WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste machinery oil

  1. Oils degradation in agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of oils condition in agricultural machinery is very important. With monitoring and evaluating we can prevent technical and economic losses. In this paper there were monitored the liquid lubricants taken from mobile thresher New Holland CX 860. Chemical and viscosity degradation of the lubricants were evaluated. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was observed in the range of temperature from −10 °C to 80 °C (for all oils. Considerable temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was found and demonstrated in case of all samples, which is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was modeled using a polynomial 6th degree. The proposed models can be used for prediction of flow behavior of oils.

  2. Methods and machinery for pulverising solid wastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpkins, MJ

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available This report is published on behalf of the South African Committee for Solid Wastes which in turn advises the National Committee for Environmental Sciences on problems concerned with Solid Wastes in South Africa. It is particularly concerned...

  3. Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, Machin-ery Sub-Council (referred to as CCPIT MSC) & China Chamber of International Commerce, Machinery Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1988 as one of the first group of industrial trade promotion agencies approved by the governing authorities of China.

  4. Application of the quantitative oil monitoring to analysing the operating condition of marine machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the data of Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, spectrometric oilanalysis (SOA) and other routine methods, the experiment of oil monitoring for steering propellersis discussed. The experiment demonstrates the FTIR spectroscopy can rapidly and easily obtainthe results in laboratory analysis, and combine with spectrometer oil analysis, complementary in-formation is most effective to condition monitoring of marine machinery.

  5. Agricultural waste derived fuel from oil meal and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han

    2017-05-27

    Oil meal is a by-product of the oil industry (peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal). Oil is extracted from seeds, and the leftover meal is then pelletized, and this process generates a large amount of waste oil meal in Taiwan. In this study, peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal derived fuels were prepared from the waste oil meal with waste cooking oil. The combustion behaviors of the oil meal derived fuels were also investigated. The characteristics of the derived fuel made from oil meal with waste cooking oil showed that the ash content is less than 10% and its calorific value reached 5000 kcal/kg. Additionally, the activation energy of the oil meal and waste cooking oil was analyzed by the Kissinger method. The results show that the fuel prepared in this work from the oil meal mixed with waste cooking oil is suitable for use as an alternative fuel and also avoids food safety issues.

  6. Pulsed ultrasound assisted dehydration of waste oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Li, Rui; Lu, Xiaoping

    2015-09-01

    A method to aid the separation of the oil phase from waste oil emulsion of refineries had been developed by using a pulsed ultrasonic irradiation technology. Compared with conventional continuous ultrasonic irradiation, it is found that pulsed ultrasonic irradiation is much better to make water drop coalescence and hence dehydration of waste oil. The effects of ultrasonic irradiation parameters on waste oil dehydration are further discussed. The orthogonal experiment is also designed to investigate the degrees of influence of ultrasonic parameters and the optimal technological conditions. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the water content of waste oil is decreased from 65% to 8%, which thereby satisfies the requirements of refineries on the water content of waste oil after treatment (<10%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  8. NAFTA opportunities: Oil and gas field drilling machinery and services sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) significantly improves market access in Mexico and Canada for U.S. exports of oil and gas field equipment. Foreign markets account for more than 80 percent of U.S. shipments of oil and gas field machinery. Foreign markets are expected to continue their importance to this industry, in the long term. Mexico and Canada are moderate-sized markets for U.S. exports of oilfield products. In 1992, U.S. exports of this equipment amounted to about $113 million to Mexico and $11 million to Canada.

  9. Intracerebral injection of oil cyst content of human craniopharyngioma (oil machinery fluid) as a toxic model in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; Hernández-Campos, Ma Elena; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Colín-González, Ana Laura; Santamaría, Abel

    2014-04-01

    Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are benign epithelial cystic tumors of the sellar and suprasellar region with a high survival rate and high recurrence in children. CPs contain dense oily fluid, but little is known yet about this content and its contribution to tissue damage and tumoral growth. In this study, we developed a simple experimental model produced by intracortical injection to rats of the cyst fluid content collected from human CPs to explore its possible contribution to brain tissue damage. The cyst fluid of the CPs ("oil machinery fluid") was collected during surgical removal, briefly preserved and further tested in rats through intracortical infusion. The group receiving "oil machinery fluid" presented increased reactive oxygen species formation, oxidative damage to lipids and reactive gliosis accompanied by augmented immunoreactivity to peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin reductase 1 at 15, 30 and 45 days post-injection. Other markers of inflammation and cell damage were stimulated at all post-lesion days tested. There was also a body weight gain. The persistence of tissue damage and oxidative stress suggests that "oil machinery fluid" exerts progressive alterations similar to those observed in patients with CPs, supporting the concept that some components of cyst fluid may contribute to brain tissue damage in these patients.

  10. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  11. Recycling of Automotive Lubricating Waste Oil and Its Quality Assessment for Environment-Friendly Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Anwar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lubricating oils, which are formulated with a number of chemicals blended base oils provide products that last longer, keep machinery cleaner and allow the machinery to work better under severe operating conditions. However, the used oil-waste generated by the automobiles and other allied industries poses an environmental hazard. The motivation of the present research study was to study the merits and demerits of commonly applicable technique acid/clay for reclamation of waste oil. This process has been employed for many years as the premier type of re-refining in which concentrated sulfuric acid is introduced to dehydrate waste lubricating oil. An acidic sludge is produced which is treated with clay. In this study, the conventional process of reclamation of waste oil, which is acid/clay, has been reviewed in the light of recovered product quality and hazardous effects on the environment and human health. Forty samples, in which, waste oil (10, reclaimed oil (30 were collected from different blending and reclamation plants located in different areas of the Punjab Province and were compared with two stroke blended oil (10 samples. The samples were tested for kinematic viscosity at 40 and 100ºC, Viscosity Index, Flash point, Sulfated Ash content, Copper Corrosion, Water content, Sediments and Color by following the standard ASTM Methods D-445, D-2270, D-92, D-482, D-130, D-95, D-473 and D-1500 (ASTM, 2002, respectively. According to the results, blended reclaimed (two stroke oil samples were found up to the recommended standard test limits. On the other hand, waste oil and reclaimed oil samples were found above the maximum test limits of acid number and copper corrosion and were found below in flash point test limit. Waste oil samples were highly contaminated and adulterated with mud and water. Although no such standard criteria or parameters are available for comparison but analysis results showed a bad reflection and due to which only few tests

  12. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

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    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  13. THE POTENTIAL USE OF WASTE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kardasz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present an effective use of the mixture consisting of waste oil and rapeseed oil. The results of laboratory tests for fuel consumption and exhaust emission prove significant similarity of the mixture to diesel oil. This paper describes the use of the mixture as: alternative fuel to an internal combustion engine, the source of electricity and heat; as well as its other positive aspects.

  14. The waste-to-energy framework for integrated multi-waste utilization: Waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Energy generation by wastes is considered one method of waste management that has the benefit of energy recovery. From the waste-to-energy point of view, waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics have been considered good candidates for feedstocks for energy conversion due to their high heating values. Compared to the independent management of these three wastes, the idea of co-processing them in integration is expected to gain more benefit. The economies of scale and the synergy of co-processing these wastes results in higher quality and higher yield of the end products. In this study, we use cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the integrated management scenario of collecting the three wastes and converting them to energy. We report the total heat of combustion of pyrolytic oil at the maximum and minimum conversion rates, and conduct a sensitivity analysis in which the parameters of an increase of the electricity cost for operating the process and increase of the feedstock transportation cost are tested. We evaluate the effects of economy of scale in the case of integrated waste management. We compare four cases of waste-to-energy conversion with the business as usual (BAU) scenario, and our results show that the integrated co-processing of waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics is the most profitable from the viewpoints of energy yield and economics. (author)

  15. Waste oil management: Analyses of waste oils from vehicle crankcases and gearboxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pelitli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with waste strategy for Turkey, the study was carried out to analyses waste engine crankcase oils and waste gearbox oils generated from vehicle maintenance services in order to determine their suitability for recycling, recovery or final disposal based on regulation published by Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry on 21 January 2004. The regulation requires all waste oil neither abandoned nor released into the environment and all batches must be analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, chlorine, total halogens, polychlorinated biphenyls, and flash points. The content analysis showed that the heavy metal concentrations in waste engine crankcase oils were varied considerably, between the metals analyzed, lead the highest is followed by chromium, arsenic and cadmium. In addition, higher amount of chlorine and total halogens, were detected in some samples, while polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations remained below regulatory limits for all samples. The analyses revealed that waste engine crankcase oils from fifteen to thirty five years old vehicles contained chromium, lead, chlorine and total halogens levels above legal limits set by Ministry of Environment and Forestry for recycling. Conversely, in comparison to the findings from the analyzed series of old vehicles, the waste engine crankcase oils samples from new vehicles and all waste gearbox oils are eligible for recycling.

  16. New cleaning machinery equipment for oil tank%新型油罐机械清洗设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锋; 彭祥林

    2012-01-01

    介绍了新型油罐机械清洗设备的抽吸、撇油和正压过滤功能。与传统同类设备进行了比较。指出了传统同类设备的不足和新型油罐机械清洗设备的优点。%To introduced the key features of pumping, oil skimming and barotropic filtering of the new cleaning machinery equipment for oil tank. It points out the advantages of the new machinery equipment as well as the disadvantages of transitional one after side by side comparison.

  17. Waste oil: Technology, economics, and environmental, health, and safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The current status of environmental information on the waste oil industry is reviewed. The sources, properties, and availability of waste oil are summarized. The topics of waste oil collection, utilization, and disposal, energy and economic considerations, and regulatory constraints are discussed, based upon the most recent data available at this time. The health and safety implications of the resource through end-use waste oil system are also presented.

  18. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from waste frying oil by Cupriavidus necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers, which can replace petrochemical plastics in many applications. However, these bioplastics are currently far more expensive than petrochemical plastics. Many researchers are investigating the use of inexpensive substrates derived from waste streams. Waste frying oil is abundant and can be used in PHA production without filtration. Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) is a versatile organism for the production of PHAs. Small-scale batch fermentation studies have been set up, using different concentrations of pure vegetable oil, heated vegetable oil and waste frying oil. These oils are all rapeseed oils. It has been shown that Cupriavidus necator produced the homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from the rapeseed oils. The achieved PHB concentration from waste frying oil was 1.2 g/l, which is similar to a concentration that can be obtained from glucose. The PHB harvest from pure oil and heated oil was 0.62 g/l and 0.9 g/l respectively. A feed of waste frying oil could thus achieve more biopolymer than pure vegetable oil. While the use of a waste product is beneficial from a life-cycle perspective, PHB is not the only product that can be made from waste oil. The collection of waste frying oil is becoming more widespread, making waste oil a good alternative to purified oil or glucose for PHB production. PMID:21906352

  19. The new economics of waste oil processing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, D.

    1996-06-01

    The newly developed CANPED process, a process that effectively stabilizes and purifies fuel oil produced from a straight run thermal cracking process, was described. It was claimed that this same process can create an environment where recycling waste lubricating oils becomes economically attractive for a wide range of applications. The CANPED process deals effectively with the acids, olefins and odour causing compounds made from a feedstock of waste oil, without negative environmental effects, and only one by-product which can be converted to an asphalt additive. The system is easy to construct, uses common building materials, and operates at low pressures. The process was developed by CANMET, the research arm of Natural Resources Canada. It is now being marketed world-wide by Par Excellence Developments, an industrial services company, based in Sudbury, Ontario.

  20. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Palm Oil Frond and Stem Bunch for Developing Pruner and Harvester Machinery Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A development of oil palm pruner and harvester machinery design implemented in the field still faces a problem due to the lack of effective and efficient design which is need to be solved. It was noted that in order to develop the design, an early data and information of physical and mechanical properties of palm oil frond and stem fruits is critically important. The objective of the research was to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of palm oil frond and stem in order to develop the design of pruner and harvester machinery. The result showed that tool machinery was been advantageous by the physical properties of the plant i.e. the total weight of frond and leaf which enable to support the cutting process. The average of total weight of frond and leaf was 16.8 kg. The diagonal cutting trajectory was been more advantageous because of total weight and frond shape toward to the different of the plant tissue area. The measurement result shows that cutting curve follows the time required for cutting. The comparison among cutting curve shows differences in cutting thickness or length. In this case, the thickness is linear with cutting time. Besides, those curves show differences at the height which determine the maximum value of tested material cutting resistance. Alternative solution for machinery development design is pruner-harvester for height plant below 6 m and among 6 to 12 m. For below 6 m, pruner-harvester was designed by incorporating motor as power source and cutter-disc as the knife cutter. That condition was relied on that estate which was maintenance intensively commonly used cutter-disc. Pruner-harvester above 6 m and up to 12 m was improved based on manual egrek-designed by adding fresh fruit bunch alley supply glide in order to keep the fruits still in intact form. The consideration was based on affectivity and efficiency. It also considers homogenous ecological of palm oil plant which should be maintained to reduce global

  1. CHARACTERISATION OF BIODIESEL DERIVED FROM WASTE COTTON SEED OIL AND WASTE MUSTARD OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative fuel is derived from the fats of animals and plants. As energy demand increases and fossil fuels are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fuels. Properties of waste oil (cotton seed oil and mustard oil have been compared with the properties of petro-diesel, showing a comparable regimefor satisfactory optimized blend which is to be selected for the better performance of a C.I. engine with biodiesel. The work presented in this paper is the study of characteristics of biodiesel prepared from vegetable oils (waste cotton seed oil and waste mustard oil.The characteristics of biodiesel are to be checked at different blends (B10, B15, B20 and select the optimum blend based on these characteristics. The characteristics include free fatty acid value, density, viscosity, flash point and fire point, cloud point and pour point, carbon residue content and ash residue content. Different fuel properties of the cotton methyl ester and mustard methyl ester were also measured. Results show that the properties of methyl ester of cotton seed were more suitable as compared to properties of mustard methyl ester.

  2. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce the formation of acid rain and its harmful effects, stricter legislations on emissions of sulphur oxides from ships applies as of 2015 in emission control areas and globally in 2020 by the international maritime organization (IMO). Consequently, prices on low sulphur fuels...... of the machinery system. The wet sulphuric acid process has shown to be an effective way of removing sulphur oxides from flue gas of land-based coal fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper is aimed at designing......-stroke diesel engine and a conventional waste heat recovery system. The results suggest that an organic Rankine cycle placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase power generation from waste heat by 32...

  3. Pyrolysis Recovery of Waste Shipping Oil Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adibah Wan Mahari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microwave pyrolysis as a recovery method for waste shipping oil. The influence of different process temperatures on the yield and composition of the pyrolysis products was investigated. The use of microwave heating provided a fast heating rate (40 °C/min to heat the waste oil at 600 °C. The waste oil was pyrolyzed and decomposed to form products dominated by pyrolysis oil (up to 66 wt. % and smaller amounts of pyrolysis gases (24 wt. % and char residue (10 wt. %. The pyrolysis oil contained light C9–C30 hydrocarbons and was detected to have a calorific value of 47–48 MJ/kg which is close to those traditional liquid fuels derived from fossil fuel. The results show that microwave pyrolysis of waste shipping oil generated an oil product that could be used as a potential fuel.

  4. USED MOTOR OIL – A HAZARDOUS WASTE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kiš

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Today we all are eyewitnesses of increasing pollution, which disappears in the atmosphere, soil, and underground water. The pollution is a result of men's actions and their reckless attitute toward the nature. Natural resources should be preserved at the level which can provide substantial quality to men, animals, and plants. Any hazardous intervention upon the biological diversity should be avoided and both the genetic balance and the harmony of biological systems, live ogranisms, and dead matter should be preserved. Motor oil is a specific substance needed to facilitate the adequate operation of a machine (e.g. a tractor, but after some time it becomes hazardous, i.e. a hazardous waste. The deposit of the motor oil has to be done in the proper way since it is a potential source of contamination. Used motor oil is a potential environmental bomb in cases of its improper and illegal deposit, especially in the cases when it is carelessly left around the facilities of factories, companies and privately owned farms. A research was conducted on family farms in Osijek-Baranya County and Vukovar-Srijem County in order to determine the way of treatment of used motor oil generated from the engine, transmission, and the accompanying packaging materials.

  5. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...... the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...

  6. Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenő Hancsók

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280–380∘C, P = 20–80 bar, LHSV = 0.75–3.0 h−1 and H2/lard ratio: 600 Nm3/m3. In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360–370∘C, P = 40 –50 bar, LHSV = 1.0 h−1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400 Nm3/m3 mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms.

  7. Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste edible oil as biodiesel feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, M.M.; Lee, K.T.; Bhatia, S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2008-11-15

    Biodiesel has high potential as a new and renewable energy source in the future, as a substitution fuel for petroleum-derived diesel and can be used in existing diesel engine without modification. Currently, more than 95% of the world biodiesel is produced from edible oil which is easily available on large scale from the agricultural industry. However, continuous and large-scale production of biodiesel from edible oil without proper planning may cause negative impact to the world, such as depletion of food supply leading to economic imbalance. A possible solution to overcome this problem is to use non-edible oil or waste edible oil (WEO). In this context, the next question that comes in mind would be if the use of non-edible oil overcomes the short-comings of using edible oil. Apart from that, if WEO were to be used, is it sufficient to meet the demand of biodiesel. All these issues will be addressed in this paper by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of using edible oil vs. non-edible vs. WEO as feedstock for biodiesel production. The discussion will cover various aspects ranging from oil composition, oil yield, economics, cultivation requirements, land availability and also the resources availability. Finally, a proposed solution will be presented. (author)

  8. Biodiesel Production from Waste Coconut Oil in Coconut Milk Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a 3 step biodiesel production from waste coconut oil taken from a wastewater pond in a coconut milk manufacturing plant. Special attention was paid to optimizing the first step, acid catalyzed hydrolysis, to convert the waste coconut oil into high free fatty acid oil, 83.32 wt%. The first step was the acid hydrolysis, in order to produce high free fatty acid oil. The optimum condition in acid hydrolysis was 5 % by mass of hydrochloric acid, in order...

  9. Oil sorbents from plastic wastes and polymers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Adil Riaz, Muhammad; Gordon, McKay

    2018-01-05

    A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst others. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) have been reported. In recent years, the idea of using plastic wastes as the feed for the production of oil sorbents has gained momentum. However, the studies undertaking such feasibility are rather scattered. This review paper is the first of its kind reporting, compiling and reviewing these various processes. The production of an oil sorbent from plastic wastes is being seen to be satisfactorily achievable through a variety of methods Nevertheless, much work needs to be done regarding further investigation of the numerous parameters influencing production yields and sorbent qualities. For example, differences in results are seen due to varying operating conditions, experimental setups, and virgin or waste plastics being used as feeds. The field of producing oil sorbents from plastic wastes is still very open for further research, and seems to be a promising route for both waste reduction, and the synthesis of value-added products such as oil sorbents. In this review, the research related to the production of various oil sorbents based on plastics (plastic waste and virgin polymer) has been discussed. Further oil sorbent efficiency in terms of oil sorption capacity has been described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale.

  11. Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

    Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpech

  12. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Balam, Marco V; Robles, Guillermo; Lelo de Larrea, Sebastian; Mendoza, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential use of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil in Mexico City. The study is divided in two main areas: the analysis of a waste cooking oil collection pilot project conducted in food markets of a Mexico City region; and the exhaust emissions performance of biodiesel blends measured in buses of the Mexico City public bus transportation network (RTP). Results from the waste cooking oil collection pilot project show that oil quantities disposed depend upon the type of food served and the operational practices in a cuisine establishment. Food markets' waste cooking oil disposal rate from fresh oil is around 10%, but with a very high standard deviation. Emission tests were conducted using the Ride-Along-Vehicle-Emissions-Measuring System in two different types of buses while travelling a regular route. Results shows that the use of biodiesel blends reduces emissions only for buses that have exhaust gas recirculation systems, as analysed by repeated measure analysis of variance. The potential use in Mexico City of waste cooking oil for biodiesel is estimated to cover 2175 buses using a B10 blend. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Planning waste cooking oil collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tânia Rodrigues Pereira; Gomes, Maria Isabel; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana Paula

    2013-08-01

    This research has been motivated by a real-life problem of a waste cooking oil collection system characterized by the existence of multiple depots with an outsourced vehicle fleet, where the collection routes have to be plan. The routing problem addressed allows open routes between depots, i.e., all routes start at one depot but can end at the same or at a different one, depending on what minimizes the objective function considered. Such problem is referred as a Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Mixed Closed and Open Inter-Depot Routes and is, in this paper, modeled through a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation where capacity and duration constraints are taken into account. The model developed is applied to the real case study providing, as final results, the vehicle routes planning where a decrease of 13% on mileage and 11% on fleet hiring cost are achieved, when comparing with the current company solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodiesel Production from Waste Coconut Oil in Coconut Milk Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujinna KARNNASUTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop a 3 step biodiesel production from waste coconut oil taken from a wastewater pond in a coconut milk manufacturing plant. Special attention was paid to optimizing the first step, acid catalyzed hydrolysis, to convert the waste coconut oil into high free fatty acid oil, 83.32 wt%. The first step was the acid hydrolysis, in order to produce high free fatty acid oil. The optimum condition in acid hydrolysis was 5 % by mass of hydrochloric acid, in order to produce high free fatty acid oil that could be used as raw material for biodiesel production. The second step was the acid esterification, in order to reduce the FFA and convert FFA to methyl ester. The reduction of the FFA from 83.32 % in high free fatty acid oil to less than 2 % required 3 % by mass of hydrochloric acid, a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 10: 1, and a reaction time of 60 min. The alkaline transesterification in the third step was used triglyceride at 1.0wt% of KOH for catalysis, a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 6:1, and a reaction time of 60 min. The waste coconut oil biodiesel was further evaluated by determining its fuel quality, and most of the properties were well within ASTM and EN standards.

  15. Transesterification of waste frying oil under ultrasonic irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Cancela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of ultrasounds in conversion of waste frying oil into biodiesel. Many researchers have studied the use of ultrasounds in the biodiesel production from different feedstock; however, there are few studies focused on the biodiesel production from waste frying oil. In this research, ultrasound-assisted transesterification was carried out to convert the waste frying oil into biodiesel directly. The effect of different process parameters such as reaction time (30-90 min, amount of catalyst (0.5 -1% wt. NaOH and temperature (20-40 ºC were also analyzed to obtain the higher conversion. A methanol to oil molar ratio of 6:1, 0.5% amount of catalyst and 30 ºC was enough to complete the process in 60 min. The obtained results in this study confirm that that ultrasound-assisted transesterification was a fast and efficient method for biodiesel production from waste frying oil even if reaction temperature is low. Keywords: ultrasound transesterification, waste frying oil, biodiesel.

  16. Availability of triazine herbicides in aged soils amended with olive oil mill waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive oil extraction generates a lot of organic waste, which can potentially cause adverse environmental impacts. Application of olive oil mill waste, alperujo, to the land could be an effective way to dispose of the waste. However, addition of olive oil mill wastes can modify the binding capacity o...

  17. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  18. Catalytic transformation of waste polymers to fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Waste not, want not: The increase in waste polymer generation, which continues to exceed recycle, represents a critical environmental burden. However, plastic waste may be viewed as a potential resource and, with the correct treatment, can serve as hydrocarbon raw material or as fuel oil, as described in this Minireview.Effective waste management must address waste reduction, reuse, recovery, and recycle. The consumption of plastics continues to grow, and, while plastic recycle has seen a significant increase since the early 1990s, consumption still far exceeds recycle. However, waste plastic can be viewed as a potential resource and can serve, with the correct treatment, as hydrocarbon raw material or as fuel oil. This Minireview considers the role of catalysis in waste polymer reprocessing and provides a critical overview of the existing waste plastic treatment technologies. Thermal pyrolysis results in a random scissioning of the polymer chains, generating products with varying molecular weights. Catalytic degradation provides control over the product composition/distribution and serves to lower significantly the degradation temperature. Incineration of waste PVC is very energy demanding and can result in the formation of toxic chloro emissions. The efficacy of a catalytic transformation of PVC is also discussed.

  19. Recycling of waste tyre rubber into oil absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Zhou, M H

    2009-01-01

    The abundant and indiscriminant disposal of waste tyres has caused both health and environmental problems. In this work, we provide a new way to dispose off waste tyres by reusing the waste tyre rubber (WTR) for oil absorptive material production. To investigate this feasibility, a series of absorbents were prepared by graft copolymerization-blending method, using waste tyre rubber and 4-tert-butylstyrene (tBS) as monomers. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) were employed as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. The existence of graft-blends (WTR-g-tBS) was determined by FTIR spectrometry and verified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). In addition, the thermal properties of WTR-g-tBS were confirmed by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Oil absorbency of the grafted-blends increased with increases in either feed ratio of WTR to tBS or DVB concentration. This absorbency reached a maximum of 24.0gg(-1) as the feed ratio and DVB concentration were 60/40 and 1wt%, respectively, after which it decreased. At other ratios and concentrations the absorbency decreased. The gel fraction of grafted-blends increased with increasing concentration of DVB. Oil-absorption processes in pure toluene and crude oil diluted with toluene were found to adhere to first-order absorption kinetics. Furthermore, the oil-absorption rate in diluted crude oil was observed to be lower than pure toluene.

  20. Acid-catalyzed production of biodiesel from waste frying oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, S.; Dube, M.A.; McLean, D.D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kates, M. [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-15

    The reaction kinetics of acid-catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil in excess methanol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), for possible use as biodiesel, was studied. Rate of mixing, feed composition (molar ratio oil:methanol:acid) and temperature were independent variables. There was no significant difference in the yield of FAME when the rate of mixing was in the turbulent range 100 to 600rpm. The oil:methanol:acid molar ratios and the temperature were the most significant factors affecting the yield of FAME. At 70{sup o}C with oil:methanol:acid molar ratios of 1:245:3.8, and at 80{sup o}C with oil:methanol:acid molar ratios in the range 1:74:1.9-1:245:3.8, the transesterification was essentially a pseudo-first-order reaction as a result of the large excess of methanol which drove the reaction to completion (99+/-1% at 4h). In the presence of the large excess of methanol, free fatty acids present in the waste oil were very rapidly converted to methyl esters in the first few minutes under the above conditions. Little or no monoglycerides were detected during the course of the reaction, and diglycerides present in the initial waste oil were rapidly converted to FAME. (author)

  1. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines.

  2. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  3. Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment for reclamation and recycling of waste oils. Citations discuss recovery, disposal, and reuse of lubricating oils. Topics include economic analysis, programs assessment, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil evaluation. Regulations and standards for waste oil treatment and waste oil refineries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment for reclamation and recycling of waste oils. Citations discuss recovery, disposal, and reuse of lubricating oils. Topics include economic analysis, programs assessment, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil evaluation. Regulations and standards for waste oil treatment and waste oil refineries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Upgrading of waste oils into transportation fuels using hydrotreating technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta De

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The generation of organic waste continues to increase, causing severe environmental pollution. Waste valorization is currently an emerging technology that can address this problem with an extra benefit of producing a range of valued products. In this contribution, we report the current developments in hydrotreating technologies for upgrading waste oil fractions into usable transportation fuels. Particular focus is given on the catalysts selection for a general hydroprocessing technique as well as the competitive role of those catalysts in hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes.

  6. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños; Mariana Trujillo; Guillermo Rodríguez; Raquel Mateos; Gema Pereira-Caro; Andrés Madrona; Espartero, José L.

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  7. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  8. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

  9. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

  10. Hydrotreating of waste lube oil by rejuvenated spent hydrotreating catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeek A. Sadeek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of catalysts are used in the Egyptian refining industry for the purification and upgrading of various petroleum streams. These catalysts gradually lose activity through deactivation with time and the spent catalysts were usually discarded as solid waste. On the other hand, waste lube oil contains heavy metals coming from undergirded base oil and additives, these metals have carcinogenic effect and cause serious environmental problems. Studies are conducted on the reclamation of metals, rejuvenation and reuse of the spent hydrotreating catalyst (Mo–Ni/Al which have been used in re-refining of waste lube oil at Alexandria Petroleum Company. Three leaching solvents were used: oxidized oxalic acid, benzoic acid and boric acid at different concentrations (4%, 8% and 16%, different oxidizing agents (H2O2 and Fe(NO33 and different modes of addition of oxidizing agents (batch and continuous. The results indicated that 4% oxalic acid + 5% Fe(NO33 at continuous addition of oxidizing agents was the most efficient leaching solvent to facilitate metal removal and rejuvenate catalyst. The fresh catalyst was applied for re-refining of waste lube oil under different reaction temperatures (320–410 °C in order to compare the hydrodesulphurization (HDS activity with both the fresh, treated and spent catalysts. The results indicated that the rejuvenation techniques introduce a catalyst have HDS activity nearly approach to that the fresh of the same type.

  11. Tests of absorbents and solidification techniques for oil wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M.; MacKenzie, D. R.

    1983-11-01

    A representative of each of six classes of commonly used adsorbents was chosen for a series of tests. After reviewing ASTM and other related standard tests, uncomplicated procedures were developed for carrying out specific tests to determine absorbency for simulated oil waste and for water, under static and simulated transportation (repetitive shock) conditions. The tests were then applied to the six representative absorbents. Solidification tests were performed using these absorbents saturated with oil and loaded to 50% of saturation. The binders used were Portland I cement and Delaware Custom Material (DCM) cement shale silicate. Samples were checked for proper set, and the amounts of free liquid were measured. Another series of tests was performed on samples of simulated oil waste without absorbent, using Portland cement and DCM cement shale silicate. Samples were checked for proper set, free liquid was measured, and compressive strengths were determined. The state-of-the-art parameters were identified which satisfy NRC disposal criteria for solidified radioactive waste. The literature was reviewed for alternative methods of managing oil wastes. Conclusions are drawn on the relative utility of the various methods. 17 references, 3 tables.

  12. Olive oil waste waters: Controlled fermentation and materials recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, F.; Montedoro, G.F.; Pozzi, V. (Tuscia Univ., Viterbo (Italy). Detp. di Agrobiologia e Agrochimica Perugia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Industrie Agrarie UNIECO s.c.r.l., Reggio Emilia (Italy))

    Land and water pollution due to waste water and oils deriving from the processing of olives to produce oil represents a serious environmental problem for Spain, Italy and Greece. This paper reports and discusses the results (time dependent enzyme activity) of performance tests on an innovative fermentation process to be used in olive oil waste water anaerobic digestion. An outline is then given of a demonstration depolymerization/materials recovery (including polyphenols, enzymes, etc.) process scheme based on the the tested fermentation method. The fermentation process tests involved the use of an albidus yeast in an Applikon bench scale experimental device. Process parameters were varied to determine optimum fermentation conditions. The European Communities sponsored one cubic meter/day demonstration plant utilizes a preliminary treatment process based on the use of gelatin, bentonite and polyclar.

  13. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Sachin V. Jangam; Saad Akhtar; Agus P. Sasmito; Mujumdar,Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet) which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further...

  14. Recovery of mineral oil from waste emulsion using electrocoagulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Mohd Najib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research to recover mineral oil from industrial waste emulsion. This research also evaluates the standard of water produced after the oil recovery. The ecosystem could be polluted if this waste is not treated prior to discharge. The equipment needed for this experiment is power supply (generator, connecting wire and metal plate for providing the coagulant. The chosen plates were aluminium and iron plate. The power supply will be connected to the plate producing anode (positive terminal and cathode (negative terminal. Both plates are immersed into a beaker containing waste emulsion. The charge supplied by the current will cause the aluminium or ferum to dissisipate and became ions. These ions will attract the oil to flock together and float at the surface. The water will then filter by using filter paper. Electrocoagulation was done without addition of chemical thus can prevent the hazard from the chemicals. The samples was sent for oil and grease test. The optimum time needed for recovery of oil was 3 hours. The percentage recovery reach constant trend of 95% afterwards. When the power consumption increases, the percentage recovery also increases. However, the current should be lower than 0.5 ampere as it is the limit that human body can withstand. Thus, power consumption of 27.5 Watt was chosen as optimum value. The oil recovery of at power consumption at 27.5W is 96%. The best plate in the process was the aluminium pair which can recover more than ferum plate. The present work concludes the promising future for waste water treatment by usage of electrocoagulation technique.

  15. Microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by bacteria isolated from oil wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A L; Chua, H; Yu, P H

    2000-01-01

    A Gram-positive coccus-shaped bacterium capable of synthesizing higher relative molecular weight (M(r)) poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was isolated from sesame oil and identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (by Microbial ID, Inc., Newark, NJ). The experiment was conducted by shake flask fermentation culture using media containing fructose. Cell growth up to a dry mass of 2.5 g/L and PHB accumulation up to 15.02% of cell dry wt was observed. Apart from using single carbohydrate as a sole carbon source, various industrial food wastes including sesame oil, ice cream, malt, and soya wastes were investigated as nutrients for S. epidermidis to reduce the cost of the carbon source. As a result, we found that by using malt wastes as nutrient for cell growth, PHB accumulation of S. epidermidis was much better than using other wastes as nutrient source. The final dried cell mass and PHB production using malt wastes were 1.76 g/L and 6.93% polymer/cells (grams/gram), and 3.5 g/L and 3.31% polymer/cells (grams/gram) in shake flask culture and in fermentor culture, respectively. The bacterial polymer was characterized by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, Fourier transform infrared, and differential scanning calorimetry. The results show that with different industrial food wastes as carbon and energy sources, the same biopolymer (PHB) was obtained. However, the use of sesame oil as the carbon source resulted in the accumulation of PHB with a higher melting point than that produced from other food wastes as carbon sources by this organism under similar experimental conditions.

  16. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  17. Design and Manufacture of Low Carbon for Grain and Oil Machinery Products%粮油机械产品的低碳设计制造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池优阳; 阮竞兰

    2015-01-01

    分析了传统粮油机械产品在设计制造业和使用行业中对环境造成的影响,并对粮油机械产品低碳设计碳足迹计算、评估、低碳产品认证等方面进行了简要概述,提出了粮油机械产品采用低碳设计制造的方法途径。指出低碳设计制造是粮油机械制造业解决环境污染问题的有效方法,最后对粮油机械产品低碳设计的未来发展趋势进行构想和展望。%The root causes of environmental problems from traditional grain and oil machinery are ana-lyzed,and the following aspects of carbon footprint calculation,evaluation and low carbon product certification as the evaluation index for the low carbon design effects were summarized the way of Design and Manufacture of Low Carbon for Grain and Oil machinery products are put forward.Implementation of Low Carbon design and manufacturing is the way of the Grain and Oil machinery products manufacturing industry to solve the environ-mental problems.Finally the prospects and future development trend of grain and oil machinery products low carbon design were proposed.

  18. Cleaning oil sands drilling waste in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikic, N.; Nilsen, C.; Markabi, M. [Mi SWACO, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The waste generated from steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells is brought to the surface and separated by shale shakers. The waste can include drilling fluids and sand contaminated with bitumen. This paper described a new technology developed to treat waste using the addition of hot water and various mixing and separation technologies to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen and separate it from the sand. The bitumen-contaminated drill cuttings were mixed with hot water to form a slurry that was then separated through the G-force created by a hydrocyclone. A secondary separation was then conducted in an elutriation column to remove residual contaminants from the sand. The flow rate of the process was controlled by the fine solids composition of the cuttings, the temperature of the cleaning process, and the performance of the individual components. Laboratory tests conducted to tests the method showed that the sand particles produced using the method were clean enough to be safely disposed in the environment. A pilot study will be conducted to test the sand cleaning technology at a commercial scale. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Waste to Want: Polymer nanocomposites using nanoclays extracted from Oil based drilling mud waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbotolu, Urenna V.; Njuguna, James; Pollard, Pat; Yates, Kyari

    2014-08-01

    Due to the European Union (EU) waste frame work directive (WFD), legislations have been endorsed in EU member states such as UK for the Recycling of wastes with a vision to prevent and reduce landfilling of waste. Spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) is a waste from the Oil and Gas industry with great potentials for recycling after appropriate clean-up and treatment processes. This research is the novel application of nanoclays extracted from spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) clean-up as nanofiller in the manufacture of nanocomposite materials. Research and initial experiments have been undertaken which investigate the suitability of Polyamide 6 (PA6) as potential polymer of interest. SEM and EDAX were used to ascertain morphological and elemental characteristics of the nanofiller. ICPOES has been used to ascertain the metal concentration of the untreated nanofiller to be treated (by oil and heavy metal extraction) before the production of nanocomposite materials. The challenges faced and future works are also discussed.

  20. Co-combustion of waste from olive oil production with coal in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, K R; Patumsawad, S

    2001-01-01

    Waste from olive oil production was co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor to study the feasibility of using this waste as an energy source. The combustion efficiency and CO emission were investigated and compared to those of burning 100% of coal. Olive oil waste with up to 20% mass concentration can be co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor designed for coal combustion with a maximum drop of efficiency of 5%. A 10% olive oil waste concentration gave a lower CO emission than 100% coal firing due to improved combustion in the freeboard region. A 20% olive oil waste mixture gave a higher CO emission than both 100% coal firing and 10% olive oil waste mixture, but the combustion efficiency was higher than the 10% olive oil waste mixture due to lower elutriation from the bed.

  1. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  2. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, M.; Al-Mamun, M. R.; Hasan, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%), and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%), and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. PMID:27433168

  3. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%, and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%, and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

  4. Utilization of Eucalyptus Oil Refineries Waste for Cement Particle Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Setiadji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of eucalyptus oil refinery waste in the manufacture of building material component of cement particle board is expected to reduce the price of housing units. This research used laboratory experimental methods, eucalyptus oil waste in the form of branches an twigs from eucalyptus tree. The variation of the testing were mixtures composition of the particle : cement, additives as accelerators, cold press load during manufacture of cement particle board. Cold press duration of cement board was 24 hours. The size of particle boards were (40 x 40 cm2 and 13 mm thick. The samples were tested for its density, water content, water absorption, flexural strength, thickness swelling, adhesion strength, and the nails pull out strength.

  5. Mercury and tritium removal from DOE waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, E.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This work covers the investigation of vacuum extraction as a means to remove tritiated contamination as well as the removal via sorption of dissolved mercury from contaminated oils. The radiation damage in oils from tritium causes production of hydrogen, methane, and low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. When tritium gas is present in the oil, the tritium atom is incorporated into the formed hydrocarbons. The transformer industry measures gas content/composition of transformer oils as a diagnostic tool for the transformers` condition. The analytical approach (ASTM D3612-90) used for these measurements is vacuum extraction of all gases (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, etc.) followed by analysis of the evolved gas mixture. This extraction method will be adapted to remove dissolved gases (including tritium) from the SRS vacuum pump oil. It may be necessary to heat (60{degrees}C to 70{degrees}C) the oil during vacuum extraction to remove tritiated water. A method described in the procedures is a stripper column extraction, in which a carrier gas (argon) is used to remove dissolved gases from oil that is dispersed on high surface area beads. This method appears promising for scale-up as a treatment process, and a modified process is also being used as a dewatering technique by SD Myers, Inc. (a transformer consulting company) for transformers in the field by a mobile unit. Although some mercury may be removed during the vacuum extraction, the most common technique for removing mercury from oil is by using sulfur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC). SIAC is currently being used by the petroleum industry to remove mercury from hydrocarbon mixtures, but the sorbent has not been previously tested on DOE vacuum oil waste. It is anticipated that a final process will be similar to technologies used by the petroleum industry and is comparable to ion exchange operations in large column-type reactors.

  6. Waste cooking oil as an alternate feedstock for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, A. B.; Rafiqul Islam, M. [Civil and Resources Engineering Dalhousie University, Room D510, 1360 Barrington St., Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada); Watts, K. Ch. [Process Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm{sup 2}/sec at 40 {sup o}C. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21 {sup o}C) was 72 mm{sup 2}/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164 {sup o}C, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mg KOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1 {sup o}C and pour point was -16 {sup o}C. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market. (author)

  7. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm2/sec at 40oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C was 72 mm2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1oC and pour point was -16oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.

  8. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  9. Waste oil derived biofuels in China bring brightness for global GHG mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Liu, Zhu; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed a novel way for global greenhouse gas reduction through reusing China's waste oil to produce biofuels. Life cycle greenhouse gas mitigation potential of aviation bio-kerosene and biodiesel derived from China's waste oil in 2010 was equivalent to approximately 28.8% and 14.7% of mitigation achievements on fossil-based CO2 emissions by Annex B countries of the Kyoto Protocol in the period of 1990-2008, respectively. China's potential of producing biodiesel from waste oil in 2010 was equivalent to approximately 7.4% of China's fossil-based diesel usage in terms of energy. Potential of aviation bio-kerosene derived from waste oil could provide about 43.5% of China's aviation fuel demand in terms of energy. Sectors key to waste oil generation are identified from both production and consumption perspectives. Measures such as technology innovation, government supervision for waste oil collection and financial subsidies should be introduced to solve bottlenecks.

  10. Alkali-catalyzed production of biodiesel from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLATICA J. PREDOJEVIĆ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the transesterification parameters on the yield and quality of the methyl esters (MEs produced from waste frying oil (WFO were investigated. A two-step alkali transesterification reaction followed by silica gel purification step was applied. The investigated reaction parameters were the methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1 and 9:1, the catalyst/oil weight ratio (1.0 and 1.5 mass % and the type of catalyst (NaOH and KOH. The physical and chemical properties of the employed feedstock and the obtained biodiesel were determined in order to investigate the effects of both the properties of the WFO and the reaction parameters on the characteristics and yields of the product. It was found that the properties of the feedstock had a determinant effect on the physical and chemical properties of the MEs, as the majority of them did not differ significantly under the studied reaction parameters. However, the reaction parameters influenced the yields of the product. Higher yields were obtained with a 1.0 than with a 1.5 mass % catalyst to oil ratio. The increasing yield with decreasing catalyst/oil ratio was more pronounced with NaOH (9.15–14.35 % than with KOH (2.84–6.45 %. When KOH was used as the catalyst, the yields were always higher (the mean yield was 94.86 % in comparison to those obtained with NaOH (the mean was 84.28 %. Furthermore, the efficiency of KOH in conversion of WFO to purified MEs in comparison to NaOH was even more pronounced in the case of the higher methanol/oil ratio, i.e., for the 9:1 methanol/oil ratio, the yield increase with KOH was about 2 times higher than the yield with NaOH, regardless of the applied catalyst/oil ratio.

  11. Ground disposal of oil shale wastes: a review with an indexed annotated bibliography through 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routson, R.C.; Bean, R.M.

    1977-12-01

    This review covers the available literature concerning ground-disposed wastes and effluents of a potential oil shale industry. Ground disposal has been proposed for essentially all of the solid and liquid wastes produced (Pfeffer, 1974). Since an oil shale industry is not actually in operation, the review is anticipatory in nature. The section, Oil Shale Technology, provides essential background for interpreting the literature on potential shale oil wastes and the topics are treated more completely in the section entitled Environmental Aspects of the Potential Disposal of Oil Shale Wastes to Ground. The first section of the annotated bibliography cites literature concerning potential oil shale wastes and the second section cites literature concerning oil shale technology. Each section contains references arranged historically by year. An index is provided.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, SWINE WASTE ELECTRIC POWER AND HEAT PRODUCTION--MARTIN MACHINERY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, a combined heat and power system designed by Martin Machinery was evaluated. This paper provides test result...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, SWINE WASTE ELECTRIC POWER AND HEAT PRODUCTION--MARTIN MACHINERY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, a combined heat and power system designed by Martin Machinery was evaluated. This paper provides test result...

  14. The Potential of Palm Oil Waste Biomass in Indonesia in 2020 and 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, E.; Rivai, M.

    2017-05-01

    During replanting activity in oil palm plantation, biomass including palm frond and trunk are produced. In palm oil mills, during the conversion process of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) into crude palm oil (CPO), several kinds of waste including empty fruit bunch (EFB), mesocarp fiber (MF), palm kernel shell (PKS), palm kernel meal (PKM), and palm oil mills effluent (POME) are produced. The production of these wastes is abundant as oil palm plantation area, FFB production, and palm oil mills spread all over 22 provinces in Indonesia. These wastes are still economical as they can be utilized as sources of alternative fuel, fertilizer, chemical compounds, and biomaterials. Therefore, breakthrough studies need to be done in order to improve the added value of oil palm, minimize the waste, and make oil palm industry more sustainable.

  15. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using sonochemical reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingu, Shishir M; Gogate, Parag R; Rathod, Virendra K

    2010-06-01

    Investigation into newer routes of biodiesel synthesis is a key research area especially due to the fluctuations in the conventional fuel prices and the environmental advantages of biodiesel. The present work illustrates the use of sonochemical reactors for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Transesterification of used frying oil with methanol, in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst has been investigated using low frequency ultrasonic reactor (20 kHz). Effect of different operating parameters such as alcohol-oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, temperature, power, pulse and horn position on the extent of conversion of oil have been investigated. The optimum conditions for the transesterification process have been obtained as molar ratio of alcohol to oil as 6:1, catalyst concentration of 1 wt.%, temperature as 45 degrees C and ultrasound power as 200 W with an irradiation time of 40 min. The efficacy of using ultrasound has been compared with the conventional stirring approach based on the use of a six blade turbine with diameter of 1.5 cm operating at 1000 rpm. Also the purification aspects of the final product have been investigated.

  16. Decontamination of uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical fluid and nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jinhyun; Kim, Jungsoo; Lee, Youngbae; Seol, Jeunggun; Ryu, Jaebong; Park, Kwangheon

    2011-07-01

    The waste oil used in nuclear fuel processing is contaminated with uranium because of its contact with materials or environments containing uranium. Under current law, waste oil that has been contaminated with uranium is very difficult to dispose of at a radioactive waste disposal site. To dispose of the uranium-contaminated waste oil, the uranium was separated from the contaminated waste oil. Supercritical R-22 is an excellent solvent for extracting clean oil from uranium-contaminated waste oil. The critical temperature of R-22 is 96.15 °C and the critical pressure is 49.9 bar. In this study, a process to remove uranium from the uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical R-22 was developed. The waste oil has a small amount of additives containing N, S or P, such as amines, dithiocarbamates and dialkyldithiophosphates. It seems that these organic additives form uranium-combined compounds. For this reason, dissolution of uranium from the uranium-combined compounds using nitric acid was needed. The efficiency of the removal of uranium from the uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical R-22 extraction and nitric acid treatment was determined.

  17. Prospective framework for collection and exploitation of waste cooking oil as feedstock for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    From the viewpoint of waste-to-energy, waste cooking oil is one of the attractive and available recycled feedstocks, apart from agricultural residues. The generation of energy from waste cooking oil is considered as an effective technique for waste management, as well as a beneficial form of energy recovery. Two alternative systems and a conventional system of waste cooking oil collection and conversion are evaluated by the cost benefit analysis in order to find a suitable method for waste-to-energy conversion. The results show that the collection of waste cooking oil with waste lubricating oil (System II) a useful alternative to the management of waste cooking oil (B/C > 1). The total heat produced by the combustion of pyrolytic oil at maximum and minimum conversion rates is also determined. The separate collection of waste cooking oil, subjected to chemical pre-treatment prior to introduction in a pyrolysis reactor (System III), is considered an undesirable option (B/C < 1) due to the cost of the chemicals involved. Although the exclusion of chemical pre-treatment makes System III a desirable option, the total amount of heat of combustion generated is less. The increased electricity cost required for the process has no effect on the benefit-cost ratio of System II. However, System III, excluding chemical pre-treatment, becomes an unprofitable alternative when the electricity cost reaches 100% of the fixed capital cost at the minimum conversion rate. (author)

  18. Biodegradation of oil refinery wastes under OPA and CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamblin, W.W.; Banipal, B.S.; Myers, J.M. [Ecology and Environment, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Land treatment of oil refinery wastes has been used as a disposal method for decades. More recently, numerous laboratory studies have been performed attempting to quantify degradation rates of more toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This paper discusses the results of the fullscale aerobic biodegradation operations using land treatment at the Macmillan Ring-Free Oil refining facility. The tiered feasibility approach of evaluating biodegradation as a treatment method to achieve site-specific cleanup criteria, including pilot biodegradation operations, is discussed in an earlier paper. Analytical results of biodegradation indicate that degradation rates observed in the laboratory can be met and exceeded under field conditions and that site-specific cleanup criteria can be attained within a proposed project time. Also prevented are degradation rates and half-lives for PAHs for which cleanup criteria have been established. PAH degradation rates and half-life values are determined and compared with the laboratory degradation rates and half-life values which used similar oil refinery wastes by other in investigators (API 1987).

  19. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabudak, T; Yildiz, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of biodiesel as fuel from alternative sources has increased considerably over recent years, affording numerous environmental benefits. Biodiesel an alternative fuel for diesel engines is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. However, the high costs implicated in marketing biodiesel constitute a major obstacle. To this regard therefore, the use of waste frying oils (WFO) should produce a marked reduction in the cost of biodiesel due to the ready availability of WFO at a relatively low price. In the present study waste frying oils collected from several McDonald's restaurants in Istanbul, were used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel from WFO was prepared by means of three different transesterification processes: a one-step base-catalyzed, a two-step base-catalyzed and a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by base transesterification. No detailed previous studies providing information for a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by a base (CH(3)ONa) transesterification are present in literature. Each reaction was allowed to take place with and without tetrahydrofuran added as a co-solvent. Following production, three different procedures; washing with distilled water, dry wash with magnesol and using ion-exchange resin were applied to purify biodiesel and the best outcome determined. The biodiesel obtained to verify compliance with the European Standard 14214 (EN 14214), which also corresponds to Turkish Biodiesel Standards.

