and environmental effectiveness of solid waste management (SWM) through implementation of new technologies. Of particular interest to NEWME are technologies that are applicable to the Northeast`s waste management problems and technologies applicable to the Department of Energy`s waste management and environmental clean-up programs. These include land reclamation using bioremediation, pyrolysis, waste stabilization/ash utilization, and landfill containment. The next step, which has already begun, is to evaluate specific technologies within these focus areas. A concurrent economic analysis will take place along with each program, which, together with technical evaluations, will form the basis for decisions relating to the ultimate commercialization of the technology. The financial plan for NEWME anticipates an evolution over time in which the Federal Government provides most of the funding in the early design phase, with some industrial participation. As the program progresses through demonstration and early commercialization, the program becomes more expensive, and a larger fraction of the costs is borne by the private sector. NEWME itself will participate financially in each commercialization vehicle in order to form the basis for the eventual self-sufficient of the program.

  6. Assessment methods for solid waste management: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesch, Astrid; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-06-01

    Assessment methods are common tools to support decisions regarding waste management. The objective of this review article is to provide guidance for the selection of appropriate evaluation methods. For this purpose, frequently used assessment methods are reviewed, categorised, and summarised. In total, 151 studies have been considered in view of their goals, methodologies, systems investigated, and results regarding economic, environmental, and social issues. A goal shared by all studies is the support of stakeholders. Most studies are based on life cycle assessments, multi-criteria-decision-making, cost-benefit analysis, risk assessments, and benchmarking. Approximately 40% of the reviewed articles are life cycle assessment-based; and more than 50% apply scenario analysis to identify the best waste management options. Most studies focus on municipal solid waste and consider specific environmental loadings. Economic aspects are considered by approximately 50% of the studies, and only a small number evaluate social aspects. The choice of system elements and boundaries varies significantly among the studies; thus, assessment results are sometimes contradictory. Based on the results of this review, we recommend the following considerations when assessing waste management systems: (i) a mass balance approach based on a rigid input-output analysis of the entire system, (ii) a goal-oriented evaluation of the results of the mass balance, which takes into account the intended waste management objectives; and (iii) a transparent and reproducible presentation of the methodology, data, and results.

  7. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  8. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, October-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-07-01

    This quarterly report provides current information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant and offplant participants. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, in situ storage or disposal, waste from development and characterization, process and equipment development, and low-level waste management are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations Program: surveillance and maintenance, waste concentration, low-level effluent waste, tank replacement/waste transfer, and solid waste storage and related activities.

  9. On the weak project construction cost management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高守刚; 姜婧; 李玲

    2013-01-01

    the weak cost management is the most talked about topics in the weak industry, but also the basis of the weak construction business management and focus. With the increasingly fierce market competition, weak construction enterprises, the competition among enterprises wil gradual y transition from product quality competition to price competition. To strengthen the management of the weak construction enterprises cost, cut public spending ef iciency, improve market competitiveness, wil be the main way most weak construction corporate earnings and long-term business strategy. Based on the to weak project construction cost management based on analysis of the type of project construction costs, and further proposed the weak project construction cost management measures.

  10. Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Management Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1993-01-01

    In college and university administration, overhead costs are often charged to programs indiscriminately, whereas the support activities that underlie those costs remain unanalyzed. It is time for institutions to decrease ineffective use of resources. Activity-based management attributes costs more accurately and can improve efficiency. (MSE)

  11. Preliminary study on enhancing waste management best practice model in Malaysia construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Amril Hadri; Karim, Nurulzatushima Abdul; Noor, Raja Nor Husna Raja Mohd; Othman, Nurulhidayah; Malik, Sulaiman Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste management (CWM) is the practice of minimizing and diverting construction waste, demolition debris, and land-clearing debris from disposal and redirecting recyclable resources back into the construction process. Best practice model means best choice from the collection of other practices that was built for purpose of construction waste management. The practice model can help the contractors in minimizing waste before the construction activities will be started. The importance of minimizing wastage will have direct impact on time, cost and quality of a construction project. This paper is focusing on the preliminary study to determine the factors of waste generation in the construction sites and identify the effectiveness of existing construction waste management practice conducted in Malaysia. The paper will also include the preliminary works of planned research location, data collection method, and analysis to be done by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help in developing suitable waste management best practice model that can be used in the country.

  12. An assessment of the current municipal solid waste management system in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Maryam; Barlow, Claire Y; Wilson, David C

    2014-09-01

    The current status of solid waste management in Lahore, a metropolitan city of Pakistan, is reviewed in this article using an existing approach, the UN-Habitat city profile. This involves a systematic quantitative and qualitative assessment of physical components and governance features of the current waste management system. A material flow diagram (MFD) is developed, which allows visualisation of the current waste management system with all related inputs and outputs. This study shows that in the current system, waste collection and transportation is the main focus, however the collection coverage is only about 68%. There is no controlled or even semi-controlled waste disposal facility in Lahore. There is no official recycling system in the city. It is estimated that currently ~27% of waste by weight is being recycled through the informal sector. Making use of the organic content of the waste, a composting facility is operative in the city, producing 47,230 tonnes year(-1) of organic compost. Lahore does not perform very well in governance features. Inclusivity of users and providers of the waste management system is low in the city, as not all stakeholders are consulted in the decision making processes. Waste management costs US$20 per tonne of waste, where the main focus is only on waste collection, and the current user fees are much lower than the actual costs. This study recommends that recycling should be promoted by increasing public awareness and integrating the informal sector to make the current system sustainable and financially viable.

  13. Environmental Management of Waste Based on Road Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damijan Koletnik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the European Council adopted a revised framework for waste management in the EU, with an objective to encourage recycling and reuse of waste, in order to reduce landfills and potential environmental emissions. This framework also sets new recycling targets for construction and demolition waste by 2020, suggesting that at least 70 % of the waste should be recycled. Nigrad d.d. is a utility company providing services to several municipalities in North-East Slovenia. These services include repairs to public roads and pavements. This paper examines the origin, amount and fraction of construction waste produced, identifying current waste management practices. Based on the state-of-the art study new approaches are to be proposed, which will make it possible to decrease environmental impacts and costs, when providing public services and establishing sustainable service systems. To reach this objective a life-cycle analysis of the existing service has been carried out, which will help identify the system parts that have the most significant impact on the environment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.681

  14. GREEN MARKETING ROLE IN WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Anamaria IOAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study have exploratory character, aiming to conduct an analysis of the terminology used in the ecomarketing, and the way to approach green- marketing and waste collection activities in Romania. Aside from ecological waste management process and we consider the economic component of sustainable development, supported component of the legal aspects related to the subject. In other words, in this paper we intend to analyze in terms of terminology, legal and environmental policies but the most important aspects of waste management in companies in Romania. The importance of the study is on both the analysis corroborated information relating to waste collection in Romania, and the SWOT analysis performed on the present situation in Romania.

  15. Environmental evaluation of plastic waste management scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigamonti, L.; Grosso, M.; Møller, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The management of the plastic fraction is one of the most debated issues in the discussion on integrated municipal solid waste systems. Both material and energy recovery can be performed on such a waste stream, and different separate collection schemes can be implemented. The aim of the paper...... is to contribute to the debate, based on the analysis of different plastic waste recovery routes. Five scenarios were defined and modelled with a life cycle assessment approach using the EASEWASTE model. In the baseline scenario (P0) the plastic is treated as residual waste and routed partly to incineration...... with energy recovery and partly to mechanical biological treatment. A range of potential improvements in plastic management is introduced in the other four scenarios (P1–P4). P1 includes a source separation of clean plastic fractions for material recycling, whereas P2 a source separation of mixed plastic...

  16. A Typical Case Study: Solid Waste Management in Petroleum Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadea S. Alshammari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current environmental concerns have forced developed and developing countries to reduce air, water and land pollution for sustainable growth. Solid refinery waste is cocktail of hydrocarbons, water, heavy metal and fine solids and is substantial in quantity. The principal processes of waste management focus mainly on waste source reduction, reusing, recycling, composting, incineration with or without energy recovery, fuel production and land filling. Waste management models have a common approach of assignment of generating sources to landfills, transfer stations sitting, site selection for landfills, etc. but recently new integrated models have been developed and applied. Waste management system in an industrial complexes uses multi-objective mixed integer programming approach for the running of existing facilities in dynamic net work flow models with nonlinear costs of management. The latest multi-objective mixed integer programming techniques are applied to resolve the potential conflict between environmental and economic goals and to evaluate sustainable strategies for waste management. In this approach, material recycling in an economic sense exhibits huge indirect benefits, although the emphasis of environmental quality as a major objective in decision-making drives the optimal solution toward pro-recycling programs. The use of grey and fuzzy system theories as uncertainty analysis tools as an enhancement of this modeling analysis proves to be highly profitable. A multi-objective optimization model based on the goal programming approach has been developed and tested in this study for passable management of solid waste generated by a typical petroleum refining industry in the state of Kuwait. The analytic hierarchy process, a decision-making approach, including qualitative and quantitative aspects of a problem, has been integrated in the model to prioritize the conflicting goals existing in the waste management problems of the petroleum

  17. Electronics waste management: Indian practices and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amitava [Department of Chemical Engineering. University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C.Road. Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2010-07-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste or waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a popular, informal name for discarded electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) with all of their peripherals at their end-of-life. WEEE constitutes 8% of municipal waste and is one of the fastest growing waste streams. The fraction of precious and other metals in e-waste is over 60%, while pollutants comprise a meager 2.70%. Given the volume of WEEE generated containing toxic materials, it emerges as a risk to the society. Considering the high toxicity of these pollutants especially when burned or recycled in uncontrolled environments, the Basel Convention has identified e-waste as hazardous, and developed a framework for controls on transboundary movement of such waste. In contrast, WEEE can offer a tremendous business opportunity if it would treat in proper manner. The management of the WEEE has thus become a global challenge in today's world. Several nations across the globe have implemented or are about to implement WEEE regulations based on the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). Both existing and proposed solutions are implemented with various degrees of centralization. Practical implementations however, can give rise to absurd organizational outcomes. In the light of these findings, the present paper deals with the Indian initiatives on the WEEE management keeping pace with the international scenario. Initially, this paper aims to draw an overview on the basics of WEEE. Next, the international legislative practices followed by Indian initiatives intended to help manage these growing quantities of this waste stream are discussed.

  18. Electronics waste management: Indian practices and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Bandyopadhyay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste or e-waste or waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE is a popular, informal name for discarded electrical and electronic equipment (EEE with all of their peripherals at their end-of-life. WEEE constitutes 8% of municipal waste and is one of the fastest growing waste streams. The fraction of precious and other metals in e-waste is over 60%, while pollutants comprise a meager 2.70%. Given the volume of WEEE generated containing toxic materials, it emerges as a risk to the society. Considering the high toxicity of these pollutants especially when burned or recycled in uncontrolled environments, the Basel Convention has identified e-waste as hazardous, and developed a framework for controls on transboundary movement of such waste. In contrast, WEEE can offer a tremendous business opportunity if it would treat in proper manner. The management of the WEEE has thus become a global challenge in today’s world. Several nations across the globe have implemented or are about to implement WEEE regulations based on the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR. Both existing and proposed solutions are implemented with various degrees of centralization. Practical implementations however, can give rise to absurd organizational outcomes. In the light of these findings, the present paper deals with the Indian initiatives on the WEEE management keeping pace with the international scenario. Initially, this paper aims to draw an overview on the basics of WEEE. Next, the international legislative practices followed by Indian initiatives intended to help manage these growing quantities of this waste stream are discussed.

  19. Sustainable Materials Management: Non-Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed the non-hazardous materials and waste management hierarchy in recognition that no single waste management approach is suitable for managing all materials and waste streams in all circumstances.

  20. Integrated solid waste management of Palm Beach County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the Palm Beach County, Florida integrated municipal solid waste management system (IMSWMS), the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWMS.

  1. Guide to radioactive waste management literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, B.L.; Holoway, C.F.; Madewell, D.G.

    1977-10-01

    Increased public concern about radioactive waste management has called attention to this aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle. Socio-economic planning and technical development are being undertaken to assure that such wastes will be managed safely. This Guide to Radioactive Waste Management Literature has been compiled to serve scientists, engineers, administrators, legislators, and private citizens by directing them to sources of information on various aspects of the subject. References were selected from about 6000 documents on waste management in the computerized information centers in Oak Ridge. The documents were selected, examined, indexed, and abstracted between 1966-1976 by several knowledgeable indexers, principally at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. The selected references were further indexed and classified into 12 categories. Each category is discussed in enough detail to give some understandng of present technology in various phases of waste management and some appreciation of the attendant issues and problems. The bibliographic part of this guide exists in computerized form in the Health Physics Information System and is available through the Oak Ridge Information Center Complex for searching from remote terminals.

  2. Radioactive waste management in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, At; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A; Ajaz, M; Jan, Fa

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance with the Atomic Energy (Safe disposal of radioactive waste) rules of 1987 promulgated by the Indian Central Government Atomic Energy Act 1962. Any prospective plan of a hospital that intends using radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures needs to have sufficient infrastructural and manpower resources to keep its ambient radiation levels within specified safe limits. Regular monitoring of hospital area and radiation workers is mandatory to assess the quality of radiation safety. Records should be maintained to identify the quality and quantity of radioactive waste generated and the mode of its disposal. Radiation Safety officer plays a key role in the waste disposal operations.

  3. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  4. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  5. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  6. The cost of hybrid waste water systems: A systematic framework for specifying minimum cost-connection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-10-15

    To determine the optimal connection rate (CR) for regional waste water treatment is a challenge that has recently gained the attention of academia and professional circles throughout the world. We contribute to this debate by proposing a framework for a total cost assessment of sanitation infrastructures in a given region for the whole range of possible CRs. The total costs comprise the treatment and transportation costs of centralised and on-site waste water management systems relative to specific CRs. We can then identify optimal CRs that either deliver waste water services at the lowest overall regional cost, or alternatively, CRs that result from households freely choosing whether they want to connect or not. We apply the framework to a Swiss region, derive a typology for regional cost curves and discuss whether and by how much the empirically observed CRs differ from the two optimal ones. Both optimal CRs may be reached by introducing specific regulatory incentive structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of a food waste disposer policy on solid waste and wastewater management with economic implications of environmental externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Amani; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-08-10

    In this study, the carbon footprint of introducing a food waste disposer (FWD) policy was examined in the context of its implications on solid waste and wastewater management with economic assessment of environmental externalities emphasizing potential carbon credit and increased sludge generation. For this purpose, a model adopting a life cycle inventory approach was developed to integrate solid waste and wastewater management processes under a single framework and test scenarios for a waste with high organic food content typical of developing economies. For such a waste composition, the results show that a FWD policy can reduce emissions by nearly ∼42% depending on market penetration, fraction of food waste ground, as well as solid waste and wastewater management schemes, including potential energy recovery. In comparison to baseline, equivalent economic gains can reach ∼28% when environmental externalities including sludge management and emissions variations are considered. The sensitivity analyses on processes with a wide range in costs showed an equivalent economic impact thus emphasizing the viability of a FWD policy although the variation in the cost of sludge management exhibited a significant impact on savings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 ..mu..Ci per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact.

  9. Waste Management Planning System – Factors Influencing Waste Composition in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Davidavičienė, Vida; Janeliūnienė, Rasma; Liberytė, Ginta

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in the field of information technologies, growing production and consumption forced by economic growth lead to growth of waste causing the new challenges to waste management. All these fields are widely analyzed by scientists as separate scientific, technological, environmental or economic problems as well as integrated questions. Waste management is analyzed comprehensively and systematically as well as individual questions of waste generation, waste forecasting, waste storage,...

  10. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  11. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN HARGHITA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Constantin AVORNICULUI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste management problems in Harghita County (and other places in the country have a major negative impact on society and pose a direct threat to human health, and an adverse effect on quality of life. Considering the current practices, it is clear that the system of waste management in Romania and Harghita county needs to be improved to meet the requirements of new national and European regulations. In Harghita County there are 36 protected areas of national interest, four protected areas of local interest and 18 Natura 2000 sites, including 13 Sites of Community Importance (SCI and 5 Special Protection Areas (SPA. Strengthening a sustainable waste management system involves major changes to current practices. Implementing such changes can be successfully achieved only through the involvement of the whole society: population– as users, entrepreneurs, socio-economic institutions and public authorities.

  12. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Papargyropoulou, E; Lozano, R.; Steinberger, JK; Wright, N; Ujang, ZB

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and unavoidable food waste, and between waste prevention and waste management. This study suggests that the first step towards a more sustainable resolution of the food waste issue is to adopt a sustainable...