  20. Production of free fatty acids from waste oil by application of ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Larissa P.; Santos, Francisco F.P.; Costa, Enio; Fernandes, Fabiano A.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    This paper evaluates the production of free fatty acids (FFAs) from waste oil by means of low-frequency high-intensity ultrasound application under atmospheric pressure. To evaluate the potential of this technology, the reaction between waste palm oil and ethanol was carried out. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol-to-oil weight ratio, potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio, and temperature on the yield of waste oil into FFA. Analysis of the operating conditions by RSM showed that the most important operating conditions affecting the reaction were ethanol-to-oil weight ratio and potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio. The highest yield observed was of 97.3 % after 45 min of reaction. The best operating condition was obtained by applying an ethanol-to-oil weight ratio of 2.4, a potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio of 0.3, and temperature of 60 C. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  2. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil using waste animal bone and solar heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corro, Grisel; Sánchez, Nallely; Pal, Umapada; Bañuelos, Fortino

    2016-01-01

    A two-step catalytic process for the production of biodiesel from waste frying oil (WFO) at low cost, utilizing waste animal-bone as catalyst and solar radiation as heat source is reported in this work. In the first step, the free fatty acids (FFA) in WFO were esterified with methanol by a catalytic process using calcined waste animal-bone as catalyst, which remains active even after 10 esterification runs. The trans-esterification step was catalyzed by NaOH through thermal activation process. Produced biodiesel fulfills all the international requirements for its utilization as a fuel. A probable reaction mechanism for the esterification process is proposed considering the presence of hydroxyapatite at the surface of calcined animal bones.

  3. Material flow analysis and market survey for securing the disposal of waste oils; Stoffstrom- und Marktanalyse zur Sicherung der Altoelentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, Knut; Jepsen, Dirk; Zangl, Stephanie; Schilling, Stephanie [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    This research project had two main topics: 1. A material flow analysis of the German waste oil flow adapted to the current situation 2. An analysis of the German waste oil recovery market, possible recent market changes and the potential influences of different factors. In order to determine the German waste oil mass flows the German Ministry of Environment applies a calculation model which is based on a backwards calculation approach (Rueckrechnungsmodell, backward calculation model). The performed analysis of this model revealed that it is suitable for the calculation of the German waste oil material flows. Aiming at a further qualification some elements of the model have been updated respectively adapted to new developments. In the course of the market analysis the basic economic parameter like supply, demand, prices resp. price differences of the German waste oil management market were considered. It was analysed how the changing market conditions affect the waste oil material flows and the waste oil recovery. Furthermore it was examined whether the given circumstances are sufficient to maintain a secure and sustainable waste oil disposal. The research results showed that the German waste oil market performs well and is reacting flexible on price signals of the respective (primary) reference products. During the timeframe investigated (2000-2004) an increasing majority of the available waste oil was used for the production of secondary mineral oil products. 30% of the available waste oil has been submitted to energy recovery operations. During these years the waste oil ordinance (Altoelverordnung) and the directive to promote processing of waste oil into base oil (Foerderrichtlinie) entered into force and relevant investments in waste oil treatment facilities were executed. The reliability of the future waste oil management is therefore approved and sufficient capacity reserves are available in all waste oil related management areas. (orig.)

  4. Production of surfactin by bacillus subtilis mtcc 2423 from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vedaraman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the obstacles in the way of wide scale industrial application of biosurfactants is the high production cost coupled with a low production rate. In order to lower the production cost surfactin production by Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2423 was studied in submerged batch cultivation using waste frying oils. It was observed that the decrease in surface tension was 56.32%, 48.5% and 46.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Biomass formation was 4.36 g/L, 3.67 g/L and 4.67 g/L for glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Product yield (g product/g substrate was 2.1%, 1.49% and 1.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil as substrates. This process facilitates safe disposal of waste frying oil, as well reducing the production cost of surfactin.

  5. ESTERIFICATION OF FATTY ACID FROM PALM OIL WASTE (SLUDGE OIL BY USING ALUM CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamrin Usman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esterification of fatty acids from palm oil waste (sludge oil as biodiesel liquid base has been done by using alum [Al2(SO43.14H2O] catalyst. Some reaction variables like reaction time, catalyst quantity, and molar ratio of sample-reactant was applied for optimal reaction. Yield of 94.66% was obtained at reaction condition 65 °C, 5 h, sample-reactant ratio 1:20, and catalyst quantity 3% (w/w. GC-MS analysis request showed that composition of methyl esters biodiesel are methyl caproic (0.67%, methyl lauric (0.21%, methyl miristic (1.96%, methyl palmitic (49.52%, methyl oleic (41.51%, and methyl stearic (6.13%. Physical properties of synthesized product (viscosity, refraction index and density are similar with those of commercial product.   Keywords: alum, biodiesel, esterification, sludge oil

  6. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  7. Upgrade of Biofuels Obtained from Waste Fish Oil Pyrolysis by Reactive Distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewski Jr,Alberto; Wosniak,Lorena; Scharf,Dilamara R.; Wiggers, Vinicyus R.; Meier,Henry F.; Simionatto,Edesio L.

    2015-01-01

    Bio-oil is classified as second-generation biofuel and it is produced mainly through the pyrolysis of a waste lignocellulosic biomass base. The application of this product is still very limited, due to some of its chemical characteristics. This paper presents a proposal for the reduction of the acidity of bio-oil obtained from waste fish oil, previously produced and characterized as described in the literature, applying the reactive distillation process. This process is primarily based on the...

  8. An alkali catalyzed trans-esterification of rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Faheem H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, biodiesel production by trans-esterification of three raw materials including virgin and used edible oil and non edible oil has been presented. A two step method following acidic and alkali catalyst was used for non edible oil due to the unsuitability of using the straight alkaline-catalyzed trans-esterification of high FFA present in rice bran oil. The acid value after processing for rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil was found to be 0.95, 0.12 and 0.87 respectively. The influence of three variables on percentage yield i.e., methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were studied at this stage. Cottonseed oil, waste cooking oil and rice bran oil showed a maximum yield of 91.7%, 84.1% and 87.1% under optimum conditions. Fuel properties of the three biodiesel satisfied standard biodiesel fuel results.

  9. Inorganic impurity removal from waste oil and wash-down water by Acinetobacter johnsonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Qi, Hui; Zhang, Xianming; Chen, Guoxu

    2012-11-15

    The removal of the abundant inorganic impurities in waste oil has been one of the most significant issues in waste oil reclamation. Acinetobacter johnsonii isolated from waste oil in aerobic process was employed to remove the inorganic impurities in waste oil and wash-down water. The biological process was developed through the primary mechanism research on the impurity removal and the optimization of the various parameters, such as inoculum type, inoculum volume and disposal temperature and time. The results showed that waste oil and wash-down water were effectively cleansed under the optimized conditions, with inorganic impurity and turbidity below 0.5% and 100 NTU from the initial values of 2% and 300 NTU, respectively. Sulfide, the main hazardous matter during waste oil reclamation, was also reduced within 1mg/L. After the biotreatment, the oil-water interface was clear in favor of its separation to benefit the smooth reclamation of waste oil and wash-down water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  11. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  13. High speed analysis of used hydrocarbons, particularly waste oils; Schnellanalyse von gebrauchten Kohlenwasserstoffen, insbesondere Altoelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacoub-George, E.; Endres, H.E. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Zuverlaessigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM), Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    According to a decision of the European Court of Justice material recycling of waste oil must take priority over thermal recycling. The present study investigates the possibilities to classify waste oil samples according to their potential for material recycling on-site at the waste oil producer. The first part of the study surveys the state of the art in chemical analysis of waste oil and in oil quality monitoring with sensing elements in vehicles. It was shown, that the chemical analysis of waste oil is dominated by methods for monitoring the oil quality and by methods for the determination of harmful substances. For sensor-based oil condition monitoring in vehicles different approaches were discussed in literature. Most sensor systems work in a capacitive mode and use the change of the electrical properties of the oil for analysing oil quality. The second part of the study investigates, whether waste oil can be classified according to its potential for material recycling by the following physical parameters: viscosity, density, viscoelastic properties, conductivity and relative permittivity. This was done by performing and evaluating measurements at 26 different waste oil samples with a combi-SAW-/IDK-dipstick sensor. The results showed, that the SAW- und IDK-signals contain only little information permitting to classify waste oil samples according to their potential for material recycling. A classification of waste oil samples with the combi-SAW-/IDK-dipstick sensor was impossible, even when the signal evaluation was done by using modern methods of chemometrics, as e. g. the multivariate statistics. A further series of measurements showed, that since the conductivity of the waste oil samples is too low, cyclovoltammetry is also an unsuitable method to classify waste oil samples on-site. On the other hand, the study showed that the investigated waste oil samples can be classified by IR-spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistics. By evaluating the

  14. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya, E-mail: mahardika190@gmail.com; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto,; Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Universitas Negeri Semarang, Jalan Raya Sekaran Gunungpati 50229 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  15. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  16. Production and application of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuly, S. S.; Saha, M.; Mustafi, N. N.; Sarker, M. R. I.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel has been identified as an alternative and promising fuel source to reduce the dependency on conventional fossil fuel in particular diesel. In this work, waste cooking oil (WCO) of restaurants is considered to produce biodiesel. A well-established transesterification reaction by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalytic and supercritical methanol (CH3OH) methods are applied to obtain biodiesel. In the catalytic transesterification process, biodiesel and glycerine are simultaneously produced. The impact of temperature, methanol/WCO molar ratio and sodium hydroxide concentration on the biodiesel formation were analysed and presented. It was found that the optimum 95% of biodiesel was obtained when methanol/WCO molar ratio was 1:6 under 873 K temperature with the presence of 0.2% NaOH as a catalyst. The waste cooking oil blend proportions were 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% and named as bio-diesel blends B-10, B-15, B-20, and B-25, respectively. Quality of biodiesel was examined according to ASTM 6751: biodiesel standards and testing methods. Important fuel properties of biodiesel, such as heating value, cetane index, viscosity, and others were also investigated. A four-stroke single cylinder naturally aspirated DI diesel engine was operated using in both pure form and as a diesel blend to evaluate the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel. Engine performance is examined by measuring brake specific fuel consumption and fuel conversion efficiency. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and others were measured. It was measured that the amount of CO2 increases and CO decreases both for pure diesel and biodiesel blends with increasing engine load. However, for same load, a higher emission of CO2 from biodiesel blends was recorded than pure diesel.

  17. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  18. Fungal degradation of oil palm cellulosic wastes after radiation pasteurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Mat Rasol Awang; Fajah Bt Ali

    1990-10-01

    The fungal degradation ability was appreciated for upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes. In this work, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm press Fiber (PPF) were fermented in an attempt to upgrade to animal feed. However, the heavy contamination of microorganisms in EFB and PPF was observed, and they consist of largely spore forming bacteria and toxigenic moulds of Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus and etc. Therefore, pasteurisation was necessary to be carried out before fermentation, and gamma-irradiation of ca. 10 kGy was employed. Solid-state culture media from EFB and PPF for cultivation of cellulolytic fungi were prepared by addition of some inorganic salts as nitrogen source. The degradation of crude fibre by Coprinus cinereus, Pleurotus species, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, and T. viride was obtained in the range between 18 to 76 % after 18 to 20 days cultivation on non-alkali treated cellulosic wastes. C. cinereus could degradate crude fiber more than 50 %, and which resulted in reduction of crude fibre content to 20{approx}28 % and giving to 10-13 % crude protein content. Release of reducing sugars was obtained as 40 to 145 mg glucose/g after saccharification of precultivated alkali-treated EFB by C. cinereus, A. niger, T. knoningi and T. viride. (author).

  19. HEAT EXCHANGE NETWORKS IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM WASTE COOKING OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Laborde

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to aboard one of the challenges in Engineering teaching: It´s the application in professional practice?, along with attending to the actual requirements of achieve energetic efficiency in industrial process and to reuse wastes of food industry, this work, presents the application of heat exchange networks for the resolution of a real case: pre-treatment of waste cooking oils (WCO withacid catalysis for biodiesel production. Different methods and software are applied to obtain the minimum amounts of heat and the heat exchange network for a processing capacity of 0,19 kg/s of WCO. A minimum temperature difference (Tmin of 10°C is considered and the minimum requirements of heating and cooling result 4629,87 W and 10066,30 W, respectively. If this exchange network is not considered, this values increase to 26838,33 W and 21958,33 W, respectively. Applying heat exchange network, decrease 78,92% the required steam service in the process and water cooling service decreases 62,48%, demonstrating that integration reduces energetic requirements respect the non-integrated process.

  20. Crude oil degradation potential of bacteria isolated from oil-polluted soil and animal wastes in soil amended with animal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voke O. Urhibo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of animal wastes on crude oil degradation potential of strains of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis isolated from animal wastes (poultry and pig droppings and petroleum-polluted soil was compared in laboratory studies. Both bacterial strains were selected for high crude oil degradation ability after screening many isolates by the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol method. Analyses by gas chromatography (GC showed that degradation of crude oil was markedly enhanced (88.3–97.3% vs 72.1–78.8% in soil amended with animal wastes as indicated by the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH. TPH reduction by animal waste bacterial strains in animal waste-amended soil was more than the reduction by strains from soil contaminated with petroleum (P < 0.001. The greatest reduction of TPH (96.6–97.3% vs 80.4–95.9% was by poultry waste strains and it occurred in soil amended with poultry waste. GC analyses of n-alkanes showed that although shorter chains were preferentially degraded [32.0–78.5% (C8–23 vs 6.3–18.5% (C24–36] in normal soil, biodegradation of longer chains increased to 38.4–46.3% in animal waste-amended soil inoculated with the same animal wastes’ strains. The results indicate that these animal waste strains may be of potential application for bioremediation of oil-polluted soil in the presence of the wastes from where they were isolated.

  1. Bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hyeon Su; Park, Hyun Ju; Park, Young-Kwon; Ryu, Changkook; Suh, Dong Jin; Suh, Young-Woong; Yim, Jin-Heong; Kim, Seung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    The amount of waste furniture generated in Korea was over 2.4 million tons in the past 3 years, which can be used for renewable energy or fuel feedstock production. Fast pyrolysis is available for thermo-chemical conversion of the waste wood mostly into bio-oil. In this work, fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust was investigated under various reaction conditions (pyrolysis temperature, particle size, feed rate and flow rate of fluidizing medium) in a fluidized-bed reactor. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for increased yields of bio-oil was 450 degrees C. Excessively smaller or larger feed size negatively affected the production of bio-oil. Higher flow and feeding rates were more effective for the production of bio-oil, but did not greatly affect the bio-oil yields within the tested ranges. The use of product gas as the fluidizing medium had a potential for increased bio-oil yields.

  2. Acid base catalyzed transesterification kinetics of waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P.; Rajvanshi, Shalini [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2011-01-15

    The present study reports the results of kinetics study of acid base catalyzed two step transesterification process of waste cooking oil, carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 C and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process respectively under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1%(w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The optimum temperature was determined based on the yield of ME at different temperature. Simply, the optimum concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH was determined with respect to ME Yield. The results indicated that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order rate reaction with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min{sup -1} and 0.0078 min{sup -1} respectively showing that the former is a slower process than the later. The maximum yield of 21.50% of ME during esterification and 90.6% from transesterification of pretreated WCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind which deals with simplified kinetics of two step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried under the above optimum conditions and took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME with least amount of activation energy. Also various parameters related to experiments are optimized with respect to ME yield. (author)

  3. Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

    2010-06-01

    Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of squalene produced from crude palm oil waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandira, Irda; Legowo, Evita H.; Widiputri, Diah I.

    2017-01-01

    Squalene is a hydrocarbon originally and still mostly extracted from shark liver oil. Due to environmental issues over shark hunting, there have been efforts to extract squalene from alternative sources, such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), one of crude palm oil (CPO) wastes. Previous researches have shown that squalene can be extracted from PFAD using saponification process followed with liquid-liquid extraction process although the method had yet to be optimized in order to optimize the amount of squalene extracted from PFAD. The optimization was done by optimizing both processes of squalene extraction method: saponification and liquid-liquid extraction. The factors utilized in the saponification process optimization were KOH concentration and saponification duration while during the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) process optimization, the factors used were the volumes of distilled water and dichloromethane. The optimum percentage of squalene content in the extract (24.08%) was achieved by saponifying the PFAD with 50%w/v KOH for 60 minutes and subjecting the saponified PFAD to LLE, utilizing 100 ml of distilled water along with 3 times addition of fresh dichloromethane, 75 ml each; those factors would be utilized in the optimum squalene extraction method.

  5. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  6. A case study of pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2013-05-01

    Biomass seems to have a great potential as a source of renewable energy compared with other sources. The use of biomass as a source of energy could help to reduce the wastes and also to minimize the dependency on non-renewable energy, hence minimize environmental degradation. Among other types of biomass, oil palm wastes are the major contribution for energy production in Malaysia since Malaysia is one of the primary palm oil producers in the world. Currently, Malaysia's plantation area covers around 5 million hectares. In the oil palm mill, only 10% palm oil is produced and the other 90% is in the form of wastes such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm shells (OPS), oil palm fibre (OPFb) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). If these wastes are being used as a source of renewable energy, it is believed that it will help to increase the country's economy. Recently, the most potential and efficient thermal energy conversion technology is pyrolysis process. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia. The scope of this paper is to discuss on the types of pyrolysis process and its production. At present, most of the research conducted in this country is on EFB and OPS by fast, slow and microwave-assisted pyrolysis processes for fuel applications.

  7. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  8. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  9. Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Yang Yu; Liang-Yu Huang; I-Ching Kuan; Shiow-Ling Lee

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipa...

  10. New Method of Online Measurement of Oil and Suspended Material Concentration In Flowing Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongwei; Xu, Guobing; Xu, Xinqiang; Zhou, Fangde

    2007-06-01

    At present, the most of the measurements of oil and suspended material concentration in waste water measuring are not online surveys. A new method of online measurement of oil and suspended material concentration in flowing waste water is presented. The room experiments and field tests showed that it is suitable to waste water treatment on line. After sampling, It needed to measure immediately the concentration in first time. Then let sample to be in still in 10 - 20 seconds. After that the bulk concentration was measured in second time. Because of the suspended solids having heavy density, they would be dropped from waster water. During ultrasonic operation, emulsify the oil in waster water, the oil and suspended solid would be depart. After that the third time measurement was done. In thus way the concentrations of oil and suspended solids can be measured. At present there are two on-site equipments operating in the Changqing oilfield, and the results are pretty well.

  11. Use of waste ash from palm oil industry in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangchirapat, Weerachart; Saeting, Tirasit; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Kiattikomol, Kraiwood; Siripanichgorn, Anek

    2007-01-01

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA), a by-product from the palm oil industry, is disposed of as waste in landfills. In this study, POFA was utilized as a pozzolan in concrete. The original size POFA (termed OP) was ground until the median particle sizes were 15.9 microm (termed MP) and 7.4 microm (termed SP). Portland cement Type I was replaced by OP, MP, and SP of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of binder. The properties of concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength, and expansion due to magnesium sulfate attack were investigated. The results revealed that the use of POFA in concretes caused delay in both initial and final setting times, depending on the fineness and degree of replacement of POFA. The compressive strength of concrete containing OP was much lower than that of Portland cement Type I concrete. Thus, OP is not suitable to be used as a pozzolanic material in concrete. However, the replacement of Portland cement Type I by 10% of MP and 20% of SP gave the compressive strengths of concrete at 90 days higher than that of concrete made from Portland cement Type I. After being immersed in 5% of magnesium sulfate solution for 364 days, the concrete bar mixed with 30% of SP had the same expansion level as that of the concrete bar made from Portland cement Type V. The above results suggest that ground POFA is an excellent pozzolanic material and can be used as a cement replacement in concrete. It is recommended that the optimum replacement levels of Portland cement Type I by MP and SP are 20% and 30%, respectively.

  12. Microwave irradiation biodiesel processing of waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motasemi, Farough; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-06-01

    Major part of the world's total energy output is generated from fossil fuels, consequently its consumption has been continuously increased which accelerates the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and also increases the price of these valuable limited resources. Biodiesel is a renewable, non-toxic and biodegradable diesel fuel which it can be the best environmentally friendly and easily attainable alternative for fossil fuels. The costs of feedstock and production process are two important factors which are particularly against large-scale biodiesel production. This study is intended to optimize three critical reaction parameters including intensity of mixing, microwave exit power and reaction time from the transesterification of waste cooking oil by using microwave irradiation in an attempt to reduce the production cost of biodiesel. To arrest the reaction, similar quantities of methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1) and potassium hydroxide (2% wt) as the catalyst were used. The results showed that the best yield percentage (95%) was obtained using 300W microwave exit power, 300 rpm stirrer speed (intensity of mixing) and 78°C for 5 min. It was observed that increasing the intensity of mixing greatly ameliorates the yield percentage of biodiesel (up to 17%). Moreover, the results demonstrate that increasing the reaction time in the low microwave exit power (100W) improves the yield percentage of biodiesel, while it has a negative effect on the conversion yield in the higher microwave exit power (300W). From the obtained results it was clear that FAME was within the standards of biodiesel fuel.

  13. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  14. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  15. Prospects of pyrolysis oil from plastic waste as fuel for diesel engines: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangesh, V. L.; Padmanabhan, S.; Ganesan, S.; PrabhudevRahul, D.; Reddy, T. Dinesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The purpose ofthis study is to review the existing literature about chemical recycling of plastic waste and its potential as fuel for diesel engines. This is a review covering on the field of converting waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbon fuels for diesel engines. Disposal and recycling of waste plastics have become an incremental problem and environmental threat with increasing demand for plastics. One of the effective measures is by converting waste plastic into combustible hydrocarbon liquid as an alternative fuel for running diesel engines. Continued research efforts have been taken by researchers to convert waste plastic in to combustible pyrolysis oil as alternate fuel for diesel engines. An existing literature focuses on the study of chemical structure of the waste plastic pyrolysis compared with diesel oil. Converting waste plastics into fuel oil by different catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis process also reviewed in this paper. The methodology with subsequent hydro treating and hydrocracking of waste plastic pyrolysis oil can reduce unsaturated hydrocarbon bonds which would improve the combustion performance in diesel engines as an alternate fuel.

  16. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  17. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  18. Oil quality of passion fruit seeds subjected to a pulp-waste purification process

    OpenAIRE

    Suelen Alvarenga Regis; Eder Dutra de Resende; Rosemar Antoniassi

    2015-01-01

    Passion fruit seeds must be clean and dry before the extraction processing to obtain high-quality oil for edible and cosmetic purposes. This research studies the viability of a cleaning process of seeds by evaluating the oil quality. The research examined 2 maturation stages of the fruit and one purification process of the seeds, compared to the control. The oil quality was evaluated by fatty acid composition, acidity, peroxide value and oxidative stability. The pulp waste suffered a thermal ...

  19. Diester Derivatives from Chemically Modiifed Waste Cooking Oil as Substitute for Petroleum Based Lubricating Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Shuo; Chen Ligong; Xu Lan; Li Liang; Yang Xin; Zhu Liye

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a new way for waste cooking oil (WCO) resource utilization, several diester derivatives were obtained from WCO through a three-step chemical modifications, viz.:transesterification, epoxidation and oxirane ring opening with carboxylic acids. The effects of the chain length of side chain groups on the viscosity, acid value, low temper-ature lfuidity, thermo-oxidative stability, tribological properties and surface tension of diester derivatives were investigated. The results showed that increasing the chain length of side chain groups had a positive inlfuence on the viscosity, viscosity index, acid value, pour point, friction coefifcient and wear scar diameter along with a negative inlfuence on the oxidation onset temperature, volatile loss, insoluble deposit, maximum non-seizure load and surface tension. These diester derivatives exhibited improved physicochemical and tribological properties that make themselves promising environmentally friendly biolubricant basestocks.

  20. Solid olive waste in environmental cleanup: oil recovery and carbon production for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hamouz, Amer; Hilal, Hikmat S; Nassar, Nashaat; Mardawi, Zahi

    2007-07-01

    A potentially-economic three-fold strategy, to use solid olive wastes in water purification, is presented. Firstly, oil remaining in solid waste (higher than 5% of waste) was recovered by the Soxhlet extraction technique, which can be useful for the soap industry. Secondly, the remaining solid was processed to yield relatively high-surface area active carbon (AC). Thirdly, the resulting carbon was employed to reversibly adsorb chromate ions from water, aiming to establish a water purification process with reusable AC. The technique used here enabled oil recovery together with the production of a clean solid, suitable for making AC. This process also has the advantage of low production cost.

  1. Direct oxidation of waste vegetable oil in solid-oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. F.; Kumar, R.; Thakur, S. T.; Rudnick, L. R.; Schobert, H.; Lvov, S. N.

    Solid-oxide fuel cells with ceria, ceria-Cu, and ceria-Rh anode were demonstrated to generate stable electric power with waste vegetable oil through direct oxidation of the fuel. The only pre-treatment to the fuel was a filtration to remove particulates. The performance of the fuel cell was stable over 100 h for the waste vegetable oil without dilution. The generated power was up to 0.25 W cm -2 for ceria-Rh fuel cell. This compares favorably with previously studied hydrocarbon fuels including jet fuels and Pennsylvania crude oil.

  2. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarel, V.; Nouaille, F.; Rooses, A.; Lambertin, D., E-mail: david.lambertin@cea.fr; Poulesquen, A.; Frizon, F.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Formulation with 20 vol.% of oil in a geopolymer have been successful tested. • Oil waste is encapsulated as oil droplets in metakaolin-based geopolymer. • Oil/geopolymer composite present good mechanical performance. • Carbon lixiviation of oil/geopolymer composite is very low. - Abstract: The solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin based geopolymer was studied in the present work. The process consists of obtaining a stabilised emulsion of oil in a water-glass solution and then adding metakaolin to engage the setting of a geopolymer block with an oil emulsion stabilised in the material. Geopolymer/oil composites have been made with various oil fraction (7, 14 and 20 vol.%). The rigidity and the good mechanical properties have been demonstrated with compressive strength tests. Leaching tests evidenced the release of oil from the composite material is very limited whereas the constitutive components of the geopolymer (Na, Si and OH{sup −}) are involved into diffusion process.

  4. Mechanical - physical treatment of used motor oil within a sustainable waste management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Veljko N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste oils are all mineral or synthetic oils that cannot be used for the purpose for which they were originally produced. These are: hydraulic oils, motor oils, ship oils, liquids for the transfer of heat or insulation, oily remains from reservoirs, oil-water emulsions and various oil-water mixtures. In its chemical makeup used motor oil contains hydrocarbons, organic minerals, heavy metals (cobalt, magnesium, iron, zinc, sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen, phosphorus, compounds from additives and other products that are dangerous as they have cancerous effects on health. As it is considered the biggest contaminant of the environment and classified as hazardous waste; special attention must be given in the handling of used motor oil to ensure its appropriate disposal. Setting up of a viable system for Mechanical-Physical Treatment of used motor oil makes it possible to re-use it as a secondary raw material i.e. the problem of collection, transportation, treatment and storing of the used motor oil is being solved. . The subject of this research is the advantage of the mechanical-physical treatment of used motor oil. Re- refined motor oil can be used for multiple purposes such as a base for the other synthetic oils, for heating etc. Improper disposal of used motor oil causes multiple damage; firstly, losing the valuable secondary base which, with the addition of certain additives, can be used as the basis for the other synthetic oils; secondly, causing damage to the environment by the pollution with inability to repair the damage to all environmental components.

  5. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah Ismail

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  6. Green Biodiesel Synthesis Using Waste Shells as Sustainable Catalysts with Camelina sativa Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Hangun-Balkir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste utilization is an essential component of sustainable development and waste shells are rarely used to generate practical products and processes. Most waste shells are CaCO3 rich, which are converted to CaO once calcined and can be employed as inexpensive and green catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel. Herein, we utilized lobster and eggshells as green catalysts for the transesterification of Camelina sativa oil as feedstock into biodiesel. Camelina sativa oil is an appealing crop option as feedstock for biodiesel production because it has high tolerance of cold weather, drought, and low-quality soils and contains approximately 40% oil content. The catalysts from waste shells were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscope. The product, biodiesel, was studied by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of methanol to oil ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature, and catalyst concentration were investigated. Optimum biodiesel yields were attained at a 12 : 1 (alcohol : oil molar ratio with 1 wt.% heterogeneous catalysts in 3 hours at 65°C. The experimental results exhibited a first-order kinetics and rate constants and activation energy were calculated for the transesterification reaction at different temperatures. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from Camelina sativa oil and waste shells were compared with those of the petroleum-based diesel by using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards.

  7. Effect of Catalyst on Transesterifi cation of Waste Vegetable Oils from Food Processing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Iličković

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Converting waste vegetable oils from food processing facilities, restaurants and households to biodiesel by the transestrification reaction with methanol has important advantages for human health and environment. The transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oils is affected by free fatty acids and water content of oils and fats, type of alcohol, type and quantities of catalyst, reaction temperature and reaction time. Basic aim of this paper is to explore effect of type and quantities of catalyst on transesterification process of different waste vegetable oils from food processing facilities with methanol. Comparison of basic characteristics between produced biodiesel, industrially produced biodiesel and values from European standards for biodiesel fuel (EN14214 was made.

  8. Effect of Catalyst on Transesterification of Waste Vegetable Oils from Food Processing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Iličković

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Converting waste vegetable oils from food processing facilities, restaurants and households to biodiesel by the transestrification reaction with methanol has important advantages for human health and environment. The transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oils is affected by free fatty acids and water content of oils and fats, type of alcohol, type and quantities of catalyst, reaction temperature and reaction time. Basic aim of this paper is to explore effect of type and quantities of catalyst on transesterification process of different waste vegetable oils from food processing facilities with methanol. Comparison of basic characteristics between produced biodiesel, industrially produced biodiesel and values from European standards for biodiesel fuel (EN14214 was made.

  9. Transesterification of waste oil to biodiesel using Brønsted acid ionic liquid as catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brønsted acid ionic liquids were employed for the preparation of biodiesel using waste oil as the feedstock. It was found that IL 1–(3–sulfonic acidpropyl–3–methylimidazole hydrosulfate–[HO3S-pmim]HSO4 was an efficient catalyst for the reaction under the optimum conditions: n(oil:n(methanol 1:12, waste oil 15.0 g, ionic liquid 2.0 g, reaction temperature 120 oC and reaction time 8 h, the yield of biodiesel was more than 96%. The reusability of the ionic liquid was also investigated. When the ionic liquid was repeatedly used for five times, the yield of product was still more than 93%. Therefore, an efficient and environmentally friendly catalyst was provided for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste oils.

  10. Using response surface methodology in optimisation of biodiesel production via alkali catalysed transesterification of waste cooking oil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on optimisation of alkali catalysis as a process for producing biodiesel from waste cooking oils. Biodiesel production parameters that were optimised were methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature...

  11. Experimental Investigation of Bio-Diesel Obtained From Waste Cooking Oil and Its Blends with Diesel on Single Cylinder Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. B. Sharma; Dr. Amit Pal

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment a comprehensive experimental investigation of bio-diesel oil on single cylinder engine running with biodiesel obtained from Waste cooking oil and its blends with diesel was carried...

  12. Field guide on reduction and disposal of waste from oil refineries and marketing installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dando, D.A.J.; Bossand, B.; Lilie, R.H.; Ooms, A.C.; Sutherland, H.

    1990-07-01

    The field guide has been written primarily for those in the oil refining and marketing industry who have responsibility for the management of waste and its disposal. It should also provide useful information to the authorities who exercise legal control over these activities. It lists the types of wastes commonly encountered in the industry and highlights techniques for minimizing the quantities generated. Guidance is given on the methods of pre-treatment and disposal, together with information on how to select and monitor waste facilities and contractors, to ensure a high quality and safe disposal operation. Information is also provided on documentation and labelling of waste cargoes, and reference is made to legislation and sources of additional information. While use of the field guide cannot guarantee a problem-free operation, it will minimize the risks involved in disposal of waste materials from oil industry installations.

  13. Substrate Bioaugmentation of Waste Engine Oil Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckley Ikhajiagbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of substrate microbial augmentation on the bioremediation of Waste Engine Oil (WEO polluted soil. Five different concentrations of WEO in soil on weight basis were obtained by thoroughly mixing WEO in measured soil: 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% w/w. The unpolluted soil was used as the control (0% w/w experiment. The set up was left for 5 months without physically disturbing the soil. After 5 months, the soils were first amended with sawdust and then inoculated with mycelia of Pleurotus tuberregium. Significant (p = 0.05 decreases in soil physicochemical parameters were recorded 9 months after bioaugmentation (9 MAB, excepting total organic carbon and total nitrogen, which showed significant increases throughout the experiment period. Total (100% remediation of some PAH compounds - benzo(aanthracene, benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(g,h,iperylene, benzo(kfluoranthene, chrysene, dibenzo(a,hanthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,dpyrene - was recorded. Over sixty per cent (66.22% of total individual PAH compounds were completely (100% remediated. Achromobacter sp., Clostridium sp., Sarcina sp., Micrococcus sp., Nocardia sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor sp., Trichoderma sp., Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus and Geotrichum sp. were dominant microorganism species in the WEO polluted soil. Significant decreases in heavy metal concentration resulted in significant reductions in Environmental Risk Factor (ERF, which implied less possibility for ecological risk for heavy metal constituents. ERF presupposes that Pb (ERF range, -69.30 to -14.97 and V (ERF range, -0.01 to 0.86 were significant potential ecological threats at 5MAP, but at 9 MAB, ERF value had decreased, with ERF ranges for Pb and V being 5.64 to 32.64 and 1.70 to 1.83, respectively.

  14. Synthesis graphene layer at different waste cooking palm oil temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaiah, M.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.; khusaimi, Z.; Azhan, H.; Asli, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Graphene is one of the most recent carbon nanomaterials that has attracted attention because of its superior properties. The formation of the graphene on the Ni surface appears due to segregation and precipitation of a high amount of carbon from the source material during the cooling process. The growth of graphene at different waste cooking palm oil (WCPO) temperatures using double thermal chemical vapour deposition method (DTCVD) was investigated. The samples were prepared at various vaporization temperatures of WCPO is range from 250 °C to 450 °C by increment 50 °C and the temperature of Ni substrate constant at 900 °C. The structural of the graphene were characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy, UV-Visible and Raman's spectroscopy. FESEM images at optimum temperature (350 °C) display hexagonal shapes since the graphene layers were formed after precipitation of the carbon. It the meantime, UV-Visible spectra shows the sharp peak at 250 nm whereupon the highest of reflectivity value. This peak is an indication the presence of the graphene layers on Ni substrate. The position and half width 2D peak of the Raman spectra were subjected to detail analyses in order to determine the quantity and quality of the graphene layer. At the temperature 350°C, the Raman's spectroscopy result shown the multilayer of the graphene based on I2D/IG ratio is approximately constant (equal to˜0.43).

  15. Pyrolysis of Scrap Tyres and Waste Lube Oil by Using Catalytic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IshfaqAbdullah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Scrape tyres and waste lube oil are the cause of great environmental issues because they are not biodegradable and their elements cannot be recovered and they are causing great environmental pollution. Secondly, the world needs the new sources of energy due to depletion of oil sources. In this experiment, pyrolysis of scrape tyres alone and pyrolysis of mixture of scrape tyres and used lubricating oil by using catalytic agent (CaCO3 is done to see the effect of waste lube oil and catalytic agent on pyrolysis of scrape tyres. The value of products of both samples (scrape tyres alone, mixture of scrape tyres and used lubricating oil has been studied and compared.

  16. Improving Asphalt Mixture Performance by Partially Replacing Bitumen with Waste Motor Oil and Elastomer Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concern about waste generation and the gradual decrease of oil reserves has led the way to finding new waste materials that may partially replace the bitumens used in the road paving industry. Used motor oil from vehicles is a waste product that could answer that demand, but it can also drastically reduce the viscosity, increasing the asphalt mixture’s rutting potential. Therefore, polymer modification should be used in order to avoid compromising the required performance of asphalt mixtures when higher amounts of waste motor oil are used. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the performance of an asphalt binder/mixture obtained by replacing part of a paving grade bitumen (35/50 with 10% waste motor oil and 5% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS as an elastomer modifier. A comparison was also made with the results of a previous study using a blend of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis and ground tire rubber modifier as a partial substitute for usual PG64-22 bitumen. The asphalt binders were tested by means of Fourier infrared spectra and dynamic shear rheology, namely by assessing their continuous high-performance grade. Later, the water sensitivity, fatigue cracking resistance, dynamic modulus and rut resistance performance of the resulting asphalt mixtures was evaluated. It was concluded that the new binder studied in this work improves the asphalt mixture’s performance, making it an excellent solution for paving works.

  17. Utilization of waste cooking oil as an alternative fuel for Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ridvan; Ulusoy, Yahya

    2017-04-03

    This study is based on three essential considerations concerning biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil: diesel engine emissions of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil, its potential in Turkey, and policies of the Turkish government about environmentally friendly alternative fuels. Emission tests have been realized with 35.8 kW, four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel tractor engine. Test results are compared with Euro non-road emission standards for diesel fuel and five different blends of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The results of the experimental study show that the best blends are B10 and B20 as they show the lowest emission level. The other dimensions of the study include potential analysis of waste cooking oil as diesel fuels, referring to fuel price policies applied in the past, and proposed future policies about the same issues. It was also outlined some conclusions and recommendations in connection with recycling of waste oils as alternative fuels.

  18. Decoloration Kinetics of Waste Cooking Oil by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yulin; Xiang, Yuxiu; Wang, Lipeng

    2016-03-01

    In order to decolorize, waste cooking oil, a dark red close to black solution from homes and restaurants, was subjected to 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 treatment. By virtue of UV/Vis spectrophotometric method, the influence of Gamma irradiation to decoloration kinetics and rate constants of the waste cooking oil in the presence of H2O2 was researched. In addition, the influence of different factors such as H2O2 concentration and irradiation dose on the decoloration rate of waste cooking oil was investigated. Results indicated that the decoloration kinetics of waste cooking oil conformed to the first-order reaction. The decoloration rate increased with the increase of irradiation dose and H2O2 concentration. Saponification analysis and sensory evaluation showed that the sample by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 treatment presented better saponification performance and sensory score. Furthermore, according to cost estimate, the cost of the 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 was lower and more feasible than the H2O2 alone for decoloration of waste cooking oil.

  19. Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Waste Soya bean Cooking Oil by Alkali Trans-esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajinkya Dipak Deshpande*,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, clean-burning, non-toxic, renewable, high-quality, and cheap diesel fuel made primarily from waste vegetable oil which can be used without any alterations in engine design. The paper is concerned with the extraction and quality evaluation of the biodiesel fuels synthesized from waste soya bean cooking oil. Waste soya bean cooking oil had high amount of free fatty acid. Thus, single step transesterification process with the aid of homogeneous catalyst as 1% potassium hydroxide were implemented in this experiment. Methanol was chosen as alcohol solvent. In the transesterification process, the triglycerides in waste cooking oil was reacted with a methanol to form esters and glycerol as by product.The biodiesel were extracted for different oil to methanol ratio as 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4. The highest biodiesel yield of 76% was obtained at 1:3 volumetric ratio for 60 ºC reaction temperature and 1250 rpm stirring speed. Results show that the optimal methyl ester yield of 90% occurred at methanol: oil volume ratio of 3:1. The product met the ASTM fuel standards for relative density, acid value, relative density, calorific value, flash point and kinematic viscosity.

  20. Characterization of oil and gas waste disposal practices and assessment of treatment costs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedient, P.B.

    1995-01-16

    This study examines wastes associated with the onshore exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in the US. The objective of this study was to update and enhance the current state of knowledge with regard to oil and gas waste quantities, the potential environmental impact of these wastes, potential methods of treatment, and the costs associated with meeting various degrees of treatment. To meet this objective, the study consisted of three tasks: (1) the development of a production Environmental Database (PED) for the purpose of assessing current oil and gas waste volumes by state and for investigating the potential environmental impacts associated with current waste disposal practices on a local scale; (2) the evaluation of available and developing technologies for treating produced water waste streams and the identification of unit process configurations; and (3) the evaluation of the costs associated with various degrees of treatment achievable by different treatment configurations. The evaluation of feasible technologies for the treatment of produced water waste streams was handled in the context of comparing the level of treatment achievable with the associated cost of treatment. Treatment processes were evaluated for the removal of four categories of produced water contaminants: particulate material, volatile organic compounds, adsorbable organic compounds, and dissolved inorganic species. Results showed dissolved inorganic species to be the most costly to remove. The potential cost of treating all 18.3 billion barrels of produced water generated in a year amounts to some 15 billion dollars annually.

  1. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME, which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV, were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.

  2. Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils contained in waste activated bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Ana V. Lara; Park, Enoch Y. [Shizuoka Univ., Dept. of Applied Biological Chemistry, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2003-02-28

    Waste bleaching earths from crude vegetable oil refining process contain approximately 40% of its weight as oil. Low valued oils are potential substrates for biodiesel fuel production. Vegetable oils from waste bleaching earth samples were organic-solvent extracted and identified as soybean, palm and rapeseed oil. Methanolysis was efficiently catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of high water content, and by a single addition of methanol. R. oryzae lipase was not inactivated by methanol in concentrations lower than 4 milli-equivalents and 75% water content. Optimum conditions for methanolysis of extracted oils were 75% water content (by weight of substrate), an oil/methanol molar ratio of I:4, and 67 IU/g of substrate with agitation at 175 rpm for 96 h at 35 deg C. The highest conversion yield reached 55% (w/w) with palm oil after 96 h of reaction. Adverse viscosity conditions might have influenced methanolysis of extracted soybean and rapeseed oil in spite of high water or methanol concentrations. (Author)

  3. Potential of waste frying oil as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri, Syed M Raza [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)], e-mail: chemicalraza@gmail.com; Wani, Omar Bashir; Athar, Moina [Dept. of Petroleum Studies, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)

    2012-11-01

    To face the challenges of climbing Petroleum demand and of climate changes related to Carbon dioxide emissions, interest grows in sustainable fuels made from organic matter. World production of bio fuels has experienced phenomenal growth. The search for alternatives to petroleum based fuel has led to the development of fuels from various renewable sources, including feed stocks, such as fats and oils. Several kinds of fuels can be derived from these feed stocks. One of them is biodiesel, which is mono alkyl esters of vegetables oils and animal fats and produced by transesterification of oil and fats with alcohols in the presence of acid, alkali or enzyme base catalysts. The main hurdle in using the biodiesel is its cost which is mainly the cost of virgin oil. In India every year Millions of liters of waste frying oil are discarded into the sewage system which adds cost to its treatment and add up to the pollution of ground water. This paper proposed the production of Bio-diesel from the very same waste frying oil. The production of Bio-diesel from this waste frying oil offers economic, social, environmental and health benefits. The Bio-diesel produced finds the same use as the conventional diesel but this happens to be cost effective.

  4. 33 CFR 157.39 - Machinery space bilges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery space bilges. 157.39... Vessel Operation § 157.39 Machinery space bilges. (a) A tank vessel may discharge an oily mixture from a machinery space bilge that is combined with an oil cargo residue if the vessel discharges in compliance...

  5. Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingting Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA, as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%.

  6. Rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa OG1 using waste frying oil and ram horn peptone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Murat; Gürkök, Sümeyra; Özdal, Özlem Gür; Kurbanoǧlu, Esabi Başaran

    2017-04-01

    Agro-industrial by-products are being explored as alternative low-cost nutrients for various bioprocesses. In this work, the applicability of ram horn peptone (RHP) and waste frying oil were investigated for rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the sole nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. The rhamnolipid yield was considerably influenced by the type of organic nitrogen source. Among the tested organic nitrogen sources, RHP proved to be the best nitrogen source for both biomass and rhamnolipid production. RHP was also tested at different concentrations and 10 g/L RHP resulted in the greatest yield of rhamnolipid (12.1 g/L) in the presence of waste frying oil as the sole carbon source. These results revealed that rhamnolipid could be produced efficiently and cost effectively by P. aeruginosa OG1 using RHP and waste frying oil.

  7. Low-cost sorbents for demetalisation of waste oils via pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.J.; Moliner, R. [Department of Energy and Environment, Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Maria de Luna 12, 50.015, Zaragoza (Spain); Domeno, C.; Nerin, C. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Centro Politecnico Superior, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50.015, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2001-01-01

    The behaviour of several solid sorbents during the pyrolysis process of industrial waste oils in a bench-scale pyrolysis unit is studied. The concentrations of V, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr in the waste oils and in the original sorbents as well as that obtained in the final valuable product liquid fraction are measured. Limestone, commercial active char, Samca char, activated Samca char and sepiolite were the solid sorbents used. 100% of the lead from the waste oils can be retained on limestone. The behaviour of both metals and sorbents and the influence of specific surface area as well as chemical nature of metals and sorbents are discussed. Final liquid fractions resulted in valuable industrial products.

  8. Complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters with biodiesel prepared from soybean and waste cooking oils to enhance fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters (MFME) with soybean and waste cooking oil methyl esters (SME and WCME) was investigated. MFME prepared from cold-pressed meadowfoam oil exhibited an exceptionally high induction period (IP) of 66.2 h whereas SME and WCME yielded conside...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  10. Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarel, V.; Nouaille, F.; Rooses, A.; Lambertin, D.; Poulesquen, A.; Frizon, F.

    2015-09-01

    The solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin based geopolymer was studied in the present work. The process consists of obtaining a stabilised emulsion of oil in a water-glass solution and then adding metakaolin to engage the setting of a geopolymer block with an oil emulsion stabilised in the material. Geopolymer/oil composites have been made with various oil fraction (7, 14 and 20 vol.%). The rigidity and the good mechanical properties have been demonstrated with compressive strength tests. Leaching tests evidenced the release of oil from the composite material is very limited whereas the constitutive components of the geopolymer (Na, Si and OH-) are involved into diffusion process.

  11. Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source.

  12. Toward Sustainability in Concrete Industry by Using Of Solid Wastes from Palm Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pordesari Alireza Javadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most important construction materials is concrete. By the advances of the industries in the urban areas, concrete is considered as one of the highest demands. As a result, the large amount of unprocessed materials is needed for making concrete. In the meantime, the agricultural wastes and solid material disposal are giving serious damages to the environment. As a result, by employing the agricultural wastes as a cementitious material, the undesirable impacts of the concrete industry to the environment will be dramatically decreased. That’s because the source of these newly developed concretes is both reliable and environmental friendly. In this study, the utilization of agricultural wastes as a complementary cementitious material for producing the concrete is explained. In addition, it discusses the possibility of deploying the agricultural wastes by considering their engineering, physical and chemical properties. In addition, the successful use of agricultural wastes from oil palm industry such as oil palm shell, palm oil fuel ash and palm oil fibre in the concrete mixture was reported.

  13. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  14. Soils and waste water purification from oil products using combined methods under the North conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Gershenkop, Alexander Sh; Mozgova, Natalia P; Myazin, Vladimir A; Fokina, Nadejda V

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas production and transportation in Russia is increasingly moving to the north regions. Such regions are characterized by relatively low self-purification capacity of the natural environments from the contaminants due to slow character of the energy exchange and mass transfer processes. Off-shore field development in the Barents Sea and oil product transportation can result in contamination, as confirmed by the national and international practice of the developed oil and gas regions. The research aims at development of the soil bioremediation methods and industrial waste water purification contaminated by oil products in the north-western region of Russia. The dynamics of oil products carry-over have been investigated under the field model experiments in podzolic soils: gas condensate, diesel fuel and mazut from oil and the plants were selected for phyto-remediation of contaminated soils under high north latitudes. It is shown that soil purification from light hydrocarbons takes place during one vegetation period. In three months of the vegetation period the gas condensate was completely removed from the soil, diesel fuel - almost completely (more than 90%). Residual amounts of heavy hydrocarbons were traced, even 1.5 later. The following plants that were highly resistant to the oil product contamination were recommended for bioremediation: Phalaroides arundinacea, Festuca pratensis, Phleum pratense, Leymus arenarius. There has been developed and patented the combined method of treatment of waste water contaminated with hydrocarbons based on inorganic coagulants and local oil-oxidizing bacteria.

  15. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using ionic liquid choline hydroxide as a catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Mara Maia Bessa

    2015-01-01

    The production of biodiesel is generally performed by alkaline transesterification oils with low amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs). In order to decrease the costs of production of biodiesel, low quality waste cooking oils or grease have been investigated as a source alternative, but problems in the purification step due to the formation of soap are found in catalysis with sodium hydroxide. In this work, the ionic liquid choline hydroxide was produced and used as catalyst in the production o...

  16. Adsorption refinement of waste transformer oil using industrial montmorillonite-containing sorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Koval, Е. О.; Bogomolov, М. S.; Mayer, E. А.; Bondaletov, V. G.

    2007-01-01

    The possibilities of adsorption contact refining of waste transformer oil with active montmorillonite-containing sorbents of «Filtrol» series of BASF Catalysts LLC corporation and Zikeevsk М-80 deposit sorbent have been investigated. Usage of F-160 sorbents of «Filtrol» series in the refinement process allows achieving high quality degree of lean transformer oil, permitting its further use in the equipment with operating voltage to 750 kV.

  17. Physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of tomato seed oils from processing wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarelli,P.R.; Regitano-d'Arce,M.A.B.; Palma,E.R.

    1993-01-01

    The major component of tomato processing industry wastes is seed. Samples of tomato (Petomech var.) pomace from industries of São Paulo state submitted to Hot and Cold Break treatments, were spontaneously fermented and washed to separate seeds. The oils were analysed for specific gravity, iodine and saponifícation numbers, refractive index, viscosity and fatty acid composition. Except for saponifícation number, Hot and Cold Break seed oils were very similar. In both treatments palmitic acid w...

  18. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception towards the Consumption of Waste Cooking Oil between Suburban and Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanisah Kamilah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The improper discarding method of toxic waste cooking oil (WCO and the repetitive usage of it are polluting the environment and harmful to human, respectively. Thus, survey regarding the consumption of waste cooking oil (WCO was conducted in Kampung Nelayan, Penang (rural area and Gurun, Kedah (suburban area. Each developed questionnaire containing the total amount of 26 questions, which five open-ended questions and 21 closed questions. Feedbacks of over 180 responses were received from Gurun, Kedah and 200 responses from Kampung Nelayan, Pulau Pinang. Focus group survey and face-to-face interview method were done in Gurun, Kedah and Kampung Nelayan, Pulau Pinang, respectively based on the suitability of the area. Personal information such as race, gender, and occupation of participants was recorded for further information. The percentage of 80% of the respondents was females and there was higher percentage of housewives (59% in Kampung Nelayan compared to Gurun. Majority of the respondents were consuming palm oil (95% and producing waste cooking oil (WCO up to 6-10 L/mth and 1 L/mth in Kampung Nelayan and Gurun, respectively. Survey analysis also showed that 2-3% of the respondents utilised the cooking oil repeatedly until it is fully utilised. Around 7-9% of respondents consumed the cooking oil up to three times before discarding it. As the conclusion, most of the respondents have limited knowledge regarding the WCO management, which could affect the health of a consumer and adulterates the environment.  

  19. Effect of the use of waste vegetable oil based biodiesel on the landscape in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereczky Akos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-based fuels are now widely known as environmentally unfriendly because of non-renewable supplies and its contribution to environmental pollution. The challenge, therefore is to ensure appropriate energy supplies at minimum cost. There is an increasing energy demand in the world and nowadays it can be fulfilled only on the basis of fossil fuels. Therefore, it is necessary to evolve a renewable energy source with lower environmental impact. One alternative solution can be oils of plant origin, like vegetable oils and non-edible oils. With waste vegetable oil methyl ester, biofuel dependency can be decreased. Therefore, the aim of this research paper is to analyze the economic and environmental effect of waste vegetable oil methyl ester compared to fossil fuels. In some cases only the age of vehicles could raise burdens to biofuel utilization in road vehicles. Transport and energy policy – on a large scale – can play an important role in fuel consumption. Author is aware that waste vegetable oil methyl ester can play only a limited role in biofuel substitution.

  20. Rheological behaviour of coal modified by waste plastics and lubricating oils

    OpenAIRE

    Melendi Espina, Sonia; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, María Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón; Castro, Miguel; Steel, Karen; Snape, Colin E.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the interactions between a coking coal and two types of wastes: plastics from municipal wastes (single and mixed) and lubricating-oils coming from the iron and steel sector. For this purpose, Gieseler plastometry, rheometry and in situ high-temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy can be combined to discern the most suitable wastes for using as secondary raw materials in metallurgical coke production. It was found that there is a relationship between the Gieseler fl...

  1. Different techniques for the production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refaat, A.A. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-01-01

    The production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil offers a triple-facet solution: economic, environmental and waste management. The new process technologies developed during the last years made it possible to produce biodiesel from recycled frying oils comparable in quality to that of virgin vegetable oil biodiesel with an added attractive advantage of being lower in price. Thus, biodiesel produced from recycled frying oils has the same possibilities to be utilized. Producing biodiesel from used frying oil is environmentally beneficial since it provides a cleaner way for disposing these products, and can yield valuable cuts in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the main contributor of global warming and climate change. While transesterification is well-established and becoming increasingly important, there remains considerable inefficiencies in existing transesterification processes. There is an imperative need to improve the existing biodiesel production methods from both economic and environmental viewpoints and to investigate alternative and innovative production processes. This study highlights the main changes occurring in the oil during frying in order to identify the characteristics of oil after frying and the anticipated effects of the products formed in the frying process on biodiesel quality and attempts to review the different techniques used in the production of biodiesel from recycled oils, stressing the advantages and limitations of each technique and the optimization conditions for each process. The emerging technologies which can be utilized in this field are also investigated. The quality of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oil in previous studies is also reviewed and the performance of engines fueled with this biodiesel and the characteristics of the exhaust emissions resulting from it are highlighted. The overarching goal is to stimulate further activities in the field.

  2. Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, M.; Fink, J.K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

  3. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil

  4. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  5. Microbial desalination cell for enhanced biodegradation of waste engine oil using a novel bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis moh3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, K; Fayidh, Mohammed A; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Babuskin, S; Babu, P Azhagu Saravana; Radha, K Krishnan; Sukumar, M

    2014-01-01

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a bioelectrochemical system developed recently from microbial fuel cells (MFCs), for producing green energy from organic wastes along with desalination of saltwater. MDC is proved to be a better performer than MFC in terms of power output and chemical oxygen demand removal, with desalination as an additional feature. This study investigates the application potential of MDC for integrated biodegradation of waste engine oil. This study showed, for the first time, that waste engine oil could be used as an organic substrate in MDC, achieving biodegradation of engine oil along with considerable desalination and power production. Utilization of these wastes in MDC can protect the environment from waste engine oil contamination. Indigenous oil-degrading bacteria were isolated and identified from engine oil contaminated sludge. Degradation of waste engine oil by these novel isolates was studied in batch cultures and optimized the growth conditions. The same cultures when used in MDC, gave enhanced biodegradation (70.1 +/- 0.5%) along with desalination (68.3 +/- 0.6%) and power production (3.1 +/- 0.3 mW/m2). Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were performed to characterize the degradation metabolites in the anolyte of MDC which clearly indicated the biodegradation of long chain, branched and cyclic hydrocarbons present in waste engine oil.

  6. Regeneration and reuse waste from an edible oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerroui, Abdelhamid; Belhocine, Lydia; Ferroudj, Sonia

    2017-08-21

    A spent bleaching earth (SBE) from an edible oil refinery has been regenerated by thermal processing in oven, followed by washing with a cold solution of hydrochloric acid (1M). Optimal regeneration conditions have been controlled by decolorization tests of degummed and neutralized soybean oil. Optimal values of treatment (temperature 350°C, carbonization time 01 h, and HCl concentration 1M) gave a very efficient material. After bleaching oil by regenerated spent bleaching earth (RSBE), the chlorophyll-a and β-carotenes contained in crude edible oil and observed respectively at 430, 454, and 483 nm, value of λ max, are very much decreased. The results obtained after decolorization of edible oil by RSBE material indicate, that, during the process, the bleaching oil did not undergo any changes in the free fatty acid content. The peroxide value (PV) was reduced from 4.2 to 1.8 meq O2/kg, and the color has been improved (Lovibond color yellow/red: from 50/0.5 to 2.7/0.3, respectively). The RSBE material obtained was characterized by several techniques (FTIR, SEM). The results show that the heat treatment did not affect the mineral structure of RSBE, and the regenerated material recovered its porous structure.

  7. HOW TO USE SOLID WASTE OF OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN CERAMIC BRICKS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinovа T. A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the recycling problem of solid waste of oil and gas industry is observed. We have developed the bases of resource saving technology for minimizing exhausted sorbents and catalysts pollution with their using as silica-containing additives in raw mix for production of ceramic bricks of standard quality

  8. Optimal Design of Biodiesel Production Process from Waste Cooking Palm Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simasatitkul, Lida; Gani, Rafiqul; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2012-01-01

    process. A two-step approach of hydrolysis and esterification processes is also considered. Waste cooking palm oil consists of a mixture of triglyceride (e.g., trilaurin, tripalmitin, triolein, tristearin, trilinolein and trilinolenin) and free fatty acids (e.g., lauric acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid...

  9. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0(#) diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  11. Fate of diuron and terbuthylazine in soils amended with two-phase olive oil mill waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of organic amendments to soil increases soil organic matter content and stimulates soil microbial activity. Thus, processes affecting herbicide fate in the soil should be affected. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of olive oil production industry organic waste (a...

  12. Influence of olive oil mill waste amendment on fate of oxyfluorfen in Southern Spain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of olive oil mill waste (OOMW) amendment on soil processes affecting the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in two soils (P2 and SJ) was assessed under laboratory conditions. The soils used were from two diverse locations in Guadalqui...

  13. Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent (OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) or sewage sludge was investigated. In batch experiments it was shown that OME could be degraded into biogas when codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHW or sewage sludge, OME dilution with ...

  14. Optimisation of FAME production from waste cooking oil for biodiesel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista, Luis Fernando; Vicente, Gemma; Rodriguez, Rosalia; Pacheco, Maria [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    This study consists of the development and optimisation of the potassium hydroxide-catalysed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from waste cooking oil. A factorial design of experiments and a central composite design have been used. The variables chosen were fatty acid concentration in the waste cooking oil, temperature and initial catalyst concentration by weight of waste cooking oil, while the responses were FAME purity and yield. The initial catalyst concentration is the most important factor, having a positive influence on FAME purity, but a negative one on FAME yield due to the positive influences of the yield losses (triglyceride saponification and methyl ester dissolution in glycerol). Fatty acid concentration in the waste cooking oil is the second factor of importance, having negative influences in FAME purity and yield. Temperature has an insignificant effect on FAME purity, but it has a significant negative influence on FAME yield due to the positive effect of temperature on the yield losses. Second-order models were obtained to predict the responses analysed as a function of these variables. (author)

  15. Glycerol Esters from Real Waste Cooking Oil Using a Robust Solid Acid Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venkatesh, S.; van Zwol, P.; Dimian, A.C.; Gitis, V.; Rothenberg, G.

    2014-01-01

    Notwithstanding the food-​for-​fuel debate, turning waste cooking oil and fat (WCO) into a valuable product is a classic example of green chem. We demonstrate that sulfated zirconia and lanthanum-​supported sulfated zirconia are good catalysts for the esterification of WCO free fatty acids (FFAs)

  16. Conversion of waste cooking oil to jet biofuel with nickel-based mesoporous zeolite Y catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-12-01

    Three types of zeolites (Meso-Y, SAPO-34, and HY) loaded with nickel were used to convert waste cooking oil to jet biofuel. Mesoporous zeolite Y exhibited a high jet range alkane selectivity of 53% and a proper jet range aromatic hydrocarbon selectivity of 13.4% in liquid fuel products. Reaction temperature was optimized to produce quality jet biofuel. Zeolite Meso-Y exhibited a high jet range alkane yield of 40.5% and a low jet range aromatic hydrocarbon yield of 11.3% from waste cooking oil at 400°C. The reaction pathway for converting waste cooking oil to jet biofuel was proposed. Experimental results showed that waste cooking oil mainly deoxygenated to heptadecane (C17H36) and pentadecane (C15H30) through the decarbonylation pathway for the first 3h. Long chain alkanes cracked into jet range alkanes (C8-C16). Cycloalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons were produced through cyclization and dehydrogenation pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reactor comparison for the esterification of fatty acids from waste cooking oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazubert, A.; Crockatt, M.; Poux, M.; Aubin, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Esterification of the fatty acids contained in waste cooking oil with glycerol, a reaction involving immiscible and viscous reactants, was achieved in two pilot-scale continuous pulsed reactors: the oscillatory baffled reactor and the helix reactor. In both reactors, with or without baffles, the

  18. Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) oil obtained from waste hip seeds by different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentmihályi, Klára; Vinkler, Péter; Lakatos, Béla; Illés, Vendel; Then, Mária

    2002-04-01

    From the rose hip seed, which is generally a waste material, valuable oil can be obtained for medicinal use. Various extraction methods have been compared: traditional solvent extraction with ultrasound-, microwave-, sub- and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA: oleic-, linoleic- and linolenic acid; 16.25-22.11%, 35.94-54.75%, 20.29-26.48%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA:linoleic- and linolenic acid) content were over 90% and 60% in the recovered oils. The oils contained different amounts of metals. The concentration of some metals, particularly iron in microwave oil (27.11 microg g(-1)) is undesirable from the aspect of stability. By traditional solvent extraction, oil was obtained in 4.85 wt/wt%. Subcritical FE appeared to be the best method for the recovery of rose hip oil with highest oil yield (6.68 wt/wt%), carotene- (145.3 microg g(-1)) and linoleic acid content (54.75%). Supercritical FE without organic solvent is suitable for mild recovery of oil. The oil was rich in UFA and PUFA (92.7% and 76.25%) and contained the lowest amount of carotene and pheophytin (36.3 and 45.8 microg g(-1)). Oil yield in most new extraction methods (microwave extraction, super- and subcritical FE) was higher than in the case of traditional Soxhlet extraction. The main benefit of supercritical FE with CO2 is the solvent free oil while in the case of other extractions evaporation of the solvent is needed. Although the content of bioactive compounds in oils was different, all oils may be appropriate for medicinal use.

  19. Recent Strategy of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil and Process Influencing Parameters: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gnanaprakasam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost of biodiesel produced from virgin vegetable oil through transesterification is higher than that of fossil fuel, because of high raw material cost. To minimize the biofuel cost, in recent days waste cooking oil was used as feedstock. Catalysts used in this process are usually acids, base, and lipase. Since lipase catalysts are much expensive, the usage of lipase in biodiesel production is limited. In most cases, NaOH is used as alkaline catalyst, because of its low cost and higher reaction rate. In the case of waste cooking oil containing high percentage of free fatty acid, alkaline catalyst reacts with free fatty acid and forms soap by saponification reaction. Also, it reduces the biodiesel conversions. In order to reduce the level of fatty acid content, waste cooking oil is pretreated with acid catalyst to undergo esterification reaction, which also requires high operating conditions. In this review paper, various parameters influencing the process of biofuel production such as reaction rate, catalyst concentration, temperature, stirrer speed, catalyst type, alcohol used, alcohol to oil ratio, free fatty acid content, and water content have been summarized.

  20. Optimum Ratio Between Waste Cooking Oil and Coconut Oilas Raw Material for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthia Elma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a energy that is processed from biological processes and employ agriculture products rather than geological processes. Waste Cooking Oil (WCO and Coconut Oil (CO are some of agriculture products that have been applied for this work. The utilization of WCO enables to cycle the waste from the environment and also CO may promote local home industries. The aims of this work are to produce biodiesel from mixture of waste cooking oil and coconut oil. This work is also to study the optimum composition between these two materials (0% to 100% WCO or CO in reverse in producing biodiesel. Several methods were applied in this work: i.e. esterification, trans-esterification, washing, drying and filtering processes. Some steps of characterization were conducted to fulfil the International Standard (EN 14214.Yield of biodiesel produced was 97.65% with oil mixture composition of50% WCO and50% CO. The FAME component in 50% WCO and 50% CO showed as the nonanoic acid methyl ester (C15H20O2 with composition of 37,79%.

  1. Novel utilization of waste marine sponge (Demospongiae) as a catalyst in ultrasound-assisted transesterification of waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryawati, Noor; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of Na-silica waste sponge as a source of low cost catalyst in the transesterification of waste cooking oil aided by ultrasound. In this work an environmentally friendly and efficient transesterification process using Na-loaded SiO2 from waste sponge skeletons as a solid catalyst is presented. The results showed that the methyl esters content of 98.4±0.4wt.% was obtainable in less than an hour (h) of reaction time at 55°C. Optimization of reaction parameters revealed that MeOH:oil, 9:1; catalyst, 3wt.% and reaction duration of 30min as optimum reaction conditions. The catalyst is able to tolerant free fatty acid and moisture content up to 6% and 8%, respectively. In addition, the catalyst can be reused for seven cycles while maintaining the methyl esters content at 86.3%. Ultrasound undoubtedly assisted in achieving this remarkable result in less than 1h reaction time. For the kinetics study at 50-60°C, a pseudo first order model was proposed, and the activation energy of the reaction is determined as 33.45kJ/mol using Arrhenius equation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of a hydrolyzed oil obtained from fish waste for nutraceutical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Viana do Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fish industry generates high volume of waste from fish oil that can have the extraction of its lipids used as nutraceuticals and foods. The objective of this study was to produce unsaturated fatty acids from industrialized fish oil by means of a differentiated hydrolysis process. The samples used were crude fish oil obtained from Campestre industry and characterized through physical-chemical parameters, according to AOCS: acidity, peroxide, saponification, iodine and percentage of free fatty acids and also obtained the fatty acid profile through derivatization method for gas chromatography. The results obtained for the oleochemical indices for refined oil were similar to the data found on the literature. The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was found of 32,78%, with 9,12% of docosahexaenoic (DHA and 10,36% of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, regarding monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA content was of 30,59% in the hydrolyzed fish oil in relation to refined (20,06%. Thus, it can be concluded that the hydrolysis process used for oils from fish-waste was satisfactory on the production of absolute yield of lipids in the process and significant preservation on the percentages of EPA and DHA, interesting on the production of nutraceuticals and nutrition of aquatic animals, including shrimp in captivity.

  3. Production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using impregnated diatomite as heterogeneous catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward Modiba; Christopher Enweremadu; Hilary Rutto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, biodiesel was produced from waste vegetable oil using a heterogeneous base catalyst synthesized by impregnating potassium hydroxide (KOH) onto diatomite. Response surface methodology based on a central composite design was used to optimize four transesterification variables:temperature (30–120 °C), reaction time (2–6 h), methanol to oil mass ratio (10%–50%) and catalyst to oil mass ratio (2.1%–7.9%). A quadratic poly-nomial equation was obtained to correlate biodiesel yield to the transesterification variables. The diatomite–KOH catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS). A maximum biodiesel yield of 90%(by mass) was obtained. The reaction conditions were as follows:methanol to oil mass ratio 30%, catalyst to oil mass ratio 5%, reaction time 4 h, and reaction temperature 75 °C. The XRD, FTIR and SEM (EDS) results confirm that the addition of KOH modifies the structure of diatomite. During impregnation and calcination of the diatomite catalyst the K2O phase forms in the diatomite structural matrix and the active basicity of this compound facilitates the transesterification process. It is possible to recycle the diatomite–KOH catalyst up to three times. The crucial biodiesel properties from waste vegetable oil are within the American Stan-dard Test Method specifications.

  4. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  5. Utilization of papaya waste and oil production by Chlorella protothecoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae derived oils have outstanding potential for use in biodiesel production. Chlorella protothecoides has been shown to accumulate lipid up to 60% of its cellular dry weight with glucose supplementation under heterotrophic growth conditions. To reduce production costs, alternative carbon feedstock...

  6. Pilot-scale production of biodiesel from waste fats and oils using tetramethylammonium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šánek, Lubomír; Pecha, Jiří; Kolomazník, Karel; Bařinová, Michaela

    2016-02-01

    Annually, a great amount of waste fats and oils not suitable for human consumption or which cannot be further treated are produced around the world. A potential way of utilizing this low-cost feedstock is its conversion into biodiesel. The majority of biodiesel production processes today are based on the utilization of inorganic alkali catalysts. However, it has been proved that an organic base - tetramethylammonium hydroxide - can be used as a very efficient transesterification catalyst. Furthermore, it can be employed for the esterification of free fatty acids - reducing even high free fatty acid contents to the required level in just one step. The work presented herein, is focused on biodiesel production from waste frying oils and animal fats using tetramethylammonium hydroxide at the pilot-plant level. The results showed that the process performance in the pilot unit - using methanol and TMAH as a catalyst, is comparable to the laboratory procedure, even when the biodiesel is produced from waste vegetable oils or animal fats with high free fatty acid content. The reaction conditions were set at: 1.5% w/w of TMAH, reaction temperature 65°C, the feedstock to methanol molar ratio to 1:6, and the reaction time to 120min. The conversion of triglycerides to FAME was approximately 98%. The cloud point of the biodiesel obtained from waste animal fat was also determined.

  7. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar, E-mail: gude@cee.msstate.edu

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  8. The Rebirth of Waste Cooking Oil to Novel Bio-based Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Cai, Bang-Xin; Xu, Wen-Jie; Gang, Hong-Ze; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is a kind of non-edible oil with enormous quantities and its unreasonable dispose may generate negative impact on human life and environment. However, WCO is certainly a renewable feedstock of bio-based materials. To get the rebirth of WCO, we have established a facile and high-yield method to convert WCO to bio-based zwitterionic surfactants with excellent surface and interfacial properties. The interfacial tension between crude oil and water could reach ultra-low value as 0.0016 mN m(-1) at a low dosage as 0.100 g L(-1) of this bio-based surfactant without the aid of extra alkali, which shows a strong interfacial activity and the great potential application in many industrial fields, in particular, the application in enhanced oil recovery in oilfields in place of petroleum-based surfactants.

  9. Stepwise Isothermal Fast Pyrolysis (SIFP of Biomass. Part III. SIFP of Olive Oil Industry Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia S. Luna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of olive oil industry wastes was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP. SIFP consists of a succession of isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions in which the solid products obtained from the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis reaction become the substrates for subsequent reactions at higher temperatures. This article reports the results obtained from the SIFP of olive oil residue carried out between the temperatures of 300 and 500 °C using 100 °C intervals under reduced pressure (200 mm Hg. The maximum yield of liquid products occurred at 300 °C and consisted of around 35% bio-oil, which contained mainly phenols, furans, and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. At 400 and 500 °C, FAME, which is derived from residual olive oil, was the major product.

  10. Thermochemical recycling of mixture of scrap tyres and waste lubricating oil into high caloric value products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Raouf, Manar E.; Maysour, Nermine E.; Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Azim A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Amin, Mahasen S. [Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Scrap tyres and used lubricating oils represent together growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In the present investigation, the thermochemical recycling of mixture of old tyres with waste lubricating oil by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: temperature, type of catalyst and catalyst concentration on the pyrolysis reaction of a mixture of 1/1 wt./wt. oil/tyre ratio. These thermobalance results were thoroughly investigated to study the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue. (author)

  11. The Rebirth of Waste Cooking Oil to Novel Bio-based Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Cai, Bang-Xin; Xu, Wen-Jie; Gang, Hong-Ze; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is a kind of non-edible oil with enormous quantities and its unreasonable dispose may generate negative impact on human life and environment. However, WCO is certainly a renewable feedstock of bio-based materials. To get the rebirth of WCO, we have established a facile and high-yield method to convert WCO to bio-based zwitterionic surfactants with excellent surface and interfacial properties. The interfacial tension between crude oil and water could reach ultra-low value as 0.0016 mN m-1 at a low dosage as 0.100 g L-1 of this bio-based surfactant without the aid of extra alkali, which shows a strong interfacial activity and the great potential application in many industrial fields, in particular, the application in enhanced oil recovery in oilfields in place of petroleum-based surfactants.

  12. Potential Development of Liquid Smoke from Oil Palm Solid Waste as Biofungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Gani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the potential utilization of solid waste from palm oil industry for liquid smoke production in Aceh Province, Indonesia. The liquid smoke can be applied as bio fungicides in agricultural field. Preliminary experiment on the use of liquid smoke as fungicide at Colletotrichum capsisi fungus which causes anthracnose disease on red pepper was also conducted. The survey on the existing potential/availability of palm oil mill in Aceh shows that there are 30 palm oil mills in eight districts with a total of production capacity 1020 ton/hour. Assuming that 10% of palm oil kernel shells are pyrolized into liquid smoke, Aceh province could produce about 23,868 ton of liquid smoke per year. The preliminary test result towards Colletotrichum capsisi fungus shows that the liquid smoke can be used as fungicides.

  13. Component Cost of Fuel Oil of Waste Transportation Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhamtoro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of the transportation system can be measured based on four things, namely the efficiency of time, energy and fuel efficiency, environmental impact, and safety. Efficiency of energy and fuel is often stated as part of vehicle operating costs (VOC. So need to know the amount of the percentage of the fuel cost component of vehicle operating costs. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of the fuel cost component of the total cost of transportation. Research object is a dump truck or on the SCS transport system that serves the city of Malang. Stages of research begins with getting the data needed to analyze the cost of transporting waste. Furthermore, the analysis performed to determine the percentage of each component of transport costs. Results of the analysis showed that the greatest percentage of the cost of each component of the cost of transporting waste is a component of the fuel, while the smallest percentage of the cost of the mechanical components. For the percentage of fuel costs by 28.90% of the variable cost per kilometer, while the percentage of fuel costs by 27.45% of the total cost of transporting waste on his m3each.

  14. Lipid Composition of Oil Extracted from Wasted Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) Heads and Comparison with Oil Extracted from Antarctic Krill (Euphasia superba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalat, Amaya; Nadler, Lauren E; Foo, Nicholas; Dick, James R; Watts, Andrew J R; Philp, Heather; Neil, Douglas M; Monroig, Oscar

    2016-12-01

    In the UK, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) supports its most important shellfish fishery. Nephrops are sold either whole, or as "tails-only" for the scampi trade. In the "tailing" process, the "head" (cephalothorax) is discarded as waste. A smaller crustacean species, the Antarctic krill Euphasia superba, represents an economically valuable industry, as its extractable oil is sold as a human dietary supplement. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and composition of the oil contained in discarded Nephrops heads and to compare its composition to the oil extracted from krill. Differences due to Geographical variation and seasonal patterns in the amount and composition of lipid were also noted. Results indicated that Nephrops head waste samples collected from more southern locations in Scotland (Clyde Sea area) contained higher levels of oil when compared to samples collected from northern locations in Iceland. Moreover, seasonal differences within the Clyde Sea area in Scotland were also observed, with oil extracted from Nephrops head waste peaking at around 11.5% during the summer months when larger and more mature females were caught by trawl. At this time of the year, the valuable fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accounted for around 23% of the total fatty acid content in oil extracted from Nephrops head waste. A seasonal effect on EPA content was found, with higher levels obtained in the summer, while no trend was found in DHA percentages. Finally, oil from Nephrops head waste contained a higher proportion of EPA and DHA than krill oil but these fatty acids were more abundantly linked to the neutral lipids rather to than polar lipids. The characterization of lipid that could be extracted from Nephrops head waste should be seen as a first step for the commercial use of a valuable resource currently wasted. This approach is extremely relevant given the current limited supply of EPA and DHA and changes in

  15. Evaluation of radiation hazard potential of TENORM waste from oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, M A; Attallah, M F; Mohamed, Gehan Y; Fayez-Hassan, M

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a potential radiation hazard from TENORM sludge wastes generated during exploration and extraction processes of oil and gas was evaluated. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides (238)U, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined in TENORM sludge waste. It was found that sludge waste from oil and gas industry is one of the major sources of (226)Ra in the environment. Therefore, some preliminary chemical treatment of sludge waste using Triton X-100 was also investigated to reduce the radioactivity content as well as the risk of radiation hazard from TENORM wastes. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in petroleum sludge materials before and after chemical treatment were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values of the activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra measured in the original samples were found as 8908 Bq kg(-1) and 933 Bq kg(-1), respectively. After chemical treatment of TENORM samples, the average values of the activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra measured in the samples were found as 7835 Bq kg(-1) and 574 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentration index, internal index, absorbed gamma dose rate and the corresponding effective dose rate were estimated for untreated and treated samples.

  16. Effect of NiO/SiO2 on thermo-chemical conversion of waste cooking oil to hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, J; Sokoto, A M; Tambuwal, A D; Garba, N A

    2017-05-01

    Increase in organic waste generation, dwindling nature of global oil reserves coupled with environmental challenges caused by waste oil disposal and burning of fossil fuels necessitated the need for alternative energy resources. Waste cooking oil obtained from the frying fish outlet was analyzed for its physicochemical properties using ASTM D-975 methods. Acid and Iodine values of the oil were 30.43 ± 0.32 mgKOH/g and 57.08 ± 0.43 mgI2/100 g respectively. Thermo-chemical conversion of the oil using NiO/SiO2 at different reaction conditions (pressure, temperature, and catalyst concentration) at a residence time of 3 h yielded 33.63% hydrocarbons. Hydro-catalytic pyrolysis of waste cooking oil at 400 °C, H2 pressure of 15 bars, and catalyst to oil ratio of 0.25 g/100 cm(3) resulted in highest hydrocarbon yield (41.98%). The fuel properties of the product were: cetane number (71.16), high heating value (41.43 MJ/kg), kinematic viscosity (2.01 mm(2)/s), density (0.94 g/ml), saponification value (185.1 ± 3.96 mgKOH/g), and iodine value (20.57 ± 0.20 I2/100 g) respectively. These results show that the NiO/SiO2 could be a suitable catalyst for conversion of waste vegetable oil to hydrocarbons.

  17. Effect of NiO/SiO2 on thermo-chemical conversion of waste cooking oil to hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increase in organic waste generation, dwindling nature of global oil reserves coupled with environmental challenges caused by waste oil disposal and burning of fossil fuels necessitated the need for alternative energy resources. Waste cooking oil obtained from the frying fish outlet was analyzed for its physicochemical properties using ASTM D-975 methods. Acid and Iodine values of the oil were 30.43 ± 0.32 mgKOH/g and 57.08 ± 0.43 mgI2/100 g respectively. Thermo-chemical conversion of the oil using NiO/SiO2 at different reaction conditions (pressure, temperature, and catalyst concentration at a residence time of 3 h yielded 33.63% hydrocarbons. Hydro-catalytic pyrolysis of waste cooking oil at 400 °C, H2 pressure of 15 bars, and catalyst to oil ratio of 0.25 g/100 cm3 resulted in highest hydrocarbon yield (41.98%. The fuel properties of the product were: cetane number (71.16, high heating value (41.43 MJ/kg, kinematic viscosity (2.01 mm2/s, density (0.94 g/ml, saponification value (185.1 ± 3.96 mgKOH/g, and iodine value (20.57 ± 0.20 I2/100 g respectively. These results show that the NiO/SiO2 could be a suitable catalyst for conversion of waste vegetable oil to hydrocarbons.

  18. Study of the environmental hazard caused by the oil shale industry solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põllumaa, L; Maloveryan, A; Trapido, M; Sillak, H; Kahru, A

    2001-01-01

    The environmental hazard was studied of eight soil and solid waste samples originating from a region of Estonia heavily polluted by the oil shale industry. The samples were contaminated mainly with oil products (up to 7231mg/kg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; up to 434mg/kg). Concentrations of heavy metals and water-extractable phenols were low. The toxicities of the aqueous extracts of solid-phase samples were evaluated by using a battery of Toxkit tests (involving crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers and algae). Waste rock and fresh semi-coke were classified as of "high acute toxic hazard", whereas aged semi-coke and most of the polluted soils were classified as of "acute toxic hazard". Analysis of the soil slurries by using the photobacterial solid-phase flash assay showed the presence of particle-bound toxicity in most samples. In the case of four samples out of the eight, chemical and toxicological evaluations both showed that the levels of PAHs, oil products or both exceeded their respective permitted limit values for the living zone (20mg PAHs/kg and 500mg oil products/kg); the toxicity tests showed a toxic hazard. However, in the case of three samples, the chemical and toxicological hazard predictions differed markedly: polluted soil from the Erra River bank contained 2334mg oil/kg, but did not show any water-extractable toxicity. In contrast, spent rock and aged semi-coke that contained none of the pollutants in hazardous concentrations, showed adverse effects in toxicity tests. The environmental hazard of solid waste deposits from the oil shale industry needs further assessment.

  19. Activated carbons from African oil palm waste shells and fibre for hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We prepared a series of activated carbons by chemical activation with two strong bases in-group that few use, and I with waste from shell and fibers and oil-palm African. Activated carbons are obtained with relatively high surface areas (1605 m2/g. We study the textural and chemical properties and its effect on hydrogen storage. The activated carbons obtained from fibrous wastes exhibit a high hydrogen storage capacity of 6.0 wt % at 77 K and 12 bar.

  20. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M; Ali, H M; Abu, M P; Kontol, K M; Ahmad, Z; Ahmad, S H S S; Sulaiman, I; Hamzah, R

    2004-05-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.

  1. Drying Pre-treatment on Empty Fruit Whole Bunches of Oil Palm Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalib, N. Che; Abdullah, N.; Sulaiman, F.

    2010-07-01

    This study is focused on the drying pre-treatment on whole empty fruit bunches [EFB] oil palm wastes. The drying process of whole EFB wastes by conventional method is investigated using the conventional oven in order to obtain less than 10 mf wt % moisture content. Normally, the biomass is dried to less than 10 mf wt % in most laboratory experiments and commercial processes for thermal conversion technologies such as pyrolysis. The result shows that the moisture content of EFB of less than 10 mf wt % is achieved after 29 hours of drying process.

  2. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the

  3. Oil quality of passion fruit seeds subjected to a pulp-waste purification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Alvarenga Regis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit seeds must be clean and dry before the extraction processing to obtain high-quality oil for edible and cosmetic purposes. This research studies the viability of a cleaning process of seeds by evaluating the oil quality. The research examined 2 maturation stages of the fruit and one purification process of the seeds, compared to the control. The oil quality was evaluated by fatty acid composition, acidity, peroxide value and oxidative stability. The pulp waste suffered a thermal treatment in an alkaline water solution at 60°C for 10min and was further purified in an experimental decanter. In the control treatment, the pulp waste was processed using only water at ambient conditions. The passion fruit seeds were totally cleaned by the thermal/chemical treatment, allowing a faster drying (less than 50% of the drying time of the seeds and a bit higher yield of oil extraction (proportionally around 7.7%, without changes in quality of the oil

  4. Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yang Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil, and water content (w/w of oil were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were 80% and 79%, respectively.

  5. Optimized production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chi-Yang; Huang, Liang-Yu; Kuan, I-Ching; Lee, Shiow-Ling

    2013-12-11

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil) and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil), and water content (w/w of oil) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were 80% and 79%, respectively.

  6. Production of biofuel from waste cooking palm oil using nanocrystalline zeolite as catalyst: process optimization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiqurrahmi, Niken; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash

    2011-11-01

    The catalytic cracking of waste cooking palm oil to biofuel was studied over different types of nano-crystalline zeolite catalysts in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of reaction temperature (400-500 °C), catalyst-to-oil ratio (6-14) and catalyst pore size of different nanocrystalline zeolites (0.54-0.80 nm) were studied over the conversion of waste cooking palm oil, yields of Organic Liquid Product (OLP) and gasoline fraction in the OLP following central composite design (CCD). The response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum value of the operating variables for maximum conversion as well as maximum yield of OLP and gasoline fraction, respectively. The optimum reaction temperature of 458 °C with oil/catalyst ratio=6 over the nanocrystalline zeolite Y with pore size of 0.67 nm gave 86.4 wt% oil conversion, 46.5 wt% OLP yield and 33.5 wt% gasoline fraction yield, respectively. The experimental results were in agreement with the simulated values within an experimental error of less than 5%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinetic Study on Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study a kinetic model of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil assisted by ultrasound power. The model considered the biodiesel production process as a 2nd order reversible reaction, while its kinetic parameters were estimated using MATLAB, based on data extracted from Hingu, et al. [1]. The data represented experiments under low-frequency ultrasonic wave (20 kHz and variations of temperature, power, catalyst concentration, and alcohol-oil molar ratio. Statistical analysis showed that the proposed model fits well to the experimental data with a determination coefficient (R2 higher than 0.9.

  8. Statistical optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower waste cooking oil using basic heterogeneous biocatalyst prepared from eggshells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Deriase, Samiha F; Hamdy, A; Abdallah, Renee I

    2015-01-01

    A statistical design of experiments DOE was applied to investigate biodiesel fuel BDF production process from sunflower waste cooking oil SWCO using heterogeneous bio-catalyst produced from eggshells ES...

  9. Microwave assisted esterification of acidified oil from waste cooking oil by CERP/PES catalytic membrane for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglei; Ding, Jincheng; Zhao, Zengdian

    2012-11-01

    The traditional heating and microwave assisted method for biodiesel production using cation ion-exchange resin particles (CERP)/PES catalytic membrane were comparatively studied to achieve economic and effective method for utilization of free fatty acids (FFAs) from waste cooking oil (WCO). The optimal esterification conditions of the two methods were investigated and the experimental results showed that microwave irradiation exhibited a remarkable enhanced effect for esterification compared with that of traditional heating method. The FFAs conversion of microwave assisted esterification reached 97.4% under the optimal conditions of reaction temperature 60°C, methanol/acidified oil mass ratio 2.0:1, catalytic membrane (annealed at 120°C) loading 3g, microwave power 360W and reaction time 90min. The study results showed that it is a fast, easy and green way to produce biodiesel applying microwave irradiation.

  10. Deoxygenation of waste cooking oil and non-edible oil for the production of liquid hydrocarbon biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M J A; Pizzi, A; Toscano, G; Busca, G; Bosio, B; Arato, E

    2016-01-01

    Deoxygenation of waste cooking vegetable oil and Jatropha curcas oil under nitrogen atmosphere was performed in batch and semi-batch experiments using CaO and treated hydrotalcite (MG70) as catalysts at 400 °C. In batch conditions a single liquid fraction (with yields greater than 80 wt.%) was produced containing a high proportion of hydrocarbons (83%). In semi-batch conditions two liquid fractions (separated by a distillation step) were obtained: a light fraction and an intermediate fraction containing amounts of hydrocarbons between 72-80% and 85-88% respectively. In order to assess the possible use of the liquid products as alternative fuels a complete chemical characterization and measurement of their properties were carried out. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Valorization of waste obtained from oil extraction in moringa oleifera seeds: coagulation of reactive dyes in textile effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Mercè Vilaseca; Víctor López-Grimau; Carmen Gutiérrez-Bouzán

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds contain about 40% of highly valued oil due to its wide range of applications, from nutritional issues to cosmetics or biodiesel production. The extraction of Moringa oil generates a waste (65%–75% of seeds weight) which contains a water soluble protein able to be used either in drinking water clarification or wastewater treatment. In this paper, the waste of Moringa oleifera extraction was used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. ...

  12. Influence of soil parameters on depth of oil waste penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlicki Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A measurement post for testing propagation of hydrocarbon contamination in a model of a near-surface soil layer and its remediation, are characterized in the paper. Generalized results of laboratory observations require meeting similarity criteria of the laboratory and actual processes. These requirements were used when designing the measurement post. A successful attempt to match a theoretical model describing oil products filtration necessitates certain conditions, e.g. homogeneity of the physical model of soil and characteristic of the course of the analyzed processes.

  13. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using copper doped zinc oxide nanocomposite as heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Baskar; Ravi, Aiswarya

    2015-01-01

    A novel CZO nanocomposite was synthesized and used as heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of waste cooking oil into biodiesel using methanol as acyl acceptor. The synthesized CZO nanocomposite was characterized in FESEM with an average size of 80 nm as nanorods. The XRD patterns indicated the substitution of ZnO in the hexagonal lattice of Cu nanoparticles. The 12% (w/w) nanocatalyst concentration, 1:8 (v:v) O:M ratio, 55 °C temperature and 50 min of reaction time were found as optimum for maximum biodiesel yield of 97.71% (w/w). Hence, the use of CZO nanocomposite can be used as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved biogas production from food waste by co-digestion with de-oiled grease trap waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Jie; Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Li, Yu-You; Xu, Kai-Qin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of co-digesting food waste (FW) and de-oiled grease trap waste (GTW) to improve the biogas production. A lab-scale mesophilic digester (MD), a temperature-phased anaerobic digester (TPAD) and a TPAD with recycling (TPAD-R) were synchronously operated under mono-digestion (FW) and co-digestion (FW+de-oiled GTW). Co-digestion increased the biogas yield by 19% in the MD and TPAD-R, with a biogas yield of 0.60L/g VS added. Specific methanogenic activity in the TPAD-R was much higher than that in the MD. In addition to methane, hydrogen at a yield of approximately 1mol/mol hexose was produced in the TPAD-R. Alkalinity was consumed more in the co-digestion than in mono-digestion. Co-digestion resulted in more lipid accumulation in each digester. The MD favored the degradation of lipid and conversion of long-chain fatty acids more than the TPAD and TPAD-R.

  15. Detection of olive oil adulteration with waste cooking oil via Raman spectroscopy combined with iPLS and SiPLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanpeng; Fang, Tao; Zhu, Siqi; Huang, Furong; Chen, Zhenqiang; Wang, Yong

    2018-01-15

    Olive oil adulteration with waste cooking oil was detected and quantified by combining optical Raman scattering spectroscopy and chemometrics. Spectra of 96 olive oil samples with waste cooking oil (2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 50%) were collected by the portable Raman spectroscopy system. iPLS and SiPLS quantitative analysis models were established. The results revealed that spectral data after SNV processing are the best for synergy interval partial least square (SiPLS) modeling and forecast. The root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) is 0.0503 and the root mean squared error of validation (RMSEV) is 0.0485. The lower limit of application (LLA) of the proposed method is c[WCO]=0.5%. According to linear regression calculation, the theoretical limit of detection (LOD) of the proposed method is about c[WCO]=0.475%. The established model could make effective quantitative analysis on adulteration of waste cooking oil. It provides a quick accurate method for adulteration detection of waste cooking oil in olive oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Saurabh; Gogate, Parag R; Moreira, Paulo F; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, high speed homogenizer has been used for the intensification of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) used as a sustainable feedstock. High acid value waste cooking oil (27mg of KOH/g of oil) was first esterified with methanol using sulphuric acid as catalyst in two stages to bring the acid value to desired value of 1.5mg of KOH/g of oil. Transesterification of soybean oil (directly due to lower acid value) and esterified waste cooking oil was performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO) for the production of biodiesel. Various experiments were performed for understanding the effect of operating parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature and speed of rotation of the homogenizer. For soybean oil, the maximum biodiesel yield as 84% was obtained with catalyst loading of 3wt% and molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:10 at 50°C with 12,000rpm as the speed of rotation in 30min. Similarly biodiesel yield of 88% was obtained from waste cooking oil under identical operating conditions except for the catalyst loading which was 1wt%. Significant increase in the rate of biodiesel production with yields from soybean oil as 84% (in 30min) and from WCO as 88% (30min) was established due to the use of high speed homogenizer as compared to the conventional stirring method (requiring 2-3h for obtaining similar biodiesel yield). The observed intensification was attributed to the turbulence caused at microscale and generation of fine emulsions due to the cavitational effects. Overall it can be concluded from this study that high speed homogenizer can be used as an alternate cavitating device to efficiently produce biodiesel in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  18. Bioremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Polluted Soil Using Microorganisms Found in Organic Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Okwute, Ojonoma L.; Ijah, Udeme J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of chicken droppings and cow dung in the amendment of soil polluted with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in bioremediation. Soil polluted with 20 % raw (POME) in the laboratory was amended with different concentrations of chicken droppings, cow dung and a combination of the wastes (10 %, 20 % and 30 %). Isolation, characterization and identification of microorganisms were carried out and compared over time with respect to the different concentrat...

  19. Application of waste frying oils in the biosynthesis of biodemulsifier by a demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Peng, Kaiming; Huang, Xiangfeng; Lu, Lijun; Cheng, Hang; Yang, Dianhai; Zhou, Qi; Deng, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of biodemulsifiers has become a new research aspect. Using waste frying oils (WFOs) as carbon source to synthesize biodemulsifiers has a potential prospect to decrease production cost and to improve the application of biodemulsifiers in the oilfield. In this study, a demulsifying strain, Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1, was investigated to synthesize a biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as carbon source. It was found that the increase of initial pH of culture medium could increase the biodemulsifier yield but decrease the demulsification ratio compared to that using paraffin as carbon source. In addition, a biodemulsifier produced by waste frying oils and paraffin as mixed carbon source had a lower demulsification capability compared with that produced by paraffin or waste frying oil as sole carbon source. Fed-batch fermentation of biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as supplementary carbon source was found to be a suitable method. Mechanism of waste frying oils utilization was studied by using tripalmitin, olein and tristearin as sole carbon sources to synthesize biodemulsifier. The results showed saturated long-chain fatty acid was difficult for S-XJ-1 to utilize but could effectively enhance the demulsification ability of the produced biodemulsifier. Moreover, FT-IR result showed that the demulsification capability of biodemulsifiers was associated with the content of C=O group and nitrogen element.

  20. Efficient production of fatty acid methyl ester from waste activated bleaching earth using diesel oil as organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Seiji; Du, Dongning; Sato, Masayasu; Park, Enoch Y

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry was investigated using fossil fuel as a solvent in the esterification of triglycerides. Lipase from Candida cylindracea showed the highest stability in diesel oil. Using diesel oil as a solvent, 3 h was sufficient to obtain a yield of approximately 100% of FAME in the presence of 10% lipase from waste ABE. Kerosene was also a good solvent in the esterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. Fuel analysis showed that the FAME produced using diesel oil as a solvent complied with the Japanese diesel standard and the 10% residual carbon amount was lower than that of FAME produced using other solvents. Use of diesel oil as solvent in the FAME production from the waste ABE simplified the process, because there was no need to separate the organic solvent from the FAME-solvent mixture. These results demonstrate a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME, for use as a biodiesel, from industrial waste resources containing waste vegetable oils.

  1. Response of soil microorganisms to radioactive oil waste: results from a leaching experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitskaya, P.; Biktasheva, L.; Saveliev, A.; Ratering, S.; Schnell, S.; Selivanovskaya, S.

    2015-06-01

    Oil wastes produced in large amounts in the processes of oil extraction, refining, and transportation are of great environmental concern because of their mutagenicity, toxicity, high fire hazardousness, and hydrophobicity. About 40% of these wastes contain radionuclides; however, the effects of oil products and radionuclides on soil microorganisms are frequently studied separately. The effects on various microbial parameters of raw waste containing 575 g of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg-1 waste, 4.4 of 226Ra, 2.8 of 232Th, and 1.3 kBq kg-1 of 40K and its treated variant (1.6 g kg-1 of TPH, 7.9 of 226Ra, 3.9 of 232Th, and 183 kBq kg-1 of 40K) were examined in a leaching column experiment to separate the effects of hydrocarbons from those of radioactive elements. The raw waste sample (H) was collected from tanks during cleaning and maintenance, and a treated waste sample (R) was obtained from equipment for oil waste treatment. Thermal steam treatment is used in the production yard to reduce the oil content. The disposal of H waste samples on the soil surface led to an increase in the TPH content in soil: it became 3.5, 2.8, and 2.2 times higher in the upper (0-20 cm), middle (20-40 cm), and lower (40-60cm) layers, respectively. Activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th increased in soil sampled from both H- and R- columns in comparison to their concentrations in control soil. The activity concentrations of these two elements in samples taken from the upper and middle layers were much higher for the R-column compared to the H-column, despite the fact that the amount of waste added to the columns was equalized with respect to the activity concentrations of radionuclides. The H waste containing both TPH and radionuclides affected the functioning of the soil microbial community, and the effect was more pronounced in the upper layer of the column. Metabolic quotient and cellulase activity were the most sensitive microbial parameters as their levels were changed 5

  2. Fuel and engine characterization study of catalytically cracked waste transformer oil

    KAUST Repository

    Prasanna Raj Yadav, S.

    2015-05-01

    This research work targets on the effective utilization of WTO (waste transformer oil) in a diesel engine and thereby, reducing the environmental problems caused by its disposal into open land. The novelty of the work lies in adoption of catalytic cracking process to chemically treat WTO, wherein waste fly ash has been considered as a catalyst for the first time. Interestingly, both the oil and catalyst used are waste products, enabling reduction in total fuel cost and providing additional benefit of effective waste management. With the considerable token that use of activated fly ash as catalyst requires lower reaction temperature, catalytic cracking was performed only in the range of 350-400°C. As a result of this fuel treatment process, the thermal and physical properties of CCWTO (catalytically cracked waste transformer oil), as determined by ASTM standard methods, were found to be agreeable for its use in a diesel engine. Further, FTIR analysis of CCWTO discerned the presence of essential hydrocarbons such as carbon and hydrogen. From the experimental investigation of CCWTO - diesel blends in a diesel engine, performance and combustion characteristics were shown to be improved, with a notable increase in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) and PHRR (peak heat release rate) for CCWTO 50 by 7.4% and 13.2%, respectively, than that of diesel at full load condition. In the same note, emissions such as smoke, HC (hydrocarbon) and CO (carbon monoxide) were noted to be reduced at the expense of increased NOx (nitrogen oxides) emission. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  4. Characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geum-Ju; Seo, Yong-Chil; Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, In-Tae

    2010-07-01

    An attempt has been made to recover high-calorific fuel gas and useful carbonaceous residue by the electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil. The characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil were investigated in this study. The produced gas was mainly composed of hydrogen (35-40%), acetylene (13-20%), ethylene (3-4%) and other hydrocarbons, whereas the concentration of CO was very low. Calorific values of gas ranged from 11,000 to 13,000 kcal kg(-1) and the concentrations of toxic gases, such as NO(x), HCl and HF, were below the regulatory emissions limit. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of liquid-phase residues showed that high molecular-weight hydrocarbons in waste lubricating oil were pyrolyzed into low molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Dehydrogenation was found to be the main pyrolysis mechanism due to the high reaction temperature induced by electric arc. The average particle size of soot as carbonaceous residue was about 10 microm. The carbon content and heavy metals in soot were above 60% and below 0.01 ppm, respectively. The utilization of soot as industrial material resources such as carbon black seems to be feasible after refining and grinding.