  13. Solid waste management. Principles and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrappa, Ramesha [Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, Biomedical Waste, Bangalore (India); Bhusan Das, Diganta [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Solid waste was already a problem long before water and air pollution issues attracted public attention. Historically the problem associated with solid waste can be dated back to prehistoric days. Due to the invention of new products, technologies and services the quantity and quality of the waste have changed over the years. Waste characteristics not only depend on income, culture and geography but also on a society's economy and, situations like disasters that affect that economy. There was tremendous industrial activity in Europe during the industrial revolution. The twentieth century is recognized as the American Century and the twenty-first century is recognized as the Asian Century in which everyone wants to earn 'as much as possible'. After Asia the currently developing Africa could next take the center stage. With transitions in their economies many countries have also witnessed an explosion of waste quantities. Solid waste problems and approaches to tackling them vary from country to country. For example, while efforts are made to collect and dispose hospital waste through separate mechanisms in India it is burnt together with municipal solid waste in Sweden. While trans-boundary movement of waste has been addressed in numerous international agreements, it still reaches developing countries in many forms. While thousands of people depend on waste for their lively hood throughout the world, many others face problems due to poor waste management. In this context solid waste has not remained an issue to be tackled by the local urban bodies alone. It has become a subject of importance for engineers as well as doctors, psychologist, economists, and climate scientists and any others. There are huge changes in waste management in different parts of the world at different times in history. To address these issues, an effort has been made by the authors to combine their experience and bring together a new text book on the theory and practice of the

  14. Financial implications of compliance with EU waste management goals: Feasibility and consequences in a transition country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlović, Višnja; Vujić, Goran; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Batinić, Bojan

    2016-09-01

    This paper outlines the approach that can assist decision makers to have first preliminary insights regarding costs of complying with requested European Union municipal waste management goals in transition and developing countries. Serbia, as a joining member of European Union, must confront itself with the challenges resulting from European Union waste management directives. Implementation of waste separation units and the construction of sanitary landfills is already in place in Serbia. However, new waste management practice will need additional transformation and will require implementation of waste treatment technologies for additional management of generated waste. Implementation of analyzed best available technology/techniques for waste treatment can support the country's effort in reaching the policy goals. However, the question here is how much will the implementation of additional waste treatments influence the overall waste management costs? Results of the scenario's financial viability show that composting and sanitary landfill are the most viable solutions regarding the costs, even under increasing discount rates. Although different discount rates influence the overall gate fees and net present values, the level of affordability for different scenarios remains the same.

  15. Greening academia: developing sustainable waste management at Higher Education Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N; Williams, I D; Kemp, S; Smith, N F

    2011-07-01

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are often the size of small municipalities. Worldwide, the higher education (HE) sector has expanded phenomenally; for example, since the 1960s, the United Kingdom (UK) HE system has expanded sixfold to >2.4 million students. As a consequence, the overall production of waste at HEIs throughout the world is very large and presents significant challenges as the associated legislative, economic and environmental pressures can be difficult to control and manage. This paper critically reviews why sustainable waste management has become a key issue for the worldwide HE sector to address and describes some of the benefits, barriers, practical and logistical problems. As a practical illustration of some of the issues and problems, the four-phase waste management strategy developed over 15 years by one of the largest universities in Southern England--the University of Southampton (UoS)--is outlined as a case study. The UoS is committed to protecting the environment by developing practices that are safe, sustainable and environmentally friendly and has developed a practical, staged approach to manage waste in an increasingly sustainable fashion. At each stage, the approach taken to the development of infrastructure (I), service provision (S) and behavior change (B) is explained, taking into account the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) factors. Signposts to lessons learned, good practice and useful resources that other institutions--both nationally and internationally--can access are provided. As a result of the strategy developed at the UoS, from 2004 to 2008 waste costs fell by around £125k and a recycling rate of 72% was achieved. The holistic approach taken--recognizing the PESTLE factors and the importance of a concerted ISB approach--provides a realistic, successful and practical example for other institutions wishing to effectively and sustainably manage their waste.

  16. Cost and efficiency of disaster waste disposal: A case study of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, Toshiaki

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes the cost and efficiency of waste disposal associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake. The following two analyses were performed: (1) a popular parametric approach, which is an ordinary least squares (OLS) method to estimate the factors that affect the disposal costs; (2) a non-parametric approach, which is a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) to analyze the efficiency of each municipality and clarify the best performance of the disaster waste management. Our results indicate that a higher recycling rate of disaster waste and a larger amount of tsunami sediments decrease the average disposal costs. Our results also indicate that area-wide management increases the average cost. In addition, the efficiency scores were observed to vary widely by municipality, and more temporary incinerators and secondary waste stocks improve the efficiency scores. However, it is likely that the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station influenced the results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stakeholder analysis for industrial waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Oliver; Harvey, Joan; Tollin, Nicola

    2009-02-01

    Stakeholder approaches have been applied to the management of companies with a view to the improvement of all areas of performance, including economic, health and safety, waste reduction, future policies, etc. However no agreement exists regarding stakeholders, their interests and levels of importance. This paper considers stakeholder analysis with particular reference to environmental and waste management systems. It proposes a template and matrix model for identification of stakeholder roles and influences by rating the stakeholders. A case study demonstrates the use of these and their ability to be transferred to other circumstances and organizations is illustrated by using a large educational institution.

  18. Nuclear waste management quarterly progress report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M. (comp.)

    1977-11-01

    Progress is reported in sections on decontamination and densification of chop-leach cladding residues, monitoring methods for effluents from waste solidification, TRU waste fixation studies, krypton solidification, /sup 14/C and /sup 129/I fixation, waste management system studies, waste isolation assessment, stored waste migration monitoring, properties of fission product organic complexes, and decontamination of metals. (JRD)

  19. Costs of food waste in South Africa: Incorporating inedible food waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available this, we took the price of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is widely sold in South Africa, and adjusted this based on differences in heating value (at standard temperature and pressure, STP) to derive a representative price for biogas. LPG... waste Composting Anaerobic digestion Opportunity costs Externalities Landfilling 1. Introduction Food waste can be defined as food losses throughout the food supply chain, including during production, storage, transportation, and processing...

  20. 76 FR 4823 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste... permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage industrial solid waste. The rule also imposes... per year from the list of hazardous wastes. The Agency has decided to grant the petition based on an...

  1. Safety Aspects in Radioactive Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Brennecke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, within the framework of national as well as international programmes, notable advances and considerable experience have been reached, particularly in minimising of the production of radioactive wastes, conditioning and disposal of short-lived, low and intermediate level waste, vitrification of fission product solutions on an industrial scale and engineered storage of long-lived high level wastes, i.e. vitrified waste and spent nuclear fuel. Based on such results, near-surface repositories have successfully been operated in many countries. In contrast to that, the disposal of high level radioactive waste is still a scientific and technical challenge in many countries using the nuclear power for the electricity generation. Siting, planning and construction of repositories for the high level wastes in geological formations are gradually advancing. The site selection, the evaluation of feasible sites as well as the development of safety cases and performance of site-specific safety assessments are essential in preparing the realization of such a repository. In addition to the scientific-technical areas, issues regarding economical, environmental, ethical and political aspects have been considered increasingly during the last years. Taking differences in the national approaches, practices and the constraints into account, it is to be recognised that future developments and decisions will have to be extended in order to include further important aspects and, finally, to enhance the acceptance and confidence in the safety-related planning work as well as in the proposed radioactive waste management and disposal solutions.

  2. Long-term nuclear waste management: Present status and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, J. P.

    1989-08-01

    Long-term nuclear waste management deals with the final and irreversible stage of waste disposal, on surface and in deep geological formations (according to the waste type), when institutional surveillance is over. There are presently two main options available to deal with the wastes generated by spent nuclear fuel unloaded from reactors and containing most of the radiotoxicity produced all along the nuclear fuel cycle. Since the end of Word War II, spent-fuel reprocessing technology has gone through three different stages, ending up with considerable technical achievements and large investments (construction of large facilities, UP3 in France and THORP in the UK). However, having to face spent-fuel risings and lack of reprocessing capacities, since the mid-seventies some countries are considering the possibility of direct spent-fuel disposal without reprocessing. These two options are discussed in terms of long-term waste management. Because of the types of waste conditioning and packaging adopted with present reprocessing technology, in that case long-term safety, after a few centuries, relies completely on the geological barriers. On the other hand, long-term safety with the second option is based essentially on the retention properties of uranium oxide with respect to actinides. Finally, alternatives such as chemical partitioning of minor actinides followed by their transmutation, either in reactors or using high-energy particle accelerators, are under discussion. Apart from the standard reprocessing (after a cooling period of 3-5 years), all the other options called for a long period (50 years) of interim storage, preventing the adoption of irreversible, costly and not well proved waste management solutions, and leaving time to develop and assess these alternative methods.

  3. Sanitary Landfilling – A Key Component of Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Fellner

    2013-01-01

    In many affluent countries waste management is experiencing a fast transition from landfilling to sophisticated recycling and waste to energy plants. Thus, landfilling of waste becomes less important in these countries. The present paper discusses whether a similar development will take place in transition economies, or waste management systems will mainly rely on landfilling in the near future. For this purpose, the current waste management practices and associated environmental impacts as w...

  4. Packaging wastes management; Gestion integral de los residuos de envases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Ramos, M.

    1996-12-01

    Packaging, having fulfilled their function, become waste and joint the flow of resure we generate every day. Packaging waste is a usable secondary raw material, provided that a suitable integrated management strategy is devised. This article highlights the Integrated Management Strategic Plan for Packaging Waste, following the priority guidelines established by the Community Directives on waste management: Reduction, re-use, Recycling, Energy Recovery and Final Elimination, and the European Directive 94/62/CE about packaging and packaging waste. (Author)

  5. Laboratory cost control and financial management software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M

    1998-02-09

    Economical constraints within the health care system advocate the introduction of tighter control of costs in clinical laboratories. Detailed cost information forms the basis for cost control and financial management. Based on the cost information, proper decisions regarding priorities, procedure choices, personnel policies and investments can be made. This presentation outlines some principles of cost analysis, describes common limitations of cost analysis, and exemplifies use of software to achieve optimized cost control. One commercially available cost analysis software, LabCost, is described in some detail. In addition to provision of cost information, LabCost also serves as a general management tool for resource handling, accounting, inventory management and billing. The application of LabCost in the selection process of a new high throughput analyzer for a large clinical chemistry service is taken as an example for decisions that can be assisted by cost evaluation. It is concluded that laboratory management that wisely utilizes cost analysis to support the decision-making process will undoubtedly have a clear advantage over those laboratories that fail to employ cost considerations to guide their actions.

  6. Neutralized current acid waste consolidation management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.J.; Brown, R.G.; Galbraith, J.; Jensen, C.; Place, D.E.; Reddick, G.W.; Zuroff, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The scope of this evaluation is to recommend a management plan for the high-heat tank waste, including neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) in AY and AZ Tank Farms, and tank C-106 waste. The movement of solids, liquids and salt cake in the designated tank farms is included. Decision analysis techniques were used to determine a recommended alternative. The recommended course of action was replacement of a 75-hp mixer pump in tank AY-102 and in-tank concentration of tank AZ-102 supernate. The alternative includes transfer fo tank C-106 sludge to tank AY-102, then transfer to tank AY-102 and tank C-106 sludge to tank AZ-101 using the new 75-hp mixer pump installed in tank AY-102. Tank AZ-101 becomes a storage tank for high-level waste (HLW) sludge, with the capacity to mix and transfer sludge as desired.

  7. Smart Garbage Monitoring System for Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Yusof Norfadzlia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles of rubbish are one of the major problems faced by most people in Malaysia, especially those who live in flats, as the number of bins is limited and shared among all residents. It may cause pollutions, which may lead to sanitary issues and diseases. This project presents the development of a smart garbage monitoring system in order to measure waste level in the garbage bin in real-time and to alert the municipality, in particular cases, via SMS. The proposed system is consisted by the ultrasonic sensor to measure the waste level, the GSM module to send the SMS, and an Arduino Uno which controls the system operation. It supposes to generate and send the warning messages to the municipality via SMS when the waste bin is full or almost full, so the garbage can be collected immediately. Furthermore, it is expected to contribute to improving the efficiency of the solid waste disposal management.

  8. 40 CFR 60.55c - Waste management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and recycling of paper, cardboard, plastics, glass, batteries, food waste, and metals (e.g., aluminum... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management plan. 60.55c Section... Waste Incinerators for Which Construction is Commenced After June 20, 1996 § 60.55c Waste management...

  9. Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1982-March 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1983-06-01

    This document is one of a series of technical progress reports designed to report radioactive waste management programs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Accomplishments in the following programs are reported: waste stabilization; Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; low-level waste management; remedial action; and supporting studies.

  10. Progress in long-lived radioactive waste management and disposal at the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triay, I.R.; Matthews, M.L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico (United States); Eriksson, L.G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Salado Formation is buried more than 350 m beneath the sands and cacti of the Chihuahuan Desert and hosts the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological repository at a depth of approximately 650 m. Since the WIPP repository is at least 10 years ahead of any other repository development for long-lived radioactive waste, other radioactive waste management organizations and institutions could benefit both scientifically and politically from sharing the lessons learned at WIPP. Benefits would include using existing expertise and facilities to cost-effectively address and solve program-specific issues and to train staff. The characteristics of the WIPP repository and infrastructure are described in this paper. (author)

  11. Environmental management of construction and demolition waste in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartam, Nabil; Al-Mutairi, Nayef; Al-Ghusain, Ibrahim; Al-Humoud, Jasem

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing pressure on the construction industry to reduce costs and improve the quality of our environment. The fact is that both of these goals can be achieved at the same time. Although construction and demolition (C&D) constitutes a major source of waste in terms of volume and weight, its management and recycling efforts have not yet seen the light in Kuwait. This study focuses on recycling efforts leading to the minimization of the total C&D waste that is currently landfilled in Kuwait. This paper presents the current status of C&D waste disposal system in Kuwait and identifies the potential problems to the environment, people and economy. Then, it investigates alternative solutions to manage and control this major type of waste in an economically efficient and environmentally safe manner. Next, the paper describes the feasibility of establishing a C&D waste recycling facility in Kuwait. It concludes by highlighting the major benefits and bottleneck problems with such a recycling facility.

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Bimleshwar; Shepherd, Philip

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, recycling'' refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  13. Cost avoidance realized through transportation and disposal of Fernald mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, A.K.; Dilday, D.R. [Fluor Daniel Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Fernald, OH (United States); Rast, D.M. [USDOE Fernald Field Office, OH (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Currently, Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing a transformation from shipping radiologically contaminated waste within the DOE structure for disposal to now include Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) shipments to a permitted commercial disposal facility (PCDF) final disposition. Implementing this change can be confusing and is perceived as being more difficult than it actually is. Lack of experience and disposal capacity, sometimes and/or confusing regulatory guidance, and expense of transportation and disposal of MLLW ar contributing factors to many DOE facilities opting to simply store their MLLW. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company (FERMCO) established itself as a leader i addressing MLLW transportation and disposal by being one of the first DOE facilities to ship mixed waste to a PCDF (Envirocare of Utah) for disposal. FERMCO`s proactive approach in establishing a MLLW Disposal Program produces long-term cost savings while generating interim mixed waste storage space to support FERMCO`s cleanup mission. FERMCO`s goal for all MLLW shipments was to develop a cost efficient system to accurately characterize, sample and analyze the waste, prepare containers and shipping paperwork, and achieve regulatory compliance while satisfying disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This goal required the ability to evolve with the regulations, to address waste streams of varying matrices and contaminants, and to learn from each MLLW shipment campaign. These efforts have produced a successful MLLW Disposal Program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO has a massed lessons learned from development of this fledgling program which may be applied complex-wide to ultimately save facilities time and money traditionally wasted by maintaining the status quo.

  14. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  15. Reverse logistics network for municipal solid waste management: The inclusion of waste pickers as a Brazilian legal requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Giovane Lopes; Chaves, Gisele de Lorena Diniz; Ribeiro, Glaydston Mattos

    2015-06-01

    This study proposes a reverse logistics network involved in the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) to solve the challenge of economically managing these wastes considering the recent legal requirements of the Brazilian Waste Management Policy. The feasibility of the allocation of MSW material recovery facilities (MRF) as intermediate points between the generators of these wastes and the options for reuse and disposal was evaluated, as well as the participation of associations and cooperatives of waste pickers. This network was mathematically modelled and validated through a scenario analysis of the municipality of São Mateus, which makes the location model more complete and applicable in practice. The mathematical model allows the determination of the number of facilities required for the reverse logistics network, their location, capacities, and product flows between these facilities. The fixed costs of installation and operation of the proposed MRF were balanced with the reduction of transport costs, allowing the inclusion of waste pickers to the reverse logistics network. The main contribution of this study lies in the proposition of a reverse logistics network for MSW simultaneously involving legal, environmental, economic and social criteria, which is a very complex goal. This study can guide practices in other countries that have realities similar to those in Brazil of accelerated urbanisation without adequate planning for solid waste management, added to the strong presence of waste pickers that, through the characteristic of social vulnerability, must be included in the system. In addition to the theoretical contribution to the reverse logistics network problem, this study aids in decision-making for public managers who have limited technical and administrative capacities for the management of solid wastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Waste Information Management System-2012 - 12114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Shoffner, P.; Lagos, L.; Roelant, D. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) -2012 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. WIMS continues to successfully accomplish the goals and objectives set forth by DOE for this project. It has

  17. Managing Materials and Wastes for Homeland Security Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on waste management planning and preparedness before a homeland security incident, including preparing for the large amounts of waste that would need to be managed when an incident occurs, such as a large-scale natural disaster.

  18. Animal Waste Management Practices and Perceptions on Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Waste Management Practices and Perceptions on Public and Environmental Health Risks. ... Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania ... and public health risks associated with improper management of animal wastes in 66 ...

  19. Medical waste management at the University of Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical waste management at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. ... medical waste management and training in, and use of personal protective equipment. ... storage, treatment, and final disposal at the UPTH was inadequate.

  20. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  1. International High Level Nuclear Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschhoff, Gisela; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the radioactive waste management in Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the USSR. Indicates that scientists and statesmen should look beyond their own lifetimes into future centuries and millennia to conduct long-range plans essential to protection of future generations. (CC)

  2. Abstracts: NRC Waste Management Program reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Minichino, C.

    1979-11-01

    This document consists of abstracts of all reports published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Waste Management Program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). It will be updated at regular intervals. Reports are arranged in numerical order, within each category. Unless otherwise specified, authors are LLL scientists and engineers.

  3. General survey of solid-waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, T. G.; Wadle, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing solid-waste management for a building complex serviced by a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) were explored. Literature surveys were conducted to investigate both conventional and unusual systems to serve this purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems most compatible with MIUS are discussed.

  4. Solid Waste Management Planning--A Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Hilary M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article presents a twofold solid waste management plan consisting of a basic design methodology and a decision-making methodology. The former provides a framework for the developing plan while the latter builds flexibility into the design so that there is a model for use during the planning process. (MA)

  5. Application of Life Cycle Assessment on Electronic Waste Management: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-04-01

    Electronic waste is a rich source of both valuable materials and toxic substances. Management of electronic waste is one of the biggest challenges of current worldwide concern. As an effective and prevailing environmental management tool, life cycle assessment can evaluate the environmental performance of electronic waste management activities. Quite a few scientific literatures reporting life cycle assessment of electronic waste management with significant outcomes have been recently published. This paper reviewed the trends, characteristics, research gaps, and challenges of these studies providing detailed information for practitioners involved in electronic waste management. The results showed that life cycle assessment studies were most carried out in Europe, followed by Asia and North America. The research subject of the studies mainly includes monitors, waste printed circuit boards, mobile phones, computers, printers, batteries, toys, dishwashers, and light-emitting diodes. CML was the most widely used life cycle impact assessment method in life cycle assessment studies on electronic waste management, followed by EI99. Furthermore, 40% of the reviewed studies combined with other environmental tools, including life cycle cost, material flow analysis, multi-criteria decision analysis, emergy analysis, and hazard assessment which came to more comprehensive conclusions from different aspects. The research gaps and challenges including uneven distribution of life cycle assessment studies, life cycle impact assessment methods selection, comparison of the results, and uncertainty of the life cycle assessment studies were examined. Although life cycle assessment of electronic waste management facing challenges, their results will play more and more important role in electronic waste management practices.

  6. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning...

  7. Policy Instruments towards a Sustainable Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Forsfält

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: “Information”; “Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials”; “Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems”; “Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals”, “Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures”; and “Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services”. Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.

  8. Public concerns and behaviours towards solid waste management in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Alessandra; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F

    2010-12-01

    A self-administered questionnaire investigated knowledge, perceptions of the risks to health associated with solid waste management, and practices about waste management in a random sample of 1181 adults in Italy. Perceived risk of developing cancer due to solid waste burning was significantly higher in females, younger, with an educational level lower than university and who believed that improper waste management is linked to cancer. Respondents who had visited a physician at least once in the last year for fear of contracting a disease due to the non-correct waste management had an educational level lower than university, have modified dietary habits for fear of contracting disease due to improper waste management, believe that improper waste management is linked to allergies, perceive a higher risk of contracting infectious disease due to improper waste management and have participated in education/information activities on waste management. Those who more frequently perform with regularity differentiate household waste collection had a university educational level, perceived a higher risk of developing cancer due to solid waste burning, had received information about waste collection and did not need information about waste management. Educational programmes are needed to modify public concern about adverse health effects of domestic waste.

  9. Waste management and the workplace*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    12 A lifeline tariff (also called a “social tariff”) is a pricing strategy designed to provide minimal ... The Billy Hattingh scheme would cost the council only R4.7m per year: ...... Plus ca Change: Re-inventing Inequality in the Post Apartheid.

  10. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  11. 75 FR 51434 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... No. EPA-HQ-RCRA-2009-0640. Mail: Send your comments to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Management... Delivery: Deliver two copies of your comments to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System... electronically in http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Hazardous and Solid Waste Management...

  12. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, K.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-22

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions.

  13. Plasma reactor waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.

    1992-01-01

    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  14. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum C. Cost worksheets for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The cost worksheets for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. A summary cost estimate, cost estimate for surface facilities, and cost estimate for shafts and underground facilities are included. (DC)

  15. Health cost of a nuclear waste repository, WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, E. [Univ. of Ulster, Jordanstown (United Kingdom)

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States of America`s first nuclear waste dumping site, has over the years generated a great deal of concern and controversy. The most sensitive aspect of this project is that it may impose serious health risks on future generations. The first leg of this project is about to be completed and at the time of writing the Department of Energy is planning to perform experiments with a small quantity of waste for operational demonstrations. If everything goes well, then towards the end of this decade large quantities of wastes will be transported to the site for disposal. This article reconsiders the health cost of this project from an economic perspective in light of recent developments in the field of social discounting. As in earlier studies, two cases of health risks are considered: total cancer and genetic deformity over a one million year cutoff period. The analysis shows that whereas ordinary discounting method wipes out the future health detriments, expressed in monetary terms, the modified discounting criterion retains a substantial proportion of such costs in economic analysis. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Health Cost of a Nuclear Waste Repository, WIPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Erhun

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States of America’s first nuclear waste dumping site, has over the years generated a great deal of concern and controversy. The most sensitive aspect of this project is that it may impose serious health risks on future generations. The first leg of this project is about to be completed and at the time of writing the Department of Energy is planning to perform experiments with a small quantity of waste for operational demonstrations. If everything goes well, then towards the end of this decade large quantities of wastes will be transported to the site for disposal. This article reconsiders the health cost of this project from an economic perspective in light of recent developments in the field of social discounting. As in earlier studies, two cases of health risks are considered: total cancer and genetic deformity over a one million year cutoff period. The analysis shows that whereas ordinary discounting method wipes out the future health detriments, expressed in monetary terms, the modified discounting criterion retains a substantial proportion of such costs in economic analysis.

  17. 45 CFR 671.13 - Waste management for the USAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... otherwise taken into account in existing management plans for ships): (1) Current and planned waste management arrangements, including final disposal; (2) Current and planned arrangement for assessing the environmental effects of waste and waste management; (3) Other efforts to minimize environmental effects of...

  18. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Avoidable costs of comprehensive case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issel, L M; Anderson, R A

    1999-01-01

    Comprehensive case management has become an industry standard and its pervasiveness raises questions about the ubiquitous need for this service. Analyzed from the perspective of transaction cost analysis and access, we argue that in some cases comprehensive case management is an avoidable cost incurred because of system problems that limit access to otherwise eligible clients. Implications are discussed.

  20. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  1. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  2. Liability of Defense Contractors for Hazardous Waste Cleanup Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    laws against toxic waste dumpers . I want faster cleanups and tougher enforcement of penalties against polluters. [Address by President Bush to joint...excludes coverage for "[a]ny loss, cost, or expense arising out of any governmental direction or request that [the insured] test for, monitor , clean...test for, monitor , clean up, remove, contain, treat, detoxify, or neutralize the pollutants.Ř 63 ENDNOTES 1. Text of President Bush’s Address to

  3. On Integrity Constraints for a Waste Management Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, D. (Dominik)

    1994-01-01

    There is a waste problem in nearly every country. A model of a waste generating system and an efficient waste management information system are the first steps to control this problem. Some countries have already enacted laws which force communities and enterprises to report annually the amounts of wastes produced. For example, the German federal state, Lower Saxony, enacted such a law in 1992. This YSSP-Project deals with a case study on the development of a waste management information syst...

  4. Radioactive waste management: a bibliography for the integrated data base program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.A.

    1981-10-01

    This is the second in a series of literature references compiled on waste generation and treatment, characteristics, inventories, and costs. Documents were collected, abstracted, and indexed into a searchable information file, which was then sorted, indexed, and printed for this bibliography. This volume contains over 200 references to nuclear waste management, the majority of which are 1979-1980 publications. Each reference is categorized by waste origin (commercial, government, institutional, and foreign) and by subject area: (1) high-level waste, (2) low-level waste, (3) transuranic (TRU) waste, (4) airborne waste, (5) Remedial Action Program (formerly utilized sites, surplus facilities, and mill tailings), (6) isolation, (7) transportation, (8) spent fuel, (9) fuel cycle centers, and (10) general, nonspecific waste. Six indexes are provided to assist the user in locating documents of interest.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.D. [Bechtel Nevada, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Gertz, C.P.; Clayton, W.A.; Crowe, B.M. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Operations Office

    1998-12-31

    In 1978, the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), established a managed LLW disposal project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Two, sites which were already accepting limited amounts of on-site generated waste for disposal and off-site generated Transuranic Waste for interim storage, were selected to house the disposal facilities. In those early days, these sites, located about 15 miles apart, afforded the DOE/NV the opportunity to use at least two technologies to manage its waste cost effectively. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose packaged waste while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. The paper describes the technical attributes of both Area 5 and Area 3 facilities, the acceptance process, the disposal processes, and present and future capacities of both sites.

  6. A NEW RUSSIAN WASTE MANAGEMENT INSTALLATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Andrew; Engxy, Thor; Endregard, Monica; Schwab, Patrick; Nazarian, Ashot; Krumrine, Paul; Backe, Steinar; Gorin, Stephen; Evans, Brent

    2003-02-27

    The Polyarninsky Shipyard (sometimes called Navy Yard No. 10 or the Shkval Shipyard) has been designated as the recipient for Solid Radioactive Waste (SRW) management facilities under the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program. The existing SRW storage site at this shipyard is filled to capacity, which is forcing the shipyard to reduce its submarine dismantlement activities. The Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation is planned as a combination of several AMEC projects. It will have several elements, including a set of hydraulic metal cutting tools, containers for transport and storage, the Mobile Pretreatment Facility (MPF) for Solid Radioactive Waste, the PICASSO system for radiation monitoring, and a Waste Storage Facility. Hydraulically operated cutting tools can cut many metal items via shearing so that dusts or particulates are not generated. The AMEC Program procured a cutting tool system, consisting of a motor and hydraulic pumping unit, a 38-mm conduit-cutting tool, a 100- mm pipe-cutting tool, and a spreading tool all mounted on a wheeled cart. The vendor modified the tool system for extremely cold conditions and Russian electrical standards, then delivered the tool system to the Polyarninsky shipyard. A new container for transportation and storage of SRW and been designed and fabricated. The first 400 of these containers have been delivered to the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy for use at the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation. These containers are cylindrical in shape and can hold seven standard 200-liter drums. They are the first containers ever certified in Russia for the offsite transport of military SRW. These containers can be transported by truck, rail, barge, or ship. The MPF will be the focal point of the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation and a key element in meeting the nuclear submarine dismantlement and waste processing needs of the Russian Federation. It will receive raw

  7. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Tapan

    2009-03-01

    Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem.

  8. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  9. Waste Management with Earth Observation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarit, Gerard; Tabasco, A.

    2010-05-01

    The range of applications where Earth Observation (EO) can be useful has been notably increased due to the maturity reached in the adopted technology and techniques. In most of the cases, EO provides a manner to remotely monitor particular variables and parameters with a more efficient usage of the available resources. Typical examples are environmental (forest, marine, resources…) monitoring, precision farming, security and surveillance (land, maritime…) and risk / disaster management (subsidence, volcanoes…). In this context, this paper presents a methodology to monitor waste disposal sites with EO. In particular, the explored technology is Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which applies the interferometric concept to SAR images. SAR is an advanced radar concept able to acquire 2D coherent microwave reflectivity images for large scenes (tens of thousands kilometres) with fine resolution (Digital Elevation Models (DEM) that provide key information about the tri-dimensional configuration of a scene, that is, a height map of the scene. In practice, this represents an alternative way to obtain the same information than in-situ altimetry can provide. In the case of waste management, InSAR has been used to evaluate the potentiality of EO to monitor the disposed volume along a specific range of time. This activity has been developed in collaboration with the Agència de Resídus de Catalunya (ARC) (The Waste Agency of Catalonia), Spain, in the framework of a pilot project. The motivation comes from the new law promoted by the regional Government that taxes the volume of disposed waste. This law put ARC in duty to control that the real volume matches the numbers provided by the waste processing firms so that they can not commit illegal actions. Right now, this task is performed with in-situ altimetry. But despite of the accurate results, this option is completely inefficient and limits the numbers of polls that can be generated and the number of

  10. Conceptual and economic foundations of strategic management of solid waste products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Borisovna Leonova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews existing global concept in the field of waste production and consumption.The purpose of this investigation is the development of a new hierarchy of waste mana-gement and adjustment of the existing waste management strategy, acceptable to Russia. To analyze the current situation of waste production and consumption there was studied foreign experience in waste management and considered the situation of waste in the Russian Federation and Sverdlovsk region. Analytical, statistical and theoretical methods of work were used.The new hierarchy of desirable waste management is based on the following order: selective collection of waste, particularly household, their recycling and thereby minimize them, and then their treatment and further disposal. This new hierarchy will significantly reduce the burden on the environment and land resources.The revised strategy for solid waste management should consist of 6 blocks, ranked in a logical sequence: organizational, legal, science and research, economic, controlling, educational. Each of them includes a list of activities. Term strategy implementation is 5 years, followed by a possible prolongation.To improve the efficiency of work in the field of solid waste management in Russia must be created a new waste recycling industry, which can be provided by necessary infrastructure for the collection, transportation, recycling and disposal of solid waste products. It is also required to monitor environmental pollution waste using geographic information systems and provide educational work among population and the leaders of the industrial and communal enterprises.In the article in addition to the world concept the authors took into account an economic component, which includes analysis of the costs of environmental protection measures and economic damage caused by waste disposal. The paper also provides an industry deformed structure of the Russian economy, which explains the inability to

  11. ABC model and the management of costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravdić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When a company has multiple objectives at the same time, they all must be considered and balanced when making any business decisions. Linking the markets, capital and resources so as to thus ensure the highest yield is, In fact, the search for competitive advantage as a basic condition for survival in a market economy. In highly detailed systems based on the management of costs or ABC (activity based costing systems, the cost of activities often result in erroneous evaluation of aggregate costs of the action. Improvements in information technology and monitoring decrease of technology costs enabled the ABC system to become a feasible system calculating costs in many organizations.

  12. A National system for the Management of Non-nuclear Radioactive Waste in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, J. C.

    2004-07-01

    The Swedish government in May 2002 set up a non-standing committee for non-nuclear radioactive waste. The objective was to suggest a national system for the management of all types of non-nuclear radioactive waste with special consideration to the principle of polluter pays and the responsibility of the producers. The committee delivered its recommendations to the government at the end of last year. Funding for future costs for nuclear waste management and final storage is collected in a state governed funding system. For non-nuclear waste, however, there are no means today to secure the funding. If a company goes bankrupt and leaves radioactive waste behind it might be up to the taxpayers to pay for its safe management. This is due to the fact that the cost for the waste is paid at the time one wants to dispose of it and it is usually the last owner of a product etc. that has to pay. Sometimes the price comes as a surprise and the owner might not have the money available. Thus the waste might be kept longer than otherwise and might even end up as orphan waste. To solve this dilemma the committee recommends a funding system in parallel with the system for the nuclear waste. The cost for the waste should be paid up front before the waste has been created. E.g. when a customer buys a product the cost for the future waste management would be included in the price and he will not have to pay for this the day he disposes the product by returning it to the producer or leaves it to a waste-collecting organisation. It should be the responsibility of the producer (manufacturer, importer or re-seller) to guarantee the funding for the waste management. In summary the non-nuclear radioactive waste is divided into three main groups: waste from products, waste from practices and other waste. Waste from products includes household products as well as products used in research, industry and hospitals etc. For this category it is easy to identify a producer who imports or

  13. Waste management of ENM-containing solid waste in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been done to determine emissions of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) from currently available nano-enabled consumer products. While ENM release is expected to occur throughout the life cycle of the products, this study focuses on the product end-of-life (EOL) phase. We used the ....... The results of this study may be used for the environmental and human health risk assessment of nanowaste, and to assist future regulatory and management decisions.......Little research has been done to determine emissions of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) from currently available nano-enabled consumer products. While ENM release is expected to occur throughout the life cycle of the products, this study focuses on the product end-of-life (EOL) phase. We used...... the Danish nanoproduct inventory (www.nanodb.dk) to get a general understanding of the fate of ENM during waste management in the European context. This was done by: 1. assigning individual products to an appropriate waste material fraction, 2. identifying the ENM in each fraction, 3. comparing identified...