  5. Monitoring of olive oil mills' wastes using electrical resistivity tomography techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simyrdanis, Kleanthis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Kirkou, Stella; Sarris, Apostolos; Tsourlos, Panagiotis

    2014-08-01

    Olive oil mills' wastes (OOMW) are one of the byproducts of the oil production that can lead to serious environmental pollution when they are deposited in ponds dug on the ground surface. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method can provide a valuable tool in order to monitor through time the physical flow of the wastes into the subsurface. ERT could potentially locate the electrical signature due to lower resistivity values resulting from the leakage of OOMW to the subsurface. For this purpose, two vertical boreholes were installed (12m depth, 9 m apart) in the vicinity of an existing pond which is filled with OOMW during the oil production period. The test site is situated in Saint Andreas village about 15km south of the city of Rethymno (Crete, Greece). Surface ERT measurements were collected along multiple lines in order to reconstruct the subsurface resistivity models. Data acquisition was performed with standard and optimized electrode configuration protocols. The monitoring survey includes the ERT data collection for a period of time. The study was initiated before the OOMW were deposited in the pond, so resistivity fluctuations are expected due to the flow of OOMW in the porous subsurface media through time. Preliminary results show the good correlation of the ERT images with the drilled geological formations and the identification of low resistivity subsurface zone that could be attributed to the flow of the wastes within the porous layers.

  6. Smelting reduction and kinetics analysis of magnetic iron in copper slag using waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xubin; Wang, Hua; Wei, Yonggang; Hu, Jianhang

    2017-05-25

    To improve the recovery of copper, the viscosity of copper molten slag is decreased by the reduction of magnetic iron, which, in turn, accelerates the settling and separation of copper droplets from the slag. A new technology is proposed in which waste cooking oil is used as a reductant to reduce magnetic iron in the copper smelting slag and consequently reduce carbon emissions in the copper smelting process. A kinetic model of the reduction of magnetic iron in copper slag by waste cooking oil was built using experimental data, and the accuracy of the model was verified. The results indicated that the magnetic iron content in the copper slag decreased with increasing reduction time and an increase in temperature more efficiently reduced magnetic iron in the copper slag. The magnetic iron in the copper slag gradually transformed to fayalite, and the viscosity of the copper molten slag decreased as the magnetic iron content decreased during the reduction process. The reduction of magnetic iron in the copper molten slag using waste cooking oil was a first-order reaction, and the rate-limiting step was the mass transfer of Fe3O4 through the liquid boundary layer.

  7. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  8. Response of soil microorganisms to radioactive oil waste: results from a leaching experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Galitskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil wastes produced in large amounts in the processes of oil extraction, refining, and transportation are of great environmental concern because of their mutagenicity, toxicity, high fire hazardousness, and other properties. About 40% of these wastes contain radionuclides; however, the effects of oil products and radionuclides on soil microorganisms are frequently studied separately. The toxicity and effects on various microbial parameters of raw waste (H containing 575 g of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH kg−1 waste, 4.4 kBq kg−1 of 226Ra, 2.8 kBq kg−1 of 232Th, and 1.3 kBq kg−1 of $^{40}$K and its treated variant (R (1.6 g kg−1 of TPH, 7.9 kBq kg−1 of 226Ra, 3.9 kBq kg−1 of 232Th, and 183 kBq kg−1 of 40K were estimated in a leaching column experiment to separate the effects of hydrocarbons from those of radioactive elements. The disposal of H waste samples on the soil surface led to an increase of the TPH content in soil: it became 3.5, 2.8, and 2.2 times higher in the upper (0–20 cm, middle (20–40 cm, and lower (40–60 cm layers respectively. Activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th increased in soil sampled from both H- and R-columns in comparison to their concentrations in control soil. The activity concentrations of these two elements in samples taken from the upper and middle layers were much higher for the R-column compared to the H-column, despite the fact that the amount of waste added to the columns was equalized with respect to the activity concentrations of radionuclides. The H waste containing both TPH and radionuclides affected the functioning of the soil microbial community, and the effect was more pronounced in the upper layer of the column. Metabolic quotient and cellulase activity were the most sensitive microbial parameters as their levels were changed 5–1.4 times in comparison to control ones. Changes of soil functional characteristics caused by the treated waste containing mainly radionuclides

  9. Robust optimization on sustainable biodiesel supply chain produced from waste cooking oil under price uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Yunjian

    2017-02-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO)-for-biodiesel conversion is regarded as the "waste-to-wealthy" industry. This paper addresses the design of a WCO-for-biodiesel supply chain at both strategic and tactical levels. The supply chain of this problem is studied, which is based on a typical mode of the waste collection (from restaurants' kitchen) and conversion in the cities. The supply chain comprises three stakeholders: WCO supplier, integrated bio-refinery and demand zone. Three key problems should be addressed for the optimal design of the supply chain: (1) the number, sizes and locations of bio-refinery; (2) the sites and amount of WCO collected; (3) the transportation plans of WCO and biodiesel. A robust mixed integer linear model with muti-objective (economic, environmental and social objectives) is proposed for these problems. Finally, a large-scale practical case study is adopted based on Suzhou, a city in the east of China, to verify the proposed models.

  10. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and porous carbons from printed circuit board waste pyrolysis oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Cui; Li, Aimin; Gao, Ningbo

    2010-07-15

    The possibility and feasibility of using pyrolysis oil from printed circuit board (PCB) waste as a precursor for advanced carbonaceous materials is presented. The PCB waste was first pyrolyzed in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor at 600 degrees C to prepare pyrolysis oil. The analysis of pyrolysis oil by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy indicated that it contained a very high proportion of phenol and phenol derivatives. It was then polymerized in formaldehyde solution to synthesize pyrolysis oil-based resin which was used as a precursor to prepare carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and porous carbons. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission microscopy investigation showed that the resulting CNTs had hollow cores with outer diameter of approximately 338 nm and wall thickness of approximately 86 nm and most of them were filled with metal nanoparticles or nanorods. X-ray diffraction reveals that CNTs have an amorphous structure. Nitrogen adsorption isotherm analysis indicated the prepared porous carbons had a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 1214 m(2)/g. The mechanism of the formation of the CNTs and porous carbons was discussed.

  11. Ultrasound assisted transesterification of waste cooking oil using heterogeneous solid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukale, Dipak D; Maddikeri, Ganesh L; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Pratap, Amit P

    2015-01-01

    Transesterification based biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous solid catalyst has been investigated in the present work. The effect of different operating parameters such as type of catalyst, catalyst concentration, oil to methanol molar ratio and the reaction temperature on the progress of the reaction was studied. Some studies related to catalyst reusability have also been performed. The important physicochemical properties of the synthesized biodiesel have also been investigated. The results showed that tri-potassium phosphate exhibits high catalytic activity for the transesterification of waste cooking oil. Under the optimal conditions, viz. catalyst concentration of 3wt% K3PO4, oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:6 and temperature of 50°C, 92.0% of biodiesel yield was obtained in 90min of reaction time. Higher yield was obtained in the presence of ultrasound as compared to conventional approach under otherwise similar conditions, which can be attributed to the cavitational effects. Kinetic studies have been carried out to determine the rate constant at different operating temperatures. It was observed that the kinetic rate constant increased with an increase in the temperature and the activation energy was found to be 64.241kJ/mol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intergraded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis A. Zorpas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700–3100 t y−1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The cocomposting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32% by the application of Fenton and another 10–28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final cocomposted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

  13. Improvement of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil and Performance Test with Diesel in CI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard of living, quality of life, and development of a nation depend on its per capita energy consumption. Global energy supply that mainly depends on fossil fuel is decreasing day by day. It is estimated that the energy demand will be increased five times by the year 2021 from present scenario. Due to the fossil fuel crisis, the development of alternative fuel technologies has drawn more attraction to deliver the replacement of fossil fuel. Pyrolysis is one of the promising alternative fuel technologies which produces valuable oil, char, and gas product from organic waste. Early investigations report that tire pyrolysis oil extracted from vacuum pyrolysis method seemed to have properties similar to diesel fuel. The main concern of this paper is to produce and improve the properties of crude tire pyrolysis oil by desulfurizing, distilling, and utilizing it with diesel in CI engine to analyze the efficiency for various compositions.

  14. Fiscal 1998 research report on new recycling technology for waste lube oil; 1998 nendo haijunkatsuyu no recycle no shingijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For effective use of resources and environment conservation, R and D was made on recycling technology for recovered waste lube oil. On the R and D on removal of ash and chlorine contents in waste lube oil, iron oxide-carbon composite was found as adsorbent which can reduce ash content and chlorine content to 0.02wt% and 5ppm, respectively. On the research on the applicability of waste lube oil as melting furnace fuel for bottom ash and fly ash, as the melting experiment result at a real plant, the recycled heavy oil obtained by simple treatment of waste lube oil showed dioxin decomposition rates more than 99.9% and dioxin concentrations less than 0.6ngTEQ/Nm{sup 3} in waste gas, achieving the targets regulated by Air Pollution Control Law. The applicability of waste lube oil as fuel was thus confirmed. On the research on the applicability of waste lube oil as fuel for power generation in oil refineries, both waste lube oil alone and mixed oil with residual oil were available as gasification fuel through design considering ash content removal, and reasonable selection of equipment and piping materials considering chlorine. (NEDO)

  15. Facile Route to Generate Fuel Oil via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Polypropylene Bags: Towards Waste Management of >20 μm Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy of waste recycling of polypropylene plastics (PP bags for generation of commercially viable byproducts using nanoforms of nickel as catalyst is presented in this work. After pyrolysis of waste PP bags (>20 μm under continuous argon flow, 90% conversion efficiency to high petroleum oil was observed at 550°C. To assess the physicochemical attributes of formed oil, flash point, pour point, viscosity, specific gravity, heating value, and density were also measured and found to be very close to ideal values of commercial fuel oil. Moreover, GC-MS was used to resolve the range of trace mass hydrocarbon present in the liquefied hydrocarbon. Our robust recycling system can be exploited as economical technique to solve the nuisance of waste plastic hazardous to ecosystem.

  16. Upgraded bio-oil production via catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of waste cooking oil and tea residual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Zhong, Zhaoping; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Kuan; Xue, Zeyu; Deng, Aidong; Ruan, Roger

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) offers a concise and effective process to achieve an upgraded bio-oil production. In this paper, co-CFP experiments of waste cooking oil (WCO) and tea residual (TR) with HZSM-5 zeolites were carried out. The influences of pyrolysis reaction temperature and H/C ratio on pyrolytic products distribution and selectivities of aromatics were performed. Furthermore, the prevailing synergetic effect of target products during co-CFP process was investigated. Experimental results indicated that H/C ratio played a pivotal role in carbon yields of aromatics and olefins, and with H/C ratio increasing, the synergetic coefficient tended to increase, thus led to a dramatic growth of aromatics and olefins yields. Besides, the pyrolysis temperature made a significant contribution to carbon yields, and the yields of aromatics and olefins increased at first and then decreased at the researched temperature region. Note that 600°C was an optimum temperature as the maximum yields of aromatics and olefins could be achieved. Concerning the transportation fuel dependence and security on fossil fuels, co-CFP of WCO and TR provides a novel way to improve the quality and quantity of pyrolysis bio-oil, and thus contributes bioenergy accepted as a cost-competitive and promising alternative energy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainable supply chain design for waste cooking oil-based biodiesel in bogor using dynamic system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahdan, A. D.; Arkeman, Y.; Wijaya, H.

    2017-05-01

    Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels that are environmentally friendly. Besides palm oil, biodiesel can also be produced from waste cooking oil. Since 2007, the government of Bogor has been utilizing waste cooking oil into biodiesel for use as Transpakuan bus’ fuel. However, in practice, the amount of waste cooking oil supplied is never sufficient the needs of fuel of 30 units Transpakuan bus. The main objective of this research is to analyze the availability of waste cooking oil that will be converted into biodiesel within the next ten years as well as providing policy advice to support the program. The method used is a dynamic system that is followed by simulation of multiple scenarios that have been defined. The system is divided into three subsystems, namely supply subsystem, demand subsystem, and production subsystem. The results showed that the current system is not able to guarantee the sustainability of the supply chain of waste cooking oil as a raw material of biodiesel. From some of the scenarios tested can be concluded that biodiesel needs would increase in line with the trend of the use of environmentally friendly fuels. It takes a new system and a new policy relating to the biodiesel supply chain. Policy suggestions that can be proposed from this research is to increase supplier participation, objectify the program of converting angkot into Transpakuan bus, and support the development of biodiesel industry.

  18. Study on Fired Clay Bricks by Replacing Clay with Palm Oil Waste: Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Perju, M. C.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Palm oil is one of the major agricultural industries in Malaysia. Due to the poor management system, the discarded palm oil waste has always been linked to the environment issues. During processing of palm oil, a considerable amount of solid waste by-products in the form of fibres, shells, empty fruit bunches and fly ashes are produce rapidly. Therefore, this study was conducted to incorporate 1%, 5% and 10% of palm oil waste into fired clay brick. Samples of brick were fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. Manufactured bricks were tested with physical and mechanical properties including firing shrinkage, dry density, water absorption and compressive strength. The results demonstrated that the replacement of 1% up to 5% of palm oil waste had improved several properties, although, a decrease of performance in certain aspects has also been observed. As a result, palm oil waste can be utilized in an environmentally safe way into fired clay brick thus providing adequate properties of fired clay brick.

  19. Effect of incorporation of nutraceutical capsule waste of safflower oil in the mechanical characteristics of corn starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de CAMPO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biodegradable films blends made of safflower oil nutraceutical capsules waste corn starch (20:4, 30:4, 40:4 and 50:4 were prepared. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of addition of different concentrations of safflower oil nutraceutical capsule waste in the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, Young’s modulus and thickness of corn starch films. A decrease in tensile strength and Young’s modulus and an increase in elongation at break were observed with the increase in the content of the nutraceutical capsule waste. The results showed that the blends of safflower oil capsules waste-corn starch films demonstrated promising characteristics to form biodegradable films with different mechanical characteristics.

  20. Performance evaluation of integrated solid-liquid wastes treatment technology in palm oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, J. R.; Suprihatin, S.; Indrasti, N. S.; Hasanudin, U.; Fujie, K.

    2017-05-01

    The oil palm industry significantly contributes to environmental degradation if without waste management properly. The newest alternative waste management that might be developed is by utilizing the effluent of POME anaerobic digestion with EFB through integrated anaerobic decomposition process. The aim of this research was to examine and evaluate the integrated solid-liquid waste treatment technology in the view point of greenhouse gasses emission, compost, and biogas production. POME was treated in anaerobic digester with loading rate about 1.65 gCOD/L/day. Treated POME with dosis of 15 and 20 L/day was sprayed to the anaerobic digester that was filled of 25 kg of EFB. The results of research showed that after 60 days, the C/N ratio of EFB decreased to 12.67 and 10.96 for dosis of treated POME 15 and 20 L/day, respectively. In case of 60 day decomposition, the integrated waste treatment technology could produce 51.01 and 34.34 m3/Ton FFB which was equivalent with 636,44 and 466,58 kgCO2e/ton FFB for dosis of treated POME 15 and 20 L/day, respectively. The results of research also showed that integrated solid-liquid wastes treatment technology could reduce GHG emission about 421.20 and 251.34 kgCO2e/ton FFB for dosis of treated POME 15 and 20 L/day, respectively.

  1. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Keisuke; Maeda, Kouji; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi

    2013-06-01

    Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1].

  2. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  3. Biodiesel Production from Waste Edible Oils and Grease Containing Free Fatty Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Fenghong; Guo Pingmei; Huang Qingde

    2005-01-01

    Till now, most part of the biodiesel is produced from the refined vegetable oils using methanol as feedstock in the presence of an alkali catalyst. However, large amount of waste edible oils and grease are available. The difficulty with alkali-catalyzed esterification of these oils is that they often contain large amount of free fatty acids (FFA), polymers and decomposition products. These free fatty acids can quickly react with the alkali catalyst to produce soaps that inhibit the separation of the ester and glycerine. An esterification and transesterification process is developed to convert the high FFA oil to its monoesters. The first step, the acidcatalyzed esterification with glycerine and these FFA reduces the FFA content of the oil and grease to less than3%, and then an azeotropic distillation solvent is used to remove the water. The major factors affecting the conversion efficiency of the process such as glycerol to free fatty acid molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction temperature and reaction duration are analyzed. The second step, alkali-catalyzed transesterification process converts the products of the first step to its monoesters and glycerol, and then the glycerol is recycled for utilization in the first step. Technical indicators of the biodiesel product can meet the ASTM 6751 standard.

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust for bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Başak B; Kanmaz, Gülin

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the catalytic pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust in the presence of ZSM-5, H-Y and MCM-41 (10 wt % of the biomass sample) was carried out in order to increase the quality of the liquid product at the various pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 450, 500 and 550(o)C. In the non-catalytic work, the maximum oil yield was obtained as 42% at 500(o)C in a fixed-bed reactor system. In the catalytic work, the maximum oil yield was decreased to 37.48, 30.04 and 29.23% in the presence of ZSM-5, H-Y and MCM-41, respectively. The obtained pyrolysis oils were analyzed by various spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. It was determined that the use of a catalyst decreased acids and increased valuable organics found in the bio-oil. The removal of oxygen from bio-oil was confirmed with the results of the elemental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  5. Co-pyrolysis of corn cob and waste cooking oil in a fixed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Liu, Cong; Ma, Wenchao; Zhang, Xiaoxiong; Li, Yanbin; Yan, Beibei; Zhou, Weihong

    2014-08-01

    Corn cob (CC) and waste cooking oil (WCO) were co-pyrolyzed in a fixed bed. The effects of various temperatures of 500 °C, 550 °C, 600 °C and CC/WCO mass ratios of 1:0, 1:0.1, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 0:1 were investigated, respectively. Results show that co-pyrolysis of CC/WCO produce more liquid and less bio-char than pyrolysis of CC individually. Bio-oil and bio-char yields were found to be largely dependent on temperature and CC/WCO ratios. GC/MS of bio-oil show it consists of different classes and amounts of organic compounds other than that from CC pyrolysis. Temperature of 550 °C and CC/WCO ratio of 1:1 seem to be the optimum considering high bio-oil yields (68.6 wt.%) and good bio-oil properties (HHV of 32.78 MJ/kg). In this case, bio-char of 24.96 MJ/kg appears attractive as a renewable source, while gas with LHV of 16.06 MJ/Nm(3) can be directly used in boilers as fuel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent patents in olive oil industry: New technologies for the recovery of phenols compounds from olive oil, olive oil industrial by-products and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, N

    2010-06-01

    Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented.

  7. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using immobilized lipase in fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yingming [School of Environment and Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Engineering, Wuhan 430073 (China)]|[Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chang, Jie; Fu, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lv, Pengmei; Wang, Xuewei [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is the residue from the kitchen, restaurants, food factories and even human and animal waste which not only harm people's health but also causes environmental pollution. The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil to partially substitute petroleum diesel is one of the measures for solving the twin problems of environment pollution and energy shortage. In this project, synthesis of biodiesel was catalyzed by immobilized Candida lipase in a three-step fixed bed reactor. The reaction solution was a mixture of WCO, water, methanol and solvent (hexane). The main product was biodiesel consisted of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), of which methyl oleate was the main component. Effects of lipase, solvent, water, and temperature and flow of the reaction mixture on the synthesis of biodiesel were analyzed. The results indicate that a 91.08% of FAME can be achieved in the end product under optimum conditions. Most of the chemical and physical characters of the biodiesel were superior to the standards for 0diesel (GB/T 19147) and biodiesel (DIN V51606 and ASTM D-6751). (author)

  8. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using immobilized lipase in fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yingming [School of Environment and Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Engineering, Wuhan 430073 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chang Jie [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)], E-mail: changjie@scut.edu.cn; Fu Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lv Pengmei; Wang Xuewei [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is the residue from the kitchen, restaurants, food factories and even human and animal waste which not only harm people's health but also causes environmental pollution. The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil to partially substitute petroleum diesel is one of the measures for solving the twin problems of environment pollution and energy shortage. In this project, synthesis of biodiesel was catalyzed by immobilized Candida lipase in a three-step fixed bed reactor. The reaction solution was a mixture of WCO, water, methanol and solvent (hexane). The main product was biodiesel consisted of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), of which methyl oleate was the main component. Effects of lipase, solvent, water, and temperature and flow of the reaction mixture on the synthesis of biodiesel were analyzed. The results indicate that a 91.08% of FAME can be achieved in the end product under optimum conditions. Most of the chemical and physical characters of the biodiesel were superior to the standards for 0 diesel (GB/T 19147) and biodiesel (DIN V51606 and ASTM D-6751)

  9. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soils surrounding oil waste disposal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Wang, Hanxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Mengchao; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Xiaoxue; Zong, Meihan

    2016-02-01

    More attention is being devoted to heavy metal pollution because heavy metals can concentrate in higher animals through the food chain, harm human health and threaten the stability of the ecological environment. In this study, the effects of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Hg) emanating from oil waste disposal on surrounding soil in Jilin Province, China, were investigated. A potential ecological risk index was used to evaluate the damage of heavy metals and concluded that the degree of potential ecological damage of heavy metals can be ranked as follows: Hg > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Zn. The average value of the potential ecological harm index (Ri) is 71.93, thereby indicating light pollution. In addition, this study researched the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals by means of ArcGIS (geographic information system) spatial analysis software. The results showed that the potential ecological risk index (R) of the large value was close to the distance from the oil waste disposal area; it is relatively between the degree of heavy metals in soil and the distance from the waste disposal area.

  10. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Tuong Vi; Kaiprommarat, Sunanta; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Guan, Guoqing; Nguyen, Manh Huan; Samart, Chanatip

    2016-06-01

    The application of an environmentally benign sulfonated carbon microsphere catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. This catalyst was prepared by the sequential hydrothermal carbonization and sulfonation of xylose. The morphology, surface area, and acid properties were analyzed. The surface area and acidity of the catalyst were 86m(2)/g and 1.38mmol/g, respectively. In addition, the presence of sulfonic acid on the carbon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity was tested for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via a two-step reaction to overcome reaction equilibrium. The highest biodiesel yield (89.6%) was obtained at a reaction temperature of 110°C, duration time of 4h, and catalyst loading of 10wt% under elevated pressure 2.3bar and 1.4bar for first and second step, respectively. The reusability of the catalyst was investigated and showed that the biodiesel yield decreased by 9% with each cycle; however, this catalyst is still of interest because it is an example of green chemistry, is nontoxic, and makes use of xylose waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New Biofuel Alternatives: Integrating Waste Management and Single Cell Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Judith Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO2 emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H2 and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process.

  12. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-12-01

    This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol-methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1-2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol-methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  13. Applying Neural Network to Dynamic Modeling of Biosurfactant Production Using Soybean Oil Refinery Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufe Tayyebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. Production of biosurfactants via fermentation of immiscible wastes has the dual benefit of creating economic opportunities for manufacturers, while improving environmental health. A predictor system, recommended in such processes, must be scaled-up. Hence, four neural networks were developed for the dynamic modeling of the biosurfactant production kinetics, in presence of soybean oil or refinery wastes including acid oil, deodorizer distillate and soap stock. Each proposed feed forward neural network consists of three layers which are not fully connected. The input and output data for the training and validation of the neural network models were gathered from batch fermentation experiments. The proposed neural network models were evaluated by three statistical criteria (R2, RMSE and SE. The typical regression analysis showed high correlation coefficients greater than 0.971, demonstrating that the neural network is an excellent estimator for prediction of biosurfactant production kinetic data in a two phase liquid-liquid batch fermentation system. In addition, sensitivity analysis indicates that residual oil has the significant effect (i.e. 49% on the biosurfactant in the process.

  14. Response surface methodology assisted biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using encapsulated mixed enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, Sirajunnisa Abdul; Duraiarasan, Surendhiran

    2016-01-01

    In the recent scenario, consumption of petroleum fuels has increased to greater height which has led to deforestation and decline in fossil fuels. In order to tackle the perilous situation, alternative fuel has to be generated. Biofuels play a vital role in substituting the diesel fuels as they are renewable and ecofriendly. Biodiesel, often referred to as green fuel, could be a potential replacement as it could be synthesized from varied substrates, advantageous being the microalgae in several ways. The present investigation was dealt with the interesterification of waste cooking oil using immobilised lipase from mixed cultures for biodiesel production. In order to standardize the production for a scale up process, the parameters necessary for interesterification had been optimized using the statistical tool, Central Composite Design - Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions required to generate biodiesel were 2 g enzyme load, 1:12 oil to methyl acetate ratio, 60 h reaction time and 35 °C temperature, yielding a maximum of 93.61% biodiesel. The immobilised lipase beads remain stable without any changes in their function and structure even after 20 cycles which made this study, less cost intensive. In conclusion, the study revealed that the cooking oil, a residue of many dining centers, left as waste product, can be used as a potential raw material for the production of ecofriendly and cost effective biofuel, the biodiesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emissions Characteristics of Small Diesel Engine Fuelled by Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Amir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative, decomposable and biological-processed fuel that has similar characteristics with mineral diesel which can be used directly into diesel engines. However, biodiesel has oxygenated, more density and viscosity compared to mineral diesel. Despite years of improvement attempts, the key issue in using waste cooking oil-based fuels is oxidation stability, stoichiometric point, bio-fuel composition, antioxidants on the degradation and much oxygen with comparing to diesel gas oil. Thus, the improvement of emission exhausted from diesel engines fueled by biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil (WCO is urgently required to meet the future stringent emission regulations. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influences of WCO blended fuel and combustion reliability in small engine on the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions. The engine speed was varied from 1500-2500 rpm and WCO blending ratio from 5-15 vol% (W5-W15. Increased blends of WCO ratio is found to influences to the combustion process, resulting in decreased the HC emissions and also other exhaust emission element. The improvement of combustion process is expected to be strongly influenced by oxygenated fuel in biodiesel content.

  16. Investigation of Performance and Emissions Effects of Waste Vegetable Oil Methyl Ester in A Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya ULUSOY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study engine and emission performance of a 4-stroke, 4 cylinder, direct injection 62,5 kW engine, with three different biodiesel blends (B25, B50, B75,  was compared with those obtained with use of normal diesel (B0 through a 8-mode experimental test procedure, in convention with ISO 8178-C1. The results of the study showed that, performance and emission values of biodiesel fuels produced from vegetable oil and those obtained with diesel fuel (B0 are very close to each other.  In this context, the waste cooking oil, which is a serious risk to the environment and should be collected according to related legistlative measures,  could be processed to and used as biodiesel without creating any significant loss in terms of engine performance, while providing significant advantages in terms of engine emissions. These results revealed that, waste frying oils can be used as diesel fuel and to create an adding value for the economy instead of being potential environmental risk. 

  17. THE ANALYSIS OF WASTES LEFT AFTER OIL SEEDS CLEANING AND THE METHODS OF THEIR DISPOSAL AND PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smychagin E. O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article cites the data about the amount and productive capacity of oil producing enterprises in the Russian Federation on the whole, as well as in Krasnodar region and the Republic of Adygeya. It is shown, that innovations in the field of waste disposal and waste recycling left after oil production are the most effective, as they contribute to the cost reduction on disposal of waste on landfill and thus, improve environment considerably. They also provide additional revenue from the sale of new products, received after waste recycling. The authors examined literature data on compositional and chemical analysis of waste left after cleaning main oil-bearing crops, processed by oil-producing industry of the Russian Federation (such as sunflower, rape, soy-beans . The analysis of available technologies of their disposal, such as waste incineration, pyrolysis, worm composting, landfilling, biothermal composting, granulationa of waste and the processing of undersow is submitted to your attention. The analysis of advantages and disadvantages of all available technologies was carried out, and it was noticed that neither of available technologies had become common use. The most prospective direction for the development of efficient technology of waste recycling has been chosen, which includes the use of waste pressing after their rational preparation and isolation of uniform and valuable components. It is shown, that the primary task for the development of such technology is the study of waste composition of raw materials and industrial cleaning of sunflower seeds, soy-beans, and modern sorts of rape and its hybrids

  18. Fuel spray combustion of waste cooking oil and palm oil biodiesel: Direct photography and detailed chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole

    2013-10-14

    This paper studies the ignition processes of two biodiesel from two different feedstock sources, namely waste cooked oil (WCO) and palm oil (PO). They were investigated using the direct photography through high-speed video observations and detailed chemical kinetics. The detailed chemical kinetics modeling was carried out to complement data acquired using the high-speed video observations. For the high-speed video observations, an image intensifier combined with OH* filter connected to a high-speed video camera was used to obtain OH* chemiluminscence image near 313 nm. The OH* images were used to obtain the experimental ignition delay of the biodiesel fuels. For the high-speed video observations, experiments were done at an injection pressure of 100, 200 and 300 MPa using a 0.16 mm injector nozzle. Also a detailed chemical kinetics for the biodiesel fuels was carried out using ac chemical kinetics solver adopting a 0-D reactor model to obtain the chemical ignition delay of the combusting fuels. Equivalence ratios obtained from the experimental ignition delay were used for the detailed chemical kinetics analyses. The Politecnico di Milano\\'s thermochemical and reaction kinetic data were adopted to simulate the ignition processes of the biodiesels using the five fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) major components in the biodiesel fuels. From the high-speed video observations, it was observed that at increasing injection pressure, experimental ignition delay increased as a result of improvement in fuel and air mixing effects. Also the palm oil biodiesel has a shorter ignition delay compared to waste cooked oil biodiesel. This phenomenon could be attributed to the higher cetane number of palm biodiesel. The fuel spray ignition properties depend on both the physical ignition delay and chemical ignition delay. From the detailed chemical kinetic results it was observed that at the low temperature, high ambient pressure conditions reactivity increased as equivalent ratio

  19. 回收油烟机废油的利用%Coverting waste-oil from oil-smoke machinery into soap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江; 程喜英

    2004-01-01

    在回收油烟机的废油中,含有高脂肪酸及油脂等物质,油脂又是高级脂肪酸的甘油脂,它们都能与氢氧化钠作用生成肥皂.本文介绍了一种利用回收油烟机废油制取洗手香皂的方法.

  20. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  1. Composition-Explicit Distillation Curves of Waste Lubricant Oils and Resourced Crude Oil: A Diagnostic for Re-Refining and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Starkey Ott

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Problem statement: We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications include a composition-explicit data channel for each distillate fraction and temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points that can be modeled with an equation of state. The composition-explicit information is achieved with a sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the method (called the advanced distillation curve technique to a variety of fluids, including simple n-alkanes, rocket propellants, gasoline, jet fuels, diesel and biodiesel fuels and crude oils (both petroleum-and bio-derived crude oils. Approach: In this study, we present the application of the method to new, recycled and resourced heavy oils. The ultimate purpose of this work is waste reduction and energy utilization, by placing the reprocessing steps on a more fundamental footing. First, we present measurements on four unused automotive crankcase oils and then four samples of used oils: automotive oil, cutting oil, transformer oil and a commingled lubricant waste stream. Using the advanced distillation curve metrology, we can distinguish between the different weights (viscosity ranges of crankcase oils and compare them to the sample of used crankcase oil. The distillation curves also provide valuable information regarding the presence or absence of low-boiling contaminants in the recycled automotive oil, such as water and gasoline. Results: Additionally, we demonstrate the evaluation of all four used lubricant oils. Then, we apply the advanced distillation curve method to a sample of crude oil prepared using a plastic waste stream from an automotive plant. Conclusion: Overall, we conclude that the composition-explicit advanced distillation curve metrology is important for understanding the boiling behavior

  2. Transformation of waste cooking oil into C-18 fatty acids using a novel lipase produced by Penicillium chrysogenum through solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Negi, Sangeeta

    2015-10-01

    The prime aim of the current work was to illustrate the components existing in repeatedly used cooking oil and to develop an economical process for the production of fatty acids from low cost feedstock waste. The waste cooking oil was characterized by the occurrence of high molecular weight hydrocarbons and polymerized derivative of esters. Triacontanoic acid methyl ester, 2,3,5,8-Tetramethyldecane, 3,3 dimethyl heptane, and 2,2,3,3-teramethyl pentane were detected as thermal and oxidative contaminants that adversely affect the quality of cooking oil. Fundamentally, waste cooking oil comprises ester bonds of long chain fatty acids. The extracellular lipase produced from P. chrysogenum was explored for the hydrolysis of waste cooking oil. The incorporation of lipase to waste cooking oil in 1:1 proportion released 17 % oleic acid and 5 % stearic acid.

  3. Effects of Waste Plastic Oil Blends on a Multi Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kumar Kareddula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing fossil fuels are utilizing at their critical rate, leads to depletion of their reserves in a dramatic way. Generating alternative energy sources in a pragmatic way are necessitated, which demands the researchers to utilize the inherent energy of carbon based products as an energy source to the automobile sector. As a part of it, my research is focused on transforming and using the waste plastics as an alternative fuel in multi cylinder spark ignition engine. This paper aims to present the experimental investigations of performance and emission characteristics in an existing Maruti 800 petrol engine running with the blends of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of waste Plastic Pyrolysis Oil (PPO with gasoline. From the results, it is noticed that hydrocarbon emissions are substantially reduced and oxides of nitrogen emissions are increased and petrol engine can operate with PPO blends up to 20% without any engine modifications.

  4. Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Waste Cooking Oil by Heterogeneous Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽艳; 刘志敏; 唐国武; 谭蔚

    2014-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is becoming the most promising alternative feedstock to produce biodiesel due to its low cost in China. In this study, NKC-9 ion-exchange resin and H-beta zeolite were selected as heterogeneous catalysts in the WCO esterification process and their esterification characteristics were compared by orthogonal ex-periments. NKC-9 resin showed higher activity and achieved a higher final conversion compared with H-beta zeolite under the same reaction conditions. Reusability experiments showed that NKC-9 resin still exhibited high activity after 5 runs. The effects of the mole ratio of alcohol to oil, reaction time, reaction temperature and the catalyst dose were investigated by multifactor orthogonal analysis. The influence of the free fatty acid (FFA) content was also investi-gated, and the result showed that the esterification rate could be as high as 98.4%when the FFA content was 6.3wt%.

  5. Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part II: effect of temperature on hydrocarbon composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Kalogianni, Aggeliki

    2010-10-01

    This study focuses on the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) as the main feedstock for hydrotreatment to evaluate the effect of temperature on the product hydrocarbon composition. A qualitative analysis was initially performed using a GC x GC-TOFMS indicating the presence of mainly paraffins of the C15-C18 range. A quantitative analysis was also performed via a GC-FID, which gave both n-paraffins and iso-paraffins in the range of C8-C29. The results indicate that hydrotreating temperature favors isomerization reactions as the amount of n-paraffins decreases while the amount of iso-paraffins increases. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure=1200 psig, LHSV=1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio=4000 scfb, liquid feed=0.33 ml/min, and gas feed=0.4 scfh).

  6. Production and characterization of rhamnolipid using palm oil agricultural refinery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzuan, Mohd Nazren; Banat, Ibrahim M; Winterburn, James

    2017-02-01

    In this research we assess the feasibility of using palm oil agricultural refinery waste as a carbon source for the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant through fermentation. The production and characterization of rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grown on palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) under batch fermentation were investigated. Results show that P. aeruginosa PAO1 can grow and produce 0.43gL(-1) of rhamnolipid using PFAD as the sole carbon source. Identification of the biosurfactant product using mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of monorhamnolipid and dirhamnolipid. The rhamnolipid produced from PFAD were able to reduce surface tension to 29mNm(-1) with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) 420mgL(-1) and emulsify kerosene and sunflower oil, with an emulsion index up to 30%. Results demonstrate that PFAD could be used as a low-cost substrate for rhamnolipid production, utilizing and transforming it into a value added biosurfactant product.

  7. Thermodynamic investigation of waste cooking oil based hydrogen generation system with chemical looping process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Faleh

    2016-07-01

    The results show that coke formation can be thermodynamically inhibited by increasing the S/C ratio and/or the NiO/C ratio. The conditions that maximize hydrogen production, minimize methane and carbon monoxide content as well as avoid coke formation at thermoneutral conditions were found to be S/C = 5, T = 600 °C and NiO/C = 0.493. Under these conditions, a hydrogen yield of 144.3 mol/kg of soybean waste cooking oil can be obtained, which appears to be an attractive result for starting experimental research.

  8. Waste management and contaminated site remediation practices after oil spill: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando Jorge Santos; da Rocha Calixto, Renata Oliveira; Felippe, Carlos Eduardo Cunha; de Franca, Francisca Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    A case study is presented on waste management practices implemented after a residual fuel oil spill from a steam-generating boiler in an industrial area, and on the technical feasibility of monitored natural attenuation as a treatment option for a recently contaminated tropical soil. One day after contamination, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbons and phenanthrene concentrations varied from 3.1 to 7.9 g kg(-1) and 149 to 287 µg kg(-1), respectively. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations decayed along the monitored time and after 90 days of processes the soil was considered rehabilitated for future industrial use.

  9. Acyclic monoterpenes in tree essential oils as a shrinking agent for waste-expanded polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotori, Yasutaka; Hattori, Kazuyuki; Aoyama, Masakazu; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    We examined the dissolution of polystyrene (PS) into acyclic monoterpenes present in tree essential oils, to develop an environmentally friendly shrinking agent for waste-expanded polystyrene (EPS). The dissolving powers of geranyl acetate, geranylacetone, and geranyl formate [221.8-241.2 g PS (100 g solvent)(-1)] compared favorably with that of (R)-limonene [181.7 g PS (100 g solvent)(-1)]. Their favorable dissolving powers for PS can be explained by their flexible linear structures, which may be more accessible to the inside of bulk PS compared with cyclic monoterpenes. These acyclic monoterpenes and PS were recovered almost quantitatively by simple steam distillation of the PS solution.

  10. Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, D.J.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-03-31

    The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU and DOE will provide the basis for international technology transfer of new and innovative remediation technologies that can be applied in Poland and the Eastern European Region as well.

  11. Compatibility tests between Jarytherm DBT synthetic oil and solid materials from wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasquelle, Thomas; Falcoz, Quentin; Neveu, Pierre; Flamant, Gilles; Walker, Jérémie

    2016-05-01

    Direct thermocline thermal energy storage is the cheapest sensible thermal energy storage configuration. Indeed, a thermocline tank consists in one tank instead of two and reduces costs. Thermocline thermal energy storages are often filled with cheap solid materials which could react with the heat transfer fluid in the case of incompatibility. PROMES laboratory is building a pilot-scale parabolic trough solar loop including a direct thermocline thermal energy storage system. The working fluid will be a synthetic oil, the Jarytherm® DBT, and the thermal energy storage tank will be filled with stabilized solid materials elaborated from vitrified wastes. Compatibility tests have been conducted in order to check on one hand if the thermo-mechanical properties and life time of the energy storage medium are not affected by the contact with oil and, on the other hand, if the thermal oil performances are not degraded by the solid filler. These experiments consisted in putting in contact the oil and the solid materials in small tanks. In order to discriminate the solid materials tested in the shortest time, accelerating aging conditions at 330 °C for 500 hours were used. The measurements consisted in X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy for the solids, and thermo-physical and chemical properties measurements for the oil. Regarding the solid samples, their crystalline structure did not change during the test, but it is difficult to conclude about their elementary composition and they seem to absorb oil. While thermal properties still makes Jarytherm® DBT a good heat transfer fluid after the accelerated aging tests, this study results in differentiating most compatible materials. Thus according to our study, Jarytherm® DBT can be used in direct thermocline thermal energy storage applications when compatibility of the solid material has been demonstrated.

  12. Lipases Immobilization for Effective Synthesis of Biodiesel Starting from Coffee Waste Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Gardossi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized lipases were applied to the enzymatic conversion of oils from spent coffee ground into biodiesel. Two lipases were selected for the study because of their conformational behavior analysed by Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations taking into account that immobilization conditions affect conformational behavior of the lipases and ultimately, their efficiency upon immobilization. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel was initially carried out on a model substrate (triolein in order to select the most promising immobilized biocatalysts. The results indicate that oils can be converted quantitatively within hours. The role of the nature of the immobilization support emerged as a key factor affecting reaction rate, most probably because of partition and mass transfer barriers occurring with hydrophilic solid supports. Finally, oil from spent coffee ground was transformed into biodiesel with yields ranging from 55% to 72%. The synthesis is of particular interest in the perspective of developing sustainable processes for the production of bio-fuels from food wastes and renewable materials. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel is carried out under mild conditions, with stoichiometric amounts of substrates (oil and methanol and the removal of free fatty acids is not required.

  13. Lipases immobilization for effective synthesis of biodiesel starting from coffee waste oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Valerio; Veny, Harumi; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Navarini, Luciano; Ebert, Cynthia; Gardossi, Lucia

    2013-08-13

    Immobilized lipases were applied to the enzymatic conversion of oils from spent coffee ground into biodiesel. Two lipases were selected for the study because of their conformational behavior analysed by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations taking into account that immobilization conditions affect conformational behavior of the lipases and ultimately, their efficiency upon immobilization. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel was initially carried out on a model substrate (triolein) in order to select the most promising immobilized biocatalysts. The results indicate that oils can be converted quantitatively within hours. The role of the nature of the immobilization support emerged as a key factor affecting reaction rate, most probably because of partition and mass transfer barriers occurring with hydrophilic solid supports. Finally, oil from spent coffee ground was transformed into biodiesel with yields ranging from 55% to 72%. The synthesis is of particular interest in the perspective of developing sustainable processes for the production of bio-fuels from food wastes and renewable materials. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel is carried out under mild conditions, with stoichiometric amounts of substrates (oil and methanol) and the removal of free fatty acids is not required.

  14. Biodiesel production from waste cotton seed oil using low cost catalyst: Engine performance and emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duple Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of fatty acid methyl esters from waste cotton seed oil through transesterification was reported. The GC–MS analysis of WCCO oil was studied and the major fatty acids were found to be palmitic acid (27.76% and linoleic acid (42.84%. The molecular weight of the oil was 881.039 g/mol. A maximum yield of 92% biodiesel was reported when the reaction temperature, time, methanol/oil ratio and catalyst loading rate were 60 °C, 50 min, 12:1 and 3% (wt.%, respectively. The calcined egg shell catalyst was prepared and characterized. Partial purification of the fatty acid methyl esters was proposed for increasing the purity of the biodiesel and better engine performance. The flash point and the fire point of the biodiesel were found to be 128 °C and 136 °C, respectively. The Brake thermal efficiency of WCCO B10 biodiesel was 26.04% for maximum load, specific fuel consumption for diesel was 0.32 kg/kW h at maximum load. The use of biodiesel blends showed a reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions and a marginal increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions improved emission characteristics.

  15. Exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled by waste cooking oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Osmano Souza; Pasa, Vanya Márcia Duarte; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Sodré, José Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    The exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator operating with waste cooking oil biodiesel blends have been studied. Fuel blends with 25%, 50% and 75% of biodiesel concentration in diesel oil were tested, varying engine load from 0 to 25 kW. The original engine settings for diesel oil operation were kept the same during the experiments with the biodiesel blends. The main physical-chemical characteristics of the fuel blends used were measured to help with the analysis of the emission results. The results show that the addition of biodiesel to the fuel increases oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and exhaust gas opacity were also increased with the use of biodiesel. Major increase of NO(X) was observed at low loads, while CO and HC were mainly increased at high loads. Using 50% of biodiesel in diesel oil, the average increase of CO(2), CO, HC and NO(X) throughout the load range investigated was 8.5%, 20.1%, 23.5% and 4.8%, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrasound-assisted hydrolysis of waste cooking oil catalyzed by homemade lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinari, J; Venturin, B; Sbardelotto, M; Dall Agnol, A; Scapini, T; Camargo, A F; Baldissarelli, D P; Modkovski, T A; Rossetto, V; Dalla Rosa, C; Reichert, F W; Golunski, S M; Vieitez, I; Vargas, G D L P; Dalla Rosa, C; Mossi, A J; Treichel, H

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the waste cooking oil (WCO) hydrolysis in ultrasonic system using lipase as catalyst. Lipase was produced by the fungus Aspergillus niger via solid state fermentation (SSF) using canola meal as substrate. Prior to the hydrolysis reaction, the lipase behavior when subjected to ultrasound was evaluated by varying the temperature of the ultrasonic bath, the exposure time and the equipment power. Having optimized the treatment on ultrasound, the WCO hydrolysis reaction was carried out by evaluating the oil:water ratio and the lipase concentration. For a greater homogenization of the reaction medium, a mechanical stirrer at 170rpm was used. All steps were analyzed by experimental design technique. The lipase treatment in ultrasound generated an increase of about 320% in its hydrolytic activity using 50% of ultrasonic power for 25min. at 45°C. The results of the experimental design conducted for ultrasound-assisted hydrolysis showed that the best condition was using an oil:water ratio of 1:3 (v:v) and enzyme concentration of 15% (v/v), generating 62.67μmol/mL of free fatty acids (FFA) in 12h of reaction. Thus, the use of Aspergillus niger lipase as a catalyst for hydrolysis reaction of WCO can be considered as a possible pretreatment technique of the oil in order to accelerate its degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Barium and sodium in sunflower plants cultivated in soil treated with wastes of drilling of oil well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jésus Sampaio Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of two types of oil drilling wastes on the development and absorption of barium (Ba and sodium (Na by sunflower plants. The waste materials were generated during the drilling of the 7-MGP-98D-BA oil well, located in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: Control – without Ba application, comprising only its natural levels in the soil; Corrected control – with fertilization and without wastes; and the Ba doses of 300, 3000 and 6000 mg kg-1, which were equivalent to the applications of 16.6, 165.9 and 331.8 Mg ha-1 of waste from the dryer, and 2.6, 25.7 and 51.3 Mg ha-1 of waste from the centrifugal. Plants cultivated using the first dose of dryer waste and the second dose of centrifugal waste showed growth and dry matter accumulation equal to those of plants under ideal conditions of cultivation (corrected control. The highest doses of dryer and centrifugal wastes affected the development of the plants. The absorption of Ba by sunflower plants was not affected by the increase in the doses. Na proved to be the most critical element present in the residues, interfering with sunflower development.

  18. Effects of olive oil wastes on river basins and an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: a case study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178 mg L(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9 mmol L(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48 mmol L(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment.

  19. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramaniam, D.; Avinash, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology –Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu (India); Murugesan, A. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology – Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME), neem oil methyl esters (NOME), and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME) were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three methyl esters and their diesel blends on engine performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions were examined at different engine loads. Experimental results concluded that up to 30% of methyl esters did not affect the performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, above B30 (30% Bio diesel with 70% diesel) a reduction in performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were clear from the study.

  20. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Subramaniam, A. Murugesan, A. Avinashy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME, neem oil methyl esters (NOME, and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three methyl esters and their diesel blends on engine performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions were examined at different engine loads. Experimental results concluded that up to 30% of methyl esters did not affect the performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, above B30 (30% Bio diesel with 70% diesel a reduction in performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were clear from the study.

  1. Reuse of waste frying oil for production of rhamnolipids using Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.u1M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this work, rhamnolipid production was investigated using waste frying oil as the sole carbon source. By culture in shaking flasks, a naturally isolated strain synthesized rhamnolipid at concentration of 12.47 g/L and its mutant after treatment by UV light increased this productivity to 24.61 g/L. Fermentation was also conducted in a 50 L bioreactor and the productivity reached over 20 g/L. Hence, with a stable and high productive mutant strain, it could be feasible to reuse waste frying oil for rhamnolipid production on industrial scale.

  2. Life cycle assessment of hydrogenated biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using the catalytic cracking and hydrogenation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junya; Aoki, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Kazuo; Yamada, Kazuo; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    There is a worldwide trend towards stricter control of diesel exhaust emissions, however presently, there are technical impediments to the use of FAME (fatty acid methyl esters)-type biodiesel fuel (BDF). Although hydrogenated biodiesel (HBD) is anticipated as a new diesel fuel, the environmental performance of HBD and its utilization system have not been adequately clarified. Especially when waste cooking oil is used as feedstock, not only biofuel production but also the treatment of waste cooking oil is an important function for society. A life cycle assessment (LCA), including uncertainty analysis, was conducted to determine the environmental benefits (global warming, fossil fuel consumption, urban air pollution, and acidification) of HBD produced from waste cooking oil via catalytic cracking and hydrogenation, compared with fossil-derived diesel fuel or FAME-type BDF. Combined functional unit including "treatment of waste cooking oil" and "running diesel vehicle for household waste collection" was established in the context of Kyoto city, Japan. The calculation utilized characterization, damage, and integration factors identified by LIME2, which was based on an endpoint modeling method. The results show that if diesel vehicles that comply with the new Japanese long-term emissions gas standard are commonly used in the future, the benefit of FAME-type BDF will be relatively limited. Furthermore, the scenario that introduced HBD was most effective in reducing total environmental impact, meaning that a shift from FAME-type BDF to HBD would be more beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Single-step scalable conversion of waste natural oils to carbon nanowhiskers and their interaction with mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Abheek [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Department of Chemical Sciences (India); Dutta, Priyanka [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Department of Biological Sciences (India); Sadhu, Anustup [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Department of Chemical Sciences (India); Maiti, Sankar [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Department of Biological Sciences (India); Bhattacharyya, Sayan, E-mail: sayanb@iiserkol.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Department of Chemical Sciences (India)

    2013-07-15

    Waste cooking oil has daily deliberate hazardous effects on human health due to consumption of re-cooked oil and on the environment from disposal of the waste oil. These hazards can be controlled if there are ways to economically convert the waste oils into industrially relevant materials. Large-scale controlled catalytic conversion of the waste natural oils to carbon nanowhiskers (CNWs; diameter: 98-191 nm, length: {<=}2 {mu}m) was achieved by a one-pot, environmentally friendly process. The no-cost CNWs consist of carbon spirals with spacing between two adjacent layers at 3.1 {+-} 0.2 nm and arranged perpendicular to the whisker axis. The reactions were performed inside a sealed container at 500-850 Degree-Sign C and autogenic pressure for 4-10 h. It was demonstrated that the gaseous pressure from the decomposition of the fatty acids was crucial for formation of the semi-graphitic filamentous structures. The dilute acid-washed catalyst free CNWs were found to be negligibly toxic to the mammalian cells and can be localized inside the cell nucleus. The cellular internalization studies of the fluorescent CNWs demonstrated their viability as potential delivery vehicles into the mammalian cells.