  14. Environmental impacts of waste management in the hospitality industry: Creating a waste management plan for Bergvik Kartano

    OpenAIRE

    Adigwe, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Many hospitality industries find it difficult to control or manage solid wastes, such as food, containers, paper, cardboard and scrap metals, which are waste generated on a daily basis depending on the industry. Most hospitality industries tend to lag behind when it comes to the collection of waste. Only a fraction of the¬¬ waste collected receives proper disposal. When waste is not collected sufficiently and the disposal is inappropriate the waste can accumulate and cause water, land and air...

  15. The Waste Management in Romania. A Case Study: WMS Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OROIAN I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to discuss issues related to the degree of implementation of national waste managementstrategy by emphasizing progress in waste management at national level in three years after its development. In 2004,Romania has developed national policy documents as Waste Management Strategy and National Waste ManagementPlan (WMS, WMSP based on the ”waste hierarchy”. In the four years after the initiation of this process resultsdemonstrate the advantages of using this system in ensuring a sustainable solution to eliminate pollution from waste.Also, the amount of waste recovered at the start of the period - 2004, occupies a proportion of 5.08% of total while inthe end of 2007, the degree of recovery reached 7%. Concerning waste disposal, this was achieved by storage. Thereason is the lack of incinerators for thermal treatment of waste. Traditional collection of household and similar waste inthe mixture, is the most common, accounting for a share of about 97%.

  16. Operating costs of pneumatic waste collection; Consideraciones acerca de los costes operativos de la recogida neumatica de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A. J.

    2004-07-01

    How much does pneumatic waste collection cost and what is it worth?. This article compares the operating cost of the two conventional systems for urban solid waste collection with new pneumatic collection applications. It is a fact that at first pneumatic waste collection implies a slightly greater initial cost than conventional collection. Nevertheless, in time, and due to evolving cost concepts and the actual nature of pneumatic waste collection, it can be considered a cheaper alternative than the conventional one, as it is more respectful of the environment and more convenient for the city dweller. (Author)

  17. Management of offshore wastes in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    During the process of finding and producing oil and gas in the offshore environment operators generate a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Some of these wastes are directly related to exploration and production activities (e.g., drilling wastes, produced water, treatment workover, and completion fluids) while other types of wastes are associated with human occupation of the offshore platforms (e.g., sanitary and domestic wastes, trash). Still other types of wastes can be considered generic industrial wastes (e.g., scrap metal and wood, wastes paints and chemicals, sand blasting residues). Finally, the offshore platforms themselves can be considered waste materials when their useful life span has been reached. Generally, offshore wastes are managed in one of three ways--onsite discharge, injection, or transportation to shore. This paper describes the regulatory requirements imposed by the government and the approaches used by offshore operators to manage and dispose of wastes in the US.

  18. Preliminary study for the management of construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmpanis, B; Papadopoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Stylianou, M; Haralambous, K J; Loizidou, M

    2008-06-01

    This paper refers to the management of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste since, according to the EU Waste Strategy, C&D waste is considered to be one of the priority waste streams and appropriate actions need to be taken with respect to its effective management. Initially, the paper presents the state-of-the-art of the problem of C&D waste, including the amount and composition of C&D waste in EU countries, differences in the characteristics of this waste stream depending on its origin, as well as collection and management practices that are applied. A methodology is described for the estimation of the quantities of the waste stream under examination, since in most cases quantitative primary data is not available. Next, the fundamentals for the development of an integrated scheme for the management of C&D waste are presented and discussed, such as appropriate demolition procedures and location of waste management (off-site waste management, on-site waste management, direct on-site recovery, centralized on-site recovery). Finally, taking into consideration all relevant parameters, alternative systems that could be applied for the management of the C&D waste are suggested.

  19. DOE`s integrated low-level waste management program and strategic planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, G. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management; Hwang, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1993-03-01

    To meet the DOE`s commitment to operate its facilities in a safe, economic, and environmentally sound manner, and to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local rules, regulations, and agreements, DOE created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in 1989 to focus efforts on controlling waste management and cleaning up contaminated sites. In the first few years of its existence, the Office of Waste Management (EM-30) has concentrated on operational and corrective activities at the sites. In 1992, the Office of Waste Management began to apply an integrated approach to managing its various waste types. Consequently, DOE established the Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP) to properly manage its complex-wide LLW in a consistent manner. The objective of the LLWMP is to build and operate an integrated, safe, and cost-effective program to meet the needs of waste generators. The program will be based on acceptable risk and sound planning, resulting in public confidence and support. Strategic planning of the program is under way and is expected to take two to three years before implementation of the integrated waste management approach.

  20. Development of components for waste management systems using aerospace technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousar, D.; Young, M.; Sieger, A. [Aerojet-General Corp., Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An aerospace fluid management technology called ``platelets`` has been applied to components that are critical to the economic operation of waste management systems. Platelet devices are made by diffusion bonding thin metal plates which have been etched with precise flow passage circuitry to control and meter fluid to desired locations. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a promising waste treatment technology for safe and environmentally acceptable destruction of hazardous wastes. Performance and economics of current SCWO systems are limited by severe salt deposition on and corrosion of the reactor walls. A platelet transpiring-wall reactor has been developed that provides a protective layer of water adjacent to the reactor walls which prevents salt deposition and corrosion. Plasma arc processing is being considered as a method for stabilizing mixed radioactive wastes. Plasma arc torch systems currently require frequent shutdown to replace failed electrodes and this increases operating costs. A platelet electrode design was developed that has more than 10 times the life of conventional electrodes. It has water cooling channels internal to the electrode wall and slots through the wall for injecting gas into the arc.

  1. Environmentally conscious management of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Prades Costa, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Rapid technological change, low initial cost, and the fast obsolescence of the electrical and electronic equipments have resulted in a fast‐growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Electronic waste, e‐waste, e‐scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, broken, electrical or electronic devices. The processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems because electronic...

  2. Mine Waste Characterization, Management and Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Hudson-Edwards

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining is a vital part of the Global economy, but the extraction of metals, metalloids, and other mineral products generates vast quantities of liquid and solid waste. Currently the volume is estimated at several thousand million tons per annum, but is increasing exponentially as demand and exploitation of lower-grade deposits increases. The high concentrations of potentially toxic elements in these wastes can pose risks to ecosystems and humans, but these risks can be mitigated by implementing appropriate management or remediation schemes. Although there are a large number of such schemes available, there is still a need to research the processes, products, and effectiveness of implementation, as well as the nature of the mine wastes themselves. This Special Issue is aimed at bringing together studies in the areas of mine waste characterization, management, and remediation, to review the current state of knowledge and to develop improvements in current schemes. Fourteen manuscripts are published for this Special Issue, and these are summarized below.[...

  3. Assessing the costs of municipal solid waste treatment technologies in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleluia, João; Ferrão, Paulo

    2017-09-06

    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the main costs incurred by local authorities in developing countries. According to some estimates, these costs can account for up to 50% of city government budgets. It is therefore of importance that policymakers, urban planners and practitioners have an adequate understanding of what these costs consist of, from collection to final waste disposal. This article focuses on a specific stage of the MSW value chain, the treatment of waste, and it aims to identify cost patterns associated with the implementation and operation of waste treatment approaches in developing Asian countries. An analysis of the capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditures (OPEX) of a number of facilities located in countries of the region was conducted based on a database gathering nearly 100 projects and which served as basis for assessing four technology categories: composting, anaerobic digestion (AD), thermal treatment, and the production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Among these, it was found that the least costly to invest, asa function of the capacity to process waste, are composting facilities, with an average CAPEX per ton of 21,493 USD2015/ton. Conversely, at the upper end featured incineration plants, with an average CAPEX of 81,880 USD2015/ton, with this treatment approach ranking by and large as the most capital intensive of the four categories assessed. OPEX figures of the plants, normalized and analyzed in the form of OPEX/ton, were also found to be higher for incineration than for biological treatment methods, although on this component differences amongst the technology groups were less pronounced than those observed for CAPEX. While the results indicated the existence of distinct cost implications for available treatment approaches in the developing Asian context, the analysis also underscored the importance of understanding the local context asa means to properly identify the cost structure of each specific plant

  4. Resource Recovery and Reuse in Organic Solid Waste Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Hoitink, H.; Bidlingmaier, W.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled spreading of waste materials leads to health problems and environmental damage. To prevent these problems a waste management infrastructure has been set to collect and dispose of the waste, based on a hierarchy of three principles: waste prevention, recycling/reuse, and final disposal.

  5. Resource Recovery and Reuse in Organic Solid Waste Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Hoitink, H.; Bidlingmaier, W.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled spreading of waste materials leads to health problems and environmental damage. To prevent these problems a waste management infrastructure has been set to collect and dispose of the waste, based on a hierarchy of three principles: waste prevention, recycling/reuse, and final disposal.

  6. Best Practice of Construction Waste Management and Minimization

    OpenAIRE

    Khor Jie Cheng; Md Azree Othuman Mydin

    2014-01-01

    Material management is an important issue as seen in construction waste management. Best practice of material management is accompanied by various benefits which are acknowledged by several studies. The site layout has particular effects on both materials and their waste through effective waste management practice. Ignoring the benefits of material management could result in a daily reduction in productivity of up to 40% by material wastage. Thus, the benefits of effectiv...

  7. Occupational Risks Associated with Solid Waste Management in the Informal Sector of Gweru, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerie, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies and analyses the occupational risks associated with solid waste management practices in the informal enterprises of Gweru. Many concerns have been raised about the potential harm from waste to the environment and the general public, but the risks and consequent costs of occupational hazards in waste management have received little attention in the rush to adopt or adapt technologies such as composting. A multimethods research design that triangulates qualitative and quantitative research paradigms is employed in this study. The quantitative design involves physical characterisation of solid waste through material component separation and measurements as well as a questionnaire survey that investigates the risks associated with waste management. The qualitative component includes interviews, open-ended questionnaires, and field observations. Occupational risks occur at every stage in the waste management process, from the point where workers handle waste in the enterprises for collection or recycling to the point of ultimate disposal. Key findings from the study revealed that solid waste management practices are dominated by manual handling tasks hence the higher incidents of muscular-skeletal disorders. Other safety and health hazards associated with waste management in the informal enterprises of Gweru include incidents of diarrhoea, viral hepatitis, and higher incidents of obstructive and restrictive disorders.

  8. Integrating cost management and work management concepts for operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanditmars, C. [BC Gas Utilities Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Development of B C Gas Utility Limited`s integrated work and cost management system was described, with emphasis on cost management without reliance on the financial systems, and standard costing and operational side benefits. The objectives of the system were identified as dynamic monitoring and control, and local empowerment. The concept underlying the two systems was explained in detail. In the case of the work management system the ability to manage all work in operations areas was stressed, along with its universal availability. Other benefits expected included improved resource utilization, improved productivity, better control of cost, improved revenue generation, superior customer service, a simplified financial system, and improved employee motivation through empowerment.

  9. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Investigation into Waste Management on Construction Sites in South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Akinkurolere

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to report investigation into the problem of waste management on construction sites in South Western Nigeria and to unveil inherent dangers material wastage poses to the construction Industry. In the construction industries, materials are very vital in building sites, but not all the materials delivered are used for the purposes for which they have been ordered and the subsequent disappearance of these materials constitutes part of the waste. The primary research instruments used was the questionnaire which contained varied questions on material wastage and management. The investigation revealed that material wastage brings about additional cost to the construction project as well as a reduction in the profit of the contractor, considering the cost of storing and transporting construction waste along with the loss of revenue from not reclaiming waste. Also, most waste that occurs at construction sites is due to poor management and lack of awareness of effective waste management. The study finally recommends that recycling and reusing of construction waste is a viable option in construction waste management and that material wastage can be reduced by giving incentives to the workers for better handling of materials and by having trained personals to supervise the works.

  11. Waste Management in Industrial Construction: Investigating Contributions from Industrial Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa A. R. U. Freitas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for effective construction waste management is growing in importance, due to the increasing generation of construction waste and to its adverse impacts on the environment. However, despite the numerous studies on construction waste management, recovery of construction waste through Industrial Symbiosis and the adoption of other inter-firm practices, comprised within Industrial Ecology field of study, have not been fully explored. The present research aims to investigate Industrial Ecology contributions to waste management in industrial construction. The waste management strategies adopted in two industrial construction projects in Brazil are analyzed. The main waste streams generated are identified, recycling and landfilling diversion rates are presented and waste recovery through Industrial Symbiosis is discussed. A SWOT analysis was carried out. Results demonstrate that 9% of the waste produced in one of the projects was recovered through Industrial Symbiosis, while in the other project, waste recovery through Industrial Symbiosis achieved the rate of 30%. These data reveal Industrial Symbiosis’ potential to reduce landfilling of industrial construction wastes, contributing to waste recovery in construction. In addition, results show that industrial construction projects can benefit from the following synergies common in Industrial Ecology place-based approaches: centralized waste management service, shared waste management infrastructure and administrative simplification.

  12. PEOPLE'S PERCEPTION ON HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Longe ، O. O. Longe ، E. F. Ukpebor

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The current work examined the structure of household waste management system, collection and disposal within the context of a wider research on integrated solid waste management in households. A sample of 30 households from eleven selected residential areas with a focus group of 60 respondents in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria was used. The selected residential areas were divided into high, middle and low socio-economic strata. The research examined a range of environmental behaviours, attitude and perception of respondents on household solid waste management. The results established waste management behaviours among the respondents on solid waste management system, services, patronage of services and cost recovery methods. Public opinion and perception on solid waste management system is characterized with irregularity and inefficient collection system; with poor monitoring of the private waste service providers by the local authority. Willingness to pay for waste management services provided by the private service providers, the Private Sector Participation operators is higher among the middle and high income socio-economic groups than in the low income group. However, with the application of sustainable environmental education greater success ratio could be achieved. Level of patronage of solid waste management services is high across the three socio-economic groups but patronage is shared among the two operating service providers (formal and informal. The Private Sector Participation has the highest patronage level with 64.6% severity index while the informal sector (Cart pushers have only 48.7% severity index both percentages translate to the agreed and neutral perception opinion ranges respectively. The paper advocates for improved solid waste management system through proper monitoring of the services of the Private Sector Participation operators by the Local Government Area for improved service efficiency. Finally the

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  14. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1997, eleven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  15. Civilian radioactive waste management program plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This revision of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan describes the objectives of the Civilian Radioactive Waste management Program (Program) as prescribed by legislative mandate, and the technical achievements, schedule, and costs planned to complete these objectives. The Plan provides Program participants and stakeholders with an updated description of Program activities and milestones for fiscal years (FY) 1998 to 2003. It describes the steps the Program will undertake to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site in 1998; prepare the Secretary of Energy`s site recommendation to the President in 2001, if the site is found to be suitable for development as a repository; and submit a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2002 for authorization to construct a repository. The Program`s ultimate challenge is to provide adequate assurance to society that an operating geologic repository at a specific site meets the required standards of safety. Chapter 1 describes the Program`s mission and vision, and summarizes the Program`s broad strategic objectives. Chapter 2 describes the Program`s approach to transform strategic objectives, strategies, and success measures to specific Program activities and milestones. Chapter 3 describes the activities and milestones currently projected by the Program for the next five years for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; the Waste Acceptance, Storage and Transportation Project; ad the Program Management Center. The appendices present information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the history of the Program; the Program`s organization chart; the Commission`s regulations, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in geologic Repositories; and a glossary of terms.

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan. Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-12-01

    The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  17. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: Multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, R., E-mail: ray.jacobsen@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Buysse, J., E-mail: j.buysse@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Gellynck, X., E-mail: xavier.gellynck@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal is to compare collection costs for residual household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have clustered all municipalities in order to find mutual comparable pairs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each pair consists of one private and one public operating waste collection program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All cases show that private service has lower costs than public service. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipalities were contacted to identify the deeper causes for the waste management program. - Abstract: The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private.

  18. 77 FR 26991 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 RIN 3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues AGENCY... to the regulatory framework for the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The... Regulations (10 CFR) Part 61, ``Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste.'' These...

  19. 77 FR 10401 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 61 RIN-3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues... possible revisions to the regulatory framework for the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste... Disposal of Radioactive Waste.'' These regulations were published in the Federal Register on December 27...

  20. Certain hospital waste management practices in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ferdowsi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: This study may create awareness regarding the magnitude of the problem of waste management in hospitals of Isfahan and may stimulate interests for systematic control efforts for hospital waste disposal. Hospital waste management cannot succeed without documented plans, certain equipment, defined staff trainings, and periodic evaluations.

  1. Comparative analysis of solid waste management in 20 cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, D.C.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.; Scheinberg, A.; Velis, C.A.; Alabaster, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the ‘lens’ of integrated and sustainable waste management (ISWM) to analyse the new data set compiled on 20 cities in six continents for the UN-Habitat flagship publication Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities. The comparative analysis looks first at waste generation rates

  2. 40 CFR 60.35e - Waste management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management guidelines. 60.35e... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators § 60.35e Waste management guidelines. For approval, a...

  3. E-waste: Environmental Problems and Current Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aktsoglou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the environmental problems related with the discarded electronic appliances, known as e-waste, are reviewed.Moreover, the current and the future production of e-waste, the potential environmental problems associated with theirdisposal and management practices are discussed whereas the existing e-waste management schemes in Greece and othercountries (Japan, Switzerland are also quoted.

  4. Fish waste management by conversion into heterotrophic bacteria biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.

    2006-01-01

    Just as all other types of animal production, aquaculture produces waste. This waste can be managed outside the production system, comparable to terrestrial husbandry systems. However, particularly recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) are suited to manage waste within the system. In this case, pr

  5. Importance of waste composition for Life Cycle Assessment of waste management solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisinella, Valentina; Götze, Ramona; Conradsen, Knut

    2017-01-01

    The composition of waste materials has fundamental influence on environmental emissions associated with waste treatment, recycling and disposal, and may play an important role also for the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of waste management solutions. However, very few assessments include effects...... of the waste composition and waste LCAs often rely on poorly justified data from secondary sources. This study systematically quantifiesy the influence and uncertainty on LCA results associated with selection of waste composition data. Three archetypal waste management scenarios were modelled with the waste...... LCA model EASETECH based on detailed waste composition data from the literature. The influence from waste composition data on the LCA results was quantified with a step-wise Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach involving contribution, sensitivity, uncertainty and discernibility analyses...

  6. POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BOTSWANA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Moreki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A literature review was conducted to identify methods that are used to dispose of poultry waste in Botswana. It appears that the predominant methods of poultry waste disposal in Botswana are direct disposal at the landfills, application as a fertilizer in gardens or farms, burning and compositing. The use of poultry manure and/or litter to raise fertility status of the soil appears to be appropriate given that soils in Botswana are generally poor in plant nutrients, especially phosphorus. Given the high feed costs in Botswana it is suggested that the use of poultry manure and/or litter as livestock feed should be considered in areas where foot and mouth disease (FMD is endemic such as Chobe and North West Districts, as meat from these districts does not enter the European Union market.

  7. Assessing the management of healthcare waste in Hawassa city, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel Deneke Haylamicheal; Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie; Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw; Hanibale Atsbeha Zegeye

    2011-08-01

    Inadequate management of healthcare waste is a serious concern in many developing countries due to the risks posed to human health and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate healthcare waste management in Hawassa city, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in nine healthcare facilities (HCFs) including hospitals (four), health centres (two) and higher clinics (three) in two phases, first to assess the waste management aspect and second to determine daily waste generation rate. The result showed that the median quantity of waste generated at the facilities was 3.46 kg bed(-1) day(-1) (range: 1.48-8.19 kg bed(-1) day(-1)). The quantity of waste per day generated at a HCF increased as occupancy increased (p waste generated at government HCFs was more than at private HCFs (p waste (20-63.1%) generated at the different HCFs was much higher than the WHO recommendation (10-25%). There was no waste segregation in most HCFs and only one used a complete color coding system. Solid waste and wastewater were stored, transported, treated and disposed inappropriately at all HCFs. Needle-stick injuries were prevalent in 25-100% of waste handlers employed at these HCFs. Additionally, low levels of training and awareness of waste legislation was prevalent amongst staff. The study showed that management of healthcare waste at HCFs to be poor. Waste management practices need to be improved through improved legislation and enforcement, and training of staff in the healthcare facilities in Hawassa.

  8. Co-Benefits of Household Waste Recycling for Local Community’s Sustainable Waste Management in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornchai Challcharoenwattana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate co-benefits in term of GHG reduction, and avoided landfill costs by implementing a community-based management (CBM program for municipal solid waste (MSW. Two towns of peri-urban settlement in Thailand were investigated in case studies to compare eco-performance between the towns with and without implementation of the CBM program. MSW mass flows together with MSW utilization records were analyzed based on data in year 2013. Climate co-benefits from waste utilization activities were examined. Results from the study indicated that waste banks in the CBM program can effectively divert most of recyclables from entering landfills. The performance of “waste bank—recyclable recovery program” recycling rate from the case study with CBM is 172.20 kg per member per year, which is about 926% higher than average CBMs with MSW recycling in Thailand, and the success of CBM can be attributed to its curbside pickup service and fair-pricing of recyclables. The study also found that if the town decided to divert wastes from landfilling, carbon intensity of the MSW system would be 0.47 tons of CO2-eq per ton of collected MSW. The landfilling cost would be approximately 7.41 USD per ton of MSW as landfilling cost. With CBM programs, current MSW reutilization rate has achieved 9.68% of generated waste, and 16.80% of GHG emission has been avoided, along with a reduction in landfill costs of 11.57%. Two scenarios of waste utilization in Thailand were explored and compared, in terms of which scenarios yielded the highest co-benefits. The study demonstrates that by allowing local mechanism and community involvement programs to develop with operational waste banks, the efficiency of collecting recycling wastes increased. A similar system can be applied to other communities in other countries.

  9. Report: integrated industrial waste management systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxin; Roberts, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Various models of urban sustainable development have been introduced in recent years and some of these such as integrated waste management have been proved to be of particular value. Integrated industrial waste management systems include all the administrative, financial, legal, planning and engineering functions involved in solutions to the problems of industrial waste. Even though the pace of the improvement made to China's industrial waste management capacity is impressive, China has been unable to keep up with the increasing demand for waste management. This paper will evaluate the application of integrated industrial waste management systems in promoting urban sustainable development in the context of three case study cities in China (positive case, average case and negative case) by identifying and accessing the factors that affect the success or failure of integrated industrial waste management systems.

  10. Stock flow diagram analysis on solid waste management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkipli, Faridah; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Kie, Cheng Jack

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness on solid waste management is a major importance to societies. Numerous generation of solid waste from our daily activities has risked for our communities. These due to rapid population grow and advance in economic development. Moreover, the complexity of solid waste management is inherently involved large scale, diverse and element of uncertainties that must assist stakeholders with deviating objectives. In this paper, we proposed a system dynamics simulation by developing a stock flow diagram to illustrate the solid waste generation process and waste recycle process. The analysis highlights the impact on increasing the number of population toward the amount of solid waste generated and the amount of recycled waste. The results show an increment in the number of population as well as the amount of recycled waste will decrease the amount of waste generated. It is positively represent the achievement of government aim to minimize the amount of waste to be disposed by year 2020.

  11. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    Reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; and analysis of spent fuel policy implementation.

  12. Hospital waste management in developing countries: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz; Geng, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Health care activities can generate different kinds of hazardous wastes. Mismanagement of these wastes can result in environmental and occupational health risks. Developing countries are resource-constrained when it comes to safe management of hospital wastes. This study summarizes the main issues faced in hospital waste management in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that regulations and legislations focusing on hospital waste management are recent accomplishments in many of these countries. Implementation of these rules varies from one hospital to another. Moreover, wide variations exist in waste generation rates within as well as across these countries. This is mainly attributable to a lack of an agreement on the definitions and the methodology among the researchers to measure such wastes. Furthermore, hospitals in these countries suffer from poor waste segregation, collection, storage, transportation and disposal practices, which can lead to occupational and environmental risks. Knowledge and awareness regarding proper waste management remain low in the absence of training for hospital staff. Moreover, hospital sanitary workers, and scavengers, operate without the provision of safety equipment or immunization. Unsegregated waste is illegally recycled, leading to further safety risks. Overall, hospital waste management in developing countries faces several challenges. Sustainable waste management practices can go a long way in reducing the harmful effects of hospital wastes.

  13. Hazardous and toxic waste management in Botswana: practices and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmereki, Daniel; Li, Baizhan; Meng, Liu

    2014-12-01

    Hazardous and toxic waste is a complex waste category because of its inherent chemical and physical characteristics. It demands for environmentally sound technologies and know-how as well as clean technologies that simultaneously manage and dispose it in an environmentally friendly way. Nevertheless, Botswana lacks a system covering all the critical steps from importation to final disposal or processing of hazardous and toxic waste owing to limited follow-up of the sources and types of hazardous and toxic waste, lack of modern and specialised treatment/disposal facilities, technical know-how, technically skilled manpower, funds and capabilities of local institutions to take lead in waste management. Therefore, because of a lack of an integrated system, there are challenges such as lack of cooperation among all the stakeholders about the safe management of hazardous and toxic waste. Furthermore, Botswana does not have a systematic regulatory framework regarding monitoring and hazardous and toxic waste management. In addition to the absence of a systematic regulatory framework, inadequate public awareness and dissemination of information about hazardous and toxic waste management, slower progress to phase-out persistent and bio-accumulative waste, and lack of reliable and accurate information on hazardous and toxic waste generation, sources and composition have caused critical challenges to effective hazardous and toxic waste management. It is, therefore, important to examine the status of hazardous and toxic waste as a waste stream in Botswana. By default; this mini-review article presents an overview of the current status of hazardous and toxic waste management and introduces the main challenges in hazardous and toxic waste management. Moreover, the article proposes the best applicable strategies to achieve effective hazardous and toxic waste management in the future. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Management costs: history of accounting category development

    OpenAIRE

    Сисюк, С. В.; Мельник, Н. Г.

    2015-01-01

    The article elucidates the historical development of approaches towards the definition of general overhead costs that meet modern interpretation of the term “management costs”.  Authors’ approaches to their classification and allocation have been researched

  15. Air Traffic Management Cost Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Robust Analytics air traffic management cost assessment tool provides the comprehensive capability to analyze the impacts of NASA Airspace Systems Program (ASP)...

  16. Cost-Effective Stress Management Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Gordon F.

    1980-01-01

    Stress management training can be a cost effective way to improve productivity and job performance. Among many relaxation techniques, the most effective in terms of teachability, participant motivation, and profitability are self-hypnosis, progressive relaxation, and transcendental meditation. (SK)

  17. Cost management based security framework in mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Security issues are always difficult to deal with in mobile ad hoc networks. People seldom studied the costs of those security schemes respectively and for some security methods designed and adopted beforehand, their effects are often investigated one by one. In fact, when facing certain attacks, different methods would respond individually and result in waste of resources.Making use of the cost management idea, we analyze the costs of security measures in mobile ad hoc networks and introduce a security framework based on security mechanisms cost management. Under the framework, the network system's own tasks can be finished in time and the whole network's security costs can be decreased. We discuss the process of security costs computation at each mobile node and in certain nodes groups. To show how to use the proposed security framework in certain applications, we give examples of DoS attacks and costs computation of defense methods. The results showed that more secure environment can be achieved based on the security framework in mobile ad hoc networks.

  18. The Perception of the Langkawi Community on Solid Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Khafazilah Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of disposing solid wastes should be systematic and efficient. Various pollution may occur if solid wastes are not properly disposed. Pollution would not only affect the naturalenvironment but also exposed the community to various diseases. Therefore the community should be given exposure to practice efficient solid waste disposalfor their own benefits.Given the signficance of proper waste disposal issues for tourism locations, this study investigated the management of solid waste disposal at the renown Langkawi Island. The focus was on the understanding and awareness of the community of the locals, business people and tourists on the island.The findings indicated that thecommunity inPulau Langkawi was aware of the importance of efficient solid waste management. Yet, theirpractices differed in terms of propriety or impropriety of the method in the perspectives of solid waste management. These practices were found to be influenced by their level of knowledge on waste management issues and their educational background.

  19. feasibility study on solid waste management in port harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    system is still being used instead of the integrated solid waste management system (1SWMS) and that about 75% of the ..... passengers from dropping off their waste via the window, which ... application of geographical information system in.

  20. E-waste: Environmental Problems and Current Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Aktsoglou; K. Angelakoglou; G. Gaidajis

    2010-01-01

    ..., are reviewed.Moreover, the current and the future production of e-waste, the potential environmental problems associated with theirdisposal and management practices are discussed whereas the existing e-waste...

  1. Sustainable Management of Domestic Solid Wastes in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable Management of Domestic Solid Wastes in Developing Countries: ... of wastes and assess the environmental concerns of the community and their ... The urban community was concerned about health and environmental effects of ...

  2. Arsenic: A Roadblock to Potential Animal Waste Management Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keeve E. Nachman; Jay P. Graham; Lance B. Price; Ellen K. Silbergeld

    2005-01-01

    .... The presence of inorganic arsenic in incinerator ash and pelletized waste sold as fertilizer creates opportunities for population exposures that did not previously exist. The removal of arsenic from animal feed is a critical step toward safe poultry waste management.

  3. Role of Waste Management in Wealth Creation in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of Waste Management in Wealth Creation in Nigeria- Evidences From Lagos ... and how waste recycling affects the creation of small or large business ventures ... in the processes as this would help to create business for entrepreneurs.

  4. BASIS OF RATIONAL MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN RURAL FARMSTEADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Bauman-Kaszubska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important problems of waste management in rural areas against the background of formal and legal requirements. It also includes quantitative and qualitative characteristics of waste generated in rural homesteads. Quantitative characterization was based on literature data and the results of the author’s own research, within which an indicator of the accumulation of waste in selected regions of Mazowieckie and Świętokrzyskie was determined. Accurate knowledge of the characteristics of the waste and its variation is the basis for planning and development of waste management. The collected data show clear evidence of a significant increase in both the rate of volume and weight, which depends on many factors, eg. the type of building, season etc. In addition, the basic principles of proper model of waste management, selective waste collection guidelines and principles of best practice of waste management in rural areas were presented.

  5. Cost Information Requirements for Managing Aircraft Rework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    weekly or monthly trend and special information to middle managers about costs. Another issue is accuracy. Research indicates that some error is...useful cost information for NARF managers is trend and special information . The ability of DMDS to provide precisely these types of information will be...of specific trends and will provide some specific or special . information . The UNSCHEDULED REPAIR ACTIONS REPORT shows, by bureau number, the five

  6. Reverse logistics network for municipal solid waste management: The inclusion of waste pickers as a Brazilian legal requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, Giovane Lopes, E-mail: giovane.ferri@aluno.ufes.br [Department of Engineering and Technology, Federal University of Espírito Santo – UFES, Rodovia BR 101 Norte, Km 60, Bairro Litorâneo, São Mateus, ES, 29.932-540 (Brazil); Diniz Chaves, Gisele de Lorena, E-mail: gisele.chaves@ufes.br [Department of Engineering and Technology, Federal University of Espírito Santo – UFES, Rodovia BR 101 Norte, Km 60, Bairro Litorâneo, São Mateus, ES, 29.932-540 (Brazil); Ribeiro, Glaydston Mattos, E-mail: glaydston@pet.coppe.ufrj.br [Transportation Engineering Programme, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco H, Sala 106, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, 21949-900 (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We propose a reverse logistics network for MSW involving waste pickers. • A generic facility location mathematical model was validated in a Brazilian city. • The results enable to predict the capacity for screening and storage centres (SSC). • We minimise the costs for transporting MSW with screening and storage centres. • The use of SSC can be a potential source of revenue and a better use of MSW. - Abstract: This study proposes a reverse logistics network involved in the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) to solve the challenge of economically managing these wastes considering the recent legal requirements of the Brazilian Waste Management Policy. The feasibility of the allocation of MSW material recovery facilities (MRF) as intermediate points between the generators of these wastes and the options for reuse and disposal was evaluated, as well as the participation of associations and cooperatives of waste pickers. This network was mathematically modelled and validated through a scenario analysis of the municipality of São Mateus, which makes the location model more complete and applicable in practice. The mathematical model allows the determination of the number of facilities required for the reverse logistics network, their location, capacities, and product flows between these facilities. The fixed costs of installation and operation of the proposed MRF were balanced with the reduction of transport costs, allowing the inclusion of waste pickers to the reverse logistics network. The main contribution of this study lies in the proposition of a reverse logistics network for MSW simultaneously involving legal, environmental, economic and social criteria, which is a very complex goal. This study can guide practices in other countries that have realities similar to those in Brazil of accelerated urbanisation without adequate planning for solid waste management, added to the strong presence of waste pickers that, through the

  7. An exploration into municipal waste charges for environmental management at local level: The case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi; Sastre Sanz, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    Municipal waste charges have been widely acknowledged as a crucial tool for waste management at the local level. This is because they contribute to financing the costly provision of waste collection and treatment services and they can be designed to provide an economic stimulus to encourage citizens and local businesses to improve separate collection and recycling. This work presents a methodology to evaluate a sample of 125 municipal waste charges in Spain for the year 2015, covering 33.91% of the Spanish population. The qualitative benchmarking of municipal waste charges shows that flat fees are frequent, whereas variable fees are set according to criteria that are weakly related to waste generation. The average fee per household is €82.2 per year, which does not provide full cost recovery. The current configuration of municipal waste charges penalises taxpayers contributing to source separation of waste, while subsidising less environmentally friendly behaviours. In this sense, municipal waste charges in Spain are far from applying the polluter pays principle. Furthermore, it is argued that municipal waste charges are ineffective for promoting the proper application of the so-called 'waste hierarchy'.