  4. Feasibility Studies of Palm Oil Mill Waste Aggregates for the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in concrete. POC specimens obtained throughout each state in Malaysia were investigated to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microstructure characteristics. Variations between each state were determined and their possible contributory factors were assessed. POC were incorporated as a replacement material for aggregates and their engineering characteristics were ascertained. Almost 7% of density was reduced with the introduction of POC as aggregates. A sustainability assessment was made through greenhouse gas emission (GHG and cost factor analyses to determine the contribution of the addition of POC to the construction industry. Addition of POC helps to lower the GHG emission by 9.6% compared to control specimens. By channeling this waste into the construction industry, an efficient waste-management system can be promoted; thus, creating a cleaner environment. This study is also expected to offer some guides and directions for upcoming research works on the incorporation of POC.

  5. Fat, oil and grease waste from municipal wastewater: characterization, activation and sustainable conversion into biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Carlo; Pagano, Michele; Lopez, Antonio; Mininni, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) recovered by the oil/water separator of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled, characterized, activated and converted into biofuel. Free acids (50-55%) and fatty soaps (26-32%) not only composed the main components, but they were also easily separable from the starting waste. The respective free fatty acid profiles were gas-chromatographically evaluated, interestingly verifying that free acids had a different profile (mainly oleic acid) with respect to the soapy fraction (saturated fatty acids were dominant). The inorganic composition was also determined for soaps, confirming that calcium is the most commonly present metal. The chemical activation of this fatty waste was made possible by converting the starting soaps into the respective free fatty acids by using formic acid as activator, coproducing the relevant formates. The activated fatty matter was then converted into biofuel through direct esterification under very mild conditions (345 K, atmospheric pressure) and obtaining thermodynamic conversion in less than 2 h. The process was easily scaled up, isolating at the end pure biodiesel (purity > 96%) through distillation under vacuum, providing a final product conformed to commercial purposes.

  6. Natural gas storage in microporous carbon obtained from waste of the olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Solar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of activated carbons (AC were prepared from waste of the olive oil production in the Cuyo Region, Argentine by two standard methods: a physical activation by steam and b chemical activation with ZnCl2. The AC samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K and evaluated for natural gas storage purposes through the adsorption of methane at high pressures. The activated carbons showed micropore volumes up to 0.50 cm³.g-1 and total pore volumes as high as 0.9 cm³.g-1. The BET surface areas reached, in some cases, more than 1000 m².g-1. The methane adsorption -measured in the range of 1-35 bar- attained values up to 59 V CH4/V AC and total uptakes of more than 120 cm³.g-1 (STP. These preliminary results suggest that Cuyo's olive oil waste is appropriate for obtaining activated carbons for the storage of natural gas.

  7. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  8. Synthesis of Carbon Nano Materials Originated from Waste Cooking Oil Using a Nebulized Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arie, A. A.; Hadisaputra, L.; Susanti, R. F.; Devianto, H.; Halim, M.; Enggar, R.; Lee, J. K.

    2017-07-01

    Synthesis of nanocarbon on snake fruit-peel’s activated carbon from waste cooking oil palm was conducted by a nebulized spray pyrolysis process (NSP) by varying the processing temperature from 650 to 750 °C. Ferrocene was used as a catalyst with constant concentration of 0.015 g/ml of carbon source. The structure of nanocarbon was studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM),x-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer and Raman spectroscopy. SEM results showed that the structures of carbon products was in the the form of carbon nanopsheres (CNS). XRD and Raman analysis confirmed the CNS structure. The carbon producs were then tested as electrode’s materials for lithium ion capacitors (LIC) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) instruments. From the CV results the specific capacitance was estimated as 79.57 F / g at a scan rate of 0.1 mV / s and voltage range from 2.5 - 4 V. This study shows that the nano carbons synthesized from the waste cooking oil can be used as prospective electrode materials for LIC.

  9. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  10. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  11. Design and Characterization of Renewable Bioasphalt Containing Damar Resin, Fly Ash, Wasted Cooking Oil and Latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Djumari; Legowo, S. J.; Widiharjo, B.; Zai, A. K. S.; Pradana, A. A. W.; Rusadi, I. P.; Permana, A.

    2017-02-01

    Dasphalt is one alternative of bioasphalt, made from materials that can be renewed as a substitute for conventional asphalt. Dasphalt inspired from jabung made of damar resin, brick powder and wasted cooking oil. Jabung have the same character with conventional asphalt. Research has been conducted by the characteristics of jabung but there are still many shortcomings, softening point and ductility values are not qualify. In this research the brick powder will be replaced by fly ash, as fly ash has a finer grain so that it can become a better absorbent. The resin will act as a natural resin for dasphalt, wasted cooking oil will be a mixed solvent. Use of additional polymers latex, is expected to improve the elasticity of dasphalt in ductility test. The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of the modification dasphalt properties in accordance with the specifications of asphalt penetration test and find the optimal composition of dasphalt. This research method is done by direct testing in the laboratory. In the present study that became the basic composition of the resin is resin (100g pure resin+ 350g resin packaging or powder), fly ash (150g) and wasted cooking oil (205g) and latex were mixed at temperatures below 150°C. While variations of latex starting from 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%. Several asphalt characterization are performed include penetration tests, test softening point, ductility test, flash point test, specific gravity test, affinity test and solubility test. Dasphalt modification achieved optimum composition of resin (100g pure resin or resin chunk + 350Gr packaging), Fly Ash powder (150g), cooking oil (205g), and latex 4%, ductility increased from 63.5 cm to 119.5 cm, the value of the flash point was originally at temperature of 240°C to 260°C, dasphalt penetration from 68.2 dmm to 43 dmm, and the value of density decreases to 1.01 g/cm3 to 0.99 g/cm3. Dasphalt modifications meet some of the specifications and could be categorized as

  12. Complex use of waste in wastewater and circulating water treatment from oil in heat power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Iskhakova, R. Ya.

    2017-06-01

    Sewage and circulating water from oil of thermal power plants (TPP) generated in fuel-oil shops during washing of electrical equipment and its running into the storm drainage system from the industrial site has been considered in the paper. It has been suggested to use the carbonate sludge of water treatment modified with hydrophobing emulsion as a sorption material for waste and circulating water treatment in thermal power plants. The carbonate sludge is waste accumulated in clarifiers at the stage of natural water pretreatment. General technical characteristics of the sludge, such as moisture, bulk density, total pore volume, ash, etc., have been determined. It has been found that the sludge without additional treatment is a hydrophilic material that has low adsorption capacity and wettability with nonpolar compounds. Therefore, the sludge is treated with organosilicon compounds to reduce the moisture capacity and increase its floatation. Several types of sorption materials based on the carbonate sludge subjected to surface and volume hydrophobization have been developed. During the volume treatment, the hydrophobing compound has been introduced into the material along with the plastifier. In case of the surface treatment, heat-treated granules have been soaked into hydrophobing emulsion. It has been shown that surface hydrophobization is most economically advantageous, because it reduces the consumption of water-repelling agent, wherein the total pore volume and sorption capacity during surface hydrophobization increase by 45 and 25% compared to that during volume hydrophobization. Based on the obtained results, the most effective sorption material has been chosen. To produce this material, it is necessary to sequentially carry out mixing of carbonate sludge with the binder, granulation, calcination, impregnation with a waterrepellent emulsion, and drying of the finished material. The suggested technology to produce the material and use it as a sorbent allows

  13. Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, M.

    2002-02-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

  14. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil & Its Evaluation in Compression Ignition Engine Using RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashan Deep Singha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of energy, deterioration of the environment and hunger,these are the three problems the humans are facing in todays era. There is an exponential rise in the demand is arrising for petroleum based energy. This has been followed by problem of depleting conventional petroleum fuels and a hike in price of these fuels, almost on a regular basis. Moreover, these green house emissions are results of petroleum fuels and other forms of pollution in the environment. The rise in the price of the fuel has also been alarming for us to find alternate energy resource.The vegetable oils has proved to be a promising source to obtain fuels for IC engines. Like, biodiesel is biodegradable, non- toxic and renewable fuel. It is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats and waste cooking oil by transesterification with alcohols. The high cost of raw materials and lack of modern technology has led to the commercialization which can optimize the biodiesel yield. A modified engine can lead to better engine performance along with lesser specific fuel consumption. In this thesis, Response Surface Methodology (RSM has been used which has focused on the optimization of biodiesel production, engine performance and exhaust emission parameters.

  15. Fixed bed pyrolysis of biomass solid waste for bio-oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Ali, Mohamed Hairol Md; Haziq, Miftah

    2017-08-01

    Biomass solid waste in the form of rice husk particle is pyrolyzed in a fixed bed stainless steel pyrolysis reactor of 50 mm diameter and 50 cm length. The biomass solid feedstock is prepared prior to pyrolysis. The reactor bed is heated by means of a cylindrical heater of biomass source. A temperature of 500°C is maintained with an apperent vapor residence time of 3-5 sec. The products obtained are liquid bio-oil, solid char and gases. The liquid product yield is found to be 30% by weight of solid biomass feedstock while the solid product yield is found to be 35% by weight of solid biomass feedtock, the rest is gas. The bio-oil is a single-phase brownish color liquid of acrid smell. The heating value of the oil is determined to be 25 MJ/kg. The density and pH value are found to be 1.125 kg/m3 and 3.78 respectively.

  16. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2014-12-01

    This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Valorization of Palm Oil Industrial Waste as Feedstock for Lipase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Erick A; Tardioli, Paulo W; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-06-01

    The use of residues from the industrial processing of palm oil as carbon source and inducer for microbial lipase production can be a way to add value to such residues and to contribute to reduced enzyme costs. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using palm oil industrial waste as feedstock for lipase production in different cultivation systems. Evaluation was made of lipase production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger cultivated under solid-state (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Lipase activity levels up to 15.41 IU/mL were achieved under SSF. The effects of pH and temperature on the lipase activity of the SSF extract were evaluated using statistical design methodology, and maximum activities were obtained between pH 4.0 and 6.5 and at temperatures between 37 and 55 °C. This lipase presented good thermal stability up to 60 °C and higher specificity towards long carbon chain substrates. The results demonstrate the potential application of palm oil industrial residues for lipase production and contribute to the technological advances needed to develop processes for industrial enzymes production.

  18. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions.

  19. Hydrophobization potential of organic compounds deriving from olive oil production waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerer, Sina E.; Bandow, Nicole; Marschner, Bernd; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2010-05-01

    Olive oil production waste water (OPWW) is rich in dissolved organic carbon and nutrients (e.g. potassium). In order to use it as organic fertilizer, small-scale and family run olive oil production farms in Israel and Palestine often discharge it directly onto agricultural land without any previous treatment. One unwanted side effect that can be observed is the development of soil water repellency (SWR) which is probably induced by amphiphilic substances. Previous studies on the composition of OPWW have shown that it contains oil components such as phenols, fats and large-molecular organic compounds (e.g. Gonzalezvila et al., 1995), some of which have been reported to induce water repellency on soil mineral surfaces (e.g. Ma'shum et al., 1988; Leelamanie and Karube, 2007). For prioritization of compounds the individual hydrophobization potential of 16 common OPWW components was systematically evaluated using the sessile drop and the Wilhelmy plate method. Acid-washed sand was taken as model soil mineral material. In a batch experiment OPWW samples from Israel and Palestine were applied to sand and two different soils in order to investigate their hydrophobization potential under different temperature and humidity conditions. To facilitate the identification of the chemicals responsible for inducing SWR, a fractionation procedure was applied to fraction the OPWW samples using solvents of different polarity. The prioritized compounds were analyzed by GC-MS. First results of this identification will be presented as well.

  20. Lipase production by Yarrowia lipolytica using olive oil processing wastes as substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moftah Omar A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study solid and liquid wastes from the olive oil processing industry were evaluated as substrates for Yarrowia lipolytica growth with the aim of lipase production. Olive mill wastewater and olive oil cake seemed to provide necessary nutrients and physical support for the yeast to grow and produce enzyme. The highest lipolytic activity of 850 IU dm-3 was achieved after 4 days of submerged cultivation in supplemented olive mill wastewater. In addition, olive oil cake appeared to be a convenient substrate for lipase production under solid state fermentation mode. Lipase production was further improved by media supplementation and/or change in physical settings of the experiment. However, the most significant improvement of lipase production under solid state fermentation was achieved by an alkaline treatment of the substrate (more than 10-fold when the amount of produced lipase reached up to ~40 IU g-1 of substrate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. E!6750 i br. III 46010

  1. Filter clogging and power loss issues while running a diesel engine with waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, S.; Yu, C.W.; Lim, T.H. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Mechanical Engineering, Penang (Malaysia)

    2003-07-01

    As with other vegetable oils, the high viscosity of waste cooking oil (WCO) poses some challenges to engine operation. One of them is filter clogging. In this research, it was found that heating to above 55 deg C was effective in preventing clogging. However, the head loss across the filter was about 6 times higher than that of diesel. Generally, the lower calorific values of vegetable oils are held responsible for the reduction in maximum power of the engine. While running with WCO, the maximum power of the engine was reduced by 10.9 per cent from that with diesel. Raising the fuel tank level and dividing the flow through two filters to compensate for the higher head loss across the filter reduced the maximum power loss to 5.0 and 8.8 per cent respectively. Therefore, higher head loss in the filter is also responsible for the loss of maximum power. In terms of combustion, WCO had a shorter ignition delay compared with diesel, resulting in a less intense premixed combustion phase. The CO and NO emissions were on the average 8.4 and 16.2 per cent higher than those for diesel. (Author)

  2. Mortality of power workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides and polychlorinated biphenyls in waste transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, A; Tarrel, J

    1997-12-26

    Herbicide spray crews employed by a Canadian power company between 1950 and 1967 had a higher than expected death rate, with a standardized mortality ratio of 157% (CI 130%-194%). In 1991, the cohort consisted of 225 former sprayers of whom 127 were still alive and 98 had died. Eligibility for inclusion in the cohort was based on employer records; and a history of spraying for 30 days or more in at least one spray season. Deaths expected were based on age-specific population mortality rates for New Brunswick. The all-age SMR for the total cohort was 159%. After 1958, however, waste transformer oil was added to the phenoxy-herbicide spray mixture, the oil representing 10% of the final mixture. Spray crews wore no protective clothing. Subdividing the cohort into spray years 1950-1958 and 1959-1967 yielded SMRs of 146% (CI 115%-184%); and 215% (CI 139%-318%), respectively. The transformer oil was used during the period 1959-1967. Most excess deaths were due to cardiovascular disease.

  3. A Survey on the Usage of Biomass Wastes from Palm Oil Mills on Sustainable Development of Oil Palm Plantations in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, K. Y.; Lau, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    As one of the world’s largest palm oil producers and exporters, Malaysia is committed to sustainable management of this industry to address the emerging environmental challenges. This descriptive study aims to evaluate the oil palm planters’ opinions regarding the usage of biomass wastes from palm oil mills and its impact on sustainable development of oil palm plantations in Sarawak. 253 planters across Sarawak were approached for their opinions about the usage of empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), mesocarp fibre (MF), and palm kernel shell (PKS). This study revealed that the planters had generally higher agreement on the beneficial application of EFB and POME in oil palm plantations. This could be seen from the higher means of agreement rating of 3.64 - 4.22 for EFB and POME, compared with the rating of 3.19 - 3.41 for MF and PKS in the 5-point Likert scale (with 5 being the strongest agreement). Besides, 94.7 percent of the planters’ companies were found to comply with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requirements where nearly 38 percent carried out the EIA practice twice a year. Therefore high means of agreement were correlated to the compliance of environmental regulations, recording a Likert rating of 3.89 to 4.31. Lastly, the usage of EFB and POME also gained higher Likert scale point of 3.76 to 4.17 against MF and PKS of 3.34 to 3.49 in the evaluation of the impact of sustainability in oil palm plantations. The planters agreed that the usage of EFB and POME has reduced the environmental impact and improved the sustainable development, and its application has been improved and increased by research and development. However the planters were uncertain of the impact of usage of biomass wastes with respect to the contribution to social responsibility and company image in terms of transparency in waste management.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Bio-Diesel Obtained From Waste Cooking Oil and Its Blends with Diesel on Single Cylinder Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Sharma,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment a comprehensive experimental investigation of bio-diesel oil on single cylinder engine running with biodiesel obtained from Waste cooking oil and its blends with diesel was carried out for its performance and emission analysis. The results which obtained are significantly comparable to pure diesel. It shows that biodiesel obtained from cooking oil can be used as alternative fuel with better performance and lower emissions compared with diesel and play a very vital role for the overall economic development of the country.

  5. Synthesis of silica gel from waste glass bottles and its application for the reduction of free fatty acid (FFA) on waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjarwo, Wisnu Arfian A.; Bee, Mei Magdayanti F.

    2017-06-01

    Synthesis of silica gel from waste glass bottles was conducted with aims to characterize the product and to analyze its application forthe reduction of free fatty acid (FFA) on waste cooking oil. Silica source taken from waste glass bottles was synthesized into silica gel by using the sol-gel method. Several types of silica gel were produced with three different weight ratios of waste glass and sodium hydroxide as an extractor. They were: 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The results indicated that synthesized silica possessed morphology innano-sizedranging from 85 nm to 459 nm. Adsorption performance was investigated by a batch system atthe temperature between 70°C and 110°C by a range of 10°C in an hour. Analysis of the adsorption characteristic showed that the highest efficiency value of FFA reduction of 91% was obtained by silica gel with ratiosof 1:1 (SG 1) and 1:3 (SG 3). Their performances were also followed by the decline of the refractive index and the density of waste cooking oil.

  6. The refined of waste oil as sustainable solution: Ecoroil project; El re-refinamiento como solucion sostenible para el aceite usado: proyecto Ecoril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torras, J. M.

    1999-11-01

    Waste oil must be re-refined at all? Or simply burn it all and forget about it? Today`s waste oil is burnt and dumped, thus causing serious and unnecessary pollution of the environment, contamination of the rivers, seas, water sources, soil and atmosphere. Industry and government, both, have fundamental responsibility to use every option to them to reduce pollution and to re-use and recycle before producing more. One of the most effective recycling possibilities is the re-refining. The lubricating oil business is large, profitable and complex. The new technologies in re-refining produce base oils of highest quality which can equal the performance of virgin oil. The ECOROIL Project carried forward by three companies from different sectors, F. L. Iberia - Infineum -Cator, S. A. - has demonstrated it. The paper also provides some light aspects about waste oil and re-refined oils in the last years in Spain. (Author) 4 refs.

  7. Sclero-topometry Metrology in Valorisation of Waste Oil for Micro-machining of Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eymard S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the time, the specific characteristics and the efficient lifetime of oil progressively decrease, due to complex pollution, ultimately making the oil unsuitable for the initial applications. The strategy to regenerate and to valorise waste oils is investigated using improved combinations of sclerometric and topometric tests on ductile nodular cast iron. Tribo-abrasive tests are performed in critical conditions, with base oil, waste oil and regenerated oil, of similar viscosities in order to discriminate their interfacial performances. The forms of the scratch traces indicate wear resistance and tendency to elasto-plastic deformation. The mechanisms of deformation and frictional behaviours were evaluated using optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy and measured for various tribological conditions with tactile and optical profilometry. The Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy completes the chemical superficial distribution of pertinent elements. The surface topography metrology is used to characterize the scratch profiles and to determine the volume of the displaced and removed material, as well as maximum pit height. The originality of this paper is that it is a unique approach specifically devoted to transformer oil concerning tribological conditions.

  8. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  9. Embryotoxic and biochemical effects of waste crankcase oil on birds' eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C.; Gay, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Waste crankcase oil (WCO) is a major source of oil pollution in both the aquatic and terrestrial environment and has been implicated in the poisoning of mammals and fish. It is also mutagenic. Since birds' eggs are highly sensitive to external microliter applications of environmentally polluting oils, we examined the developmental effects of external applications of WCO on eggs of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). At 48 hr of development, mallard eggs were exposed externally to 2, 5, or 15 :l of WCO or 15 :l of clean crankcase oil (CCO) while bobwhite eggs received proportional doses of 0.5, 1, or 3 :l of WCO and 3 :l of CCO in a similar manner. WCO was highly embryotoxic to both species compared to CCO and resulted in dose-dependent mortality, reduced growth, and abnormal survivors. Application of 15 :l WCO resulted in 84% mortality in mallards and 3 :l WCO resulted in 88% mortality in bobwhites. Abnormal survivors included embryos with subcutaneous edema, incomplete ossification, and eye and brain defects. Red blood cell *-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, liver ALAD activity, and hemoglobin concentration were significantly lower after treatment with WCO in embryos and hatchlings of both species. Plasma uric acid, plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and plasma aspartate aminotransferese (AST) were significantly elevated in WCO-treated mallards after hatching. Biochemical effects, growth retardation, and mortality at proportionally lower dose levels were more pronounced in mallards than in bobwhites. Chemical analysis of the WCO and CCO revealed a considerably higher content of aromatic hydrocarbons in WCO than in CCO. Lead levels were highly elevated in WCO (4600 ppm) compared to CCO (2 ppm).

  10. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  11. Climate design of vegetable oil fuels. Mathematical model for the calculation and optimization of greenhouse gas emission saving using vegetable oil as a fuel especially in agricultural machinery in accordance with the fuel quality directive 2009/30/EG; Klimadesign von Pflanzenoelkraftstoffen. Mathematisches Modell fuer die Berechnung und Optimierung der Treibhausgasemissionseinsparung durch den Einsatz von Pflanzenoel als Kraftstoff insbesondere in Landwirtschaftsmaschinen in Uebereinstimmung mit der Kraftstoffqualitaetsrichtlinie 2009/30/EG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehr, Michael [Bundesdeutscher Arbeitskreis fuer Umweltbewusstes Management e.V., B.A.U.M., Muenchen (Germany); Pickel, Peter [John Deere European Technology Innovation Center, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The use of biofuels in agricultural machinery is an option to respond to climate requirements. This option is being imposed from the European Commission to manufacturers of mobile machines. The contribution under consideration formulates a mathematical model that implements the regulations of the EU Fuel Quality Directive for complex manufacturing processes in the calculation rules. Initially, this model was tested and verified by the example of the standard manufacturing process of pure rapeseed oil. Then, possibilities of optimization for the production of rapeseed oil are explored. Finally, the mathematical model was applied to the calculation of greenhouse gas emissions from camelina oil from mixed cultivation with wheat.

  12. Esterification and Deacidification of a Waste Cooking Oil (TAN 68.81 mg KOH/g for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Oils with high content of free fatty acid (FFA can be treated by acid esterification where an alcohol reacts with the given oil in the presence of acid catalyst. The investigated parameters include methanol to oil ratio, temperature and amount of catalyst. The optimum conditions for acid esterification which could reduce FFA content in the feedstock to less than 1.88% (acid value 3.76 mg KOH/g waste cooking oil were 50 °C, 20% methanol to oil ratio (by volume and 0.4 vol.% H2SO4 after 5 h. However, oil with an acid value of more than 1 mg KOH/g oil cannot meet the alkaline catalyzed transesterification conditions. Under the conditions of NaOH concentration 0.5 N, excess alkali 15%, 60 °C, 40 min, the FFA removal rate for deacidification reached 77.11% (acid value 0.86 mg KOH/g esterified oil. The acid value of deacidification product was reduced below 0.86 mg KOH/g esterified oil, thus meeting the base-catalyzed trans-esterification conditions.

  13. Potential and optimization of two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge and microbial community study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghong; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Qing X.; Guo, Shaohui; Chen, Chunmao

    2016-12-01

    Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components. Comparative studies of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion in terms of organic removal, biogas production and methane concentration were conducted. The cumulative methane production and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency in the two-phase system were 228 mL/g COD added and 77.8%, respectively, which were 1.6 and 2.1 times higher than those in single-phase anaerobic digestion. Such improved performance is attributed to intensification of dominant microbial population in separated reactors. Caloramator, Ureibacillus, Dechloromonas, Petrobacter, and T78 played important roles in hydrolytic-acidification and oil-organics degradation. Syntrophic bacteria in the family Porphyromonadaceae and the genus Anaerobranca provide acetate for methanogen. The results demonstrated the potential and operating condition of two-phase anaerobic digestion in treatment of oil refinery waste activated sludge.

  14. Potential and optimization of two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge and microbial community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghong; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Qing X; Guo, Shaohui; Chen, Chunmao

    2016-12-01

    Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components. Comparative studies of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion in terms of organic removal, biogas production and methane concentration were conducted. The cumulative methane production and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency in the two-phase system were 228 mL/g COD added and 77.8%, respectively, which were 1.6 and 2.1 times higher than those in single-phase anaerobic digestion. Such improved performance is attributed to intensification of dominant microbial population in separated reactors. Caloramator, Ureibacillus, Dechloromonas, Petrobacter, and T78 played important roles in hydrolytic-acidification and oil-organics degradation. Syntrophic bacteria in the family Porphyromonadaceae and the genus Anaerobranca provide acetate for methanogen. The results demonstrated the potential and operating condition of two-phase anaerobic digestion in treatment of oil refinery waste activated sludge.

  15. Potential and optimization of two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge and microbial community study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghong; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Qing X.; Guo, Shaohui; Chen, Chunmao

    2016-01-01

    Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components. Comparative studies of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion in terms of organic removal, biogas production and methane concentration were conducted. The cumulative methane production and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiency in the two-phase system were 228 mL/g COD added and 77.8%, respectively, which were 1.6 and 2.1 times higher than those in single-phase anaerobic digestion. Such improved performance is attributed to intensification of dominant microbial population in separated reactors. Caloramator, Ureibacillus, Dechloromonas, Petrobacter, and T78 played important roles in hydrolytic-acidification and oil-organics degradation. Syntrophic bacteria in the family Porphyromonadaceae and the genus Anaerobranca provide acetate for methanogen. The results demonstrated the potential and operating condition of two-phase anaerobic digestion in treatment of oil refinery waste activated sludge. PMID:27905538

  16. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28.840 Section 28.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS... pumps, ventilation, and machinery. All electrically driven fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit...

  17. Kinetic studies for catalytic cracking of heavy oil from waste plastics over REY zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Songip, A.R.; Masuda, T.; Kuwahara, H.; Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    A kinetic model was developed to represent the catalytic cracking of heavy oil from waste plastics by rare-earth metal exchanged Y-type (REY) zeolite to produce gasoline. The influences of reaction conditions on the product distributions were previously reported. On the basis of these results, a reaction pathway was proposed and a set of differential equations was developed. The kinetic parameters were determined by nonlinear least-squares regression of the experimental data. These parameters were found to be proportional to the amount of strong acid sites of the used catalysts. The calculated values of the product distribution were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%.

  19. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using a heterogeneous catalyst from pyrolyzed rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Zheng, Yan; Chen, Yixin; Zhu, Xifeng

    2014-02-01

    A solid acid catalyst was prepared by sulfonating pyrolyzed rice husk with concentrated sulfuric acid, and the physical and chemical properties of the catalyst were characterized in detail. The catalyst was then used to simultaneously catalyze esterification and transesterification to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). In the presence of the as-prepared catalyst, the free fatty acid (FFA) conversion reached 98.17% after 3h, and the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield reached 87.57% after 15 h. By contrast, the typical solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15 obtained only 95.25% and 45.17% FFA conversion and FAME yield, respectively. Thus, the prepared catalyst had a high catalytic activity for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In addition, the catalyst had excellent stability, thereby having potential use as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from WCO with a high FFA content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of waste frying oil as an extractant for uranium from sulfate leach liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enass Mohamed El-Sheikh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using the waste frying oil (WFO as an extractant for uranium from its sulfate liquor has been studied. Several experiments were conducted to determine the relevant factors affecting both the extraction and stripping of the uranium from a synthetic solution. At the optimum conditions, it was found that the maximum uranium uptake would attain 54 mg/g at a solution pH of 3.5. Kinetic characteristics of the loading process have been found to satisfactorily fitting to the pseudo-first-order equation. The obtained optimum conditions have also been applied to investigate the potentiality of the working WFO for the recovery of uranium from the actual sulfate leach liquor of El-Sela ore material (South Eastern Desert of Egypt.

  1. Optimization and characterization of bio-oil produced by microwave assisted pyrolysis of oil palm shell waste biomass with microwave absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Mat, Ramli; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2015-08-01

    In this study, solid oil palm shell (OPS) waste biomass was subjected to microwave pyrolysis conditions with uniformly distributed coconut activated carbon (CAC) microwave absorber. The effects of CAC loading (wt%), microwave power (W) and N2 flow rate (LPM) were investigated on heating profile, bio-oil yield and its composition. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to study the significance of process parameters on bio-oil yield. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the bio-oil yield is 0.89017 indicating 89.017% of data variability is accounted to the model. The largest effect on bio-oil yield is from linear and quadratic terms of N2 flow rate. The phenol content in bio-oil is 32.24-58.09% GC-MS area. The bio-oil also contain 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine of 10.54-21.20% GC-MS area. The presence of phenol and 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine implies that the microwave pyrolysis of OPS with carbon absorber has the potential to produce valuable fuel products.

  2. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P...

  3. Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Tien, A.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Worsztynowicz, A.; Ulfig, K. [Inst. for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland)

    1997-05-10

    The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH`s, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass.

  4. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  5. Bioremediation of waste cooking oil using a novel lipase produced by Penicillium chrysogenum SNP5 grown in solid medium containing waste grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mathur, Anisha; Singh, Varsha; Nandy, Suchismita; Khare, Sunil Kumar; Negi, Sangeeta

    2012-09-01

    The aim of present work was to bioremediate the waste cooking oil using a novel lipase produced in solid medium containing waste grease and wheat bran by Penicillium chrysogenum. Enzyme extracted with phosphate buffer was purified 10.6 and 26.28-fold after 90% ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, respectively. The partial characterization of enzyme revealed its K(m) and V(max) value for p-nitrophenolpamitate as 0.4mM and 47.61 U/ml, respectively. The relative molecular mass of lipase was 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by zymogram. Purified lipase was most stable at 40°C and at 8.0 pH. Lipase activity was enhanced by metal ions such as Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+) and non-ionic surfactant TritonX-100, while suppressed in the presence of SDS. Crude lipase was applied on cooking oil waste and the acid value was 26.92 mg/g. This showed that the enzyme could be employed for the bioremediation of used cooking oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemometric analysis of cow dung ash as an adsorbent for purifying biodiesel from waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, A; Murugesan, A

    2017-08-25

    Taraditionally, the water-soluble contaminants of biodiesel are treated by water wash method. However, water wash method ends up in an aqueous effluent, which might then cause a harmful environmental impact. As a consequence, waterless purification of biodiesel has triggered primary interest in biodiesel manufacturing process. To address this issue, an endeavour has been made in this work to investigate the waterless purification of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using cow dung ash at different concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt/wt %. The optimum concentration of cow dung ash for biodiesel purification was found through chemometric analysis by comparing the Fourier transform infrared transmission (FTIR) spectral characteristics of cow dung ash with the water treated FTIR. It was observed from the experimental study that 1 wt/wt % of cow dung ash exhibited similar structural characteristics as that of traditional water treated method of biodiesel purification. Therefore, bio-waste cow dung ash is an effective adsorbent in purifying biodiesel analogous to traditional water washing technology.

  7. The Utilization of Waste Date Seed as Bio-Oil and Activated Carbon by Pyrolysis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Uzzal Hossain Joardder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The renovation of biomass waste in the form of date seed waste into activated carbon and biofuel by fixed bed pyrolysis reactor has been focused in this study to obtain gaseous, liquid, and solid products. The date seed in particle form is pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed bed reactor with nitrogen as the carrier gas. The reactor is heated from 400°C to 600°C. A maximum liquid yield of 50 wt.% and char of 30 wt.% are obtained at a reactor bed temperature of 500°C with a running time of 120 minutes. The oil is found to possess favorable flash point and reasonable density and viscosity. The higher calorific value is found to be 28.636 MJ/kg which is significantly higher than other biomass derived. Decolonization of 85–97% is recorded for the textile effluent and 75–90% for the tannery effluent, in all cases decreasing with temperature increase. Good adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon in case of diluted textile and tannery effluent was found.

  8. Optimization of the anaerobic treatment of a waste stream from an enhanced oil recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimahmoodi, Mahmood; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the anaerobic treatment of a waste stream from an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process. The treatment of a simulated waste water containing about 150 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and the saturation level of CO2 was evaluated. A two-step anaerobic system was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (30-40°C). The method of evolutionary operation EVOP factorial design was used to optimize pH, temperature and organic loading rate with the target parameters of CO2 reduction and CH4 production in the first reactor and TPH removal in the second reactor. The results showed 98% methanogenic removal of CO2 and CH4 yield of 0.38 L/gCOD in the first reactor and 83% TPH removal in the second reactor. In addition to enhancing CO2 and TPH removal and CH4 production, application of this method showed the degree of importance of the operational variables and their interactive effects for the two reactors in series. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Waste cooking oil: A new substrate for carotene production by Blakeslea trispora in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanou, Konstantina; Roukas, Triantafyllos

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a waste, waste cooking oil (WCO) as substrate for carotene production by Blakeslea trispora in shake flask culture. WCO was found to be a useful substrate for carotene production. B. trispora formed only pellets during fermentation. The oxidative stress in B. trispora induced by hydroperoxides and BHT as evidenced by increase of the specific activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly the production of carotenes. The highest concentration of carotenes (2021 ± 75 mg/l or 49.3 ± 0.2 mg/g dry biomass) was obtained in culture grown in WCO (50.0 g/l) supplemented with CSL (80.0 g/l) and BHT (4.0 g/l). In this case the carotenes produced consisted of β-carotene (74.2%), γ-carotene (23.2%), and lycopene (2.6%). The external addition in the above medium glucose, Span 80, yeast extract, casein acid hydrolysate, l-asparagine, thiamine. HCl, KH2PO4, and MgSO4·7H2O did not improve the production of carotenes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of the possibility of using waste cooking oil as a rejuvenating agent for aged bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Majid; Ahmadinia, Esmaeil; Asli, Hallizza; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2012-09-30

    The ageing of the bitumen during storage, mixing, transport and laying on the road, as well as in service life, are the most important problems presented by the use of bitumen in pavements. This paper investigates the possibility of using waste cooking oil (WCO), which is a waste material that pollutes landfills and rivers, as an alternative natural rejuvenating agent for aged bitumen to a condition that resembles the original bitumen. With this target, the physical and chemical properties of the original bitumen, aged bitumen and rejuvenated bitumen were measured and compared by the bitumen binder tests - softening point, penetration, Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the behaviour of the WCO rejuvenated bitumen is investigated and compared with virgin bitumen after using the rolling thin film oven ageing process. In general, the results showed that using 3-4% of WCO the aged bitumen group 40/50 was rejuvenated to a condition that closely resembled the physical, rheological properties of the original bitumen (80/100), however, there was a difference in the tendency to ageing between the WCO rejuvenated bitumen and the virgin bitumen during mixing, transport and laying on the road.

  11. Bioremediation of crude oil waste contaminated soil using petrophilic consortium and Azotobacter sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fauzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect Petrophilic and Azotobacter sp. consortium on the rate of degradation of hydrocarbons, Azotobacter growth, and Petrophilic fungi growth in an Inceptisol contaminated with crude oil waste originating from Balongan refinery, one of Pertamina (Indonesia’s largest state-owned oil and gas company units in Indramayu – West Java. This study was conducted from March to April 2014 in the glasshouse of research station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University at Ciparanje, Jatinangor District, Sumedang Regency of West Java. This study used a factorial completely randomized design with two treatments. The first treatment factor was Petrophilic microbes (A consisting of four levels (without treatment, 2% Petrophilic fungi, 2% Petrophilic bacteria, and the 2% Petrophilic consortium, and Azotobacter sp. The second treatment factor was Azotobacter sp. (B consisting of four levels (without treatment, 0.5%, Azotobacter sp., 1% Azotobacter sp., and 1.5% Azotobacter sp. The results demonstrated interaction between Petrophilic microbes and Azotobacter sp. towards hydrocarbon degradation rate, but no interaction was found towards the growth rate of Azotobacter sp. and Petrophilic fungi. Treatments of a1b3 (2% consortium of Petrophilic fungi with 1.5% Azotobacter sp. and a3b3 (2% Petrophilic consortium and 1.5% Azotobacter sp. had hydrocarbon degradation rate at 0.22 ppm/day for each treatment, showing the highest hydrocarbon degradation rate.

  12. Ultrasound assisted enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of waste cooking oil under solvent free condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Govind V; Rathod, Virendra K

    2016-09-01

    The present work demonstrates the hydrolysis of waste cooking oil (WCO) under solvent free condition using commercial available immobilized lipase (Novozyme 435) under the influence of ultrasound irradiation. The process parameters were optimized using a sequence of experimental protocol to evaluate the effects of temperature, molar ratios of substrates, enzyme loading, duty cycle and ultrasound intensity. It has been observed that ultrasound-assisted lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of WCO would be a promising alternative for conventional methods. A maximum conversion of 75.19% was obtained at mild operating parameters: molar ratio of oil to water (buffer pH 7) 3:1, catalyst loading of 1.25% (w/w), lower ultrasound power 100W (ultrasound intensity - 7356.68Wm(-2)), duty cycle 50% and temperature (50°C) in a relatively short reaction time (2h). The activation energy and thermodynamic study shows that the hydrolysis reaction is more feasible when ultrasound is combined with mechanical agitation as compared with the ultrasound alone and simple conventional stirring technique. Application of ultrasound considerably reduced the reaction time as compared to conventional reaction. The successive use of the catalyst for repetitive cycles under the optimum experimental conditions resulted in a loss of enzymatic activity and also minimized the product conversion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Statistical optimization for biodiesel production from waste frying oil through two-step catalyzed process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoenchaitrakool, Manop [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Center for Advanced Studies in Nanotechnology and its Applications in Chemical, Food and Agricultural Industries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Thienmethangkoon, Juthagate [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the optimum conditions in biodiesel production from waste frying oil using two-step catalyzed process. In the first step, sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst for the esterification reaction of free fatty acid and methanol in order to reduce the free fatty acid content to be approximate 0.5%. In the second step, the product from the first step was further reacted with methanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The Box-Behnken design of experiment was carried out using the MINITAB RELEASE 14, and the results were analyzed using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for biodiesel production were obtained when using methanol to oil molar ratio of 6.1:1, 0.68 wt.% of sulfuric acid, at 51 C with a reaction time of 60 min in the first step, followed by using molar ratio of methanol to product from the first step of 9.1:1, 1 wt.% KOH, at 55 C with a reaction time of 60 min in the second step. The percentage of methyl ester in the obtained product was 90.56 {+-} 0.28%. In addition, the fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were in the acceptable ranges according to Thai standard for community biodiesel. (author)

  14. Oxidative stability of waste cooking oil and white diesel upon storage at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Chrysikou, Loukia P

    2012-12-01

    Renewable diesel fuels are alternative fuels produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Catalytic hydrotreating of waste cooking oil (WCO) was carried out at pilot-plant scale and a paraffinic diesel, called "white" diesel was obtained. The white diesel and WCO samples were stored for one year at room temperature under normal atmospheric conditions, but not exposed to sunlight. Viscosity, total acid number (TAN), induction period (IP), carbonaceous deposits, density, cold flow properties, distillation and water content were monitored. TAN and density of the white diesel stored in conventional bottles changed from 0 to 0.221 mg KOH/g and from 787 to 838 kg/m(3), respectively. The remaining parameters did not vary significantly. Water content of WCO increased from 482 to 2491 mg/kg, TAN from 0.744 to 0.931 mg KOH/g, whereas viscosity, IP and carbon residues fluctuated mildly. The results are indicative of the white diesel's stability, rendering it suitable for prolonged storage.

  15. Exploring the antioxidant potential of lignin isolated from black liquor of oil palm waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Khalil, H P S A; Karim, A A

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential antioxidant activity of lignin obtained from black liquor, a hazardous waste product generated during the extraction of palm oil. Antioxidant potential of the extracted lignin was evaluated by dissolving the extracted samples in 2 different solvent systems, namely, 2-methoxy ethanol and DMSO. Results revealed high percent inhibition of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in the lignin sample dissolved in 2-methoxy ethanol over DMSO (concentration range of 1-100 microg/ml). Lignin extracted in 2-methoxy ethanol exhibited higher inhibition percentage (at 50 microg/ml, 84.2%), whereas a concentration of 100 microg/ml was found to be effective in the case of the DMSO solvent (69.8%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry revealed that the functional groups from the extracted lignin and commercial lignin were highly similar, indicating the purity of the lignin extracted from black liquor. These results provide a strong basis for further applications of lignin in the food industry and also illustrate an eco-friendly approach to utilize oil palm black liquor.

  16. Wetting Resistance of Commercial Membrane Distillation Membranes in Waste Streams Containing Surfactants and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Eykens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water management is becoming increasingly challenging and several technologies, including membrane distillation (MD are emerging. This technology is less affected by salinity compared to reverse osmosis and is able to treat brines up to saturation. The focus of MD research recently shifted from seawater desalination to industrial applications out of the scope of reverse osmosis. In many of these applications, surfactants or oil traces are present in the feed stream, lowering the surface tension and increasing the risk for membrane wetting. In this study, the technological boundaries of MD in the presence of surfactants are investigated using surface tension, contact angle and liquid entry pressure measurements together with lab-scale MD experiments to predict the wetting resistance of different membranes. Synthetic NaCl solutions mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS were used as feed solution. The limiting surfactant concentration was found to be dependent on the surface chemistry of the membrane, and increased with increasing hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Additionally, a hexadecane/SDS emulsion was prepared with a composition simulating produced water, a waste stream in the oil and gas sector. When hexadecane is present in the emulsion, oleophobic membranes are able to resist wetting, whereas polytetrafluoretheen (PTFE is gradually wetted by the feed liquid.

  17. Performance of Untreated Waste Cooking Oil Blends in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Isa Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Untreated waste cooking oil (UWCO is not a feasible diesel fuel. The major problems in engine operation are reported mainly due to UWCO’s high viscosity. To use  UWCO's in diesel engine without modification, it is necessary to make sure that the oils properties must be similar to diesel fuel. In this study, UWCO that has been used several times for frying purposes is investigated for the utilization as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. In order to reduce the viscosity, the UWCO were blend with diesel. Two various blends of UWCO and diesel were prepared and its important properties such as viscosity, density, calorific value and flash point were  evaluated and compared with that of diesel. The blends were then tested in a direct injection diesel engine  in 10% and 30% v/v blends with a reference diesel fuel. Tests were performed under a set of engine operating conditions. It was found that blending UWCO with diesel reduces the viscosity.  Blending of UWCO with diesel has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of UWCO. The experimental results also show that the basic engine performance such as power output and  fuelconsumptions are comparable to diesel and the emissions of CO and NOx from the UWCO/diesel blends were also found slightly higher than that of diesel fuel.

  18. Development of Binderless Fiberboards from Steam-exploded and Oxidized Oil Palm Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mejía Henao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards were made from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis empty fruit bunches with two treatments: steam explosion and Fenton reagent oxidation. Fiberboards were prepared with a targeted density of 1.20 g/cm3 and a thickness of 4 mm. A factorial experimental design 22 with two center repetitions and one repetition was applied for each treatment. The oil palm waste was oxidized with Fenton reagent using a H2O2/Fe2+ ratio of 2%/0.2% to 4%/0.4% and a pressing temperature of 170 to 190 °C. Steam explosion was carried out at a severity factor of 3.5 to 4.0 at the same pressing temperature. Both treatments were examined under two major response variables: mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, MOR, and modulus of elasticity, MOE and physical properties (thickness swelling, TS, and water absorption, WA. Steam-exploded samples developed better physico-mechanical properties than those that underwent Fenton reagent oxidation. The best results were obtained from fiberboards treated with the highest steam explosion design conditions (severity 4 and pressing temperature 190 °C to give optimum values of MOE 3100.09 MPa, MOR 28.49 MPa, TS 11.80%, and WA 22.74%. Binderless fiberboards made from steam explosion-treated pulp satisfied favorably well the Colombian Standard NTC 2261.

  19. BioKonversion technology recovers, remediates and reuses waste and hydrocarbons from oil drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topf, A.

    2008-01-15

    Houston-based Nopal Group has developed a solution to dispose of oilfield waste in a safe and cost-effective manner. The company is actively engaged in a large-scale project to remediate a 400-hectare site on the Aspheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan. The site is currently regarded as the most polluted place in the world after a century of oil extraction with little regard for the surrounding environment. The Nopal Group will use its patented BioKonversion technology, which cleanses the soil of hydrocarbons in a two-part process using a large machine known as the Green Machine. Several pipelines will need to be relocated, and ancient drilling rigs that have been there as long as 100 years will have to be dealt with. The cleanup cost has been estimated at between $20 million to $40 million, and will take between 18 and 36 months, depending on how deep into the ground the machines have to dig for hydrocarbons. The 90-foot by 40-foot machine processes drill cuttings, contaminated soil and drill fluids by first separating the dirt from the liquid hydrocarbons, which can be recycled or refined for resale. The remaining dirt, which still contains 3 to 7 percent oil, is then placed into a centrifuge and mixed with a heating agent and other elements, including naturally oleophilic kenaf powder. The process micronizes and absorbs hydrocarbons. Once the process is finished, the hydrocarbons are immediately non-detectable and non-leachable. The leftover benign dirt can be used as landfill cover, or mixed with road aggregate. BioKonversion can also be adapted for use on oil rigs. This article demonstrated that the process has clear advantages over traditional oilfield remediation methods such as land farming. Opportunities exist to utilize the process in Venezuela and Kuwait. 1 fig.

  20. Extraction of tocopherolquinone from commercially produced vegetable oil waste and its regeneration back to vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Isso

    Vegetable oils are the most important natural source of vitamin E in the human diet. These oils are refined in order to eliminate impurities and undesirable substances that may affect the taste or cause health risks. While the goal of the refinery is to improve the quality of certain organoleptic parameters such as odors, it also has some negative impacts on the content and stability of the micronutrients such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Synthetic vitamin E now manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopheryl acetate is usually marked as d, l-tocopherol or d, l-tocopheryl acetate with no known side effects, but has been proven to be less active than its natural form. Naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates consider the synthetic vitamin E forms to offer little or no benefit for cancer, circulatory and heart diseases. The market for vitamin E has been growing since the year 2000 causing a gradual rise in pricing because of the shortage in supplies. On a geographical basis North America constitutes the largest consumer on the planet with 50 % of the synthetic vitamin E world market followed by Europe with 25 % and Latin America and Asia Pacific sharing equally the remaining balance. In response to the shortfall, several companies are modifying their operations by rationalizing their older facilities while upgrading technology and adding capacity to meet the demand. But this response has also its downside with companies obligated to meet tough environmental regulations. The purpose of the present dissertation was to develop a method that can help industries involved in vitamin E production maximize their productivity by transforming some of the waste products to vitamin E. To that end, a cost effective simple method was developed in chapter II using tin (II) to regenerate tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E. Chapter II also concerns a method developed to reduce tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E but this time using the chemical species chromium (III

  1. 废弃油基泥浆处理的工艺与方法%Process and method for the treatment of waste oil-based mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝望

    2015-01-01

    The waste oil-based mud could be separated by using acoustic method.The resultant waste water and waste residue were treated for safety disposal.The author analyzed the process and method for the treatment of waste oil-based mud.%废弃泥浆可以采用声化法将油从泥浆中分离出来,并且对所分离出来的废水和废渣进行无害处理.本文对废弃油基泥浆处理的工艺与方法进行探讨.

  2. 地沟油检测方法的研究进展%Recent Advance Determination Methods of Waste Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兆圆; 李方实

    2014-01-01

    地沟油是质量极差的非食用油,若用于食用会严重危害人的身体健康。介绍地沟油的分类、危害以及对地沟油的检测。尤其着重介绍了仪器分析在地沟油检测中的应用,包括电化学分析法、气质联用分析法、高效液相色谱法、离子色谱法、薄层色谱法、原子吸收法、紫外分光光度法、荧光法、红外光谱法、免疫分析法等。%The waste oils may greatly harm human health due to their poor quality. The concept, harm, and detection methods of waste oils in the normal edible oils were introduced especially , the application of instrumental analysis in the detection of waste oil. There are electrochemical analysis, GC-MS, HPLC, ion chromatography, TLC, AAS, UV, Fluoresces Spectrum,IR, immunoassay and so on.

  3. Assessment of gamma radiolytic degradation in waste lubricating oil by GC/MS and UV/VIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.; Sato, Ivone M.