  8. Facilitating the improved management of waste in South Africa through a national waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Developing a waste information system (WIS) for a country is more than just about collecting routine data on waste; it is about facilitating the improved management of waste by providing timely, reliable information to the relevant role-players. It is a means of supporting the waste governance challenges facing South Africa - challenges ranging from strategic waste management issues at national government to basic operational challenges at local government. The paper addresses two hypotheses. The first is that the identified needs of government can provide a platform from which to design a national WIS framework for a developing country such as South Africa, and the second is that the needs for waste information reflect greater, currently unfulfilled challenges in the sustainable management of waste. Through a participatory needs analysis process, it is shown that waste information is needed by the three spheres of government, to support amongst others, informed planning and decision-making, compliance monitoring and enforcement, community participation through public access to information, human, infrastructure and financial resource management and policy development. These needs for waste information correspond closely with key waste management challenges currently facing the country. A shift in governments approach to waste, in line with national and international policy, is evident from identified current and future waste information needs. However, the need for information on landfilling remains entrenched within government, possibly due to the poor compliance of landfill sites in South Africa and the problems around the illegal disposal of both general and hazardous waste.

  9. Municipal solid waste management in Cartago province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. Soto-Córdoba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper resumes the principals results obtained by the grant EUROPEAID/126635/M/ACT/CR”, that was realized by FUNDATEC, and whose bene­ficiary was the “Federación de Municipalidades de Cartago, Costa Rica”, the Project received a funding of 74,920 euros. We work with all the Municipalities of the Cartago Province. In addition, we show the results of the interviews of social actors, visits to the recycle sites, visits of municipalities, during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012, and the review of literature. We describe the actual situation of the management of solid waste in Cartago, determinate the gene­ration rates by person and identified the principal landfill disposes, the recycle companies and deter­minate the main problems associated with the solid waste. It is hope that the information presented here, pro­vides the basis for the future construction of plans of municipal solid waste management, and for the capacitation of community organization in the pro­vince of Cartago.

  10. Estimating management costs of protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Jonathan M.H.; Burgess, Neil David; Green, Rhys E.

    2012-01-01

    in actual spend and over 40% of variation in necessary spend. Population pressure is a variable that has not been used to model protected area management costs before, yet proved to be considerably better at predicting both actual and necessary spend than other measures of anthropogenic pressure. We use our...... results to estimate necessary spend at a 9 km2 resolution across the EAM and highlight those areas where the management costs of effective management are predicted to be high. This information can be used by conservation planners in the region and can be estimated for future scenarios of population growth......Despite chronic underfunding for conservation and the recognition that funds must be invested wisely, few studies have analysed the direct costs of managing protected areas at the spatial scales needed to inform local site management. Using a questionnaire survey we collected data from protected...

  11. Radioactive waste management complex low-level waste radiological composite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.M.; Becker, B.H.; Magnuson, S.O.; Keck, K.N.; Honeycutt, T.K.

    1998-05-01

    The composite analysis estimates the projected cumulative impacts to future members of the public from the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and all other sources of radioactive contamination at the INEEL that could interact with the LLW disposal facility to affect the radiological dose. Based upon the composite analysis evaluation, waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the RWMC is the only source at the INEEL that will significantly interact with the LLW facility. The source term used in the composite analysis consists of all historical SDA subsurface disposals of radionuclides as well as the authorized LLW subsurface disposal inventory and projected LLW subsurface disposal inventory. Exposure scenarios evaluated in the composite analysis include all the all-pathways and groundwater protection scenarios. The projected dose of 58 mrem/yr exceeds the composite analysis guidance dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr; therefore, an options analysis was conducted to determine the feasibility of reducing the projected annual dose. Three options for creating such a reduction were considered: (1) lowering infiltration of precipitation through the waste by providing a better cover, (2) maintaining control over the RWMC and portions of the INEEL indefinitely, and (3) extending the period of institutional control beyond the 100 years assumed in the composite analysis. Of the three options investigated, maintaining control over the RWMC and a small part of the present INEEL appears to be feasible and cost effective.

  12. E-waste management as a global challenge (introductory chapter)

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, Florin-Constatin; Gnoni, Maria-Grazia

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment management (E-waste or WEEE) is a crucial issue in the solid waste management sector with global interconnections between well-developed, transitional and developing countries. Consumption society and addiction to technology dictate the daily life in high and middle-income countries where population consumes large amounts of EEE products (electrical and electronic equipment) which sooner become e-waste. This fraction is a fast-...

  13. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, July-December, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    This report provides information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant and offplant participants. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, other support, in situ storage or disposal, waste form development and characterization, process and equipment development, and the Defense Waste Processing Facility are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations: tank farm operation, inspection program, burial ground operations, and waste transfer/tank replacement.

  14. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  15. PLANNING OF INTEGRATED/SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT (ISWM – MODEL OF INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN REPUBLIKA SRPSKA/B&H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Topić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management (MSWM has become an important issue for countries around the world. The challenges are particularly notable in developing and transitional countries reflected mainly in inappropriate management, underdeveloped technology, an unfavorable economic situation and the lack of environmental awareness, causing a tremendous environmental impact. Today, various models are applied to analyze solid waste management systems from the regional to the municipal levels. Understanding the mechanisms and factors that currently drive the development of waste management is a crucial step for moving forward and planning sustainable waste management systems. The main objective of this paper is to apply the ISWM model, which is based on the Life-Cycle approach and follows the analytical framework methodology, to the research region. The transdisciplinary research framework was empirically tested and subsequently applied in the region Republika Srpska. Using the benchmark methodology, based on environmental, institutional and economical sustainability, the waste management is summarized in assessment profile. The results of the conducted analyses and the application of the developed model can be used further as a basis for the proposal of further strategic, political and managerial changes and support decision makers and stakeholders to handle waste in a cost-efficient and environmentally sound way

  16. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990.

  17. EASEWASTE-life cycle modeling capabilities for waste management technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope The management of municipal solid waste and the associated environmental impacts are subject of growing attention in industrialized countries. EU has recently strongly emphasized the role of LCA in its waste and resource strategies. The development of sustainable solid...... waste management systems applying a life-cycle perspective requires readily understandable tools for modelling the life cycle impacts of waste management systems. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the structure, functionalities and LCA modelling capabilities of the PC-based life cycle oriented...... waste management model EASEWASTE, developed at the Technical University of Denmark specifically to meet the needs of the waste system developer with the objective to evaluate the environmental performance of the various elements of existing or proposed solid waste management systems. Materials...

  18. Integrated waste and water management in mining and metallurgical industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.K.C.CHAN; S.BOUZALAKOS; A.W.L.DUDENEY

    2008-01-01

    Extractive operations usually co-produce large quantities of unmarketable materials (mineral wastes),most of which are conventionally discarded to dumps (coarse material) and tailings ponds (fines).Escalating cost and regulation worldwide highlight an increasing need for reduction and re-use of such wastes.The present paper introduces a new integrated waste management scheme for solids and water.The scheme was exemplified by novel treatment of synthetic waste and process water linked to the biohydrometallurgical processing of metal sulphide flotation concentrates.Bioleaching of sulphide concentrate leads to two types of solid waste:a ferrihydrite/gypsum precipitate from neutralisation of the bioleach liquor and un-leached gangue.The paper indicates that,depending upon the minor components involved,the solid phases in admixture might be usefully distributed among three types of product:conventional underground backfill,cemented civil engineering backfill (particularly controlled low strength material or CLSM) and manufactured soil.It emphasizes CLSM containing simulated mineral waste,showing that such material can exhibit the required characteristics of strength,porosity and permeability.When toxic components,e.g.,arsenic from refractory gold ore,are present,encapsulation will be required.Process water is typically recycled as far as possible,although any excess should be treated before re-use or discharge.The paper also highlights treatment by reverse osmosis (one of the few methods able to generally remove dissolved components),particularly showing that arsenic in oxidation state +6 can be readily removed for discharge (<50×10-12 As),although additional ion exchange is needed for potable water (<10×10-12 As).

  19. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, R; Ferreira, V M; Machado, L M; Rodrigues, M; Coelho, I

    2011-02-01

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  20. [Hazardous medical waste management as a public health issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Natalija; Vitale, Ksenija; Afrić, Ivo; Janev Holcer, Natasa

    2005-03-01

    The amount of waste produced is connected with the degree of a country's economic development; more developed countries produce more waste. This paper reviews the quantities, manipulation and treatment methods of medical waste in Croatia, as well as hazardous potentials of medical waste for human health. Medical waste must be collected and sorted in containers suitable for its characteristics, amount, means of transportation and treatment method in order to prevent contact with environment and to protect people who are working with waste. Hazardous medical waste in Croatia is largely produced by hospitals. Even though only one hospital has a licence to incinerate infectious medical waste, many other hospitals incinerate their hazardous waste in inappropriate facilities. Healthcare institutions also store great amounts of old medical waste, mostly pharmaceutical, anti-infectious, and cytostatic drugs and chemical waste. Data on waste treatment effects on human health are scarce, while environmental problems are covered better. Croatian medical waste legislation is not being implemented. It is very important to establish a medical waste management system that would implement the existing legislation in all waste management cycles from waste production to treatment and final disposal.

  1. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations.

  2. Technological options for management of hazardous wastes from US Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.; Newsom, D.; Barisas, S.; Humphrey, J.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides comprehensive information on the technological options for management of hazardous wastes generated at facilities owned or operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). These facilities annually generate a large quantity of wastes that could be deemed hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Included in these wastes are liquids or solids containing polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, heavy metals, waste oils, spent solvents, acids, bases, carcinogens, and numerous other pollutants. Some of these wastes consist of nonnuclear hazardous chemicals; others are mixed wastes containing radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. Nearly 20 unit processes and disposal methods are presented in this report. They were selected on the basis of their proven utility in waste management and potential applicability at DOE sites. These technological options fall into five categories: physical processes, chemical processes, waste exchange, fixation, and ultimate disposal. The options can be employed for either resource recovery, waste detoxification, volume reduction, or perpetual storage. Detailed descriptions of each technological option are presented, including information on process performance, cost, energy and environmental considerations, waste management of applications, and potential applications at DOE sites. 131 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

  3. Vital truths about managing your costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, B C; Hlavacek, J D

    1990-01-01

    Four truths apply to every business situation: 1. It is essential to be a lower cost supplier. 2. To stay competitive, inflation-adjusted costs of producing and supplying products and services must trend downward. 3. The true cost and profit pictures for each product/market segment must always be known, and traditional accounting practices must not obscure them. 4. A business must concentrate as much on cash flow and balance-sheet strengths as it does on profits. In order to ascertain exactly what your costs are, you must carefully isolate and assign various costs to specific products, accounts, or markets. Managers often do this badly, working on the basis of "average" costs. This ignores important differences among products and the fact that different products, different markets, and different customers incur different overhead costs. Most manufacturing companies' most important expense categories are R&D, sales, and general and administrative costs, but surprisingly, they generally don't get the attention they should. Neither do two crucial ratios-gross margin and the percent of assets employed per dollar of sales. Gross margins should usually not be less than 40%, and for most manufacturing companies, assets should not be over 60% of annual sales. Wrong deviation from these ratios will undermine profit targets. Once your costs are known and clearly assigned to product lines, markets, and key customers, they should be widely shared in the organization so that everyone will feel committed to cost management and know when deviations occur.

  4. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-01

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.

  5. Korean Waste Management Law and Waste Disposal Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Soil Treatment Tanks) 69 Article 8. (Interim Measures on Report of Recycler or Reuser of Industrial Waste) 69 Article 9. (Interim Measures on Permit...recycling and reuse (hereinafter referred to as a "recycler and reuser of industrial waste"), pursuant to Article 23.2. of the Law, shall submit a "Filing... reuser of industrial waste, pursuant to Article 45.2., shall submit a "Modification of Recycle or Reuse of Industrial Waste" (Form No. 17), to the

  6. Sustainable cost reduction by lean management in metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Todorut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the need for sustainable cost reduction in the metallurgical industry by applying Lean Management (LM tools and concepts in metallurgical production processes leading to increased competitiveness of corporations in a global market. The paper highlights that Lean Management is a novel way of thinking, adapting to change, reducing waste and continuous improvement, leading to sustainable development of companies in the metallurgical industry. The authors outline the main Lean Management instruments based on recent scientific research and include a comparative analysis of other tools, such as Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain (5S, Visual Management (VM, Kaizen, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM, Single-Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED, leading to a critical appraisal of their application in the metallurgical industry.

  7. High Flux Isotopes Reactor (HFIR) Cooling Towers Demolition Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudelek, R. E.; Gilbert, W. C.

    2002-02-26

    , except for the asbestos, was volume reduced via a private contract mechanism established by BJC. After volume reduction, the waste was packaged for rail shipment. This large waste management project successfully met cost and schedule goals.

  8. From waste treatment to integrated resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsenach, J A; Maurer, M; Larsen, T A; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater treatment was primarily implemented to enhance urban hygiene. Treatment methods were improved to ensure environmental protection by nutrient removal processes. In this way, energy is consumed and resources like potentially useful minerals and drinking water are disposed of. An integrated management of assets, including drinking water, surface water, energy and nutrients would be required to make wastewater management more sustainable. Exergy analysis provides a good method to quantify different resources, e.g. utilisable energy and nutrients. Dilution is never a solution for pollution. Waste streams should best be managed to prevent dilution of resources. Wastewater and sanitation are not intrinsically linked. Source separation technology seems to be the most promising concept to realise a major breakthrough in wastewater treatment. Research on unit processes, such as struvite recovery and treatment of ammonium rich streams, also shows promising results. In many cases, nutrient removal and recovery can be combined, with possibilities for a gradual change from one system to another.

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Phuntsholing City, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste problem is a major concern in major cities in Bhutan. Despite the lack of reliable data on both waste composition and quantity, no studies have been conducted to identify problems and alternatives to improve the current system. The study objectives are: 1 to determine solid waste composition and generation rate; and 2 to investigate current solid waste management system. Six waste samples were selected in Phuntsholing city from three designated collection spots and from three collection vehicles and analyzed for their composition. Waste generation rate was computed from waste collected by collection vehicles. The investigation was carried out through interviews with municipal authorities, existing document reviews, and field observations. The organic fraction of solid waste composition comprised about 71 percent. The waste generation rate was estimated to 0.40 kg/capita.day. The current management system is inefficient, and recommendations are given to improve the current situation.

  10. Calculating cost savings in utilization management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Donna

    2014-01-01

    A major motivation for managing the utilization of laboratory testing is to reduce the cost of medical care. For this reason it is important to understand the basic principles of cost accounting in the clinical laboratory. The process of laboratory testing includes three distinct components termed the pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic phases. Utilization management efforts may impact the cost structure of these three phases in different ways depending on the specific details of the initiative. Estimates of cost savings resulting from utilization management programs reported in the literature have often been fundamentally flawed due to a failure to understand basic concepts such as the difference between laboratory costs versus charges and the impact of reducing laboratory test volumes on the average versus marginal cost structure in the laboratory. This article will provide an overview of basic cost accounting principles in the clinical laboratory including both job order and process cost accounting. Specific examples will be presented to illustrate these concepts in various different scenarios.

  11. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  12. The management of radioactive waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Jeong; An, Sum Jin; Lee, Kang Moo; Lee, Young Hee; Sohn, Jong Sik; Bae, Sang Min; Kang, Kwon Ho; Sohn, Young Jun; Yim, Kil Sung; Kim, Tae Kuk; Jeong, Kyeong Hwan; Wi, Keum San; Park, Young Yoong; Park, Seung Chul; Lee, Chul Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The radioactive wastes generated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 1994 are about 56 m{sup 3} of liquid waste and 323 drums of solid waste. Liquid waste were treated by the evaporation process, the bituminization process, and the solar evaporation process. The solid wastes were treated in 1994 are about 87 m{sup 3} of liquid waste and 81 drums of solid waste, respectively. 2 tabs., 26 figs., 12 refs. (Author) .new.