    2009-07-01

    The hydrocarbons degradation by gamma irradiation of the waste automotive lubricating oil at different absorbed doses has was investigated. The waste automotive oil in a Brazilian oil recycling company was collected. This sample was fractioned and 50% and 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water were added. Each sample was irradiated with 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses using a gamma source Co-60—GAMMACELL type, with 5×10 3 Ci total activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify degraded organic compounds. The mass spectra were analyzed using the mass spectral library from NIST, installed in the spectrometer. The sample irradiated at 500 kGy dose with 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water addition formed eight degradation products, namely diethanolmethylamine (C 5H 13NO), diethyldiethylene glycol (C 8H 18O 3), 1-octyn-3-ol, 4-ethyl (C 10H 18O) and 1.4-pentanediamine, N1, N1-diethyl (C 9H 22N 2). The color changing of the waste lubricating oil, for different absorbed doses, was determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The related sample showed the lowest absorbance value evidencing the formation of 2-ethoxyethyl ether (C 8H 18O 3) compound.

  4. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  5. Potential use of wood and agriculture wastes as steam generator fuel for thermal enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosstrin, H.M.; McDonald, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery by steam injection methods produces over 200,000 barrels per day of crude oil in California. A sizeable portion of the produced crude, up to 40% for some projects, may be burned to generate steam for injection into the reservoir. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential to use wood and agriculture wastes to replace crude oil as steam generator fuel. The Bakersfield area of California's San Joaquin Valley is the focus for this paper. Production from thermal EOR methods centers around Bakersfield and agriculture and wood wastes are available from the San Joaquin Valley and the nearby Sierra Nevada mountains. This paper documents the production of waste materials by county, estimated energy value of each material, and estimated transportation cost for each material. Both agriculture and wood wastes were found to be available in sizeable quantities and could become attractive steam generation fuels. However, some qualifications need to be made on the use of these materials. Transportation costs will probably limit the range of shipping these materials to perhaps 50 to 100 miles. Availability is subject to competition from existing and developing uses of these materials, such as energy sources in their immediate production area. Existing steam generators probably cannot be retrofitted to burn these materials. Fluidized bed combustion, or low Btu gasification, may be a good technology for utilization. FBC or FBG could accept a variety of waste materials. This will be important because the amount of any single waste may not be large enough to support the energy requirements of a good size thermal f a good size thermal EOR operation.

  6. Characteristics of Waste Plastics Pyrolytic Oil and Its Applications as Alternative Fuel on Four Cylinder Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Nugroho Pratama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastics recycling using pyrolysis method is not only able to decrease a number of environment pollutant but also able to produce economical and high quality hydrocarbon products. Two experiments were conducted to completely study Waste Plastic Pyrolytic Oil (WPPO characteristics and its applications.  First experiment investigated oil characteristics derived from pyrolysis process in two stages batch reactors: pyrolysis and catalytic reforming reactor, at maximum temperature 500oC and 450oC respectively. Waste Polyethylene (PE, Polypropylene (PP, Polystyrene (PS, Polyethylene Terepthalate (PET and others were used as raw material. Nitrogen flow rate at 0.8 l/minutes was used to increase oil weight percentage. Indonesian natural zeolite was used as catalyst. Then, second experiment was carried out on Diesel Engine Test Bed (DETB used blending of WPPO and Biodiesel fuel with a volume ratio of 1:9. This experiment was specifically conducted to study how much potency of blending of WPPO and biodiesel in diesel engine. The result of first experiment showed that the highest weight percentage of WPPO derived from mixture of PE waste (50%wt, PP waste (40%wt and PS waste (10%wt is 45.13%wt. The more weight percentage of PE in feedstock effected on the less weight percentage of WPPO, the more percentage of C12-C20 content in WPPO and the higher calorific value of WPPO. Characteristics of WPPO such as, Specific Gravity, Flash point, Pour Point, Kinematic Viscosity, Calorific value and percentage of C12-C20 showed interesting result that WPPO could be developed as alternative fuel on diesel fuel blending due to the proximity of their characteristics. Performance of diesel engine using blending of WPPO and biodiesel on second experiment gave good result so the WPPO will have great potency to be valuable alternative liquid fuel in future, especially on stationary diesel engine and transportation engine application.

  7. Chicken feather hydrolysate as an inexpensive complex nitrogen source for PHA production by Cupriavidus necator on waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesova, P; Kucera, D; Marova, I; Obruca, S

    2017-08-01

    The chicken feather hydrolysate (FH) has been tested as a potential complex nitrogen source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Cupriavidus necator H16 when waste frying oil was used as a carbon source. The addition of FH into the mineral salt media with decreased inorganic nitrogen source concentration improved the yields of biomass and polyhydrohyalkanoates. The highest yields were achieved when 10 vol.% of FH prepared by microwave-assisted alkaline hydrolysis of 60 g l(-1) feather was added. In this case, the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) yields were improved by more than about 50% as compared with control cultivation. A positive impact of FH was also observed for accumulation of copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) when sodium propionate was used as a precursor. The copolymer has superior processing and mechanical properties in comparison with PHB homopolymer. The application of FH eliminated the inhibitory effect of propionate and resulted in altered content of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) in copolymer. Therefore, the hydrolysed feather can serve as an excellent complex source of nitrogen for the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production. Moreover, by the combination of two inexpensive types of waste, such as waste frying oil and feather hydrolysate, it is possible to produce PHA with substantially improved efficiency and sustainability. Millions of tons of feathers, important waste product of poultry-processing industry, are disposed off annually without any further benefits. Thus, there is an inevitable need for new technologies that enable ecologically and economically sensible processing of this waste. Herein, we report that alkali-hydrolysed feathers can be used as a complex nitrogen source considerably improving polyhydroxyalkanoates production on waste frying oil employing Cupriavidus necator. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M; Ribeaux, Daylin R; Luna, Marcos A C; Lima E Silva, Thayse A; Andrade, Rosileide F Silva; Gusmão, Norma B; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2016-09-23

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 2² experimental designs with 1% inoculums (10⁷ cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2-5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm² of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.

  9. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M.; Ribeaux, Daylin R.; Luna, Marcos A. C.; Lima e Silva, Thayse A.; Andrade, Rosileide F. Silva; Gusmão, Norma B.; Campos-Takaki, Galba M.

    2016-01-01

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 22 experimental designs with 1% inoculums (107 cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2–5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm2 of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources. PMID:27669227

  10. Study of waste generation in the drilling and cementing operations during construction of offshore oil and gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Ferraço de Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to present drilling and cementing activities which take place during the construction of offshore oil and gas wells, listing the waste generated in each step. IBAMA, the environmental agency that regulates the activity, allows two disposal options for these wastes: disposal in open sea or treatment followed by disposal on shore. The documentary research applied in this article details the destination options showing that the monitoring required by the environmental agency is a way to track the actual results of the activities described.

  11. Investigation on chemical composition and optimization of essential oil obtainment from waste Pinus taeda L. using hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Dias Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The extraction of essential oils obtained by the hydrodistillation of needles/twigs waste of Pinus taeda L. was optimized by applying response surface methodology (RSM, with 24 full factorial design, in order to improve oil essential production, and aggregate value to the production chain of pine wood. Through the model it was possible to ascertain the influence of the variables in the average amount of essential oil (0.1032 mL, being the variables analyzed: biomass - Bm (x1, extraction time - ET (x2, Bm:ET (x1x2 and sample size - SS: drying times - DT (x3x4. Only linear terms (biomass and extraction time and your interaction demonstrated significant positive values (0.0344, 0.0206 and 0.0131. The major components of the essential oil identified by GC-MS were: β-phellandrene: (30.39 and 22.44%, tricyclene (26.14 and 20.46%, β-myrcene (14.32 and 11.50%, β-pinene (22.49 and 1.43% and α-pinene (0.25 and 11.26% in the years 2011 and 2012, respectively. Our results show that the essential oil obtained from P. taeda represents a way of using some of the waste generated by the timber industry. The process of obtaining doesn't require treatments such as controlled drying or size reduction of the sample, indicating that it can be used in an industrial scale.

  12. Biotransformation of 1,8-cineole by solid-state fermentation of Eucalyptus waste from the essential oil industry using Pleurotus ostreatus and Favolus tenuiculus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omarini, Alejandra; Dambolena, José Sebastián; Lucini, Enrique; Jaramillo Mejía, Santiago; Albertó, Edgardo; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnological conversion of low-cost agro-industrial by-products, such as industrial waste or terpenes from the distillation of essential oils from plants into more valuable oxygenated derivatives...

  13. An indicator to evaluate the environmental Impact of olive oil waste water’s shedding on cultivated fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Silvestri

    Full Text Available Several climatic, soil and topographic factors need to be considered when evaluating the impact of human actions on the environment. Such variables may be related in a complex way to environmental impact, thus making its evaluation difficult. Problems of this type emerge when evaluating the risks olive oil waste water pose to the environment when shed on cultivated soils. This paper proposes a fuzzy expert system to calculate a modular indicator, ICARO, which allows an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the application of olive oil waste water in a field. Five modules were formulated, one (“Waste water” reflecting the nature of the waste water, two (“Groundwater”, “Surface water” reflecting the risk for the most sensitive agro-environmental compartments (groundwater, surface water, one (“Crop” reflecting possible consequences on the cropping system adopted, and one (“Soil” reflecting the soil aptitude to receive waste waters.The input variables are therefore waste water amount and properties, site-specific conditions, and characteristics of the application considered. For each input variable, two functions describing membership to the fuzzy subsets Favorable (F and Unfavorable (U have been defined. The expert system calculates the value of each module according to both the degree of membership of the input variables to the subsets F and U, and a set of decision rules. The five modules can be considered individually or can be aggregated (again according to level of membership to fuzzy subsets F and U and a set of decision rules into the synthetic indicator ICARO. Outcomes of a sensitivity analysis are presented. The system is flexible and can be used as a decision aid tool to authorize waste water’s shedding or subordinate the distribution on fields to acceptance of some limitations (amount, timing, site, etc.

  14. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  15. Genotoxic effects of fumes from asphalt modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Väänänen, Virpi; Järventaus, Hilkka; Suhonen, Satu; Nygren, Jonas; Hämeilä, Mervi; Valtonen, Jarkko; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Norppa, Hannu

    2008-05-31

    As the use of recycled materials and industrial by-products in asphalt mixtures is increasing, we investigated if recycled additives modify the genotoxicity of fumes emitted from asphalt. Fumes were generated in the laboratory at paving temperature from stone-mastic asphalt (SMA) and from SMA modified with waste plastic (90% polyethylene, 10% polypropylene) and tall oil pitch (SMA-WPT). In addition, fumes from SMA, SMA-WPT, asphalt concrete (AC), and AC modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch (AC-WPT) were collected at paving sites. The genotoxicity of the fumes was studied by analysis of DNA damage (measured in the comet assay) and micronucleus formation in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro and by counting mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and YG1024. DNA damage was also assessed in buccal leukocytes from road pavers before and after working with SMA, SMA-WPT, AC, and AC-WPT. The chemical composition of the emissions was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The SMA-WPT fume generated in the laboratory induced a clear increase in DNA damage in BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. The laboratory-generated SMA fume increased the frequency of micronucleated BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes collected at the paving sites produced DNA damage with or without metabolic activation. Fumes from SMA and SMA-WPT from the paving sites increased micronucleus frequency without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes studied showed mutagenic activity in Salmonella. No statistically significant differences in DNA damage in buccal leukocytes were detected between the pre- and post-shift samples collected from the road pavers. However, a positive correlation was found between DNA damage and the urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after work shift, which suggested an association between occupational exposures during road paving and genotoxic effects. Our

  16. Wetland treatment of oil and gas well waste waters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadlec, R.; Srinivasan, K.

    1995-08-01

    Constructed wetlands are small on-site systems that possess three of the most desirable components of an industrial waste water treatment scheme: low cost, low maintenance and upset resistance. The main objective of the present study is to extend the knowledge base of wetland treatment systems to include processes and substances of particular importance to small, on-site systems receiving oil and gas well wastewaters. A list of the most relevant and comprehensive publications on the design of wetlands for water quality improvement was compiled and critically reviewed. Based on our literature search and conversations with researchers in the private sector, toxic organics such as Phenolics and b-naphthoic acid, (NA), and metals such as CU(II) and CR(VI) were selected as target adsorbates. A total of 90 lysimeters equivalent to a laboratory-scale wetland were designed and built to monitor the uptake and transformation of toxic organics and the immobilization of metal ions. Studies on the uptake of toxic organics such as phenol and b-naphthoic acid (NA) and heavy metals such as Cu(II) and Cr(VI), the latter two singly or as non-stoichiometric mixtures by laboratory-type wetlands (LWs) were conducted. These LWs were designed and built during the first year of this study. A road map and guidelines for a field-scale implementation of a wetland system for the treatment of oil and gas wastewaters have been suggested. Two types of wetlands, surface flow (SF) and sub surface flow (SSF), have been considered, and the relative merits of each configuration have been reviewed.

  17. Catalytic and thermal cracking processes of waste cooking oil for bio-gasoline synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanto, Muhammad Andry Rizki; Januartrika, Aulia Azka; Dewajani, Heny; Budiman, Arief

    2017-03-01

    Non-renewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and coal were depleted as the increase of global energy demand. Moreover, environmental aspect becomes a major concern which recommends people to utilize bio-based resources. Waste cooking oil is one of the economical sources for biofuel production and become the most used raw material for biodiesel production. However, the products formed during frying, can affect the trans-esterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. Therefore, it needs to convert low-quality cooking oil directly into biofuel by both thermal and catalytic cracking processes. Thermal and catalytic cracking sometimes are regarded as prospective bio-energy conversion processes. This research was carried out in the packed bed reactor equipped with 2 stages preheater with temperature of reactor was variated in the range of 450-550°C. At the same temperature, catalytic cracking had been involved in this experiment, using activated ZSM-5 catalyst with 1 cm in length. The organic liquid product was recovered by three stages of double pipe condensers. The composition of cracking products were analyzed using GC-MS instrument and the caloric contents were analyzed using Bomb calorimeter. The results reveal that ZSM-5 was highly selective toward aromatic and long aliphatic compounds formation. The percentage recovery of organic liquid product from the cracking process varies start from 8.31% and the optimal results was 54.08%. The highest heating value of liquid product was resulted from catalytic cracking process at temperature of 450°C with value of 10880.48 cal/gr and the highest product yield with 54.08% recovery was achieved from thermal cracking process with temperature of 450°C.

  18. Inorganic wastes in manufacturing of glass-ceramics. Slurry of phosphorous fertilizer production and oil shale ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovsky, A.V.; Mendez-Nonell, J.; Escalante-Garcia, J.I.; Pech-Canul, M.I.; Vargas-Gutierrez, G. [Department of Engineering Ceramics of CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Saltillo-Monterrey, km 13.5, Apartado Postal 663, CP 25000, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Gorokhovsky, V.A.; Mescheryakov, D.V. [Department of Building Materials of Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2001-11-01

    The use of bicomponent raw material mixtures of industrial wastes to produce pyroxene glass ceramics was investigated. It is shown that oil shale ash from heat power stations can promote the production of crystalline phases and the slurry from phosphorous fertilizer production can provide sufficient concentration of nucleating agents. Mechanical and chemical properties, as well as the structure and crystallization mechanism were characterized. An increase of phosphorous oxide and fluorine concentrations leads to a change of the crystallization mechanism.

  19. Carbon microbelt aerogel prepared by waste paper: an efficient and recyclable sorbent for oils and organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hengchang; Huang, Xiao; Wu, Xing; Cao, Xiehong; Tan, Chaoliang; Yin, Zongyou; Lu, Xuehong; Sun, Litao; Zhang, Hua

    2014-09-10

    A carbon microbelt (CMB) aerogel with good selective sorption can be produced in large scale by using waste paper as a precursor. The CMB aerogel shows highly efficient sorption of organic liquids (pump oil: up to 188 times its own weight; chloroform: up to 151 times its own weight). Moreover, the CMB aerogel can be regenerated many times without decrease of sorption capacity by distillation, or squeezing depending on the type of pollutants.

  20. Application of waste frying oils in the biosynthesis of biodemulsifier by a demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-X J-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liu; Kaiming Peng; Xiangfeng Huang; Lijun Lu; Hang Cheng; Dianhai Yang; Qi Zhou; Huiping Deng

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of biodemulsifiers has become a new research aspect. Using waste frying oils (WFOs) as carbon source to synthesize biodemulsifiers has a potential prospect to decrease production cost and to improve the application of biodemulsifiers in the oilfield.In this study, a demulsifying strain, Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1, was investigated to synthesize a biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as carbon source. It was found that the increase of initial pH of culture medium could increase the biodemulsifier yield but decrease the demulsification ratio compared to that using paraffin as carbon source. In addition, a biodemulsifier produced by waste frying oils and paraffn as mixed carbon source had a lower demulsification capability compared with that produced by paraffin or waste frying oil as sole carbon source. Fed-batch fermentation of biodemulsifier using waste frying oils as supplementary carbon source was found to be a suitable method. Mechanism of waste frying oils utilization was studied by using tripalmitin, olein and tristearin as sole carbon sources to synthesize biodemulsifier. The results showed saturated long-chain fatty acid was difficult for S-XJ-1 to utilize but could effectively enhance the demulsification ability of the produced biodemulsifier. Moreover, FT-IR result showed that the demulsification capability of biodemulsifiers was associated with the content of C=O group and nitrogen element.

  1. OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT OF EXTRACTION MACHINERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh P.SETHI; Hong-Mo YEH; Rong ZHANG; Andrew K.S.JARDINE

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a problem of optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedule ofequipment devoted to extracting resources from known deposits. Typical examples are oil drills, mine shovels, etc. At most one replacement of the existing machinery by a new one is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem subject to the state constraint that the remaining deposit at any given time is nonnegative. We show that the optimal preventive maintenance, production rates, and the replacement and salvage times of the existing machinery and the new one, if required, can be obtained by solving sequentially a series of free-end-point optimal control problems. Moreover, an algorithm based on this result is developed and used to solve two illustrative examples.

  2. A comparative study of bio-oils from pyrolysis of microalgae and oil seed waste in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Koo, Bon Seok; Lee, Dong Hyun

    2014-06-01

    The pyrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. and Jatropha seedshell cake (JSC) was investigated under similar operating condition in a fluidized bed reactor for comparison of pyrolytic behaviors from different species of lipids-containing biomass. Microalgae showed a narrower main peak in differential thermogravimetric curve compared to JSC due to different constituents. Pyrolysis liquid yields were similar; liquid's oil proportion of microalgae is higher than JSC. Microalgae bio-oil was characterized by similar carbon and hydrogen contents and higher H/C and O/C molar ratios compared to JSC due to compositional difference. The pyrolytic oils from microalgae and JSC contained more oxygen and nitrogen and less sulfur than petroleum and palm oils. The pyrolytic oils showed high yields of fatty oxygenates and nitrogenous compounds. The microalgae bio-oil features in high concentrations of aliphatic compounds, fatty acid alkyl ester, alcohols and nitriles. Microalgae showed potentials for alternative feedstock for green diesel, and commodity and valuable chemicals.

  3. Enhanced diesel fuel fraction from waste high-density polyethylene and heavy gas oil pyrolysis using factorial design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppert, Ney; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina

    2015-02-01

    Factorial Design Methodology (FDM) was developed to enhance diesel fuel fraction (C9-C23) from waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and Heavy Gas Oil (HGO) through co-pyrolysis. FDM was used for optimization of the following reaction parameters: temperature, catalyst and HDPE amounts. The HGO amount was constant (2.00 g) in all experiments. The model optimum conditions were determined to be temperature of 550 °C, HDPE = 0.20 g and no FCC catalyst. Under such conditions, 94% of pyrolytic oil was recovered, of which diesel fuel fraction was 93% (87% diesel fuel fraction yield), no residue was produced and 6% of noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction was obtained. Seeking to reduce the cost due to high process temperatures, the impact of using higher catalyst content (25%) with a lower temperature (500 °C) was investigated. Under these conditions, 88% of pyrolytic oil was recovered (diesel fuel fraction yield was also 87%) as well as 12% of the noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction. No waste was produced in these conditions, being an environmentally friendly approach for recycling the waste plastic. This paper demonstrated the usefulness of using FDM to predict and to optimize diesel fuel fraction yield with a great reduction in the number of experiments.

  4. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte;

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....

  5. Enzyme-assisted hydrothermal treatment of food waste for co-production of hydrochar and bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Liu, Zhengang; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-09-01

    Food waste was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis prior to hydrothermal treatment to produce hydrochars and bio-oil. Pre-treatment of food waste with an enzyme ratio of 1:2:1 (carbohydrase:protease:lipase) proved to be effective in converting food waste to the two products with improved yields. The carbon contents and calorific values ranged from 43.7% to 65.4% and 17.4 to 26.9 MJ/kg for the hydrochars obtained with the enzyme-assisted pre-treatment, respectively while they varied from 38.2% to 53.5% and 15.0 to 21.7 MJ/kg, respectively for the hydrochars obtained with no pre-treatment. Moreover, the formation of carbonaceous microspheres with low concentrations of inorganic elements and diverse surface functional groups was observed in the case of enzyme-assisted food waste hydrochars. The enzymatic pre-treatment also facilitated the formation of the bio-oil with a narrow distribution of organic compounds and with the highest yield obtained at 350 °C.

  6. Combustion, Performance, and Emission Evaluation of a Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Like Fuel Blends Derived From a Mixture of Pakistani Waste Canola and Waste Transformer Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qasim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a 5.5 kW four-stroke single-cylinder water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine operated with blends of biodiesel-like fuel (BLF15, BLF20 & BLF25 obtained from a 50:50 mixture of transesterified waste transformer oil (TWTO and waste canola oil methyl esters (WCOME with petroleum diesel. The mixture of the waste oils was named as biodiesel-like fuel (BLF.The engine fuelled with BLF blends was evaluated in terms of combustion, performance, and emission characteristics. FTIR analysis was carried out to know the functional groups in the BLF fuel. The experimental results revealed the shorter ignition delay and marginally higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTE and exhaust gas temperature (EGT values for BLF blends as compared to diesel. The hydrocarbon (HC and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were decreased by 10.92–31.17% and 3.80–6.32%, respectively, as compared to those of diesel fuel. Smoke opacity was significantly reduced. FTIR analysis has confirmed the presence of saturated alkanes and halide groups in BLF fuel. In comparison to BLF20 and BLF25, the blend BLF15 has shown higher brake thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption values. The HC, CO, and smoke emissions of BLF15 were found lower than those of petroleum diesel. The fuel blend BLF15 is suggested to be used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines without any engine modification.

  7. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A., E-mail: aidabenhassen@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Kraiem, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Naoui, S. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Belayouni, H. [Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  8. Experimental investigation and performance evaluation of DI diesel engine fueled by waste oil-diesel mixture in emulsion with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of the natural reserves of petroleum products has put a tremendous onus on the automotive industry. Increasing pollution levels and the depletion of the petroleum reserves have lead to the search for alternate fuel sources for internal combustion engines. Usage of vegetable oils poses some challenges like poor spray penetration, valve sticking and clogging of injector nozzles. Most of these problems may be solved by partial substitution of diesel with vegetable oil. In this work, the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled by waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion with different water contents are evaluated. The use of waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion lowers the peak temperature, which reduces the formation of NOx. Moreover the phenomenon of micro explosion that results during the combustion of an emulsified fuel finely atomizes the fuel droplets and thus enhances combustion. Experiments show that CO concentration is reduced as the water content is increased and it is seen that 20% water content gives optimum results. Also, there is a significant reduction in NOx emissions.

  9. Rutting and Fatigue Cracking Resistance of Waste Cooking Oil Modified Trinidad Asphaltic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rean Maharaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of waste cooking oil (WCO on the performance characteristics of asphaltic materials indigenous to Trinidad, namely, Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA, Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB, and TLA : TPB (50 : 50 blend, was investigated to deduce the applicability of the WCO as a performance enhancer for the base asphalt. The rheological properties of complex modulus (G∗ and phase angle (δ were measured for modified base asphalt blends containing up to 10% WCO. The results of rheology studies demonstrated that the incremental addition of WCO to the three parent binders resulted in incremental decreases in the rutting resistance (decrease in G∗/sinδ values and increases in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G∗sinδ value. The fatigue cracking resistance and rutting resistance for the TLA : TPB (50 : 50 blends were between those of the blends containing pure TLA and TPB. As operating temperature increased, an increase in the resistance to fatigue cracking and a decrease in the rutting resistance were observed for all of the WCO modified asphaltic blends. This study demonstrated the capability to create customized asphalt-WCO blends to suit special applications and highlights the potential for WCO to be used as an environmentally attractive option for improving the use of Trinidad asphaltic materials.

  10. Physico-chemical properties of biodiesel manufactured from waste frying oil using domestic adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-elmonem A.; Ali, Rehab Farouk M.

    2015-06-01

    We have evaluated the efficiency of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA), date palm seed carbon (DPSC), and rice husk ash (RHA) as natural adsorbents and compared them with the synthetic adsorbent Magnesol XL for improving the quality of waste frying oil (WFO) and for the impact on the physicochemical properties of the obtained biodiesel. We measured moisture content, refractive index (RI), density, acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), and saponification value (SV), as well as fatty acid profile. Purification treatments with various levels of adsorbents caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in free fatty acids (FFAs), PVs, and IVs. The highest yields (86.45 and 87.80%) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with 2% Magnesol and 3% of RHA, respectively, followed by samples treated with 2 and 3% of DPSC or RHA. Pre-treatments caused a significant decrease in the content of C 18:2 linoleic acids, consistent with a significant increase in the content of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the treated samples. The highest oxidation value (COX) (1.30) was observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO without purification treatments. However, the lowest values (0.44-0.73) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with different levels of adsorbents. Our results indicate that pre-treatments with different levels of adsorbents regenerated the quality of WFO and improved the quality of the obtained biodiesel.

  11. Biochar potential evaluation of palm oil wastes through slow pyrolysis: Thermochemical characterization and pyrolytic kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xin Jiat; Lee, Lai Yee; Gan, Suyin; Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2017-03-22

    This research investigated the potential of palm kernel shell (PKS), empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil sludge (POS), abundantly available agricultural wastes, as feedstock for biochar production by slow pyrolysis (50mLmin(-1) N2 at 500°C). Various characterization tests were performed to establish the thermochemical properties of the feedstocks and obtained biochars. PKS and EFB had higher lignin, volatiles, carbon and HHV, and lower ash than POS. The thermochemical conversion had enhanced the biofuel quality of PKS-char and EFB-char exhibiting increased HHV (26.18-27.50MJkg(-1)) and fixed carbon (53.78-59.92%), and decreased moisture (1.03-2.26%). The kinetics of pyrolysis were evaluated by thermogravimetry at different heating rates (10-40°C). The activation energies determined by Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa models were similar, and comparable with literature data. The findings implied that PKS and EFB are very promising sources for biochars synthesis, and the obtained chars possessed significant biofuel potential.

  12. Genoprotective effects of lignin isolated from oil palm black liquor waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Prashantha; Rozman, Hj Din; Bhat, Rajeev

    2013-07-01

    Black liquor waste (BLW), a major by-product of palm oil extraction process contains lignin as one of the constituents. Lignin isolated from BLW was evaluated for antioxidant and genoprotective properties and was compared with the commercial lignin for overall efficacy. Antioxidant compounds (phenolics and tannins) and antioxidant activities (phosphomolybdenum assay, ABTS(+) and FRAP assays) of lignin isolated from BLW were compared with commercial lignin. Bone marrow micronucleus (MN) test was employed for evaluating the dose-yield protective effect against cyclophosphamide (CP, 50mg/kg b.w.) induced genotoxicity in mouse. Results revealed isolated lignin to exhibit rich antioxidant activities. A decrease in MN frequency and recovery of P/N ratio (P: polychromatic erythrocytes, N: normochromatic erhythocytes) indicated protective effects of lignin against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. The efficacy of BLW-derived lignin as an antioxidant and genoprotective agent was comparable to commercial lignin. Results on lignin isolated from BLW are envisaged to find potential applications in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Transesterification of sago starch and waste palm cooking oil in densified CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muljana, H.; Sugih, A. K.; Christina, N.; Fangdinata, K.; Renaldo, J.; Rudy; Heeres, H. J.; Picchioni, F.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the synthesis of biodegradable and yet renewable thermoplastics materials through a transesterification reaction of sago starch and waste palm cooking oil (WPO) in densified CO2 as the solvent is reported. The aim of this research is to investigate the potential used of sago starch and WPO as raw materials in the thermoplastics starch synthesis. The starch esters was successfully synthesized using sago starch and WPO as reagent in densified CO2 as shown from the presence of carbonyl group (C=O, 1743 cm-1) in the FT-IR spectra coupled with the presence of the proton (1H-NMR) of the fatty acid in the starch backbone (0.8 - 2 ppm). The product crystallinity decreases as shown in XRD results and resulting with a change in the thermal properties (melting and crystalline temperature) of the products. In addition, the products show a different granular morphology and a higher hydrophobicity compared with native sago starch. This research shows the potential used of sago starch and WPO in the thermoplastics starch synthesis and opens a new perspective on the product application.

  14. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  15. Multi-loop Control System Design for Biodiesel Process using Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patle, Dipesh S.; Z, Ahmad; Rangaiah, G. P.

    2015-06-01

    Biodiesel is one of the promising liquid fuels for future due to its advantages such as renewability and eco-friendliness. This manuscript describes the development of a multi-loop control system design for a comprehensive biodiesel process using waste cooking oil. Method for controlled variable-manipulated variable (CV-MV) pairings are vital for the stable, effective and economical operation of the process. Liquid recycles, product quality requirements and effective inventory control pose tough challenges to the safe operation of the biodiesel process. A simple and easy to apply effective RGA method [Xiong Q, Cai W J and He M J 2005 A practical loop pairing criterion for multivariable processes Journal of Process Control vol. 15 pp 741-747.] is applied to determine CV-MV pairings i.e. control configuration design for the bioprocess. This method uses steady state gain as well as bandwidth information of the process open loop transfer function to determine input-output pairings.

  16. Review of the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil using Solid Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Said

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for fossil fuels and the emissions generated from these fuels are increasing daily. Researchers are concerned with global warming as well as climate change; and energy sustainability and material usages are important issues today. Waste cooking oil (WCO can be processed into biodiesel as an alternative fuel to replace diesel. Production of biodiesel using WCO as the feedstock has been of growing interest for the last two decades. A number of research papers related to the improvements in production, raw materials and catalyst selection have been published. This paper reviews the various types of heterogeneous solid catalyst in the production of biodiesel via the transesterification of WCO. The catalysts used can be classified according to their state presence in the transesterification reaction as homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts act in the same liquid phase as the reaction mixture, whereas heterogeneous catalysts act in a solid phase with the reaction mixture. Heterogeneous catalysts are non-corrosive, a green process and environmentally friendly. They can be recycled and used several times, thus offering a more economic pathway for biodiesel production. The advantages and drawbacks of these heterogeneous catalysts are presented. Future work focuses on the application of economically and environmentally friendly solid catalysts in the production of biodiesel using WCO as the raw material.

  17. Investigation on the potential of waste cooking oil as a grinding aid in Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Jianfeng; Huang, Yuyan; Jiang, Zhengwu; Yang, Xiaojie; Yang, Zhenghong; Chen, Qing

    2016-12-15

    Although there are several methods for managing waste cooking oil (WCO), a significant result has not been achieved in China. A new method is required for safe WCO management that minimizes the environmental threat. In this context, this work was developed in which cement clinker and gypsum were interground with various WCOs, and their properties, such as grindability, water-cement ratio required to achieve a normal consistency, setting times, compressive strength, contents of calcium hydroxide and ettringite in the hardened paste, microstructure and economic and environmental considerations, were addressed in detail. The results show that, overall, WCO favorably improves cement grinding. WCO prolonged the cement setting times and resulted in longer setting times. Additionally, more remarkable effects were found in cements in which WCO contained more unsaturated fatty acid. WCOs increased the cement strength. However, this enhancement was rated with respect to the WCO contents and components. WCOs decreased the CH and AFt contents in the cement hardened paste. Even the AFt content at later ages was reduced when WCO was used. WCO also densify microstructure of the hardened cement paste. It is economically and environmentally feasible to use WCOs as grinding aids in the cement grinding process. These results contribute to the application of WCOs as grinding aids and to the safe management of WCO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microwave-Assisted Catalytic Synthesis of Bio-Based Copolymers from Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrzadi Noureen Shahi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solvent-free copolymerization of epoxides derived from fatty esters of waste cooking oil with phthalic anhydride using (salenCrIIICl as catalyst and n-Bu4NCl/DMAP (tetrabutylammonium chloride/4-(dimethylaminopyridine as co-catalysts was carried out for the first time under microwave irradiation, where reaction time was reduced from a number of hours to minutes. The polyesters were obtained with molecular weight (Mw = 3100–6750 g/mol and dispersity values (D = 1.18–1.92 when (salenCrIIICl/n-Bu4NCl was used as catalysts. Moreover, in the case of DMAP as a co-catalyst, polyesters with improved molecular weight (Mw = 5500–6950 g/mol and narrow dispersity values (D = 1.07–1.28 were obtained even at reduced concentrations of (salenCrIIICl and DMAP. The obtained products were characterized and evaluated by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC Techniques.

  19. Recycling of Cooking Oil Waste into Reactive Polyurethane for Blending with Thermoplastic Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Zafiah M. Rus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the need of growing to a more sustainable and environmentally friendly future, this research is started by mixing in-house produced biorenewable polymers (BP from waste cooking oil with the standard low density polyethylene (LDPE and high density polyethylene (HDPE via melt-mixing at low ratios. These mixtures are then compounded via injection molding to produce tensile samples. By using the quality of individual compounds injected, the parameters obtained for all ratios of LDPE/BP were the same with neat LDPE whereas some adjustments were required for the HDPE/BP compounds. The corresponding mechanical behaviors of each ratio were also examined and the results showed that both tensile strength and strain of the LDPE/BP were better than neat LDPE. On the other hand, increasing the BP content in HDPE/BP will increase the toughness of the compound if compared to neat HDPE. Therefore, not only does the presence of BP provide renewable properties, but it also improves the mechanical properties. Moreover, the processing temperature and composition of BP will both influence the quality and mechanical behavior of the product made. Thus, this study may aid any intention on processing these in-house produced polymers by injection molding.

  20. Flocculation-Extraction of Waste Diesel Engine Oil for Base Oil%废柴油机油絮凝抽提精制工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞丽; 齐羽佳

    2013-01-01

    Waste diesel engine oil was refined by flocculation-extraction with isopropanol and/or butanone as solvents.The effects of extraction temperature,extraction time and the mass ratio of solvent to the waste oil on the yield and quality of the refined oil were researched.The experimental results showed that under the conditions of extraction temperature 40 ℃,extraction time 30 min,and the mass ratios of solvent to the waste diesel engine oil 3 for isopropanol and 5 for butanone,the refined oil yield were 27.99% and 92.68% respectively.But when butanone was used as the solvent,the quality of the refined oil was not good.A composite solvent is composed of isopropanol and butanone.Under the optimal conditions of the mass ratio of butanone to isopropanol 3,the mass ratio of the composite solvent to the waste oil 3,extraction time 30 min and extraction temperature 40 ℃,after the refined oil was treated with clay,its quality could meet the standard of HVI400 base oil and the yield reached 65.77%.%采用絮凝抽提法对4S店回收的废柴油机油进行了再生利用研究.分别用异丙醇、丁酮两种单一溶剂,考察了精制温度、精制时间、剂油比(溶剂与废柴油机油的质量比)对精制油收率及性质的影响,得到最佳精制条件为:精制温度40℃,精制时间30 min,异丙醇的剂油比3,丁酮的剂油比5.在最佳精制条件下,异丙醇精制油的收率只有27.99%;而丁酮精制油的收率达到92.68%,但精制油的质量差.将异丙醇和丁酮混合作为复合溶剂,在精制温度40℃、精制时间30 min的条件下,考察了复合溶剂配比、剂油比等因素的影响.实验结果表明,复合溶剂的最优配比为m(丁酮):m(异丙醇)=3、最佳剂油比为3.复合溶剂精制油经白土补充处理后的油品符合HVI400基础油的标准,收率达65.77%.

  1. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  2. Co-composting of rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure and straw or sawdust: effects of carbon source and C/N ratio on decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onursal, Emrah; Ekinci, Kamil

    2015-04-01

    Rose oil is a specific essential oil that is produced mainly for the cosmetics industry in a few selected locations around the world. Rose oil production is a water distillation process from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. Since the oil content of the rose petals of this variety is between 0.3-0.4% (w/w), almost 4000 to 3000 kg of rose petals are needed to produce 1 kg of rose oil. Rose oil production is a seasonal activity and takes place during the relatively short period where the roses are blooming. As a result, large quantities of solid waste are produced over a limited time interval. This research aims: (i) to determine the possibilities of aerobic co-composting as a waste management option for rose oil processing waste with caged layer manure; (ii) to identify effects of different carbon sources - straw or sawdust on co-composting of rose oil processing waste and caged layer manure, which are both readily available in Isparta, where significant rose oil production also takes place; (iii) to determine the effects of different C/N ratios on co-composting by the means of organic matter decomposition and dry matter loss. Composting experiments were carried out by 12 identical laboratory-scale composting reactors (60 L) simultaneously. The results of the study showed that the best results were obtained with a mixture consisting of 50% rose oil processing waste, 64% caged layer manure and 15% straw wet weight in terms of organic matter loss (66%) and dry matter loss (38%).

  3. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  5. 基于激光粒度仪的回收油脂鉴别研究%Research of identification of waste oil based on Zetasizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴梅; 刘晓毅; 朱雨薇; 刘伟丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a new method for identification of waste oil by Zetasizer. Methods Marvel Zetasizer was explored to measure the mean diameter of the particles in 27 kinds of edible oil and 5 kinds of waste oil, and the particle size and the distribution of edible oil and waste oil were compared. Results It was found out that the mean diameter of edible oil was smaller than 10 nm, the particle size of waste oil was larger than 300 nm. Conclusion The results show that the mean diameter of waste oil is much larger than that of edible oil. According to difference of particle size of 2 kinds of oils, waste oil and edible oil could be distinguished by Zetasizer. This method of identifying waste oil by Zetasizer was non-pretreatment, rapid and convenient.%目的:开发一种能对回收油脂进行有效鉴别的简便、快捷新方法。方法采用马尔文激光粒度仪对27种未经使用食用油以及5种回收油脂中颗粒物粒度大小进行测定,并对此32种油中颗粒物的粒度大小及其分布范围进行比较。结果未经使用的27种食用油中颗粒物粒度平均峰值均小于10 nm,而5种回收油脂中颗粒物粒度平均峰值均大于300 nm。结论回收油脂中颗粒物粒度要大于食用油的颗粒物粒度,通过2类油脂中颗粒物粒度峰值的差异可以进行回收油脂鉴别。本文采用激光粒度仪鉴别回收油脂,无需对样品进行任何前处理,测试过程简便、快捷。

  6. Biotechnological conversion of waste cooking olive oil into lipid-rich biomass using Aspergillus and Penicillium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, S; Dimou, A; Fakas, S; Diamantopoulou, P; Philippoussis, A; Galiotou-Panayotou, M; Aggelis, G

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we have investigated the biochemical behaviour of Aspergillus sp. (five strains) and Penicillium expansum (one strain) fungi cultivated on waste cooking olive oil. The production of lipid-rich biomass was the main target of the work. In parallel, the biosynthesis of other extracellular metabolites (organic acids) and enzyme (lipase) and the substrate fatty acid specificity of the strains were studied. Carbon-limited cultures were performed on waste oil, added in the growth medium at 15g l(-1) , and high biomass quantities were produced (up to c.18g l(-1) , conversion yield of c. 1·0 g of dry biomass formed per g of fat consumed or higher). Cellular lipids were accumulated in notable quantities in almost all cultures. Aspergillus sp. ATHUM 3482 accumulated lipid up to 64·0% (w/w) in dry fungal mass. In parallel, extracellular lipase activity was quantified, and it was revealed to be strain and fermentation time dependent, with a maximum quantity of 645 U ml(-1) being obtained by Aspergillus niger NRRL 363. Storage lipid content significantly decreased at the stationary growth phase. Some differences in the fatty acid composition of both cellular and residual lipids when compared with the initial substrate fat used were observed; in various cases, cellular lipids more saturated and enriched with arachidic acid were produced. Aspergillus strains produced oxalic acid up to 5·0 g l(-1) . Aspergillus and Penicillium strains are able to convert waste cooking olive oil into high-added-value products.   Increasing fatty wastes amounts are annually produced. The current study provided an alternative way of biovalourization of these materials, by using them as substrates, to produce added-value compounds. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Comprehensive Treatment of Waste Water,Waste Oil and Waste Gas in Chemical Fertilizer Enterprises%化肥企业废水、废油和废气的综合治理技术改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东法

    2011-01-01

    介绍了针对合成氨、尿素装置进行的造气污水治理、节水减排改造、废油回收改造和废气回收再利用综合治理;对改造效果进行了综合评价,结果表明,改造后排放废水水质保持在COD≤60 mg/L,w(NH3-N)≤5 mg/L,废油回收100 t/a,吨尿素氨耗降低到586 kg/t。%Author has introduced the comprehensively hornessing concerning the gasification pollution water hornessing and reformation of water conservation and discharge reduction,reformation of waste oil recovery and reuse of waste gas recovery,all these reformations have been implemented in allusion to the ammonia synthesis and urea plant,result indicates that after reformation the water quality of waste water discharged is maintained within: COD≤60mg/L,w(NH3-N)≤5 mg/L,waste oil recovery 100 t/a,ammonia consume per tone of urea is reduced to 586 kg.

  8. Research on Biodiesel Production from Waste Oil in Dining Room%食堂废油制备生物柴油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云波

    2012-01-01

    Food waste contains large amount of waste oil and fat. This study monitored the waste oil content in food waste continuously, adopted the waste oil to produce biodiesel, analyzed the component to compare with that produced by other raw material. The experimental results show that the average oil rate in food waste is more than 10%( dry basis). The contents of palmitic acid methyl ester, oleic acid methyl eater and linoleic acid methyl eater in biodiesel produced by waste oil extracted from food waste are 38.70%,18.32%, and 31.72%, respectively, which are the highest contents in biodiesel. The components of the produced biodiesel are similar to that produced from plant oil, and can meet the requirement of diesel substitute.%食品废物含有大量的油脂,本研究对食品废物的油脂含量进行了连续监测,以其为原料开展生物柴油的制备研究,并对其组成进行测试分析,同其他原料所得生物柴油作对比,结果表明:食品废物的平均含油率均超过了10%(干基).利用食品废物中提取的废弃油脂制取的生物柴油以棕榈酸甲酯、油酸甲酯和亚油酸甲酯含量最高,分别为38.70%、亚油酸甲酯18.32%和棕榈酸甲酯31.72%,其组成与以植物油为原料合成生物柴油组成基本相似,符合作为柴油替代品的要求.

  9. Road pavers' occupational exposure to asphalt containing waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Virpi; Elovaara, Eivor; Nykyri, Erkki; Santonen, Tiina; Heikkilä, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Waste plastic (WP) and tall oil pitch (T), which are organic recycled industrial by-products, have been used as a binder with bitumen in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and asphalt concrete (AC). We compared the exposure over one workday in 16 road pavers participating in a survey at four paving sites, using mixes of conventional asphalt (SMA, AC) or mixes containing waste material (SMA-WPT, AC-WPT). The concentrations of 11 aldehydes in air were 515 and 902 microg m(-3) at the SMA-WPT and AC-WPT worksites, being 3 and 13 times greater than at the corresponding worksites laying conventional asphalt. Resin acids (2-42 microg m(-3)), which are known sensitizers, were detected only during laying of AC-WPT. The emission levels (microg m(-3)) of total particulates (300-500), bitumen fumes (60-160), bitumen vapour (80-1120), naphthalene (0.59-1.2), phenanthrene (0.21-0.32), pyrene (<0.015-0.20), benzo(a)pyrene (<0.01) and the sum of 16 PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 1.28-2.00) were similar for conventional and WPT asphalts. The dermal deposition of 16 PAHs on exposure pads (on workers' wrist) was low in all pavers (0.7-3.5 ng cm(-2)). Eight OH-PAH biomarkers of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene exposures were quantified in pre- and post-shift urine specimens. The post-shift concentrations (mean +/- SD, micromol mol(-1) creatinine) of 1- plus 2-naphthol; 1-,2-,3-,4- plus 9-phenanthrol; and 1-hydroxypyrene were, respectively, for asphalt workers: 18.1+/- 8.0, 2.41 +/- 0.71 and 0.66+/- 0.58 (smokers); 6.0+/- 2.3, 1.70+/- 0.72 and 0.27+/- 0.15 (non-smokers); WPT asphalt workers: 22.0+/- 9.2, 2.82+/- 1.11 and 0.76+/- 0.18 (smokers); 6.8+/- 2.6, 2.35+/- 0.69 and 0.46+/- 0.13 (non-smokers). The work-related uptake of PAHs was low in all pavers, although it was significantly greater in smokers than in non-smokers. The WPT asphalt workers complained of eye irritation and sore throat more than the pavers who had a much lower exposure to aldehydes and resin acids.

  10. Property Analysis of the Agricultural Machinery Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Ploj

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We need to produce enough healthy and cheap food as well as to preserve the ecologic equilibrium. This can be achived by using modern machinery and up- to-date knowledge and technology. Agricultural machinery, in which 40-60% of all funds are invested, is poorly maintained and underused. The main causes for this are poor knowledge and extensive farm land fragmentation. The fact that over 140,000 tractors in Slovenia are on average 9.6 years old, i.e. that more than 80% of overall agricultural machinery is obsolete, should be a matter of serious concern. In the paper we follow tribological conditions in particular tractor assemblies. In the first part of the paper we have treated the required conditions of tractor manufacturers in Europe and primarily in Slovenia, what has served us in the final phase of the research for elaboration of the model. In this way we have got data about the presence of particular tractor types. We have separately elaborated the necessary specifications of engine lubricants, transmission, gears, hydraulics and wet breaks. We have carried out chemical and mechanical analyses of all accessible lubricants in agricultural mechanisation. The results of the new oils were coordinated with the required specifications of tractor manufacturers and so we have got such a model, that certainly meet all lubricating requirements of our tractors.

  11. Production and disposal of waste materials from gas and oil extraction from the Marcellus Shale Play in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Yoxtheimer, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing world demand for energy has led to an increase in the exploration and extraction of natural gas, condensate, and oil from unconventional organic-rich shale plays. However, little is known about the quantity, transport, and disposal method of wastes produced during the extraction process. We examined the quantity of waste produced by gas extraction activities from the Marcellus Shale play in Pennsylvania for 2011. The main types of wastes included drilling cuttings and fluids from vertical and horizontal drilling and fluids generated from hydraulic fracturing [i.e., flowback and brine (formation) water]. Most reported drill cuttings (98.4%) were disposed of in landfills, and there was a high amount of interstate (49.2%) and interbasin (36.7%) transport. Drilling fluids were largely reused (70.7%), with little interstate (8.5%) and interbasin (5.8%) transport. Reported flowback water was mostly reused (89.8%) or disposed of in brine or industrial waste treatment plants (8.0%) and largely remained within Pennsylvania (interstate transport was 3.1%) with little interbasin transport (2.9%). Brine water was most often reused (55.7%), followed by disposal in injection wells (26.6%), and then disposed of in brine or industrial waste treatment plants (13.8%). Of the major types of fluid waste, brine water was most often transported to other states (28.2%) and to other basins (9.8%). In 2011, 71.5% of the reported brine water, drilling fluids, and flowback was recycled: 73.1% in the first half and 69.7% in the second half of 2011. Disposal of waste to municipal sewage treatment plants decreased nearly 100% from the first half to second half of 2011. When standardized against the total amount of gas produced, all reported wastes, except flowback sands, were less in the second half than the first half of 2011. Disposal of wastes into injection disposal wells increased 129.2% from the first half to the second half of 2011; other disposal methods decreased. Some

  12. Valorization of Waste Obtained from Oil Extraction in Moringa Oleifera Seeds: Coagulation of Reactive Dyes in Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Vilaseca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera seeds contain about 40% of highly valued oil due to its wide range of applications, from nutritional issues to cosmetics or biodiesel production. The extraction of Moringa oil generates a waste (65%–75% of seeds weight which contains a water soluble protein able to be used either in drinking water clarification or wastewater treatment. In this paper, the waste of Moringa oleifera extraction was used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. This waste constitutes a natural coagulant which was demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of industrial reactive dyestuff effluents, characterized by alkaline pH, high NaCl content and hydrolyzed dyes. The coagulation yield increased at high NaCl concentration, whereas the pH did not show any significant effect on dye removal. Moringa oleifera showed better results for dye removal than the conventional treatment of coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 and polyelectrolyte. Treated water can be reused in new dyeing processes of cotton fabrics with high quality results.