  13. Households willingness to pay for improved solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akhtar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste is a byproduct of human life. Nowadays, municipal solid waste is being produced in excessive amounts and in this way, both developing and developed countries are facing challenges regarding generation of waste. Economic development, urbanization and improved living standards in cities have contributed to increase in the amount and complexity of solid waste produced. The present study was conducted in the residential area of main Boulevard Gulberg, Lahore to determine the present methods and efficiency of current solid waste management facility and to estimate the willingness of the selected households to pay for the improvement of solid waste management through questionnaire survey. It was found that current Solid waste management system in the area is fair but needs more improvement in terms of improved collection efficiency and rates, recycling bins, and segregation of waste at storage. According to the questionnaire survey, majority of the respondents despite belonging to middle class incomes are willing to pay an amount less than USD 4.8 for the improvement of waste management facility in the area. The area lacks frequent collection of waste containers. Therefore, there is a need for upgradation of storage and collection facilities in terms of increase in collection efficiency and rates, introduction of recycling facility and segregation of waste at source. Waste storage and collection sites of the area should be monitored periodically and waste should be disposed of in a scientific manner in sanitary landfills.

  14. An effective approach for the management of waste coffee grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, IA

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the disposal of organic wastes from domestic, commercial, agricultural and industrial sources have caused concerns due to the environmental and economic problems associated with waste. The waste produced particularly in urban areas represents a huge cost for cities and a burden to the environment but, at the same time, represents an opportunity to take stock of valuable resources, which can be exploited. By boosting solutions to reduce waste and promoting its use as a resource...

  15. Assessment of different construction and demolition waste management approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal S. Abdelhamid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The waste generated from construction and demolition sites is considered one of the most irritating problems in Egypt. In the last 10 years some effort has been made toward solving this problem, the most outstanding is the newly issued Egyptian rating system “Green Pyramids Rating System”. It emphasizes on waste management and particularly “site provision and environment” which contributes to 75% of the management category score. However the traditional practice which is limited to dumping all the generated waste is still dominating. The absence of sustainable practices in construction sector in Egypt led to the lack in financial and environmental data. From strategic perspective, the research aims at developing a detailed procedure to evaluate two construction and demolition waste management approaches by means of Decision Matrix technique. A detailed study is introduced for the two approaches; for each approach a flow chart is developed to demonstrate its lifecycle, as well as the cost break down structure and the different stakeholders’ roles. A penetration discussion of the pros and cons for each approach was developed accordingly and came out with sixteen influencing attributes for both approaches. The previous steps paved the ground to construct a Decision Matrix to decide on one of the approaches from a strategic environmentally oriented perspective. The study relied on the detailed and deep demonstration of the two approaches to justify the assigned weight for attributes and scores for corresponding approach. From a strategic perspective, the decision came out in favor of the more environmentally friendly approach.

  16. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    content), 2) low ash and xenobiotic content, 3) high gas yield, 4) volume (produced), 5) dependable distribution and 6) low competition with other end-user technologies. MSW is a complex substrate comprising both degradable and non-degradable material being metal, plastic, glass, building waste etc...... simulating Danish household waste in composition and weight, 2) evaluating the performance of best enzyme candidates on original waste with and without additional additives, 3) measuring the biogas potential of liquefied waste and comparing the results with the biogas potential of untreated waste...

  17. Estimation of construction waste generation and management in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoworola, Oyeshola Femi; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2009-02-01

    This study examines construction waste generation and management in Thailand. It is estimated that between 2002 and 2005, an average of 1.1 million tons of construction waste was generated per year in Thailand. This constitutes about 7.7% of the total amount of waste disposed in both landfills and open dumpsites annually during the same period. Although construction waste constitutes a major source of waste in terms of volume and weight, its management and recycling are yet to be effectively practiced in Thailand. Recently, the management of construction waste is being given attention due to its rapidly increasing unregulated dumping in undesignated areas, and recycling is being promoted as a method of managing this waste. If effectively implemented, its potential economic and social benefits are immense. It was estimated that between 70 and 4,000 jobs would have been created between 2002 and 2005, if all construction wastes in Thailand had been recycled. Additionally it would have contributed an average savings of about 3.0 x 10(5) GJ per year in the final energy consumed by the construction sector of the nation within the same period based on the recycling scenario analyzed. The current national integrated waste management plan could enhance the effective recycling of construction and demolition waste in Thailand when enforced. It is recommended that an inventory of all construction waste generated in the country be carried out in order to assess the feasibility of large scale recycling of construction and demolition waste.

  18. The Travel of Global Ideas of Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata Campos, Maria José; Zapata, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Informal settlements in the global South cities are often neglected by formal solid waste collection services. In the city of Managua, the municipality and international and local NGOs recently implemented several waste management projects to provide waste collection in informal settlements...... by municipal truck to the municipal landfill. New institutionalism theory and the “travel metaphor” illuminate how the “waste transfer station” idea travelled to Managua from various international organizations. New urban infrastructure and waste management models introduced by donors were decoupled from...... existing waste management models and practices. Despite the organizational hypocrisy of the city administration, introducing this new model via pilot projects in three city districts challenges the logic of the existing centralized waste management system, which ignores the city's informal settlements...

  19. Planning of low-level radioactive waste management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Teruo; Yoneya, Masayuki; Tanabe, Tsutomu; Koakutsu, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Yasuaki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    2002-09-01

    In order to treat and dispose of the low-level radioactive waste generated from JNC sites safely and rationally, a comprehensive plan managing the generation, treatment, storage and disposal of waste, was formulated. The plan is called ''Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program''. Taking into consideration an institutionalization of disposal and based on an investigation of waste properties (type, amount, activity concentration), the appropriate treatment method for disposal was studied, and a fundamental plan for conducting the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program was presented. To achieve disposal of low-level radioactive waste, concrete measures will be taken according to the Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Management Program. The plan will be improved suitably by the result of technical development, and will be reconsidered flexibly after institutionalization by the government. (author)

  20. Assessment of Solid Waste Management Strategies in Camarines Norte, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina C. Azuelo; Leah N. Barbado; Luz Menda L. Reyes

    2016-01-01

    The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 or RA 9003 mandates the local government units to take initiatives in managing their daunting problems on ecological solid waste disposal. Consequently, compliance of Camarines Norte, Philippines on this mandate needs assessment to determine the existing solid waste management (SWM) strategies, the effectiveness and the possibility of adoption in each municipality. This study utilized the descriptive method using questionnaire as t...

  1. Bioorganic Municipal Waste Management to Deploy a Sustainable Solid Waste Disposal Practice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The utilization of bioorganic municipal waste (BMW) is considered essentially for the further development of integrated waste management practice in China. Awareness and knowledge about the importance of BMW management and source separation of waste on household level, as a precondition for the implementation of an economically feasible integrated waste management infrastructure, were developed in Europe during the last decade. The Sino-German RRU-BMW Project is facilitating applied research investigations in 4 pilot areas in Shenyang to assess the population's behavior to develop the design criteria for appropriate process technologies and to provide the basis to adopt BMW management policy in China.

  2. Multi-objective reverse logistics model for integrated computer waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Poonam Khanijo; Nema, Arvind K

    2006-12-01

    This study aimed to address the issues involved in the planning and design of a computer waste management system in an integrated manner. A decision-support tool is presented for selecting an optimum configuration of computer waste management facilities (segregation, storage, treatment/processing, reuse/recycle and disposal) and allocation of waste to these facilities. The model is based on an integer linear programming method with the objectives of minimizing environmental risk as well as cost. The issue of uncertainty in the estimated waste quantities from multiple sources is addressed using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. An illustrated example of computer waste management in Delhi, India is presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed model and to study tradeoffs between cost and risk. The results of the example problem show that it is possible to reduce the environmental risk significantly by a marginal increase in the available cost. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool to address the environmental problems associated with exponentially growing quantities of computer waste which are presently being managed using rudimentary methods of reuse, recovery and disposal by various small-scale vendors.

  3. Application of macro material flow modeling to the decision making process for integrated waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, S.A. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Holter, G.M. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Computer models have been used for almost a decade to model and analyze various aspects of solid waste management Commercially available models exist for estimating the capital and operating costs of landfills, waste-to-energy facilities and compost systems and for optimizing system performance along a single dimension (e.g. cost or transportation distance). An alternative to the use of currently available models is the more flexible macro material flow modeling approach in which a macro scale or regional level approach is taken. Waste materials are tracked through the complete integrated waste management cycle from generation through recycling and reuse, and finally to ultimate disposal. Such an approach has been applied by the authors to two different applications. The STELLA simulation language (for Macintosh computers) was used to model the solid waste management system of Puerto Rico. The model incorporated population projections for all 78 municipalities in Puerto Rico from 1990 to 2010, solid waste generation factors, remaining life for the existing landfills, and projected startup time for new facilities. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has used the SimScript simulation language (for Windows computers) to model the management of solid and hazardous wastes produced during cleanup and remediation activities at the Hanford Nuclear Site.

  4. Role of the South African Waste Information System in improving waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Piloting of the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) provided an opportunity to research, whether the collection of data for a national waste information system could, through a process of learning, change the way that waste is managed...

  5. 75 FR 51678 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...; Final Exclusion AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Environmental... Software (DRAS), EPA has concluded that the petitioned waste is not hazardous waste. This exclusion applies.... What are the limits of this exclusion? D. How will OxyChem manage the waste if it is delisted? E....

  6. 75 FR 57686 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... than 1. The description of the waste is corrected from ``wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge'' to..., 2010. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 amended section 3010 of the Resource... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous...

  7. The weak link in waste management in tropical Asia? Solid waste collection in Bali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacRae, Graeme; Rodic-Wiersma, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on earlier work that examined waste processing options on the island of Bali, which can be seen as a useful "laboratory" for the study of solid waste management (SWM) problems and solutions in tropical Asia. The research reported here examines the challenges of waste

  8. The weak link in waste management in tropical Asia? Solid waste collection in Bali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacRae, Graeme; Rodic-Wiersma, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on earlier work that examined waste processing options on the island of Bali, which can be seen as a useful "laboratory" for the study of solid waste management (SWM) problems and solutions in tropical Asia. The research reported here examines the challenges of waste collectio

  9. Improving waste management through a process of learning: the South African waste information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Piloting of the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) provided an opportunity to research whether the collection of data for a national waste information system could, through a process of learning, change the way that waste is managed...

  10. 75 FR 41121 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 257, 261, 264, 265, 268, 271 and 302 RIN 2050-AE81 Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals From...), 3001, 3004, 3005, and 4004 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1970, as amended by the...

  11. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management performance by material flow analysis: Theoretical approach and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccariello, Lucio; Cremiato, Raffaele; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2015-10-01

    The main role of a waste management plan is to define which is the combination of waste management strategies and method needed to collect and manage the waste in such a way to ensure a given set of targets is reached. Objectives have to be sustainable and realistic, consistent with the environmental policies and regulations and monitored to verify the progressive achievement of the given targets. To get the aim, the setting up and quantification of indicators can allow the measurement of efficiency of a waste management system. The quantification of efficiency indicators requires the developing of a material flow analysis over the system boundary, from waste collection to secondary materials selling, processing and disposal. The material flow analysis has been carried out with reference to a case study for which a reliable, time- and site-specific database was available. The material flow analysis allowed the evaluation of the amount of materials sent to recycling, to landfilling and to waste-to-energy, by highlighting that the sorting of residual waste can further increase the secondary materials amount. The utilisation of energy recovery to treat the low-grade waste allows the maximisation of waste diversion from landfill with a low production of hazardous ash. A preliminary economic balance has been carried out to define the gate fee of the waste management system that was in the range of 84-145 € t(-1) without including the separate collection cost. The cost of door-by-door separate collection, designed to ensure the collection of five separate streams, resulted in 250 € t(-1) ±30%.

  12. Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Stapleton, Thomas J.; Nalette, Tim A.; Ewert, Michael K.; Lee, Jeffrey; Fisher, John

    2016-01-01

    This study involved a torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing approach that could be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product that can be stored or recycled, and also to simultaneously recover moisture. It was demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) in nitrogen or air was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and an analog of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor (for the canine feces), complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass, and the production of small amounts of gas and liquid. The liquid product is mainly water, with a small Total Organic Carbon content. The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time), and the current work has shown that the benefits of torrefaction could be achieved in a low temperature range (waste containment and will reduce the energy consumption of the process. The solid product was a dry material that did not support bacterial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (approx. 50%). The proposed Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU) would be designed to be compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. A stand-alone TPU could be used to treat the canister from the UWMS, along with other types of wet solid wastes, with either conventional or microwave heating. Over time, a more complete integration of the TPU and the UWMS could be achieved, but will require design changes in both units.

  13. Application of MFA as a decision support tool for waste management in small municipalities--case study of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljevic, Nemanja; Vujovic, Svjetlana; Zivancev, Miodrag; Batinic, Bojan; Tot, Bojana; Ubavin, Dejan

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, attention is shifted from larger cities and regions to the important role of small municipalities in large-scale capacity waste management systems. The motivation of this analysis is to understand how small municipalities can be prepared for future inclusion in regional waste management. For the first time, solutions that include integrated treatment of municipal, agricultural, and industrial waste generated by small-scale municipalities are developed and assessed. For this purpose, five small Serbian municipalities with populations up to 30,000 inhabitants were chosen as case studies. The methodology integrates field data with material flow analysis (MFA) to analyze and evaluate future scenarios. A set of indicators which reflect the goals of waste management, including the total costs, was chosen for scenario comparison and evaluation. It was found that delivering generated waste to regional waste management centers can result in the most affordable environmental benefits for the representative municipalities. More advanced solutions, which include composting and joint treatment of municipal, agricultural, and industrial waste, can contribute to reaching waste management goals, but are more costly (217% and 652% comparing to delivering generated waste to regions). These results can be regarded as a representative for similar municipalities and can serve to support pre-planning decisions in other countries with problems in establishing regional waste management systems.

  14. Search for a new economic optimum in the management of household waste in Tiaret city (western Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnoune, M; Abdelmalek, F; Djelloul, A; Mesghouni, K; Addou, A

    2016-11-01

    In household waste matters, the objective is always to conceive an optimal integrated system of management, where the terms 'optimal' and 'integrated' refer generally to a combination between the waste and the techniques of treatment, valorization and elimination, which often aim at the lowest possible cost. The management optimization of household waste using operational methodologies has not yet been applied in any Algerian district. We proposed an optimization of the valorization of household waste in Tiaret city in order to lower the total management cost. The methodology is modelled by non-linear mathematical equations using 28 variables of decision and aims to assign optimally the seven components of household waste (i.e. plastic, cardboard paper, glass, metals, textiles, organic matter and others) among four centres of treatment [i.e. waste to energy (WTE) or incineration, composting (CM), anaerobic digestion (ANB) or methanization and landfilling (LF)]. The analysis of the obtained results shows that the variation of total cost is mainly due to the assignment of waste among the treatment centres and that certain treatment cannot be applied to household waste in Tiaret city. On the other hand, certain techniques of valorization have been favoured by the optimization. In this work, four scenarios have been proposed to optimize the system cost, where the modelling shows that the mixed scenario (the three treatment centres CM, ANB, LF) suggests a better combination of technologies of waste treatment, with an optimal solution for the system (cost and profit).

  15. INFORMAL AND FORMAL SECTORS PARTNERSHIP IN URBAN WASTE MANAGEMENT (Case Study: Non-Organic Waste Management in Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Indrosaptono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE The urban waste management is still crucial issues in most regions in Indonesia. Urban waste is considered as a cultural issue because of its impact on various life factors , especially in big cities such as Jakarta, Semarang, Surabaya, Bandung, Palembang and Medan. Currently, the average productivity of the urban waste is 0.5 kg / capita / day. If this is multiplied by number of people in some cities in Java and Bali, the total waste will reach about 100,000 tons / day. This number will still increase by increasing population growth. Therefore, the urban waste management is very important for cities in Indonesia, alhough currently not many cities applied the urban waste management system. Urban waste management in Indonesia is not merely caused by formal sector, but it is also supported by informal sector in reducing daily production waste up to 30%. The informal sector management is mainly conducted by sorting the waste to recycleable or not. The recycleable waste is then sold back to the mills to be converted to other valuable products. This reserach was aimed to evaluate the partnership between formal and informal sector in reduction of waste production in Semarang city through urban waste management system. The research about informal sector was conducted by communal interaction and qualitative analysis focusing at Semarang City especially at Old Town area. The research has provided substantive knowledge of informal sector partnerships and formal sector in urban waste management with case inorganic waste management in the city of Semarang through 3R (recycle, reuse and reduce knwoledge management. Basic knowledge of the structure / surface is characterized by empirical knowledge which was easily caught by the direct perspective of human. Middle knowledge could be adjusted to different loci

  16. Intelligent Information System for Waste Management; Jaetehuollon aelykaes tietojaerjestelmae iWaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    'iWaste' is a project for developing and testing intelligent computational methods for more comprehensive waste management. Important issues are automated reporting, optimisation of waste collection, forecasting of waste formation, data handling of waste disposal sites and simulation and modelling of regional waste management. The main objective of the project is to identify and analyse known sources of information and to link them to the existing information processing systems in the field of waste management. Additionally, the goal is to identify and test functional elements that could be developed further to software products and services. The results of the project can be categorized into three sectors. Firstly, the guidelines for a comprehensive information system in waste management will be created. This includes the requirement specifications of different parties, definitions for the data exchange interfaces and an architectural plan for software products capable of co-operative processing. Secondly, the central parts of the intelligent information system will be piloted using the research database collected in the early stage of the project. The main topics investigated are data quality, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), automated reporting, optimisation of waste collection and forecasting of waste formation. Additionally, the pilot information system can be utilized in derivative projects to speed up the starting phases of them. This makes it possible to create persistent development of waste management information systems both academically and commercially. (orig.)