  13. Phytoassessment of a 5-Month Old Waste Engine Oil Polluted Soil after Augmentation with Pleurotus tuberregium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckley Ikhajiagbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a bioassessment of the effects of of substrate microbial augmentation on the bioremediation of Waste Engine Oil (WEO polluted soil. Four different concentrations of WEO in soil on weight basis were obtained by thoroughly mixing WEO in measured soil: 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% w/w. The unpolluted soil was used as the control (0% w/w experiment. The set up was left for 5 months without physically disturbing the soil. After 5 months, the soils were first amended with sawdust and then inoculated with mycelia of Pleurotus tuberregium. Nine months after bioaugmentation (9 MAB there was total (100% remediation of some PAH compounds (benzo(aanthracene, benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(g,h,iperylene, benzo(kfluoranthene, chrysene, dibenzo(a,hanthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,dpyrene was recorded. Significant (p = 0.05 decreases in heavy metal concentration from 5-9 MAB resulted in significant reductions in Hazard Quotients (HQ, which implied less possibility for ecological risk for heavy metal constituents. Phytoassessment of the polluted soil was carried at 5MAP, and results showed that virtually all the cowpea seedlings died within 2 weeks. Only those seedlings in unpolluted soils survived. Nine months after readjustment of soil treatments, all cowpea plants survived up to fruiting, with grain yields in the most polluted soil being 15.25 g/plant compared to 26.01 g/plant in the control experiment. Although heavy metals were minimally accumulated in leaves and seeds of cowpea, bioaccumulation was not significant when Bioaccumulation Quotients (BQ were computed, with BQ value ranges as 0.01-0.05 in seeds and 0.0 -0.80 in leaves. Hydrocarbons was detected in cowpea leaves but not in the seeds.

  14. Analysis of the Relationships between Waste Cooking Oil Qualities and Rejuvenated Asphalt Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Meizhu; Wu, Shaopeng; Liu, Jingxiang; Amirkhanian, Serji

    2017-05-06

    Waste cooking oil (WCO), in many cases, can rejuvenate aged asphalt and restore its properties. However, the influence of WCO qualities on rejuvenation behaviors of aged asphalt has not been investigated in detail. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of WCO viscosity and acid value on the basic, rheological, and chemical properties of a typical rejuvenated asphalt. Penetration, ring and ball (R and B) softening point, and ductility were tested to evaluate the influence of WCO qualities on basic properties of rejuvenated asphalts. Then, the rheological properties of rejuvenated asphalt were characterized based on rotational viscometer (RV), dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and bending beam rheometer (BBR) test results. Further, SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) fraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) tests were performed to investigate the effects of WCO qualities on asphalt chemical composition. Finally, grey correlation coefficients were calculated and the relationships between WCO qualities and rejuvenated asphalt properties were quantitatively evaluated. The experimental results indicated that WCO qualities influence the rejuvenation behaviors of aged asphalt significantly, and the WCO with higher qualities (low acid value and viscosity, as defined in this research) tends to achieve better rejuvenation effects. Based on the results of grey correlation analyses, the acid value is, relatively, a better indicator than viscosity in predicting the rejuvenation efficiency of WCO. The rejuvenation thresholds of WCO are varied with the categories of properties of rejuvenated asphalts, and WCO with an acid value of 0.4-0.7 mg KOH/g, or a viscosity of 140-540 mm²/s, can meet all of the performance requirements for asphalt rejuvenation used in this research.

  15. Removing antinutrients from rapeseed press-cake and their benevolent role in waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel: conjoining the valorization of two disparate industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Das, Subrata; Manhar, Ajay Kumar; Deka, Dhanapati; Mandal, Manabendra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-11-13

    Valorization of oilseed processing wastes is thwarted due to the presence of several antinutritional factors such as phenolics, tannins, glucosinolates, allyl isothiocyanates, and phytates; moreover, literature reporting on their simultaneous extraction and subsequent practical application is scanty. Different solvent mixtures containing acetone or methanol pure or combined with water or an acid (hydrochloric, acetic, perchloric, trichloroacetic, phosphoric) were tested for their efficiency for extraction of these antinutritive compounds from rapeseed press-cake. Acidified extraction mixtures (nonaqueous) were found to be superior to the nonacidified ones. The characteristic differences in the efficacy of these wide varieties of solvents were studied by principal component analysis, on the basis of which the mixture 0.2% perchloric acid in methanol/acetone (1:1 v/v) was deemed as "the best" for detoxification of rapeseed meal. Despite its high reductive potential, hemolytic activity of the extract from this solvent mixture clearly indicated the toxicity of the above-mentioned compounds on mammalian erythrocytes. Because of the presence of a high amount of antinutritive antioxidants, the study was further extended to examine the influence of this solvent extract on the stability of waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel. Treatment with the extract harbored significant improvement (p rapeseed press-cake, and the solvent extract can, thereafter, be used as an effective exogenous antioxidant for biodiesel. In other words, integrated valorization of two different industrial wastes was successfully achieved.

  16. Complex coacervation of collagen hydrolysate extracted from leather solid wastes and chitosan for controlled release of lavender oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Buğra

    2012-06-15

    In the world, approximately 600,000 metric tonnes of chromium-containing solid wastes are generated by the leather industry each year. Environmental concerns and escalating landfill costs are becoming increasingly serious problems to the leather industry and seeking solutions to these problems is a prime concern in much research today. In this study, solid collagen-based protein hydrolysate was isolated from chromium-tanned leather wastes and its chemical properties were determined. Microcapsules of collagen hydrolysate (CH) - chitosan (C) crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) containing Lavender oil (LO) were prepared by complex coacervation method. The effects of various processing parameters, including the CH to C ratio, LO content, and GA, on the oil load (%), oil content (%), encapsulation efficiency (%) and release rate of LO from microcapsules were investigated. As the ratio of C present in the CH/C mixture and crosslinking density increased, the release rate of LO from microcapsules slowed down. Optical and scanning electron microscopy images illustrated that the LO microcapsules were spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies confirmed that there was no significant interaction between CH/C complex and LO.

  17. Utilization of eggshell waste as low-cost solid base catalyst for biodiesel production from used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, N. P.; Podjojono, B.; Fujiani, R.; Nuraini

    2017-05-01

    A solid CaO-based catalyst of waste eggshell was developed for biodiesel production from used cooking oil. The waste eggshell powder was calcined in air at 90° C for 4 h to convert calcium species in the eggshells into active CaO catalysts. The characterization of CaO catalyst was done by XRD and BET analysis. The CaO catalyst was then introduced for transesterification of used cooking oil (UCO) for testing of its catalytic activity. The experiment was conducted in batch type reactor that consists of three-neck glass equipped by reflux condenser and magnetic stirrer. Before tranesterification process, the UCO was treated by coconut coir powder in order to reduce the free fatty acid content. The result showed that the catalyst was potentially use for transesterification of used cooking oil into biodiesel with relatively high yield of 75.92% was achieved at reaction temperature, reaction time, molar ratio UCO to methanol and catalyst amount of 65° C, 7 h, 1:15 and 6%, respectively.

  18. Bio-Oil Production from Fast Pyrolysis of Corn Wastes and Eucalyptus Wood in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Ebrahimi-Nik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis is an attractive technology for biomass conversion, from which bio-oil is the preferred product with a great potential for use in industry and transport. Corn wastes (cob and stover and eucalyptus wood are widely being produced throughout the world. In this study, fast pyrolysis of these two materials were examined under the temperature of 500 °C; career gas flow rate of 660 l h-1; particle size of 1-2 mm; 80 and 110 g h-1 of feed rate. The experiments were carried out in a continuous fluidized bed reactor. Pyrolysis vapor was condensed in 3 cooling traps (15, 0 and -40 °C plus an electrostatic one. Eucalyptus wood was pyrolyised to 12.4, 61.4, and 26.2 percent of bio-char, bio-oil and gas, respectively while these figures were as 20.15, 49.9, and 29.95 for corn wastes. In all experiments, the bio-oil obtained from electrostatic trap was a dark brown and highly viscose liquid.

  19. Biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil by the inclusion complex of heteropoly acid with bridged bis-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changjun; Zhao, Pinwen; Shi, Lihong; Huang, Shaobing; Luo, Pingya

    2013-10-01

    The inclusion complex of Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 with bridged bis-cyclodextrin (CsPW/B) is prepared as a highly efficient catalyst for the direct production of biodiesel via the transesterification of waste cooking oil. CsPW/B is characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the biodiesel is analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. The conversion rate of waste cooking oil is up to 94.2% under the optimum experimental conditions that are methanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1, catalyst dosage of 3 wt%, temperature of 65 °C and reaction time of 180 min. The physical properties of biodiesel sample satisfy the requirement of ASTM D6751 standards. The novel CsPW/B catalyst used for the transesterification can lead to 96.9% fatty acid methyl esters and 86.5% of the biodiesel product can serve as the ideal substitute for diesel fuel, indicating its excellent potential application in biodiesel production.

  20. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 21 skill sheets for agricultural machinery was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Each sheet covers a single operational procedure for a piece of agricultural machinery, and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step operational procedure, (3) abilities or understandings taught, (4)…

  1. Comparative analysis for the production of fatty acid alkyl esterase using whole cell biocatalyst and purified enzyme from Rhizopus oryzae on waste cooking oil (sunflower oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Bharathiraja; Sudalaiyadum Perumal, Ayyappasamy; Jayaraman, Jayamuthunagai; Mani, Jayakumar; Ramanujam, Praveenkumar

    2012-08-01

    The petroleum fuel is nearing the line of extinction. Recent research and technology have provided promising outcomes to rely on biodiesel as the alternative and conventional source of fuel. The use of renewable source - vegetable oil constitutes the main stream of research. In this preliminary study, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) was used as the substrate for biodiesel production. Lipase enzyme producing fungi Rhizopus oryzae 262 and commercially available pure lipase enzyme were used for comparative study in the production of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters (FAAE). The whole cell (RO 262) and pure lipase enzyme (PE) were immobilized using calcium alginate beads. Calcium alginate was prepared by optimizing with different molar ratios of calcium chloride and different per cent sodium alginate. Entrapment immobilization was done for whole cell biocatalyst (WCB). PE was also immobilized by entrapment for the transesterification reaction. Seven different solvents - methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, iso-propanol, iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol were used as the acyl acceptors. The reaction parameters like temperature (30°C), molar ratio (1:3 - oil:solvent), reaction time (24 h), and amount of enzyme (10% mass ratio to oil) were also optimized for methanol alone. The same parameters were adopted for the other acyl acceptors too. Among the different acyl acceptors - methanol, whose reaction parameters were optimized showed maximum conversion of triglycerides to FAAE-94% with PE and 84% with WCB. On the whole, PE showed better catalytic converting ability with all the acyl acceptor compared to WCB. Gas chromatography analysis (GC) was done to determine the fatty acid composition of WCO (sunflower oil) and FAAE production with different acyl acceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BIODEGRADATION OF DIESEL OIL IN SOIL AND ITS ENHANCEMENT BY APPLICATION OF BIOVENTING AND AMENDMENT WITH BREWERY WASTE EFFLUENTS AS BIOSTIMULATION-BIOAUGMENTATION AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Agarry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate and evaluate the effects of natural bioattenuation, bioventing, and brewery waste effluents amendment as biostimulation-bioaugmentation agent on biodegradation of diesel oil in unsaturated soil. A microcosm system was constructed consisting of five plastic buckets containing 1 kg of soil, artificially contaminated or spiked with 10% w/w of diesel oil. Biodegradation was monitored over 28 days by determining the total petroleum hydrocarbon content of the soil and total hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. The results showed that combination of brewery waste effluents amendment and bioventing technique was the most effective, reaching up to 91.5% of diesel removal from contaminated soil; with the brewery waste effluents amendment (biostimulation-bioaugmentation, the percentage of diesel oil removal was 78.7%; with bioventing, diesel oil percentage degradation was 61.7% and the natural bioattenuation technique resulted in diesel oil removal percentage be not higher than 40%. Also, the total hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (THDB count in all the treatments increased throughout the remediation period. The highest bacterial growth was observed for combined brewery waste effluents amendment with bioventing treatment strategy. A first-order kinetic model was fitted to the biodegradation data to evaluate the biodegradation rate and the corresponding half-life time was estimated. The model revealed that diesel oil contaminated-soil microcosms under combined brewery waste effluents amendment with bioventing treatment strategy had higher biodegradation rate constants, k as well as lower half-life times, t1/2 than other remediation systems. This study showed that the microbial consortium, organic solids, nitrogen and phosphorus present in the brewery waste effluents proved to be efficient as potential biostimulation-bioaugmentation agents for bioremediation processes of soils contaminated with diesel oil

  3. Characterization of the TE-NORM waste associated with oil and natural gas production in Abu Rudeis, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Afifi, E.M. [Analytical Chemistry Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: eel_afifi@hotmail.com; Awwad, N.S. [Analytical Chemistry Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-07-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TE-NORM) waste generated from oil and gas production. The waste was characterized by means of dry screening solid fractionation, X-ray analysis (XRF and XRD) and {gamma}-ray spectrometry. Sediment of the TE-NORM waste was fractionated into ten fractions with particle sizes varying from less than 100 {mu}m to more than 3 mm. The results showed that the TE-NORM waste contains mainly radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra (of U-series), {sup 228}Ra (of Th-series) and {sup 40}K in the waste samples before fractionation (i.e. 3 mm) were found to amount to 68.9, 24 and 1.3 Bq/g (dry weight), respectively. After dry fractionation, the activity concentrations were widely distributed and enriched in certain fractions. This represented a 1.48 and 1.82-fold enrichment of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, respectively, in fraction F8 (2.0-2.5 mm) over those in bulk TE-NORM waste samples. The activity ratios of {sup 238}U/{sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra, {sup 223}Ra/{sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra/{sup 224}Ra were calculated and evaluated. Activity of the most hazardous radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was found to be higher than the exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. GOV/2715/94, Vienna]. The radium equivalent activity (Ra-eq), radon ({sup 222}Rn) emanation coefficient (EC) and absorbed dose rate (D {sub {gamma}}{sub r}) were estimated and these are further discussed.

  4. Utilization of oil palm empty bunches waste as biochar-microbes for improving availibity of soil nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G . I . Ichriani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are about 23% waste oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB of total waste generated from the production of crude palm oil in oil palm plantations. Pyrolysis technology can be used to convert waste into biochar and further can be utilized for the improvement of soil. Biochar-microbes of OPEFB are biochar from OPEFB biomass that enriched with soil microbes. Biochar-microbes is expected to be used for the improvement of the soil and plants. Therefore the purpose of this research was to study the ability of biochar-microbes OPEFB to increase availability of the nutrients in sandy soils. The process of making biochar done by using slow pyrolysis technology by heating 300oC and 400oC for 2 and 3 hours, and with sizes 40 and 80 mesh, as well as indigenous microbial Bulkhorderia nodosa G.52.Rif1 and Trichoderma sp. added. The biochar production and research were conducted in the Department of Forestry Laboratory and in the Department of Agronomy Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Palangka Raya University. In general, the study showed that biochar-microbes could maintain the soil pH value and tends to increase the soil pH, increasing the holding capacity of sandy soil to the elements of P and K as well as increasing the availability of nutrients N, P and K. Furthermore, this study showed that the biochar process by 400oC heating for 3 hours and 40 mesh with microbes or without microbes were the best effect on the improvement of the quality of holding capacity and the nutrients supply in sandy soils.

  5. Destruction and Dechlorination of Aroclor1254 in Real Waste Transformer Oil Using Microwave Irradiation, Microwave Absorbent and Reactive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kamarehie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this research, the decomposition of Aroclor 1254, including 20 kinds of poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, in real waste transformer oil in the presence of PEG1000, NaOH, zero valent iron and H2O by microwave (MW irradiation was studied. Methods: Central composites design (CCD method was carried out for experimental design. The effects of microwave power levels (200- 1000 W, reaction time (30-600 s, polyethylene glycol (PEG (1.5-7.5 g, zero valent iron powder (0.3-1.5 g, NaOH (0.3-1.5 g and H2O (0.4-2 ml were surveyed on the decomposition efficiency of PCBs. Results: The results specified that polyethylene glycol and NaOH, as reactants, greatly influenced the decomposition of PCBs. Nevertheless, zero valent iron had no effect, and H2O decreased the decomposition efficiency of PCBs. Furthermore, experimental results showed that at the optimum amounts of variables (PEG = 5.34g, NaOH= 1.17g, Fe= 0.6g, H2O= 0.8 ml, microwave power 800 w, 93% of PCBs were decomposed over the reaction duration of 6 min. Therefore, PCBs degradation efficiency without water rose up to 99.99% under the MW at 6 min. Conclusion: The results indicated that MW, PEG and NaOH were important variables on PCBs degradation from real waste transformer oil. It is therefore suggested that microwave radiation with the assistance of PEG and alkali can be introduced as a potential technology for PCBs removal from real waste PCB-contaminated oil.

  6. Effect of Warm Asphalt Additive on the Creep and Recovery Behaviour of Aged Binder Containing Waste Engine Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Kamaruddin, Nurul Hidayah Mohd; Rosli Hainin, Mohd; Ezree Abdullah, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    The use of waste engine oil as an additive in asphalt mixture has been reported to be able to offset the stiffening effect caused by the recycled asphalt mixture. Additionally, the fumes and odor of the waste engine oil has caused an uncomfortable condition for the workers during road construction particularly at higher production temperature. Therefore, this problem was addressed by integrating chemical warm asphalt additive into the mixture which functions to reduce the mixing and compaction temperature. This study was initiated by blending the additive in the asphalt binder of bitumen penetration grade 80/100 prior to the addition of pavement mixture. The effect of chemical warm asphalt additive, Rediset WMX was investigated by modifying the aged binder containing waste engine oil with 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% by weight of the binder. The samples were then tested for determining the rutting behaviour under different loading stress levels of 3Pa (low), 10Pa (medium) and 50Pa (high) using Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). A reference temperature of 60 °C was fixed to reflect the maximum temperature of the pavement. The results found that the addition of Rediset did not affect the creep and recovery behavior of the modified binder under different loading. On the other hand, 2% Rediset resulted a slight decrease in its rutting resistance as shown by the reduction of non-recoverable compliance under high load stress. However, overall, the inclusion of chemical warm asphalt additive to the modified binder did not adversely affect the rutting resistance which could be beneficial in lowering the temperature of asphalt production and simultaneously not compromising the binder properties.

  7. Biodegradation of Used Motor Oil in Soil Using Organic Waste Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, O. P.; Agamuthu, P.; Abdul Aziz, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil and surface water contamination by used lubricating oil is a common occurrence in most developing countries. This has been shown to have harmful effects on the environment and human beings at large. Bioremediation can be an alternative green technology for remediation of such hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with 5% and 15% (w/w) used lubricating oil and amended with 10% brewery spent grain (BSG), banana skin (BS), and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was studied for a period of 84 days, under laboratory condition. At the end of 84 days, the highest percentage of oil biodegradation (92%) was recorded in soil contaminated with 5% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG, while only 55% of oil biodegradation was recorded in soil contaminated with 15% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG. Results of first-order kinetic model to determine the rate of biodegradation of used lubricating oil revealed that soil amended with BSG recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.4361 day−1) in 5% oil pollution, while BS amended soil recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.0556 day−1) in 15% oil pollution. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of BSG as a good substrate for enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil at low pollution concentration. PMID:22919502

  8. Biodegradation of Used Motor Oil in Soil Using Organic Waste Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Abioye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and surface water contamination by used lubricating oil is a common occurrence in most developing countries. This has been shown to have harmful effects on the environment and human beings at large. Bioremediation can be an alternative green technology for remediation of such hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with 5% and 15% (w/w used lubricating oil and amended with 10% brewery spent grain (BSG, banana skin (BS, and spent mushroom compost (SMC was studied for a period of 84 days, under laboratory condition. At the end of 84 days, the highest percentage of oil biodegradation (92% was recorded in soil contaminated with 5% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG, while only 55% of oil biodegradation was recorded in soil contaminated with 15% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG. Results of first-order kinetic model to determine the rate of biodegradation of used lubricating oil revealed that soil amended with BSG recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.4361 day−1 in 5% oil pollution, while BS amended soil recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.0556 day−1 in 15% oil pollution. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of BSG as a good substrate for enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil at low pollution concentration.

  9. Value-added conversion of waste cooking oil and post-consumer PET bottles into biodiesel and polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yu; Luo, Xiaolan; Wang, Feng; Li, Yebo

    2016-06-01

    A sustainable process of value-added utilization of wastes including waste cooking oil (WCO) and post-consumer PET bottles for the production of biodiesel and polyurethane (PU) foams was developed. WCO collected from campus cafeteria was firstly converted into biodiesel, which can be used as vehicle fuel. Then crude glycerol (CG), a byproduct of the above biodiesel process, was incorporated into the glycolysis process of post-consumer PET bottles collected from campus to produce polyols. Thirdly, PU foams were synthesized through the reaction of the above produced polyols with isocyanate in the presence of catalysts and other additives. The characterization of the produced biodiesel demonstrated that its properties meet the specification of biodiesel standard. The effect of crude glycerol loading on the properties of polyols and PU foams were investigated. All the polyols showed satisfactory properties for the production of rigid PU foams which had performance comparable to those of some petroleum-based analogs. A mass balance and a cost analysis for the conversion of WCO and waste PET into biodiesel and PU foams were also discussed. This study demonstrated the potential of WCO and PET waste for the production of value-added products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  11. Modelling study of NOx removal in oil-fired waste off-gases under electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolińska, Ewa; Sun, Yongxia; Chmielewski, A. G.; Nichipor, H.; Bulka, S.

    2015-08-01

    Computer simulations for high concentration of NOx removal from oil-fired waste off-gases under electron beam irradiation were carried out by using the Computer code "Kinetic" and GEAR method. 293 reactions involving 64 species were used for the modelling calculations. The composition of simulated oil-fired off-gas was the same as the experimental conditions. The calculations were made for following system: (75.78% N2+11.5% CO2+8.62% H2O+4.1% O2), NOx concentration varies from 200 ppm to 1500 ppm. Calculation results qualitatively agree with the experimental results. Furthermore the influence of temperature, SO2 concentration and ammonia addition is discussed.

  12. Equilibrium Kinetics and Isotherm Studies of Cu (II Adsorption from Waste Water onto Alkali Activated Oil Palm Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Z. Chowdhury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Heavy metal accumulation in waste water could affect aquatic life, human health and overall ecosystem adversely. Therefore, in recent years much emphasis has been given for the use of industrial waste material as low cost adsorbents for removal of metallic contaminants from waste water. Approach: Present study deals with the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of Cu (II cation using sodium hydroxide activated Oil Palm Ash (OPA. Adsorption was investigated in a batch system with respect to various parameters such as initial metal ion concentration, contact time and pH of the solution. Surface characterization of the prepared adsorbent was done by using surface area analyzer, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and X-ray Fluorescence and compared with natural oil palm ash. The adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin model. Equilibrium kinetics studies were performed by Pseudo first order, Pseudo second order and Intra-particle diffusion. Results: Maximum monolayer adsorption capacity observed at 30°C was 18.86 mg g−1. Kinetic data correlated well with the pseudo second order model, suggesting that the adsorption process might be chemical sorption. The linear plots of intra particle diffusion revealed that the adsorption process was mainly governed by pore diffusion. Equilibrium uptake was increased with increase of initial concentration and contact time. Experimental data showed that about 96.03% of copper can be removed at pH 5.5. Conclusion: The research concluded that activation by alkali treatment of natural OPA would produce sufficient porosities and surface area and it has got good potential to remove Cu (II from waste water.

  13. Feasibility of a Dual-Fuel Engine Fuelled with Waste Vegetable Oil and Municipal Organic Fraction for Power Generation in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Simio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass, in form of residues and waste, can be used to produce energy with low environmental impact. It is important to use the feedstock close to the places where waste are available, and with the shortest conversion pathway, to maximize the process efficiency. In particular waste vegetable oil and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste represent a good source for fuel production in urban areas. Dual fuel engines could be taken into consideration for an efficient management of these wastes. In fact, the dual fuel technology can achieve overall efficiencies typical of diesel engines with a cleaner exhaust emission. In this paper the feasibility of a cogeneration system fuelled with waste vegetable oil and biogas is discussed and the evaluation of performance and emissions is reported on the base of experimental activities on dual fuel heavy duty engine in comparison with diesel and spark ignition engines. The ratio of biogas potential from MSW and biodiesel potential from waste vegetable oil was estimated and it results suitable for dual fuel fuelling. An electric power installation of 70 kW every 10,000 people could be achieved.

  14. Characterization of bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction of organic waste by NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardis, Irene; Chiaberge, Stefano; Fiorani, Tiziana; Spera, Silvia; Battistel, Ezio; Bosetti, Aldo; Cesti, Pietro; Reale, Samantha; De Angelis, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Solid wastes of organic origins are potential feedstocks for the production of liquid biofuels, which could be suitable alternatives to fossil fuels for the transport and heating sectors, as well as for industrial use. By hydrothermal liquefaction, the wet biomass is partially transformed into a water-immiscible, oil-like organic matter called bio-oil. In this study, an integrated NMR spectroscopy/mass spectrometry approach has been developed for the characterization of the hydrothermal liquefaction of bio-oil at the molecular level. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy were used for the identification of functional groups and gauging the aromatic carbon content in the mixture. GC-MS analysis revealed that the volatile fraction was rich in fatty acids, as well as in amides and esters. High-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) has been applied in a systematic way to fully categorize the bio-oil in terms of different classes of components, according to their molecular formulas. Most importantly, for the first time, by using this technique, and for the liquefaction bio-oil characterization in particular, FT-MS data have been used to develop a methodology for the determination of the aromatic versus aliphatic carbon and nitrogen content. It is well known that, because they resist hydrogenation and represent sources of polluting species, both aromatic molecules and nitrogen-containing species raise concerns for subsequent upgrading of bio-oil into a diesel-like fuel. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Application of a chitosan-immobilized Talaromyces thermophilus lipase to a batch biodiesel production from waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romdhane, Ines Belhaj-Ben; Romdhane, Zamen Ben; Bouzid, Maha; Gargouri, Ali; Belghith, Hafedh

    2013-12-01

    Waste frying oil, which not only harms people's health but also causes environmental pollution, can be a good alternative to partially substitute petroleum diesel through transesterification reaction. This oil contained 8.8 % of free fatty acids, which cause a problem in a base-catalyzed process. In this study, synthesis of biodiesel was efficiently catalyzed by the covalently immobilized Talaromyces thermophilus lipase and allowed bioconversion yield up to 92 % after 24 h of reaction time. The optimal molar ratio was four to six parts of methanol to one part of oil with a biocatalyst loaded of 25 wt.% of oil. Further, experiments revealed that T. thermophilus lipase, immobilized by a multipoint covalent liaison onto activated chitosan via a short spacer (glutaraldehyde), was sufficiently tolerant to methanol. In fact, using the stepwise addition of methanol, no significant difference was observed from the one-step whole addition at the start of reaction. The batch biodiesel synthesis was performed in a fixed bed reactor with a lipase loaded of 10 g. The bioconversion yield of 98 % was attained after a 5-h reaction time. The bioreactor was operated successfully for almost 150 h without any changes in the initial conversion yield. Most of the chemical and physical properties of the produced biodiesel meet the European and USA standard specifications of biodiesel fuels.

  16. Comparison of the mopping ability of chemically modified and unmodified biological wastes on crude oil and its lower fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Ezenweke, Linus Obi; Ezenwa, Emmanuel Tagbo

    2008-11-01

    Activated and unactivated powders of goat hair and coir (coconut husk) separated into two particle sizes were used to mop up spills of crude oil, diesel, kerosene and petrol. It was observed that the materials (sorbents) mopped up appreciable volumes of the hydrocarbon liquids (sorbates) within 90 min of contact. Activation, particle size of sorbents and molecular weight (chain length) of sorbates (hydrocarbon) are major determining factors. Carbonization and particle size enhanced the mopping ability as follows--carbonized 325 microm > uncarbonized 325 microm > carbonized 625 microm > uncarbonized 625 microm, thus activated sorbents with large surface area (small particle size) mopped more hydrocarbons than unactivated of the same particle size. The sorbates were mopped in the order--crude oil > diesel > kerosene > petrol. It was further observed that goat hair (keratin protein) with oleophilic and aquaphobic properties adsorbed more of all the hydrocarbons than coir at all sizes and treatment. Large quantities of the mopped oils were recovered by mere pressing while the waste sorbents with 0.5-2.0% leachable residual oil could be utilized as alternative to fire wood.

  17. Influences of Fuel Additive, Crude Palm and Waste Cooking Oil on Emission Characteristics of Small Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Basharie, Mariam

    2017-08-01

    Major research has been conducted on the use of input products, such as rapeseed, canola, soybean, sunflower oil, waste cooking oil (WCO), crude palm oil (CPO) and crude jatropha oil as alternative fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, biodegradable and oxygenated, where it can be easily adopted by current existing conventional diesel engine without any major modification of the engine. To meet the future performance and emission regulations, is urged to improve the performance and exhaust emissions from biodiesel fuels. Hence, further investigation have been carried out on the emission characteristics of small diesel engine that fuelled by variant blending ratio of WCO and CPO with booster additive. For each of the biodiesel blends ratio from 5 to 15 percent volume which are WCO5, WCO10 and WCO15 for WCO biodiesel and CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 for CPO biodiesel. The exhaust emissions were measured at engine speeds varied at 2000 rpm and 2500 rpm with different booster additive volume DRA (biodiesel without additive), DRB (0.2 ml) and DRC (0.4 ml). Emissions characteristics that had been measured were Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), and smoke opacity. The results showed that increased of blending ratio with booster additive volume significantly decreased the CO emission, while increased in NOx and CO2 due to changes of fuel characteristics in biodiesel fuel blends.

  18. Geodiametris: an integrated geoinformatic approach for monitoring land pollution from the disposal of olive oil mill wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Soupios, Pantelis; Doula, Maria; Cavvadias, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The olive-oil industry is one of the most important sectors of agricultural production in Greece, which is the third in olive-oil production country worldwide. Olive oil mill wastes (OOMW) constitute a major factor in pollution in olivegrowing regions and an important problem to be solved for the agricultural industry. The olive-oil mill wastes are normally deposited at tanks, or directly in the soil or even on adjacent torrents, rivers and lakes posing a high risk to the environmental pollution and the community health. GEODIAMETRIS project aspires to develop integrated geoinformatic methodologies for performing monitoring of land pollution from the disposal of OOMW in the island of Crete -Greece. These methodologies integrate GPS surveys, satellite remote sensing and risk assessment analysis in GIS environment, application of in situ and laboratory geophysical methodologies as well as soil and water physicochemical analysis. Concerning project's preliminary results, all the operating OOMW areas located in Crete have been already registered through extensive GPS field campaigns. Their spatial and attribute information has been stored in an integrated GIS database and an overall OOMW spectral signature database has been constructed through the analysis of multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI satellite images. In addition, a specific OOMW area located in Alikianos village (Chania-Crete) has been selected as one of the main case study areas. Various geophysical methodologies, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Induced Polarization, multifrequency electromagnetic, Self Potential measurements and Ground Penetrating Radar have been already implemented. Soil as well as liquid samples have been collected for performing physico-chemical analysis. The preliminary results have already contributed to the gradual development of an integrated environmental monitoring tool for studying and understanding environmental degradation from the disposal of OOMW.

  19. Waste oil shale ash as a novel source of calcium for precipitated calcium carbonate: Carbonation mechanism, modeling, and product characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velts, O., E-mail: olga.velts@ttu.ee [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Laboratory of Separation Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, Lappeenranta FI-53851 (Finland); Uibu, M.; Kallas, J.; Kuusik, R. [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} A method for converting oil shale waste ash into precipitated CaCO{sub 3} is elucidated. {yields} We discuss the mechanism of hazardous alkaline ash leachates carbonation. {yields} We report a model describing precipitation of CaCO{sub 3} from multi-ionic ash leachates. {yields} Model enables simulation of reactive species concentration profiles. {yields} Product contained {approx}96% CaCO{sub 3} with 4-10 {mu}m size calcite or/and vaterite particles. - Abstract: In this paper, a method for converting lime-containing oil shale waste ash into precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), a valuable commodity is elucidated. The mechanism of ash leachates carbonation was experimentally investigated in a stirred semi-batch barboter-type reactor by varying the CO{sub 2} partial pressure, gas flow rate, and agitation intensity. A consistent set of model equations and physical-chemical parameters is proposed to describe the CaCO{sub 3} precipitation process from oil shale ash leachates of complex composition. The model enables the simulation of reactive species (Ca{sup 2+}, CaCO{sub 3}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, CaSO{sub 4}, OH{sup -}, CO{sub 2}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, H{sup +}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) concentration profiles in the liquid, gas, and solid phases as well as prediction of the PCC formation rate. The presence of CaSO{sub 4} in the product may also be evaluated and used to assess the purity of the PCC product. A detailed characterization of the PCC precipitates crystallized from oil shale ash leachates is also provided. High brightness PCC (containing up to {approx}96% CaCO{sub 3}) with mean particle sizes ranging from 4 to 10 {mu}m and controllable morphology (such as rhombohedral calcite or coexisting calcite and spherical vaterite phases) was obtained under the conditions studied.

  20. Shallow Discussion on Waste Water Treatment of Oil Reservoir%浅谈油库污水处理工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲可为

    2011-01-01

    There are many ports along the coast in our country,and it is necessary to clean oil tanks and discharge the oily waste water separated from blow down tanks on a regular basis in many oil reservoir.Besides, the oil tanks should discharge ballast water,in which the oil content can reach 20%,while the oil content is quite complicated.Oil content in oily waste water usually varies from dozens to several thousands of mg/L,and even tens of thousands of mg/L at maximum.According to the occurrence type,the oily waste water is normally sorted as floating oil,dispersed oil,emulsified oil and dissolved oil.The principle of waste water treatment is such that,first to consider recovering oil from the oily waste water to maximum extent,and the treated water should meet the requirement of Regeneration and recycling of municipal waste water and water quality of municipal domestic water GBfF 18920-2002.%我国沿海港口众多,很多油库每天需要清洗油罐并且定期排放罐内分离出来的含油污水,而油轮需要清理压舱水,其压舱水的含油量最大可达20%,而且油质复杂。含油废水中的含油量,一般为几十至几千mg/L,最高可达数万mg/L。而国家规定的允许排放标准仅为10mg/L。根据含油废水中油类存在形式的不同,通常分为浮油、分散油、乳化油和溶解油四种。含油废水的治理原则:首先应该考虑尽可能多的回收含油废水中的油,对治理过的水,应达到国家《城市污水再生利用城市杂用水水质》GB/T18920—2002标准的要求。

  1. Semi-scale production of PHAs from waste frying oil by Pseudomonas fluorescens S48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawia F. Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at developing a strategy to improve the volumetric production of PHAs by Pseudomonas fluorescens S48 using waste frying oil (WFO as the sole carbon source. For this purpose, several cultivations were set up to steadily improve nutrients supply to attain high cell density and high biopolymer productivity. The production of PHAs was examined in a 14 L bioreactor as one-stage batch, two-stage batch, and high-cell-density fed-batch cultures. The highest value of polymer content in one-stage bioreactor was obtained after 60 h (33.7%. Whereas, the two-stage batch culture increased the polymer content to 50.1% after 54 h. High-cell-density (0.64 g/L at continuous feeding rate 0.55 mL/l/h of WFO recorded the highest polymer content after 54 h (55.34%. Semi-scale application (10 L working volume increased the polymer content in one-stage batch, two-stage batch and high cell density fed-batch cultures by about 12.3%, 5.8% and 11.3%, respectively, as compared with that obtained in 2 L fermentation culture. Six different methods for biopolymer extraction were done to investigate their efficiency for optimum polymer recovery. The maximum efficiency of solvent recovery of PHA was attained by chloroform-hypochlorite dispersion extraction. Gas chromatography (GC analysis of biopolymer produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens S48 indicated that it solely composed of 3-hydrobutyric acid (98.7%. A bioplastic film was prepared from the obtained PHB. The isolate studied shares the same identical sequence, which is nearly the complete 16S rRNA gene. The identity of this sequence to the closest pseudomonads strains is about 98-99%. It was probably closely related to support another meaningful parsiomony analysis and construction of a phylogenetic tree. The isolate is so close to Egyptian strain named EG 639838.

  2. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, Bárbara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three identifiable and separate waste streams. These are: 1 the wash waters from the initial cleansing of the fruit; 2 the wash waters from the secondary centrifuge and 3 the aqueous solid residues from the primary centrifugation. As well as offering process advantages they also reduce the water consumption of the mill. The introduction of this technology was carried out in 90% of Spanish olive oil factories. Therefore, the new twophase olive mill effluents (TPOME are made up of the mixture of effluents (1 and (2, the total volume of TPOME generated being around 0.25 l/kg of olives processed. In addition, the solid residue (two-phase olive pomace, TPOP has a high organic matter concentration giving an elevated polluting load and it cannot be easily handled by traditional technology which deals with the conventional three-phase olive cake.So, this paper aims to report the main features and characteristics of TPOME, and of TPOP, as compared to the classical olive mill wastewater (OMW and olive cake derived from the three-phase manufacturing process. The advantages and disadvantages of the two-phase decanting process will be summarized. Among the treatments reported for TPOME, aerobic processes in completely mixed and activated sludge reactor showed high COD removal efficiencies. Kinetic constants of the aerobic processes were also compared at different operational conditions. The report also includes the following findings: assays of anaerobic digestion of wastewaters from the

  3. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  4. A preliminary study of biodegradable waste as sorbent material for oil-spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, J; Eyu, G D; Mansor, A M; Ahmad, Z; Chukwuekezie, C S

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill constitutes a major source of fresh and seawater pollution as a result of accidental discharge from tankers, marine engines, and underwater pipes. Therefore, the need for cost-effective and environmental friendly sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup cannot be overemphasized. The present work focuses on the preliminary study of empty palm fruit bunch fibre as a promising sorbent material. The morphology of the unmodified empty palm fruit bunch, EPFB fibre, was examined using an optical microcopy, scanning electron microcopy coupled with EDX and X-ray diffraction. The effects of oil volume, fibre weight, and time on oil absorption of EPFB fibre were evaluated with new engine oil from the model oil. The results show that EPFB fibre consists of numerous micro pores, hydrophobic, and partially crystalline and amorphous with approximately 13.5% carbon. The oil absorbency of the fibre increased with the increase in oil volume, immersion time, and fibre weight. However, sorption capacity decreased beyond 3 g in 100 mL. Additionally unmodified EPFB fibre showed optimum oil sorption efficiency of approximately 2.8 g/g within three days of immersion time.

  5. A Preliminary Study of Biodegradable Waste as Sorbent Material for Oil-Spill Cleanup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Idris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill constitutes a major source of fresh and seawater pollution as a result of accidental discharge from tankers, marine engines, and underwater pipes. Therefore, the need for cost-effective and environmental friendly sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup cannot be overemphasized. The present work focuses on the preliminary study of empty palm fruit bunch fibre as a promising sorbent material. The morphology of the unmodified empty palm fruit bunch, EPFB fibre, was examined using an optical microcopy, scanning electron microcopy coupled with EDX and X-ray diffraction. The effects of oil volume, fibre weight, and time on oil absorption of EPFB fibre were evaluated with new engine oil from the model oil. The results show that EPFB fibre consists of numerous micro pores, hydrophobic, and partially crystalline and amorphous with approximately 13.5% carbon. The oil absorbency of the fibre increased with the increase in oil volume, immersion time, and fibre weight. However, sorption capacity decreased beyond 3 g in 100 mL. Additionally unmodified EPFB fibre showed optimum oil sorption efficiency of approximately 2.8 g/g within three days of immersion time.

  6. EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM TWO-STROKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM VARIOUS WASTE OILS AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Nikolić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping represents a significant source of diesel emissions, which affects global climate, air quality and human health. As a solution to this problem, biodiesel could be used as marine fuel, which could help in reducing the negative impact of shipping on environment and achieve lower carbon intensity in the sector. In Southern Europe, some oily wastes, such as wastes from olive oil production and used frying oils could be utilized for production of the second-generation biodiesel. The present research investigates the influence of the second-generation biodiesel on the characteristics of gaseous emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO from marine diesel engines. The marine diesel engine that was used, installed aboard a ship, was a reversible low-speed two-stroke engine, without any after-treatment devices installed or engine control technology for reducing pollutant emission. Tests were carried out on three regimes of engine speeds, 150 rpm, 180 rpm and 210 rpm under heavy propeller condition, while the ship was berthed in the harbor. The engine was fueled by diesel fuel and blends containing 7% and 20% v/v of three types of second-generation biodiesel made of olive husk oil, waste frying sunflower oil, and waste frying palm oil. A base-catalyzed transesterification was implemented for biodiesel production. According to the results, there are trends of NOx, SO2, and CO emission reduction when using blended fuels. Biodiesel made of olive husk oil showed better gaseous emission performances than biodiesel made from waste frying oils.

  7. Environmentally-friendly waste water treatment: Removal of ammonium nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide from oil refinery waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, C.; Heine, I.; Sachse, J.; Peper, H. [Holborn Europa Raffinerie GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Elster, J.

    1998-12-01

    The Holborn Europa Raffinerie (HER) in Hamburg, Germany, achieved a drastic reduction in water and air pollutants by implementation of a two step project. The first step was a modification of the H{sub 2}S-stripping of process water, which resulted ultimately in shutting down the H{sub 2}S-incinerator and conversion of the recovered H{sub 2}S to saleable elementary sulfur. Atmospheric pollution was reduced accordingly by 650 t/a SO{sub 2} and 2,200 t/a CO{sub 2}. In compliance with waste water legislation (requirements of Appendix 45, Waste Water Administrative Regulation), the ammonium nitrogen content of refinery waste water was reduced significantly in a second step. In contrast to the common biological treatment used in many refineries, it was decided to concentrate on physico-chemical treatment of the highly contaminated partstream only. To this end ammonia is effectively stripped out of the partstream under alkaline conditions, and concentrated to a 10% aqueous solution by distillation under reflux. This solution is then injected into the hot vent gas stream of the FCC-regenerator (CO-Boiler) as an NO{sub x} reduction agent, and thus disposed of in an environmentall-friendly manner. The introduction of this combination of field proven processes, namely water treatment by steam stripping and NO{sub x} reduction via SNCR, received government grant support and reduced water pollution by 250 t/a ammonium nitrogen and air pollution by 180 t/a NO{sub x}. In view of the relatively low investment and operating costs, enhanced flexibility of the existing biological water treatment plant, avoidance of additional material waste and drastic reduction of overall refinery emission, the adopted scheme is most certainly a prime example of both economical and ecological optimisation. The scheme also has future potential arising from the projected tightening up in motor fuels specifications (EU specifications for years 2000 and 2005) which will necessitate increased use of

  8. Sustainable energy transitions in emerging economies: The formation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia 1990–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The economic development in emerging economies in Southeast Asia has significantly increased the use of fossil fuel based energy. This has severe implications for global climate change, and against this background, scholars within the sustainable transition tradition have taken an interest...... in addressing how transitions towards more sustainable development pathways in this region may be achieved. This paper contributes to the abovementioned literature by examining the conducive and limiting factors for development and proliferation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia during...... the period 1990–2011. Rising oil prices, strong pressure on the palm oil industry from environmental groups, and a persisting palm oil biomass waste disposal problem in Malaysia appear to have been conducive to niche proliferation, and on top of this national renewable energy policies and large-scale donor...

  9. Toxicity assessment of carbon black waste: A by-product from oil refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xu; Ng, Wei Cheng; Fendy; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-01-05

    In Singapore, approximately 30t/day of carbon-based solid waste are produced from petrochemical processes. This carbon black waste has been shown to possess physical properties that are characteristic of a good adsorbent such as high external surface area. Therefore, there is a growing interest to reutilize and process this carbon black waste into secondary materials such as adsorbents. However, the carbon black waste obtained from petrochemical industries may contain heavy metals that are hazardous to human health and the environment, hence restricting its full potential for re-utilization. Therefore, it is important to examine the possible toxicity effects and toxicity mechanism of carbon black waste on human health. In this study, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis showed that the heavy metals, vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo) and nickel (Ni), were present in the carbon black waste in high concentrations. Three human cell lines (HepG2 cells, MRC-5 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells) were used to investigate the toxicity of carbon black waste extract in a variety of in vitro assays. Results from MTS assays indicated that carbon black waste extract decreased the viability of all three cell lines in a dose and time-dependent manner. Observations from confocal microscopy further confirmed this phenomenon. Flow cytometry assay also showed that carbon black waste extract induced apoptosis of human cell lines, and the level of apoptosis increased with increasing waste concentration. Results from reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay indicated that carbon black waste extract induced oxidative stress by increasing intracellular ROS generation in these three human cell lines. Moreover, induction of oxidative damage in these cells was also observed through the alteration of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Last but not least, by treating the cells with V-spiked solution of concentration equivalent to that found in the

  10. Use of clinoptilolite to improve and protect soil quality from the disposal of olive oil mills wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria K; Elaiopoulos, Kyriakos; Kavvadias, Victor A; Mavraganis, Vasilis

    2012-03-15

    In the framework of LIFE07 ENV/GR/000280 Project "Strategies to improve and protect soil quality from the disposal of olive oil mills wastes in the Mediterranean-PROSODOL", a laboratory experiment was conducted in order to investigate to which extent the natural zeolite clinoptilolite is capable of limiting environmental degradation caused by the uncontrolled disposal of olive oil mills wastes (OOMW). Clinoptilolite was added in various ratios (from 0% up to 30%w/w) to soil samples, which were collected from four OOMW disposal sites (from both the interior of the disposal ponds and the surroundings) located in a pilot Municipality in Rethymno, Crete, Greece. Water soluble K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, polyphenols, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) were measured in leachates after equilibration of the soil samples with clinoptilolite It was observed that water soluble K, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-) and polyphenols were decreased with an increase in zeolite percentage; Ca leaching was slightly increased or remained nearly constant; Mg leaching remained constant or increased, especially for pond soils; and PO4(3-) leaching was very low. Although the soil samples' content in available Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe was high, the metals were not detected in the leachates.

  11. Transesterification of waste cooking oil by an organic solvent-tolerant alkaline lipase from Streptomyces sp. CS273.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Poonam; Yoo, Hah-Young; Kim, Seung Wook; Choi, Yun Hee; Cho, Seung Sik; Yoo, Jin Cheol

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this present study was to produce a microbial enzyme that can potentially be utilized for the enzymatic transesterification of waste cooking oil. To that end, an extracellular lipase was isolated and purified from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. CS273. The molecular mass of purified lipase was estimated to be 36.55 kDa by SDS PAGE. The optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at alkaline pH 8.0 to 8.5 and temperature 40 °C, while the enzyme was stable in the pH range 7.0 ∼ 9.0 and at temperature ≤40 °C. The lipase showed highest hydrolytic activity towards p-nitrophenyl myristate (C14). The lipase activity was enhanced by several salts and detergents including NaCl, MnSo₄, and deoxy cholic acid, while phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride at concentration 10 mM inhibited the activity. The lipase showed tolerance towards different organic solvents including ethanol and methanol which are commonly used in transesterification reactions to displace alcohol from triglycerides (ester) contained in renewable resources to yield fatty acid alkyl esters known as biodiesel. Applicability of the lipase in transesterification of waste cooking oil was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.

  12. Engine performance and emission characteristics of plastic oil produced from waste polyethylene and its blends with diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo (Canada)], Email: tanz@uwaterloo.ca

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes an experiment to determine the possibility of transforming waste plastics into a potential source of diesel fuel. Experiments were done on the use of various blends of plastic oil produced from waste polyethylene (WPE) with diesel fuel (D) at different volumetric ratios and the results were reviewed. WPE was thermally degraded with catalysis of sodium aluminum silicate at optimum conditions (414-480 degree celsius range and 1 h reaction time) and the collected oil was fractionated at various temperatures. The properties of the fuel blends at different volumetric ratios were measured in this study. It was shown that these blends can be used as fuel in compression ignition engines without any modification. With respect to engine performance and exhaust emission, it was found that using a 5% WPE-D (WPE5) blend instead of diesel fuel reduced carbon monoxide (CO) emission. However, the results of experiment showed that carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission rose.

  13. Properties of sugarcane waste-derived bio-oils obtained by fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rofiqul; Parveen, Momtaz; Haniu, Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    Agricultural waste in the form of sugarcane bagasse was pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed fire-tube heating reactor under different pyrolysis conditions to determine the role of final temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and feed size on the product yields. Final temperature range studied was between 375 and 575 degrees C and the highest liquid product yield was obtained at 475 degrees C. Liquid products obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by physical properties, elemental analysis, GCV, FT-IR, (1)H NMR analysis and distillation. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 23.5MJ/kg was established as CH(1.68)O(0.557)N(0.012). Comparison with other approaches showed that the liquid product yield by this simpler reactor system was higher with better physico-chemical properties as fuel. These findings show that fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis is a good option for production of bio-oils from biomass solid wastes.

  14. Oil palm waste and synthetic zeolite: an alternative soil-less growth substrate for lettuce production as a waste management practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghe, G.Y.; Tokashiki, Y.; Kitou, M.; Kinjo, K. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). United Graduate School of Agricultural Science

    2008-12-15

    A study was conducted to assess the characteristics and the prospective utilization of oil palm waste (OP) and synthetic zeolite (SZ) developed by coal fly ash, as an alternative substrate to peat and commercial perlite for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. The SZ, OP, sphagnum peat (PE), perlite (PL) and two different SZ-OP mixtures (v/v) at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 were utilized as the substrates under this study. The substrates formulated by mixing SZ with OP at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 showed improved substrate physical and chemical properties such as air space, bulk density, particle density, water-holding capacity, pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which were in the ideal substrate range when compared with PL. Furthermore, the water-holding capacity of the substrate having a 1 : 10 mixing ratio of SZ with OP was higher than that of the PL by 28.23%, whereas the bulk density was lower than that of PL by 35%. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to assess the influence of the substrates on the growth and development of lettuce. The results of the study suggest that the SZ-OP-based substrates and OP can be successfully utilized as alternatives to the commercial perlite and to substitute the conventional peat substrate for lettuce cultivation. In addition, this can be proposed as an alternative waste management practice.

  15. Laundry Soap from Waste Cooking Oil. What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides instructions for clarifying cooking oil and using it with either wood ash lye or commercial lye to make laundry soap. It also provides (in appendices): a discussion of oils and soaps, including the history of soap; instructions for preparing an 18 percent lye solution; instructions for preparing soap using lye from wood ash;…

  16. Laundry Soap from Waste Cooking Oil. What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides instructions for clarifying cooking oil and using it with either wood ash lye or commercial lye to make laundry soap. It also provides (in appendices): a discussion of oils and soaps, including the history of soap; instructions for preparing an 18 percent lye solution; instructions for preparing soap using lye from wood ash;…

  17. Creating value from waste: remediation of froth treatment tailings from oil sands mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Kevin [Titanium Corporation (Canada); Burdenie, B. [SNC-LAVALIN (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    As the world reserves of oil are depleting, most of the remaining oil is heavy oil from oil sands. Several methods based on water and solvent usage are used to recover this oil but they lead to the rejection of valuable compounds into tailings: heavy minerals, residual bitumen, water and solvent. The aim of this paper is to present the research and development program carried out by Titanium Corporation Inc., of Canada, to recover these compounds in Alberta. Pilot projects were conducted to test the developed technologies. Results showed performance meeting or exceeding expectations as well as a numerous environmental benefits including a significant reduction in water imports and emissions of CO2, NOx and volatile organic compounds. .

  18. In vitro modulation of inflammatory target gene expression by a polyphenol-enriched fraction of rose oil distillation waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedler, Jonas; Weston, Anna; Rausenberger, Julia; Butterweck, Veronika

    2016-10-01

    Classical production of rose oil is based on water steam distillation from the flowers of Rosa damascena. During this process, large quantities of waste water accrue which are discharged to the environment, causing severe pollution of both, groundwater and surface water due to a high content of polyphenols. We recently developed a strategy to purify the waste water into a polyphenol-depleted and a polyphenol-enriched fraction RF20-(SP-207). RF20-(SP-207) and sub-fraction F(IV) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells. Since there is a close interplay between these actions and inflammatory processes, here we focused on the fractions' influence on pro-inflammatory biomarkers. HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with RF20-(SP-207), F(IV) (both at 50μg/mL) and ellagic acid (10μM) for 24h under TNF-α (20ng/mL) stimulated and non-stimulated conditions. Gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1 was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cellular protein secretion of IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1 was determined by ELISA based assays. RF20-(SP-207) and F(IV) significantly decreased the expression and cellular protein secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1. The diminishing effects on inflammatory target gene expression were slightly less pronounced under TNF-α stimulated conditions. In conclusion, the recovered polyphenol fraction RF20-(SP-207) from rose oil distillation waste water markedly modified inflammatory target gene expression in vitro, and, therefore, could be further developed as alternative treatment of acute and chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oil and grease (O&G removal from commercial kitchen waste water using carbonised grass as a key media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Siti Nazahiyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and grease (O&G are usually found in kitchen waste water. O&G are poorly soluble in water and can cause serious problems during the wastewater treatment. Adsorption is a fundamental process in the treatment of kitchen waste water and very economical. Activated carbon is the most effective adsorbent for this application. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to determine the potential of four materials (i.e. sand, gravel, carbonised grass (CG and clay powder as filter media for O&G removal. The CGs were originated from “Elephant Grass” and it is a fast growing plant with significant potential as carbon. The clay acts as a magnet, drawing the oil molecules out of the water and causing them to attach to the surfaces of the clay. In the current study, two filters were developed with different media materials to get the best percentage removal. Filters 1 and 2 were filled with sand, gravel and CG, and sand, gravel, CG and powder clay, respectively. Three samples were taken during peak hour between April and May 2016. The initial O&G concentration varied from 101.37 mg/l to 248.30 mg/l and the final concentration varied from none to 22.57 mg/l for both filters. The percentage removal (% of O&G were between 90.9 and 97.3 (Filter 1 and between 94.3 and 100 (Filter 2. Overall, both filters could efficiently remove O&G in the waste water and the quality of the carbonised grass proved to be as good as carbon produced from other traditional sources.

  20. Waste cooking oil as substrate for biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate: Turning waste into a value-added product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang, T. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Improper disposal of domestic wastes, such as waste cooking oil (WCO, contributes to the deterioration of the environment and may lead to health problems. In this study, we evaluated the potential of plant-based WCO as a carbon source for the commercial biosynthesis of the bio-plastics, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate. The consumption of WCO for this purpose would mitigate their pollution of the environment at the same time.Methodology and Results: WCO collected from several cafeterias in USM was tested as the carbon source for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA production. A selection of suitable nitrogen source was first conducted in order to obtain an acceptable number of dry cell weight (DCW and PHA content. Urea was found to be a suitable nitrogen source for the two bacterial strains used in our study, Cupriavidus necator H16 and its transformed mutant, C. necator PHB¯4 harboring the PHA synthase gene of Aeromonas caviae (PHB¯4/pBBREE32d13. With WCO as the sole carbon source, C. necator H16 yielded a relatively good dry cell weight (DCW=25.4 g/L, with 71 wt% poly(3-hydroxybutyrate P(3HBcontent. In comparison, the DCW obtained with fresh cooking oil (FCO was 24.8 g/L. The production of poly(3 hydroxybutyrate-co-3- hydroxyhexanoate [P(3HB-co-3HHx] from WCO by the transformant C. necator PHB¯4 was comparable, yielding a DCW of 22.3 g/L and P(3HB-co-3HHx content of 85 wt%. Lipase activities for both bacterial strains reached a maximum after 72 h of cultivation when time profile was conducted. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of WCO as a carbon source in the biosynthesis of the bioplastic, PHA, turns a polluting domestic waste into a value-added biodegradable product. This renewable source material can thus be exploited for the low cost production of PHA.

  1. Impact of milling, enzyme addition, and steam explosion on the solid waste biomethanation of an olive oil production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso-Bravo, Andres; Ortega-Martinez, E; Ruiz-Filippi, G

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a consolidated bioprocess which can be further enhanced by incorporating an upstream pretreatment unit. The olive oil production produces a large amount of solid waste which needs to be properly managed and disposed. Three different pretreatment techniques were evaluated in regard to their impact on the anaerobic biodegradability: manual milling of olive pomace (OP), enzyme maceration, direct enzyme addition, and thermal hydrolysis of two-phase olive mill waste. The Gompertz equation was used to obtain parameters for comparison purposes. A substrate/inoculum ratio 0.5 was found to be the best to be used in anaerobic batch test with olive pomace as substrate. Mechanical pretreatment of OP by milling increases the methane production rate while keeping the maximum methane yield. The enzymatic pretreatment showed different results depending on the chosen pretreatment strategies. After the enzymatic maceration pretreatment, a methane production of 274 ml CH4 g VS added (-1) was achieved, which represents an improvement of 32 and 71 % compared to the blank and control, respectively. The direct enzyme addition pretreatment showed no improvement in both the rate and the maximum methane production. Steam explosion showed no improvement on the anaerobic degradability of two-phase olive mill waste; however, thermal hydrolysis with no rapid depressurization enhanced notoriously both the maximum rate (50 %) and methane yield (70 %).

  2. Production of Biodiesel from High Acid Value Waste Cooking Oil Using an Optimized Lipase Enzyme/Acid-Catalyzed Hybrid Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at developing an enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production using waste cooking oil with high acid value (poor quality as feedstock. Tuned enzyme was prepared using a rapid drying technique of microwave dehydration (time required around 15 minutes. Further enhancement was achieved by three phase partitioning (TPP method. The results on the lipase enzyme which was subjected to pH tuning and TPP, indicated remarkable increase in the initial rate of transesterification by 3.8 times. Microwave irradiation was found to increase the initial reaction rates by further 1.6 times, hence giving a combined increase in activity of about 5.4 times. The optimized enzyme was used for hydrolysis and 88% of the oil taken initially was hydrolyzed by the lipase. The hydrolysate was further used in acid-catalyzed esterification for biodiesel production. By using a feedstock to methanol molar ratio of 1:15 and a sulphuric acid concentration of 2.5%, a biodiesel conversion of 88% was obtained at 50 °C for an hour reaction time. This hybrid process may open a way for biodiesel production using unrefined and used oil with high acid value as feedstock.

  3. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmee, Sanjib Kumar; Patria, Raffel Dharma; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-02-18

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.

  4. Performance of the heavy fraction of pyrolysis oil derived from waste printed circuit boards in modifying asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Sun, Shuiyu; Zhong, Sheng; Li, Shenyong; Wang, Yi; Wu, Jiaqi

    2013-09-15

    The focus of this research was the development of efficient and affordable asphalt modifiers. Pyrolysis oil was produced as a byproduct from the pyrolysis of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). The high boiling point fraction was separated from the pyrolysis oil through distillation and is referred to as the heavy fraction of pyrolysis oil (HFPO). The HFPO was tested as an asphalt modifier. Three asphalt modifiers were tested: HFPO; styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR); and HFPO + SBR (1:1). The physical properties and road performance of the three modified asphalts were measured and evaluated. The results have shown that when the amount of modifier was less than 10%, the HFPO modified asphalt had the highest softening point of the three. The dynamic stability (DS) and water resistance of the asphalt mixture with the HFPO modified asphalt was 10,161 cycles/mm and 87.2%, respectively. The DS was much larger than for the HFPO + SBR and SBR modified asphalt mixtures. These results indicate that using HFPO as an asphalt modifier has significant benefits not only for road engineering but also for resource recycling.

  5. 46 CFR 169.241 - Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery. 169.241 Section 169.241 Shipping COAST GUARD... Certification Inspections § 169.241 Machinery. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection.... Mechanisms are operationally tested and visually examined. (3) Auxiliary machinery. All machinery...

  6. Management of waste generation in the oil refining industry. The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lage Refinery experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J.I.; Machado, J.B.; Linhares, C.A.; Mazarino, P.R. [PETROBRAS, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). REVAP. Refinaria Henrique Lage

    1993-12-31

    The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lages Refinery - located in Sao Paulo State (Southeast Brazil), has been developing for many years a systematic program for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generation reduction. The waste minimization management program success has been built due to the structure behavioural modifications due to the new environment protection and quality politics; the training and equipment investments, and operational procedures changes. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Effects of sawdust soil amendment on the soil, growth and yield ofSolanum esculentum Linn. in waste engine oil-polluted soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Babalola E Akinpelumi; Olusanya A Olatunji

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sawdust as a soil amendment on certain growth parameters ofSolanum esculentum Linn.grown in soil polluted with various concentrations of waste engine oil, and changes in the physicochemical proper-ties of the soil. The purpose was to assess the soil remediation potentials of sawdust in waste engine oil-polluted soil. The experiment was divided into three regimes: control (air-dried soil without waste engine oil and with clean sawdust), pol-luted (waste engine oil-contaminated soil), and amended (oil-polluted soil amended with sawdust). Enough 3-kg soil samples were sieved and air-dried to prepare five treatment levels of waste engine oil-contaminated soil (30 mL, 1%; 60 mL, 2%; 90 mL, 3%; 120 mL, 4%; and 150 mL, 5%), as well as five additional treatment levels (the same amounts of oil contamination) in soil amended with sawdust. The treatment levels were replicated five times in a completely randomized design. A nursery bed was planted with a hybrid tomato variety (Roma V F) obtained from National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) in Ibadan, Nigeria. During the maturation period, the growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, and number of branches per plant were determined and then the harvested plants were oven dried at 70 °C for 48 hours to determine their dry weights. The effects of the sawdust amendment on the soil were assessed by determining the soil pH (glass electrode pH meter),total nitrogen (Kjeldahl method), total phosphorus (Bray-1 solution), and potassium (on the leacheate by a flame photometer). Chromium, lead, and cadmium contents were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Analysis of variance and a Duncan multiple-range test were employed to test significant differences in the soil properties of the three regimes. The growth performance ofSolanum esculentumLinn. in the amended regime (soil with sawdust) at the 150-mL waste engine oil-contamination level was

  8. Feasibility Studies of Palm Oil Mill Waste Aggregates for the Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jegathish Kanadasan; Auni Filzah Ahmad Fauzi; Hashim Abdul Razak; Paramananthan Selliah; Vijaya Subramaniam; Sumiani Yusoff

    2015-01-01

    The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC) is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in concrete. POC specimens obtained throughout each state in Malaysia were investigated to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microstructure characteristics. Variations between each state were determined and their possible contributory...

  9. Adding value to vegetable waste: Oil press cakes as substrates for microbial decalactone production

    OpenAIRE

    Laufenberg, Günther; Rosato, Pietro; Kunz, Benno

    2004-01-01

    In this study several oil press cakes were investigated as exclusive substrates for different moulds and yeasts for the production of flavor-active decalactones via solidstate fermentation (SSF). Experiments are focused on pre-treatment methods for olive cake to remove antimicrobial phenolic substances contained in the oil cake disturbing or even inhibiting microbial growth. Choosing Ceratocystis moniliformis as the reference microorganism best results were obtained by a combination of hot wa...

  10. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards.

  11. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids from pomegranate wastes using vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Ververi, Maria; Adamopoulou, Anna; Kaderides, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new process for pomegranate peels application in food industries based on ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids using different vegetable oils as solvents. In this way, an oil enriched with antioxidants is produced. Sunflower oil and soy oil were used as alternative solvents and the effects of various parameters on extraction yield were studied. Extraction temperature, solid/oil ratio, amplitude level, and extraction time were the factors investigated with respect to extraction yield. Comparative studies between ultrasound-assisted and conventional solvent extraction were carried out in terms of processing procedure and total carotenoids content. The efficient extraction period for achieving maximum yield of pomegranate peel carotenoids was about 30min. The optimum operating conditions were found to be: extraction temperature, 51.5°C; peels/solvent ratio, 0.10; amplitude level, 58.8%; solvent, sunflower oil. A second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound extraction under different processing parameters.

  12. Development of measures to improve technologies of energy recovery from gaseous wastes of oil shale processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugov, A. N.; Ots, A.; Siirde, A.; Sidorkin, V. T.; Ryabov, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Prospects of the use of oil shale are associated with its thermal processing for the production of liquid fuel, shale oil. Gaseous by-products, such as low-calorie generator gas with a calorific value up to 4.3MJ/m3 or semicoke gas with a calorific value up to 56.57 MJ/m3, are generated depending on the oil shale processing method. The main methods of energy recovery from these gases are either their cofiring with oil shale in power boilers or firing only under gaseous conditions in reconstructed or specially designed for this fuel boilers. The possible use of gaseous products of oil shale processing in gas-turbine or gas-piston units is also considered. Experiments on the cofiring of oil shale gas and its gaseous processing products have been carried out on boilers BKZ-75-39FSl in Kohtla-Järve and on the boiler TP-101 of the Estonian power plant. The test results have shown that, in the case of cofiring, the concentration of sulfur oxides in exhaust gases does not exceed the level of existing values in the case of oil shale firing. The low-temperature corrosion rate does not change as compared to the firing of only oil shale, and, therefore, operation conditions of boiler back-end surfaces do not worsen. When implementing measures to reduce the generation of NO x , especially of flue gas recirculation, it has been possible to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides in the whole boiler. The operation experience of the reconstructed boilers BKZ-75-39FSl after their transfer to the firing of only gaseous products of oil shale processing is summarized. Concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur oxides in the combustion products of semicoke and generator gases are measured. Technical solutions that made it possible to minimize the damage to air heater pipes associated with the low-temperature sulfur corrosion are proposed and implemented. The technological measures for burners of new boilers that made it possible to burn gaseous products of oil shale processing with low

  13. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pari asadi alasvand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil and ground water pollution with organic matter and toxic materials is an ordinary environmental problem. In this case, oil compounds are among the most important environmental pollutants. Tehran oil refinery is one of the largest and oldest refineries in Iran located south of Tehran city. Since the beginning of its activity in 1968, its waste materials (solid, semisolid and liquid have been disposed in large lagoons next to the refinery site. During this long period, considerable changes in soil properties have occurred, which are of great research interests for soil and environmental scientists. Materials and Methods: The studied area (about 60 ha was located in the south of Tehran (latitude: 35°30.299' to 35°30.814' N and longitude: 51°25.682' to 51°26.296' E. Six pedons, including four Technosols developed on the oil refinery waste materials (pedons no. 1, 3, 4 and 6 and two reference pedons (pedons no. 2 and 5 were fully described and sampled. Particle size distribution (PSD of gypsiferous samples was determined by the specific method for gypsiferous soils (Hesse, 1976. PSD of non-gypsiferous samples were determined according to the standard hydrometer method (Gee and Bauder, 1986, but the oil-polluted samples were analyzed according to the standard ultrasound method (Sawhny, 1996. Organic carbon content was determined by Walkley and Black (1934. pH and EC were measured in soil saturation extracts using EC and pH meter (Jenway. Gypsum and CaCO3 contents were determined using acetone (Sparks, 1996, and calcimetery methods, respectively. Mineralogical analysis was done by Decarreau (1990. Micromorphological descriptions were carried out using the terminology of Stoops (2003. Diagnostic horizons were identified and finally the studied pedons were classified according to the Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 2014 and the World Reference Base (FAO, 2014. Results and Discussion: Horizons of both polluted and

  14. Co-pyrolsis of polyethylene waste with the Campos basin heavy oil; Co-pirolise de residuos de polietileno com gasoleo pesado da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Debora da S.; Marques, Monica R. da C. [Laboratorio de Tecnologia Ambiental, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: monica@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2011-07-01

    In this study, four mixtures of LDPE post consumer with heavy gas from the Campos Basin, in different proportions, were subjected to pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere at 550 deg C. The pyrolytic liquids were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Pyrolysis of pure diesel supplied large amounts of waste oil and only 4% in the range of diesel. On the other hand, the pyrolysis of LDPE mixture of diesel (at the ratio 1/0,5 m/m) provided 20% of light hydrocarbons with high production of pyrolytic oil (96%). The formation of high levels of paraffins and olefins in the range of diesel oil during the co-pyrolysis suggests a promising technology for recycling of plastic waste. (author)

  15. How to optimize solids control economics, efficiency. [Waste management planning for oil and gas well cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, L. (International Drilling Consultants, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-09-01

    Solids control efficiency can be more effectively managed using calculations that include desired removal efficiency, the amount of drilled solids in the mud discard stream, the targeted drilled solids concentration and the barrels of drilling fluid that must be added for each barrel of solids discarded. The following discussion shows: how dilution is necessary; how too much dilution creates problems with excessive drilling fluid volumes and excessive drilling fluid wastes; how removal efficiencies affect the drilling fluid costs; and how the dryness of the drilled solids affects drilling fluid and drilling waste costs. Three primary variables--dryness of discarded solids, targeted drilled solids concentration in the drilling fluid and removal efficiency--are important in evaluating a rig solids management system. They all play a role in minimizing drilling fluid and drilling waste costs.

  16. Production of high quality gasoline from waste polyethylene derived heavy oil over Ni-REY catalyst in steam atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Takao; Kuwahara, Hiroshi; Mukai, Shin; Hashimoto, Kenji [Kyoto University Honnmachi (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    1999-07-01

    Nickel and rare earth metal exchanged Y-type zeolite catalyst (Ni-REY) was prepared for producing light fuels (gasoline and kerosene) by the catalytic cracking of heavy oil from waste plastics in a steam atmosphere. The Ni in the catalyst was found to exhibit catalysis for transportation of hydrogen atoms from steam to hydrocarbons. In a steam atmosphere, strong acid sites of the catalyst, which usually cause excessive cracking, were covered with steam molecules, leading to a high yield of liquid fuels. Experiments using MFI zeolite in a nitrogen atmosphere were also conducted for comparison. During the repetition of sequences of reaction and regeneration of the catalysts, MFI zeolite was gradually deactivated, whereas NI-REY was found to show constant activity. Furthermore, the selectivity towards gasoline was higher than MFI zeolite (NI-REY in steam: 78%, MFI type zeolite in N{sub 2} 35%). (author)

  17. Treatment of a waste oil-in-water emulsion from a copper-rolling process by ultrafiltration and vacuum evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Gemma; Lobo, Alberto; Benito, José M; Coca, José; Pazos, Carmen

    2011-01-30

    A process is proposed for the treatment of a waste oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion generated in an industrial copper-rolling operation. The use of demulsifier agents improves the subsequent treatment by techniques such as ultrafiltration (UF) or evaporation. The effluent COD is reduced up to 50% when the O/W emulsion is treated by UF using a flat 30 nm TiO(2) ceramic membrane (ΔP = 0.1 MPa) and up to 70% when it is treated by vacuum evaporation, after an emulsion destabilization pretreatment in both cases. Increases in the UF permeate flux and in the evaporation rate are observed when a chemical demulsifier is used in the pretreatment step. A combined process consisting of destabilization/settling, UF, and vacuum evaporation can yield a very high-quality aqueous effluent that could be used for process cooling or emulsion reformulation.

  18. PIROLISIS LIGNIN DARI LIMBAH INDUSTRI KELAPA SAWIT UNTUK PENGEMBANGAN SURFAKTAN DALAM PROSES ENHANCE OIL RECOVERY (EOR (Pyrolysis of Lignin From Waste of Palm Oil Industries for The Development of Surfactants for Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryo Purwono

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pirolisis dari lignin yang berasal dari limbah industri kelapa sawit dapat menghasilkan alkohol dan derivatif lainnyd yang dapat digunakan sehagai surfaktan. Prosedur penelitian proses pirolisis ini odalah sebagai berikut: I serabut atau tandan sisa pengolahon kelapa sawit yang sudah dikeringkan dimasukkan kedalam reaktor dengan berat tertentu dan dipanaskan sampai suhu yang diinginkan, 2 produk pirolisis yang keluar dari reoktor kemudian didinginkan sampoi mencapai suhu kamor, 3 hasil cair ditampung didalam gelas ukur dan hasil gasnya ditampung di suatu botol tertentu. Suhu paling baik yang dicapai adalah 4A0 "C untuk lignin yong berasal dari serabut dan 350'C untuk lignin yang berasal dari tandan kelapa sawit. Surfaktan yang dihasilkan sekitar j4 sampai 38% dari produk pirolisis. Pada penelitian ini kecepatan reaksi dianggap order satu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa surfakton yang dihasilkan dapat membentuk emulsi dengan minyak menta.h. Hal ini menunjukkon bahwa surfaktan yang dihasilkan dapat digunakan sebagai bahan untuk proses EOR.   ABSTRACT Pyrolysis of lignin from waste of palm oil industries produces alcohol and its derivatives which can be sulfonated to become surfactant. The experimental procedures for the pyrolysis process were as follows: 1 dried palm oil husks at a certain weight were put into the pyrolysis reactor and heated up to a certain temperafure; 2 the product leaving the reactor was cooled down to room temperature; and 3 the liquid product was collected in a flask while the gas product was put into a big bottle. The best temperature obtained for producing liquid product was 400 oC for lignin from palm oil fruit fibers and 350 oC for lignin from palm oil fruit stems. The surfactant developed was in the range between 34 and 38% from the pyrolysis product. In this experiment, the reaction rate was assumed to be in first order. The result showed that the surfactant obtained from the experiment could form emulsion

  19. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  20. Pengaruh Penambahan Ampas Virgin Coconut Oil dalam Ransum terhadap Performan dan Produksi Karkas Ayam Broiler (The Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil Waste in the Diet of Broiler Chicken on the Performance and Carcass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Oktaviana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of addition of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO waste on the performance and production of broiler carcass. One hundred and twenty five broiler were divided into 5 treatment groups which were R-O (basal diet, R-0.5 containing (0.5% VCO waste, R-1.0 (1.0% VCO waste, R-1.5 (1.5% VCO waste and R-2.0 (2.0% VCO waste. Each treatments had 5 replications of 5 birds each. The birds were raised for 5 weeks. At the end of experiment, data of production performance such as weight gain, total intake, and feed conversion were taken. The data were analyzed by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with one way analysis. The difference among treatments were tested using Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The statistical analysis result showed that the addition of VCO waste at level up to 2.0 % did not affect the production performance, carcass weight and carcass percentage. The addition of VCO waste up to level 2.0% increased body weight (P<0.05 and affected the weight and percentage of abdominal fat (P<0.05 (Key words: Broiler chicken, VCO waste, Performance, and Carcass production

  1. Discussion on waste heat comprehensive utilization of heat transfer oil and waste gas%导热油-烟气综合余热利用工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜学仕; 倪军亮; 范孟洲; 郭黎明

    2015-01-01

    梁式竖窑导热油余热由于热量小、温度低而易被忽视。通过对梁式竖窑热工分析及导热油余热分析,提出了导热油-烟气综合余热利用方案,并对经济效益进行分析。指出导热油烟气综合利用投资省,回报率高,操作简单,节能减排。%With low calories and low temperature,the waste heat of the heat transfer oil in beam shaft kiln was easy to overlook. Based on thermal analysis and waste heat analysis of the heat transfer oil, the article proposed a comprehensive utilization program of the waste heat of heat transfer oil and waste gas,which had the features such as low invest,high return,simple operation,energy saving and emission reduction.

  2. Fruit pomace and waste frying oil as sustainable resources for the bioproduction of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follonier, Stéphanie; Goyder, Miriam S; Silvestri, Anne-Claire; Crelier, Simon; Kalman, Franka; Riesen, Roland; Zinn, Manfred

    2014-11-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) are biobased and biodegradable alternatives to petrol-derived polymers, whose break-through has been prevented by high production cost. Therefore we investigated whether wastes from the food industry (nine types of fruit pomace including apricots, cherries and grapes, and waste frying oil) could replace the costly sugars and fatty acids typically used as carbon substrates for the bacterial fermentations. A selection of enzyme preparations was tested for converting the residual polysaccharides from the pomaces into fermentable monosaccharides. From the pomace of apricots, cherries and Solaris grapes, 47, 49 and 106gL(-1) glucose were recovered, respectively. Solaris grapes had the highest sugar content whereas apricots contained the fewest growth inhibitors. These two pomaces were assessed for their suitability to produce mcl-PHA in bioreactor. A 2-step fermentation was established with Pseudomonas resinovorans, hydrolyzed pomace as growth substrate and WFO as mcl-PHA precursor. Solaris grapes proved to be a very promising growth substrate, resulting in the production of 21.3gPHA(Lpomace)(-1) compared to 1.4g PHA (L pomace)(-1) for apricots. Finally, capillary zone electrophoresis analyses allowed monitoring of sugar and organic acid uptake during the fermentation on apricots, which led to the discovery of reverse diauxie in P. resinovorans.

  3. Evaluating and modeling biogas production from municipal fat, oil, and grease and synthetic kitchen waste in anaerobic co-digestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce C

    2011-10-01

    The feasibility of using synthetic kitchen waste (KW) and fat, oil, and grease (FOG) as co-substrates in the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated using two series of biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Ranges of ideal substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio were determined for the FOG (0.25-0.75) and KW (0.80-1.26) as single substrates in the first experiment. The second experiment, which estimated the methane production performances of FOG and KW as co-substrates for WAS co-digestion, was conducted based on the optimal parameters selected from the results of the first experiment. Results indicated that co-digestions with FOG and KW enhanced methane production from 117±2.02 mL/gTVS (with only WAS) to 418±13.7 mL/gTVS and 324±4.11 mL/gTVS, respectively. FOG exhibited more biogas production than KW as co-substrate. Non-linear regression results showed that co-substrate addition shortened the lag phases of organic biodegradation from 81.8 (with only WAS) to 28.3 h with FOG and 3.90 h with KW.

  4. Lipase from marine strain using cooked sunflower oil waste: production optimization and application for hydrolysis and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, K; Saranya, P; Jain, S Chandan; Sekaran, G

    2013-03-01

    The marine strain Pseudomonas otitidis was isolated to hydrolyze the cooked sunflower oil (CSO) followed by the production of lipase. The optimum culture conditions for the maximum lipase production were determined using Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. The maximum lipase production, 1,980 U/ml was achieved at the optimum culture conditions. After purification, an 8.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,647 U/mg protein and molecular mass of 39 kDa was obtained. The purified lipase was stable at pH 5.0-9.0 and temperature 30-80 °C. Ca(2+) and Triton X-100 showed stimulatory effect on the lipase activity. The purified lipase was highly stable in the non-polar solvents. The functional groups of the lipase were determined by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The purified lipase showed higher hydrolytic activity towards CSO over the other cooked oil wastes. About 92.3 % of the CSO hydrolysis was observed by the lipase at the optimum time 3 h, pH 7.5 and temperature 35 °C. The hydrolysis of CSO obeyed pseudo first order rate kinetic model. The thermodynamic properties of the lipase hydrolysis were studied using the classical Van't Hoff equation. The hydrolysis of CSO was confirmed by FT-IR studies.

  5. Synthesis of Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles from Red Mud Waste for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Offshore Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. P.; Le, U. T. P.; Ngo, K. T.; Pham, K. D.; Dinh, L. X.

    2016-07-01

    Buried red mud waste from groundwater refineries can cause pollution. The aim of this paper is to utilize this mud for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Then, MNPs are encapsulated by a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate via oleic acid linker. MNPs are prepared by a controlled co-precipitation method in the presence of a dispersant and surface-modified agents to achieve a high hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface. Mini-emulsion polymerization was conducted to construct a core-shell structure with MNPs as core and the copolymer as shell. The core-shell structure of the obtained particles enables them to disperse well in brine and to stabilize at high-temperature environments. The chemical structures and morphology of this nanocomposite were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the nanocomposite was evaluated via a thermogravimetric analysis method for the solid state and an annealing experiment for the liquid state. The nanocomposite is about 14 nm, disperses well in brine and is thermally stable in the solid state. The blends of synthesized nanocomposite and carboxylate surfactant effectively reduced the interfacial tension between crude oil and brine, and remained thermally stable after 31 days annealed at 100°C. Therefore, a nanofluid of copolymer/magnetic nanocomposite can be applied as an enhanced oil recovery agent for harsh environments in offshore reservoirs.

  6. Determination of tetrachloroethylene and other volatile halogenated organic compounds in oil wastes by headspace SPME GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, D.; Bezzi, R.; Torri, C.; Galletti, P.; Tagliavini, E. [Bologna Univ., Ravenna (Italy). Lab. of Chemistry, C.I.R.S.A

    2007-09-15

    Oil wastes and slops are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, which may contain a variety of contaminants including tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) and other volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs). The analytical determination of PCE at trace levels in petroleum-derived matrices is difficult to carry out in the presence of large amounts of hydrocarbon matrix components. In the following study, we demonstrate that headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC-MS analysis can be applied for the rapid measurement of PCE concentration in oil samples. The HS-SPME method was developed using liquid paraffin as matrix matching reference material for external and internal calibration and optimisation of experimental parameters. The limit of quantitation was 0.05 mg kg{sup -1}, and linearity was established up to 25 mg kg{sup -1}. The HS-SPME method was extended to several VHOCs, including trichloroethylene (TCE) in different matrices and was applied to the quantitative analysis of PCE and TCE in real samples.

  7. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati [Department of Automotive Engineering Technology, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey); Canakci, Mustafa, E-mail: canakci@kocaeli.edu.t [Department of Automotive Engineering Technology, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, the performance, combustion and injection characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally when it was fueled with canola oil methyl ester (COME) and waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at constant engine speeds under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME instead of petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF), the brake power reduced by 4-5%, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased by 9-10%. On the other hand, methyl esters caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) by 59-67%, in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) by 17-26%, in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by 5-8%, and smoke opacity by 56-63%. However, both methyl esters produced more nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions by 11-22% compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range.

  8. Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part I: Effect of temperature on product yields and heteroatom removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Pilavachi, Petros A

    2010-09-01

    Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil (WCO) was studied as a process for biofuels production. The hydrotreatment temperature is the most dominant operating parameter which defines catalyst performance as well as catalyst life. In this analysis, a hydrotreating temperature range of 330-398 degrees C was explored via a series of five experiments (330, 350, 370, 385 and 398 degrees C). Several parameters were considered for evaluating the effect of temperature including product yields, conversion, selectivity (diesel and gasoline), heteroatom removal (sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen) and saturation of double bonds. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure=1200 psig, LHSV=1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio=4000 scfb, liquid feed=0.33 ml/min and gas feed=0.4 scfh). It was observed that higher reactor temperatures are more attractive when gasoline production is of interest, while lower reaction temperatures are more suitable when diesel production is more important.

  9. Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

  10. Textile Machinery: Imports Rebound Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the year of 2006, the general situation of China's textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago, with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD, an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005.

  11. Tractor & Machinery Safety. 1984 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena. Dept. of Vocational Education Services.

    This curriculum guide is intended for use in teaching an instructional unit in tractor and machinery safety that is geared toward college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: understanding the importance of safe and efficient tractor operation, understanding the characteristics of tractors, preparing…

  12. Potential of Agroindustrial Waste From Olive Oil Industry for Fuel Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    Olive pulp (OP) is a highly polluting semi-solid residue generated from the two-stage extraction processing of olives and is a major environmental issue in Southern Europe, where 80% of the world olive oil is produced. At present, OP is either discarded to the environment or combusted with low...

  13. Extraction of fleshing oil from waste limed fleshings and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, K V; Abinandan, S; Vedaraman, N; Velappan, K C

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was focused on extraction of fleshing oil from limed fleshings with different neutralization process by ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) followed by solvent extraction. The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from limed fleshing oil by two stage process has also been investigated. The central composite design (CCD) was used to study the effect of process variables viz., amount of flesh, particle size and time of fleshing oil extraction. The maximum yield of fleshing oil from limed fleshings post neutralization by ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) was 26.32g and 12.43g obtained at 200g of flesh, with a particle size of 3.90mm in the time period of 2h. Gas chromatography analysis reveals that the biodiesel (FAME) obtained from limed fleshings is rich in oleic and palmitic acids with weight percentages 46.6 and 32.2 respectively. The resulting biodiesel was characterized for its physio-chemical properties of diesel as per international standards (EN14214).

  14. Enhanced treatment of waste frying oil in an activated sludge system by addition of crude rhamnolipid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hongzi [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China); Xiang Hai; Zhang Guoliang [Department of Enviormental Engieering and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hanzhou 310014, Zhejiang (China); Cao Xia [Ningbo Dean Group Co, Ninbo 315040, Zhejiang (China); Meng Qing, E-mail: mengq@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China)

    2009-08-15

    The presence of high-strength oil and grease (O and G) in wastewater poses serious challenges for environment. Addition of surfactant into the activated sludge bioreactor is feasible in reducing high concentrations of O and G via enhancing its bioavailability. In this paper, an aqueous biosurfactant solution of rhamnolipid as a cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.um1 was added into a batch of aerobic activated sludge system for treatment of the waste frying oil. This treatment was conducted on both bench and pilot-scales, whereas the removal efficiency of frying oil was determined by analyzing the residue concentration of O and G and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the presence of varying concentrations of rhamnolipid from 22.5 mg/L to 90 mg/L, aerobic treatment for 30 h was enough to remove over 93% of O and G while this biodegradability was only 10% in the control system with the absence of rhamnolipids. The equivalent biodegradability was similarly obtained on COD under addition of rhamnolipid. Compared with bench studies, a higher treatment efficiency with the presence of rhamnolipids was achieved on a pilot-scale of activated sludge system, in which a short time of 12 h was required for removing approximately 95% of O and G while the control treatment attained a low efficiency of 17%. Finally, foaming and biodegradability of rhamnolipids in activated sludge system were further examined in the whole treatment process. It seems that the addition of rhamnolipid-containing culture broth showed great potential for treatment of oily wastewater by activated sludge.

  15. Detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas-chromatography coupled to multiple detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraman, Hilal E; Dijkmans, Thomas; Djokic, Marko R; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

    2014-09-12

    The detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil was performed with comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) coupled to four different detectors: a flame ionization detector (FID), a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD), a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The performances of different column combinations were assessed in normal i.e. apolar/mid-polar and reversed configurations for the GC×GC-NCD and GC×GC-SCD analyses. The information obtained from the four detectors and the use of internal standards, i.e. 3-chlorothiophene for the FID and the SCD and 2-chloropyridine for the NCD analysis, enabled the identification and quantification of the pyrolysis oil in terms of both group type and carbon number: hydrocarbon groups (n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, olefins and naphthenes, monoaromatics, naphthenoaromatics, diaromatics, naphthenodiaromatics, triaromatics, naphthenotriaromatics and tetra-aromatics), nitrogen (nitriles, pyridines, quinolines, indole, caprolactam, etc.), sulfur (thiols/sulfides, thiophenes/disulfides, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, etc.) and oxygen containing compounds (ketones, phenols, aldehydes, ethers, etc.). Quantification of trace impurities is illustrated for indole and caprolactam. The analyzed pyrolysis oil included a significant amount of nitrogen containing compounds (6.4wt%) and to a lesser extent sulfur containing compounds (0.6wt%). These nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds described approximately 80% of the total peak volume for respectively the NCD and SCD analysis. TOF-MS indicated the presence of the oxygen containing compounds. However only a part of the oxygen containing compounds (2.5wt%) was identified because of their low concentrations and possible overlap with the complex hydrocarbon matrix as no selective detector or preparative separation for oxygen compounds was used.

  16. Highly effective ionic liquids for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy A. Yassin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As conventional energy sources deplete, the need for developing alternative energy resources which are environment friendly becomes more imperative. Vegetable oils are attracting increased interest in this purpose. The methanolysis of vegetable oil to produce a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e., biodiesel fuel was catalyzed by commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The imidazolium chloride ionic liquid was frequently chosen for the synthesis of biodiesel. The dual-functionalized’ ionic liquid is prepared by a direct combination reaction between imidazolium cation and various metal chlorides such as CoCl2, CuCl2, NiCl2, FeCl3 and AlCl3. Imidazolium tetrachloroferrate was proved to be a selective catalyst for the methanolysis reaction at a yield of 97% when used at 1:10, catalyst: oil ratio for 8 h at 55 °C. Operational simplicity, reusability of the used catalyst for 8 times at least, high yields and no saponification are the key features of this methodology. The dynamic viscosity and density of the upgraded vegetable oil decreased from 32.1 cP and 0.9227 g/cm3 to 10.2 cP and 0.9044 g/cm3 respectively, compared to those of the base vegetable oil. The objective of this study was the synthesis and characterization of biodiesel using commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The ionic liquid catalysts were characterized using FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, TG and UV.

  17. The Effects of Amofer Palm Oil Waste-based Complete Feed to Blood Profiles and Liver Function on Local Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoniation-Fermentation (amofer technology should be conducted in order to improve the low quality of by product produced from palm oil plantations and mills (palm oil waste which is used for constituent of feed ingredients in complete feed (CF. This technology also reforms the feed material into edible form. Before broadly applicable, it must be ensured that the feed does not have toxic effects on livestock. This research was peformed to evaluate the effects of amofer palm oil waste-based CF to blood profile and liver function on local sheep. Completely Randomly Design (CRD was used with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The observed variables were the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood glucose, ALT and AST was analyzed by ANOVA. The average value of blood glucose levels at T1= 80.68 mg/dl, T2=79.08 mg/dl, T3=81.18 mg/dl and T4=73.70 mg/dl. The average value of hemoglobin levels at T1=10.80 g/dl, T2=10.30 g/dl, T3=11.23 g/dl and T4=10.25 g/dl. The average value of hematocrit levels at T1=31.00%, T2=31.00%, T3=33.75% and T4=30%. The average value of ALT levels at T1=17.90 ml, T2=13.83 ml, T3=18.75 ml and, T4=13.40 ml. The average value of AST level at T1=106.20 ml, T2=88.98 ml, T3=104.40 ml and T4=91.25 ml. There was no significant difference among four treatments (p>0.05. The administration CF did not cause hematological disorders which showed by the blood profiles and liver function were in normal range, so that suggested the CF was appropriate and safe for local sheep. [Keywords––amofer, complete feed, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, liver function

  18. Enhancement of biofuels production by means of co-pyrolysis of Posidonia oceanica (L.) and frying oil wastes: Experimental study and process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafouri, Kaouther; Ben Hassen Trabelsi, Aida; Krichah, Samah; Ouerghi, Aymen; Aydi, Abdelkarim; Claumann, Carlos Alberto; André Wüst, Zibetti; Naoui, Silm; Bergaoui, Latifa; Hamdi, Moktar

    2016-05-01

    Energy recovery from lignocellulosic solid marine wastes, Posidonia oceanica wastes (POW) with slow pyrolysis responds to the growing trend of alternative energies as well as waste management. Physicochemical, thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) and spectroscopic (FTIR) characterizations of POW were performed. POW were first converted by pyrolysis at different temperatures (450°C, 500°C, 550°C and 600°C) using a fixed-bed reactor. The obtained products (bio-oil, syngas and bio char) were analyzed. Since the bio-oil yield obtained from POW pyrolysis is low (2wt.%), waste frying oil (WFO) was added as a co-substrate in order to improve of biofuels production. The co-pyrolysis gave a better yield of liquid organic fraction (37wt.%) as well as syngas (CH4,H2…) with a calorific value around 20MJ/kg. The stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis reactions were performed according to the biomass formula: CαHβOγNδSε. The thermal kinetic decomposition of solids was validated through linearized Arrhenius model.

  19. Experimental investigation of the effects of diesel-like fuel obtained from waste lubrication oil on engine performance and exhaust emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpa, Orhan [Dicle University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Diyarbakir (Turkey); Yumrutas, Recep [University of Gaziantep, Mechanical Engineering Department, Gaziantep (Turkey); Argunhan, Zeki [University of Batman, Mechanical Engineering Department, Batman (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, effects of diesel-like fuel (DLF) on engine performance and exhaust emission are investigated experimentally. The DLF is produced from waste engine lubrication oil purified from dust, heavy carbon soot, metal particles, gum-type materials and other impurities. A fuel production system mainly consisting of a waste oil storage tank, filters, a reactor, oil pump, a product storage tank, thermostats and control panel is designed and manufactured. The DLF is produced by using the system and applying pyrolitic distillation method. Characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions tests of the produced DLF are carried out at the end of the production. The characteristic tests such as density, viscosity, flash point, heating value, sulfur content and distillation of the DLF sample are performed utilizing test equipments presented in motor laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Gaziantep, Turkey. Performance and exhaust emission tests for the DLF are performed using diesel test engine. It is observed from the test results that about 60 cc out of each 100 cc of the waste oil are converted into the DLF. Characteristics and distillation temperatures of the DLF are close to those values of a typical diesel fuel sample. It is observed that the produced DLF can be used in diesel engines without any problem in terms of engine performance. The DLF increases torque, brake mean effective pressure, brake thermal efficiency and decreases brake specific fuel consumption of the engine for full power of operation. (author)

  20. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Waste minimization in the remediation of contaminated sites: using the oil belt skimmer technology for the removal of heavy hydrocarbons from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gisi, Sabino; Notarnicola, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Modern society increasingly requires achieving the goal of remediation and at the same time minimizing the waste to be disposed. Although the pump and treat is a consolidated technology option for the decontamination of groundwater polluted by heavy hydrocarbons, it generates an excessive amount of waste (typically, dangerous). With the intent of reducing such waste, our study is concerned with the verification of the oil belt skimmer technology for the decontamination of a heavy hydrocarbon-polluted groundwater. For this purpose, several tests at laboratory scale and full-scale experimentations with duration greater than 1 year were carried out. The obtained results showed the feasibility of the investigated technology for groundwater decontamination in the cases where the water mobility (of the aquifer) was low and in the presence of oil thicknesses greater than 2 cm. The heavy hydrocarbon recovery capacities were in the range of 33.3-85.5 l/h with the best performances in the cases of supernatant thickness ≥2 cm and pumping of the water table in such a way that the oil acquires a higher mobility in the aquifer. Moreover, the recovery capacity was found to be dependent on the rainfall pattern as well as on the groundwater fluctuation. Compared to the pump-and-treat system, the investigated technology allowed reducing by 98.7 % the amount of waste to be disposed suggesting the use in presence of high thickness of the oils. Finally, in a view of system optimization, treatment trains based on the combination of the oil belt skimmer technology and the pump-and-treat system should be carefully assessed.

  2. Quality analysis of cooking waste oil and edible vegetable oil by GC-MS%餐饮废油与食用植物油品质的GC-MS检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓英; 彭德伟

    2011-01-01

    采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)法分析餐饮废油特征性脂肪酸组成成分.以合格鲜榨菜籽油、调和油和餐饮废油潲水油、煎炸老油为材料,通过油样的皂化、甲酯化处理后,以毛细管柱DB-5MS作分离柱,用气相色谱一质谱仪分析出脂肪酸组成与含量.结果表明,潲水油、煎炸老油中脂肪酸相对不饱和度(U/R≈1.9)明显小于合格植物油(U/R≈4.4),并在其中检测到了十三烷酸(含量约0.27%)和十七烷酸(含量约6.49%)等奇数碳脂肪酸.%The distinctive fatty acid compositions of cooking waste oil were identified by GC - MS. The fresh pressed rapeseed oil, blend oil, hogwash oil and deep-frying oil were saponified and methyl esterified, then the fatty acids of them were separated by capillary column DB -5MS and detected by GC -MS. The results showed that the relative unsaturation ( U/R, 1.9) of fatty acids in cooking waste oil was significantly less than that of the qualified oil ( U/R ,4. 4 ), and they contained distinctive fatty acids such as tridecylic acid(0. 27% )and margaric acid(6. 49% ), which did not exist in edible vegetable oil.

  3. Optimization and kinetic modeling of esterification of the oil obtained from waste plum stones as a pretreatment step in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Milan D; Veličković, Ana V; Joković, Nataša M; Stamenković, Olivera S; Veljković, Vlada B

    2016-02-01

    This study reports on the use of oil obtained from waste plum stones as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Because of high free fatty acid (FFA) level (15.8%), the oil was processed through the two-step process including esterification of FFA and methanolysis of the esterified oil catalyzed by H2SO4 and CaO, respectively. Esterification was optimized by response surface methodology combined with a central composite design. The second-order polynomial equation predicted the lowest acid value of 0.53mgKOH/g under the following optimal reaction conditions: the methanol:oil molar ratio of 8.5:1, the catalyst amount of 2% and the reaction temperature of 45°C. The predicted acid value agreed with the experimental acid value (0.47mgKOH/g). The kinetics of FFA esterification was described by the irreversible pseudo first-order reaction rate law. The apparent kinetic constant was correlated with the initial methanol and catalyst concentrations and reaction temperature. The activation energy of the esterification reaction slightly decreased from 13.23 to 11.55kJ/mol with increasing the catalyst concentration from 0.049 to 0.172mol/dm(3). In the second step, the esterified oil reacted with methanol (methanol:oil molar ratio of 9:1) in the presence of CaO (5% to the oil mass) at 60°C. The properties of the obtained biodiesel were within the EN 14214 standard limits. Hence, waste plum stones might be valuable raw material for obtaining fatty oil for the use as alternative feedstock in biodiesel production.

  4. Preparation of Amino Alkyd Varnish Based on Waste Cooking Oils%采用废弃食用油制备氨基醇酸浸渍漆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旭; 黄超; 饶保林

    2016-01-01

    采用酸化法对废弃食用油进行脱胶处理,采用活性白土进行脱臭脱色处理,并采用精制后的废弃食用油制备氨基醇酸浸渍漆,探讨了精制处理前后废弃食用油理化性能的变化和氨基醇酸浸渍漆的性能.结果表明:废弃食用油经过精制处理后色泽变浅,臭味基本消除,碘值和酸值等理化性能变化不大,氨基醇酸浸渍漆的性能可以达到JB/T 9559—1999标准的技术指标要求.不同来源的餐饮废油酸值差别较大,有些酸值甚至超过90 mgKOH/g.餐饮废油的酸值过大虽然会对醇解反应有一定影响,但通过适当调整反应条件,仍可以使醇解物的容忍度达到中控指标要求.%Waste cooking oils were treated for degumming with acidification method, and for deodorizing and decolorizing with atlapulgite in this paper. An amino alkyd varnish was prepared based on the puri-fied waste cooking oils. The physical and chemical properties of the waste cooking oils before and after purification treatment and the performance of the amino alkyd varnish were discussed. The results show that after purification treatment, the color of the waste cooking oil becomes shallow, the stink basically disappears, and the iodine value and acid value change little. The performance of the amino alkyd var-nish can completely meet the technical requirements of industry standard JB/T 9559—1999. The acid value of waste cooking oils from different recycling sources changes greatly, and the acid value of some waste cooking oils is greater than 90 mgKOH/g. The overlarge acid value may affect the alcoholysis reac-tion, but the tolerance of alcoholysate still can satisfy the central control requirements by adjusting the reaction condition.

  5. Energy Savings Thanks to French Textile Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The French Textile Machinery Manufacturers' Association (UCMTF) has presented, during a seminar it organized for textile professionals and students, the spectacular energy savings achieved thanks to state of the art machinery.

  6. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  7. Production of Bio-Hydrogenated Diesel by Hydrotreatment of High-Acid-Value Waste Cooking Oil over Ruthenium Catalyst Supported on Al-Polyoxocation-Pillared Montmorillonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Sakanishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste cooking oil with a high-acid-value (28.7 mg-KOH/g-oil was converted to bio-hydrogenated diesel by a hydrotreatment process over supported Ru catalysts. The standard reaction temperature, H2 pressure, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV, and