  17. Management of Logistics Activities and Costing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker KIYMETLİ ŞEN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, enterprises are required to reconsider the management of logistics activities as a result of developments such as increasing competition, rapid technological development, and the shortening of product life cycles. As a result of globalization, costs of logistics activities have also increased depending on changes in the quality and quantity of logistics activities. According to research on logistics activities, the physical distribution costs of enterprises may reach up to 30% of sales. For this reason, the management of logistics operations and control of costs caused by these activities is a necessity. The increase in costs negatively impact on the financial performance of enterprises, cash flows, profitability and so value of the shares. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of logistics costs and logistics activities to explain the methods used in costing. For this purpose, many studies in the literature were investigated. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of logistics costs and logistics activities to explain the methods used in costing. For this purpose, many studies in the literature were investigated.

  18. Global warming factor of municipal solid waste management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Clavreul, Julie; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The global warming factor (GWF; CO2-eq. tonne—1 waste) performance of municipal waste management has been investigated for six representative European Member States: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Poland and the United Kingdom. The study integrated European waste statistical data for 2007...

  19. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 3 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of carbon-14. The report also discusses waste streams that contain carbon-14, waste forms that contain carbon-14, and carbon-14 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  20. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Stanton, C.; Patterson, R.G.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 2 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses radiological and chemical characteristics of technetium-99. This report also includes discussions about waste streams in which technetium-99 can be found, waste forms that contain technetium-99, and technetium-99's behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  1. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 4 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses radiological and chemical characteristics about iodine-129. This report also includes discussions about waste streams that contain iodine-129, waste forms that contain iodine-129, and iodine-129's behavior in the environment, as well as in the human body.

  2. Using Financial Incentives to Manage the Solid Waste Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews two approaches to solid waste stream management that encourage recycling in the beverage industry, a model categorizing public policies directed at diverting postconsumer waste from the waste system, and industry initiatives in the context of these policies. Preemptive and compelled partnerships represent innovations in…

  3. Nitty-Gritty Federalism: Managing Solid Waste. Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocco, Joseph C.; Gregori, Harry E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the lesson plan that uses the issue of solid waste disposal to examine the relationship between local, state, and federal governments. Handouts include a quiz on solid waste management, an information sheet, and a simulation of a local problem. The simulation involves the location of a hazardous waste site. (MJP)

  4. Odor Control in Spacecraft Waste Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft and lunar bases generate a variety of wastes containing water, including food wastes, feces, and brines. Disposal of these wastes, as well as recovery of...

  5. agricultural waste concept, generation, utilization and management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Agricultural wastes are non-product outputs of production and processing of agricultural products that may .... process of livestock wastes; the putrefaction process .... attitudes, and better approaches to agricultural waste.

  6. Waste not Want not’- Sustainable Waste Management in Malta - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilak A. Ginige

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to look at the implications of EU’s sustainable waste management policy as applied to the Maltese Islands. It will review the development of waste management in Malta, pre and post EU accession. It will bring the current analysis of the Waste Framework Directive 2008 in order to understand the implications to Malta. When discussing waste management in the context of sustainable development, we are considering a system involving a process of change in which the core components, i.e. society, resource use, investment, technologies, institutions, and consumption patterns, need to operate in harmony with ecosystems. Malta, whose efforts in waste management are reviewed in this paper, whilst serving as the locus for contribution to the waste management debate as early as 2005, has made great efforts in its strive to abide by the ‘Life Cycle Thinking’ approach highlighted in Municipal Waste Management Workshop it hosted together with the EC’s JRC in 2005. The outputs of that workshop showed that the modern aim of waste management plans is to lay the groundwork for sustainable waste management. However, drafting the strategy and implementing it in the field are two different realities, as depicted in this review.

  7. Solid Wastes Management of Yasuj Hospitals, Iran 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Raygan Shirazi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Unhygienic methods of colleting, storage, transportation and disposal of the hospital wastes results in serious hazards that can endanger the health and environment. These materials are classified as dangerous, and have to be collected and disposed based on special rules. Materials & Methods: In the present study we aimed to evaluate the quality of management of hospital wastes and to estimate the waste constituents in Yasuj hospitals. Density, constituents, methods of collecting, transportation and disposal of hospital wastes were evaluated in 3 consecutive days of every months of the year 2006. Results: Study showed that the daily production of solid wastes was 5.5 Kg per hospital bed and infected solid wastes were estimated to be 1.5 Kg per hospital bed. The total solid waste production was 1350 Kg per day which included 27.2 percent as infected solid wastes. Solid waste density was 160.7 Kg per cubic meter and its constituents were food wastes (19.753%, rubber (47.02%, paper (12.05%, glass (5.211%, metals (3.41% and bandages, gases, clothes, etc (12.556%. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the solid waste management of the studied hospitals is not satisfying and more attention must be paid to the critical issues, such as plans for reducing solid wastes, isolating infected solid wastes at the production site and using safe and updated methods of disposal of solid wastes.

  8. Waste management in Greenland: current situation and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste management in Greenland (56 000 inhabitants) is characterized by landfilling, incineration and export to Denmark of small quantities of metals and hazardous waste. The annual amount of waste is estimated to about 50 000 tons but actual data are scarce. Data on the waste composition is basic...... are small and equipped with only moderate flue gas cleaning technology. This report summarizes the current waste management situation in Greenland and identifies important challenges in improving the waste management.......Waste management in Greenland (56 000 inhabitants) is characterized by landfilling, incineration and export to Denmark of small quantities of metals and hazardous waste. The annual amount of waste is estimated to about 50 000 tons but actual data are scarce. Data on the waste composition...... is basically lacking. The scattered small towns and settlements, the climate and the long transport distances between towns and also to recycling industries abroad constitute a complex situation with respect to waste management. The landfills have no collection of gas and leachate and the incinerators...

  9. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  10. International nuclear waste management fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahms, C W; Patridge, M D; Widrig, J E

    1995-11-01

    The International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book has been compiled to provide current data on fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in 24 countries, including the US; four multinational agencies; and 20 nuclear societies. This document, which is in its second year of publication supersedes the previously issued International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book (PNL-3594), which appeared annually for 12 years. The content has been updated to reflect current information. The Fact Book is organized as follows: National summaries--a section for each country that summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships, and provides addresses and names of key personnel and information on facilities. International agencies--a section for each of the international agencies that has significant fuel cycle involvement and a list of nuclear societies. Glossary--a list of abbreviations/acronyms of organizations, facilities, and technical and other terms. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country and some general information that is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the US.

  11. Waste Management in the Circular Economy. The Case of Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuga, Anca N.

    2016-11-01

    Applying the principles of sustainable development in Romania involves a new approach to ecological waste using basic concepts of circular economy to weigh accurately the proposed projects in this area taking into account existing environmental resources and zero waste objectives. The paper is focused on: quantitative and qualitative measures of waste prevention in Romania, the changing status of the waste by selling it as product, the mechanisms for paying for treatment and / or disposal which discourage waste generation and the use of financial resources obtained from secondary raw materials for the efficiency of waste management.

  12. Risk management in waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M; Strube, I

    2005-01-01

    With the continuous restructuring of the water market due to liberalisation, privatisation and internationalisation processes, the requirements on waste water disposal companies have grown. Increasing competition requires a target-oriented and clearly structured procedure. At the same time it is necessary to meet the environment-relevant legal requirements and to design the processes to be environment-oriented. The implementation of risk management and the integration of such a management instrument in an existing system in addition to the use of modern technologies and procedures can help to make the operation of the waste water treatment safer and consequently strengthen market position. The risk management process consists of three phases, risk identification, risk analysis/risk assessment and risk handling, which are based on each other, as well as of the risk managing. To achieve an identification of the risks as complete as possible, a subdivision of the kind of risks (e.g. legal, financial, market, operational) is suggested. One possibility to assess risks is the portfolio method which offers clear representation. It allows a division of the risks into classes showing which areas need handling. The determination of the appropriate measures to handle a risk (e.g. avoidance, reduction, shift) is included in the concluding third phase. Different strategies can be applied here. On the one hand, the cause-oriented strategy, aiming at preventive measures which aim to reduce the probability of occurrence of a risk (e.g. creation of redundancy, systems with low susceptibility to malfunction). On the other hand, the effect-oriented strategy, aiming to minimise the level of damage in case of an undesired occurrence (e.g. use of alarm systems, insurance cover).

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Management using Geographical Information System aided methods: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Debishree; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2014-11-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental challenges in developing countries. Many efforts to reduce and recover the wastes have been made, but still land disposal of solid wastes is the most popular one. Finding an environmentally sound landfill site is a challenging task. This paper addresses a mini review on various aspects of MSWM (suitable landfill site selection, route optimization and public acceptance) using the Geographical Information System (GIS) coupled with other tools. The salient features of each of the integrated tools with GIS are discussed in this paper. It is also addressed how GIS can help in optimizing routes for collection of solid wastes from transfer stations to disposal sites to reduce the overall cost of solid waste management. A detailed approach on performing a public acceptance study of a proposed landfill site is presented in this study. The study will help municipal authorities to identify the most effective method of MSWM.

  14. Caught between the global economy and local bureaucracy: the barriers to good waste management practice in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Trois, Cristina

    2013-03-01

    Empirical research shows that good waste management practice in South Africa is not always under the volitional control of those tasked with its implementation. While intention to act may exist, external factors, within the distal and proximal context, create barriers to waste behaviour. In addition, these barriers differ for respondents in municipalities, private industry and private waste companies. The main barriers to implementing good waste management practice experienced by respondents in municipalities included insufficient funding for waste management and resultant lack of resources; insufficient waste knowledge; political interference in decision-making; a slow decision-making process; lack of perceived authority to act by waste staff; and a low priority afforded to waste. Barriers experienced by respondents in private industry included insufficient funding for waste and the resultant lack of resources; insufficient waste knowledge; and government bureaucracy. Whereas, barriers experienced in private waste companies included increasing costs; government bureaucracy; global markets; and availability of waste for recycling. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organizations are subject to different structural forces that shape, enable and constrain waste behaviour.

  15. Bio-Medical Waste Managment in a Tertiary Care Hospital: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anita; Ahuja, Sanjiv; Madan, Molly; Asthana, Ajay Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Bio-Medical Waste (BMW) management is of utmost importance as its improper management poses serious threat to health care workers, waste handlers, patients, care givers, community and finally the environment. Simultaneously, the health care providers should know the quantity of waste generated in their facility and try to reduce the waste generation in day-to-day work because lesser amount of BMW means a lesser burden on waste disposal work and cost saving. To have an overview of management of BMW in a tertiary care teaching hospital so that effective interventions and implementations can be carried out for better outcome. The observational study was carried out over a period of five months from January 2016 to May 2016 in Chhatrapati Shivaji Subharti Hospital, Meerut by the Infection Control Team (ICT). Assessment of knowledge was carried out by asking set of questions individually and practice regarding awareness of BMW Management among the Health Care Personnel (HCP) was carried out by direct observation in the workplace. Further, the total BMW generated from the present setup in kilogram per bed per day was calculated by dividing the mean waste generated per day by the number of occupied beds. Segregation of BMW was being done at the site of generation in almost all the areas of the hospital in color coded polythene bags as per the hospital protocol. The different types of waste being collected were infectious solid waste in red bag, soiled infectious waste in yellow bag and sharp waste in puncture proof container and blue bag. Though awareness (knowledge) about segregation of BMW was seen in 90% of the HCP, 30%-35% did not practice. Out of the total waste generated (57912 kg.), 8686.8 kg. (15%) was infectious waste. Average infectious waste generated was 0.341 Kg per bed per day. The transport, treatment and disposal of each collected waste were outsourced and carried out by 'Synergy' waste management Pvt. Ltd. The practice of BMW Management was lacking in 30

  16. [Cost analysis of patient blood management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerüschkamp, A G; Zacharowski, K; Ettwein, C; Müller, M M; Geisen, C; Weber, C F; Meybohm, P

    2016-06-01

    Patient blood management (PBM) is a multidisciplinary approach focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of preoperative anaemia, the minimisation of blood loss, and the optimisation of the patient-specific anaemia reserve to improve clinical outcomes. Economic aspects of PBM have not yet been sufficiently analysed. The aim of this study is to analyse the costs associated with the clinical principles of PBM and the project costs associated with the implementation of a PBM program from an institutional perspective. Patient-related costs of materials and services were analysed at the University Hospital Frankfurt for 2013. Personnel costs of all major processes were quantified based on the time required to perform each step. Furthermore, general project costs of the implementation phase were determined. Direct costs of transfusing a single unit of red blood cells can be calculated to a minimum of €147.43. PBM-associated costs varied depending on individual patient requirements. The following costs per patient were calculated: diagnosis of preoperative anaemia €48.69-123.88; treatment of preoperative anaemia (including iron-deficiency anaemia and megaloblastic anaemia) €12.61-127.99; minimising perioperative blood loss (including point-of-care diagnostics, coagulation management and cell salvage) €3.39-1,901.81; and costs associated with the optimisation of the tolerance to anaemia (including patient monitoring and volume therapy) €28.62. General project costs associated with the implementation of PBM were €24,998.24. PBM combines various alternatives to the transfusion of red blood cells and improves clinical outcome. Costs of PBM vary from institution to institution and depend on the extent to which different aspects of PBM have been implemented. The quantification of costs associated with PBM is essential in order to assess the economic impact of PBM, and thereby, to efficiently re-allocate health care resources. Costs were determined at a single

  17. KAIZEN METHODOLOGY IN QUALITY MANAGEMENT TO REDUCE WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boca Gratiela Dana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaizen cannot deal with all problems and one size does not fit all but a flexibleimplementation opens up the dimension of collaboration between the workforce, themanagement and the technical departments. In every company, it operates in a differentway to suit the circumstances but all consider it indispensable. It is more flexible andtolerant than may be expected; it is a tool for integration of technological strategy with thebusiness strategy of the organization. Technology is forcing organizations to become morecompetitive as at every instance innovations take place. Recent innovations in the form oftotal quality management, reengineering work process, flexible manufacturing system haveonly one thing in common - well serving the customer by improved operational efficiency.For instant Quality Management advocates emphasize the importance of achieving higherquality and flexibility at lower level of cost and waste.

  18. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, Kenneth, S.

    2003-02-26

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

  19. DOE guidelines for management of radioactive waste - historical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluk, A.F. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Neal, R.M. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    From the beginning of the Manhattan Project in 1942 through the signing of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) in 1946 and its reenactment in 1954, new policies and techniques began to evolve for managing waste produced in the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Even in the early days of war-time urgency, public health and safety were the major considerations in managing waste from this new technology. The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), which took over from the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) in 1947, established initial waste category management guidelines (high level waste stored in tanks, solid low level waste disposed of primarily in trenches, and liquid waste released to ponds, cribs, and pits) based on the management concepts developed by the MED. The AEC and its successor agencies managed radioactive waste in a manner consistent with existing industrial health and safety requirements of that era. With the formation of the Department of Energy (DOE) in September 1977, techniques and internal requirements were already in place or being established that, in some cases, were more protective of human health and the environment than existing legislation and environmental standards. With the transition to environmental cleanup of former DOE weapons production facilities, new and revised guidelines were created to address hazardous and radioactive mixed waste, waste minimization, and recycling. This paper reviews the waste management guidelines as they have evolved from the MED through the resent time.

  20. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A.

    1979-11-01

    Research is reported on: decontamination and densification of chop-leach cladding residues, monitoring of effluents from waste solidification, TRU waste mobilization, Kr solidification, /sup 14/C and /sup 129/I fixation, waste management system and safety studies, waste isolation safety assessment, logging systems for shallow land burial, unsaturated zone transport, mobile organic complexes of fission products, electropolishing for surface decontamination of metals, and decontamination and decommissioning of Hanford facilities. (DLC)